Overview Energy is very important in our daily lives and thus its production and consumption is important to us. Energy has found many uses in today’s world but the four main uses are in the electrical, industrial, commercial and residential fields. This essay is going to analyze Kuwait’s energy consumption in four main sectors.
Electrical: Kuwait electrical consumption currently stands at around 11,000MW and this is against the installed capacity of approximately 12,000MW. Demand for electricity has been on the rise and currently stands at 8%. In terms of Kilowatt hours the country consumes close to 41 billion kWh (Kilowatt Hours).
The consumption of the country per person/capita amounted to 16,285 kW.h (kilowatts per hour) in 2010 and this was a rise from 15,069 in the year 2005 (Cordesman, 2010).
Demand for electricity is set to grow to 20,000 MW per the year 2015 as energy needs grow. Kuwait does not have any hydro electric power generation plants but makes use of gas and steam generation plants. This is shown on figure 1 and 2 in the appendix.
Industrial: Kuwait comprises of heavy industries that make use of energy in their production. Kuwait is mainly an oil producing nation and therefore is consumes a lot of oil in production. Kuwait’s oil consumption stood at about 350, 000 barrels of oil per day in the year 2010.
This was against the production level of 3.5 million barrels of oil a day. Around 40% of Kuwait’s oil is used for industrial purposes and this amounts to around 140,000 barrels of oil a day.
Industrial use is classified as direct use of energy in production of goods and services (McElroy, 2010). Oil consumption in industries is set to drop due to the increased production of gas reserves used in electricity generation. This is shown on figure 3 in the appendix
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Commercial: Kuwait’s power consumption in the commercial sector looks into how power is consumed apart from heavy industrial use. Commercial energy consumption in Kuwait can be categorized into industries involved in the production of energy.
The transport sector in Kuwait consumes around 110,000 barrels of oil which is used in air, sea and road transport (Atkinson, 2011). However, Kuwait relies heavy on gas power to produce electricity for their own industrial use.
In the year 2010, Kuwait consumed around 530 billion cubic feet of gas equating to 1.45 billion cubic feet of gas a day (International Energy Agency, 2005). Moreover, the production of natural gas is less compared to consumption of the same as outlined in figure 4 in the appendix. Kuwait uses natural gas to generate around 14 TWh (Terawatts per hour) in the year 2010.
Residential: Kuwait is a small country with a population of about 2.8 million people and most of these people rely on oil, electricity and natural gas in their everyday lives. Kuwait residents consume around 100,000 barrels of oil mainly for their vehicles and minor uses in their homes.
Due to the hot climate, Kuwaiti’s appetite for electricity has grown tremendously and thus gas consumption in the year 2010 outshot production (McElroy, 2010).
For instance the country produced 1.17 billion cubic feet of gas a day compared to 1.45 billion feet of gas consumed a day. Thus the country imported close to 270 million cubic feet of gas a day from Yemen and Oman. Figure 1 summarizes the electricity consumption per person in Kuwait.
References Atkinson, A. (2011). The Report: Kuwait 2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
We will write a custom Assessment on Energy Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cordesman, A.,
Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia Essay a level english language essay help
Abnormal psychology focuses on abnormal behavior and psychopathology in individuals. Paraphilia disorder is among such abnormal behaviors. This term entails wide ranges of obsession related to sexual abnormalities, depression and other disorders.
Psychologists interested in studying behavior of individuals use observable behaviors to do so. Psychologists try to reinforce positive behavior in individuals with abnormal behavior. Conversely, they try to discourage maladaptive tendencies in people with abnormal behaviors (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).
This essay shall focus on fetishism, transvestic fetishism, sadomasochism, voyeurism, exhibitionism, and pedophilia.
Fetishism in Portuguese refers to obsessive fascination. Normal individuals may find some parts of the body attractive resulting into sexual arousal. Psychologists consider fetishism a problem when it affects the normal sexual arousal or when individuals cannot have sexual arousal without fetish bodily features or objects (Aamodt, 2012).
Characteristics of fetishism disorder result from pathological assignment of sexual fantasies, fixation and certain behaviors towards fetish objects such as underwear, and high-heeled shoe among others, and non-genital body parts e.g. foot, buttocks and hair.
These objects do not include vibrators and other objects designed for sexual gratifications. Individuals with fetishism disorder will only get sexual arousal from using such objects. Fetishism individuals normally smell, rub or hold fetish objects in order to derive sexual pleasure, or ask their partners to do so when having sexual intercourse or masturbating.
Materials, forms, and shapes of fetish objects are crucial for fetishism individuals. This is a common disorder in male, and rarely seen in female. Fetishism individuals focus on the object and not the individual wearing that object.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transvestic fetishism individuals tend to have a sexual disorder exhibited by dress in clothes of the opposite sex. The desires of individuals with this disorder are to gain sexual arousal through dressing in clothes of the opposite sex or cross-dressing.
Transvestic fetishism individuals must involve cross-dressing as an exclusive way of getting sexual excitement. These disorders also result into some cases of distress in individuals’ lives (Comer, 2009).
Transvestic fetishism is more common in men than women. Transvestic individuals also tend to adopt clothing, items, behavior and mannerism of the opposite sex. Occasionally, transvestic fetishism individuals use dressing, and cross-dressing as a way of alleviating stress.
Sadomasochism characters get their sexual pleasures from actions involving pain, and or humiliation. These individuals also look from sexual pleasures from other actions too. Sadists inflict pain whereas masochists like receiving pain. However, psychologists note that sadomasochism involves either receiving or giving pain for a sexual excitement (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).
Some scholars argue that sadism and masochism do not reflect true sexual context. They argue that giving and receiving pain may occur with or without consent of individuals.
In addition, getting sexual pleasures in such people may not happen in some cases. As masochist likes receiving torture, sexual humiliations and beatings, sadist inflicts pain with or without the consent of an individual.
Voyeurism disorder involves practices of spying on individuals involved in private behavior such sexual acts, undressing, and other private activities.
We will write a custom Essay on Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Voyeur conducts his or her activities in secret without the knowledge of his or her subject. Voyeurism may include making videos and taking photos during sexual acts or when one is nude. Increased interests and obsessions in a certain subject may result into stalking of such subjects (Comer, 2009).
Voyeurism has evolved in modern time and now includes television programs such The Real World and Survivor. However, in these programs, voyeurs have permission and intimately interact with individuals of their attentions and desires. Despite the knowledge of the voyeur, the original meaning of the term still has sexual connotations.
Exhibitionism disorder involves exposing private parts of one’s body (buttocks, genitals, or breasts) to a friend, crowd, strangers, and public in public or semi-public places. Authorities refer to some threatening cases of exhibitionism as indecent exposure and may attract legal charges.
Exhibitionism involves flashing of private body parts. Flashing may involve a non-threatening exposure of one’s’ private body parts to a person or group in circumstances not appropriate for exposure, particularly in public places or social gatherings (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).
Females tend to flash their breasts as a form of exhibitionism. However, in situations where females use their vulvae and buttocks, may involve some sexual connotations.
In turn, they may provoke sexual interests in their targets. Consequently, the flashers gain ego boost and become bold. Some forms of flashing have no sexual intentions such as the beads shows of Mardi Gras, nudist clubs, sharing tubs, or nude swimming.
Some common forms of exhibitionism involve exposing genitals when not wearing underwear (anasyrma), letting others watch a proceeding of a sexual activity (martymachlia), and men display their bare buttocks (mooning).
Men engage in the act for fun and disparagement whereas females may perform it for sexual seductions. Exhibitionism involves also running or roaming nude in public places (streaking). Finally, there are also acts of exposing a partner’s private parts in public places (candaulism) (Comer, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pedophilia disorder involves abnormal sexual interest in children. Individuals with pedophilia disorder get their sexual excitement, gratification, or arousal primarily from engaging underage children in sexual acts.
Pedophiles may aim their sexual desires to children of the opposite or same sex, or both sexes. Attractions may involve children and adults alike. Psychologists consider pedophilia as a case of mental disorder. However, authorities consider such actions as child abuse and punishable criminal acts.
References Aamodt, M. G. (2012). Psychology Today. Sussex: Sussex Publishers, LLC.
Comer, R. J. (2009). Abnormal Psychology, 7th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.
Sarason, I. G. and Sarason, B. R. (2004). Abnormal Psychology: The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior, 11th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.
Adventure tourism and development: Conservation or exploitation Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Adventure tourism or eco-tourism is a type of tourism which involves exploration and recreation activities. The destination of travel is usually exotic and remote with extremely hostile environment. The tourist has the opportunity to engage with nature through physical activities such as mountaineering, bungee jumping, rafting and rock climbing among others.
Adventure tourism is common in Nepal, and the main activities are mountain climbing, trekking and river-running. The tourist can also have an opportunity to meet with the people of that community, therefore, cultural exchange (Buckley, 2006).
The activities of adventure tourism have both positive and negative effects on the environment and social life of the habitat. The impact on the environment and community directly affect the development of tourism globally.
Therefore, for sustainable development of tourism, it is essential to know the impacts of adventure tourism to the environment and community. This will help in planning and management of tourism, to be able to reach targeted development goals.
Advantages of adventure tourism The impact of adventure tourism is mainly caused by the development projects and the tourists who visit the area.
Easy to develop
The cost of starting up a recreational centre for adventure tourism is relatively low as compared to the other types of tourism. Therefore, it is easy for one to set up in any economic region and can be set up by a local or foreign investor.
The rise of the tourism industry in any area creates job opportunities for locals and foreigners. The jobs are created as a result of the development projects which may need both experts and casual laborers. They also employ local guides, use of local transport and local supplies among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental Awareness
Adventure tourism is has become common in protected areas and, therefore, the entrepreneurs should encourage the tourists to practice responsible tourism. The providers of adventure tourism take part in raising awareness on ways of protecting the environment.
Improved education and health facilities
As a result of availability of jobs and economic development, community is able to create education and health facilities. At the same time, the tourists get knowledge about the beauty and natural phenomena. This can make them ambassadors who will fight for the protection and supporters for the conservation activities in the visited regions.
Better Land Management
In a community where adventure tourism is practiced there is a possibility of good land usage because people have knowledge on the benefits of land.
Giving Back to Communities
The tourism industry participates in activities of the community through funding the cultural and social events. The customers also give back to the community by buying souvenirs after their visit.
The constant arrival of tourists in a community helps improve the economy of that community. For example, in the arctic the tourists help to boost the economy and reduce the over reliance on natural resources (Snyder, 2007).
Disadvantages of adventure tourism Besides the positive impacts of adventure tourism it also has negative impacts on both the community and the environment. The development through tourism causes impacts which may be particularly harmful to the region and its environment, for example, pollution from the hotel industry, construction activities and tourist activities.
Economic impact: the cost of responding to environmental effects is usually high for the community. For example, oil spill and lack of equipment to deal with emergencies such as fire.
Social impact: During the peak season of tourism, the community’s social norms are affected. The dominant presence of tourists during this season alters the roles and functions of the local institutions such as education and religious. This causes a disruption in the community.
Cultural impacts: The natural environment and traditional lifestyle are affected by the effects of tourism, therefore, fewer tourists hence economies of scale. The loss of artifacts which are later sold to international markets cause loss of cultural heritage.
Environmental effect: The tourists, for example, in Nepal may litter the environment with plastic bottles and tissues, which is supposed, to be protected and the pollution of water from the waste from hotels. For example, in Nepal firewood is used as a source of fuel for cooking. The effect of cutting trees causes soil erosion and extreme floods (Boniface
The Reality of the Prospects within Wave Energy Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Current prospects and success
Introduction Over the years, there have been concerns on the impact of carbon fuels in use throughout the world. The resulting carbon emissions are accredited with damaging the ozone layer and resulting to global warming.
Consequently, global organizations, energy research institutes and individual nations invest numerous resources towards the generation of green energy. These are sources which are sustainable and with little depressing effects to the environment. Some of the sources being researched on, and implemented in different scales, include wind, solar and wave energy.
Wave energy has the allure of being ever renewable and inexhaustible. In 1799 two people attempted to patent a system that used waves for power (Scigliano). Nevertheless, development of such technology has always been instigated by turmoil in the oil sector; when the problems facing the sector are resolved, research and enquiry into wave energy subsides.
However, the current surge of research seems to have gained momentum, especially, from the growing environmental concerns. Wave energy utilizes floating or shore-side devices to capture waves and convert the waves into electricity. Waves arise from the difference in temperature between the air and water. Hot water rising creates a wind, which in turn makes the water move into waves.
The water particles do not travel far, but they jolt other adjacent particles to move, which goes on for miles. Waves have the advantage of being more concentrated that wind. This results from the density of water, which is significantly greater than that of air.
Waves are also more predictable, when they build up; they do not die easily and may go on for several days. Tides are quite predictable; they can be predicted for decades. Finally, waves generators do not cause disturbances like wind turbines. They lack exposed moving parts which can harm marine animals; additionally, they produce low noises.
Current prospects and success Numerous research resources have been utilized in the area of wave energy in the recent years. Universities and energy corporations have set up experiments evaluating the feasibility of wave energy. Examples include the Pelamis by Ocean Power Delivery in Scotland (Scigliano).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the US, such projects have been deemed feasible in the northeastern and northwestern coasts, for example, Oregon. Nevertheless, despite the significant progress in the area of wave energy, there are numerous issues, especially pertaining to the reality of the prospects within wave energy.
Banholzer identified these problems relating to the hype attached to the quest for green energy from waves, wind and other green projects. He identified the lack of basic understanding amidst the public concerning energy issues. This is convoyed with the quest for green solutions to mitigate environmental concerns.
In numerous areas, scientists theorize that projects will be applicable only to turn out that they are uneconomical or unsustainable (Banholzer 5478). He consequently warns about the hype around wave energy.
In another article, a scientist argued for the effects of extensive harvesting of wave and wind energy. Though they a considered as green energy, Axel Kleidon postulated that it is a wrong assumption that wind and wave energy are renewable.
In his theory, building enough stations to replace the use of oil would result in a significant depletion of atmospheric energy. The depletion of energy would in turn have catastrophic consequences.
His postulates are based on the conception that all energy comes from the sun, and only a small percentage of the energy reaching the earth’s atmosphere is useful (Kleidon 9). The useful part drives the waves and the winds, while the heat cannot be utilized. Extensive use of wind and tidal energy will convert a large percentage of the utilizable part into heat energy, resulting in significant weather effects.
Limitations There are several limitations associated with wave energy. Waves vary considerably in intensity around the world. These variations bear considerable significance to the feasibility of wave energy projects (Falnes 189). Numerous wave generators are designed to operate with a certain range of wave intensity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Reality of the Prospects within Wave Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Below the threshold intensity, the generators produce insignificant amounts of electricity making them inefficient. Above the upper bound, the waves may damage the components of the generators resulting in stalled electricity production and losses. Replacing the equipment is quite expensive, and some may be sunk by large waves.
The dependence of generation on the intensity of the waves further limits some places for production of electricity through wave energy. Because the earth spins eastward, the winds flow, typically, from the west. This has a significant bearing in the strength of winds across the globe. The mightiest waves are at latitudes far from the equator and the eastern edges of extensive fetches.
These are mostly the western coasts of continents. This means that not all the sea is useful for the generation of wave electricity. In other parts, for example, the west of Ireland and Scotland, the waves have significantly higher energy. In these areas, the energy generated may reach up to 70 kilowatts. The eastern coasts of most of the continents have waves with significantly lower energies.
Wave energy is, therefore, comparable to oil deposits in their unequal distribution. In the event that the wave technology offers a solution to the energy woes facing the earth, it will not be a solution for all nations. Even those with coasts may lack access to waves with sufficient intensity.
The suitability of locations for the generation of wave energy is a matter of chance. This problem, of access to wave energy, is further compounded by the fact that numerous countries have no access to the seas or oceans. 48 nations and regions, in all the continents, lack coasts. These regions have no access to wave energy whatsoever.
Other concerns regard the fact that the systems that have been designed have not been tested for long-term survivability. This alludes to the lack of data that can prove how long a system of generators and turbines can survive in the water. Additionally, there concerns regarding inaccessibility of the areas harboring the wave farms; this has resulted in questions of navigation and sea-space.
Works Cited Banholzer, William. “Practical limitations and recognizing hype.” Energy
Ecological Studies in Los Alamos National Laboratory Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Defining Ecological Value Defining ecological value can be conceptualized as a process. This process of defining an ecological value begins with the identification of the ecological values to be protected, otherwise known as GAE’s. The process is carried out in two parts.
First, using a strictly ecological perspective, ecological values are identified. In other words, this identification is carried out from the ecological perspective. Secondly, human values that relate to the ecological values are put into consideration (Paustebauch, 2002). The two parts of defining ecological value are analyzed below:
Identification of Ecological Values
The first part is carried out scientifically by identifying the values common to all ecosystems. This is followed by narrowing in on the area of interest.
It should however be noted that only ecologically relevant GAE’s are put into consideration. There is a procedure that should be followed in identifying these relevant GAE’s. This procedure follows the steps below:
Identifying Values Common to All Ecosystems
Values common to all ecosystems are identified. Examples of such values are analyzed below:
Biodiversity which is basically how many different communities are in the ecosystem and the generic diversity. The more disturbed the ecosystem, the higher the probability of it having a higher biodiversity.
Ecological function or how the living organisms in that ecosystem interact in a hierarchal way to sustain the cyclic processes in that ecosystem. An ecosystem is said to have functional integrity if it has a population consisting of organisms from various taxa (Paul, 2010).
Any normally functioning ecosystem has a directional flow of nutrients and energy. This directional flow is designed in such a way that it maintains a balance in the ecosystem. Nutrients and transport processes are therefore common values in all ecosystems (Paul, 2010).
Identification of the Functional Components of Regional Ecosystems
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After identification of the values common to all ecosystems, there is need then to identify the functional components of regional ecosystems. It is noted that the basic functional component of any ecosystem is the food web.
This is made putting into consideration the broad interrelationships between the various parts in order to determine the relevance of each species (Glenn, 2006).
For example in a tropical rain forest, the main producers can be the lianas, the consumers are herbivores and carnivores and the decomposers are the detritivores. Such broad categorization makes the task easier in cases where the species are not known. This is for example in complex ecosystems such as those found in countries and regions such as the New Guinea.
Developing a Food Web for the Ecosystem
A food web for the ecosystem is then developed. This shows the feeding preference of each of the species in the ecosystem. Specificity is the key at this step. This is given the fact that there is need to state the function or role played by each species found in the ecosystem and how this affects the others.
Unlike the previous step, this step is organized into more trophic levels. For instance in New Guinea, the producers are lianas, trees and ground canopy. The herbivores are the first consumers in the ecosystem. Omnivores and intermediate predators are intermediate consumers in the ecosystem.
Lastly, terrestrial and arboreal predators are to be found on the periphery of the food web. There are also those species which plays the role of decomposer. According to Glenn (2006), scavengers, detritivores and chemicals are part of the decomposers.
We will write a custom Case Study on Ecological Studies in Los Alamos National Laboratory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Determining the Ecologically Relevant Characteristics of the Functional Components
The ecologically relevant characteristics of the functional components in the ecosystem are then determined. This defines the non- trophic attributes which are a critical part of the ecosystem. Examples of such attributes are listed below:
Shelter or habitat for the species and the source of the shelter
Source of energy or food for the species in the ecosystem
The process of distribution of seeds probably through pollination. This shows how plant species are distributed in the ecosystem
Processes that break down dead matter to release nutrients. This will include the identification of the mechanisms or agents that aid this breaking down of dead matter
Stating the Relevant GAEs
The relevant GAEs are then clearly stated after determining the ecological attributes of every functional component. These are considered as endpoints of a specific ecosystem.
Human Values and Ecological Values
The first procedure in defining ecological values involved the identification of the ecological values of the ecosystem. This was analyzed in detail above.
The next procedure in defining an ecological value is determining how much it conforms to the societal and ecological values (Glenn, 2006). Values touching on issues such as endangered species, valued species, resources and species identified as important in terms of recreation and aesthetic purposes are identified.
This is a participatory phase of the process. Local citizens including the indigenous inhabitants of the area are contacted for purposes of understanding the values placed on ecological resources.
Other sources of societal values can be gleaned from existing literature such as the ones compiled by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (herein referred to as IUCN).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecological Studies in Los Alamos National Laboratory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It can also be gleaned through interviews with knowledgeable individuals. The ecologically relevant values to be protected here include game species, water sheds and indigenous plants.
Probabilistic Risk Assessment Chapter 22 touches on the potential risks faced by the duck population in the Canadian prairies. These are for example risks posed by the use of insecticides. The aerial hazard causing insecticides referred to in this case are the organophosphates, organochloride and pyrethroid insecticides.
The insecticides pose indirect risks in the pothole region by interfering with the ducks’ nesting habitats and food supplies. The insecticides also affect the formation of the eggs early foraging by ducklings. These are the risks that were studied in this chapter (Paustebauch, 2002).
Organophosphate pesticides contain carbaryl and deltametrin as the main ingredients. The chemicals form compounds believed to have negative effects on Saskatchewan (Paul, 2010). It was to be determined which percentage of these compounds caused toxicity and at what levels.
This gave rise to probabilistic studies. Several questions were asked and this further contributed to the probabilistic studies. The questions posed are provided below:
What was the percentage of invertebrates that died due to aerial toxicity from insecticides in the first 24 hours after spraying?
What role does gill absorption, ingestion and dermal intake play in mortality cases?
How much exposure to insecticides leads to mortality among invertebrates?
In which slough depth is there a probability of more deaths occurring?
In which slough width is there more deaths after spraying?
The end result or ecologically relevant value to be protected is the micro-invertebrate as it plays an important role as a source of food for the ducks (Glenn, 2006). The conceptual assessment model involves studying ways through which the insecticides reach the sloughs.
They may reach the sloughs for example through wind or water and the exposure concentration distribution. A short time frame of 24 hours is considered and thus sediments and their effects are not studied.
Risks are determined through exposure of micro- invertebrates to determine the levels of concentration that are lethal. Apparently, the amount of insecticide applied determines how much of it gets to the sloughs.
For example, application of insecticides from higher heights on a windy day leads to more of it being spread into the sloughs. Different birds prefer different pond depths with semi- permanent holes having a higher rate of attraction as breeding sites (Glenn, 2006).
This means that if a semi- permanent hole is near a farm, the probability of it getting contaminated by insecticide is very high. This leads to high mortality rates on the part of the species that prefer that habitat. The deeper the slough, the less the mortality rate because of less contamination.
Finally, risk is characterized using the exposure and effect analysis. The first way of doing this is to determine how exposure and effects overlap each other. In this case, two micro- invertebrates are used. These are the mosquito and a water-flea.
They are exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin at their various toxic levels (Paustebauch, 2002). The result of this was the various probabilities exceeding fifty percent mortality rate for the species.
Application of reliability theory is fundamental in determining the probability of an event occurring or failing to occur. For example, lethal concentrations may lead to more than lethal effects giving erroneous results. The results can be used to make inferences about the other micro- invertebrates in the community using similar characteristics that the ecosystem taxa share.
There is however some inconsistencies between the observations made in the field and those made in the lab. In some instances, values obtained from the lab may differ from the ones obtained from the field probably due to the lab being an artificial environment (Paustebauch, 2002).
This can be overcome through the application of probabilistic assessment procedures. By using the quantitative results, one can determine whether the results differ significantly or not and thus repeat the experiment if necessary.
Risk assessment framework is used in exposing different species to varied concentrations of insecticides. This is considering how the insecticide will reach the slough. This could be through seepage, wind dispersal and surface run- off that eventually forms the breeding grounds dependent on factors like humidity, height and frequency of application.
The other way is to quantitatively describe the effect of a chemical at different concentrations. A toxicological benchmark of 50% is used and different chemicals are used on different species at their lethal levels (Glenn, 2006). These are then plotted on a table to determine which species are tolerant to which chemicals and at what level.
The ecological values in this case are the invertebrates and the prairie nesting ducks (Paustebauch, 2002). The societal values include how farmers value their crops. The question is: can they let their crops be destroyed by grasshoppers just to protect the birds?
We have to interview the farmers to know how far they would go in protecting their crops. The ecological values in case one include all the endangered organisms constituting the ecosystems of various forests. The societal values in the case are how much the indigenous people value the forests.
References Glenn, S. (2006). Ecological risk assessment. NY: CRC Press.
Paul, E. H. (2010). Environmental and economic sustainability. NY: CRC Press.
Paustebauch, D. J. (2002). Human and ecological risk assessment. NY: John Wiley Publishers.
Cultural Influence on the People of Vancouver Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Cultural Background of Vancouver City; Canada
Culture can be understood as the basic values, beliefs, and norms that help shape the behavior and characters of given people in a society. In most societies, and especially preindustrial societies, it takes the form of religion. The Canadian cultural policy of diversity has profoundly shaped the profile of this country.
The Canadians, especially in Vancouver, have an extraordinarily rich culture. The culture of centric orientation is highly upheld in Vancouver. Therefore, the people’s believes are highly influential for the residents of Vancouver.
The culture of centric orientation has promoted creativity in the City of Vancouver through various means; for instance, through artistry, diverse expressions, imagination and inclusivity. The combinations of these factors have seen Vancouver flourish culturally and economically.
Creativity among the people of Vancouver has improved the living standards of the people. Creative City of Vancouver, which is culturally embedded, has promoted equal access to opportunities, businesses and the general community well being (City of Vancouver, p. 2).
Creative City is conceived in Canada as a place where diversity, artistry, and culture are inclusive. This has facilitated local economic development (Bradford, p. 2-7). Here, the economy is driven by knowledge-based industries that are clustered and work through high levels of interaction and communication.
In so doing, they avoid the earlier problems of raw materials that limited their geographical location or positioning. The warm and rich cultural climate in Vancouver has attracted many investors.
These include investors from both local and external countries such as the USA, India, China, and Britain among others. The central values here include urban and economic sustainability, as well as the welfare of the people that is achieved through creative initiative and industrial development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Canada practices creative governance, a concept that favors its economic development. This is achieved through democratic governance that involves transparency, imaginativeness, adaptable city states, and inclusivity.
Also, there is a strong and creative workforce, industry, networking, connectivity, and competitiveness that boost the economic well being of Canada. Collaborative governance, city regions, scale politics, and social inclusivity have also played a significant role in economic prosperity (Smith and Katie, p. 3).
Vancouver’s population are people with different beliefs, values, visions and lifestyles. The Canadians are extremely close in their economic perspectives and move towards a creative city as a whole. Emphasis on protectionism of Canadian culture has been crucial in ensuring that Canada continues to grow economically.
People’s ways of lives are directly related with their economic advancement. Canada realized this factor and came up with a cultural protection policy. This was aimed at preventing foreign cultures from interfering with what was considered to be ways of lives of Canadians.
It involved offering incentives to firms that produced films and other television shows that illustrated and promoted the culture of the Canadians. On the other hand, cultural norms and beliefs were believed to hinder the economic well being of people.
Some cultures, in some communities and countries hinder people from taking advantage of economic developments. In Vancouver, culture is highly upheld and is geared towards economic empowerment of the people.
The city of Vancouver has a long history as far as culture is concerned. This dates back to the cultural policy debates whereby cultural norms and beliefs have retained protectionism status in political institutions of Canada.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cultural Influence on the People of Vancouver specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The earlier efforts to replicate British cultures and artistry in Anglophone Canada were repulsed by Canadians who believed that culture makes people educated and civilized. Vancouver’s cultural organizations emphasize on efficiency in financial management.
This is also an extraordinarily, but essential pillar to economic growth of Canada. Therefore, cultural events were held in an unusually high value because they were, and still are, believed to further a noble goal.
The city of Vancouver has developed national policies and programs that are aimed at protecting and educating the people on the importance of cultural traits for the well being of the citizens. Culture is believed to be immensely valuable, and cannot be exchanged. This is the reason why Canada pursues the culture of inclusivity.
This means tolerance and appreciation of different cultural activities that promote institutionalization of communities in different cultures. In most instances, this applies to the demography of a place, organizations or institutions such as cities, businesses, schools and neighborhoods.
Main objective of the Research
The principle objective of conducting the research is to explore the role of cultural diversity; creative governance; skilled workforce; industrial cluster; connectivity; networking; collaboration; and the culture of inclusivity in relation to economic advancement of Vancouver City.
On the other hand, the general objective is to promote a sustainable and a world class economic development for Canada and the overall well being of the citizenry through technological advancement and innovations.
Literature Review Hughes’s views on Culture and Development
Cultural activities have led to development of cultural tourism hence elevating a country’s economy. This is because there is absorption of individuals into working in the industries which acts as a revenue earner to a country.
As a result of its international appeal, cultural tourism has become a phenomenon that is essential in tourism and travel industry (Hughes, p. 364). Cultural tourism is often utilized as a tool for marketing and development to widen the tourism policy objectives. Cultural tourism is highly valued by individuals dealing with urban regeneration strategies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultural Influence on the People of Vancouver by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because it provides the avenue to reanimate cities; present cultural facilities rejuvenation; and facilitates the creation of new cultural centers. All these enable the cities to be outstanding as compared to other areas. For instance, the Vancouver city has attracted inward investment as a result of cultural tourism.
According to Hughes, there exist mutual benefits between culture and tourism (p.164). Tourism generates the revenue, which is used to maintain cultural resources from interference from human beings and their activities which result into pollution.
In recent years, cultural geography has risen consistently to the challenges of re-figuring and expanding the research field. Alfred Marshall, the British economists, highlighted the positive impacts that can result from clusters of related firms or industries located in a geographic region (Flew, p. 86).
On the other hand, the difference of industries that are creative is due to the externalities arising from industry specialization, occupation, and the city diversities (Lorenzen and Frederiksen, p.155).
With various diversities in industries, cities are able to coordinate knowledge bases that are diverse. In addition, their geographic proximity enhances the distribution of knowledge, ideas, and entrepreneurship skills.
Cave’s views on Clustered Cities
The majority of the work in the industries is project based, time-dependent and contractual. This has provoked the transfer of skills across countries and nations, thus increasing the diversification of culture. Most of the small and medium scale industries provide work on a regular basis.
This helps absorb talents of skilled people from other areas of the globe (Caves, p.355). Geographically clustered cities are identified as professional and financial service centers. This is because they have high consumption levels of services and goods that are cultural.
Hall’s views on Culture and Development
The government invests in urban cities, and this is highly characterized by modern infrastructures. They hold the key industries’ player head offices. Furthermore, the governments have heavily invested in infrastructure of cultural cities that have many galleries extensive networks, universities, libraries, and museums (Hall, p. 7).
Mommaas’s views on Culture and Economics
Cultural clusters nourishment has been perceived as an alternative development source for urban culture. In urban centers and cities, there exists a mixture of functions that promote culture. They range from production, presentation, theatre, arts that are visual, consumption, pop music, and new Medias often clustered in various forms that are spatial.
Whilst some grouping strategies are based on activities that are either cultural or artistic, individuals have included elements of entertainment and leisure such as restaurants and bars among others.
Cultural managers often yearn for expanding and strengthening their market share in an already leisure and cultural competitive market (Mommaas, p.508). In addition, urban planners are striving to rejuvenate the urban quarters with the aim of strengthening creative economy that is local as a result of cultural activities.
Zukin’s views on Culture and Economic
Recently, principal cities have established their festival agendas and museums reopening and developing complex theatres. This has made the culture regeneration agenda move a notch higher. In this context, we identify a move from a policy aiming at occasion organizing.
The shift is a form of consumption that is spectacular and a policy that is refined and tuned. The policy aims at space quarter creating and cultural creativity and production milieus. However, development broadening perspective has stirred a lot of doubt, ambiguities, and conflicts. There is a debate regarding the development character, involved legislations and motives.
Critics are asking various questions such as: are individuals dealing with an interest that is genuine in the advancement of culture? Is there culture or art strategy proper and aims at developing of artistic values that are autonomous? Zukin observes that, whatever the cultural developers and producers initial intention, their acts are mere culture functionalisms and exploitation of culture for the purposes of landscape re-centralization (p.55).
Individuals in the new middle-class consume their products. This has eventually led to erosion of actual artistic values via related space commoditization. Some scholars argue that culture and economics are distinct in regard to the growth of a country. On the other hand, political sociologists and political economists see this view as being mutually exclusive.
They point a finger at the level of analysis used and the general assumptions of human behavior. They also argue that such arguments fail to provide enough parameters of cultural factors.
Previously, there have been several attempts to infer the economic performance of a country to its culture, or relate cultural factors with a country’s historic factors. They continue to argue that unless such factors are quantitatively analyzed, it is hard to test such an argument.
In industrial worlds, cultural values tend to revolve around religion. With industrialization and modernization, cultural values and beliefs become increasingly rational, secular, and exceptionally open to change.
In such a situation, industrialization has a significant role in shaping the culture of a country in the process of modernization. Education development has been identified as significantly aiding economic growths. In general, governments influence the culture practiced by a country.
Incentives are offered for production of programs and films that present the culture of the people of Canada. Also, this is a means of promoting industrial growth of Canadian economy. Such a policy protects local industries from collapse and also plays a role in job creation.
Mahroof’s views on Culture and Economic Development
Modern economic models place much emphasis on variables such as investment in human capital, technological advancement, population growth, and productivity of these factors in economic growth. Mahroof argues that there are other controlled factors that influence the economic growth of a country directly (p. 15).
Such factors include social institutions and government policies. These factors are highly essential in defining the environment where growth takes place. Moreover, there are other factors that impact the factors that facilitate economic growth. Such factors are varied as per the individuals. For instance, self control affects the saving habits of individuals and willingness to invest.
It is common knowledge that not all people practice the saving culture. Self control is a determinant in population growth and education investment. Investment in education leads to development of skilled human capital that further leads to economic growth through efficient and effective use of technology.
Skilled capital is responsible for technological innovations (Mahroof, p.16). Mahroof continues to say that there are other factors that are not directly linked with the economic growth, but play a significant role in it. Such factors include an individual’s commitment and mutual respect among others.
These factors develop work ethics that in turn promotes cooperation, which is a crucial factor in sharing technology and entrepreneur skills. In turn, this promotes business resulting to economic growth.
In actual sense, the above factors relate to values, beliefs and norms which are defined by customary beliefs. Therefore, they play a role in economic progress (Mahroof, p.16).
Lian views on Culture and Economics
According to Lian, most quantitative analyses have omitted the influence of culture on economic development (p.1). Instead, they have mostly dealt with political and economic factors or variables influencing economic development.
Such variables are also modeled around values, norms, and cultural beliefs of a given country in question. Therefore, when explaining the political and economic development, culture remains a central factor.
Lian totally disagrees with Aristotle’s suggestions that diversity presents susceptibility to economic growth (p. 5). Although it was indicated that religious, ethnic, and linguistic diversity presents obstacles to economic progress; such factors may be misguiding.
According to Kayat, cultural practices play a crucial role in the economic development of a nation (p.105). Through cultural tourism, cities are able to expand and stand out. Also, natural resources can be sustained and individuals are proud of showcasing their culture.
The appreciation of culture has led to employment of individuals in industries promoting cultural values. Entrepreneurs are enjoying the benefits of cultural diversity. This is because they are able to develop accommodation areas for tourists. Cultural tourism has enabled the rejuvenation of urban centers. Through cultural activities, there is the intermingling of various people and culture.
This is a result of people being employed in the small and medium scale enterprises that provide goods and services that are culturally based. This has significantly enhanced the diversification of culture further.
Nations should strive to create policies that enable the promotion of culture. Museums and other historical sites should be preserved from human interference. However, through modernization, culture is being eroded. The true cultural and artistic values have been interfered.
There is a considerable variation in cities portfolio activities in terms of financial management, how they are programmed and partially their position. The clustering of culture has mirrored a condition.
In this case, the field of culture has been diversified with cultures and arts being reproduced both in the public and private sectors (Granato, Inglehart and Leblang, p. 35).
Methodology The study will be exploratory and will expound on the perceptions concerning cultural values and their influence on economic development. The study focuses on the role of cultural variables, values, and norms in economic development in larger cities and some rural communities.
Such variables include creative governance, connectivity and networking, entertainment and education development. The findings will then be analyzed both qualitatively and empirically to determine whether cultural variables contribute to economic development.
This method will involve incorporating societal cultural factors into an economic baseline endogenous economic growth model. It will then be analyzed using relevant data from the world values survey. This model is preferred because it incorporates both cultural and economic variables.
Qualitative analysis will be done in order to get in-depth information on cultural geography. Various aspects of cultural activity roles will be examined. For instance, how has cultural activities influenced the livelihood of the people in Vancouver? How has it been able to improve a country’s economy?
Conclusion The culture of people and economic growth are two inseparable factors. Economic growth of a country has a direct relationship with the cultural elements, culture that affects production of goods and services, investment decisions, technological innovation, resource allocation, and openness to trade.
Technological innovations are achieved through education systems and institutions. Creative governance encompasses transparency in government policies and programs. This has been identified as one of the cultural factors that promote economic growth of Vancouver and the Canadian economy.
Cultural values of social and political inclusivity geared towards development have attracted investments furthering cultural diversity, development and job creation.
This has also ensured political stability, a condition that is good for development and attraction of tourists. This is because development takes place in a peaceful environment that is free from conflicts.
Diverse culture practiced in Vancouver attracts tourists from all over the world. They earn the country foreign exchange that facilitates development programs and activities. Geographical proximity of cities in Canada facilitates sharing of entrepreneur skills, knowledge, and technological skills.
These skills are necessary for economic growth. The proximity also offers a variety of cultural sites, music, and accommodation that are of high standards. More restaurants and other social places are developed to cater for the needs of the population that includes locals and foreigners.
In the process, people are employed to work in this organizations and businesses, hence improving their well being through the salaries that they receive.
Works Cited Bradford, Neil. Why cities Matter: Policy Research Perspective for Canada. CPRN Discussion Paper, Canada: Canadian Policy Research Networks. 2002. Print.
Caves, Richard. Creative industries: Contracts between art and commerce”. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. Print
City of Vancouver. Office of Cultural Affairs. Vancouver Art Initiative (1991-1993). Update for City Creative Task Force. 1997. Print
Flew, Terry. “Toward a Cultural Economic Geography of Creative Industries and Urban Development: Introduction to the Special Issue on Creative Industries and Urban Development”. Journal of Information Society, 26. 2010: 85-91. Print.
Granato, Jim, Ronald Inglehart and David Leblang. The Effects of Cultural Values on Economic: Aerican Journal of Political Science, 40(3). August 1996, pp.607-31
Hall, Peter. Cities in civilization: Culture, innovation and urban order. London: Phoenix Grant, 1998.Print
Hughes, Howard. “Culture and Tourism: A Framework for Further Analysis”. Managing Leisure, 7(3). 2002: 164-175. Print.
Lian, Brad. Cross-National Study of 98 Countries, 1960-1985, Economic Development and Cultural Change Journal. 46, 1 (1997) 61-77. Print
Lorenzen, Mark, and Frederiksen, Lars. “Why do Cultural Industries Cluster? Localization, Urbanization, Products and Projects. Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development .Denmark. 2008: 155–179. Print.
Mahroof, Muhammad Khan. Cultural Values and Economic Growth in Asia: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 1(2). 2010. Print
Mommaas, Hans. “Cultural Clusters and the Post-Industrial City: Towards the Remapping of Urban Cultural Policy.” Journal of Urban Studies 42(3). 2004: 507-532. Print
Kayat, Kalsom. “The Nature of Cultural Contribution of a Community- Based Homestay Program”. An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism 5(2). 2010:145-159. Print
Zukin, Shack. “Postmodern Urban Landscapes: Mapping Culture and Power.” Modernity and Identity (1998): 221–224. Print
Smith Richard and Katie Warfield. The Creative City: a matter of values. Web.
Doing business in the Philippines Report best essay help
Introduction There are some important issues that one needs to consider before embarking on a mission to do business in a given country. Such issues as social, economic, and political environment of a country would be worth of consideration by a prospective investor.
The current paper intends to explore the possibility of doing business in the Philippines. It will emphasize on the social, economic, and political situation in the Philippines.
In addition, the culture, language, customs and protocol of the Filipinos shall be addressed, as well as their business etiquette, business culture, negotiation techniques, and meeting protocols.
Background The Filipino culture is heavily influenced by forces outside the Asian region including Mexico, and the United States. The influence of Islam in the Philippines has been somewhat limited, unlike such other Asian countries as Indonesia and Malaysia (CIA-The World Factbook 2011).
Filipinos have embraced many western values under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church that has a large following in the country. The Filipinos have a strong sense of dignity and personal pride.
Business Structures Most companies in the Philippines are family controlled. Business structure is largely hierarchical with the owner-managers possessing a lot of power. However, western business practices are slowly being embraced (Communicaid 2009).
Having good contacts with the top management is crucial as they are responsible for making most decisions. When making initial business contacts with Filipino organizations, only the senior people in your organization should meet with senior representatives from the Filipino organizations as sending lower ranking officials would be considered an insult.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management style The Filipino culture is characterized by paternalistic management style due to the strongly hierarchical culture. On the other hand, it is important for managers to become acquainted with some of the strong Filipino attributes that underline personal relationships in the Philippines.
To start with, the Filipinos are wary of being embarrassed for their actions, or for failing to live up to society’s expectations (Communicaid 2009). To criticize an individual in public is frowned upon, as it amounts to an insult.
Meetings Filipinos are not very particular about time, and most business meetings start late. As such, western business representatives can get frustrated with the slow progress of meetings and negotiations. Small talk is common before the start of a business meeting and it is during this time that the relations-building process between the two parties is established (Barcelon 2011).
Filipinos are nonconfrontational because they strongly believe in getting along with others smoothly. They frown on any form of negative talk. Moreover, Filipinos rarely contradict other people openly.
Therefore, a meeting might appear to be moving smoothly even when there is no apparent progress. When establishing new business contacts, gifts are often welcome as they are a sign that negotiations have been concluded satisfactorily.
Teams Filipinos strongly believe in team spirit. People make sacrifices for their fellow team-members and those who appear to criticize team-members are severely dealt with (Communicaid 2009).
It is important to treat every team member with respect and dignity because in case you insult one of the team members, the other team members could feel insulted as well.
We will write a custom Report on Doing business in the Philippines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Communication style English is the business language in the Philippines and as such, communication is not a problem for most western business people. Because the Filipino communication style is heavily influenced by the country’s Asian roots, western business people are therefore advised to desist from using coded and diplomatic language as this could complicate communication (Nolan 1996).
Like most other Asian countries, Filipinos find it very hard to say ‘no’ as this could be interpreted as being unfriendly or confrontational. Overseas visitors should also be wary of the Filipino body language.
For example, the Filipino may smile as a way of hiding annoyance, embarrassment, or disagreement, and the western business people can take this as a sign of pleasure or agreement. Once an agreement has been reached, it is always advisable to wait for requests for information or a contract before proceeding.
Women in business Although the Filipino culture acknowledges the role of women in business circles, they should not be seen to dominate their male counterparts. Gender bias in the Philippines is almost nonexistent.
Dress code Personal grooming is important in the Philippines, both at business and social gatherings. Filipinos have a tendency to judge somebody based on their appearance. During business meetings, it is always advisable for men to dress in a suit and tie, while women are expected to dress modestly (Taglaw 2007).
Formally evening wear is also acceptable at most of the good restaurants in manila, but one is always advised to check the dressing code well in advance
Top Tips Many Filipino organizations are hierarchically structured.
The Filipinos strongly believe in saving face
It is common for business meetings in the Philippines to start late
Filipinos are nonconfrontational, but do not interpret their politeness as a sign of agreement
Foreign business representatives need the assistance of local to help them wade through the bureaucracy hurdle
Gifts are acceptable in business meetings as they signify agreement in negotiations
Cultural, social, and economic climate The Filipino culture is a blend of western and eastern cultures, with a strong influence by the Malay culture. Economically, the country’s nominal gross domestic product was estimated at $ 216.1 billion in 2011 (Barcelon 2011).
Poverty influences the country’s social climate. For example, nearly 30 % of the population lives below the poverty line.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Doing business in the Philippines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Successful entertaining Business entertainment is common in the Philippines. The arrangement for business lunches and dinners takes place over the phone and it is customary for the inviting party to pay (Torres 2006).
The informal atmosphere of business entertainment enables everybody to relax. Dress code differs widely, and tipping is also highly anticipated.
Facts and figures The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands on the coastline of Southeast Asia. The Philippines has a population over100 million, most of who lie in the lower middle income category. In addition, the Philippines has a land area of approximately 298,171 sq km, and a life expectancy of 71.66 years (CIA-The World Factbook 2011).
Manila, the capital city, has a population of 11 million, and is also the largest city in the country. Other large cities in the Philippines include Cebu City, Davao, and Zamboanga. The country’s monetary unit is the Peso.
Conclusion Doing business in the Philippines calls for an understanding of the social, economic and political climate in the country. The Filipino culture is characterized by paternalistic management with a strong hierarchical culture.
Many of the leading companies in the Philippines are family controlled. Business meetings start late, and the Filipinos strongly believe in team spirit. English is the business language in the Philippines, while gender bias in the Philippines is also almost nonexistent.
Reference List Barcelon E. 2011, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.
CIA-The World Factbook 2011, Philippines. Web.
Communicaid 2009 , Doing Business in the Philippines | Philippine Social and Business Culture: A Philippine Overview. Web.
Nolan J. 1996, Philippines business: the portable encyclopedia for doing business with the Philippines, World Trade Press, California, USA.
Taglaw 2007, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.
Torres Q. 2006, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.
Employee motivation in Radisson Hotel Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Relevant motivational variables for Radisson Hotel
Reward allocation versus employee motivation
Participation versus employee motivation
Job enrichment versus employee motivation
Introduction The importance of attracting and retaining employees in the hospitality industry is being recognized by many market players. Seeking solutions at corporate level is no longer valued and companies perceive this as a feature of traditional techniques of managing human resources.
Within the area of human resource, the international integration is being accomplished through mechanisms that increase the competitive advantages of organizations. The high competition in the hospitality industry has a dire need for effective and high quality human resource management. Creating a competitive advantage is a factor that has to be considered in human resource management strategies.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between several variables identified in literature and employee motivation in Radisson Hotel.
It is to this response that this study aims to review the literature and suggest the ways in which Radisson Hotel can respond to employee motivation and also recommend on the best strategies to increase its competitive advantages.
Literature review Motivation is something that is inherently held by people that steers them to action. It varies in different individuals. It can also be regarded as the willingness to take action at a particular degree of effort. It appears in literature out of life goals, values and intentions.
As motivation comes from leaders, there is need to direct and cultivate the enticement that the workers already have (Ziegler et al 2010).
Individuals who appear to be much interested in motivation researches are leaders in their effort to provide directions into why employees perform tasks as they do and eventually provide themselves with techniques to enhance work productivity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motivation plays an important role in performance. This relationship was recently explored by Nawab, Bhatti and Shafi (2011) through a qualitative method to analyse deeply two important terms used in HRM: pay roll and organizational reward system.
Their conclusion was that different motivation factors can be used by an organization to enhance performance and efficiency of employees. These findings confirm an earlier suggestion by Bruce and Pepitone (1998) who proposed that motivation led to greater work performance.
This is true because a motivated individual pursues goals with greater vigor and focus. He/she has a better chance of attaining the set objective. There are many theories concerning motivation some of which are “needs-based” (Griffin
Environmental Issue Report scholarship essay help
Introduction Sustainability ensures that people get energy resources continuously without affecting future generation. Renewable sources of energy are those that are ever present and would not deplete since they regenerate by themselves.
The following are renewable sources; Hydroelectricity, Biomass, Solar thermal, Solar electricity, and Geothermal. This paper examines sustainable measures that should be adopted in Eco-homes.
Sustainable progress is an issue stirred by drift from an ideal thought to a supreme endeavor to tackle emerging problems of financial challenges and ecological problems. This category of revolution has endeavored to solve existing social problems.
At present, people prefer eco-friendly programs when constructing their homes. Such houses are friendly to ecological bio-diversity and preserve future sustainability of the existing world. Eco-home is also known as sustainable house/ home because it is advantageous and costs-effective its owner.
There are scores of components which can be incorporated into a new home or existing house to offer vital development to environmental sustainability condition. In fact, incorporation of such components depends on provision of significant needs and cost of materials and equipment.
Diagram below illustrates a typical Eco- friendly house
Sustainable Live At present, “people depend mostly on fossil fuel such as natural gas, oil and coal energy, the world is actually changing” (Barrell, Kirbby
The Importance of Human Resource Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction One can literary define human resources as the workforce or those individuals working for a certain organization, business entity or economy.
It may also refer to a section or department within that organization that deals with the management of those resources, for instance, the hiring of new employees and their training, besides overseeing the overall provision of the necessary benefits plus the compensation packages to best suit all parties.
This term was initially coined in the United States during the 1960s due to the major concerns that arose in the business world regarding labor relations, and since then, has spread to the entire world (Society for Human Resource Management, 2007).
In any successful organization, the human resources or the workforce is regarded as a great asset, equated to its material and financial resources such as machinery, buildings among other equipment.
Therefore, it is necessary for an organization to manage its resources including the workforce with a lot care and formulate the best practices to capitalize on those assets in order to triumph (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).
This is the main reason why so many organizations or companies have embraced the human resource section or department.
Though the contributions of this department may not be directly associated with the company’s production, profits, or even its general success, this human resource department gives the employees an opportunity to perform even better by encouraging them, which later on translates or contributes to the company’s or organization’s success.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In managing the human resources, three major factors must be considered; firstly, the demographics: these are the characteristics of the people or the work force for instance the social class of the people their gender or age.
This kind of trend may have an influence on the pension packages, the insurance contributions among others. The second factor is diversity; these are the variations within the work place. That the employee base reflects the general make-up of the society for as long race, sexual or ethnic orientation is concerned.
The third factor is skills and qualifications; that employers ought to compete for quality employees through offering incentives or community investment (Society for Human Resource Management, 2007).
Other factors influencing the management of human resource include:
Geographical spread: the distance difference between the individual and the work place, the transportation and the infrastructure of that area must be reflected in the pay.
Occupational structure: According to Mahoney 1989, there are three kinds of occupational structure, that is, craft (being loyal to the profession), organization career (endorsement or promotion within the firm) and lastly unstructured (unskilled employees who only work when required).
Generational difference: this is the disparity in terms of age among the members of a certain firm. It defines the way people think and their perspective of various life and business aspects (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).
The role of human resource to the organization and society In any organization, the challenge is always to offer administrative functions that are faultless like benefit enrollment as well adjustments while at the same time availing time and energy to perform equally fundamental and strategic tasks, however much time and energy consuming they may be.
Initially the main role of HR in an organization was to act as an arm of the management to police and systemize the organization. Here, the HR profession attended to executive agendas too but was mostly perceived as a hindrance by most of the remaining part of the organization (Thornton, 2008).
However, presently the role of HR has come to be accepted by line managers as being a strategic partner, administration expert in redesigning the organization process and a mentor when it comes to change besides being the employee’s advocate or guarantor.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Importance of Human Resource specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More HR as a Strategic Partner The HR persons add or contribute to the general development and attainment of the objectives of the organization and its business plan as a whole.
This means that HR management ought to think of itself as one of the organization’s strategic partner to guarantee their contribution viability and ability (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).
The tactical partnership does influence HR services, for instance, hiring of personnel, the arrangement of work positions, rewarding of selected individuals, recognition and appraisal systems, employee and performance development, strategic payments, career and succession process.
HR as an employee Advocate The HR manager possesses expertise in the creation of a happy working environment in which individuals feel motivated and positively contribute to the success of the organization.
They conduct this mandate by employing various approaches and tactics that are in line with the organization’s goals. Under this docket, the HR is mandated to perform the following tasks.
Management of current employees
One of the core functions of the HR department is to manage employees that work for that organization. In contrast with managers who directly supervise the workers on a daily basis, the HR section deals with issues like benefits, training and payment of workers and the company policies.
Other benefits that could be managed by HR include insurance and pension plans, health matters like leave for illness but paid, vacations payments and employee investments. HR is also mandated to resolve conflicts amongst employees or between managers and their employees or filed grievances by the employees against the organization (Allen, 1973).
They resolve such problems by either imposing penalties on offenders or taking certain appropriate actions to ensure any undesired behavior in the organization does not recur.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Human Resource by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to achieve these mandates, the HR must adopt strategies that are excellently designed thus able work appropriately and in favor of the entire organization.
Prospective and New Employees
Human resources are also mandated to recruit new employees for the organization. HR personnel may be concerned with hiring of potential employees by means of advertisements or organized job fairs.
Sometimes, the HR section will attempt to recruit diversified individuals to develop the diversity within that organization’s workforce. For instance, an organization might choose to find candidates that are from a given minority demographic.
The HR section does the collection job applications before reviewing them and then forwards the best candidates for the job to the most suitable managers of that organization. The recruiting process might also involve the background test out, testing for drugs and substance usage and credit checks.
This process is often conducted immediately after a new employee has been hired (Allen, 1973). It helps in understanding employees and determines their ability to certain task that require at most sobriety.
Moreover, this process can also be used to identify employees with addiction problems and thus employ some of the intervention measures to help them recover.
The HR department often collects and reviews job applications before forwarding those of the best applicants to the appropriate managers in the organization. The hiring process might also include background checks, credit checks and drug testing.
The HR department bear the responsibility of typically orienting a new employee after he/she has been successfully been hired and provides the employee with necessary instructions regarding the company policies and ensuring proper training of the employee in accordance to the organization’s requirements. This will ensure competence from the worker.
An organization’s human resource section is also responsible to take care of an employee when he/she leaves the organization for any reason.
If, in any case, a worker is laid off duty or maybe let go but unwillingly, certain responsibilities must be undertaken by the HR section, to make sure that the correct procedure was followed or that the process was done in accordance to the law.
In some instances, payment called severance is done or negotiated alongside settling any outstanding balances or any other benefits like paid vacation time.
The HR department is also required to return all keys that belong to the organization, or any other equipment from that worker and ensure his/her accessibility to the company’s resources is restrained up to and including the organization’s computer networks.
The morale of the employees in any organization is a major concern to the human resource department. The HR section is also mandated to organize for holiday parties or any other get-together party for the employees; it has the responsibility of choosing one of the employees as the employee of the month and the rewarding of employees on merit.
The HR concerns itself to providing and maintaining a positive and enjoyable environment for working. This is mainly to motivate the employees and thus improving their production through their enhanced contribution.
It is necessary to understand the needs of the employees and make them feel appreciated, as they are part of the success of the organization. This is possible in numerous ways.
For instance, the HR can employ excellent communication strategies, excellent rewarding processes and rewarding employees with a share ownership of a company. By this, employees will feel tremendously motivated thus increasing their efforts towards reaching the desired objectives of the firm. The HR is responsible for defining the culture to be adopted by a company in promoting some its mission towards realizing the firm’s objective.
In this capacity, HR provides workforces with incredible opportunities. It provides them with a chance to enhance their skills and knowledge within their line of work. The Hr also provides employees with the opportunity expand their desired careers thus meeting employees’ intrinsic and extrinsic desires.
This builds workforces’ in various capacity, as they are able to feel satisfied with their jobs, elevate their revenues, enhance their living standards and promote their societies socially and economically.
HR as Change Champion The HR professional’s characteristic nature to, frequently, evaluate and assessing the effectiveness of the practices and policies of an organization leads to recurrent but necessary changes within the organization.
One can value HR professionalism exceptionally due to its technical knowledge and ability to perform successful strategies concerning change that best suit the organization. HR minimizes dissatisfaction by the employees by perfectly linking strategic needs of the organization and change hence reducing their resistance to change.
The HR professional is mandated to facilitate the overall accomplishment of his/her organization by first identifying the organizational goals, mission, action plan, and vision then finally come up with measures on how to succeed.
Compensation as one of the most important practices of HR Compensation can be defined as the full amount of monetary or non-monetary form of payment awarded or given to an employee in favor of work done as required. Key aspects considered before compensation is done:
A research in the marketplace concerning the value of similar jobs,
contributions of that employee and his/her achievements in the organization,
how available is the human resources in the job market with similar expertise,
the employer’s aspiration to attract certain workers and retain them for the worth they are adding to their duties in their posts
The company’s profitability or the availability funds in a non-profit making division or public segment setting, thus determining the employer’s ability to avail payments at market-rate compensation
Other payments offered under the compensation docket include; bonuses, sale commission overtime pay, non-monetary perks like stock options in some cases and company-paid car or housing or both.
Compensation may also include profit sharing and benefits. Profit sharing is when the company takes a percentage of its annual profits and decides to divide the sum of money accumulated across all the workers and then distributed using a given formula. This kind of compensation is applicable mostly to profit making organizations and that there has been an accumulated profit over specified period.
Befits, on the other hand, are in form of compensation offered to the workers by the employer over and above the specified payment as basic salary or an hourly rate kind of payment. Benefits amount to a portion of the full compensation package meant for the worker.
Importance of Compensation Strategies Compensation as a practice serves a major role to the employer and employees in any given organization. The main purposes of compensation include:
Increase ability to attract the best, most competent and the brightest workers especially amongst graduates,
Engaging the employees through motivating and boosting their morale thus increasing productivity in their line of duty,
And retain the key workers and minimize costs incurred during recruitment and training of personnel.
An employer must determine his/her strategy for compensation that will enable him/her achieves his goals. If an employer executes, adopts or implements an excellent remuneration strategy, it is almost certain that many employees will be willing to be employed in the firm.
Moreover, such excellent remuneration plans automatically maintains the existing brilliant workforces, as they will be willing to, always, renew their contracts. It is of massive significance to appreciate workforces with market drive approaches or tactics, as this will also promote the company’s economic and social position.
To the employee, bonuses as a form of compensation as well as profit sharing and stock options given in significant percentages ensure their prosperity in relation to the company or organization’s prosperity. In that, the higher the rank within the organization the more the employee earns in variable compensations.
Worker’s compensation laws; is a legal framework meant to ensure an injured employee due to an accident while on duty or if he/she contracts a disease while performing his/her duty, receives adequate compensation and proper medical benefits.
Ever state recommends that compensation insurance is purchased by employers, to make sure that the affected employees, either by illness or injury, alongside those who depend on them are catered for against potential hardships like illness, injury or even death.
This compensation was not only created to protect the worker but also the employer against abrupt or any potential cost and hardship shocks of the employee due to injury or illness. This compensation law has also given the employee a right to even sue his/her employer in accordance to the law.
As an employer, ensure that workers and the management staff understand that reports concerning accident ought to be filled immediately a worker has been injured in his/her line of duty or claims have job related sickness.
Employees must know how to avail claims to your selected compensation company, work directly with your employee’s compensation manager to make sure that both your liability and that employee’s medical requirements are met.
Ensure the claim is correct and timely filed by working personally with your workers and adhere to your insurance company’s procedures.
Executive manager’s Compensation is a form of compensation that slightly differs from the other employee form of compensation (Strandberg, 2004).
This type of compensation covers executive employees like the president of that organization, the vice president, the chief executive officer the CFO and sometimes the director or some managers of higher ranks in that organization. Executive compensations normally entail:
The base salary,
Income protection guarantees after undertaking a liquidity event like during a sale or an offering of a public stock
Additional benefits referred to as executive-only benefits like perks or extra paid vacation
Some incentives like stock options
When an individual in the executive rank comes onboard he is given a signing bonus.
They are entitled to a guarantee called severance package in any case there is a reason for employment termination rather than cause
The merger of the salaries, the bonuses and incentives is normally called the Total cash Compensation normally for executives, in short (TCC) (Strindberg, 2004).
Best practices An organization’s most precious incentive for inspiring and preserving talent is the practice of compensation. Even if the employer decides to pay for performance of tasks or use incentives to promote the desired behavior, a comprehensive system to supervise the progression is a crucial asset.
Compensation Management System facilitates organizations to design and execute compensation plans in accordance to the organization’s requirements with a resolution attached directly to the entire talent management set. Here are some of the best practices that promote the attainment of the compensation goals (Allen, 1973).
Administer compensation alongside incentive plans in accordance to a specific individual’s needs or departmental needs. This should be in terms of variable pay, the sales multipliers, and one-time incentive. Payment of bonuses or offering of any type of variable compensation may add up to an incentive and equally a disappointment, based on the mode of administering and the way it was perceived or communicated. Administering of incentives must be planned in a way that individuals comprehend the reason behind the payment and that unless the company meets certain predetermined projections there will be no pay out. Another criterion to consider in paying out of incentives is the team’s general success and performance. Employers should avoid paying out bonuses minus evaluating the success of the employee, not unless he/she is obligated by a constitutional (CBSR, 2003).
Allocate carefully, scarce resources at the same time encouraging top performers in the organization.
Encourage performance goals. Make sure that the organization’s best performers are being reasonably compensated for promoting success in the organization and supporting company aims with a swift analysis of employee’s performance ratings in his or her report.
Keep fairness and equality in presenting offers to budding new employees by maintaining compensation standards in accordance to family to which the job belongs or position of that individual.
Ensure proper management of income of potentially strong workers due to compensation
Highlight top performers. Build a profile of best performers and avail it to the public within the organization through a company intranet or any other means to encourage other employees to do their best. In the profile include all the incentives and benefits awarded to them (Sumner, 2006).
360-degree feedback system is a method or system that seeks to get feedback from peers, subordinates and seniors (the bosses), concerning specified employee for general evaluation. This method has been embraced in many organizations, as everyone is given an opportunity to evaluate a fellow workmate or his/her senior, and information is collected for analysis before any compensation are done. Here, the opinion of everybody matters and the ideology of working so hard to please only one individual is no more. This system has also proved worth in identification of leaders that best suit the higher levels or positions (Mees, 2004).
HR and compensation HR plays an integral role in managing and executing compensation practices in accordance to the best interests of the organization. HR best understands the needs of its people and allocates compensations where they best suit.
Understanding the needs of employees helps an organization determine the best way to remunerate or reward employees. This is because some employees prefer intrinsic rewards, while others extrinsic.
Conclusion What differentiates a successful organization from ineffective one is the value of workforces. This is because their labor force is an exact reflection of the entire organization. Therefore, a stronger value of an organization is a direct reflection on how the organization is valuable.
I strongly believe, from this point of argument that, it is clear on how human resource is of massive significance, when it comes to the fruitfulness of a firm. In a different but a clear angle, it simply works like a talent acquisition process whereby the best are recruited, maintained and trained to exploit their extraordinary talents.
They are also often engaged to the best interest of everybody and the organization at large, so one cannot under estimate the value of HR, as it is, to some level, the backbone of an organization. One can imagine an organization that exists without Human Resource; it could be a complete “nightmare.”
The organization would hire untalented individuals to work on certain crucial levels of the organization. Eventually, this could jeopardize the company’s effort of achieving greatness by not meeting its desired goals.
References Allen, L. A. (1973). Professional Management: New Concepts and Proven Practices. Berkshire, UK: McGraw Hill.
CBSR. (2003). Best People Practices: The Integration of Values into People Practices. Vancouver. Web.
Thornton, G. (2008). Recruitment and Retention: The Quest for the Right Talent. Web.
Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). (2002). Corporate Social Responsibility and HR’s Role. Web.
Allure cruise line Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Cultural challenges and stress Overview and demographics
Allure Cruise Line has three vessels in its fleet, with approximately 40 nationalities represented at any given time. However, this always fluctuates between 32 and 53 concerning contracts binding the crew and the company.
Nearly all the crew sign off each week depending on the time the Allure Cruise Line is within the home port. The same number of people come on board to replace others who have days-off.
Communication is a critical issue in Allure, as the firm engages in service of hiring agents to handle interviews and screen potential crew members for English skills to reduce the time which could be spent on bridging the logistical difference to achieve this.
Food is another difficult problem which Allure management has to cope with, making up the best menu to appeal and please everyone on board, as varying cultural backgrounds can be a really frustrating issue, not forgetting the high cost involved in meeting this objective.
Social life aboard the cruise ship has a great influence on the morale of the crew, depending on their age, which varies from 19 to 40 years. Majority of the crew members date and once in a while undergo break ups; and because of the proximity of their living and working conditions conflicts might arise among them.
Brotherhood mentality is another question capturing the diverse background and societal cultures on board the Allure, this characteristic is common for people from the same nationality and tends to depict a behavior resonating among them.
To avoid communication barrier among employees, Allure should continue to attract better employees by implementing a brilliant marketing strategy while developing a more competitive workforce. Allure should recruit the people in organizational-based teams and then induct the workers on skills based criteria.
This will go a long way to ensure that a strong sense of efficiency and productivity of Allure are upheld. Allure should make regular training on a normal part of human resource department’s responsibilities and integrate these functions into its human resource management strategy.
The food served to both, passengers and “internal passengers” is an issue, but Allure needs to focus more on their clientele than on the employees.
Social life within the crew members should be encouraged but with check and balances. A happier employee is more productive and more efficient at work than a lonely and demoralized one. Brotherhood disposition should be discouraged among crew members from the same race or background.
“Mafias” on board Mafia is term used to describe the favoritism which occurs in the dining room aboard the Allure Cruise ships; the head server often portrays some passion and promotes only the crew from his or her own country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The eastern and western Europeans hold leadership roles within the food service area and dining room. This dining room mafia phenomenon exists only in the dining rooms of the Cruise, where the top leaders are the dining room managers, supported by the head servers who wield a lot of power.
The dining room hierarchy is as shown below:
The head server exhibits a kind of experience in the dining room and creates a rapport with passengers by ensuring they are well catered and taken care of as they enjoy their experience aboard.
The servers are not well remunerated as compared to other staff; however, they make small salaries from the tips they receive from passengers who recognize their services.
Meanwhile, the tips received by the servers are divided among the servers themselves and the assistant servers. The benefits which accompany the server status make it one of the highly sought after positions on the Allure Cruise Ship.
Allure can improve employee performance by using more effective and efficient performance management programs. Allure has failed to correctly measure and confirm the conduct of their head servers, and this has been affecting the overall efficiency and productivity of the company.
Not only that, Allure has also failed to take into account the effect that the head server’s actions may have on the Allure’s representation among the passengers on board, and also the morale of other servers who feel cheated on board.
We will write a custom Case Study on Allure cruise line specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has to change as Allure needs to give an independent person the task of keeping performance records and will need to constantly re-evaluate and assess the crew working in the dining room, alongside their regular superior.
This would allow the independent person a better opportunity to evaluate the servers without any degree of bias. This has come about as a highly significant change as now many companies require independent evaluations, as well as evaluations of employees by their superiors as essential (Cheverton, 2004).
These measurements help Allure to discover which of the crew members is engaged in working at quality level and, needless to say, becomes helpful in deciding who deserves a raise and bonus.
Meanwhile, it also keeps the crew members in controlling as they work harder and better to present themselves better. This also increases the level of enthusiasm in the employees and helps keep the business operating at a healthy rate (Boone, 2001).
In the current models of many organizations, the ones that are different from the more traditional ones, assistants are apportioned with tasks by the top managers as their authority is the best for the activity.
A contemporary approach is to arrange the chores and the workload by assigning up project crew consisting of crew members who join these teams because of their compatible to their competencies and trades like servers.
Allure can achieve this by reducing the level of hierarchy within the organization structure to limit bureaucracy.
Relation to real world The image of Allure needs to be properly projected not only to attract more customers but also to attract the very best of human capital available. Enlisting reputable workers is becoming an extremely hard task these days, because of the continuously changing working environment and the massive degree of competition in the workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Allure cruise line by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The attitude and morals of the Allure workforce are a tremendously sturdy contributing factor to the company’s overall image in this competitive market.
The marketing department at Allure needs to be more involved in changing the way the company works and operates within the internal structures to determine the effect of the company on the local community and internationally.
Allure should advertise to attract clientele but also portray the right image worldwide. These factors are essential for Allure’s growth and success.
In the newer models of organization, different from the traditional ones, workers are assigned with work by the upper management on the basis of the management that is best for the job.
A new approach is to organize the work and the workload by setting up project teams consisting of workers who join these teams because they think they are compatible to their competencies and interests (Anshutz, 2006).
Companies that follow such models usually change the levels in the company’s organization, and mostly keep only three levels: project sponsors (the former management team); project leaders; and project coworkers.
References Anshutz, J. (2006). How to successfully manage people. Hong Kong: Perfect Bound Paperback.
Boone, M. E. (2001). Managing interactively: Executing business strategy, improving communication and creating a knowledge-sharing culture. New York: McGraw Hill Professional.
Cheverton, P. (2004). Key marketing skills: strategies, tools and techniques for marketing success. Kogan: Page Publishers.
Flexibility and Coping With Changes Report (Assessment) online essay help
According to Dubrin and Young, the ability to cope with change is the difference between success and failure in ones career (345). Not all people are able to deal with change in the same way. This therefore, highlights the need to empower people to improve their abilities to cope with change.
A successful career depends on ones ability to deal with change. But according to results of a study conducted in more than 500 companies, employees deal with change differently; some are more adaptive while others are less adaptive (Dubrin and Young 345).
In the study, the ability to cope with change, here in referred to as flexibility, is determined by measuring up to seven personality traits, which can be grouped in the following two broad categories: positive self image as well as the ability to cope with risks. Individuals with high scores in the two aforementioned traits are said to be highly flexible.
In coping with change the two aforementioned traits are found to also have a strong correlation with the ability to cope with ambiguity and positive emotional disposition.
Thus, being optimistic as well as having the ability to cope with ambiguity in time of extreme uncertainties enables employees not only to cope with change but also to benefit from it.
The assertions made herein indicate that only those employees who posses these traits have the ability to cope with change, and also spell doom for those without.
This therefore raises the question of how employees lacking both in the ability to cope with ambiguity and positive emotional disposition can become flexible and be able to cope well with change. It is essential for such employees to conduct a self assessment which enables them to determine how flexible they are.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This involves a series of self administered questions that address a number of issues ranging from the inability to appreciate differing opinion, inability to deal with dissenting work mates, avoiding work related challenges among other issues.
If an employee scores highly in these test, then he or she has a limited ability to cope with change and is thus less flexible. Improving their tolerance capabilities becomes necessary.
Dubrin and Young (345) make simple but effective suggestions on how inflexible employees can improve their ability to cope with change. These suggestions are not just practical steps towards overcoming such inabilities but are aimed at changing an employee’s attitudes as well.
Dubrin and Young’s suggestions also encourage proactive rather than a reactive approach. To improve ones flexibility, Dubrin and Young challenge employees to look for opportunities that involve ambiguous tasks and learn to develop a positive attitude about them (345). Identifying positive attributes that enhance positive affect is vital in such a case.
When faced with forced change, employees ought to adopt the ‘what if’ approach. Asking a number of ‘what if’ questions with regards to ones career enables an employee to take responsibility for ones career growth.
Dubrin and Young (335 to 346) further suggest that employees ought to ask themselves these questions before major changes occur to avoid being caught unawares. It also helps one to gain an understanding on the inevitability of change. All these increase receptiveness to change, and improves ones flexibility.
Flexibility is an essential trait that facilitates career growth. Unfortunately, it is not a universal occurrence. Developing it follows simple to do steps and is largely rthe prerogative of individual employees.
We will write a custom Assessment on Flexibility and Coping With Changes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited DuBrin, Andrew and Jeffrey Young. Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior. Ontario: Thomson Nelson. 2006. Print.
The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A Communist is a party that propels the use of social principles of communism enhanced by a communist state of governance. Karl Marx and Angels advanced this form of party in the mid 19th century. According to Leninism, a communist party is a party which belongs to the working class who may be ruling and non-ruling elite in the society1.
The Chinese Communist Party is the world’s largest and strongest party with approximately 78 million members drawn from the party and non-party members. A survey of the Chinese political parties reveals that the Chinese Communist Party accounts for 5.6% of the total population of China according to 2009 country survey.
The Russian Communist party was recorded as the most powerful party , but today it has collapsed with China taking over the lead. This paper explores some of the factors that may account for the failure of the communist party in Russia, as well as factors contributing to the success of the Communist party in China2.
Discussion To understand reasons that led to the collapse of the CP in Soviet Union, we examine how these parties arose in respective countries. While the Soviet Union did not experience uprisings, China had a historical series of mass peasantry revolutions.
In October 1949, the party became officially powerful to found a country led by single-party system. The revolution cause driven by the masses gave the CP the power to protest against the perceived oppression’ to give defense, economic resources, employment, and education to the peasant majority.
Until today, the successes of the communist party in China have been attributed to the overwhelming revolt waged by the peasants3.
The Soviet Union has no history of unity among its ethnic minorities as well as the inefficient units that formed the Soviet blocs. The differences in languages spoken among the blocs, varied history for every Soviet state continued to spur ethnic and cultural division.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This led to lack of feasible means that would have unified the innately different subsets that formed the union. According to the founding father of communism, Karl Marx, communism cannot thrive without forming requisite mass revolution of the international proletariat.
Impending lack of unity among the revolutionary proletariat, the Soviet Union came into power without an effective and robust support of the masses to sustain its presence and power. Pursuant to the need for an economically strong party and country, China’s CP remains a distinguished large communist party in the world today4.
Thus, one of the greatest differences between the two countries is the extent and scope of emphasis put on the economic reform compared to political liberation. In essence, although political liberation was a necessary condition for the growth of the party, it was not a sufficient condition for creating a powerfully sustainable communist party5.
While numerous factors have contributed to the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union, one eminent cause remains critical to its failure during the 1980’s. This cause creates the fundamental difference between the Soviet case and the survival of the Chinese communist party.
The introduction of liberalist ideologies by Mikhail Gorbachev led to a political compromise between the people’s loyalty to the party and the government.
This led subsequent loss of confidence and trust in the ideologies of communism due to failure of the communist government to provide people with promises that led to the revolution6.
The Chinese communist government did not emphasize the need to control the entire populace, but rather generate and control economic resources. The economic reform agenda introduced by the government left the Chinese population more satisfyed.
We will write a custom Essay on The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because the communist party forms its foundation on the powerful elite forming the lead the working class of a society, it generates and wields its power through a mass of resources from its powerful members.
Studies show that although the party has continued to face resistance from the opposing figures, its highly skilled members that form the party’s elite have continued to devise strategies that maintain its power.
In the case of China, the CCP has obtained its strength from the peasant and armed forces7. The emergence of the peasantry revolts that cropped up after the defeat of the second revolution in the southern provinces of China marks the beginning of the Chinese communist party’s strength.
Several factors have contributed to the victory and subsequent success of the Chinese communist party. Firstly, this was made possible because of the Chinese communist party’s excessive involvement in the practices of organizing and training of the peasant majority to form a united front capable of sustaining a continuous war without fail.
High economic resources endowment of the working class enabled the party to sustain the desperateness of the backward peasantry that rallied behind the elitist party forming the communist party8.
The ability of the party to demonstrate a strong following was facilitated by the innate backwardness of the peasants coupled with geographic vastness of the country and lack of proper communication networks. Although these factors may be viewed as the insignificant, their contributions has had an enormous impact on the success of the party for many years, especially during the most challenging moments of its life.
For instance, the strong division between the elites and the peasantry facilitated by the intellectual and geographical location, and resource accumulation stimulated the peasants to wage war in respect of their perceived inadequacies9.
The observable incompetence of the bourgeois government that existed during this period necessitated the growth and sustenance of the war driven by the peasants on behalf of the working class.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the utter despair and the sorry state of the peasants found reasons for their war, which stimulated further energy for the war. A large and poor peasant population has characterized China during the revolutions with few, but powerful elitist population that controlled the country’s economy10.
The tactical sense of the Chinese communist party leadership that oscillated between opportunism and adventurism managed to exist for many years under the province of the strong resistance of the government.
Although the party lost its power against the ruling government, it continued criticism of the government’s policies served to provide an impetus for subsequent revolts through a mass of peasants and army revolutions11.
It continued pressure on the government giving it another bargaining tool to agitate for change in the economic, political, and social systems that underpinned the country’s leadership12.
Therefore, lack of a strong Democratic Party caused the peasant majority and armies gathered their support for the Chinese Communist Party. This scenario gave the Chinese communist party a formidable ground to front its political capital.
Numerous sources suggest that the power of the Chinese communist party has declined over the past two decades, especially after the advent of the Deng reforms and the subsequent collapse of the joint (collective) farming system.
Many believe that these factors have contributed to the party’s disintegration across the country. Some surveys noted that the rural membership of the Chinese communist party branches had seen 60% disbandment as at the beginning of 199313.
However, the support for the party has remained intact in the urban cities, accounting for its continuous existence. The declining power of the party has generated an impetus to rejuvenate its power by attempting to search for the new direction for its future14.
The party called eminent scholars and experts from foreign countries to offer their opinions on the way forward for the party. This strategy has been developed out of frustration and worries created by the continuing rise in levels of unemployment, rural poverty, widespread corruption within the party and its government that continue to threaten its sustainable power in the future.
The overall country’s perception about the communist party as an honorable umbrella party has served to stimulate the ever-increasing membership across the country. Studies show that, in the past decade, over one million people joined the party every year.
The party’s leadership has invested enormous resources capable of recruiting the masses, especially the educated young populations that has the power to forge its communist ideologies to the rest of the population. This strategic move to target the educated masses and the working class spurred its growth and strength throughout its historical life15.
The party has thrived on a number of factors including stirring up nationalist perceptions and feeling among the people while promoting the people-driven defense ideologies. The party’s growth has been attributed to the widespread divide in China between the poor and the rich holding unto the economic and political power.
In addition, the communist party in China has continued to benefit from its strategic membership drawn from the brightest entrepreneurs and elitist groups that held profitable positions in the country’s leading corporations and private ventures.
These proletariats have been made to develop positive perceptions about the Chinese communist party, which has continued to moving them away from mainstream politics and criticism of the Chinese communist party policies.
Similarly, the government has continued to using its state machinery and resources to incorporate the majority from the rural areas left behind in the politics of the communist party.
According to John Pomfret, over the years the communist party has sustained itself as a strong party with excess power by providing the Chinese population with stakes in maintaining the status quo and appealing to the masses. The rural populations have continuously been integrated into the TVE system as well as termination of the taxes.
Therefore, the government under the leadership of the CCP creates a friendlier atmosphere that cushions its people from adverse economic distress arising out of economic downtimes16. Therefore, the people of China have used these facets to continue submitting to the social principles of the communist party to yield a powerful unity to date.
According to Timothy’s theory of the state effect, he argues that the communist party attempts to position itself as the fundamental reformer of the society17. Apparently, this society stood separated from the party during its revolution against the tenets of the ruling class.
This juxtaposed state of the party among the people and society has generated a misconceived image to the public, making it a loyalist party with the largest membership.
Conclusion The communist party in China and the Soviet Union, both had similarities and differences that account for their success and failure respectively. Studies documented that both scenarios posses a series of similarities that illustrate why they survived at one time, the death of the party in the USSR, and the continued wielding of power by the Chinese Communist Party18.
Many scholars have argued that both parties have experienced the demise of their power due to their inability to formulate strategies that appealed to the changing times.
Many scholars have argued that both parties have experienced the demise of their powers due to their inability to formulate strategies that appealed to the changing times.
In case of the Soviet Union, much of its failure has been attributed to the lack of the appropriate links between the Soviet based states and the leadership that promoted the western democracies at the expense of communist ideologies.
One critical difference that distinguishes the Soviet CP and the Chinese CP are that China did not have immoral communist leader, Mao Tse-tung as opposed to the Soviet Union. In addition, the Chinese communist party during its trying moments prioritized its leadership agenda by putting economic reforms ahead of the political issues that it faced19.
This phenomenal move under the clever guidance of Deng Xiaoping has continued to receive accolades. This step has enabled Chinese communist party to stay longer in China compared to the Soviet Union.
Bibliography Amacker, Christopher. “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?” Web.
Barnett, Thomas, “Deng Xiaoping,” Esquire, 4 (2008): 146.
Johnson, Chalmers A. Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China 1937-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962.
Chan, Bary Watson, eds. Sources of Chinese Tradition. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1960.
Courtois, Stephanie. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Grigor, Ronald Suny. The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, “National” Identity, and Theories of Empire,” A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Lawrance, Alan. China under communism. New York: Routledge, 1998, 134.
Pei, Minxin. “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union”.Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994, 11.
Shambaugh, David. China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, University of California: University of California Press, 2009, 256.
Zhang, Wei-Wei. Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996.
Footnotes 1 Minxin Pei, “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union” (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1994), 11).
2 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39.
3 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”
4 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”
5 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39
6 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”
7 Ronald Grigor Suny, The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, “National” Identity, and Theories of Empire, A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)
8 Ronald Grigor Suny and Terry Martin, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 323.
9 Thomas, Barnett, “Deng Xiaoping,” Esquire no. 4 (2008): 146.
10 David Shambaugh, China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, (University of California: University of California Press, 2009), 256.
11 Wei-Wei Zhang, Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping (New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996), 2.
12 Amacker, Christopher on November 17, Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR? (2010).
13 Alan Lawrance, China under communism. (New York: Routledge, 1998), 134
14 Wei-Wei Zhang, Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping (New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996), 2.
15 Chalmers A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China 1937-1945 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962), 3.
16 Chan, Watson Bary ed., Sources of Chinese Tradition (New York, Kegan Paul International, 1960), 871.
17 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39.
18 Pei Minxin, “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union” (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1994), 11.
19 Christopher Amacker, Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?
IBM Company Analysis Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Brief Company History Formally established in 1911, IBM has grown within the past 100 years into one of the largest technology-oriented enterprises in the world to date.
It was one of the first companies to develop the concept of the home personal computer, pioneered the development of the modern-day checkout line through the creation of the laser scanner, is the primary manufacturer of many of the cash registers in operation in grocery stores around the world and is one of the largest suppliers of automated teller machines used in nearly every single bank in operation at the present.
By 2005 the company shifted is operational makeup by selling its personal computer division to Lenovo and instead focused on providing software and hardware-based solutions to other multinational companies and international organizations. This has resulted in the present-day IBM, which is known around the world as a business solutions provider that enables businesses to run more smoothly and efficiently under a technological infrastructure developed by IBM.
Economic conditions While the 2008 global financial crisis in effect obliterated the profit margins of hundreds of multinational companies around the world, IBM was largely unaffected and by 2009 actually emerged from the crisis with a 20% higher third-quarter income, which amounted to $2.05 per share. This is in stark contrast to the effects of the financial crisis on other technology-oriented firms who experienced billions of dollars in losses during this particular period.
The reason behind why IBM continued to be profitable despite the uncertain financial environment at the time is actually connected to the company relinquishing its production and sale of computer hardware and various devices directly to normal consumers. Instead, the company focused on the creation of software and service products with an emphasis on long term service contracts with corporations, government departments and various organizations.
What you have to understand is that a large percentage of the technology-based corporations that were negatively affected by the 2008 crisis were affected due to a lack of consumer demand for their products.
People were in effect to scared to buy new laptops, computers or other forms of technology-based products as a result of not only the high degrees of unemployment that permeated the market at the time but it was also due to the fact that there was a certain degree of fear in the markets regarding the possibility of job loss.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since IBM catered directly to corporations, this in effect allowed the company to altogether avoid the slump affecting other technology based enterprises, especially when taking into consideration the long term contracts the company had.
Furthermore, as a direct result of the crisis many companies turned towards the concepts of Six Sigma and lean operations resulting in a distinct shift towards more efficient computer based operations as well as turned towards outsourcing various aspects of their operations to other countries.
This in effect necessitated the creation of newer and better software and hardware infrastructures, which IBM was only too happy to provide during this particular period of time.
On the other hand, it must be noted that as of late IBM has experienced some financial difficulties as many of its clients within Europe have been affected by the debt crisis, which has severely constrained their ability to expand/upgrade their systems. IBM has made up for this though by continuing to expand its outsourced operations within India and the Philippines, which enabled the company to more or less breakeven despite the lack of demand from its European clientele.
Ethical issues One of the main ethical issues surrounding IBM at the present is its current predilection towards outsourcing various aspects of its internal operations and manufacturing processes to other countries.
While it may be true that companies that are based within the US are not under any legal obligation to ensure that all aspects of their operations remain within the country, the fact is that after IBM received extensive financial assistance in the form of government bailout money from the US government it still chose to fire nearly 5,000 US based employees over the following months and shifted a large percentage of its workforce to overseas operations such as those in India, China and the Philippines.
Given the fact that IBM in effect was helped by US taxpayers the company had the moral and ethical responsibility to at least pay them back to a certain extent by using the bailout money to subsequently increase the number of local jobs within the country.
We will write a custom Research Paper on IBM Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While it may be true that the company did invest the money into IT infrastructure development which did create some jobs, the fact remains that this was barely felt within the US domestic market and as such calls into question the corporate social responsibility the company should have displayed in terms of actually helping the American people.
Marketing strategies The gains achieved by IBM within the past 15 years can all be attributed to its marketing strategy of removing itself from direct competition within the currently oversaturated PC market.
Instead, the company has focused on direct business to business sales wherein its primary clients are multinational corporations, government and educational institutions, the airline industry, the food services industry as well as several other industries within the global economy today that rely on the technology, software and consulting expertise of IBM in order to resolve their technology-related issues.
As such, IBM does not advertise in the traditional sense but rather relies on direct business contacts, product roadshows and its reputation as one of the best companies in the world for technology based solutions to gain clients.
Evidence of the effectiveness of such a method of marketing is actually seen by the average consumer on an almost daily basis wherein most of automated teller machines, cash registers, and credit cards readers encountered by a vast majority of the general public are all mostly made by IBM or one of its subsidiaries.
In cases where IBM does do direct marketing campaigns, the advertisements are not directed at the average consumer as seen in the case of numerous advertisements by companies such as Asus, Toshiba, and Apple, which rely on a strategy of presenting how much better their product is compared to their competitors.
Instead, IBM’s marketing strategy revolves around presenting solutions involving software, consulting services and the implementation of a technological infrastructure that would resolve any and all issues a client would have regarding creating an efficient and effective business platform.
There are three components within market orientation that determine how a company will implement a marketing strategy within the competitive environment that it finds itself in:
Not sure if you can write a paper on IBM Company Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These components are comprised of the following:
When it comes to marketing strategies involving customer orientation, a company utilizes its available resources in gathering data on the needs and behaviors of the consumer segment that it is targeting. The same can be said for competitor orientation marketing strategies however, in this case, it focuses on competitors within the same market instead.
Either method though has a distinct weakness; focusing too much on consumer orientation can actually blind a company to changes in the market or may actually stifle innovation since the company focuses too much on consumer satisfaction rather than changing based on trends.
Focusing too much on competitor orientation, on the other hand, results in too much time and capital being placed on competitive activities, which results in companies at times neglecting their consumer bases and focusing too much on getting ahead of the competition. In the case of IBM, what was done was to focus on a customer-oriented strategy by providing solutions instead of merely software and hardware.
Not only that, the company also avoided the potential pitfall of being blind to changes within the market by in effect taking itself out of the competitive direct to consumer PC market and instead focused on a niche market strategy involving multinational corporations, institutions and other such organizations.
This strategy can be considered a stroke of genius since it enabled the company to further enhance its reputation through better client services, which in effect resulted in additional clients for IBM. The end result of this particular marketing strategy enabled IBM to become the 2nd largest firm within the US based on the number of employees it currently has as well as enabling it to reach the 4 highest position within the US market in terms of the sheer amount of market capitalization it has at the present.
Strengths and Weaknesses As mentioned earlier, the current strength of the company lies in the fact that it does not provide individual products to consumers but rather sells IT based solutions to its clientele. This can come in the form of a technological infrastructure with long term IT support that ensures a continuous stream of income from such clients as they continue to develop and upgrade their systems in order to keep up with the current pace of technological improvements.
On the other hand, the weakness of the company lies in the fact that as more IT based companies enter into the business to business solutions market, IBM does not have a fall back industry in the form of direct sales of computers to rely on for additional income.
Industry analysis- Necessity for Innovation and the Need to Change Markets Thamhain (2005) indicates that research and development into new ways of producing and utilizing technology is one of the practices most often seen in technology-intensive enterprises (Thamhain, 2005). This is due to the fact that technology has as of late been under a constantly accelerating level development and as a result, has enabled new players to enter into markets whereas in the past distinct barriers to proper entry would have been present (Thamhain, 2005).
As such, failure to sufficiently innovate along with new technological trends and products can be thought of as a failure on the part of the managerial practices at a company since being able to anticipate trends and use them to either reach greater market penetration or keep the company relevant to consumers is a necessity in today’s technology intensive market economy.
Nowhere is this more evident that in the IT services industry at the present wherein IBM has to directly compete with other business to business service providers such as Oracle, Cisco, Dell and now HP as this company transitions from a consumer-oriented approach to one that focuses primarily on selling to various businesses and organizations.
Of particular concern within this particular industry are the possible long term implications of a prolonged economic recession within the US, especially when coupled with the debt crisis within Europe, which are two of the main markets of technology-oriented enterprises such as IBM.
The main problem with consumer markets in economies such as those within the US, Europe and the Middle East is the fact that consumer spending is at an all-time low which has resulted in the current economic downturn since consumer spending is the primary basis of economic recoveries or recessions (Keller
Understanding of Technology and Philosophy Essay argumentative essay help
According to George Orwell, there is substantial reason to support the idea of mechanization in pursuit of achievement. The author, Orwell, put the statement trying to express the possibility of a typical a self-driven invention. A pacifist loves peace and embraces the path that avoids violence in all his or her activities.
Shunning of military approaches to settle issues of the society is the desire of a pacifist. When a peace-loving individual gets an opportunity to work in a firm that deals with the manufacture of bombs, then there are high chances of devising newer versions or types of bombs within a short time (Orwell, p.207). Habitual characteristic of humanity has a design characterized by inventions that allow for advancement geared towards satisfying unending needs.
The statement by Henry Adams that talks about the steam found in the world not being able to build Chartres represents an argument of flawlessness in the concept of work. There needs to be a reason for having faith in whichever action that an individual undertakes although this is insufficient for realization of goals.
This can be applied to for power generation if tapped in the correct way according to standard procedures. This is likened to the possession of power which is relevant for use by those who cannot harness it for meaningful use.
The book by Adams tries to relate the Virgin and the Dynamo as presented by Adams, shows how one item can be of considerable importance in one setting while at the same time, a complete irrelevance at other regions (Adams, p. 324). Presence of steam is a normal occurrence, coming in the form of a force which can be beneficial when applied doing work while it is quite useless when allowed to escape into free space.
Applying the concepts of mechanics in transformation and redirection of energy is practical and claimed to be quantifiable. It was not possible to construct any meaningful application of the force while at Chartres as induced by the Virgin, whose value could not achieve substantial gains (Adams, p.324).
Adam admits that there was the relevance about true existence of this force, but its application was not practical particularly then. Improvement of status in performance using machinery by man has grown into a culture which is instinctive as opposed to being suppressive for other discoveries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performing extra duties with an opportunity for extra improvement due to inventions and innovations are recommended (Orwell, p.207). The first scenario is touching on the principles of communism that are in line with the basics of socialism and Orwell, the writer, describes the situation from a fascism point of view.
The concept of mechanization is a slow and sure process that is rapidly encrypting into the society by a section of the population. It represents a minority group who opposes the idea of mechanization as a process but instead have a compulsion to live by the guidelines (Orwell, p.208).Civilization brought by the use of machines as a tool in efforts that culminate into modernization and capitalism concept has a driving force as maximization of profit earnings.
Using machines as workers for men rather than being servants for machines is the best choice according to independent minds. With extrapolation mechanization, the users who are the humans represent a brain material that is under bondage within a bottle. This imprisonment is virtual in the sense that the mind, which is the governing part of the body, takes over operations in directing the body.
It is where the so-called advancement is heading. Avoiding the situation is almost impossible due the nature of large-scale use both under the conscious and sub conscious mind. The more the advancement in mechanization, the more the modernization in general and this bring about advancement, efficiency and decency in procedures (Orwell, p.293).
Those who embrace the values of utopia aim at reducing pain and suffering in life of the practitioners. This results in the alleviation of conditions governing life by reducing steps taken towards industrialization. Introduction of artificial issues that obey guidelines of socialism and by extension, the utopia, transforms humans into robots who are using machines to perform all their chores.
Liberalism as one of the social theories adopted for use in the sense that the beneficiaries of this fruitful course are those who care about the love for peaceful coexistence among themselves and with the community at large (Mises, p.70).
Freedom declaration out of such practices on machines cause a reduction of workload on operations but can be a source of detriment to the lives of the operators. Compromising of safety standards in the making and supporting of fascism concept is a common activity.
We will write a custom Essay on Understanding of Technology and Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue of ascertaining credibility of mechanization in terms of controlling its extremes warrants safety concerns. Attaining economic democracy due to the practice of converting the community into a capitalist arena is desirable. It enables the occupants of the target are to be workers and beneficiaries of not only as consumers.
This brings about the reality of self-styled democratic society by eliminating the concept of fascism (Mises, p. 21). Using this advancement process against intended harmonization situations, can reverse when the products turn out to be destructive, on the other hand. When this happens, then one of the principles applied in safety gets violated breaking fundamental laws for normal existence (Orwell, p.207).
Understanding of technology as explained by the two authors measures the extent of burden in the society. Both Orwell and Adams view the concept of mechanization as a hindrance to free existence of socialism. Instead of liberal scenario in the democratic administration of societal activities, one can decide to contribute to economic development components of a community.
Accidents and erratic occurrences in the course of industrialization processes may cause mass destruction of lives and property contrary to expectations of improvement of standards. Such cases as airplane crash, highway traffic accidents and other industrial disasters are some of the detriments of technological advancements.
Making choice embrace capitalism is vital for development in the economic and social outstretches of a state with shinning achievements (Schumpeter. 7). Oppression by authoritative governments embraces fascism by participating in concentration on development of self-ego at the expense of the rest.
Poisonous gases, oxide leaks among other lethal chemical radicals are industrial products whose chemical components are able to have a devastating effect on the human body system.
The Dynamo that formed a center stage in the life of Adam is essential in the career path and studies but much value, not as an obsession just as the Virgin with the female forces. He had appreciated his college results with limited value in the likeness of experimental results (Adams, p. 319).
The authors, Adams and Orwell, consider development that accompanies industrialization with a recessive approach that ranges from neutrality to other extremes that enslave the mind. The idea of socialism has a strong impact over generations and will remain unchanged because of the enticing nature of the concept that governs the society (Mises, p. 23).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding of Technology and Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Practicing of faith in all the endeavors is the secret for opening success doors as put across by Marxian theory. This further explains the reasons that underlie the concept of judgment of actions based on instinct in terms of success evaluation (Schumpeter, p. 13).
Works Cited Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams. Charleston, South Carolina: Forgotten Books, 1961. Forgotten Books. Web.
Mises, Ludwig V. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Auburn. Alabama: Ludwig Von Mises Institute. 2009. Print.
Orwell, George. The Road to Wigan Pier. UK: Penguin Publishers. 1937. Print.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. UK: George Allen
Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction In one form or another problems often occur in projects whether they come in the form of delays, cost changes, timeline adjustments or a variety of other problems that create scheduling and planning problems during a project (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55). In order to resolve such incidents, it is often necessary to have a control change mechanism in place to make sure that alternative plans exist for particular processes to continue to function normally.
Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms Ingredients and Menu Pricing
One of the main problems in the restaurant business are sudden cost changes to ingredients brought about by nature calamities such as floods, earthquakes, red tide etc. This directly impacts the restaurant’s bottom-line since if the dished served costs more to make than its indicated price on the menu then the restaurant would of course lose money as a direct result.
Taking this into consideration, the contracts between the restaurant and suppliers must be amended in order to have some form of provision indicating that the restaurant will only buy a certain number of ingredients based on a previously agreed upon set price.
This ensures that should there be a sudden change in the price of ingredients the restaurant will not be contractually liable to purchase them at a loss (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55). It must also be noted that there a certain degree of control must be implemented on the menu prices themselves.
Aside from the external circumstance that may increase the price of ingredient the restaurant also needs to take into consideration subsequent increases in employee salaries as a direct result of cost of living increases not to mention the fact that there are also issues related to rent, utilities expenses and miscellaneous other expenses that may occur that necessitate price increases on the menu.
As such, cost control mechanisms must be implemented in regards to these potential problems in regards to an adjustable profit/loss scale in order for the restaurant to determine what point would it be necessary to implement changes in pricing (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55).
Between the planning and actual performance stage comes the implementation stage where all the initial plans for the restaurant are implemented and tested in order to ensure that everything is working as it should be.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this particular stage though, you must take into consideration that not everything will go as planned and as such it is necessary to implement sufficient timeline adjustments that take into consideration delays in construction, equipment arrival, training of staff, creation of sufficient supply contracts and a variety of other potential delays that may occur (Blackstone, Cox, and Schleier, 7029-7046).
What you have to understand is that control mechanisms in the form of rescheduling strategies, a work around plan and a variety of other processes are needed in order for operations to continue unimpeded (Blackstone, Cox, and Schleier, 7029-7046).
The creation of a restaurant comes in particular stages with one aspect leading to another, if delays occur and the owner still attempts to push on through with the original schedule, the possibility of grave problems (i.e. faulty wiring, food being delivered too early, untrained staff etc.) increases exponentially.
As such, it is necessary to implement some form of alternative plan when certain delays occur in order for certain processes to still go ahead as planned without necessarily causing interruptions with other aspects of the processes needed to finish the restaurant.
When it comes to the overall performance of the project, certain control mechanisms need to be implemented in order to ensure that everything is going according to plan and is not over budget.
This involves control mechanisms which examine the daily costs associated with construction, the amount of progress made in finishing the restaurant and determining whether the speed in which the construction is being done is in line with the original budget for the construction of the restaurant.
Furthermore, it must be determined whether the training of employees for the restaurant as well as the development of the necessary preparations for promotion are also on schedule (Krane et al., 54 – 67). Neglecting to examine such factors and implement some measures of control to them can lead to a disastrous opening
We will write a custom Assessment on Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Introducing Project Contracts and Agreements
In regards to properly implementing the necessary project contracts and agreements, these activities will be instituted through the various development plans of the restaurant via a consensus of the project team.
New iterations to the contracts will be discussed and deliberated until all parties involved are satisfied with the changes. Once all parties are in agreement the agreements and contracts will then be subsequently finalized and implemented into the main project development plan.
Informing the Project Team of Changes to the Plan
Should subsequent changes to the project plan be necessary the project team in conjunction with personnel who are directly impacted by the changes will be called to the restaurant site (or the nearest possible convenient location) in order to discuss the subsequent changes needed.
Should various individuals be otherwise indisposed due to a combination of events the details of the meeting will be forwarded to them via a transcript report and their role in the changes will be indicated.
Potential Impact on Budgets, Schedules and Deliverables
Once the project has been proved and is underway it is expected that there will be changes in budgetary allotments and schedules will definitely be delayed. What you have to understand is that there is a world of difference between planning something on paper and actually seeing things through.
Sudden changes as a direct result of external circumstance often occur, as a result costs often spiral upwards with the original budget intended for the implementation stage of a restaurant project often reaching 15 to 20 percent over budget. Such is the nature of implementation procedures that more often than not project managers often allocate a certain amount from the intended capital when starting a particular business in order to deal with costs related to going over budget.
It must also be noted that developing a scheduling plan for construction, installation, training and a variety of other necessary processes all hinges on the fact that everything is completed by the allotted time given for a particular activity. Unfortunately this is often not the case and as such control mechanisms in the form of alternate schedules must be devised in order to deal with such problems.
Deliverables on the other hand will definitely be affected with the potential for certain outcomes being delayed or not happening at all as a direct result of certain changes to the overall planning of certain aspects of the projects. In cases such as this it is best to adjust the expectations of what deliverables may occur based on the new data from the project planning stage.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Blackstone, John H., James F. Cox, and John G. Schleier. “A Tutorial On Project Management From A Theory Of Constraints Perspective.” International Journal Of Production Research 47.24 (2009): 7029-7046. Business Source Premier. Web.
Krane, Hans Petter, Nils O. E. Olsson, and Asbjôrn Rolstadås. “How Project Manager- Project Owner Interaction Can Work Within And Influence Project Risk Management.” Project Management Journal 43.2 (2012): 54-67. Business Source Premier. Web.
Lenfle, Sylvain, and Christoph Loch. “Lost Roots: How project management came to emphasize control over flexibility and novelty.” California Management Review 53.1 (2010): 32-55. Business Source Premier. Web.
The Evolving Role of Government in Education Essay college essay help near me
The introduction A brief overview of important historical points
The role of government in American education is considered to be a question of great sensitivity. Generally, one is to keep in mind that originally “policymakers have supported state and local control rather than federal directives and federal education legislation has normally contained strong prohibitions against federal control of education” (Orfield, 2004, p. 4).
In other words, there was a need to protect a national department of education from any abuse of government. General support for American society and fears of radical changes prevented government legislation for many years.
Traditionally, there were the conservatives, who tried to protect education from federal control; liberals and moderates, however, were of the opposite opinion and wanted to develop federal programs, in order to support the growth of educational establishments.
It should be pointed out that the supporters of public education also wanted to involve federal government in education, in order to equalize funding of the establishments and create a strong support for poor children. Thus, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which was created in the mid of the sixties, led to a significant governmental role in public education.
The thesis statement
The impact of the federal government on public education is recognized to be extremely important for the development of American society. Although the evolving role of the federal government is regarded ambiguously, nobody can deny the fact that various education programs and laws created by the federal organizations help improve students’ academic achievement.
When discussing the evolving role of the federal government in education, there is a need to consider some important historical data. Thus, first of all, it is necessary to trace back the events, which had a great impact on modern education system formation. As far as there are a lot of data concerning the education system of American society, one is to keep in mind that there are key events, which are to be highlighted. On the other hand, it is necessary to touch on the most influential events the modern system of education is related to.
The No Child Left Behind Act
In the early eighties, Department of Education was created; the main purpose of its establishment was to promote “student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access” (Nelson, 2011, p. 1). Twenty years later, the federal government established one of the most important laws for the education system development, which greatly impacted on education restructing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The No Child Left Behind Act is recognized to be extremely important document for American society, as it sets needs for particular purposes in relation to education progress in peculiar subjects. The No Child Left Behind Act is an unfunded mandate, which provides the states with federal education funding.
However, NCLB was regarded as an aggressive entry into a long-established educational policy of the USA, as according to its requirements certain penalties could be imposed on schools, if annual progress aims for establishments had not been met.
From a civil rights perspective, however, certain chapters of NCLB are regarded positively in the principle of “the insistence on accountability for racial and ethnic minorities, the policies for more qualified teachers, the requirement to offer choices to students in failing schools, and the aspirations for substantial progress for all groups of students” (Orfield, 2004, p. 4-5).
Generally, the principles of NCLB are rather ambiguous, as the law rearranges relations between the states and government; thus, in some fields the control over federal government can be both decentralized and expanded.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Another document created by the federal government, which should be analyzed is the first title of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
It appeared to help economically deprived learners. ESEA provides high poverty schools with additional resources. So, one can make a conclusion that ESEA reauthorization provided by NCLB, can be regarded as a necessary step to help economically and educationally disadvantaged students.
Generally, major policy changes of ESEA reauthorization of Title I include equal educational outcomes, certain deadlines to improve students’ academic achievement, test-based accountability expansion (this point is related to all students), etc. Some words must be said about Improving America’s Schools Act. It should be noted that “IASA was notable for mandating that challenging standards apply to all students, including those receiving Title I services” (Sunderman
HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd Report essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of the difference between current practice and best practice as identified in the literature appropriate for the industry location of the organization. Additionally, there is my recommended practice for the organization given current constraints:
Introduction The major strategy to be used in tackling this question is the location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd as compared to the best location of such businesses in the industry. This is because it is important to analyze the costs associated with the strategic location and logistical procedures of the business outlets. It is also necessary to know the importance of the organization’s cultural perspective to Baiada’s performance.
Currently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd headquarters are situated at Pendle Hill, 30km west of Sydney. The other operating centers are in major Australian cities and towns such as Victoria and Brisbane (Welcome to Baiada 2007). This location can pose a challenge to the logistical operations of Baiada Poultry.
This is because there are other major companies that engage in poultry farming as well. These have more supply joints as compared to Baiada and they can therefore pose a challenge to the company’s profits (IBISWorld 2010).
Since these competitors such as Inghams Enterprises are strategically located within 50 km of the market, they can be in a position to reduce operating costs associated with transport. As a result, they can achieve a competitive advantage over Baiada Poultry by selling their products at cheaper prices (Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011).
On the other side, it is important to note that the best location for poultry products is near the consumers. The current location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd may therefore not benefit it logistically.
This is because it might take long to deliver the desired goods on time. This is given the fact that Baiada’s poultry outlets are further from the markets while the major poultry producing firms are located within the market centers (Location of Farms and Processing 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Delivery time is essential in ensuring that product quality is maintained. If the products take too long to reach the end consumer, then quality is compromised. Eventually, consumers will opt for the competitor’s products. This can have long term negative effects on the profits of Baiada Poultry Pty.
It is necessary to consider that Baiada’s human resource re-strategized its workforce. It therefore trained and promoted employees from within therefore creating a friendly culture among the employees and their seniors. This way, the poultry business has flourished because the employees are well coordinated and promotion activities boost their morale.
Since they feel fairly treated, their production levels have improved. Consequently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd has been able to achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors (Marchington, M 2005, p. 74).
As a result of the good relations at the place of work, the overall level of production as well as performance of the company has increased with time. Note that with increased consumption of poultry products in Australia, it is necessary to improve the quality by constant training of the workforce (Adams 2010).
Recommendations The location of any business and in this case poultry business is essential in order to save transport costs of either raw materials or finished goods. Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should therefore aim at establishing businesses near major consumer joints such as hotels. Additionally, its suppliers or source of poultry should be conveniently located in order to save time and money. This way, it is possible to save costs.
It is recommendable that Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should increase the number of its outlets. This way, it will be able to reach many consumers and therefore be able to beat competition from the top players in the market. Logistically, it should improve the supply chain by contracting raw materials from suppliers who are near its production facilities.
Additionally, the company can reduce costs by establishing its outlets near the consumers. This way, less delivery costs will be incurred. Baiada Poultry can also practice economies of scale whereby it can sell in bulks in order to save transport costs. As a result, this can create a competitive advantage over the competitors.
We will write a custom Report on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company’s human resource department should yearn to improve the level of management to a standard that is up to date. It can do this by conducting seminars in order to train its staff about the managerial as well as supervisory roles.
This way, production procedures can be smoothened and problems associated with industrial strikes can be prevented. Baiada Poultry Property should also be keen to ensure that promotion is transparent at all times. This way, issues of mistrust among the employees may be avoided and quality can be maintained always.
Challenges There are various challenges that were encountered during research on this topic. For instance, some of the information available is very inadequate. This is to say that Baiada Poultry Property Ltd has not posted sufficient information about its operations on the internet. Therefore, there is need to constantly update poultry business information in order to form a reference for prospective clients.
References Adams, P 2010, Landline: Chicken Run. Web.
IBISWorld 2010, Poultry meat farming in Australia- industry market research report. Web..
Location of Farms and Processing 2011. Web.
Marchington, M 2005, Fragmenting work: blurring boundaries and disordering hierarchies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Welcome to Baiada 2007. Web.
The Music Industry Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The music industry is dealing with many issues that are affecting how it operates. The industry is among the many that have endured the most of technological and social changes in the last three decades. The forces of globalization have changed for good how people access, use, and distribute music.
In addition, there are very powerful forces in the music supply chain that will influence the music industry at least in the near term. The industry had many commercialization approaches before the emergence of the internet as a force driving globalization. Some of them remain valid ways of running a career in music but some are becoming obsolete.
The relative ease with which new entrants can make music has reduced in a significant way the barriers to entry. It is no longer enough to be a talented musician to succeed in music. It takes business acumen, intelligence and a keen appreciation of subtle changes in consumer tastes and preferences to keep up with the rapid rate of change in this industry.
This paper will explore the driving forces in the music industry. It will also look at the strategies used in the development and marketing of music, the challenges to the industry and some potential strategies that can help to overcome these challenges.
Current State of the Music Industry Scope of the Music Industry
The music industry is a very varied establishment. Understandably, music was not an invention in a lab or a unique cultural element in a specific part of the world. Rather, music evolved in different cultures independently leading to very many classes of music. Even within the same cultures, there were songs for each occasion.
There were songs of celebrations such as when a child was born or when there was something important in the community, and there were songs for funerals and general mourning. Some communities had songs to accompany work while almost all cultures had singing games for children. In this sense, the evolution of music is a human phenomenon that grew with the technological development of each culture.
The emergence of the musician as a career person is also a new development in the world. Advanced cultures allowed people to specialize in music but they often had another trade to make it possible for them to earn a living. Otherwise, music was a community endeavour where all the people took part in singing and dancing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In last century, mass communication and rapid transit systems made it possible for some people to become career musicians, travelling from town to town to play music for varied audiences. As this art grew in commercial meaning, many other people joined the commercial facets of music to support the careers of popular musicians.
The current scope of the music industry is very large. There are still elements of the traditional sense of music where whole communities participate in singing. This is common in churches and in institutions of worship where the entire audience participates in singing as part of their spiritual expression.
There are also songs that families sing such as during birthdays. Lullabies help children go to sleep. Perhaps the most common expression of communal aspects of music is the singing of national anthems, which every country sings during important national functions. Apart from these expressions of music, there is a fully-fledged commercial music industry. This industry packages music as a product and presents it to a paying audience. This paper will concentrate on this type of music.
Stakeholders in the Music Industry
In order for music industry to function, several stakeholders must cooperate to ensure that a song leaves the music writer’s pad and ends up in the earphones or stereo speakers of a music enthusiast. While the list below describes these stakeholders individually, is common for an individual to play more than one role.
Composer: This is the originator of songs, the person writes the actual words of the songs. This role calls for someone well versed in music to understand musical language, and has the gift or skill of writing songs.
Singers/Musicians: A singer or musician is the person that performs the song because of their ability to sing. Their talent gives them this role. It is not strange to find musicians that write their own songs. In fact, many of the talented musicians that songwriters seek start as their own composers.
Instrumentalists: This category of stakeholders refers to the people that play musical instruments to accompany music. They have a much-reduced role in recorded music especially because of the use of computer-based instrumentals. However, their role in live music is still intact. They are also in demand by instrumental music enthusiasts.
We will write a custom Essay on The Music Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Producers: These are the professionals managing the music production process. They ensure that all necessary factors of music production come together to produce music
Technical personnel: There is a class of technical personnel necessary for the effective recording of music. They include sound engineers and recording technicians. Their role is to manage the technical factors of music production.
Record label companies: Since the advent of the gramophone record, companies came up to profit from the music industry. These companies continue to sign musicians and then support their careers at a fee. In other words, they provide musicians with everything they need to get their music out and then they share the proceeds.
Marketing companies: After the production of music, record label companies hand them over to marketing companies to send the music to the market. Some record label companies own the marketing companies that handle the marketing of the music they produce.
Retail distributors: The final important stakeholder in the music industry is the retail distributors. They make copies of the music available to the eventual consumer.
The stakeholders above represent the music supply chain where the eventual music gets to the consumer via tangible means, in this case, a disc. Other stakeholders benefit from music such as advertisers, movie producers and television companies. The important thing to note is that the industry is very large and the number of stakeholders is very large depending on the supply chain used to market a particular piece of music. For instance, there is no role for a record label company if a band or a musician decides to use concerts and music tours as the only way they distribute their music. On the other hand, they will need other people to support their business model.
Current Income Generation Strategies for the Music Industry An analysis of the music supply chain reveals the fact that the musician is only a small part of the entire process. The process of commercializing a musical production is a very complex business undertaking that needs more than just the musical skills of an artist to succeed.
In the same vein, it is imperative for musicians to have a working knowledge of commercial aspects of the music industry to ensure that they get the most out of their work. There are direct ways and indirect ways that the music industry uses to reach consumers. Direct ways refer to those that aim at reaching the eventual consumer and hence earn revenue from it. Indirect avenues refer to uses of music where the music forms part of the final product, or accompanies another product before reaching the final consumer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Music Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Direct Strategies
This paper classifies indirect strategies used in the distribution of music as concerts, selling of a music bearing product, and thirdly, internet sales of music. These strategies feature actual transfer of the music from the musician to the end user.
Concerts are still a popular method used to earn revenues from music. With the globalization of music, musicians normally have fans in vary vast areas. Many fans of popular musicians have never met of seen their idol performing in person. This makes concerts a very powerful means of facilitating this interaction.
Revenue from concerts comes in different ways depending on the popularity of the musician. For very popular musicians, organizers sell tickets to cover the concert expenses and to pay the artist their performance fees. Some of these organisers use the concerts as a means of making a profit.
They bring in a musician to a local fan base, and organize the concert in such as a way that in the end they have a profit from ticket sales. A musician can also use personal resources to organize the concert and make a profit from it. In situations where the musician needs publicity, a concert can also help to raise the required awareness. In this case, the musician may either meet the cost of the concert as part of their marketing fees, and hope to recover their expenses by selling CDs.
A concert is also a good place to sell merchandise products to fans. A musician may arrange to sell t-shirts, jewellery, shoes and other fashion accessories that carry their brand. If well planned, this method can help meet the costs of organizing the concert. The advantage of converts is that they eliminate the risk of piracy. If a musician uses concerts as the exclusive means of distributing music, then there will be no copies of the music to pirate.
In the life of the commercial music industry, there has always been a means of conveying music to consumers. While technology has moved from the gramophones to iPods, the principle remains unchanged. Mass commercialization of music took place when the magnetic tape came into existence.
This tape had certain advantages over the gramophone record such as portability. It was possible to carry a number of tapes on a trip using a very tiny carriage space. The walkman was also a revolutionary invention in the development of music. It made music personal. The magnetic tapes introduced the problem of piracy.
Magnetic tapes were erasable and easily reproducible. However, the impact of piracy in the era of the magnetic tape was not as serious as the impact of piracy on CD sales. Original tapes had a superior sound quality and there was a sense of prestige in having original tapes. CD’s do not have the same qualities.
The output quality of a pirated copy can match the original. CDs are still popular nonetheless as a means of selling music. In the late nineties, the success of a musician depended on the number of albums sold, while in the last ten years, the measure of a musician’s success is the number of CDs sold. Outlets for CD sales include local retail stores, bookshops, supermarkets and music stores. In addition, CD sales can form part of the revenue streams for a concert.
The internet is a new avenue for the distribution of music. With the development of digital versions of music, it is possible to transfer music by digital means. Selling music via the internet has several advantages. First, it eliminates the need to transport music physically to retailers. The consumer simply logs in to a site such as eBay or iTunes and buys music. It is very easy and convenient to pay for music online using one of the many online money vendors. The most popular vendor is PayPal, but a number of competitors exist.
Sales from the internet cut out a number of intermediaries from the music supply chain. It is possible for a musician to pay studio time to record their music, and to make sales online without passing through a record label. The only copy the musician will need is the master copy of the music from the studio.
After that, it is theoretically possible to sell millions of copies of the music at no additional cost, or the need to make physical copies. This method of sales is becoming more attractive even for record labels because it reduces their distribution costs by a very large margin.
Licensing of Music to Intermediate Users The final means through which musicians commercialise their music is by licensing. This refers to selling rights to the music, in whole or in part to a third party for their own use. Since music is an intellectual property, copyright laws protect the composers and the musicians by outlawing the use of the music without the consent of the musician.
The demand for licensing will increase as more and more people selling products online and advertising products through mass broadcast develop the need to piggyback their advertising messages on the music of popular musicians. Clients for licensing include moviemakers, advertising companies, video game makers and producers of television programs. A good example of this method of making money is the use of Celine Dion’s Song, “My heart will go on” in the Movie “Titanic”, produced by James Cameron.
Some musicians have successfully developed merchandises from their music brand. The idea behind making products unrelated to music comes from the realization that a fan base is also a market niche. Developing products that can help fans to identify more with the brand makes the fans feel more attached to the musician.
The products that make successful merchandises are fashion items such as shoes, clothes, armlets, caps, bracelets, necklaces and T-shirts among others. It is feasible to produce perfumes, cosmetics and beauty products as a means of commercializing music. The basis of their success is the strength of the musical brand they represent, and the loyalty their fans have to them.
Challenges the Music Industry Faces The music industry has been on the receiving end of both the positive and negative consequences of technological growth. In fact, music makes for a very viable subject when it comes to the study of the impact of technology in the modern world. As music becomes more and more reliant on technology for production and distribution, it is clear that the most significant challenges the industry faces are technology related.
These challenges include piracy, influx of software alternatives to musical instruments, ease of file sharing and file transfer, and the death of the album as a measure of success in the music industry. Another problem related to technological developments is the creation and retention of a fan base.
Piracy in music in its simplest terms refers to the production and sale of illegal copies of music. It does not matter whether it is a single song or a complete album. Piracy is not new in the music industry. Its recognition as a problem came about with the emergence of the magnetic tapes.
Magnetic tapes were easy to reproduce even at the domestic level. However, the real threat came from commercial piracy where people set up entire business systems that made counterfeit copies of music and sold them for profit. Often pirated copies of music had a lower quality compared to the originals hence the market put up some form of resistance against pirated music.
With the advent of digital technologies, it is almost impossible to detect a pirated copy of music from an original one by listening to it. This is making pirated music more acceptable. Moreover, CDs lack the prestige magnetic tapes had.
They are not very good show items. This has led to a lack of attachment comparable to the one that original magnetic tape owners and gramophone records enthusiasts exhibited.
In fact, it is very easy to simply take an original CD and in just a few minutes copy it onto a laptop’s hard disk. Unless new technologies inhibiting the making of digital copies of CDs get widespread use, the problem of piracy will continue to affect the music industry.
The Software Influx
On the creative end, music is suffering from an influx of softwares for use in the production of music. This comes from the fact that it is possible to make a song, complete with beats and instrumentals using a headset and an open source software. It is no longer necessary to learn the art of making music such as playing a musical instrument in order to produce the sound of that instrument.
What a person will learn in three months about playing a guitar, an average computer user with access to a music making software can reproduce within a day. The remaining frontier that computers have not yet conquered is singing. Theoretically speaking it will not be long before it becomes possible to reproduce voices of popular artists or to create fictionalised ones and synthesize their voices into music!
There is a real threat to music as a form of art. The space for creativity is reducing more and more. As people become more accustomed to music made by computers, the sounds of authentic artists playing authentic musical instruments will become strange.
As voices undergo scientific manipulation to perfect them in digital sound studios, there will be lesser recognition for the effort it takes to perfect a singers natural voice. It may not matter anymore.
Ease of File Sharing
Another problem that music faces today because of technological change is the ease of file sharing enabled by the internet. It is true that “Illegal downloading remains to be a continuous challenge for the recording industry”. Once one person in a clique of friends finds an interesting song in digital format, it is then very easy to pass on the song by forwarding the file to their friends.
In the context of social media, it may be hundreds of people in an instant. This whole clique will not need to buy the music thereafter, which wipes out that market. Sharing files is much harder to track especially when the sharing takes place in privately held email accounts. This problem eats into the potential revenue a musician can make from their music.
Death of the Album
The next threat to the development of music is the death of the album. Musicians are working harder to produce near perfect singles rather than committing time to produce full albums. The current distribution systems of music make it easier and more economical to produce a hit single and then go find the next big song rather than sell a whole album to an audience.
In addition to this, people no longer listen to whole albums the old-fashioned way. Rather, they listen to specific songs of interest from different albums. People are listening to music on digital media more and more. Whether it is a CD player, a laptop, a phone or an iPod, a user creates a playlist and listens to the particular songs of interest. Unlike records and magnetic tapes, picking specific songs is not a laborious activity.
The response on the side of musicians has been to provide music in detachable formats hence fuelling this new trend. The problem it posses to music is that it reduces the power of music as a communication tool. The art of producing music albums revolved around the capacity of the musician to produce a set of songs based on a particular theme thereby increasing the communicative value of their music.
Creating and Keeping a Fan Base
Globalization and “increased amateur activity” in the music industry because of the lowering of entry barriers have made it very difficult to develop and retain a fan base. Music markets span the world and are not in specific geographical confines. For a musician to reach such a diverse audience, it calls for a lot of work.
The challenge of raising a fan base also stems from the difficulty of getting through to the fans because of the high number of musicians looking for their attention. Remember, music is not the only input an average music fan receives. It is a constant struggle to keep looking for an appropriate means to find and maintain a fan base.
Responses to the Problems Facing the Music Industry In order to address the issues facing music, it is important to have certain things in mind. First, there is need to recognize that a successful music career depends on the soundness of the business strategy used to distribute it. The musician needs a source of income, and the most efficient way of making a living is through the music.
A successful musical career requires dedication and focus, which a part time hobby just cannot allow. Secondly, music is essentially an art form. Therefore, the commercial aspects of music do not have the last word on the success of music.
The intrinsic appreciation of music by enthusiasts transcends the challenges that modern music must deal with. In this sense, the technological challenges music faces cannot kill music. However, every musician must find a way of overcoming these challenges.
Using Piracy to Advantage
While piracy imputes illicit gain on the part of the commercial pirate, some concession on the part of the musicians can reduce the impact that piracy has on their careers. For instance, a musician can decide to use pirate networks to build publicity and to grow their fan base.
After all, it is the demand for the music by their fans that makes the music pirates find it attractive to make illicit copies. Even better, if the perceived losses in revenue by the distribution of illicit copies do not outweigh the benefits from the resulting publicity, then it may make sense for a musician to allow their music to pass through pirate channels.
Another safe way of avoiding pirate channels can be the use a business model that does not rely on the digital copies for success. This can include the sale of merchandize to raise funds for the music. If fans know that a musician does not sell their music but instead uses merchandise to pay for its production, they will be supportive of the efforts.
The other way to beat piracy is to release music free of charge for personal use but to position the music as a product for licensing. If the song is popular, them someone will want to use it for their promotional campaigns.
This model will make it easy for the musician to monitor commercial uses of their music and to make money from royalties. Giving out the music without cost will also make the music available to many people thereby growing the fan base.
“Live Music” Tag to Mitigate Software Threat
The threat posed by software will be very difficult to beat. Music lovers are listening to more and more computer generated music that it is only a matter of time before music from real instruments becomes odd. The only way to ensure that the taste for music made from real instruments remains is by providing opportunities for the fans to listen to live band music.
It is possible to use concerts for this purpose. Another method would be to add the label, “made from real Instruments” to such productions to differentiate the music from the rest. This approach will likely create a market niche for music lovers who value the art of making music from real instruments.
Education that File Sharing Constitutes Piracy
After establishing a fan base, it may be necessary to educate fans on the fact that file sharing is as bad as piracy. While a fan does not derive economic value from the copies they share, they deny the musician potential revenue when they share musical files with their friends.
A musician can exercise a certain amount of persuasion over loyal fans hence it makes sense to try to persuade them against sharing files. Moral persuasion is the best tool available for a musician because any other method of dealing with piracy will be very expensive. Policing piracy is a very expensive undertaking, which is difficult even for organised law enforcement agencies.
Letting the Album Die and Creation of Collector Albums
The traditional album seems headed for certain death. However, it is not a trend worth trying to change. This is because the way people listen to music no longer supports music delivered in album format.
From today’s standpoint, it is inconceivable that people will revert to the old ways of listening to music the way magnetic tapes and gramophone records forced them to. They do not have to listen to music sequentially but can choose to shuffle them, skip, or rearrange them in the way they wish.
On the other hand, it may be helpful to sell collections of singles such as the best hits by an artist in the last two years. Just as people no longer look for whole albums, they will only be interested in songs that please them.
Another way of looking at this situation is to consider it a marketing situation where the old way of packaging music does not support current consumption trends. Artists will therefore have the increased burden of planning their songs in a way that they each song stands alone. What should guide them is more of a philosophy rather than a theme when writing their songs.
Use of Social Media to Create and Maintain Fans
The need to raise and maintain a fan base will not become easier with time. The good thing is that technology has solutions to the same problems it has created for the music industry. The difference between a successful musician and a non-starter may well be their social media strategy.
The young generation, who support the emerging music industry, spend a lot of their time on social media platforms. With a good strategy, it is possible to grow a fan base using the tools available there. In fact, a musician today has more opportunities to build and maintain a fan base by adopting existing technologies to do the work that old musicians travelled thousands of miles to do.
Alternative Income Sources
It is incumbent upon musicians to continue thinking about more income streams that they can use to bolster their financial standing. Granted, there is a point where too much commercialization of music can actually kill the art. However, without some kind of income, artists cannot commit themselves fully to the art of making music.
Musicians should do their best to find new ways of utilizing their talent for income. As they do this, record labels also should work hard to find ways of making music available to users at a lower cost and in a manner, which discourages piracy. It is vital to develop CD technologies that will resist duplication. While technically it is very complex to do this, it is vital to find ways of reducing this vice. Piracy is a real vice that threatens the future of music.
Conclusion The music industry is not exempt from changes in technology. If anything, the music industry bears the brunt historically whenever there are groundbreaking changes in technology. For the music industry to survive beyond this point as a commercial venture, it will need to adapt its systems to fit the current circumstances.
Reference List Holmes, D 2005, Communication Theory: Media, Technology, and Society, SAGE, London, UK.
Mather 2012, ‘Print
Why an interview is generally invalid and unreliable Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and analysis
Introduction As a selection tool, an interview has been found to be unreliable and invalid therefore most companies end up employing candidates under bias conditions. This article will consider the reasons behind the fruitless efforts of interviews in giving accurate and genuine results.
However the key to improving the reliability and validity of interviews can be seen through employing useful tools. This paper will also explore various ways in which interviews can be made a more impactful tool for selection. Further analysis on how these tools can be incorporated into the selection process to improve decision making will also be discussed.
Background Many companies and businesses have been opened up recently. The need to employ new ideas and opportunities has also been on the rise with different companies and businesses searching for fresh talent. Ideally, an interview as a tool is used to gauge a candidate’s performance ability by a potential employer (Fontana
Influence of Heavy Metal Music on Adolescence (Behavior, Identity, Mood, Regulation, Psychology) Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Studies on adolescence and teenage culture are confined to understanding of teenagers’ needs. Because adolescents have similar concerns and needs and create similar peer groups, music performs the same goals for all of the groups. Being a source of peer group identity, music contrasts either with working class street subculture or with conformist culture in schools.
Accepting the potent impact of music on adolescents’ behavior, identity, and psychology leads to a deeper analysis of the influences of heavy metal music on teenagers’ development. At this point, adolescents’ preoccupation with heavy metal music is found to be harmful in terms of its influence on school achievement, social behavior, and individual differences (Harqreaves
Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States Essay best essay help: best essay help
It is apparent that Vietnamese women ranging from the age of 20 to 45 began to migrate into the United States in the mid 1970s (Seller, 1994). Research has shown that the current population of Vietnamese women stands at approximately 1.1 million. Moreover, this has been perceived to be one of the largest immigrant groups in the US.
From a comprehensive analysis, it is evident that in a period of two decades, the population has grown significantly with majority residing in Texas and California (Seller, 1994). Notably, despite the increased number of immigrants into the US, majority of the women have faced numerous challenges.
Nevertheless, there are those who have been able to cope with the emerging situations regardless of the numerous barriers related to language and cultural shocks (Fadiman, 1997). It is against this backdrop that this paper explores how these women adjust in the US and their specific avenues for success and failure.
Literature review Vietnamese women who ventured into the US had high hopes to live up to their dreams while there. Nevertheless, it is notable that majority of them have been disillusioned since they find life in the US totally different from what they imagined or expected (Seller, 1994). Probably, I expect that since these women had attained working age, they wanted to venture out and search for greener pastures in this foreign land.
I also tend to think that initially, it was not easy for them since most of them were native speakers of Vietnam languages and hence they could not communicate effectively in English. In this case, I anticipate that they became vulnerable to alienation and loneliness. Alternatively, there were those women who were quick to adapt to life in the US. For instance, they learnt how to communicate in English and this liberated them from language barrier (Kingston, 1989).
In addition, I suppose there emerged a generational gap between the native immigrants and children who were born by the women while in the US. This would be due to the fact that these children grew up in a different cultural and social setting from that of their parents (Seller, 1994).
Furthermore, I intended to study how the Vietnamese women coped with the strange situations in the US. Therefore, this study is relevant in explaining why the number of immigrants has kept on increasing yearly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this study intends to prove the hypothesis or the assumption that Vietnamese women aged between 20 and 40 years were prone to cultural shocks, discrimination and economic difficulties in the US (Seller, 1994).
This hypothesis is integral in understanding the possible factors influencing success and failure of immigrants in the US. Additionally, poverty in Vietnam is one of the independent variables that triggered immigration to the US. However, poor skills and language barrier were some of dependent variables that hindered migration of majority of the women to the US.
The study has revealed that most of the Vietnamese women at the age of 20-45 years migrated into the US as domestic workers. Nevertheless, they faced challenges in conforming to the social roles and norms in the new society. This is due to the fact that their roles both in the society and in families were configured by the new social setting in the US (Kingston, 1989).
It is evident that they operated under tough conditions while trying to balance the conflicting social roles. Moreover, empirical research has shown that cultural shocks were inevitable and they had to transit from their native culture in order to cope and adopt the US culture (Fadiman, 1997).
For instance, in Vietnam, these women thrived in a patriarchal society whereby they remained submissive to their husbands unlike the case in the US. For example, while in the US, they had to abandon certain feminine roles and pick up those that were masculine. Notably, they compromised patriarchal values from their culture, a factor that was not easy to cope with at the beginning.
Other cultural shocks emerged from the fact that women and children had a lot of freedom as opposed to the case in Vietnam. Interestingly, this was perceived as a violation of the traditional family structure in Vietnam (Kingston, 1989).
Issues to do with gender disparity were no longer a common issue in the US. Contrastingly, the issue of gender discrimination is very significant in Vietnam and probably that was the reason why most of the women preferred to migrate to the US in search for freedom (Seller, 1994).
We will write a custom Essay on Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is evident that most of the Vietnamese women faced economic difficulties since they were not prepared for the US life. Research indicates that majority of the immigrants were being trafficked into the US as domestic workers. Consequently, circumstances took a different turn once they found that there were unique sets of issues that they had to adhere to in order to cope with life.
For instance, majority were used to speak native languages as opposed to the case in the US where English was the medium of communication (Seller, 1994).
Therefore, they had problems while seeking Jobs and this made them to strain for some time before they could cope with the normal lifestyle. From the study, I found out that there emerged a huge gap between the children and parents due to difference in cultural standards (Kingston, 1989).
Nevertheless, regardless of the numerous challenges faced by Vietnamese women, majority of them have succeeded and are doing remarkably well. Most of them have learnt to speak in fluent English. This has helped them to venture into businesses such as running restaurants, beauty shops and salons (Fadiman, 1997).
References Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit catches you and you fall down. New York: Douglas
Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction “The impact technology has had upon society today cannot be measured. In fact, it has had such an impact that if it were wiped out, the human race would be thrown back into the Dark Ages” (Leon 2011, p. 2). The above statement was made to show the extent that technology influences our society today.
Indeed, new forms of technology have greatly revolutionized almost all aspects of our society. It is almost impossible to point out one aspect of the society that is not affected by technology (directly or indirectly).
In fact, technology has had such a strong impact on the society, that if it were eliminated, the society would probably grind to a halt. Furthermore, technology controls all aspects of our daily activities (from the time we wake up to the time we go to bed) because everything we do or engage in is run by some form of technology (Leon 2011).
The thought that technology has greatly improved our functions as a society is undoubted, but in the same light, it is only fair to represent the fact that technology has made our society become more ferocious and mean. Today, people use technology to spy on other people, launch attacks (like digital terrorism) and perpetrate hateful information (among other ills) (Wall 2007).
However, there is no better example of how technology has been condemned for its misdeeds than through its revolution of the pornography industry (Gallop 2011). Pornography greatly touches on the morals of a society and indeed, like the diverse universe we live in today, people hold different views about it.
This paper seeks to understand the impact of new technology on online pornography based on an incident in Indonesia where a lawmaker was caught viewing porn during a parliamentary session. This incident centers around the actions of Arifinto who belongs to the Islamic conservative Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) of Indonesia (Wilson 2011). This incident acts as the case study for this paper.
Privacy and identity issues will be highlighted through this case study. Besides using the above case study as a basis for explaining the research problem, this paper also analyzes how technology has impacted our understanding of pornography through different tenets of the industry including distribution, production, access, privacy and identity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper therefore shows that technology has completely changed concepts of the production of pornographic material, the distribution of pornographic material, access to pornographic material and our understanding of the concepts of privacy and identity. The diffusion innovations theory will (also) be used to explain these facts.
Distribution Even though the pornography industry has grown in leaps and bounds, a few years ago, our understanding of pornography was mainly informed by our understanding that pornographic materials could only be found in printed forms and in theatres and strip clubs (Emily 2007, p. 2).
However, from the progress in technology, the motion picture industry has heralded a new dawn in the distribution of pornographic materials. Initially, video and home video cassette recorders provided an opportunity to change the distribution of pornographic content in new and more personal ways.
Indeed, the introduction of video and home video cassette recorders meant that people did not necessarily have to go to a movie theatre to watch movies or sex shows; one could easily access such content at the comfort of their bedrooms. With this new progress, the porn industry found another opportunity to grow because producers made many video productions for home entertainment (Holt 2011, p. 12).
However, perhaps, the biggest break in the distribution of pornographic content came with the advent of the internet. The internet provided a global network for the sale of pornographic content because pornographic materials could easily be shared through the worldwide web. Subscriptions to adult content websites is now not a new phenomenon. The surge in digital content of pornographic materials was especially spurred by the relatively low prices of owning personal computers (Emily 2007).
From the progress in technological inventions, our perception of pornography has been greatly changed. Pornography is no more a taboo subject; it is quickly becoming a readily accessible product that is no longer a preserve of a specific age group or culture. It is readily available to all.
Perhaps, in the past, it was easy to regulate the sale and distribution of print material (bearing pornographic content) or the access to strip and dance clubs (age restrictions) but with the advent of the digital age, pornography is no longer subject to the above limitations. In fact, the lack of these limitations has been a cause of worry for most adults because they perceive the lack of these limitations as a threat to the morals of our society (Holt 2011).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Identity Advancements in technology have made it very difficult to uphold principles of true identity in the sale, production, distribution or even access to digital content. The biggest worry among most people today is the easy access to pornographic content that minors have (Gallop 2011).
More so, the invention of portable digital devices like tablet computers, mobile phones (and the likes) have made it very difficult to supervise the access to digital content among minors. Now, minors can access pornographic materials merely by faking their identities and more importantly, their ages (Holliday 2003, p. 124).
Incidents of identity misrepresentation and the unauthorized access to classified information or adult content has been facilitated by advancements in technology. The digital landscape now is such that, there is no basis for verifying information provided online. Therefore, it is very easy for people to masquerade themselves for people they are truly not.
The use of fake names to access or produce pornographic content is especially rampant. As opposed to previous years where it was easy to know people accessing pornographic content, it has been increasingly difficult (in recent years) to identify who is truly accessing pornographic content (Gallop 2011).
Focusing on Arifinto’s widely publicized case; we can easily testify that his private browsing of pornographic material was anonymously done. Indeed, the websites he was accessing could not reveal his identity. In other words, if he was not caught, we would not know that the lawmaker accessed the pornographic materials and it would equally be difficult to detect if any prominent personality was accessing the pornographic content.
A few years back, it would be very difficult to conceal one’s identity when accessing these pornographic materials. As explained in earlier sections of this paper, pornography was mainly accessed through the physical presence of the consumer at the venue of production. Consumers had to be present at the location where the pornography was being produced because technology did not provide the convenience or storing such information or distributing such content through digital means.
For example, if Arifinto was not spotted by the photographer (as he viewed pornographic material) it would be difficult to know if he truly accessed such information. In fact, it is there mere fact that there was evidence pegging him to the accusations that he accepted to resign and admit to his actions (Wilson 2011). Otherwise, if there was no evidence to show that he was actually viewing pornographic material in parliament (and he decided not to accept such claims), it would be difficult to pin him down.
Just to show the influence of technology in this example, it is important to highlight the fact that if Arifinto attended a strip club or a live sex show, he would have otherwise been spotted in person and he could not deny such claims because there would be eye-witness accounts. Therefore, technology has greatly facilitated identity concealment and it has made it possible to access pornography without one’s identity being known.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Privacy Privacy is often a common concern in most technological debates. Often, this concept is used to refer to debates concerning the importance of embracing technology (or not) (Bogart 2002). When referring to pornography, we can see that technology has greatly infringed on people’s rights to privacy.
In fact, pornography thrives on the fact that people would pay money to access pictures or videos which would have otherwise been considered private. Incidents of prominent personalities having private videos or photos leaked to the internet are ever more common now than before.
Arifinto’s case clearly depicts the extent that technology has changed the concept of privacy in today’s society. In detail, the invention of digital devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers has enabled people to access information or videos in public places. For example, as explained in earlier sections of this paper, in the past, access to pornographic materials was only limited to strip clubs and dance houses.
Sex shows were mainly done in private and in highly regulated environments where everything that went on in such premises was considered private. However, with the advent of technology and the continuous invention of digital devices, people have been able to access products which would otherwise be considered private in public places (Cavalier 2005).
When Afrinto accessed pornographic material in parliament, he exhibited the power of technology in transforming private content into publicly accessible information. A few years ago, he would not have been able to access such pornographic material in public places (let alone in parliament).
Coincidentally, it is also through another technological device that he was pointed out. A camera man with a powerful camera was able to zoom at the pornographic pages that the parliamentarian was browsing (from a distance).
In fact, media reports show that Afrinto’s claims that he accidentally bumped into the pornographic site were disputed by the camera man’s photo which showed that he had about six folders of pornographic content (opened) as his colleagues debated important matters of national importance (Wilson 2011).
The influence of technology on privacy can therefore be highlighted through this example, despite the fact that it was interesting to see that the same technology that was used to access “private” content was also used to infringe on Afrinto’s privacy.
Afrinto’s use of the tablet computer to access pornographic material therefore shows the influence of technology in making pornographic content (which would have otherwise been considered private) public. Indeed, if Afrinto accessed such content at the comfort of his house, he probably wouldn’t have received the same level of criticism he did.
Theoretical Understanding The diffusion innovation theory focuses on explaining how innovation is quickly communicated within a specific society. Usually, this theory is used to explain how new ideas are spread (within a society) because innovation is perceived to be a representation of new ideas.
Rogers (2003) explains that characteristics of new ideas or concepts in communication often determine the rate at which new technology will be communicated. There are four elements that are used to explain the rate of technological adoption (revolution within the society). These elements include communication channels, time, the social context and the innovation itself (Rogers 2003).
These four elements can be used to explain the rate and form used by technological innovations to revolutionize our understanding of the pornography industry. More so, the concept of ‘time’ clearly explains the transition in the production and distribution of pornographic content from previous years when pornography was considered a private product to now that it is readily accessible.
The time difference between today’s conventional methods of the sale, access and distribution of pornographic materials shows the change in the perception of pornography over the years.
The element of communication channels (explained in the diffusion innovation theory) explains the various forms of digital gadgets and networks that have been used to communicate pornographic content (Greenhalgh 2007, p. 20). Indeed, the internet and the tablet computer were the main forms of digital tools used by Arifinto to access pornography.
The concept of communication channels is therefore the main element of technology that has influenced the concepts of identity and privacy in today’s society. Through the communication tools used to share and transfer information, different safeguards for verifying subscriber information have been by-passed. Moreover, these communication tools have been used by subscribers to access information anonymously. This measure has completely changed the concept of identity in accessing digital contents.
The concept of innovation explains the advancements in technology used to transform the pornography industry. A common question asked by many observers when referring to the concept of innovation is why some innovations spread faster than others (Dwivedi 2011).
This paper identifies the worldwide network that the internet provides as a main catalyst for the changes in distribution strategies within the porn industry. Concisely, through the internet, Arifinto was able to access porn. The internet has also been able to transform the porn industry from a private industry to a public one. This phenomenon has been explained under the concept of privacy.
Finally, the diffusion innovations theory explains that the social context is an important element explaining the spread of innovations within the society. However, within the context of this study, the concept of social context can be used to explain the pressure and condemnation that Arifinto received after the pornography scandal.
The immense pressure to resign can be explained by the strict Islamic principles that did not condone pornography or appreciate the impact that technology brings in the Indonesian context. In fact, pornography access through new technology is condemned and at best, frowned upon (Wilson 2011).
Conclusion Arifinto’s incident shows the transformation that technology has brought to our understanding of pornography. This paper shows that distribution, privacy and identity in pornography have been completely changed by technology. Technology has eased the access to pornographic material and similarly, it has changed the production of pornographic content.
Like the diffusion innovations theory explains, concepts of identity and privacy have also been completely changed through technology. Technology has made it easy for users to access pornographic material (anonymously) and it has also transformed pornography from a private product to a public product. Through these transformations, we see that technology has completely transformed our understanding of pornography in the 21st century.
References Bogart, W 2002, Consequences: The Impact of Law and Its Complexity, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Cavalier, R 2005, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives, SUNY Press, New York.
Dwivedi, Y 2011, Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Springer, New York.
Emily, B 2007, Internet’s Affect on the Porn Industry. Web.
Gallop, C 2011, Make Love Not Porn: Technology’s Hardcore Impact on Human Behavior, TED Books, New York.
Greenhalgh, T 2007, Diffusion Of Innovations In Health Service Organisations: A Systematic Literature Review, John Wiley
Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Brief overview of country and main issues
Conclusion and recommendation
List of References
Executive Summary South Africa is the leading economy in the African continent. It gained its independence in 1994 from the Dutch who had took over power from British government in 1910. The country is the focal of Africa. It was the first African nation to host FIFA World Cup in 2010. This country has the highest number of languages considered by the government as official (eleven languages).
It has varied cultural background because of the numerous tribes it has. Some of the cultural values are prohibitive to specific type trade, while others are supportive. The political environment of this country has been very stable. The political class has been very supportive of foreign investments in various fronts.
This has seen many firms’ growth. The legal system is also very welcoming to foreign investment. There are a few formalities that any foreign firm may need to take. The process of getting the trade permit is simple and short. The economic structure of the country is another factor that makes this country attractive to foreign investment.
Although there are a few individuals who are super rich, having amassed most of the country’s wealth, the other populace is still economically viable. The best approach to get into this market is to adopt target marketing technique. Each market segment should be determined based on their wealth and cultural values that affects their purchasing habits.
Brief overview of country and main issues South Africa is the leading economy in the entire continent of Africa. It has a population of about 51 million people. According to a report by Tarp and Brixen (1996, p. 78), South Africa has a strong economy when compared to other countries in this region. This can partly be attributed to the fact that this nation gained its independence from the British rule as early as 1910.
Although the Dutch remained in power, they took citizenship of this country and as such, the resources of this country were not taken away to the European countries. Another factor that has ensured that this country has a strong economy is its rich natural resources.
South Africa is the world’s largest gold exporter. Gold is a very precious metal and it fetches good money in the international market. Other sectors of the economy are also equally developed. The country has the best infrastructure in Africa, especially after hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The transport sector was upgraded, and so were other sectors like communication, banking and other social amenities. The country has some of the best harbors in this region (Best 2009, p. 98). Since the time the blacks took over power in 1994, the country has relatively been peaceful, save for the xenophobia that was witnessed in the late 2009 following economic downturn in the world that affected this country.
Amidst all these positivity, the country experiences a great difference in the distribution of wealth. The wealth of this country is held by a few individuals, leaving the majority wallowing in poverty. This has greatly affected the purchasing power of the people of this country, as discussed below.
This paper seeks to conduct a survey of this country’s business environment in order to ascertain its viability to sustain business ventures.
Cultural Context South Africa is very rich in culture. Majority of this population are the blacks, making up 80 percent of the entire population. The whites make 9 percent and so are the colored.
The Asians make up 2 percent of the country’s populace. Among the Africans, there are various tribes each with its own cultural practices. There are the Zulu’s who are the majority, the Xhosas, Swazis, the Ndebele, the Sotho, Venda, Tswana and the Tsonga. The country has about eleven official languages, most of them Africa languages, other than English and Afrikaans.
The African cultural values are still cherished in this country. For instance, many of the African cultures values children and this would make men marry many wives. Although this is advantageous to the business world in that it increases the target population, it has an equal negative effect because the little wealth that is available has to be spread among the many, making their purchasing power very low.
The current president of this country, Jacob Zuma is such typical African. A Zulu by tribe, this president has married several wives as a symbol of being true to his culture. Some of these cultural practices may be a hindrance to business while others may be beneficial.
We will write a custom Case Study on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among some societies for instance, traditional medicine is highly encouraged as opposed to the pharmaceutical ones. This has had negative impact on the sale of laboratory drugs because the population does not believe in them. Conversely, the sale of electronics has been boosted by the cultural practices of this country.
Most of the African cultures have close family ties. They stay as a large society, always concerned about the others welfare. As such, such electronic products like cell phones that enable communication have been a great welcome. The social media has also received an equally high acceptance among the locals. As such, items like the iPad, iPhone, and computers in general have found good market in South Africa.
Most of the country’s cultural practices have been influenced by the west because of the increased interactivity between Africans of this country and the west. Such products as the Hollywood movies are very popular among the youths. There is a shift in the cultural practices of the country’s citizens, especially among the youths.
Because of the influence from the west as fostered by various channels, the youths are abandoning some cultural practices that were highly valued by different tribes of this nation for the western culture which to them is more liberal and less restrictive. Their dressing code is changing and as such, business firms that operate in this industry have come to realize that those dresses that are in demand in the American markets would fetch good prices in this country, especially among the youths who want to imitate the west in almost everything.
Political/Legal context South Africa was one of the most attractive colonies in the entire African region because of its rich resources. During the scramble and partition of Africa, the British government took this country as one of its colony. In 1990, the Dutch declared self governance and took over power. They presided over a government that was highly racial. Africans, the whites, the colored and the Asians had their own facilities that were not to be shared.
The whites had the best infrastructural facilities and other amenities, while the blacks, who were the majority, had the worst (Fifield 2007, p. 78). This was called the apartheid governance. This has had a great effect in the political structure of this country even today. Although the governance of the country currently is purely on a democratic front, there is still a great mistrust between the whites and the blacks.
The conservative whites, who were forced out of the government because of the strong wave of change, still harbor the feeling that they deserve to be treated better than any other race in this country. On the other hand, the blacks are still suspicious of the whites following the oppressive rule that the whites had made them undergo.
This is a source of tension, and although the country’s political environment has been very stable since the onset of democratic rule in 1994, there is fear that this tension could deteriorate to violence as was witnessed in 2009. The law of this land has liberalized trade. Investors who may wish to invest in this country have to undergo a few formalities to open up business units in the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic context South Africa has a sound economic structure. According to a report by Roux (2005, p. 67), South Africa is the leading producer of gold in the world. This industry employs many of the country’s nationals as miners of the product, transporters, traders and many other positions.
It is the main foreign exchange product for the country. This country has a well developed agricultural sector. Most of the food products consumed locally is found locally. It also exports some of its agricultural products to other African countries. The fishing industry is also developed, especially on the high seas. Other industries are also well developed.
Despite all these economic prosperity that this country seems to enjoy, there is one major problem with the economic structure of this nation. The country’s economic system is controlled by the minority. Though rated Africa’s best economy, the wealth is in the hands of a few individuals.
These individuals cannot manage to spend all the wealth they have, and at the same time fear that a moment may come where the government may put them to task to explain their source of wealth. As such, they have kept this wealth in European nations where they know that they would be safe from any investigation.
This has left the larger population in object poverty. They cannot afford many luxuries in life. To others, even the basics are a problem. To an investor, the large population of the country and the huge gross domestic product may be very attractive. However, the reduced purchasing power of this high population is a huge impediment to growth of business units in the country.
Conclusion and recommendation South Africa is one of the most attractive destinations for investors. It is one of the fastest growing economies among the developing nations. The political structure of this nation has been its main strength. The country has experienced a stable political environment since the Africans took over power from the Dutch.
This has provided business opportunities to many investors because of total absence of strife. Save for the little xenophobic behavior that was witnessed a few years ago for about a week, the country has been a safe place to invest in. The political class has avoided interrupting with the business units. The ruling party ANC (African National Congress), which has been in power since independence, has had friendly policies towards foreign investors coming to this country.
The economic structure of the country is also very attractive. Although the country has its wealth with the minority, it is still economically viable. The remaining population is still attractive enough to make a good market. The rich minority can also make attractive market segment for goods of ostentation like top of the range cars.
The social structure is another factor that can facilitate trade. The cultural practices of the majority of the residents would facilitate trade in such products as electronics and clothing. With the legal structure that is not prohibitive of foreign investment, investors have the best opportunity to invest in this country’s various sectors.
Recommendations To succeed in this environment, the following factors are strongly recommended to ensure prosperity for firm.
Any foreign firm should avoid any practice that would be a sign that they favor a certain section of the community as this would be a strong reminder to this society of the apartheid rule which is abhorred by many of the citizens
It is advisable to have a deep knowledge of the sector one is planning to invest in. The investment should be that which can be supported by the chosen sector.
The investors should adhere to the legal structures that the country has put in place regarding the trade in the country
Target marketing is highly encouraged. This is because this country has people of different cultures and with different amounts of wealth. The rich should be targeted with specific products and so are the middle class and the poor. Similarly, the cultural practice of the specific tribes of this country may dictate the type of product that would be most preferable to them.
List of References Best, RJ 2009, Market-Based Management Strategies for Growing Customer value and Profitability, Pearson, New Jersey.
Fifield, P 2007, Marketing Strategy: The Difference between Marketing and Markets, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.
Roux, A 2005, Everyone’s Guide to the South African Economy, Zebra, Cape Town.
“The man to send rain clouds” by Leslie Marmon Silko Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How conflict is developed
How conflict is resolved
Introduction The central conflict in a story is normally the fight between the main character and other things that hinder him or her from achieving or accomplishing something that he or she wants (Garfinkel, 44). If there is no central conflict then a story does not exist since other characters and themes revolve around the central conflict to make a story. At times the central conflict in a story can be the burning issue in the story that needs to be addressed or resolved (Fog