Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In their article, “Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups”, Druskat and Wolff (2001) set out to discuss the concept of emotional intelligence and the role it plays in today’s organizational settings. The authors aim at revealing to readers the relevance of emotional intelligence in facilitating efficient organizational performance.
The authors are accredited scholars with extensive experience in the fields of management and organization behavior. As such, they have used their knowledge to explore the effects of emotional intelligence in group settings.
Throughout the article, the authors have discussed the relevance of emotional intelligence in groups and the implications organizations may face as a result of not acknowledging emotional intelligence within the organization. This paper shall review the ideas the authors purport and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the same.
Article Review The authors start by stating that emotional intelligence affects all employees and impacts their performance significantly. However, they observe that this concept is viewed by many people as an individual competence rather than a comprehensive concept that affects team settings.
It is from these undertones that the authors have developed their theory, which is based on the assumption that a group’s efficacy is determined by its ability to develop emotionally intelligent attitudes and behaviors that support the creation of trust, identity and efficiency within the group (Druskat
Rubrics and Good Instructional Models. Taking Care of the Learning Process Argumentative Essay essay help
Introduction: On the Significance of Assessment It goes without saying that the assessment procedure is extremely important for the further studying process.
Providing a detailed account of the students’ abilities, skills and knowledge of the learned material, assessment allows to figure out if a certain student does well in his/her studies; moreover, it helps to check for the student’s weak points and strengths, making it clear what the student’s further focus should be and what (s)he has already mastered.
With the help of clear and accurate rubrics, assessment will not only provide a detailed report of the student’s achievements, but will also set the course for the further development.
Rubrics: The Instructor’s Assessment and the Understanding Process The use of rubrics is crucial not only for the evaluation of the students’ progress, but also for their better understanding of the course material.
According to Wolfe and Stevens, “Rubrics improve teaching, provide feedback to students, contribute to sound assessment, and are an important source of information for program improvement” (Wolfe
“Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering” Book Essay college essay help: college essay help
The book Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering examines the perceptions of the critical events and moments of the Second World War. It covers the shared history between the Japanese and the Americans after the war. The events of the war would determine future relations between the U.S. and Japan.
In chapter 9 of the book, John Dower discuses various ways that the people of Japan responded to defeat in the war. The author begins by explaining to the reader that the painful legacy of the war is widely discussed in Japan than anywhere else in the world.
In other societies and nations, people have always held debates and discussions about the Japanese and their defeat in the war but not as in the country1. The Japanese have also held various debates, views and opinions about the defeat in war.
The Second World War ended after the Japanese were defeated using atomic bombs. Following the attack, the Japanese surrendered thereby ending the atrocity. The first observation from Dower’s book is that the Japanese considered the defeat as a turning point in the country’s history.
The people of Japan considered some of the past events and wartime crimes committed by the Japanese over the past years as unpleasant and criminal2. For instance, majority of Japanese scholars and historians have constantly unearthed the dullest aspects of the past.
As a result, most of the bookstores in the country have books and publications dealing with most of the atrocities and criminal activities committed by their fathers. This has fueled the debate even further.
Following the defeat, the Japanese considered the event as a critical historic moment for the country. The country had positioned itself as a global superpower. The only way the Japanese could be defeated was through atomic bombs. The Japanese believed that they were strong and the reason it was time to end the war.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to many people, the war would have continued for many years if the Americans did not use the atomic weapons3. Japan came out of the war as a superior nation. The author explains why the Americans have misused the defeat as a sign of superiority and power.
However, the Japanese refute the idea that the defeat weakened their society. The author describes the country as one of the politically monolithic societies in the world. Many people in the country have held different views and opinions about the war.
The defeat, according to the book, marked a new beginning for the Japanese to stop their atrocities and crimes against other societies. This has led to what can be termed as ‘postwar satire.’
This is characterized by humorous responses to the occupation and wartime failures. The leaders of Japan remained vaunted for years with the hope for a liberated Japanese society.
Just like the other people, the Japanese have held various decisions and ideas about the war and subsequent defeat. Some have considered the defeat as necessary because it led to new ideas and opinions towards economic development.
For very many years, the Japanese had committed several crimes and atrocities across the world. Many people considered the defeat as a form of punishment for the crimes and atrocities committed by the Japanese during the time. The defeat would mark a new beginning for the world and the country.
The Japanese have also considered the defeat as an event that affected the entire continent and not the country alone. The attack led to the deaths of many people including the Koreans and the Chinese.
We will write a custom Essay on “Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering” Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author of the book has also highlighted that different historians and individuals have presented various opinions and ideas about the war. This has affected the presentation of the historical event to various groups across the world.
However, the author also indicates that some Japanese believed that it was the time for them to pay for their crimes4. The defeat was a form of punishment for the atrocities and crimes committed.
The people have also showed remorse and sympathy to the victims of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The people considered the war and its outcomes as the greatest punishment against the Japanese. Many people including forced laborers and foreigners died in massive numbers alongside the people of Japanese.
The attack would affect the future of the country. The survivors of the attack recorded various health complications and problems. Many people in the country argued that the postwar period characterized the fall of the Japanese empire.
In the book, Dower has emphasized the unique role of the Americans in reshaping future political decisions and relations with different countries across the world. This explains why some Japanese indicate that the defeat meant that Japan was no longer a powerful nation5.
This means that there was the need to have new policies and political structures if the country was to survive the postwar period.
The author has clearly explained the views and opinions of the Japanese people following the defeat. Just like the other people across the world, the Japanese have held various views about the war and use of atomic weapons.
Reference List Dower, John. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern. New York: New Press, 2012.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering” Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes 1 John Dower. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern. (New York: New Press, 2012), 234.
2 John Dower. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern., 236.
3 John Dower. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern. (New York: New Press, 2012), 235.
4 John Dower. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern. (New York: New Press, 2012), 234.
5 John Dower. Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern., 237.
Managing Occupational Health and Safety: A Multidisciplinary Approach Critical Essay writing essay help
This article reviews the importance of managing occupational safety and health. It specifically presents the problems or costs associated with poor management of occupational health and safety.
The main findings show that failure to observe safety and health of workers may result into unnecessary costs like payments for sick employees, administrative, insurance as well as recruitment levies.
An organization can overcome such costs using different strategies such as improving the legislation and implementation of occupational health and safety procedures. Additionally, an organization can develop management systems that reduce the level of risks exposed to workers.
The main arguments presented in this article are geared towards understanding the importance of managing occupational safety and health.
Van Stolk et al., (2012), state that the increasing cases of unemployment in industrialized countries have become paramount concern among members of the public for a relatively long period of time.
According to Bohle and Quinlan (2000), the transition of improved economies characterized by rapid increase in services and automation is seen by many people as a method of evolution that seeks to reduce or eliminate physical jobs associated with numerous risks, safety and health hazards.
There are also costs associated with lack of safety and poor health at workplace. These include increased cases of workers who request to be paid for hospital expenses, costs incurred during administration, compensation for injuries, recruitment costs and insurance remittances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the organizational and individual consequences, there are other costs which society is supposed to oversee. This challenge has been worsened by organizations’ failure to observe occupational safety and health among workers.
Some of the examples of these costs include reduced or complete loss of output, increased medical costs, costs incurred by an organization in administering benefits as well as the local authority safety and executive investigation costs (Ferrett, 2012).
The author believes that the costs associated with poor management of occupational safety and health can be eliminated by observing quite a number of measures.
Firstly, there is need to improve the current legislation and implementation of safety procedures. This can be achieved by carrying out non-abiding actions like exchange of appropriate practices, conducting awareness campaigns and increasing the level of training.
Secondly, it is necessary to mainstream occupational health and safety in different policy areas such as education and public health sector. It is also necessary to identify fresh synergies. Thirdly, the national strategies that have been tailored towards specific contexts should be well defined and implemented.
Implementation should also target the enterprises or sectors that seem to be affected more by illnesses and occupational injuries. Such problems can also be eliminated if an organization or individual is able to identify and assess potential risks in the most effective way (Van Stolk et al., 2012).
According to Van Stolk et al. (2012), putting in place management systems that deal with occupational safety and health is a remarkably convenient step towards eliminating the challenges associated with poor occupational safety and health.
We will write a custom Article on Managing Occupational Health and Safety: A Multidisciplinary Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is indeed worthy to ensure that management systems are structured and efficient in such a way that the occupational safety and health of workers are guaranteed.
Thus, when developing these systems, there is a need to involve employees and also undertake proper capacity building and training in various levels of employment.
Finally, in order to make a better analysis of this article, adequate information based on the measures adopted by different organizations for managing occupational health and safety is required.
Such kind of information should relate to the policies of the organization in terms of planning, implementation methods, evaluation, action and improvement procedures.
References Bohle, P.
Monotheism Developed by Abram Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
If the question of the belief in one God is discussed by many people as the general religious principle which is characterized for monotheist practices, the issue of Israel’s unique responsibility to God is often perceived as rather provocative.
Theologians pay much attention to discussing this controversial question with references to the Jewish history and development of the religious practices and ethics.
Epstein provides his vision of the issues basing on the discussion of these questions as the cornerstones of Judaism which were developed with references to the Jewish history and religious tradition.
Thus, the main principles of Judaism are the belief in one God as a result of Abram’s converting his people in monotheism and Israel’s unique responsibility to God because Israel’s nation is chosen by God.
Abram is an important figure in the history of the Jewish spiritual development. Thus, Abram is discussed as the founder of a new nation and a person who led his people to monotheism.
According to Epstein, “Abram broke with idolatry and turned to the service of the one and only God whom he recognized as the Creator of heaven and earth” (Epstein 12). This fact can be analyzed as the starting point for developing the main principle of Judaism which is the belief in one God.
Abram’s nation is discussed as having the unique knowledge of God because the Jewish people are chosen by God. From this point, these people are characterized by “a national mark of consecration to the service of God” (Epstein 14). Therefore, the religious monotheism develops along with the ethical monotheism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Jewish Law, the main principles in relation to which people should live are Justice and Righteousness where Righteousness is closely associated with the definite duties. The orientation to the Jewish people’s duties and morality is referred to the Messianic thinking.
All these points are connected and accentuate the Jewish people’s unique role as the providers of Justice and Righteousness in the world basing on the life of holiness. Thus, Israel as ‘the champion of God’ has the definite priestly mission in the world depending on the Jewish people’s role as the nation which is chosen by God.
That is why, much attention is paid to following the concepts of personal and social morality in relation to the Jewish Law as it is represented in the Torah (Epstein).
Being the nation which should spread the ideas of holiness in the world, the Jewish people concentrate on the discussion of virtues and their significance as these notions are presented in the Torah.
Following the idea of personal morality and responding to the social laws, the Jewish people should orient to their virtues and inner holiness, but not to their instincts. In this case, the principles of Justice and Righteousness are also realized completely.
To conclude, it is important to note that the belief in one God in Judaism is based on the ideas of monotheism developed by Abram as the reaction to his father’s polytheist vision and to his unique role of a founder of the new nation.
Moreover, Israel’s responsibility to God is explained by the vision that the Jewish nation is chosen by God, and its role is to spread the ideas of Justice and Righteousness in the world, basing on the life of holiness which principles are fixed in the Jewish Law and developed in relation to the Messianic thinking.
We will write a custom Essay on Monotheism Developed by Abram specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Epstein, Isidore. Judaism: A Historical Presentation. USA: Penguin Books, 1959. Print.
The Big Data Challenges Case Study essay help online: essay help online
Cloud computing involves collecting data from multiple sources to a centralized location. This data is used by data mining tools to try and get critical analytical information on organization performance. The first move that Volvo took towards making a cloud infrastructure was purchasing a 2-node Teradata warehouse in 2007.
Data about each vehicle on its operations and the warrant is stored in this warehouse. The dealer shops worldwide are networked to the data warehouse to provide data collected on vehicles.
Every vehicle has a chip integrated into its engine and some software that collect data. Once the vehicle is taken to the dealer shop data is read and transmitted to the data warehouse through the internet.
Data collected from the fields need to be analyzed to help decision makers within the corporation to make the right decision. Correct data analysis tools provide the best information on the car market and problems facing consumers.
Mechanical problems are discovered early enough before the release of more vehicles into the market. An example would be launching a new vehicle with an automatic gear box. Such vehicle might have errors that are not noticed during factory testing period which might arise upon its launch.
The clients’ vehicles having devices that are continuously collecting data on the status of the gear box would display errors in the gear box. The discovery of the problem might be noticed after selling the first 1000 vehicles which might be easier to rectify.
Rectification will be carried on the cars waiting to be sold before reaching the intended market (Global Intelligence for the CIO, 2011). Volvo has been able to analyze data to establish changing taste of clients on vehicle types and brands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The data is used to come up with new brands within the company that will meet customers’ satisfaction. All this information on causes of accidents on vehicles and market changes trend is knowledge to Volvo Car Corporation.
Volvo adapted the Teradata system in its warehouse to automate data analysis. The system enabled the company to integrate data on vehicle life cycle, warranty and design. The integration helps in diagnosing the root problem of a mechanical problem within the engine leading to development of satisfactory solutions.
The company has been able to identify the rate in which a certain problem keeps on occurring in different vehicles. The rate of occurrence will help in identifying what problems clients keep on facing and what might be the root cause.
The system is able to store data on the geographical location of the vehicle, and it can match mechanical problems with different geographical locations (Tobey, 2010). This is important because vehicles in China might be facing different problems from those vehicles in the United State of America.
Matching problem with geographical location will allow the company develops solutions that will solve problems for specific regions. The system is able to prioritize issues according to their fatality and need of response.
Prioritization of issues will allow management to decide on what problems to solve first followed by what. The system is able to hasten the process of problem solving within the organization. Lastly the system has provided corrective measures to the problem in the design and production of vehicles.
Volvo corporation collecting huge data on diagnosis and market gives it an advantage compared to its competitors. Consumers would like to drive vehicles that are fuel efficient and safe to drive. Safety comes first, where the company’s vehicles are diagnosed to identify causes of accidents.
We will write a custom Case Study on The Big Data Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The diagnosis and data collected by the Teradata system provide corrective measures early before more problems occur. Companies’ without data on their vehicles will continue making mistakes leading to loss of clients. Profitability of the company will increase with increased sales generated by having good products.
Teradata system has led to reduction in cost of storing and sorting data within the company. The money saved on data storage can be invested in other business related issues like improving on quality of vehicles. Data on changing consumer preference will allow the company to improve on production.
The system is able to show which vehicles customers purchase according to geographical regions. The data will enable the company to know what vehicle to export to which market. The company will not deliver to a market in Africa 1000 vehicles while such a vehicle has never been purchased in that market.
The data from the market can be used to determine which market requires new marketing strategies to improve on sales. Companies without such data will not make decisions regarding their markets in real times (Mueller, 2010).
The company ability to solve customers’ problems on real time will keep it ahead in the market. Customers will prefer a company that will solve their problems with minimum time to allow them continue enjoying their vehicles.
References Global Intelligence for the CIO. (2011). Converting data into business value at Volvo. Web.
Mueller, E.(2010). Agility: Competing and Winning in a Tech-Savvy Marketplace. Wiley: New York.
Tobey, B. (2010). Teradata Magazine Online, Volvo Car Corporation realizes core values through data-driven decision making. Web.
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How CRM Could be Successfully Applied in the US Airline Industry Report writing essay help
Table of Contents Summary
The airline industry situation
The industry insight
Challenges with CRM
The way forward
Summary Customer Relationship Management (CRM) reflects a business strategy that aims at managing customers for long-term values. CRM depends on customer-based approaches and culture, which support result-oriented marketing, sales, and services to customers.
Thus, CRM applications or software can enhance effective management of customer relationships. This article focuses on how the airline industry can apply CRM in its operation management for creating value to customers and the organisation (CRM Trends, 2012).
The US airline industry operates in a competitive and expensive environment. As a result, there is a need to focus on customers’ relationships, means of generating revenues, and cost-cutting methods. Focus on customer management shall ensure profitability and competitive strategy for airlines.
In this case, CRM application can aid the airline industry manage its customers. However, the industry has failed to use CRM holistically in its operation. Thus, the industry cannot derive significant values from it. Consequently, the airline industry must change its strategy in order to derive values from CRM strategy.
First, the industry must segment its customers based on needs and value so as to understand needs of customers.
Second, the industry requires CRM initiative, which focuses on needs of customers to create values.
Third, the industry must change its design and management strategy so as to focus on customers and define roles of staff in using CRM strategy. This should reflect customer-based approaches to management so that the industry can get and retain high net worth clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The CRM tool should be able to perform customer analytics for decision-making purposes. This information can aid the industry improve both customer services and operational management for efficiency and derive long-term values from effective relationship management.
The airline industry situation In the recent past, the airline industry has faced challenges related to recessions, effects of terrorisms, unionised workers slowdown, and volcanic ash cloud. These factors have resulted into decline in profitability, flight frequencies, and increase in costs of insurance and labour among others.
The global airline industry is under threat of making losses. The industry profitability has become unpredictable, but in most cases, it suffers operational losses. In addition, stiff competition from budget airlines has affected full-service airlines.
In fact, budget airlines Southwest Airlines did not experience many challenges of 2008 recession due to their operational models. As a result, market shares of low cost airlines are increasing as full-service airlines grapple with declining market shares. Budget airlines have gained popularity due to their low cost strategy.
However, they do not have competitive customer services. This implies that full-service airlines can capitalise on their customer services for efficiency and profitability.
Thus, their airline must realise that cost-cutting coupled with effective customer relationship management shall create competitive advantage in the industry for long-term values.
These challenges have forced the airline industry to seek for values from CRM applications. This implies that the industry has recognised the need to enhance customer services for competitive advantage.
We will write a custom Report on How CRM Could be Successfully Applied in the US Airline Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More CRM should ensure customers’ loyalty and maximise revenues in the industry, lower costs, and increase operational efficiencies. Full-service airlines have applied CRM tools as a wider part of the business strategy.
On the other hand, budget airlines do not have keen interests on CRM applications for improving their customer services.
The airline industry has realised that CRM can provide long-term values to the industry. However, most airline companies do not utilise their CRM applications optimally.
Airlines should rely on analytical tools of CRM for decision-making. CRM can provide valuable information the industry can use to segment its customers. Airlines have deployed CRM tools to match their competitors. In this sense, they fail to utilise it optimally for competitive advantage and differentiation.
The industry has also failed to execute its CRM strategy effectively. In most cases, the CRM applications do not reflect companies’ visions or set directions. In addition, various departments also have their diverse goals in relation to organisational objectives and strategies.
For instance, the financial department’s goals focus on driving revenues and may lack customer service initiatives whereas other departments may not have CRM tools at every point to serve customers efficiently.
This implies that CRM strategy may not achieve its intended objectives. Thus, the airline industry must align its business strategy and IT strategy in order to create value for all stakeholders.
The industry insight In most cases, competitors prefer to learn from mistakes of first initiators. These may be to reduce costs or avoid risks. For instance, Delta waited for other operators to deploy check-in kiosks technology. The company claimed that it would save costs and increase accessibility.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How CRM Could be Successfully Applied in the US Airline Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This turned out to be true according to Forrester Research of 2005 (Forrester Research, 2005). The company system resulted into increased customers’ usages due to signage and easy access. The company differentiated its kiosks from others in the area to create value for customers.
This shows that most airline companies do not resort to establish differentiation strategy in deploying their IT strategies. Thus, majorities of airline companies fail to introduce CRM applications that can result into sustainable differentiation.
Airline companies do not deploy their CRM tools for differentiation, but rather to march competitions. These trends have created poor results for customers and companies. As these customer-oriented initiatives become commonplace, they lose their values to customers.
This implies that imitation is a common trend in the airline industry. The main aim of CRM is to distinguish a firm from its competitors by providing personalised services to customers (Bradshaw and Brash, 2001). However, the practice at the airline industry makes CRM uniform for all customers.
Airline companies can effectively utilise CRM to improve relationships with their customers. This is a step towards differentiation and avoidance of identical services.
Effective differentiation requires airline firms to understand how clients react to change strategies and carefully analyse their return on investment (ROI) based on services provided to customers. This is the only way for airline firms to realise RIO and effectiveness of their CRM strategies.
Reactions to competitors’ strategies may not be adequate. Airlines need to rely on CRM insights based on customers’ behaviours in order to enhance values for customers.
This shall ensure that the industry drives maximum value from CRM applications. The industry should base CRM strategies on needs of customers, rather than strategies of competitors (Binggeli et al, 2002).
Airline companies should also understand the importance of market segmentation when deploying CRM strategy. This should entail understanding customers’ needs and value. Segmentation acts as a key to effective utilisation of CRM platforms. There are many ways of segmenting customers.
However, a value-based classification can enable the industry to comprehend the value of various customer segments. Need and value assessments enable the company to understand net worth of its customers and their contributions to the company’s profitability.
This insight is useful in making marketing decisions and adjusting CRM strategies to meet customers’ needs.
Most airline firms use demographic characteristics and frequency programs to segment customers. These methods may not provide all the information the industry needs to make effective decisions. The airline industry should rely on information from business and leisure travels customers for decision-making. This should aim at improving a firm’s profitability. In addition, the industry can also rely on frequent flyer information using miles for segmentation. However, this may yield different results based on passenger class and discounts among others.
It is necessary for the US airline industry to understand its customers’ value. CRM can enable the industry to determine high net worth customers. For instance, the United Airlines has a system that enables it to identify high value customers. Consequently, the company can proactively provide alternative transport to this segment in cases of flight cancellations. This is a differentiation strategy.
The US airline industry should apply a value-based approach in customers’ segmentation. This strategy enables the industry to value customers based on their influence and power to the business. The industry can use net worth of customers and frequencies of travel to segment customers. The monetary value enables a firm to understand spending habits of a client. This information can provide the airline industry with information necessary in making investment decisions in a specific segment.
Customers’ needs also vary. For instance, a family would need extra space for luggage at lower costs whereas a business executive may require a nonstop flight for efficiency. Better understanding of customers should enable the airline industry adjust their value propositions to various segment of the market based on pricing, customer service, routes, and destinations among others.
Implications The US airline industry should differentiate its services based on customers and their needs. This implies that the industry must understand factors, which drive profitability and result into customers’ satisfaction. The airline industry must seek for customers’ feedback on services provided.
Using customer analytics in CRM applications, the industry can develop different segments of customers. Therefore, effective utilisation of CRM applications can provide value to airline companies (Korper and Ellis, 2001).
Self-services like kiosks are crucial in cost-cutting. They help the industry to increase accessibility and reduce costs. Low costs can make the industry provide affordable services to customers. CRM can be useful in this approach as it can allow customers to purchase air tickets and check-in online.
This provides convenience to customers at affordable costs. In this context, the industry must encourage its customers to embrace the use of technology-based self-services. Self-service can also enhance customers’ levels of satisfaction. The industry should base any self-service initiative from customers’ perspective.
The key to success of such services depends on providing information for quick decision-making to enhance travelling experiences (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001). High net worth passengers need extra services from the airline industry. Such passengers have received incentives based on frequencies of their travels.
The US airline industry has extended to Internet and e-mail access. For instance, Southwest Airlines firm provides WiFi Internet access to its customer to enable them be “productive and stay entertained while flying with full access to the Internet, including e-mail, shopping, and virtual private networks (VPN) together with unlimited access to channels through live TV” (Southwest Airlines, 2012).
However, these services are available at an extra cost of $5 throughout the day and in hotspot flights. This trend began in 2003 and full-service flights worldwide soon embarked on testing their fleets for Internet connection. This explains why the industry depends on competitors’ strategies (Armstrong, 2003).
The service cost $32 in British Airways and available to premium and business economy classes. This is price differentiation strategy among airline companies.
Ancillary services, which most budget flights offer enhance shareholders value. This may include extra charges for luggage. However, these services may be unpopular among customers.
Customers may need cheap services. However, the important factor is to determine what drives shareholders’ value. Still, the industry must strive to build customer loyalty for long-term values.
Passengers can only realise value from improved efficiency, and the industry can only achieve value from customer by using CRM. CRM can help the airline industry in scheduling routes.
This can enable the industry to identify routes, which result into loses and formulate new strategies for such routes. CRM can also help airline companies identify competitive routes for differentiation purposes.
CRM also acts as a predictive tool and informs the industry decisions on expansion strategies based on frequencies of travels.
CRM can help the industry determine prices and factors passengers consider when making their purchase decisions. This approach can enable the industry determine yield from passengers. Analytic systems in CRM help the industry determine appropriate costs and areas where it can save costs. The idea is to enhance customer relationship through attractive pricing.
Challenges with CRM Airline companies have not effectively defined CRM leadership. Most of these firms do not task any staff with the responsibility of ensuring effective utilisation of CRM in relation to organisational strategy. Leadership for CRM must come from executives of the company for effective implementation.
Executives also fail to understand CRM strategy. Most of these executives limit their understanding to obvious procedures. However, they rarely understand other capabilities, which the system can achieve. The airline industry should define clear vision for CRM based on needs of customers. This implies that a company must identify all challenges its customers experience and align them with CRM.
Most companies fail to approach CRM applications from multiple perspectives. In most cases, they leave such applications to customer service department. However, many departments should be responsible for effective utilisation of CRM based on the overall goals and IT strategy of a firm.
This process needs effective communication among various departments to avoid cases of disconnect and poor results. The IT department must lead this process based on reports from other departments responsible for CRM implementation.
This enhances effective implementation and integration of the CRM application into organisational practices (Imhoff et al, 2001).
The company must also train its employees so that they can effectively use CRM. This process also needs incentives to enable staff adopt the use of CRM for high-level services.
The airline industry must also adopt customer service attitude, and it must cover both internal and external customers. This is the approach of Southwest Airlines.
The company should encourage feedback from employees on service issues. This can provide better opportunities for a firm to understand its customers. Consequently, a firm can adjust its services to meet unique needs of different customers it serves (IBM, 2008).
The way forward From challenges of the US airline industry, customer management has become a critical tool for success. Application of CRM tools requires realistic approaches based on customers’ needs and expectations from the company.
This allows the firm and its customers to realise the value of CRM. In short, a clear strategy for the US airline industry CRM application should depend on the following aspects.
First, these companies should have visions for their CRM strategies. This helps the organisation to understand how CRM can change its relationship with customers. It should also reflect values such as savings, low operating costs, and potential increase in revenue the company can derive from the CRM application.
The process requires effective communication of such values to employees so that they can understand overall importance of the system.
Second, airline companies should focus on enhancing customer values. This is necessary to understand profitability of every customer.
Customer value helps a company to identify service levels for different segments of the “market, identify existing opportunities, create loyalty, and recruit new customers” (IBM, 2008). Value-based differentiation can be effective in aligning CRM strategy with the focus on deriving value from customers.
Third, airline companies must train their employees on effective use of CRM tools. This should also include the importance of customer service to the company.
Provisions of information can help in facilitating the process of improving effective customer service. Airline companies must also introduce attractive incentives to their loyal customers. Such approaches can include discounts or free flights at a given period.
Fourth, the best way to determine effectiveness of CRM should involve the use of performance metrics. This can ensure that the organisation and its customers get value from CRM applications.
Targets should be realistic so that the company can accurately review them on a need basis. The use of regular feedback should drive CRM initiatives in a company.
Finally, customer service is a lifelong process. This implies that airline companies must also seek for new information in order to improve their levels of services to customers (IBM, 2008).
Conclusion CRM can work effectively in the airline industry if companies can adopt and integrate it with overall objectives of the organisation. It can define differentiation and improve revenue for the company.
Most budget airlines suffer from poor customer service. CRM provides opportunities for them to improve their experiences with customers.
Executives must spearhead roll outs of CRM in a holistic way to enable other employees support the implementation process. It is only through effective provisions of tools, knowledge, training, and customer focused team that an organisation can realise the true value of CRM application.
CRM can give a company a complete view of its customers. This view enables the US airline companies to enhance “the quality and satisfaction of all customers and increase profitability” (CRM Trends, 2012). CRM should promote a win-win situation for the organisation and customers.
The CRMGuru study showed that Southwest Airlines had effectively used its CRM tools in managing customers for creating value to customers. As a result, the company has achieved repeat business and high rates of recommendations from its customers.
Reference List Armstrong, D 2003, ‘Airlines testing in-flight passenger Internet access’, Chronicle, vol.3, pp. 1-2.
Binggeli, U, Pommes, C, Granville, G and Gupta, S 2002, Flying High with airline CRM, McKinsey
Somatoform Disorders by American Psychiatric Association Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
According to the American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR (2000), physical symptoms and signs elicited by somatoform disorders may indicate a severe medical condition capable of inflicting functional impairment and distress to a patient.
Tazaki and Landlaw (2006) recognize five types of somatoform disorders, namely; conversion disorder, pain disorder, somatization disorder, dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis.
Diagnosis for somatoform disorder relies on a patient’s history of physiological symptoms that are either serious or bothersome or inflict pain and distress. Symptoms of importance are those that cannot be explained medically and usually emerge when a patient is exposed to stress.
Kroenke and Swindle (2000) carried out a review on 31 CBT controlled, reported cases of somatoform disorders. In their review, 29 trials were randomized while the other two were not.
The authors found out that physical symptoms were rampant in the patients. While administering CBT, significant improvement was observed in more than 71% of the trials. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) also improved response in a further 11% of the trials.
Only 38% of the studies expressed a definite advantage of using CBT to reduce psychological distress. In addition, 26% of the studies showed the possibility of using CBT in improving a patient’s functional status.
Study perspectives It was intriguing to find out that stress and conflict may initiate or increase the magnitude of pain. This occurred in 10-15% of cases. In addition, they found out that pain problems are diverse. Unfortunately, many patients who turned up at emergency units with chest pains did not receive specialized treatment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Patients left facilities after assessments that confirmed their condition to be normal (Mayou, Bryant, Clark,
The Maya of Morganton Exploratory Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Immigration and legislation
Diversified Economy Morganton
Challenges Working in Poultry Farms
Culture and Work
Introduction History traces Morgantown as a stopping point for distinguished frontiersmen like Davy Crocket and Daniel Boones. It is also associated with the representative of the church of the Latter Saint, Senator J. Ervin. Maya, a group consisting of mostly immigrants from Guatemalan forms a majority of the population of this town.
The town buildings such as religious institutions have been fortified to illustrate the warmth connected to the Maya community. Besides, Morganton believes in its dynamism and as a growing community embracing the social and economic prowess based on agricultural activities (Fink, 8).
Immigration and legislation The Maya benefitted to a larger extend by the US immigration legislation of 1986. This has continued to shape their systems of engagement in Morganton. The legislation provided an opportunity for undocumented ethnicity, which has lived in the US for several years’ automatically gain legal status and ascend to a better employment in the visible economy.
This development created new opportunities for Mayans and barred the secret employment sector of sweet shops, day construction labor, and agricultural piecework for the new immigrant to fill. As a result of these changes, many Mayans moved to traditional agricultural, migrant stream that many Mexicans were instantaneously vacating.
Diversified Economy Morganton The economy of Morganton arose as a result of being a transportation hub and a trade gateway linking the plantations in the south to newly formed markets. Thus, the slaves during the 1860s, was believed to have influenced the abundance of the town and local families (Fink, 8). The 19th century saw agriculture being joined by other economic activities such as furniture factories, lumbering and Textile Mills.
These industries actively contributed to absorbing Morganton Mayan population into the area labor force. The characteristics of Industries formed in Morganton evolved and acquired national recognitions, thus; government purchased some of them. For example, the Drexel Furniture was acquired by the state in 1903 (Fink, 8)
Rapid economic development in Morganton gained momentum after the WWII. This was prompted by the construction of the Federal 40 link which crossed through the Burke County. Consequently, the local chamber of commerce report, released in 1964, emphasized the latest developments in the economic sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was in terms of establishment of 12 new industries which included; the shoe factories, furniture firms, Knitting Mills, fish hatcheries, machine tool operations and Breeden’s Poultry Inc., later it became to be known as the Case Farms. The local Morgantown industries bellowed after the postwar.
Fink (8) asserts that, by the year 2005, about 47% of the Burke County laborers, the Latinos and Maya, were involved in manufacturing activities. Mayan community in Morganton worked as undocumented workers during 1980s and 1990s. Thus, most employers exploited their illegality situation by offering smaller wages.
Besides, they were restricted in working in small, less visible companies often run by crooks. The invisible companies often underpaid and appropriated their social security and unemployment welfare.
Poultry Farms Poultry Farms accounted for a larger percentage of employment opportunities for Mayas in Morganton. History traces Poultry farming in Morganton to Tom Breeden, a barber and his wife. They started poultry farming business as a hobby during the mid-1950. The business grew to become a large enterprise, spread across the United States. It was known as the Breeden’s Poultry Company (Fink, 11).
According to Fink, a survey of poultry labor market indicated that “rearing of chicken for the production and meat and eggs was a traditional practice which endeavored to endure for decades. It was complementary family or domestic operated, fueled chiefly by women and child family labor (11).
For a short time, Breeden extended its local poultry and egg part time hobby into a lucrative, and full time “New York dress business”, i.e. they would cover the birds, discard the feet and features, refrigerate and package and transport to New York for sale. Thus, what began as a small activity graduated to become a full-fledged business enterprise (Fink, 12).
The Breeden Company had some challenges in its recruitment processes of its employees. The Mayan and other groups from Latin American were the most affected. This was caused by the peculiar vitality of post WWII businesses.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Maya of Morganton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prior to these challenges, Herbert Hoover’s campaign, promising, “a chicken for every pot” suggested that chicken, required protracted stewing, but, post-war businessmen such as Arthur Perdue came up with integrated processing methods, brand awareness and unified management of farmers, egg growers, feed manufacturers and processors under a single corporate entity.
This was to transform what was known in 1960’s as the “broiler” industry (Fink, 12). The evolutions of new methods reduced employment prospects for the population in Morganton. In proceeding years, the marketing strategies of fast food chicken lead by Kentucky Fried Chicken in 1960s and increased by McDonald introduction of Chicken McNuggets in 1980s and the surging health reasons about the red meat established a volatile claim for chicken and its related products. This trend has continued to hold up to present (Fink, 12).
However, the poultry market has been dominated by big producers creating a tough game for small farmers to check on wage costs. Since the beginning of 1970s, which was believed to be the lowest across food industries, has significantly dropped to about 60% of the US manufacturing standard.
Since, the development of poultry farming industry in 1950s and 60’s the labor costs and low land has been concentrated in the southern states. Poultry employers proved adventuresome in identifying new cost effective recruitment strategies. They headed to the southern states to find the solution. Latinos and other Latin American immigrants represented about 10% of overall poultry labor force in 1998.
In 1993, the number had increased to about 25%. In Morganton, demographic movement was more dramatic (Fink, 13). The Breeden Plant growth increased the need for a new form of labor. In 1960’s, entry of African American and Indians workers in previously all-white labor forces was a common trend.
By 1980’s almost a quarter of the working population in the labor force was made up of blacks and other races. For most immigrants, poultry industry served as an initial entry to a formal job thus equipping a new entrant with factory work morals that they could exploit for their own good.
Challenges Working in Poultry Farms Maya often worked in small, unsafe factories. Together with other, several immigrants from Latin America such as the Nicaragua, El Salvador and Mexico organized a series of labor strikes. The first Mayan strike occurred as a result of crimping of their over-time work hours. This was also surged with the speeding up of lines during daytime shifts (Fink, 181).
Moreover, the major Mayan protest in the Case Farm occurred as a result of criticism for poor work tools, unpaid hours, lack of bathroom breaks, illegitimate company deductions for the purchase of safety equipment’s like gloves and smocks (Fink, 188). The Mayan workers made limited but significant progress during this time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Maya of Morganton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Maya led Unions exertions picked as from 1995 with mass protests and compulsory demands on Case Farms to address the claims of biased behavior, unbearable line speeds, poor wages and inhuman working environments (Fink, 195). However, the internal disputes arising among the Mayan and other Latin American immigrants, lack of funds and lack of interests by union personnel contributed to the disintegration of their partnership (Fink, 195).
Nevertheless of collapse of the countless union’s efforts in Morganton, their short lived association with the Maya and other Latin American workers at poultry Farms can be interpreted as a rebuttal of the altercation that undocumented migrant as a result of their ostensibly instinctive willingness to accept substandard wages and offensive management practices.
Labor Unions The labor Unions formed in 1980s in other towns such as Los Angeles were instrumental in fighting corporate abuses of human rights violations and labor rights. Thus, in Morganton, it was hoped that, the undocumented employees at Case Farms typically did not dare to stand up for “visible Leadership” roles which would attract the public; this was because of their citizenship status.
Besides, the weakening of formal security integral in work permits fixed on asylum applications did not check in any way loss of support for unions (Fink, 81).
Culture and Work The Mayan has a rich culture which has continued to shape their existence. The Morganton Maya famously referred to as the Aguacatan, a group that played an important role in advocating for Labor Union, and the Totonicapan, which involved the Consejo Maya, were social and economically better than their counterparts at the countryside.
According to Fink (187), Aguacatan was close to the regional capital thus benefiting from commercial agricultural and educational institutions. On the other hand, Totonicapan had a long-standing heritage of traditional craft and a cultural center serving the territory of K’iche’. It emphasized certain worldliness from its native leaders.
The current globalization of the Mayans was signified by a hole in the wall grocery, found in the city of Totonicapan. It had a stamp affixed, slightly above the window. The symbol meant “Kmart” which meant the “traditionality” of the Mayan heritage.
The leaders of Maya in Morganton community accrued sustenance from both traditional and modern wells. But homeland with its commitments to traditional aspects such as inheritance of family owned plots and adoration of the souls of the departed was also ingrained in the Mayan of Morganton’s. The values of sticking together were inclined on the American social and political systems that were present during the end of the century.
Conclusion The Mayans have contributed significantly to the growth and development of Morganton economy and culture. The challenges encountered included the issue of undocumented immigrants and inadequate skills to take up demanding tasks in factories during early periods of their immigration.
However, to adjust to the trend of globalization and the needs of the society, the Maya has benefited a lot from the immigration policies of the US. For example, the 1986 policy, this granted automatic, citizenship to any ethnicity which has lived in the country for more years.
Moreover, the presence of diverse industries in Morganton means more employment opportunities rather than one business entity of Poultry Farms. The Maya has responded to the issue of working conditions, poor pay among other issues. Thus, through the formation of their Labor Unions, it is simple to address their working grievances as one entity.
Works Cited Fink, Leon. The Maya of Morgantown: Work and Community in the Nuevo New South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003
Deforestation in the Tropical Rainforests Research Paper essay help online
Introduction Deforestation is the cutting down of trees by human beings and animals either for use or for other reasons. Tropical rainforests are the dense vegetation areas on the earths ground and they stretch from the equator. Most of these forests are found five degrees north and five degrees south of the equator.
The tropical rainforests cover 13% of the earth’s surface and they accounted for 50% of the forests in the world. Researchers have found out that 33% of birds, amphibians and mammals on earth live in the tropical rainforests. In the recent past, these tropical rainforests have been disappearing rapidly due to deforestation.
The rate at which these tropical rainforests are being destroyed is alarming and effective ways have to be enacted to control this in order to save the current generation and future generations. Control of deforestation will also save animals in the forests and give them places to inhabit.
In order to curb this issue perfectly, the causes of deforestation should be highlighted and then each of them solved in the best way possible. As many people clear the forests to settle, governments in the affected countries ought to find better ways of settling their people (Jepma 29).
Discussion This study aims at analyzing the causes of deforestation in tropical rainforest, the impacts of the same and the methods of controlling deforestation. The process of cutting trees begins with human beings and animals, brings about the effects that are observed, and thus is the reason a solution ought to be got, as this is a very serious issue in the entire world (Place 16).
Causes of deforestation in tropical rainforests
Causes of deforestation in tropical rainforests are categorized into two types. These are the immediate causes and the underlying causes. The first immediate cause of deforestation in these forests is logging. Companies associated with logging cut down mature trees to use as timber and as logs for other uses such as electric posts.
This cutting down of mature trees confuses many since the loggers argue that seedlings would grow naturally and the forests will regain their initial status in due time. This however is not real because of logging practices and the nature of the forests. As the logs are being transported, roads are created and they lead to further deforestation. In addition, the soil through which the machines pass is compacted and some hard layers form in the soil affecting the regeneration of the forests (Ghazoul and Sheil 86).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This cause of deforestation also opens chances for other ways of deforestation. The roads created as the logs are carried away up ways for people to enter the forests and do further destruction. The next immediate cause of deforestation in tropical rainforests is shifted cultivation, which is a method practiced in agriculture.
This comes as landless peasants follow roads created in the forests to explore the forests and find suitable areas where they clear to get land for settlement and cultivation. Landless peasants in most countries come out because of poor and unfair distribution of agricultural land.
In some countries such as Brazil, this is allowed and people have come up with slogans like “Land without men for men without land” (Corlett and Primack 92).
Agriculture is another immediate cause of deforestation. People have opted to clear the forests in order to get land for growing cash crops and for ranching. It is however funny that most of these cash crops are exported to other countries, many people do not get time for growing food crops, and therefore end up in hungry.
Most of the pastoralist communities find way through the roads and lead their cattle in the forests. The people later clear the forest, since they need land for settlement. Another immediate cause of deforestation in these areas is need of fuel wood. Most of the people who use wood as fuel obtain it from tropical rainforests.
This is mostly in developing countries where many rely on traditional forms of energy. Large dams are another immediate cause of the disaster. In many countries, the forests are cleared as the hydroelectric power dams are being constructed. This also has many effects on human beings as it causes disease outbreaks to those surrounding the scene (Place 37).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Deforestation in the Tropical Rainforests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dams also lead to displacement of people who end up clearing other tropical rainforest to get land for settlement. Another immediate cause of deforestation in tropical rainforests is mining and industry. This means direct loss of land, as projects are set to reach the minerals and to build up industries.
Mining and industries also create roads in the tropical rainforests leading to further attraction of human settlement. Tourism is the last immediate cause of deforestation. Initially, game parks served to conserve the forests in order to preserve the ecosystems in the rainforests. However, they have now opened access to the public since. Tourism is a way of generating income and thus it is being encouraged in many countries.
As tourists move in the forests viewing attractive cites, they disturb the habitats of wild animals. In addition, the construction of roads within the park is destructive since trees have to be cut down to pave way for road construction. A case of this is seen in Australia where more forests are been destroyed due to growing tourism (Jepma 123).
The first underlying cause of deforestation in tropical rainforests is development and overconsumption. As viewed, development is the growth of industries in a country and opening up large markets for trade. As these industries are being set, forests are cleared to set up them. The immediate causes are also promoted by development as more crops are grown and the tourism sector expanded for higher marketing.
The second underlying cause is colonialism. Although colonialism took place many years ago, it has impacts that are still felt to date. As the colonies introduced agriculture and used the countries as sources of raw materials, more people were interested in this.
After colonization, more forests were cleared for crop cultivation as sources of raw materials for overseas corporations hence making colonialism a cause of deforestation. The debt burden is another underlying cause. Most of developing countries have huge debts they are expected to pay.
To get the money, more money-generating projects are set and this then causes destruction for agriculture since most economies in developing countries depend on agriculture as a primary source of growth. The last underlying cause of deforestation is poverty and overpopulation. The forests are cleared as the surplus population is settled and to help poor people get food (Place 49).
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Effects of deforestation of tropical rainforests
Since most of the nutrients in the forests are found in the vegetation, cutting down of this vegetation will leave the soils poor and very thin. This will automatically lead to soil erosion in which minerals in the soil are carried away. The soil is also compacted as people and machinery enter the forests and this makes the forests to be unable to recover.
In most of these cleared forests, there are indigenous plants that are very important for various scientific and medicinal values that end up being cut. Moreover, the indigenous trees are hard to find and take long periods to grow to maturity. Therefore, deforestation leads to loss and vanishing of various rare species of trees that cannot be grown to maturity fast (Jepma 78).
People who depend on hunting and gathering to get their living are affected by deforestation since their source of livelihood is destroyed. In some areas, deforestation has acted as a cause of conflicts between different parties. For instance, it has led to conflicts between the public and the government especially where the rare resources such as land and the natural environment are in contention.
As these conflicts are being resolved, many may end up losing pressures resources and even life in the process. Many wild animals in the forests are at the risk as they are exposed to human and living threats as the forests are cleared. This has even led to extinction of some animal species.
In spite of all this, deforestation of the tropical rainforests has enabled the settlement of the landless peasants. It has also led to generation of wealth for instance through tourism and mining. This has also provided jobs for people as some are employed in the projects set up after the clearance of the forests (Corlett and Primack 40).
Methods of controlling deforestation of tropical rainforests
In controlling deforestation of tropical rainforests, the causes of the same are the ones that are resolved. The first method in resolving this issue is by the governments opposing it then imposing laws against deforestation. This method can serve better as it will reach many people. Campaigns against the crime should be promoted.
People should be taught the effects of deforestation and its prevention. This has already started working as some organizations like the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) have began campaigning and educating people on the epidemic. Farmers are supposed to practice better methods of farming such as contour farming and not to engage in shifting cultivation.
The governments in affected countries are supposed to ensure that land is equally shared and that every person has a good share. The public is also supposed to be educated on family planning to control overpopulation. This is effective in Germany and it has fully controlled overpopulation. Lastly, better and clean sources of power should be used to stop use of wood fuel (Ooi 46).
Conclusion Deforestation of tropical rainforests has become one key issue that is affecting the whole world. The causes of deforestation are grouped into immediate causes and underlying causes. The immediate causes are logging, shifting cultivation, agriculture, fuel wood, large dams, mining, industry, and tourism. The underlying causes are development and overconsumption, colonialism, debt burden and poverty and overpopulation.
These have great impacts to the soil, wild animals, human beings and the environment. Deforestation in tropical rainforests is ought to be controlled to save future generations. The governments in the affected countries should lead in the anti-deforestation campaigns and the public will have no obligation to follow suit.
Works Cited Corlett, Richard and Primack, Richard. Tropical Rain Forests: An Ecological and Biogeographical Comparison. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
Ghazoul, Jaboury and Sheil, Douglas. Tropical Rain Forest Ecology, Diversity, and Conservation. London: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Jepma, Chris. Tropical deforestation: a socio-economic approach. London: Earthscan, 1995.
Ooi, Jin-Bee. Tropical deforestation: the tyranny of time. London: NUS Press, 1993.
Place, Susan. Tropical rainforests: Latin American nature and society in transition. Maryland: Rowman
Professional Development Plan Membership Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Psychology is a profession which can be fulfilled if the psychologist plans to have a progressive career development. McMurran (2006, p. 1) believes that psychology is a field that is built on cumulative knowledge. This can be achieved by identifying areas of interest, meeting the requirements and planning to develop.
This research paper will identify an area of emphasis in psychology and give a brief description of the field. It will also evaluate and discuss the state of Maryland’s licensure in relation to professional plans. It will also include a reflection of professional plans, changes and reasons for change and assess the role of the class.
This research paper will discuss professional development plan membership and benefits of membership and networking. It will specify the area if interest and the plans for its development. In addition, this research paper will recap positive psychology and evolutionary psychology models and discuss their applicability in addictive psychology as well as give ways that the models contribute to the understanding of human beings.
The emphasis area and a brief discussion There are various areas of emphasis in psychology. Addiction psychology is one of them and it gives assistance to patients with addiction disorders. Addiction psychologist provides an addiction therapy and treatment. Addictions may be in different forms in different individuals.
Some may have drug addiction, alcohol addictions, food addictions, internet addictions, sex addictions and other behaviors that are addictive like gambling. In the treatment programs they use, imminent features include: support, counseling, interventions, and recommendation to support groups as well as rehabilitation centers.
Addiction psychologists give support to patients with behavioral disorders such as drug addiction, alcoholism, gambling, eating problems like anorexia and bulimia as mentioned in the Association for Natural Psychology (2008, p. 1). The psychologist provides the individual with help that make them realize their addiction as a disorder.
They can achieve this by engaging the client into a group and conduct sessions with an aim of assisting them overcome addiction. The psychologists often involve the client’s immediate family members. Addiction psychologists are also responsible for establishing curriculums that discourage behaviors that lead to addiction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An evaluation and discussion of the Maryland licensure requirements and its relation with professional goals
The state of Maryland has a Psychology Board that offers licenses to professional psychologist. Maryland Psychology Board is a body whose main function is to offer certificates to psychologist to practice lawfully. Among other procedures they engage the psychologist into two professional examinations prior to licensing.
The applicants pay a fee for registration to the Board. The board also performs other tasks such as authorizing psychology associates, replace licenses for the already licensed psychologist, evaluate the education system, establish and enact control mechanism in the profession, establish the range of practice, disseminating information to those already licensed and receive feedback concerning all aspects of the board (Maryland Psychology Board, 2011).
For a psychologist to be licensed as counseling psychologist, they must be graduates from a certified university that teaches psychology. Importantly, they must demonstrate that they have undergone supervised internship. The license is obtained from the board after the applicant meets all the requirements of the board.
Those who graduate with masters and doctorate qualify to become counselors while doctorate degree holders qualify to be supervisors. The application process is intensive and the applicant is required to be honest and provide extensive information. They are supposed to give details of their training and experiences in different facilities.
Moreover, they are supposed to give information on internship at different levels of training such as undergraduate and post graduate internship. What is more, they should disclose the names of their supervisors and the nature of supervised activities. The requirements are strict and in most cases, where supervision was distant a letter is required.
The number of hours spend on supervision is also given by the applicant. The supervisors also play a part by responding to questions that are in the application form concerning the type of activities among other questions. Moreover the applicant must provide names of three referees.
Maryland Psychology Board (2011) indicates that a two year experience for applicants who have completed their master’s degree and doctorate is compulsory. This two year experience must be acquired under close supervision of a registered professional psychologist. The experience is considered from the date the applicant completed the degree program.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Professional Development Plan Membership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Licensing Board licenses, bio- psychologists, clinical psychologist, child clinical psychologist, school psychologist, counseling psychologist, social psychologist, family psychologist and substance abuse/ addiction psychologist among others. Bio- psychologists give attention to the psychological development of animal in relation to continued existence, progress in reproduction and adaptation to their environment (Maryland Psychology Board 2011).
In accordance with the Association for Natural psychology (2008, p. 1) clinical psychologist treats psychological disorders. Patients with emotional as well as mental illness due to life challenges can get assistance from a clinical psychologist. The child clinical psychologist helps children and the adolescent in a similar way as the clinical psychologist.
School psychologist assists students with psychological problems while incorporating the school teachers and the parents in their approach. Counseling psychologist give advice to people so that they can make informed decisions. Social psychologists approach human problem by examining the individual’s environment.
Family psychologist deal with psychological issues related to the emotional and mental problems within the family. Addiction (or Substance abuse) psychologist aids patients with addiction problems such as alcohol and drugs among others.
A reflection of the professional plan, changes in plan, reasons for change and the role of the class
In line with Ryan 2002, developing a professional plan is an important task in the career development to ensure that time and efforts at work are well utilized for a successful career (p.1). Time management is a key element in professional plan.
It involves ensuring that one maximizes on the time given to attain set goals. In order to achieve the best out of the time given in the career, change is important in order to conduct a regular assessment of self. While doing the self assessment it will be possible to depict changes in the professions that a psychologist must adjust to. Moreover, it will be possible to reinforce strengths and note areas of weakness so as to be able to make efforts to improve in the areas of weaknesses (Ryan 2002, p. 6).
Improving research skills besides paying attention to existing rules to research will be a step to developing an action plan. This action plan will encourage a psychologist to conduct research regularly and becoming competent. The most notable change in this plan is that a psychologist will participate actively in the professional seminars and symposiums within and outside the organization.
These meetings may have insights on the relevant areas of research. Consequently, they provide an opportunity for other avenues that may aid in the research process as pointed out by Ryan (2002, p. 6). The plan to engage in critical thinking is also significant and can be incorporated together with improving research skills so as to be more accurate and creative.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Professional Development Plan Membership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The approach can be changed so that more modernized ways of conducting research are embraced. This is because technology is becoming more popular and people are using it more often. The psychologist can use the website, blogs and social sites. Other changes in the professional plan include setting time aside to reflect on the progress of career.
Ryan (2002, p. 2) indicates that reflecting is a powerful tool that can enable a professionals to become self- aware. This is accomplished by reviewing journals and other publications. The psychologist can also keep a record of the working opportunities that they have accomplished in their profession.
Another change is to consider information from other professionals. They could be supervisors, fellow professional staff and mentors who are knowledgeable. The main goal is to maximize learning skills that are helpful. Furthermore, continue attending professional courses and pursue certification programs.
Considering information from other professionals will lead to competence in knowledge (Ryan 2002, p. 2). This class has a significance of enabling the learner to acquire knowledge not only in planning but also in development. Development leads to competency which is much needed in the psychology.
Ryan (2002, p. 1) emphasizes that experience is highly valued. Consequently, the skills learnt in critical thinking are vital. Moreover, the class increases understanding of psychology and remains increasingly informative.
Continued professional development Discussion of two professional membership and the benefits of the membership
According to Lewis (2010, p. 1) there are a number of professional organizations that a professional psychologist can become a member. The American Psychological Association (APA) is one of the organizations with the largest membership. APA main objective is to progress in the practice of psychology based on scientific research.
The member form a meaningful network of professional who discuss relevant research topics that are up to date. APA is also an accrediting body to the doctorate level of study. They establish, enact and maintain certain standards of the profession.
Moreover, they review the curriculum to ensure that there is uniformity in the standards across the subfields of psychology. The benefit obtained from membership is that the network of professionals makes it possible for psychologists to share ideas and to insight each other on relevant areas of research.
Furthermore, being a member makes a practicing psychologist to have access to the requirements and be involved in career building opportunities like conferences and workshops. Whenever there are changes in the standards, members get first hand information.
Another professional organization a professional psychologist can consider acquiring membership is the Association for Psychological Sciences (APS). APS is an organization whose main task is to promote research based on scientific method and encourage partnership in psychology.
Being a member of this association enables psychologists interested in research to network. Psychologist with similar interest in research can exchange ideas and make collaborations that lead to great success than in a situation where researchers conduct research as individuals. Members also benefit from regular conferences, research findings conducted by the association and publications.
Moreover, APS advocates for social activities that benefit the society and give experience to its members. Membership is flexible and one can choose to renew their membership annually or become a member for a lifetime. Additionally, students of psychology can become members regardless of their level of study. The faculty as well as professionals can mentor young professionals.
Discussion on a networking filed and the steps to be taken
As a professional addiction psychologist, networking in a local clinic could be of benefit to psychological career development. The local clinic will offer an opportunity to interact with experienced psychologist. It will also be an opportunity to serve the community by offering assistance to patients in need of help.
The benefits of networking and how it can help in career development
American Psychological Association (2006, p. 5) mentions that networking brings benefits to the psychologist. Networking enables one to have mentors. Mentors are significant as they offer advice in career in the coveted profession. One can get hints on the research topics, and give information on first salary and task.
When an individual is ready to set up own firm, mentors come in handy by giving relevant information on the requirements. Mentors of same identity could share experiences on matters concerning gender, race and age among others. Corresponding to American Psychological Association (2006, p. 6) psychologist who network have a greater chance of getting information pertaining to employment.
In addition, networking is effective in experiences and giving opportunities that lead to partnership in research. Inevitably, networking is the most important channel for new graduates to be able to learn fast and develop in career. This is because networking offers some form of support to the young professionals.
Networking exposes a professional psychologist to diversity. One gets to interact with different psychologists who may have similar or different background. Sharing experiences with other psychologists may prove to be of great benefit in exposing one to different diverse views.
The area of interest in addiction psychology and the plans for development
Addiction psychology is an area that mainly deals with behavioral disorder. It also requires the incorporation of the patients close family and implementation of a program to help the patient recover from addiction as argued by the Association for Natural Psychology (2008, p. 1).
Since human beings behavior keeps changing due to technology it is necessary to engage in research so as to learn more about internet addiction. Duran (2003, p. 1) discusses the internet disorder which has come about from the use of internet. Duran (2003) also notes that concerns arise from the fact that internet can be accessed from anywhere and the use is less confined may have consequences.
Information on the internet disorder can be obtained by engaging in scientific research. Through networking one can get more information and insights that may lead to developments. Moreover, reviewing existing information and innovating ways of obtaining accurate information will be a development plan. Partnering with researchers with similar interest will be of great value. Partnership can be achieved through networking.
Psychological perspectives Positive psychology
Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000, p. 4) note that positive psychology is a model that has adopted a positive approach in dealing with human functions to be able to treat psychological problems in individuals, families and society. Positive psychology complements the traditional psychology in treatment.
It achieves this by giving a hand to individuals so that they can have productive lives. Likewise, they pay attention to the right actions rather than the wrong actions. They emphasize happiness in their model and use it as the method study.
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of adaptive characteristics of human being from psychological adjustments as revealed by Haselto and Ketelaar (2005, p. 6). Evolutionary psychologist investigates human beings languages, understanding of the world and the memory.
They believe that human beings behavior is as a result adaptation to challenges that have happened in the evolution. Haselto and Ketelaar (2005, p. 4) further argue that human beings have the potential of making friendships and associations based on the perceptions.
Discussing how positive psychology and evolutionary psychology apply in addiction psychology effectively
Positive psychology can be applied in addiction psychology by offering counseling services that will assist patients with all forms of addiction to overcome addiction disorder. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000, p. 7) believes that putting emphasize on the positive actions and the right activities will lead to healthy living and reduce psychological problems.
Duran (2003, p. 1) in his article believes that internet addiction can be overcome if the patient can be made to understand that it is a disorder and be advised on the right activities that would lead to a productive life with happiness. Addiction psychology could incorporate evolutionary psychology in the treatment of psychological disorders.
The patients environment makes them develop perceptions based on the events that happen which lead to adaptive behaviors of the patient as Haselto and Ketelaar (2005, p. 10) argues. This is the case in the patients with addiction, for instance internet addiction; patients change their behavior to suit their need to use the internet.
Moreover, they choose to have relationships with those with similar interest (Duran 2003, p. 1). Addiction psychology enables the patient to realize the addictive behavior and to be able to overcome the disorder. The psychologist can make use of the peers, family members and the community to help the patient recover.
Ways positive psychology and evolutionary psychology contribute to the understanding of human behavior
Positive psychology is a model that portrays individuals as beings who are interested in pursuing happiness. Furthermore, human beings can choose to engage in positive actions that will enable them be happy and also uphold such virtues as kindness, love and gratitude among others Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000, p. 4).
In reference to Haselto and Ketelaar (2005, p. 10) evolutionary psychology is a model that reveals the behavior of human beings as adaptive in nature. Woodman (1982, p. 3) mentions that human beings change their character over time and are also greatly influenced by other human beings in their environment.
Conclusion Addiction psychology is a profession that will involve planning for development and making necessary changes to progress in the career. Besides planning, it is important to observe requirements for licensure so as to be able to practice within Maryland State. Becoming a member of the APA and APS will be strategy to benefit from the membership and the networking in order to be able to establish a career development.
Psychological models such as positive psychology and evolutionary psychology can be incorporated into addictive psychology to assist patients with addiction disorders. Additionally, the models contribute to the understanding of the human nature.
Reference List American Psychological Association. (2006). Committee on Early Career Psychologist. Web.
Association for Natural psychology. (2008). Understanding Psychologist. Web.
Duran, M. G. (2003). Internet Addiction Disorder. AllPsych Journal. Web.
Haselto, M. G. and Ketelaar, T., (2005). The Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior. Web.
Lewis, J. (2010). Professional Psychology Association. Web.
Maryland Psychology Board. (2011). Psychology License. Web.
McMurran, M. (2006). The Psychology of Addiction: Contemporary Psychology Series. New York USA: Psychology Press ltd.
Ryan, R., (2002). Creating a Professional Development Plan. Web.
Seligman, M. E. P., and Csikszentmihalyi, M., (2000). Positive psychology American psychologist 1-14. Web.
Woodman, M. (1982). Addiction to perfection The Still Unravished Bride: A psychological Study. Canada USA: University of Toronto Press.
High Level Autistic Disorder Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction High-level autistic disorder is an acute developmental disability that starts at birth or within a child’s early years of being. It is also known as Autism. It is the consequence of a neurological disorder that alters the functioning of the brain. This causes impediments or difficulties in many distinct skills from childhood to adulthood.
High-level autistic disorder belongs to a group of developmental disabilities recognized as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). A spectrum disorder is a collection of disorders with similar characteristics. In autism, while one individual may have minor symptoms, another one may have substantial ones.
The diversity in the nature of the signs and when they will possibly begin appearing also makes autism to be recognized like an ASD (Mesibov, Shea
Law in the International System and Its Aspects Coursework essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The International Court of Justice
Law-making Treaties and Other Material Sources
General Principles of Law
The Literatures of Publicists
Consideration of Humanity
Introduction Law comprises of established rules and regulations that govern human behavior and interactions. They are established ways of doing things which makes it simple for individuals to live with some sort of regularity. The offenders are punished by the law since law is legally binding implying that individuals have no option but to comply with its provisions.
Laws are divided into two major categories according to their functionality, the basis of sub-division lies in their sources. The formal sources of law refer to authorized provisions of law contained in the constitution and are further general applications being permissively obligatory.
Formal laws are created in accordance to specific procedures and methods, which should be acceptable by all affected parties. The material sources of law on the other hand are not applicable universally. The provisions and tenets of such rules should be proved beyond doubt before their application. Law making process in many countries is left to the legislative arm of government since every individual is evenly represented in it.
Law in the international system is not applied the same way, as is the case with national law. This implies that national law is more superior as compared to any other law. Formal sources in the international system do not exist since parliaments do not consent to laws instead only states agree to implement rules of general application.
In the international system, the laws that exist have their basis on the material sources. States agree to implement specific rules by providing evidence on how they can affect cooperation in the international system. Evidence in the international system is derived from interactions among states which sheds some light to the material sources of law.
States agree to enter into multilateral treaties and consent some specified international laws to guide their behaviors. States are obliged to maintain and sustain the agreed upon laws, the cooperating states may not establish judicial courts instead they rely on individual states to see into it that everything runs smoothly.
The International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice became fully in operation in 2002, it is concerned with implementation of the international laws. The court arbitrates on matters affecting the international system by setting up general rules to be observed by each member state. The court sets forums for discussions pertaining to the status of international law and thereby establishing rules that are recognized by all member state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The court relies on material sources and hence international custom is part of the rules only if they are proved to be applicable. All laws set up by parliaments in member states are held in high esteem by the international court. The court strives to partial as much as possible by not favoring the provisions of one state in arbitrating matters in the international system.
However, the court’s decision has no consequence to particular states except in the specified case. The court’s stipulation are articulated basing on the findings and rulings of the available tribunals implying that the court may be having a certain order of laws, that is from the most important to the least important.
The court’s previous rulings are always reviewed in making judgments at hand. Over time, the judges at the court have identified material sources as official. Jurists find it hard to put a line between material and official sources of law. The problem extends to the stage of application. The judges mainly depend on the available hierarchy.
The court finds the correct version of interpretation of particular treaty before attempting to offer arbitration. The general principles are consulted before decisions are made because sometimes, treaties might be displaced or could possibly have been amended making it difficult to grasp the original provision.
The court utilizes a number of components in its running the affairs including the following.
International Customs The customs in the international court of Justice refers to evidence of general practice accepted as law. The court urges states to recognize some practices before of their nature and effects to the society. The claims made at the court ought to be scientific implying that evidence should be provided. Evidence as one of the scientific tools of proof relies on observation, touch, taste, smell and hearing.
The court therefore: liaises with diplomatic representatives, scrutinizing assurance statements from officials, checking the media reports, analyzing utterances of senior government officials, commentaries by governments and resolutions made at the United Nations General Assembly.
We will write a custom Coursework on Law in the International System and Its Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rudiments of the evidence are carefully assessed to arrive at an exact position. Evidence should abide by time by not being too long to short. The evidence given should be uniform, consistent and pragmatic because the facts collected are aimed at solving problems presently.
Uniformity provides that any claim made basing on customary should be conversant to the other party and held as true as well. Furthermore, evidence should be accompanied by generality of the practice implying that the two parties in a conflict should be willing to solve the issue and consent to participate actively.
Law-making Treaties and Other Material Sources The sources of laws in the international system are multifaceted giving a notion that they are treated as both formal and material. Though customary laws emanate from material sources, they are given equal measures and weights as official sources.
The laws in the international system are made through the conclusions and keen interpretation of the resolutions of international conferences, the decisions made and put into practice by the United Nations General Assembly. This implies that the plans approved by the International Law Commission will have unswerving influence to the content of the law.
The law crafting treaties establish lawful obligations whose implementation does not have any effect on it. If two countries agree to achieve particular goals together, they would not have formed any law because the agreement comes to an end after fulfilling the objectives.
The major aim of law-making treaty is to establish general norms to be applied in future interactions pertaining to legal premises and the provisions are supposed to be the same. In this line of thinking, even when provisions of the original treaty diminishes current rules and norms of the customary will remain, only a few things will change but not the whole law meaning that the content will be the same.
Some other treaties such as those bilateral in nature may serve as a proof to customary laws and hence there cannot be patent and rigid variation between law –making treaties and others. Courts recognize the existence of bilateral laws the way they are, without necessarily having treaty obligation. The court is mandated to do a critical analysis in assessing treaties if impartiality is to be realized.
General Principles of Law The International Court recognizes the provisions of general laws that are accepted by all member states as earlier stated. Some states subscribe more to the provisions and operations of the court as compared to others. The dependence of the court on laws of state members has resulted to problematic conflicts since some states have ambiguous provisions which exist to frustrate others.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Law in the International System and Its Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The court resorted into adopting universal rules of behavior so as to reduce conflict of interests. The court has unified the provisions of various states to come up with a more universal consensus. All in all, the court does not have a rigid way of interpreting phenomena. Many factors are considered in making judgments such as the occurrence of the problem in terms of frequency, the region that the problem is occurring or occurred and the nature of conflict, for instance, is it political, economical, social or technological.
It is not lost on us that some conditions call for application of domestic law, especially on matters relating to domestic rights such as goo faith. Domestic law is utilized in providing evidence, setting a standard operating procedure and coming up with jurisdictional queries.
The universal rules governing the operations of the court states that no individual can be involved in arbitrating on issues that he/she is involved. The International law in most cases applies the logic of customary law especially on matters touching on: equality of states, consent, and legality of accord as well as independence of seas.
However, particular basic principles have currently been established apart as driving prerequisites of jus cogens that may perhaps influence the consequences of extra-ordinary rules. The general principle of the court is that it does not observe dogma of precedent but tries to preserve judicial uniformity.
Judicial Decisions Decisions of international tribunals are never tightly formal instead sometimes referred to as commanding evidence of the status of the law and pragmatic importance of the modeling of ‘subsidiary means’ is real. Vital decisions of jurisprudence will basically have critical impacts to the law.
In arbitral laws, the writing of the law constitutes recurrent reference to conclusions of the arbitral tribunals. The superiority of arbitral tribunals has differed significantly, but there have been numerous prizes which have remarkable donations to the growth of the law by renowned jurists meeting as judges, mediators, or representatives.
Concerning interpretation of peace treaties, the United Nations General Assembly gave the court some questions to be used for suggestive opinion. The questions were sampled from the past courses of actions from troubled states such as Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania.
The court’s article 38(1) (D), decision of national courts, permits the court to borrow from national tribunals since matters of human concern cuts across all societies. Particular verdicts give straight evidence about the pragmatic nature of the state. Other decisions however contain liberal studies of the level of law and reflect on available sources.
A lot of verdicts of the court involve matters of general significance to the society. Ad hoc international tribunals established by consent between a few states possibly will reap important proclamations on fragile matters, relying mostly on the status of the tribunal as well as its constituents, and on the situation upon which it operates.
The Literatures of Publicists The Statute of the International Court stipulates that the teachings of the highly experienced be utilized in deducing issues. The writers are believed to have had decisive influence in the field and whatever they publish can serve as evidence and terms of reference can be made from their works.
It is though, evident that personal features penetrate into some evaluation of juristic view, that individual writer replicate general and other discrimination, and, additionally, that some publicists see themselves to be proliferating innovative and superior points as opposed to holding unreceptive assessment of the law.
Whatsoever the need for concern, the views of publicists are used widely. The reality that writers are employed by the court is confirmed by the rebellious and detached views in which the machineries are located in more detail and imitate the real techniques of models of the court as complete. Countless reference to writers is to be created in the insistence before the court.
Consideration of Humanity Deliberations of human dignity may perhaps be intertwined with the skewed approval of the jurist, but, supplementary to objectively, they could be linked to human principles previously confined by constructive authorized values which, when put in use collectively, disclose particular criterion of civic plan and provoke the application of comparison.
Such criterion has apparent links to wide-ranging ethics of law and with egalitarianism, but they require no meticulous explanation. Allusion to values or laws of civilization appear in prefaces of conferences in declarations of the United Nations General Assembly.
Development of a Systematic Perspective on School Based Management Policy and Implementation Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
A version of School-Based Management
Responsibilities of the stakeholders
Benefits of SBM
Challenges facing implementation of SBM
SBM in promoting improvements in students
Introduction The research paper is a critical examination of the concept of school-based management. It is no doubt that public schools have in the recent past rethought and redesigned the manner with which they opt to operate effectively and efficiently via the process of restructuring or systematic reforms (Fiske, 1995).
To show that the matter is a serious issue, various countries across the globe have initiated such approaches in order to uplift national education. An example of such is Indonesia, where the central government came up with a commission of national education that was back in 2001; this decentralized education.
This was realized by formation of school councils which were later realized to bring democratic leadership translating to higher level of parent participation in issues relating to governing the schools as well as improved national education level (Bryk et al., 1998).
In the wake of 21st century, it is worth noting that all Indonesia public schools had adopted school-based management. It is thus very important to emphasise the importance of balancing between centralization and decentralization of policies regarding school-based management.
In the strictest terms, school-based management has been thought of as the mechanisms used to decentralize decision making authority to the school site which is a popular approach that gains momentum in early 1980s thanks to school reform movements (Weiss, 1992). As noted, majority of schools have make efforts in trying to implement this approach in managing budgets, curriculum among other issues in schools.
The various advantages of the approach brought forth by proponents include the following; learners will be offered best programs since resources are wisely allocated; better decisions are arrived at since it is made by a group and not individuals and it also results to enhance communication between and among the relevant stakeholders.
To address the issue of SBM the paper will develop systematically and defend with sound reasons and arguments a version of SBM together with its associated accountability mechanisms that would be appropriate for a school in the United Kingdom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the successes associated with SBM are also of importance. The challenges that will be faced in trying to implement the proposed approach will be tackled. Lastly an explanation of how best SBM can be used to promote improvements in students learning outcomes will be covered.
A version of School-Based Management As noted previously, SBM main objective and aim is to bring about positive change. It is worth noting from the onset that SBM seeks to transfer a number of responsibility and decision making with regards to operation of schools not only to teacher and principals but also to parents, students, and business people among other stakeholders.
Nonetheless, such decentralization of authority needs to be in line with policies that are centrally determined. It is no doubt that there are a number of SBM programs that can be employed in a public school. The differences usually arise both in terms of the one bestowed with the power and responsibility in coming up with decisions as well as to what degree of coming up with decisions have been devolved o schools and its constituents (Katyal
Video Analysis: E.L.Hayes Critical Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Theory Application
Learning is constant process that pools together environmental, cognitive as well as emotional influences including experiences of attaining, boosting, or modifying ones understanding,skills,ideals as well as the world views. Therefore, learning as a procedure focuses on what occurs when the learning is taking place.
From the behaviorist prospective, all processes relate to learning – thinking, acting, and feeling – are presented as a set of behaviors. Therefore, behaviorism defined learning as a method to teach children any type of activities by means of drilling and practicing. Using behaviorist model of teaching and outlining lessons involves a response paradigm to be followed both by a teacher and by a student.
In other words, the main task of the teach consists in clear exposition of lesson objectives that would help students understand what needs to be done and help teacher track the changes and the course of accomplishing those objectives. On the one hand, such an approach seems to be effective because teacher can follow the lesson plan directly and expect the behaviors with regard to the identified objectives.
On the other hand, these behaviors may end up causing the concerned child to lack stable interaction with others. Certainly, dealing with behaviors is a great challenge as far as culturally diverse group of students is concerned. Teacher should find an approach that would be consonant with a plethora of nuances linked to the problem of learning levels and cultural peculiarities.
The teacher should establish contact with all students to understand the gap that should be fulfilled. This is, perhaps, the major constraint faced by educators while resorting to behaviorist theories.
Theory Application In the video, the teacher strictly establishes the traditional curriculum and the steps to be taken to accomplish the plan effectively. In particular, he describes in detail the essence of the reading activities and tries to identify the importance of reading.
He clearly outlines what students will have to accomplish during their summer vocations and explains the steps in practice. First of all, he highlights the three steps to be done for successful reading. These steps include reading a paragraph from a non-fiction article, retelling the passage that has just been read, and rereading the paragraph one again if the information is difficult to perceive while reading for the first time (“E.L. Hayes – The 5th Grade, DC,” n. d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the teacher described the steps, he proceeds to practicing and drilling the outlined activities in order to track the way students understand those steps. Secondly, apart from clear instructions and careful lesson planning, a behaviorist approach also implies the evaluation of students’ response to the presented plan.
This can be explicitly viewed on the video where the teacher details the steps into more meaningful sub-units to understand what problems might occur as students read an article and analyze it. In other words, a behavioral model does not just set the rules making a student to observe them.
Rather, it is a mutual agreement between a teacher and a student where the former establishes specific behaviors to receive positive reinforcement. Hence, before students start accomplishing the assignment, the teacher gives an explicit example of how the reading process should be organized.
He reads the article, starts retelling the paragraph, identifies the problems he has with understanding the passages, and reads the text ones again to find an answer the question (“E.L. Hayes – The 5th Grade, DC,” n. d. ). In such a way, the teacher intends to promote intrinsic reinforcement (Ormrod, 2011, p. 417).
With regard to the approaches used by the teacher, it should be stressed that some of the methods applied align to the established patterns and modes of behaviorism. Most of the presented stages are oriented on introducing new thinking and acting behavior that were first shown by the teacher.
Specifically, the first strategy used by the teacher align with the concepts of traditional planning of the curriculum where the primary goal is to identify objectives and explain students what they are expected to do (Ormrod, 2011, p. 386). This is particularly connected with operant conditioning, meaning that the teacher modifies his behavior to associate with the incentive.
Second, scaffolding the delivered material is aimed at reinforcing the students’ responsiveness and triggering their reactions to the identified steps. This stage of teaching is congruent with behaviorism as well because it aims to provoke student attention and trigger them to perform the previously identified and shown behaviors.
We will write a custom Essay on Video Analysis: E.L.Hayes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the whole, the video content offers a candid insight into the manner a lesson plan can be effectively executed. In regard to the dynamics of direct instructions the content can be equally be presented differently by including continuous probing which embraces the aspects of testing as well as assessing the student using suitable corrective responses.
Therefore, the content can be re-taught through engaging the students in more complex issues gradually. Thus, this would entail establishing that; the objectives are clear, time allocated is adequate, the content examined is broad, the teacher controls and balances the usage of instructional materials, and that the questions fielded are at a less cognitive level which would provide countless positive responses.
Lesson Redesign The above-outlined strategies refer to the concept that teaching ought to be presented in organized learning. Specifically, the teacher makes use of operant conditioning and intrinsic reinforcement of students’ behavior. In this respect, the content of the proposed lesson plan will also be based on this approaches that contribute to better identification of goals and recognition of stimulus to learn and practice a specific activity (Ormrod, 2011).
The purpose of this can be attributed to the scope of aiding the students to learn how to illustrate the mastery of the presented subject before embarking on the other subject. Therefore, if students fail to understand or comprehend the presented subject, under this strategy the proposed strategies will help understand how the lessons plan can be improved in terms of peer monitoring, unit group discussions, tutoring including additional homework.
This would thus entail providing extra time to those students who require extra coaching. After re-planning the lessons, it will be possible to provide with unit’s materials which are designed for group or individual use. It ought to be noted that mastery approach in regard to behavioral strategies allows the students to be given the apposite circumstances for learning.
Thus, each student is expected to apply to the behaviors that were initially shown by the teacher. Assessing the students would entail gauging the manner they react to the specific questions as well as the materials assigned to them.
This can be linked to the fact that the mastery strategy provides the students with an opportunity to learn and interact through collective tutoring. Therefore, in such a situation evaluating each student would be easier and more moderated.
Conclusion By re-teaching, the video content as per the above mentioned behavioral strategies the apparent aspects that are linked to behavioral theory. This can be testified by the manner these strategies have been executed to integrate diverse behavioral features. I
Not sure if you can write a paper on Video Analysis: E.L.Hayes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More t should be noted that in the course of lesson planning as well as operant condition and reinforcement teaching strategies seem to be a crucial tool for advancing the thinking skills for students. Perhaps this is due to the fact that it allows the teacher-student relationship to develop.
Therefore, examining the diverse behavioral concepts and assumptions, it would be instrumental to argue that the video provides a considerable insight into diverse Elaborations theory and Instructional transaction theories essential in lesson planning including class planning. This can be supported by the fact that each strategy provides diverse aspects of course modularity, which includes definitions and objectives of all modules.
Also, the explored strategies illustrate that individual learning speed or tempo is essential and ought to be considered when planning for a lesson. Therefore, the teacher is expected to be patient and considerate when executing his lesson plans in regard to the above mentioned strategies.
It should be noted each student has his or her unique requirement and behavioral attitudes which require careful approach and considerations. Therefore, all these ought to be considered as is illustrated in the video “E.L. Haynes – The 5th Grade, DC” to understand how behaviors are associated with learning techniques and knowledge acquisition.
References E.L. Haynes – The 5th Grade, DC. (n.d.) Web.
Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Educational Psychology. (7th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Role of Dynamic Capabilities and the Firm’s Abilities for Knowledge Management Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Easterby-Smith and Prieto (2008), in their article, note that dynamic capabilities are regularly placed as an extension of the resource-based view. This view claims that an organization has a different composition of tangible and intangible resources that result to the variations in organizations’ competitiveness and their performance.
The resource-based view has been criticized. It is static and cannot evolve together with the changing resources and capabilities that appear to an organization over time (Shipton 2006). On the other hand, dynamic capabilities come in handy for firms in turbulent environmental conditions because a firm has to be able to create, maintain and remake its sources of competitive advantage.
This view of dynamic capabilities concentrates on the current assets of a firm, its organizational processes and its history. The view assumes learning is a process by which repetition and experimentation increase the efficacy of performing tasks. This makes it dependent of the social networks within the firm and its environment.
The current view of dynamic capability outlined above has not been fully tested empirically. In addition, it fails to hold under extreme volatile environmental conditions. The uniqueness or similarity of dynamic capabilities of firms is yet to be determined.
Moreover, the extent of the reflection of dynamic capabilities, on the individuality of firms such as their idiosyncrasies and specific path dependencies is not clear. Firms have different bases for pursuing different competitive advantage paths because of their distinctiveness. In this regard, we note that the dynamic capabilities of a firm are important; however, the context of their deployment has a significant influence on the success of the deployment itself.
Contrary to concentrating on the deployment, another view revolves around the resources and organizational routines. This second view is torn between the observation of the resources or the routines that allow the reconfiguration of the resources. In hindsight, there exists a capability hierarchy of operational, then dynamic and finally learning capabilities.
Each level of the hierarchy is geared toward the other. The inclusion of learning in the hierarchy has been met with some resistance from scholars concerned about its role in the hierarchy. In one instance, learning appears to be specific to the identification of new opportunity, repetition and experimentation. On the other hand, learning appears to be a performance-relevant attribute.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The debate on learning’s position in the hierarchy is resolved by the argument that dynamic capabilities arise out of the learning, which shapes operational capabilities of a firm (Winter 2003). The above debate clearly differentiates dynamic and operational capabilities. It also affirms ‘dynamic’ as evolving and ‘capabilities’ as the potential.
Because of this realization, functional routines, such as those carried out in knowledge management, will lead to the possession of dynamic capabilities and the same functional routines also have dynamic capability (Bennet
Sustainable Solutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center Analytical Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Proposal
Applying Traditional Strategic Thinking Tools
Extending and Re-Framing Your Sustainable Solutions Paper
Applying Systems and Sustainability Frameworks
Proposal Vanderbilt University Medical Center is the company proposed for analysis in terms of its profitability, sustainability, and overall effectiveness with the help of different tools such as the SWOT analysis, sustainability analysis, value chain analysis (NetMBA.com, 2007), and a number of other different methods that can contribute to the overall image of the organization.
The organization is engaged into a chain of activities including health care services and educational field which can be considered its major specializations. At the same time, it is important that the company can perform its functions effectively regardless of the number of fields in which it specializes including research and health care as well as education.
As suggested in the study by Senge, Smith, Kruschwitz, Laur, and Schley (2008), “societies are not monolithic” (p. 8). In this respect, the difference between various components of the society should be addressed in an appropriate way bearing in mind this very difference.
The evaluation of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center can help demonstrate the practical implementation of analysis in terms of the effectiveness of the organization and its sustainability taking into account the employees and employers relations, corporate social responsibility component, and the roles and potential benefits of stakeholders from changes that may be introduced.
Harvard Business School Press (2005) states “strategy in the absence of effective implementation is pointless” (p. 64). In other words, the evaluation of the organization is necessary for further improvements because knowing the theoretical framework of the organization, it is easier to apply practical decisions to its elements.
In addition, every step in critical thinking requires a profound approach which is selected in accordance with the specific goals of the organization and its functions including the analysis of stakeholders and the role of employees in the maintenance of the organization.
Introduction As suggested in the study by Porter and Millar (1985), good research base can be considered one of the competitive advantages of an organization involved in business activities. As the Vanderbilt University Medical Center carries out educational functions and health care activities, its research base should be really profound.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the need to apply strategic thinking in this organization becomes apparent after analysis of its strengths and weaknesses. The concept of sustainability is present in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center due to the complex approach selected here to maintain different fields effectively combined with the core in health care and education.
Applying Traditional Strategic Thinking Tools Stakeholder identification and value analysis. Freeman (1984) and Freeman and Gilbert (1988) have outlined an approach when stakeholders are identified in terms of their role and potential benefits as well as possible contributions in the corporate social responsibility.
The main stakeholders of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center are employees, patients, researchers and scholars, public, media, politics, authorities, and other health care institutions. According to the value-creation approach introduced by Wheeler, Colbert, and Freeman (2003), the Vanderbilt University Medical Center has “a value-neutral or trade-off perspective, typically associated with effective corporate philanthropy and stakeholder communications” (p. 11).
General force analysis. The general forces for this organization include demographics, technology, progress, religion, views of people, and education.
Porter’s five forces industry analysis. As the organization performs effectively, the main forces that can shape its competitive methods include the bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of buyers (Porter, 2008, p. 27).
Detailed value chain analysis. The performance of new entrants to the industry would insignificantly shape the position of the organization in the market because it I not the major force that would shape its performance.
Detailed SWOT/SCOT analysis. Kaplan (2004) states that SCOT theory emphasizes “stabilization and closure” (p. 487) while Böhm (2009) suggests analysis of strengths and weaknesses in the framework of SWOT analysis (p. 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainable Solutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key success factors: Integrating the analysis. The potential skills and capabilities of the organization depend on the education level and the level of the research center which is a part of the organization.
Analyzing the company strategy type. According to Gupta, Gollakota, and Srinivasan (2005) ‘specialization ratio’ is the main criterion of corporate strategy (p. 180).
Analyzing the company strategy moves. The company strategy moves are often regarded as timing tactics (Kazmi, 2008, p. 256). In this respect, the steps the company makes characterize its moves.
Managing Innovations and Entrepreneurship Essay college essay help online
Introduction Protection of innovation is a key element in promoting the development or growth of entrepreneurship activities. For an entrepreneur to reap from their innovative ideologies there must be adequate measures in place for preventing actions that encourage imitations.
Entrepreneurs can prevent imitations in various ways such as the use of standard patent, trademarks and patents among many others. This document, therefore, is going to explicate the various ways that enterprises use to prevent imitations.
Standard Patent An entrepreneur can protect a method, process or device that he or she has creatively developed by acquiring patent rights (Australian government 2003). For example, cochlear company has patent rights on its ear device designed for the deaf, in various countries to protect imitations. This is an effective barrier to stop others form manufacturing, reproducing of commercializing this device unless upon proper authorization by the company.
Innovative patent An innovative patent protects small entrepreneurs who cannot afford standard or normal patents (Australian government 2003). This protection is suitable for businesses, which have short commercial or existence period. Considering advantages, innovative patent are reasonably inexpensive as compared to the standard patent.
Additionally, innovative patents are easily obtainable and further take relatively less time to acquire. Ultimately, innovative patents offer equal level of protection as the standard patent thus similar in terms of effectiveness.
Trademarks One can define a trademark as a symbol, letter, picture, logo, packaging or a combination of these aspects, which differentiates a company’s goods or services from the rest in the market (Australian government 2003). For example, the word “Coca Cola” is a trademark for the renowned beverage organization.
This, therefore, means that no other organization can use this name for any other reason without obtaining consent or permission of Coca Cola organization. The advantage of a trademark is that it protects or safeguards your brand in various ways.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Design Registered designs protect an entrepreneur from imitations of his or her product outlook (Australian government 2003). Perfect examples of designs include product configurations and features. For instance, bed sheets with Ken Done designs are registered. This prevents or deters anyone from reproducing or manufacturing the same pattern or design. The use any registered design without permission is punishable legally.
Copyright Copyright protects an entrepreneur’s original work such as music, art, broadcasts, literature, films and computer programmes (Australian government 2003). Copyright prevents anyone from unauthorized copying of another’s creative work. Some of the protected works under copyright include music, artwork, literature, drawing, poems, and novels among other material.
Circuit layout rights Circuit layout right provides entrepreneurs exclusive rights to manufacture copy and commercially reproduce the original layout design of integrated circuit and microchips.
Trade secrets and confidentiality This is whereby an entrepreneur maintains secrets of his or her trading activities, commodities or processes (Australian government 2003). For instance, Coca Cola organization is the only organization that knows its product recipes thus limiting assuring protection confidentiality. Conversely, organizations use trade secret when there are complications in reversing engineering process or when there is complexity enforcing intellectual properties.
Explicating barriers and protection to innovation One of the most successful companies that have managed to, fully, exercise barriers in preventing imitations is Coca Cola organization (Brown
Motorola Corporation Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Motorola Corporation was started in 1928 with the aim of manufacturing a variety of electronic and communication devices. Since then, the company has been growly rapidly with increased net sales and income as well as the number of employees. The company reached its climax in 1993 with reported net sales of $ 17 billion and 120,000 employees globally.
However, of late, the company has faced many challenges which have declined its sales and hence its profitability. These challenges include the size of the company where it became too large to manage in 1990s, involvement in too many businesses, competition from rival companies such as Nokia, and other internal and external factors that reduced the market share of the company in the communication market. The company got involved in too many businesses but it would have specialized in semi conductor devices production.
Company analysis The market share of the company has reduced in the past few years as the company continue involving itself in many businesses thus affecting coordination.
Involvement in so many businesses, which have proved a challenge to the management: the company ought to drop most of its operation lines or products and concentrate on a few lines or just one that will be easily coordinated by the management.
Through the analysis of the company’s recent financial report, the company is able to break-even implying that, if the company concentrates on one line or product, it is possible to raise its profit to higher margins and this concept highlights the importance of specialization in any undertaking.
Semiconductor products The company ought to drop all the products it has been producing and concentrate on the production of semiconductor products. Since 1928 when the company started its operations, it has been manufacturing semiconductor devices with the main clients being electronic manufacturing companies.
The company has continued to dominate in this market for many years; it was ranked the largest manufacturing company of semiconductor globally in 1994. This means that the company already has established itself in this product’s market than in any other product it manufactures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Concentrating on semiconductor products will enable company to restore its position in the market, which it has lost in the past few years due to concentration on so many products.
It will also make it easier for the management to coordinate its operations in all the regions where the company operates and this will help to improve its efficiency and quality of its products thus improving the sale and profitability of the company.
Conclusion The corporation involved itself in so many businesses, which have grown rapidly over time thus becoming a challenge for the management to effectively organize and coordinate all the business groups. However, the company may also continue with its operation since its financial report analysis shows that the company is able to break-even, even at this time when its market share has declined.
The best line or product to concentrate on is the manufacturing of semiconductor devices due to their high profit margin and market advantage the company has on the product. Moreover, the company has been doing quite well in this line; therefore, putting more efforts in the same, market share will increase and returns will escalate pushing the company to great heights.
Building a Cordless Vacuum Cleaner Report online essay help
Gantt Chart “A Gantt chart is a graphical representation of the duration of tasks against the progression of time,” (The Global Voice of Quality, 2004). It is usually an important tool that is used in scheduling of projects and planning activities (Tague’s, 2004). The Gantt chart below has been produced by using Microsoft Office Project and shows the activities for building a cordless vacuum cleaner.
The red bars show the critical tasks while the blue bars indicate the normal tasks. The time scale has two tiers; the middle tier gives time duration in months while the bottom tier gives time duration in weeks. The task names and their durations are given in the second and third columns.
Duration of Project in Weeks By using the critical path from the Gantt chart above, the project duration is found to be 17 weeks. Therefore, this is the earliest time by which the project can be completed. More ways of presenting and identifying the project duration are as described in the following paragraphs.
Activities-On-Node Network In an activity-on-node (AON) network, nodes are used as a representation of the activities while arrows are used to show precedence relationships (Vasileios, 2008). The diagram below shows an activity-on-node network generated from the activities required for building a cordless vacuum cleaner. The activities are given in days while two milestones (start and finish) have been used in the drawing.
In the network diagram, the dark red arrows represent the critical path while the black arrows represent other normal activities. The full analysis of this network diagram is given in the following pages.
Figure 2: Self Generated Network Diagram for building a cordless vacuum cleaner.
Network Analysis In this section, the analysis of the activity-on-node network from figure 2 above is conducted in detail. This involves identifying the relationships of the as seen in the diagram to analyzing the implications that arise from the relationships as described in the following paragraphs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As shown on the diagram, the activities (tasks) are represented by the nodes (vertices) of the graph. Therefore, the diagram is a representation of an activity-on-node network diagram as mentioned earlier. As such, the length of an activity is the duration of the corresponding task.
Therefore, start and finish of a task is a representation of two stages of the project (Hyperthot, 2007). Two stages (start and finish) have been introduced in the network diagram to indicate the commencement and completion of the project. Within this stages are a series of intermediate stages which are defined by the activities.
In the network diagram, the commencing milestone with an alpha sign defines the start of the project, but does not use resources (Vasileios, 2008). The start is followed by two independent activities A and B. Task A and B takes 42 days and 14 days respectively to be completed. After the completion of task A and B, there are three more options (C, D, and E) that can be undertaken.
Task H cannot commence because it is preceded by both task B and E which have to be done to completion before starting H. Therefore, only task C, D, and E can commence at this point. Task C and E have a completion period of 21 days each, while task D has a completion period of 35 days. After completion of task (C, D, and E), there are three more options (F, G, and H) that can be undertaken.
Since task B and E succeeded task H and are now both completed, task H can also commence. Task F, G, and H will require a completion time of 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days respectively. Completion of these tasks opens way for task I. Since task J is preceded, by tasks F, G, and I, then the task will not commence until the completion of task I is confirmed.
Therefore, task I (14days) will commence after the completion of task H and open way for the commencement of task J. Since all the predecessors (F, G, and I) of task J are now complete, task J commences. As the last task, task J runs for 14 days and marks the end of the project. Finally, a completion milestone with a beta sign as shown marks the finish point of the project.
The longest path linking the start and finish point in a network diagram through a series of intermediate activities is the critical path. As such, the critical path is referred to as the earliest time by which a project can be completed as determined by the network diagram.
We will write a custom Report on Building a Cordless Vacuum Cleaner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this project, the critical path is made up of 5 activities which add up to 119 days. Therefore, the project duration for this scenario is 119 days or 17 working weeks. However, if any critical activity is delayed, the project finish time is also delayed (Verzuh, 1999). Also, if an activity along the critical path is finished earlier, then the critical path is reduced meaning project finish time is reduced.
In the paragraphs that follow, the descriptions of the critical path activities, project duration, and the floats of non-critical activities are given.
Critical Path Activities There are five critical path activities as listed below.
Activity A (42 days) – Product Design
Activity E (21 days) – Marketing Brochure
Activity H (28 days) – Market survey
Activity I (14 days) – Pricing and forecast
Activity J (14 days) – Final report
Critical path activities make up the longest path linking the start and finish points of a project (Vasileios, 2008). Therefore, they play a significant role in determining the outcome duration of a project (Essential Skills for an Excellent Carrier, 2011).
If any such activity is affected, then the project duration is affected either positively or negatively. In this project, altering activity A, E, H, I, and J will cause a variation in the project duration by either delaying or reducing the project finish time.
Project Duration As shown from the above analysis, 119 days or 17 working weeks is the required time to fully complete the project. As a matter of fact, the minimum duration of the project is determined by the length of the longest path between the start and finish point of the project (Thomsett, 1980).
This is indicated by thick red arrows as shown in the network diagram. There are five critical activities which are; activities A (42 days), E (21 days), H (28 days), I (14 days) and J (14 days). Summing up the lengths of these critical activities gives a total of 119 days or 17 weeks. Therefore, the project duration is 17 weeks.
Floats of the Non-Critical Activities “A float is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying a succeeding task or affecting the duration of the project” (Encyclopedia of Management, 2011). Below are floats within the cordless vacuum cleaner project.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Building a Cordless Vacuum Cleaner by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Job Description Immediate Predecessors Normal Time(Weeks) Floats (Weeks) A Product Design 6 0 B Market research Plan 2 7 C Manufacturing and engineering A 3 0 D Prototype A 5 0 E Marketing Brochure A 3 0 F Cost Estimate C 2 4 G Testing D 3 1 H Market survey B,E 4 0 I Pricing and forecast H 2 0 J Final report F,G,I 2 0 Early-Start Gantt chart
Project Management Methodology Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Project management involves securing, scheduling, supervising and organizing organization resources for achievement of specific project objectives in order to attain the overall goal of the company (Gareis, 2006). The project management aim is to attain all the project goals and objectives within the constraints of budget, scope and time (Gareis, 2006) while optimizing the allotment and incorporation of resource inputs that are required to meet predefined goals.
The modern project management model was started in the early 1960s, driven by businesses that comprehended the reimbursements of organizing work around projects and the vital requirements to converse and coordinate work in various professions and departments (Gareis, 2006).
Project Methodology The project management methodology is essential in companies today because the projects needs much tighter incorporation and innovativeness than previous years, this demands the use of more resourceful means to test, design, build and deploy products and services (Lock, 2003).
The administrator cannot make a project plan by satisfying one or more templates, therefore the company need more out of their project than previous years and the only means to attain a competent outcome is to take on lighter swifter and newer project methodologies.
Methodology can empower a company by sharing information crossways in what is referred as “virtual project enterprise”; the company must therefore select a comprehensive project management methodology that is useful to the person managing the project (Lock, 2003). This is because projects have important technological, resources and data elements that need supervision throughout their life cycle.
A methodology which can be used in various segments of companies can be tailored to reflect detailed project plan when executing the project; this requires several options to be explored to establish what procedure to follow. Projects undergo definite life cycles which determine how the projects are supervised from the preliminary design phase all the way through to the delivery and ultimate implementation of the project.
The secret behind the success of any project methodology is the use of concrete procedures which act as the base for any successful project initiative that is supported by adequate credentials and pertinent procedures that provide the company with reliable outcomes (Nokes, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many companies have their own unique customized methodology for various projects while others merely employ standard commercial off-the shelf methodologies; the challenge is that with wrong methodology, discerning, constructing, assessing, and deploying projects may be hectic.
The project methodology that is therefore selected signifies the framework that will be used for the actual work to be done and highlights where creativity is required. But many a times supervisors just chose the available methodology and carry on development of their projects without changing the project methodology which may negatively impact on the project. This means that managers must first establish that the methodology they are using is the right one.
Project supervisors find it hard to renounce the project methodology presented in conventional development as there is no assurance that the team will deliver if they just use the selected methodology. In addition clients rarely finish need specifications because their needs keep changing constantly; therefore the most rational way of doing it is simply to develop the product according to the customer specifications in compliance with the project development procedure.
This demonstrates the need for a methodology which is more flexible than a formal waterfall approach, but the trend has actually been on budging towards the incremental style of methodologies.
Companies developing new products always do it simultaneously with existing product developments frequently competing for same resources and delivery dates. This requires the project to be implemented in a coordinated approach with several differentiators toward the development of new astral products, thus a competitive project methodology is required to illustrate value and mirror the corporate strategy goals and objectives (Phillips, 2003).
The project team is supposed to be armed with the correct tools, skills, methodology and keep the customers involved by advising on the projects outcome; this make the project methodology adjustable to fit the solutions. The use of light or heavy methodologies in a company determines the success of the project.
According to Fowler (2001) escalating technological complexities, changes in customer needs and project delays bring in a little revolution in the world of methodology development. The introduction of new methodology such as agile and adaptive was opposed by heavyweight methodologies (Fowler, 2001).
We will write a custom Report on Project Management Methodology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because lightweight projects consist of few policies, preparations, documents and uses casual communication as it is designed and constructed through face-to-face discussions in meetings with customers (Fowler, 2001). On the other hand the heavyweight methodology uses SDLC approach which is bureaucratic in nature and has made many projects to be unsuccessful because of difficulties in swiftness of design, expansion and deployment challenges which slows down project completion.
In heavyweight a manager must get a complete list of user needs from the customer, failure to have the list, makes the methodologies not to work efficiently because the project will be racked with redraft, change, and slippages on the project documentation (Ireland, 2006). It works on the assumption that the more regulations and coordination the project has the better it outcome (Ireland, 2006).
Conclusions These methodologies are useful especially when the company consist of multiple teams, working in various sites where there is need for close management and formalization of the project. In conclusion, the adoption of project management methodology depends on the company’s strategy and size, in this scenario the company size and strategy is not known and therefore no methodology can be prescribed.
However, depending on the company size and strategy the company can adopt the lightweight or heavyweight project methodology and the success of the methodology will rely on the use of solid reliable procedures that act as the basis of good estimation and implementation strategies when implementing projects.
References Fowler. M. 2001. The new methodology: Thought work New York, [Online] (Updated 2010) Available at: www.martinfowler.com/articles.
Gareis. R. 2006. Global project management handbook. New York; McGraw
Ireland. L. 2006. “Project management”. Boston: McGraw-Hill
Lock. D. 2003. Project management. London: Gower
Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management Methodology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nokes. S. 2007. The definitive guide to project management. London: Prentice Hall
Phillips. J. 2003. PMP Project Management Professional study guide, Los angles: McGraw-Hill
The American Strategic Culture Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The American strategic culture
Background of the war
Insights into the American culture
Introduction Wide as the American culture may be deemed to be and the depth to which its norms and virtues root, it is still open to changes that come across from time to time which in the long-run affect the overall perceptions of things and their outlook of various issues and the circumstances they undergo.
The stages of growth which the American culture has undergone over time cannot be summarized in only one piece of work due to the many factors in it that is worth noting, as such there is a tendency by authors and researchers alike to focus on one aspect of this concept in order that they maximally exploit their discoveries.
In his Book ‘To the hills of the montezumas; the Mexican war in the American imagination”, author Robert W. Johanssen exploits the perceptions of the general American to the Mexican- American conflict. It digs into the pre and the post war era’s, exposing the deep sited feelings among the Americans and the effects of the war towards both their social, cultural and economic structures.
Through the book, he re-activates people’s notions, moods, their feelings about that given period in time and history. He also makes a rejoinder of the generations that came long after the war to it, giving credence to the fact that to many Americans it gave them a sense of pride in nationhood, defined their strategic size and power and the fact that it’s from the war that America’s star started shining brightly among other nations. It became recognized as a world power to reckon with, as one that could sacrifice anything for the sake of its boundaries.
The American strategic culture Strategic culture, much as it may have different definitions and people’s understanding of the term may differ, we shall mainly adopt its meaning from the context that this paper tries to explore; a history of conflict and war their effects to the local culture and the long- term repercussions.
As such, strategic culture can be defined as “a set of shared beliefs, assumptions, and modes of behavior, derived from common experiences and accepted narratives (both oral and written), that shape collective identity and relationships to other groups, and which determine appropriate ends and means for achieving security objectives” (Streeby, 2002).
From the days of yore, war in all its forms, be it cold or confrontational has made tremendous changes in the evolution of culture. He urges the folk to come to terms with the spirit with which their belief systems and their foundations and borders lie, calling it ‘the spirit of age’ (Johannsen, 1985).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He further continues in his rhetoric that “it is deceptively simple to project our own standards of behavior, our own hierarchy of values to a by- gone era, but it does not in the long run, aide us greatly in understanding the past”. He further alludes that “What is needed is further understanding of the past on its own terms, not on ours” (Johannsen, 1985).
This was in respect to the changing circumstances that nations or societies find themselves entangled in, it defeats sense to judge these issues from our present mindsets and views of things, rather he articulates that we delve deeper into history and place ourselves in the shoes of these people at the time, understand their norms and taboos before picking a standpoint.
This he explains to be the best way to take a stance on the myriad issues that define our history, as they in big way afftected societal characters over time. In this context, he was implying that it was an embarrassment for a country of the United States stature’ to attack a small nation, further more a third world country.
Background of the war The war broke out in 1846 and went through to 1848; it involved armed warfare between the two nations of the United States and Mexico. This feud arose from Mexico’s opposition to the occupation of Texas by the United States, Mexico still considered Texas to be its territory despite Texas’ earlier protest in 1836 which was renamed the Texas revolution.
In spite of the protest by Mexico, the United States went ahead with its intentions to annex the territory. Their army entered by force into Texas, conquering vast regions of Mexico inclusive of which is the New Mexico, California and a few patches of the Northern side of Mexico.
They not only occupied these regions, they went deeper to the south, where another group of the American army took over the control of Mexico. This, they used as a bait to coerce Mexico to sale of its Northern region to the United States.
The expansion programme was an idea of the then president, Mr. James K. Polk who was the leader of the Democratic Party. He initiated this move despite there being massive resistance to the takeover by a huge chunk of his population and a threat of war by Mexico.
We will write a custom Essay on The American Strategic Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the United States particularly, controversy was rife with big names that were opposed to slavery and the Whig party totally standing up against this move. The aftermath was highlighted by many casualties on the American side of the war; the cost of the war was also too big for an economy that was still growing then. Due to its financial strength and military might, the United States won the war, forcing Mexico to give up its areas including Alta California and New Mexico.
To this, the United States compensated Mexico with eighteen million dollars as the price for these states, also gave up its debts owed by Mexico. Mexico gave up Texas, marking Rio Grande as its national boundary with the United States. Shortly after, the American government discovered gold in Texas, which immediately attracted investment towards the state.
Politically, the aftermath of the war witnessed the questioning of the government in relation to its stand on slavery which fired up debates regarding the civil war. A compromise was reached at in 1850, which served to briefly quell the tension that was slowly building up once more, both within the United States and among the Mexicans.
Insights into the American culture This war had myriad effects to the people that witnessed the takeover. The most popular was the change in attitude by the people of the two countries towards each other. He Mexicans of that generation and generations that came later grew up with negative attitudes towards the United States; they usually see it as an enemy and treat the American people rather coldly.
They associate their relationship to one of war, hate and envy. On its part, the United States being the superior power and one far much greater has other responsibilities to boot. Rather than fuel the hate or focus on the country that is Mexico from a negated perception, it has embraced the much greater role that is being the super power.
As such its responsibilities span worldwide, and such its attitudes and perceptions towards Mexicans aren’t as bold as the Mexican hatred towards it. Altogether, the war was about race, the equality and the degree to which each of the parties could stretch to prove their points.
The American folk believes he is superior, both technically and intelligence wise. In retaliation, the general Mexican doesn’t believe this, resulting to the cold war and confrontation that always arises when the parties come to contact.
Conclusion The Mexican war, as is popularly referred resulted to a period in history that defines the culture of the two states. One action by the Americans caused ripples in their relationship with each other, and generations Mexicans have never healed from the scars. This defines their cultures in that their attitude towards Americans is rather negative and one where emotions usually spill over whenever they disagree.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Strategic Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The full society among the Mexicans have embraced this notion and exude similar attitude towards the Americans, this defines their culture on this aspect. Americans on the other hand have a passive attitude; they do not usually react when they are provoked as relates to their race or culture unless they are extremely pushed to the wall.
They are preserved and maintain a cool demeanor. This is however being watered down with time given the fact they interact with each other at different levels, for example the Mexicans are employed in American firms, they get to interact more lessening the degree to which the animosity spreads.
References Johannsen R. (1985). To the halls ofmontezumas: Themexican war in the American imagination. New York: Oxford university press.Print
Streeby, S. (2002). American sensations: Class, empire and the production of popular culture. Berkely: University of California press. Print
Labor Dispute between the Board Of Education and the Union Representing the Teachers in Danville, Illinois Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In 2010, there was witnessed one of the biggest labor conflicts in history. Public school teachers and support staff of public schools in Illinois state, the city of Danville went on strike. The conflict was between the Danville Education Association (DEA) and the Danville Consolidated School District 118 Board of Education. The main reason for the strike was that the mediation efforts led by the federal government to resolve the problems between the teachers and the employer did not yield any fruits.
The teachers had made demands to the Danville Consolidated School District Board of Education that their wages be increased and rehiring of their colleagues who had been fired for budgetary reasons. The school had laid off some teachers and school nurses in an attempt to cut down on costs. The strike received total support from the members of DEA and it is said to be one of the greatest strikes in Danville since the strike of 1977.
Negotiations to try and resolve the differences had been going on for some months and they were led by the federal government. The strike came when a deadlock on the negotiations was reached after an extensive consultation and negotiation session with the two parties.
The session took more than ten hours and the two parties did not come up with a way to resolve the differences. This led to the strike where more than 600 schoolteachers and staff were involved. The teachers walked in protest in the city. The president of the Danville Local National Education Association (NEA) blamed the Board of Education for the strike saying that the stand of the negotiators of the board made the teachers to resort to strike (International Committee of the Fourth International, 2011).
One of the main issues that led to the stand off between the two parties during the negotiation was that the negotiators of the Board of Education insisted on pay freeze. The negotiator also ruled out the possibility of the schools rehiring employees who had been laid off in order to reduce expenditure in schools.
On the other hand, the District Education Association insisted that the board should rehire the laid off teachers and school nurse instead of hiring uncertified nurses and they also insisted on a two year salary schedule freeze.
In criticizing the boards proposals, the president of the Danville local of the National Education Association termed the proposals made by the board unfair and urged them to reconsider their stand. On the other hand, the board had the support of the Superintendent of Schools who said that the demands made by DEA were not realistic and that the Board of Education in Illinois had done exactly what the other district boards were doing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the Danville Education Association and the school board made attempts to make the conflict appear like a local issue, it is observed that the education system in America is undergoing changes brought by the Obama regime. The Obama administration is seen as the root cause of the conflicts in the education sector since it encourages competition among school districts and states in terms of funding.
The regime also encourages competitive testing criteria for all the students across all the states and districts. The strike was also seen as a political tool by some democrats who wanted the class-based system of education in US (International Labor Organization, 1997).
Literature Review It is universally agreed that human resources or labor is an integral part of an organization (Clarke
Value Innovation Strategy Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Formulating Value Innovation Strategy
Introduction In the business world today, organizations aim at gaining a competitive edge against their competitors. In so doing, organizations are pursuing all the possible avenues that would ensure the achievement of the desired edge in business. The goal is to make the organization the most preferred by the consumers and the other stakeholders, such as financials and donors as the case maybe (Zaltman, Duncan and Holbek, 1973).
In doing this, organizations then turn their efforts in managing innovation and entrepreneurship. Here, organizations aim at formulating innovation strategy. Formulation of innovation strategy is closely related to value innovation concept.
On the other hand, value innovation is unique to each organization as each organization formulates its value innovation concept according to its line of specialty. Of worthy, to note here is that value innovation concept is aimed by the organization at improving its production capacity and quality (Kleinknecht, 1996). To this end, therefore we need to understand the meaning of the whole concept of value innovation in an organization.
In addition, how an organization can use value innovation in formulating its innovation strategy (European Commission, 1995). In order to understand the concept of value innovation, the world innovation will refer to any activity done on an object or a phenomenon aimed at improving the appearance or the overall product of the same object or a situation aimed at getting more output in terms of quality and quantity.
In other words, innovation in the business world will insinuate all activities done in the organization aimed at achieving renewal or improvement of the organization’s production processes. If then this is so about innovation, the concept of value innovation will imply the improvement of the organization efficiency.
This will be through for example, the people engaged in the production process changing their thought system in all matters pertaining the working of the organization. These too will include changes in the way decisions are made and making choices out of the ordinary (Porter and Stern, 2002).
In business economics and entrepreneurship, the concept value innovation is often associated with the output of the process. Value innovation therefore comes to be understood as the adoption of any idea aimed at being transformed into something useful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An organization aiming at applying the concept of value innovation in its production then aims at not at staying ahead of the competitors, but reducing the cost structure. The saved cost is then passed over as benefits to the customer. Here, the organization achieves a competitive edge by producing for the costumers what the competitors do not.
We then come to find out that organizations consider the whole concept of value innovation as important in improving the existing product or service or creating a new one altogether (Kleinknecht, 1996). In improving their efficiency in the production line, organizations have come to appreciate the role value innovation plays in their success or failure.
This is done with the understanding that innovation is the key to success in economy. The application of value innovation should be done through out the production lifecycle. That is from development to delivery (Porter and Stern, 2002).
Formulating Value Innovation Strategy In formulating a value innovation strategy using the value innovation concept, an organization should align its innovation on the inclusive corporate strategy. Instead of only formulating marketing and sales strategies, organizations too need to come up with value innovation strategies. The strategy mentioned here should be reflective of the organization involved.
The innovation strategy should be reflective of the challenges as seen here below. These should include being able to put sustainability first, be able to care for a growing world and be able to create new technologies. In achieving the above, an organization will then need to align itself with the core values of value innovation. These are being responsible in its production process, being able to innovate continuously and being able to think ahead.
If then an organization is to come up with an effective value innovative strategy, it will then need to come up and test new possibilities. This could involve for example, a project that does little harm to the environment.
Illustration With an effective innovation strategy in place, the organization can then aim at using it in achieving a competitive edge against its competitors. This is possible by producing what the competitors does not. The value innovation strategy formulated using the innovation concept can then be used by the organization in the following ways. That is by identifying the intellectual assents in the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Value Innovation Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These intellectual assets if identified then become the pillar of the organization. They could include staff expertise, market intelligence, and trade secrets. The knowledge of ones organization can then be used for example to provide the customers after sale services. This then becomes an innovative way of ensuring customer retention.
Innovation strategy can also be applied in coming up with the best value chain. Value chain here will mean the production process in terms of demand and supply. An effective innovation strategy will enable the organization to realize that each element in the chain provides a chance for the organization to develop its production process.
In concluding this discussion therefore, we find that every organization wishing to achieve a competitive edge against its competitors must aim at coming up with an effective innovation strategy. This will then enable it to produce goods or services that the other organizations do not have. Moreover, it is not merely staying ahead.
Reference List European Commission. (1995) Green Paper on Innovation. Brussels: European Commission.
Kleinknecht, A. (1996) Determinants of Innovation. The Message from New Indicators. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Porter, M. E.
Criminal Justice Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Crime prevention and the criminal justice system
Introduction The contemporary society experiences a huge burden that is linked to crime and violence alongside the negative consequences on the quality of life that people live. There are several impacts of crime such as reduced lifespan, intense fear of insecurity and lack of social comfort as well as reduced working hours due to less time that is spent on the streets.
The rising crime rate is a global challenge that can only be tackled with a vibrant criminal justice system in place. One of the devastating effects of crime that has been associated with violence is that it brings about social waste which emanates from the loss of value of goods as well as the destruction of assets and the fabric of social worth and dignity.
Significant wastage also results from the expenses incurred in the course of crime prevention alongside other costs that are linked to the correctional and rehabilitation centers for offenders. In addition, the criminal justice process is also a costly affair that consumes a significant portion of a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Furthermore, crime brings about myriad of other negative impacts which may not be monetary but have the potential of precipitating a reduction in productivity and also thwarting the planning horizon on various investment projects, disruption of human capital which is usually the main victim of social crime, not to forget the physical capital which may equally be short-changed though in an indirect manner.
This paper offers a succinct exploration of some of the terse measures that should be put in place to curb the rising crime rate crime as well critically discussing the role played by the criminal justice system. The essay argues that the conventional measures taken against crime control in the society may have been surpassed by time and aggravated by the numerous loopholes in the criminal justice system. Behavioral correction and rehabilitation of offenders should be given top priority in alleviating crime rate.
Literature review Measuring the level at which crime becomes toxic or unbearable is pretty hard. Although the empirical measurement may be obtained, it is definitely a daunting task. It may demand significant time and monetary resources to gather and analyze data over a relatively long period of time.
It is also vital to take into account several dimensions and approaches of fighting crime even though there is no common framework that can handle the challenge posed by crime in our society today. The direct costs and expenditures which are associated with criminal justice process and the prevention of crime escalation has been identified as adding up to a significant portion in all the regions of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crime rate has been increasing by double-digit rate in each single year in most parts of the world with some regions doubling others in terms of crime rate. As a precautionary measure, community policing is one of the strategies that has been adopted by most government agencies charged with the duty of maintain peace and order. Nonetheless, this approach to crime reduction has seemingly achieved minimal success.
Annotated Bibliography Bourguignon, F., (1999). Crime, violence, and inequitable development. In: Boris Pleskovic and Joseph Stiglitz (editors). Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 1999/2000, Washington DC, World Bank, 2000, 199-220
According to Bourguignon (1999), the costs associated with crime constitutes an estimated 2.1 percent of the GDP in the United States of America while in Latin America, the fraction is 3.6 percent of the total GDP. The author further points out that crime costs that are directly attached to monetary spending are put into consideration, the costs are even higher in United States, skyrocketing to 2.6 percent and up to 5.1 percent in Latin America.
However, the raging debate on this issue is on the actual osty of crime as computed in the aforementioned figures. There are those who argue that in actual sense, the said crime costs are merely normal social costs which ought to be incurred by the government of the day. On the other hand, there are those who hold the view that this is merely resource transfer within the society.
Glaeser, E., L. (1999). An Overview of Crime and Punishment, Hague:The World Bank.
Glaeser (1999) presents an argument that since in general terms, there is less valuing of commodities by criminals as compared to the valuing that is carried out by the people in the society who lose those commodities, following this, there must consideration of this as a social loss. By fact, and disregarding these arguments, this value is supposed to be equal to the opportunity cost of the time of the criminal.
So to speak, this is the time spent on dealing with crime rather than the time consumed on the legal process or justice system. It is in line with the welfare loss. In addition to loss that is linked to material, among the significant direct crime consequences is the rise in injury as well as the death rates.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Criminal Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the recent times, there has been development of the mechanisms that make it possible to estimate the social cost that come from lowering the level of life expectancy. This has vividly indicated that it can be of great significance in quantitative terms. In considering violence, it has been demonstrated that it represents a significant level of welfare loss which is the same in regard to the magnitude and order of the crime material costs which is usually direct.
Soares, R., R. (2006). The Welfare Cost of Violence across Countries. Journal of Health Economics, 25(5): 821-846
Soares (2006) carries out estimation on the basis of the willingness to pay approach; that the loss of one year in terms of life expectancy to violence is linked with the annual social cost on average that stands at 3.8 percent on the domestic gross product of United States of America alone. This estimation does not include the injury costs as well as the reduced health.
Injury and reduced health costs do not have the estimates that can be trustworthy which are based on economics. The crime costs that are non-monetary along with the age profile that is specific may as well bring about economic consequences of indirect nature.
These effects result from the changes that occur in the way people behave and which are brought about by the reduced length of productive life. It may include reduced level of investment in the human health and capital, a reduction in the level of investment in the physical capital and thus, in general terms, a reduction in growth in the long term.
Lorentzen, P.,McMillan J., Wacziarg R. (2005). Death and Development London: Stanford University Press
The life horizons that are shorter bring down the level of incentives for people to engage in taking action that can lead to benefits that are long term and the costs which are short term which can also include carrying out investment in education and people saving for the time to come.
According to Lorentzen, McMillan and Wacziarg (2006), among the main channels that connect growth and mortality is fertility. A positive relation does exist between fertility and mortality. Among nations with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS for instance, parents have approximately, in average terms, at least two children in comparison with those nations where the prevalence rate is relatively low
Not sure if you can write a paper on Criminal Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Londono, J., L.,
Human Resource Organizations’ Comparison Report scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chartered institute of personnel and development
Society for human resource management
Australian Human Resource Institute
Dubai Human Resources Forum
The decision undertaken and the supporting reasons
Introduction This report entails the comparison of four dissimilar human resource organizations at varied regions of the world. However, in generating these comparisons, the main area of focus is ascertaining the major benefits that these bodies enjoy, together with their deficiencies.
Additionally, the question demands an establishment of an analysis of its cost benefits not forgetting the key requirements for the membership qualification. The entire process of generating the report entails an examination of the organizations solely, but simultaneously making comparisons.
Chartered institute of personnel and development CIPD is a body of professionals committed to ensuring that people venturing in management and development at diverse regions attain success. The organization is committed to its functions and works tirelessly hard in instilling managerial knowledge to the membership. In an endeavor to achieve its stated aspirations, CIPD formulated a policy in its mission statement forbidding the unscrupulous practice in both management and the development fields.
However, serving its members interests takes the central part in its daily operations. However, the organization enjoys numerous benefits in its daily running of the business (CIPD, Andrew,
American Cowboy: Myth vs Reality Dissertation essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Birth of the Cowboy
The Myth of the Cowboy
Reality of the Cowboy
Introduction Arguably the most idealized image in America is that of the cowboy. The cowboy is typically pictured as a lone English-speaking, self made man riding majestically on a horse. He surpasses his limits and rises above all troubles. This image of the cowboy inspires patriotic sentiments to the American and is a representation of the American ideals.
Hillis declares that there are “few cultural images as widespread and enduring as the image of the American cowboy” (17). The conceived image of the cowboy embodies the perceived virtues and abilities of the entire American society. The image of the stereotypical western cowboy who is brave, just and noble has all but erased the truth about the real cowboy who existed in the mid 1800s.
Wright acknowledges how much the history of the wild west has become enshrined in myth by stating that “it seems this land has become our tradition- a tradition based not on the West itself but on the myth of the West” (24). The West as most people think of it if therefore more of a historical force rather than a historical fact.
The reality is that the cowboy (the historical figure) was not as novel as the idealized creation makes him out to be. The battles he waged were seldom just and he did not represent peace. This paper shall set out to give a true depiction of the cowboy by differentiating the myths from the realities.
The paper will begin by tracing the birth of the cowboy and how the image of the cowboy has become enshrined in myth. The paper shall then explore the reality of the cowboy so as to reinforce the fact the image of the cowboy that most people have is an invention of myth and not reality.
Birth of the Cowboy The Cowboy was born in Texas in the mid 1800s as a result of the great cattle herds that were available. Following the independence of Texas, many Mexican’s fled to the south leaving behind thousands of cattle which were grazing in the marshlands. These cattle were considered public property since they had no owners.
The inhabitants of southern Texas discovered that rounding up the strays and driving them to the market was good business. Wallace notes that the concept of rounding up cattle and driving them to the market was nothing new and the practice had been in existence even before the Civil War (17).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ranches were also established by individuals or companies and here, large herds were reared. The success of a rancher was pegged on his ability to transport the large herds and sell them to the high demand regions. To do this, the cattle had to be moved northwards to the national markets or at least to the railroad shipping destinations.
The biggest problem involved the path through which the cattle would traverse. This was because settler farmers along the way did not entertain large herds marching over their crops and destroying them. In many cases, lawmen often stopped cattle from going through certain regions.
The only path that the cattle drive could take freely was Northwards, through Indian Territory where no law existed. To ensure the success of the cattle drives through this wild lands, a large number of cowboys were needed to mobilize the vast herds of cattle. Thus as these squads of cowboys drove their herds from South Texas to the north, the era of the American cowboy was born.
The journey by the cowboys on the trail was full of perils as they encountered numerous dangers that were traditionally associated with the Mississippi frontier (Hillis 18). In the vast plains, the cowboys where at the mercy of nature which was at times unforgiving. They had to bear with windstorms, prairie fires and even floods. In addition to this, there was the every present risk of attacks from Indians who inhabited the land.
However, the reign of the cowboy did not last for long and Hillis documents that less than twenty years after the first cattle drive, conditions developed that ended the cattle drive (18). This conditions included the extension of the railroad lines into the south therefore removing the need for cattle herds to be driven North by Cowboys.
In addition to this, local governments drew legal lines that denied the great herds the right to traverse through the plain headed north. Even so, the image of the cowboy continued to grow and with this growth an idealized image of the cowboy was created. This image was embraced by the public and continues to influence the image that most people have of the cowboy.
The Myth of the Cowboy The Myth of the cowboy if one of the oldest in America and it is expressed in a wide body of literature and folklore spanning for a period of three centuries. Slotkin records that according to this myth, the means to the achievement of an American national identify was through the conquest of the wilderness and the subjugation of the original inhabitants of the land (10).
We will write a custom Dissertation on American Cowboy: Myth vs Reality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the most influential authors on the West, Walter Prescott Webb, describes the cowboy as a man who lives on horseback as do the Bedouins; he fights on horseback, as did the knights of chivalry; he goes armed with a strange new weapon which he uses ambidextrously and precisely; he swears like a trooper, drinks like a fish, wears clothes like an actor, and fights like a devil.
He is gracious to the ladies, reserved towards strangers, generous to his friends and brutal to his enemies. He is a cowboy, the typical Westerner (quoted in Frantz and Choate 80). This description of the cowboy as articulated by Webb embodies the image of the cowboy within existing literary myth.
Sullivan asserts that the cowboy is often required to fight and kill to establish a community that is structured around the European cultural systems (17). In addition to this, this hero is often required to live in the community. This implies that the capacity to colonize was a necessity so as to actualize the expansionist frontier ideal.
According to the myth, the cowboy is a man who is in charge of his destiny; he meets the challenges of every day and even in the face of great odds, he does not back down but charges onwards relentlessly. The myth holds that cowboys were universally possessed by a free sprit as they ventured out into the Wild West.
These courageous souls feared neither man, brute nor element and embodied the archetype of freedom. Frantz and Choate reveal that this folk figure embodies all the virtues of the Anglo-American man and he was a force to reckon with (72). The historical cowboy was not in charge of his own destiny since cowboys were mostly farm hands who were hired to help drive the large herds to the market.
The cowboys sold their skills in return for monetary gains and they followed the command of their masters. This reality contrasts with the mythical image of the cowboy as a self-assured man who is the master of his own fate. The sophistication which is given to the cowboy is also a creation of myth. Wister Owen who published The Virginian in 1902 is credited with adding a level of sophistication to the cowboy.
In his work, he altered the image of the western hero. Even and Pavich state that Wister added “gentility to temper the preexistent toughness, courage and cleverness” (370). This image had no historical merit since the cowboy was an unsophisticated farm hand whose livelihood was dependent on his acquired skills with cattle.
Even so, this image of Wister’s West was accepted by a large audience and continues to be the basis of the stereotypical cowboy image. Another mythical image of the legendary cowboy is that of the lawman. This image was first created by Norris who sought to change the image of the cowboy from that of villain.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Cowboy: Myth vs Reality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prior to this, the cowboy had been glamorized as a lawless hero with men such as Buffalo Bill personifying the cowboy. Norris’ creation presented the cowboy as the heroic Anglo-Saxon who was fighting for law and justice so as to subjugate a wild land (Even and Pavich 374). In his book, The Octopus, Norris represented the cowboy as a good man who was willing to die for a cause.
This man was brave, selfless and as such a hero. This is the image that is projected in most of the Western movies where the cowboy rides after the lawless characters and confronts them in an epic gun battle. Here, the selfless cowboy wins through his skill with the six gun, a gun which is symbolized as a weapon of peace and justice
Eugene Manlove Rhodes who was a writer who wrote about the cowboy owing to his literary craftsmanship and his involvement in the horse and cattle-West introduced the legacy of “The Code of the West”. According to this fictitious code, the cowboy was self-reliant, individualistic and accepted danger in all its forms.
The cowboy held class distinctions in disdain and had a self-imposed obligation to assist anyone in distress (Even Pavich 517). This myth showcases the cowboy as a person of honor who lives by a code much like the medieval knights did. Even and Pavich note that Eugene Rhodes idealized the notion of the west and his writings were romantic confections as opposed to the real truth.
The morality of the community is also embodied in the myth of the cowboy. A man in the Western lands was as great as he desired to be and as good or as bad as he wished. The law only existed within its immediate jurisdiction and outside of it every man was his own law. Another mythical image of the cowboy is as that of the last frontiersman who led the way for the imposition of order in the Wild West.
The acclaimed historian Frederick Turner defines westward expansion as “an invisible frontier line separating civilization from savagery” (Turner and Faragher 15). American development depended on the advancement of American settlement westwards and the civilizing of the savage regions. The cowboy personified this push of the frontier line forward.
According to this myth, the sensible Anglo Americans were able to survive on the land by imposing spatial order on the hostile environment led by the cowboy. The cowboy was a frontier survivor who attempted to lead a peaceful life but was ready to use violent ways (his skills as a gunfighter) to establish peace and justice (Sullivan 122).
The cowboy then drove into the sunset presumably to repeat the same scenario in a new uncivilized place further on in the west. This proclamation of the Anglo American’s capacity to impose order on untamed space is deemed by Sullivan as a familiar justification for the imposition of Anglo rule upon the West (121).
This myth advances that without a compulsive drive to expand and exploit the opportunities that exist on the other side, a culture and a nation will die or be weakened to the point where they can be dominated by a stronger people. The cowboy is therefore painted as an individual who loves his nation and is fulfilling the patriotic duty of a citizen by assisting in the colonization of the “empty space” that exists in the West.
Reality of the Cowboy The myths about the cowboy paint a hopeful picture that is far from what the reality was. To begin with, the Conquest and settlement of the West which was supposedly led by the cowboys in the 19th century inevitably resulted in the destruction or at best displacement of the native people who had up to that point inhabited the land.
According to the cowboy stories, the Indians are shown to be a barbaric and savage tribe. In their journey westwards, the cowboy is constantly attacked by hordes of Indians with their bows and arrows. The cowboy bravely fights off these barbarians and hence spreads civilization to the desolate west.
This idealization or the cowboy and demonization of the Indian are far from the truth. In actual sense, the cowboys were guilty of attacking and killing Indians in their quest to acquire land from the natives. Iverson states that when settlers and ranchers wished to expand the horizon of the cattleman’s West, the Indians stood in their way (27).
As such, they had to be removed and the primary means through which this was achieved was with violence. The western frontier was not a vast and empty land that the cowboy bravely conquered. Instead, the west was Indian land and the Americans were intruders. The cowboy myth also perpetrates racism in America.
This is through the proposal that the American cowboy population was made up entirely of whites. Historians estimate that up to 40% of cowboys were Hispanic or black and their influence is evident in western occupational speech and slang (31). Even so, the popular image of the typical cowboy of the Old West is a white square-jawed male with a tilted hat on.
Limerick laments that the popular cowboy image ignores important characters: Native Americans, Hispanics and African Americans, who were an integral part of the actual American West story (323). This abject omission of these major players is the product of later racist stereotypes which have been politically and sociologically embraced.
Even and Pavich state that the white cowboy removes any acknowledgement of the deeper level of earlier indebtedness to other races that folklore suggested (31). The myth of the cowboy promotes the idea of a racial hierarchy. In this hierarchy, white people and in particular white people from the United States are ranked as first and the other races follow.
The racial aspect to the cowboy myth is further highlighted by Sullivan who notes that in most Western stories and movies, the good Anglo American triumphs over the evil Indians and Mexican therefore suggesting racial superiority (22). Violence is justified through the cowboy myth since it is suggested that only through violent confrontation is peace and civilization achieved.
The violence that the hero endures in Slotkin’s book appears to be justified by the ultimate consequences which is peace through out the land. Slotkin suggests that this theme of “regeneration through violence” which is recurrent in American frontier mythology may be responsible for the violence perpetrated by Americans both at home and abroad (650).
The cowboy myth also sustains the myth of the six gun (which was favored by Anglo Americans) as a weapon for peace. This is ironic considering the fact that the gun was used to forcefully evict the Native Americans from their land. Cowboys were guilty of engaging in dishonesty and social vices. Sullivan documents that most cowboys took to cattle rustling in a bid to make a quick fortune (34).
The cowboys did not only steal from people outside of their community but they also stole from their masters. Cowboys were also adventurers who left their families in search of adventure and or new fortunes in the wild. This image is a big contrast to the image of the cowboy who brings about law and order to the community. In actual sense, cowboys were also responsible for bringing about lawlessness in the community.
The conquest of the American West was not an honorable thing as the image of the cowboy suggests. In reality, it was violent and unjust and beneficial only to the immigrants. At the end of most frontier fiction, the cowboy hero is seen disappearing into the far mountains alone.
While this image does not state anything explicit, it implies the ideal of self-sufficiency and self-reliance. The cowboy leaves behind him a peaceful and fully functional community. He sets out in search on new territory which he will conquer through his violent frontier skills and later on bring about the same peacefulness that he left behind (Sullivan 17).
This myth overlooks the destruction that the cowboy brought about to the “uncivilized” people even as he set out to establish a civilized settlement. The cowboy was guilty of expediting the process of destroying the native Indians way of life. At the extreme, this destruction resulted in the massacre of entire tribes that stood in the path of the cowboy.
In retrospective, the inimitable cowboy Charlie Russell while talking about the old Indian way of life lamented that “They’ve been living in heaven for a thousand years and we took it away from ’em for forty dollars a month” (46).
Discussion The image of the cowboy continues to be presented as the idealization of American identity. The real cowboy as he existed in historical time has all but disappeared and what remains in his place is an idealized creation of the American folk. It should be noted that mythology plays a great role in the American national identity.
Mythology is the mirror through which the American people can derive an understanding of themselves and their experiences. It connects them with greater ideals and affirms a set of values that culture finds to be desirable. While the myth serves this useful role, it overlooks the catastrophic history that the American immigrants left in their wake as they ventured westwards.
The European settlers who first arrived to North America believed that they had discovered a vast and vacant land. The pioneers viewed the unoccupied land as their “promised land” with complete disregard to the millions of Native Americans who had inhabited the continent for millenniums before the discovery of America by the White settlers.
This paper set out to expose the truth about the real cowboy and hence help to differentiate myth from reality. From the discussions presented herein, it is clear that the cowboy saga was not characterized solely by hardships being met and overcome and creating an ideal society from the wilderness.
The cowboy saga also included numerous incidents of broken dreams and victimization of the Native Americans who historically owned the land. If history is to be looked at objectively, it is the Indians and not the cowboys who were the heroes. These Indians resisted and fought for their native land which was being invaded by the Americans.
While American’s prided themselves with being people of laws, their encounter with the Indians tells a different story. The American’s made treaties with Indians and later went against their words. In instances where the Indians were unwilling to enter into bargains with the American’s they were labeled as enemies and attacked on their own land.
This paper exposes the cowboy for who he really was: a hired man of horseback whose actions were seldom noble or inspiring. Without a doubt, the extraordinary journey that cowboys took from Texas to Montana was and remains to be something to be marveled at. The bravery of the cowboys who undertook this drives is without question.
However, the powerful symbol of cowboy as it is generally understood is a gross exaggeration and a myth which overlooks the bleak realities of the time. By portraying the Indians as savages, the cowboy myth offers justification for the American subjugation of these native occupants of the land.
Conclusion The American cowboy myth continues to play a huge role in American imagination and many people have come to both identify with and accept it as the truth. This paper set out to show the true reality of the cowboy who has for decades been idealized in popular American culture.
The paper began by documenting the birth of the cowboy and the mundane reality that constituted the cowboy’s existence. The paper then highlighted the numerous myths of cowboys that are held as truth by the general population. It has been discovered that this myths were created out of the need for American mythology. The mythical image that we know of today is mostly the work of authors and poets who romanticized the West.
This paper has shown the reality of the west in an objective manner. From the arguments given, it has been seen that the cowboy was not a glorious or honorable and just person as myth makes him out to be. Instead, he was an invader who robbed the Native Americans off their lands through violence. From this paper, it is evident that the historically correct cowboy image is marred with a legacy of pain, prejudice and injustice.
Works Cited Even, Larry, and Pavich Paul. A Literary History of the American West. Texas Christian University Press, 1987. Print.
Frantz, Joe, and Choate Julian. The American Cowboy: The Myth and the Reality. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981.
Hillis, Craig. “Cowboys and Indians: The International Stage”. Journal of Texas Music History, Volume 2, Issue 1. 2002.
Iverson, Peter. When Indians Became Cowboys: Native Peoples and Cattle Ranching in the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, 1994. Print.
Limerick, P N. The Legacy of Conquest. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987. Print.
Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1987. Print.
Sullivan, Tom. Cowboys and Caudillos: Frontier Ideology of The Americas. Popular Press, 1990. Print.
Turner, Frederick Jackson, and Faragher John. Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner: the Significance of the Frontier in American History, and Other Essays. New York: H. Holt, 1994.
Wallace, Edward. The backside of American History. Jan 2008. Web.
Wright, W. Six Guns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1975. Print.
Key Success Factors of the Global Online Fashion Business Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction ASOS has developed greatly since its inception in year 2000. In its early years of operation, the online fashion store was dealing with products that had been inspired by celebrities such as ephemera and other design products (Alexander, 2010).
Adoption of growth strategy and launching of Marketplace in its website has significantly increased its potential. Moreover, its sales volume has also expanded overseas (Završnik, 2007). Over the years, ASOS online fashion business has grown tremendously. This has been attributed to its knowledge on consumer behaviour.
As an online company, it has been keen in identifying how groups or individual customers make decisions regarding their quantity of purchases and where to buy them from (Ashworth et al., 2006; Grant
Financial Management of Risk Report essay help online free: essay help online free
There are numerous challenges entrepreneurs face seeking to succeed in business, in fact, these challenges are determined by the environment in which a business operates.
Therefore, a business may be affected by either internal or external factors, whereby internal factors include factors emanating from the business structure, while external factors include those that are outside the business, and may emanate from other business organizations, or even political organization.
For this reason, the choice of the environment is always critical when starting a business. Thus, the paper seeks to elaborate on the risk involved in moving business to Thailand or Louisiana, and review financial reports of Coca-Cola Company to highlight the management of risk involved in moving the business.
Political instability in Thailand has become a serious threat to business, thus entrepreneurs starting a business in this country face the risk of insecurity and violence (UK Trade and investment, 2012). Since the election in 2011, there have been incidences of unrest and bombings.
On the other hand, the political structure in Louisiana is more stable compared to Thailand, hence providing a favorable business environment. Moreover, a significant factor affecting businesses in Thailand is bribery and corruption.
Therefore, transferring a business to Thailand would mean that one has to take a significant risk hence discouraging foreign investors. In Louisiana, the levels of corruption are minimal, which is why it is more accommodating for investors than for Thailand (Coca cola Hellenic, 2012).
In Louisiana, tax rates are higher as compared to those in Thailand; hence, transferring a business to this state would result to low returns and slow business growth. Consequently, this poses a limiting factor on investors, especially the small business entrepreneurs (Louisiana EDSP, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In business organizations, it is critical to establish factors limiting business success in order to have an organized approach to each of them, and aim at optimizing the revenue. These factors may be found within the business itself (internal factors), or outside the organization (external factors).
However, there is a need to identify and deal with these factors because they are the key determinants of the business success. In this case, management is expected to compare company data obtained from various accounting periods, in order to identify the trend of business performance.
In addition, managers also need to observe various changes in the market conditions during the financial periods to assist them in decision-making.
A critical financial analysis of the Coca cola Company indicates that there is a drastic fall in the revenue margins due to internal and external challenges the company is currently facing.
An example of these internal factors is high manufacturing costs, which are contributing to high total costs resulting to low profits, and a substantial threat to the company (Verity, 2003).
One of the external factors causing a drawback in the company progress is competition from other companies. There has been production of similar brands in the market such as PEPSI resulting to competition, which reduces the sales volume leading to low income.
Moreover, a crucial factor is the political structures in the countries where products are sold. Since in some countries tax rates are high, there is an increase of price, which as a result, reduces demand leading to low sales, thus overall affecting the business negatively.
We will write a custom Report on Financial Management of Risk specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Coca cola Hellenic. (2012). Financial Report: Coca cola Hellenic bottling Company, South America. Web.
Louisiana EDSP. (2012). Louisiana Economic Development Strategic Plan 2012‐2016. Web.
UK Trade and investment. (2012). Overseas Business Risk-Thailand. Web.
Verity, M. (2003). Mecca Cola challenges US rival. Web.
Student Development Observation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Background information College life provides students with credible personal and developmental incentives that enhance their performance capacity in diverse contexts. The incentives enable them to develop socially, mentally, psychologically, and emotionally.
This promotes students reasoning power and decision making on various issues of immense socioeconomic significance.
Using the knowledge attained from student development theories (in higher education) as well as personal perceptions/experiences with college students, this paper discusses how college life affects students based on observations made.
Contextually, it is possible to apply the mentioned development theories by observing students’ activities and interactions within the college. Indeed, knowledgeable individuals are quite productive and contribute to the economic development of the society.
This is attributable to the favorable environment in colleges, which enables students to interact and develop innovative and creative ideologies. It is recognizable that high-level college settings expose students to new ideas and experiences that enhance their holistic growth.
Student development theorists assert that developing specific competence in students requires a systematic and sustainable approach. For young individuals to be productive, they must get enough exposure and be engaged in thorough educative processes.
This is to facilitate talent identification and nurture their unique skills to make them resourceful. Although college life enables students to develop special competencies crucial for growth, it may present certain negative effects to students.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is noticeable especially in college environments with inferior rules and regulations. This aspect obligates colleges to recognize that they play a crucial role in developing students’ prowess. They should craft regulations that are socially relevant and morally informed.
Observations As observed, college life influences students both positively and negatively. That is, there are students who benefit optimally through college settings, skills acquired, and activities accomplished.
Observably, students develop viable relationship techniques, problem solution skills, effective decision making, and emotional attributes that shape their life when they interact with each other.
Such students are able to make credible decisions in life and contribute effectively in the economic growth of their nations as indicated by cognitive theorists (Kadiso
Gender and Education Qualitative Research Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The main concepts related to gender and education
The role of same-sex education in contemporary Australia
Introduction Contemporary educators and psychologists pay much attention to the relationship between gender and education. For example, they focus on such aspects as academic achievement of male and female students.
In addition, they examine the socialization of boys and girls in educational institutions, especially the way in which they perceive gender roles.
In this paper, I would like to discuss the socialization and academic achievement in Australian single-sex schools. In particular, I intend to examine distinctive peculiarities of these educational institutions and their impact on students’ performance and behavior.
The understanding of this question can be of great importance nowadays, when teachers and parents try to determine what kind of learning environment is better for learners. While discussing this issue, I will strongly rely on the humanistic theories of education.
In particular, I will refer to the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu and other scholars who believe that gender is primarily a social construct (Bourdieu as cited in Arnot 2002, p. 41).
This means that both males are females are taught to comply with specific norms that are considered to be normal for their sex (Bourdieu as cited in Arnot 2002, p. 41).
By looking at the single-sex schools, one can see that academic achievement and socialization do not depend on some inherent attitudes or capabilities of learners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, students’ performance depends on the attitudes and beliefs of teachers, rather than the structure of school. Moreover, these variables are shaped by parents and media. These are the main issues that I want to examine.
The main concepts related to gender and education There are several concepts that should be discussed in this paper because they are useful for understanding academic achievement and socialization of girls and boys in single-sex schools. One of them is knowledge-gender dynamics which is discussed by Gabrielle Ivinson and Patricia Murphy (2007).
This concept means that certain part of school curriculum can be associated either with masculinity or femininity (Ivinson,
The Strategy of ‘Localizing’ HR Practices from the Perspective of Multinational Corporation Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Localization of International Human Resources Management Contemporary international human resources management strategies are focusing on how they can be able to localize human resources policies and practices for the betterment of their organizations; when localizing human resources policies, it takes the forms of international coordination, global leadership development and management, cultural intelligence, and diversity management.
When managing a diverse global human capital, multinationals (MNCs) have the mandate of facilitating production of work of difference cultural beliefs, social settings, with diverse views, thinking styles, personalities, and emotional intellectualism. Despite the differences, they offer a rich ground for diverse views and decisions that when effectively managed they can be of high benefit to the multinationals (Kaplan and Norton, 2001).
In international human resources management (IHRM), there are three main approaches, they include, the MNC may send people from the country of incorporation to represent the company abroad (expatriates approach), hire host countries employees, or hire a third countries employees.
With globalization and improved education across binderies, the countries are able to produce people with the knowledge and the expertise to operate and run multinationals; this has come as a blessing to the multinationals that are nowadays relying on local people to manage and run international businesses, the approach is called localization of IHRM (Maznevski and DiStefano, 2000).
This paper evaluates the emerging strategy, localization; it will evaluate how the concept came into operation, how MNCs manage/adopt it as well its advantages and disadvantages.
The emergence of localization The idea to use local people for the management and running of multinational came from the challenges that use of experts had on MNCs; the main issue that expatriates had is the costs that are associate with their deployments. In most cases the costs of deploying expatriates is high and calls for increased operational costs to the MNs.
Other than the general operational costs, in most cases, the company is responsible other human needs like housing, security and the welfare of the expatriate. Expatriates have higher remuneration than local employees who have the same post, qualification as well as responsibilities; the high remuneration does not necessarily mean that they can perform better but the notion that they are foreigners and experts creates the urge for high pays.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Warner 2003, the cost of an American expatriate in China is about six times higher than that of a Chinese expatriate; with this kind of a difference, then when dealing with the expatriates, then the firm violates the noble objective of efficiency, cost management and profit improvements.
Other than remuneration, there are other costs that come along with an expatriate, they include, cost of families, including relocation expenses, special allowances like education, mileage, accommodations, recruitment and training costs; it is also a challenging task to get a person who is qualified and willing to work in a foreign country (Takeuchi, Chen, and Lam, 2009)
When a manager is operating in an industry, it is by default required that he understands the cultures, environment, and the general conditions that he is working under; when they are understood, then the firm will be able to make such responsive decisions. The issues of using expatriates come into play here; they are people with different backgrounds, culture and belief thus they may not be able to connect with the situation on the ground (both market and the work force they are managing).
With this the MNCs is not bound to be competitive and chances of loss of business to the local venders is high. Other than the personal bias, the expatriates may not have the drive and motivation to follow the market situation as well as the day-to-day occurrences of the market. This may be aggravated more by their temporary job assignments in the foreign country.
When it comes to the issue of local employees, they are able to connect to the market and have deeper analysis of the situation on the ground; this facilitates making of market effective decisions and the use of the local information and experience to make sound decisions.
Cultural differences, language barriers, and perception of the locals is another issue that faces expatriates; they are people with differences with the locals and thus they need incur further costs in their efforts to seek acceptance and understanding of the locals behavior and their character traits. In the case of a local executive, he has grown in the country and developed such special skills and culture intelligence that he can understand and make more business responsive questions to the good of the organization (Triandis, 2006).
The concept of localization In simple terms localization means MNCs relying on local people for the provision of technical and otherwise jobs in their country; after an establishment, the MNC decides instead of having other people to manage and operate an international business, the choice made is local people. When using this model, the normal process of human resource that starts with planning, recruiting and selection is done to ensure that, the local person to secure the position has been vetted for experience, qualification and capability.
We will write a custom Essay on The Strategy of ‘Localizing’ HR Practices from the Perspective of Multinational Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After choosing the local person, sometimes there is need to orient, train, and inform the person o matters of the company that may be special to the company’s management or otherwise. This may be done through seminars, or in some cases, the employee may travel to the parent company for such training and assist in making the final plans.
When the employee starts working, it will be assumed that he performs his duties with diligence and for the best interest of the employer; he will need to be appraised, motivated and appropriate measures to keep him going put in place.
Recruitment and selection After knowing the country of venture as well as the human resources method to adopt, the MNC must on the ground and start the recruitment method; the method is slightly special and takes different forms where the company can hire a recruiting firm in the local country to make the recruitments. Alternatively, the MNC can get on the ground and undertake the task; the earlier is more preferred.
The recruitment and selection of appropriate staff is the foundation of any quality-conscious firm; thus, the MNC needs to enact such appropriate measures that ensure they have recruited people of high dignity, experience and who can perform effectively (Hollinshead, 2009).
In the past, professionals were recruited based on technical criteria, experience, and membership of an appropriate professional body; although these criteria are still important, technical skills are only a part of the overall service delivery, which also includes functional criteria such as marketing and business skills and the ability to foster client relationships.
Different countries needs different category of people thus when called upon to recruit for particular company; there are some special traits that may have much weight in a country A than they have in country B. The customer-centered firm should take into account all these criteria and consider recruitment as the first stage of retaining loyal, well- motivated and happy employees.
Technological changes call for competent and skilled employees thus; organizations should ensure that their employees match the current technology. During the interview, the panel should ensure that they identify the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate. This will assist them in making the final decision (Trudel, 2009).
Training and development With the people deployed, the next major and very important step is t orient, train, and mentor the recruiting; every company has its own organizational culture that makes them what they are; the recruits needs to be well acquainted with the culture as he will be needed to instill such culture to the international branch. To get such mentoring and orienting, the parent company may decide to have him on board in the parent company or can use trainings, seminars and one-on-one training to orient and get the manager on board.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Strategy of ‘Localizing’ HR Practices from the Perspective of Multinational Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, when on the ground, professional employee, need to be continually trained to improve their skills, decision making, and expertise; they have limited set of skills that require continual upgrading to match the changing market demands and technology.
Only by updating these skills using well-developed programs, can professional firms ensure that they equip their staff with the skills needed to respond to future business expectations. The management should ensure that employees are well motivated; highly motivated employees are more productive (Harzing and Van Ruysseveldt, 2004).
To enable employees perform their duties effectively, continuous training system and employee’s appraisal is important. It helps management establish areas that needs improvement. Some organizations have employees training as a continuous process to ensure that employees are up-to-date with the changes in the industry.
Motivational measures should be put in place to ensure that employees are loyal to the organization and they work efficiently. This ranges from attractive salaries or/and benefits, to developing a good working environment. This ensures that employees are retained as assets in the organization (Hampden–Turner and Trompenaars, 2006)
Motivation, appraisal and evaluation With all policies and strategies set, the parent company management should be keep to appraise, motivate and evaluate the local employees to ensure they live to the expectations of the MNC. When appraising, care needs to be taken to ensure that the situation and condition on the ground has been well understood and advice coming from the locals understood effectively.
The employee must be appraised appropriately to enable the human resources department to establish the areas that need to be improved. It is through effective communication and feedback that these areas of weaknesses can be established; programs to facilitate communication should be put in place. Those who meet expectations of the management should be rewarded accordingly.
With contemporary business environments, there are a number of scientific appraisal models that an employer can use, they include balanced score card appraisal model (Trudel, 2009).
Retaining It is more cheap, efficient and easy to retain employees within an organization; as the employees meet the organization’s expectations, it is important for the organization to realize that the employees also have their targets that they want met. Many employees think of looking for another job if the current job is not satisfactory this stage.
The human resources department must come up with measures that are aimed at retaining employees. One of the ways is to make the working environment as comfortable as possible. Remuneration and rewards of employees are other ways that can be used. Rewards mean that the efforts of the employee are recognized (Fernandez-Alles and Ramos-Rodríguez, 2009)
Advantages of localization Numerous advantage have come with the new MNCs human resources management style. From a wider angle, when a company employ’s locals, they eliminate the risks and business challenges associated with deployment of expatriates.
When an MNC employs the local people, they are developing opportunity benefits of developing local managerial skills that promote talents and develop talents to the local people; when this happens, the locals feel they are working with a company of their own that they can depend on and respect as their own.
With such moves, an improved business-customer relationship can lead to customer loyalty and growth in business. People are more willing to trade with local companies that seem to be promoting their own culture, and wellbeing’s; they will be able to develop good business relations with the customer, suppliers and other stakeholders like the government and shareholders if any.
The costs of personal culture contexts/tensions and cross-culture misunderstandings will be saved as the locals understand what the nation or the country they are operating in wants. One of the most important attribute of a well-managed company is the motivation of its local staffs; when an MNC is, manage by a foreigner, the local workforce feels less motivated than when a local person is the business leader.
When accompany has high employees motivation, then it is bound to perform better than when the motivation is minimal and wanting (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000). When locals are given the task of managing MNCs, other than using their experience and qualification, they use the general understanding and learnt social aspects about the country to make such decisions that are responsive to the needs of the country of operation.
For example, they may be able to know the cultures or tribes they should deploy in certain areas, as they have been known to have some special attributes that can favor the MNC. The net effect is an improved business.
Through inpatriation, local managers are able to combine any international experience with the local experience for the good of the company; when they successful do this, then the company stands to benefit. For example, they may combine root-marketing methods to international marketing approaches and come-up with a strategy that fits the county of operation. Despite the above advantages, a number of challenges MNCs face when they take the option of using local people.
Disadvantages of localization When the MNC rely on localization method of recruitment, then the control and the influence that the parent management has will be diluted and the locals may highjack the management. When this happens the running of the organization as a single unit moving to single noble destination is lost.
In the case that the concept has been adopted by all MNCs they risk the career development of international managers and expatriates; in some companies, the method of expatriates had been used for rewarding and motivating employees in the organization; when the chances has been lost, then the MNC is likely to suffer demonization.
When deploying the local people, there is needed to have training, mentoring, and coaching of the local people to align them with the needs of the organization; this task may become expensive and challenging task to the organization. Sometimes, the trainings may be done but the expected outcome fails to come outs leading to cost losses. It is also very challenging to get a person who can be molded to the needs of an MNC since there is much influence from experiences and exposure.
Another challenge that comes with employing local people is lack of new ideas, creativity and sometimes innovativeness in a foreign company; this is caused by the similar ideas and decisions or way of thinking as may be expected from the local employee. The lack of exposure can lead to decisions that do not favor the business (Bullen and Eyler, 2010)
Conclusion MNCs need to have an effective and efficient human resources team; there are three main options available to the company they are deploying expatriates, deploying local people or using people from a third country. When using the localization method, using country is of operation employees, the MNC stands to benefit reduced human resources costs, cultural intelligence, and builds customer confidence.
The main challenge with localization is loss of parent’s company management controlling power as well as scarcity of creativity in the companies as the local people experience is confined in their country. International human resources management team has the role of ensuring the MNC’s human capital is highly motivated for favorable working environment.
References Bullen, M. L. and Eyler, K. ,2010. Human resource accounting and international developments: implications for measurement of human capital. Journal of International Business
Core Competencies in Health Sector Essay cheap essay help
Core competencies are key management tools that are applied in most business settings today. This refers to the unique abilities or capabilities that are established by organizations, with the aim of gaining a stronger competitive advantage in business.
These capabilities are crucial in creating and delivering value services to customers or clients in any chosen field. Effective core competencies are essential in all units of the health sector, just like in any other sector.
Medical and clinical professionals are required to pay attention to distinctive competencies given to them by their organizations, in order to be able to undertake their roles in ways depicting their compliance to the Codes of Conduct governing their work.
This paper observes core competencies in the health sector, where capabilities of a clinical and non-clinical role are compared and contrasted, to bring out the similarities and the differences in those fields. In this context, the core competencies of a Nurse Educator and those of a Nurse Educator are examined.
The core competencies of Clinical Educators and Clinical Practitioners would tend to be similar in some cases, since the two sectors share a common objective of advancing the goals of health care in the society (Institute of Medicine, 2003).
However, the roles in these two sectors vary greatly, and this clearly explains the slight differences that may be observed in the structure of their core competencies.
Clinical educators have the responsibility of giving clinical lessons to medical students, while Clinical practitioners are entrusted with the role of taking medical services to the society, where it is needed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the core competencies of both Clinical Educators and Practitioners are designed to fit their specialty fields.
One of the major competencies for clinical educators emphasizes the need to come up with approaches that would facilitate student understanding in various learning environments.
More importantly, it is also the responsibility of Clinical Educators to ease development and socialization among the learners, to ensure they fully benefit from the many theoretical and practical lessons given to them.
Clinical Educators are also required to engage in effective scholarship practices and constantly apply assessment strategies to rate the learners in diverse settings of health care (Kalb, 2008).
This goal can be achieved through a number of strategies, which the educators think are appropriate in bringing forth the most satisfying results on learners. Nurse educators are also required to participate effectively in the designing of curriculum and evaluation of programs in the health care sector.
This gives the educators the opportunity to take part in the decision-making process, which is essential in shaping their knowledge and skills at work.
Clinical educators should also serve as models and agents of change, to be able to impart good morals in the health sector. It is also in the responsibility of Clinical Educators to operate within the educational environments under which they are placed.
We will write a custom Essay on Core Competencies in Health Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike in the case of the Clinical Educators, the core competencies of Clinical Practitioners are observed to be a bit complex, since these are the people who represent the entire medical sector to the public.
The core capabilities of nursing practitioners would tend to vary greatly across different health care units, and are regularly updated to match the dynamic changes and demands in the health care sector (Hart
Culture and Innovation in Organizations Analytical Essay writing essay help
Abstract In the innovation field, the existing theories have suggested that organization culture affects the capacity of a corporation to innovate. In fact, most organizations have been unable to innovate because of the prevailing culture that inhibits the propensity of workforce to generate and effectively use new ideas.
This paper has highlighted organization cultural aspects that tend to create and enhance the level of innovation.
The paper further reviewed how the adopted organizational culture affects the innovative capacity of people in an organization as well as actions and strategies that can be implemented to ensure that appropriate culture is created.
Introduction Organizational culture and cultural diversity is a context that dominates the area of leadership, employees’ development, and innovation in most organizations. The diversity in culture heightens the challenge faced by managers in keeping organizational staff motivated to innovate and change the existing corporate structures.
With most organizations operating in cultural diverse environments, it is essential to check the nature of organizational culture, its impacts on innovation and management development in cultural various contexts (Melitski, Gavin
Job Analysis and Selection Response Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Workforce planning system
Introduction In order to conduct job analysis for new salesperson positions in InterClean, the HR manager should apply several methods. First of all, one should interview the members of the staff about various requirements which are set for this kind of job. The main advantage of this method is that it enables to gain accurate information about mental qualities and personality traits that a salesperson should possess (Cascio, 141).
It has to be admitted that this research method is time-consuming and it lead the suspicions among members of the staff. If I were to conduct this interview, I would first ask those employees who feel positive about the changes introduced in InterClean. The second strategy that can be applied is structured questionnaire. It should be used only after the interview.
First, it is necessary to list the tasks activities of sales personnel, later the employees will need to rate them in terms of importance and frequency. On the basis of this questionnaire, the HR manager will be able to determine which tasks and skills of are of the greatest importance for the company.
It is possible to single out several duties that pertain to the new sales department: 1) the presentation of InterClean’s products and services; 2) proving after-sale services to the clients; 3) the development of sales contracts; 4) excellent knowledge of sanitation regulations and environmental standards; 5) understanding of cleaning industry market.
Workforce planning system The development of workforce planning should start with the review of the hard and soft skills of the current personnel. Such notion as hard skills is related directly to the major business activities of the department. It is possible to single the following hard skills:
sales administration and contract development;
the development of solution-based cleaning products;
ability to explain product specification to the customer;
PC skills. In turn, the term “soft skills” refers to mental qualities and personality traits of the employee (Guffey, 34).
Judging from the employee profiles, we can identify such soft skills as aggressiveness, critical thinking, politeness and ability to communicate with customers; leadership skills.
The employee profiles indicate that each of them is sufficiently aggressive, persuasive and capable of closing a deal with a client. However, a candidate should have profound knowledge of industry standards and safety regulations. This can greatly help him establish long-term relations with a client.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, expertise in product development and technical specifications is crucial for the team since it ensures that the customers are fully satisfied with the quality of products and services. Overall, the new team will consist of two sales managers and three sales representatives.
The selection of the candidates should take approximately thirty days; each of them will be offered a training program. It will focus on such aspects as after-sale service, the knowledge of the product, and new governmental regulations concerning sanitation and environmental safety.
The new team will need to achieve the following goals: 1) to create value for the customers by offering them only top quality products and services; 2) to increase customer base of InterClrean; 3) to raise the sales revenues of the company; 4) to promote the products and services of the organization.
Selection HR managers often use a variety of methods to determine whether an employee is suitable for the organization or a particular team. I would prefer the so-called work sample tests which are premised on the idea that one can predict the future performance of a candidate only by asking him to perform the tasks that are similar to their future duties.
This procedure might be very time-consuming but at the same time it is considered by scholars to be the most valid and reliable (Cascio, 218). The employee profiles indicate that the candidates have diverse skills but only some of them can be included into the new team.
The first candidate is Jim Martin, who has experience in the sales of cleaning and sanitation products. Moreover, he pays much attention to after-sales services which are crucial for custom retention. The second candidate is Tom Gonzales: he is knowledgeable in the development of solution-based products, and his expertise will be of great benefit to the entire team.
These people will work as sales managers. Eric Borden will be employed as an outside sales representatives; he has been selected because of his expertise in sanitation industry developments and legal regulation, governing this industry. Another person, who seems suitable for the team is Ving Hsu: she has a vast relevant experience and, most importantly, he can perform training seminars for the customers’ employees.
We will write a custom Essay on Job Analysis and Selection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This skill is indispensible for the promotion of products offered by InterClean. Finally, I would like to mention Terry Garcia. She is known for her communicative and educational skills. She does not underestimate the importance of teamwork, and her critical thinking can avail each member of the future department. These candidates appear to be most suitable the team, especially if one considers the recent changes in InterClean.
Works Cited Cascio Wayne. Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits (6th ed). NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2003. Print.
Guffey Mary. Business Communication: Process and Product. NY: Cengage Learning, 2007.
Leadership in Military Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction For military to be successful in their endeavors, military service needs leaders who are not only agile in their analysis, but also innovative in the development of new solutions to the complex challenges.
As such, military leaders should be academically qualified to lead such significant and racial diverse institution (Richardson 2005, 36). Effective military leadership skills can help the military solve racial inequalities within its departments.
As asserted by the activists, the top US military organizations do not only depict racial disparity, but also gender disparity. The current military programs, in the US, emphasize on the need to improve their efficiency and enhance their leadership skills.
As such, the military program focuses narrowly on ending the rampant racial and gender inequality in its top leadership. Based on its diversity, US military leaders should be able to fight the alleged racism with swift.
Similarly, the current warfare requires military soldiers with innovative and responsive skills to understand and tackle the ever- increasing applications of technology in the warfare by the terrorist and enemies (Richardson 2005, 34).
This paper seeks to identify the characteristics of great military leaders, chooses a specific leader, and assesses the persona of a specific leader.
Characteristics of a good military leader Based on the current military standards, most of the great military leaders in the history of the US military would be considered as racists. Despite their military success and outstanding leadership skills, some of these military leaders owned and abused slaves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of owning slaves, Gorge Washington became one of the greatest military leaders in the history of the US military. In the 1940s, activists called for more prewar efforts in the US military. The activists accused the US military for their selective services.
Until the mid 1950s, the activists accused the US military for the rampant racism in their departments. Since then more efforts have been put in place to enable recruitment of all persons regardless of their race, color, and gender in the military.
To lead an institution confronted with enormous challenges such as racism, a military leader has to rise above traditional tactics and demonstrate control and stability. Similarly, current military leadership entails more than just organizing followers, but also motivating them to confront reality.
Through this, efficient military leaders should change values, habits, practices, and priorities in their juniors to be in line with the current racial diversified military services (Serry 2001, 3). To achieve this, military leaders should create a vision, and motivate individuals through appropriate approaches.
Through education and experience, an individual develops and learns leadership skills. This implies that learning and applying leadership skills takes some time. For an individual to be an effective military leader, he or she is required to put in conscious and consistent attention of aspiring and proven leaders.
Effective military leaders have made deliberate choices to improve their leadership skills throughout their careers. Great military leaders such as George Washington, Dwight Eisenhower, and George Marshall worked persistently to cultivate their abilities and skills through their efforts and commitments.
One common attribute about these leaders is that they chose the difficult path of improving their military leadership skills from their first day as junior officers. Similarly, these leaders knew from their early careers that for them to be effective military leaders, they had to enhance their skills through diverse means.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Leadership in Military specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Integrity
In the military, a leader must be independent, selfless, incorruptible, dedicated, honest, and be sound and morally upright. Through integrity, an individual attains these attributes over time. Military leaders must be perceived as responsible and trustworthy in every setting and situation, whether social, financial, or political.
Notably, a military leader should a person of integrity to head a racial diverse institution (Laver 2008, 23). The value of integrity in the great U.S military leaders cannot be overstated. In the history of the U.S military, racism, harsh and brutal punishments were common.
This implies that great U.S military leaders had to be intelligent to rise above such challenges, which have persisted to date (Laver 2008, 25). Regarding this, Military leaders should earn trust from their juniors regardless of their race and ethnicity. Similarly, leaders of integrity should work under clear principles.
In the history of the US military, George Washington became one of the greatest military leaders due to his integrity. Through his acts of integrity, he led the American soldiers through numerous challenges in the 18th century. He consistently demonstrated his commitment to the patriotic cause.
Unlike other past military leaders before him, Washington built a strong trusting relationship with his officers. He always reminded his soldiers about the common interests of defeating the British soldiers.
Equally, Washington consistently reminded his soldiers of their own obligation to act with integrity. Through his military services, Washington optimized the cultural ideals in military and courteous honor, of which integrity was the central quality.
Other great military leaders known for their integrity included George C. Marshall and Lewis B. Chesty Puller. Through their integrity, the U.S military succeeded in several war fields the two leaders commanded. Lewis B. Chesty Puller became very renowned for his intelligence and charisma.
All U.S. military leaders had strong will and determination. Similarly, modern military leaders should be determined in their endeavors to ensure that racisms and other related injustice in the military are put to an end.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in Military by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is believed that with determined leaders, numerous challenges such as racism, gender inequality in the military can be reduced significantly.
Even though, the past great military leaders in the US military showed little interest in ending racism in the military, their determination and goodwill in the success of the military is considered prudent. Notably, Ulysses Grant was one of the military leaders who had an outstanding determination and a strategic vision.
Several literatures have focused on his strategic thinking with the aim of determining the proficiency of his leadership skills (Grant 2011, 54). Due to his exceptional quality leadership skills, Grant is among the most celebrated historical leaders in the history of the U.S military.
Carl Von, a writer, described him as a man with great force of will. Like Grant, Gorge Washington George C. Marshall and colonel Powel were always prepared to adapt to new situations. Through this, these leaders never allowed tactical challenges to distract them from achieving their strategic objectives.
During their time in power, critics underestimated most of these leaders’ skills and expected them to fail terribly. On the contrary, these leaders endured failures and despondency and slowly worked their way to the top of their professions, earning a reputation as the best military commanders in the U.S. history (Laver 2008, 56).
Several US military leaders became famous during the World War I and the World War II for their cross–cultural leadership styles. Through cross-cultural leaders, the US military rose beyond social barriers during the World War II and worked with other nations regardless of their race.
It is believed that the American success in the interwar was due to their participation with their allies. Several literatures have praised these great American leaders as men who accepted responsibility, and made ardors decisions.
Notably, Eisenhower was a great military leader who had exceptional cross-cultural leadership qualities. From his junior army officer career, under Brigadier General Fox, to his appointment has a five star general; Eisenhower’s cross-cultural leadership style was eminent.
His leadership philosophy asserted that Americans could win the Second World War only with the help of their allies. He strongly believed on motivating a strong unified allied command. To achieve support from the allies, Eisenhower showed humility, patience, and flexibility to American allies.
Like Eisenhower, Ulysses Grant and George C. Marshall became famous and successful for their cross-cultural leadership styles (Laver 2008, 80). By exercising cross-cultural leadership styles, these great military leaders gained confidence from their coalition members.
Cross-cultural leadership style, allowed them to treat other nations as equal in terms of basic human dignity. Through this principle, cross-cultural leadership style became so effective in the history of the U.S military.
Moreover, these leaders’ personal traits such as honesty, fairness, courage, and geniality greatly boosted their leadership style.
All leaders across all disciplines accept the fact that great leadership styles develop through practical experience. This implies that potential, effective military leaders must not only reflect their personal experience, but also others experience and learn from both.
Through this, they must reinforce their learning through practice. Similarly, studying through experience approach may necessitate an individual to study the past events or individuals. Political philosophers have asserted that great military leaders should always use history as a guide to military action.
By doing so, those aspiring to be effective military leaders must study the path taken by great military leaders in history and emulate their success, while learning from their mistakes.
If American military leaders had analyzed the history of the Vietnam War, before proceeding with the war in Iraq in 2003, most of the current challenges faced by our military soldiers in the Middle East could be insignificant.
Past military seniors mentored most great military leaders in the US. As such, their leadership styles were acquired from these senior leaders. In this regard, a few of them possessed inborn leadership styles. For instance, Ulysses Grant did not begin his career with an unshaken determination.
His determination developed out of experienced in wars, learning, and studying his previous mentors. Grant applied lessons from the Mexicans campaign during the early engagements of the civil war, and demonstrated a confident determination during the Vicksburg campaign.
As an army officer, Grant was fortunate to serve with high-ranking men in the military history such as Zachary Taylor and Charles F. Smith. Grant always requested help from general smith as a cadet. Smith taught Grant that leaders must always be prepared to fight.
Through these teachings, Grant succeeded and served as a role model in the military leadership. Most literatures assert that Grant learned his greatest lessons from firsthand experience. With every decision Grant made, he gained experience and confidence, which helped him develop into a determined commander.
It is worth noting that Grants persistence was not mere stubbornness. Stubborn leaders fail to recognize strategic and tactical skills needed for effective leadership.
Similarly, Eisenhower’s seniors mentored his leadership skills. In the year 1922, Eisenhower went to Panama to work alongside Brigadier General Conner. Conner had an unusual quality of mentoring his junior officers. During their stay in Panama, Conner revived Eisenhower’s interest in American history.
It was through their relationship that Conner taught Eisenhower the key principles of leadership. Conner thought his young scholar the importance of unity in command. He taught him that large campaign must have a commander over all its forces.
Similarly, Conner taught Eisenhower the value of preparation and study. By the end of their relationships, Eisenhower had articulated his leadership principles.
Charisma in the great American military leaders cannot be overstated. Historians assert that the great American military leaders had ability to motivate men to act towards a common course. Their marines were always ready for their command. They were always ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of the country.
Lewis B Chesty Puller was one of these leaders. He became a great role model among the greatest military leaders in the history of the US military. Few leaders will manage a similar career and retain their common touch like him.
Similarly, Ulysses Grant and Colonel Powel were among the other few charismatic leaders in the history of the U.S. Because of their great contribution to the country, the leaders enjoyed massive support from the public and their subordinates.
Their self-confidence enabled them to conquer numerous military challenges experienced at their times. These leaders were not only confidence but also courageous; they had strong beliefs over their decisions and moves. They were never afraid to make vital military decisions, which shaped the history of this country.
Through their innovation, these leaders maximized the skills of their battalions. During the Mexican American war, Ulysses Grant was responsible for the regiment logistics. The complexity of the challenges faced during the war needed a charismatic leader to provide appropriate solutions.
On arrival, at the War field, Grant negotiated with the local suppliers, bent a few military regulations, and eventually secured sufficient mules to organize a caravan for the war. These innovative acts, depicts Grants ingenuity.
George C. Marshall
George C. Marshall was born on 31st, December 1880. He was one of the greatest military leaders in the history of America. Marshall served as chief military adviser under the leadership of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As a young boy, Marshall was educated in several private schools (Laver 2008, 95).
However, after the 1891 economic collapse, Marshall transferred to a public school. His father noted that during his early years he demonstrated little academic excellence, except in historical subjects. Marshall developed a lot of interest in history throughout his entire life.
Through this, historical studies assert that Marshall solved most of his challenges using solutions from his past.
Marshall later enrolled in the Virginia Military School in the year 1897.Upon his enrollment, Marshall became enthusiastic about the regimen and quickly grasped the skills to being a successful military leader. He persevered through adversity to achieve his intended goals at the military school.
While at the military school, Marshall was very hard working and ambitious. Because of his ambitiousness, Marshall received numerous promotions and held a prestigious office at a lower.
Though his class grades were average, Marshall committed his time to extra studies, which made him learn self-control, discipline, and problem management skills. All through his career, Marshall became very popular for his extraordinary commitment in the military.
He was hardworking, energetic, assertive, and always expected his staff to demonstrate extraordinary commitment. As a leader, he was always fair, empathetic, and conscious. He always provided his juniors with opportunities to relax and energize.
Although, Marshall was acutely sensitive to misconceptions of the army, he always remained a model of discipline in full control of his emotions. In spite of working under regular stress and pressure, he still enjoyed every time he worked as a military leader.
As an institutional leader, Marshall understood the importance of effective communication in leadership. He communicated with his subordinates effectively building organizational morale and developed strong relationships with his subordinates.
Like Ulysses Grant, Marshall acquired his leadership skills through experience and studying historical military occurrence. He greatly benefitted from his understanding of American history in the army and social influence. He learned from personal experience and his mentors.
Through this, he developed an administrative philosophy that emphasized on simplicity, efficiency, and decentralization.
Unlike any other military leaders in the history of the US military, Marshall understood the underlying domestic issues of race and gender inequalities in the US military.
Although he never implemented any policy to end such inequalities, he asserted that anyone could engage in military acts regardless of their race and gender.
Notably, he mentored women in the regular army and supported the minority military organizations, including the African American Tuskegee aviators and the Japanese American Nisei Battalion (Adams 1993, 1).
In general, Marshall’s personal character, organizational skills, and reform-minded policies made him an outstanding institutional leader (Dodd 1962, 67).
Conclusion From this analysis, it is clear that great American military leaders achieved their goals due to their effective leadership styles. These men achieved high ranks and positions in the military because of their competency, loyalty, and passion for their career.
Similarly, these leaders had exceptional leadership qualities in that they were able to impart their skills and knowledge in their subordinates (Cawthorne 2004, 55).
In this regard, current military leaders, corporate leaders and those aspiring to be leaders in every discipline will greatly benefit from the historical analysis of these leaders.
Through this, they have to study the models of these great leaders and learn from their examples. In addition, current leaders can analyze these great leaders’ attributes to establish reasons for their stability in leadership.
Although these leaders showed little or no interest in ending racism in the military, it would be unfair for us to judge them using the current leadership standards. Instead, we must advocate for equality in our military services.
Through this, we should analyze the past military leaderships, while noting on their failures to end racial and gender inequalities in the military. Through this, we are to come up with appropriate policies aimed at ending social inequalities in our military system.
Reference List Adams, Peter. 1993. Chappie James, Jr. New York: National Aviation Hall of Fame.
Cawthorne, Nigel. 2004. Military commanders: the 100 greatest throughout history. New York: Enchanted Lion Books.
Dodd, Mead.1962. Famous American military leaders of World War II. New York:, U.S. Army War College.
Grant, R. G. 2011. Commanders. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Laver, Harry. 2008. The art of command military leadership; from George Washington, to Colin Powell. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky.
Richardson, John. 2005. Real Leadership and The U.S. Army: Overcoming A Failure Of Imagination To Conduct Adaptive Work. New York: W. W. Norton.
Serry, Mordu. 2001. The Trials and Tribulations of General Colin L. Powell. New York: Random House.
Inquiry Based Learning Evaluation Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction To understand the relevant use of inquiry based learning strategies while the real classroom lesson, the main idea of the theory should be considered. According to Alvarado and Herr (2003), inquiry based learning strategy is a process “initiated by either teacher or students, in which students investigate central, essential questions while their teacher guides them through this process” (p. xiv).
The main idea of the lessons under discussion is to help students understand what types of energy exist and according to which ways this energy can be produced, used, stored, or transported.
The importance of inquiry based learning strategies Dwelling upon inquiry based learning strategies, it should be mentioned that it cannot be used during any lesson. One should clearly understand the purpose of the lesson and consider whether the inquiry based learning is appropriate there or not.
Collaborative inquiry learning is extremely important as it helps students understand that science is not just memorizing of formulae and writing lengthy numbers in the results of the experiments, but it is also an interesting world of research, applying knowledge into practice, following the process of the exploration and obtaining expected and unexpected results.
Considering one of the main purposes of the education in the USA, it is aimed at putting “strong emphasis on activities that investigate and analyse science questions” (Bell, Urhahne, Schanze,
Computer Mediated Learning Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
There are many definitions available that attempt to explain learning processes delivered, enabled or mediated using electronic technology for the explicit purpose of learning. These definitions include such terms as distance learning which may occur even in the absence of electronic technology. Distance learning has for a long time been performed using correspondence (Fee, 2009).
An example of these terms is computer mediated learning which is used to define any learning process that is facilitated by electronic technology. Computer mediated learning therefore implies that the learning could be facilitated by both one way and two way learning exchanges as well as learner to learner exchanges.
Among the terms that are often used and erroneously taken to have the same meaning as computer mediated learning is the term computer authored learning. Computer authored learning defines a learning process that is designed or engineered through the use of computer technology (Distefano, Rudestam
Compliance Issues Associated with Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
Introducing Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 creates substantial grounds for companies and corporations to take preventive measures for avoiding bribery and controlling compliance mechanisms.
However, as practice shows, the awareness of the existing federal law does not always prevent third parties and company’s staff from violating the provision.
Therefore, it is essential for the companies to establish specialized committees that would monitor and enforce the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) to guarantee that all regulations and provisions are taken into consideration.
More importantly, it is also purposeful to examine whether all provisions are followed in compliance with the accepted standards.
While discussing the compliance with (FCPA), specific attention should be given to the analysis of the employed environment, as well as attitude of companies toward the law enforcement.
In this respect, Aguilar (2011) attains much importance to the role of compliance mechanisms and preventive measures in adhering to the act provisions.
In particular, the scholar emphasizes, “given the current anti-corruption enforcement climate, being able to demonstrate that you program is actually being used is even more important than ever” (Aguilar, 2011, p. 11).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, concerns with bribery and violation of the act provision have recently become the focus of attention due to its large-scale impact.
The problem is extremely significant because further complications of the situation may lead to spending financial resources and time on averting legal crimes (Aguilar, 2010).
Thus, the audit committee should be aware that ignorance of the problem could cause further cost consideration. Therefore, paying attention to briberies can abate significant financial expenditures.
Increased awareness of bribery issues provides companies and corporations with establishing ethics and compliance programs that can contribute to FCPA enforcement. This is of particular concern to the risks relating to third-party interventions.
According to Kavanagh (2010), “Mitigating risks by supplies and other third parties can be accomplished by performing effective due diligence, distributing and obtaining certifications to a third-party code of conduct, providing training, and conducting periodic audits of third-party activities” (p. 7).
The scholar also notes that some of the existing supplier codes fail due to the inability to conform to the legal provisions and international standards (Kavanagh, 2010, p. 7).
Nevertheless, serious worries expressed in regard to the act violation prove that committees and companies strive to take an active part preventive measures.
We will write a custom Assessment on Compliance Issues Associated with Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lipton et al. (2010) focus on similar debates and introduce the circumstances under which companies reconsider procedures and policies directed at risk elimination patterns. They also insist that lack of adherence to the provision is strongly associated with poor corporate culture.
Despite the challenges of compliance mechanism established in various companies, the major stakeholders are concerned with the potential risks and consequences of violating FCPA 1977.
They realize the seriousness of the issue and introduce specific preventive measures, new codes of ethical conduct, and risk assessment procedures that can abate the existing problems.
While evaluating the evidence, it should be stressed that previously established compliance mechanisms were not effective enough for the company to assure security and privacy protection, as well as proper operation activities.
Therefore, a specific officer should be appointed to take control of the compliance with the FCPA. Under these conditions only, it is possible to guarantee that all the provisions are followed as intended. In addition, companies should adopt strong policies that would enhance corporate culture.
References Aguilar, M. K. (2010). FCPA compliance: Latest, best practices for boards. Compliance Week, 7(80), 53.
Aguilar, M. K. (2011). Anticorruption trends: What you should expect in 2011. Compliance Week, 8(87), 11.
Kavanagh, S. (2010). Supplier codes can help handle third-party risks. Federal Ethics Report, 17(4), 6.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compliance Issues Associated with Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lipton, M., Neff, D. A., Brownstein, A. R., Rosenblum, S. A., Emmerich, A. O.,
Managing Challenges in Schools Qualitative Research Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Background of challenges experienced by schools in Saudi Arabia
Introduction Al-Andalus School is one of the private schools operating in Saudi Arabia. In its operations, the school is committed to providing quality education to children in Saudi Arabia. The school offers education to children from the 1st to 12th grade.
Over the years, the school has undergone significant growth thus motivating its founders to establish new branches. One of the factors that have contributed to the school’s growth is its curriculum expansion.
In 2007, the school introduced the American Diploma Program to satisfy the ever-increasing need of credible English curriculum (Alam, 2007).
Despite its current effectiveness in providing quality education, the school is experiencing challenges emanating from changes in the Saudi Arabian education sector. This paper takes into account the case of Al-Andalus School in a bid to develop a better understanding of challenges in schools in Saudi Arabia.
In reviewing the case of Al-Andalus, the paper takes into account a number of elements like conducting a literature review on challenges facing schools in the country.
Moreover, the paper outlines the key problems that the school is facing currently coupled with illustrating the research framework, source of data, and method of analyzing the collected data.
Background of challenges experienced by schools in Saudi Arabia The education sector in Saudi Arabia has undergone extensive transformation over the past two decades (Cordesman, 2010). One of the main aspects that have become dominant in the sector includes improving the sector’s capacity to teach the increasing young population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, the sector is grappling with the challenge of ensuring that it enhances the country’s economic growth by imparting relevant skills to students.
The public school system accounts for the largest percentage of all schools in Saudi Arabia. A study conducted in 2009 showed that 90 per cent of all students in Saudi Arabia attend public schools (Oxford Business Group, 2009).
The recent regulatory developments in the country are fueling growth of private schools. In addition, the high quality of education provided in private schools is stimulating a high rate of student transfers from public to private schools.
Parents are becoming more concerned with the quality of education their children receive; therefore, there is a high likelihood of parents preferring private schools to public schools in the future (Alpen Capital, 2012). This phenomenon is increasing the challenges faced by private school directors and principals.
Being one of the private schools in Saudi Arabia, the founders of Al-Andalus Private School are experiencing different challenges arising from changes in the education sector. The paper evaluates the case of Al-Andalus Private School to understand the challenges experienced in Saudi Arabian schools.
Problem statement As aforementioned, schools in Saudi Arabia are undergoing intense changes, which have arisen from rampant societal changes and educational reforms that the government is currently undertaking.
The need to develop a knowledge-based economy is one of the factors that have stimulated the Saudi Arabian government to incorporate reforms within the education sector (Renihan
Mobile Learning and Its Impact on the Learning Process Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Mobile learning (M-learning) is a learning process that takes place when the learner is not at a particular fixed location. The learning process takes place when the student takes full advantage of different opportunities offered by cell phones and other portable devices.
These devices include notebooks, tables, laptops and other handheld digital computers. The learning concept developed recently. It has helped revolutionize the entire learning process. Today institutions and learners are concerned about travelling and environments that support the learning process.
The world has become mobile thus making the technology applicable for learning process. It is clear that some people promote the learning while others are against the process.
Mobile Learning and its Impact on the Learning, Teaching, and Training Process The idea of using the internet to teach distant learners is not new. In the recent past, the world has become mobile due to the wave of globalization. As a result, the learning experience is also undergoing the same kind of revolution.
Mobile teaching is an approach promoted by portable devices such as computers, smart phones, and cell phones. The process delivers a properly designed curriculum to the learners wherever they are.
The learning process takes place without considering the physical distance between the student and the instructor (Andrew, 2008). The new technological approach has enormous impacts on the learning, teaching and training process, both positive and negative.
The learning approach is collaborative. This means that it makes it easier for the learners to share their ideas and concepts instantly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The teacher and learner can exchange constant feedbacks to improve the process. With the costs of acquiring books, the use of mobile learning offers a new opportunity with lesser expenses (Wolfe, 2010). Mobile learning is capable of offering a new yet entertaining experience.
Mobile learning is also possible without having to carry books and other study materials. This gives mobile learning a unique beauty thereby making it an effective method.
The idea is capable of revolutionizing the entire learning process for the better. This means that the impacts of mobile learning on the learning, teaching and training processes are real. Schools and institutions require huge fees and accommodation expenses.
This has made it impossible for some people to enroll in these schools (Traxler, 2005). The idea of mobile learning is a new opportunity for learners.
The strategy will transform the learning process for the better. More people will benefit from different educational programs than ever before. This will improve their living conditions and offer them new ideas.
Mobile learning will make learning and training a continuous process. Today learning is rigid with the students having to stick to a given curriculum. The old methods of learning have become outdated and irrelevant.
Modern technologies will continue to present new opportunities such that students can do other things while learning. Mobile learning is a continuous process that can be interspersed with all our daily routines and activities (Pimmer, 2012).
We will write a custom Essay on Mobile Learning and Its Impact on the Learning Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Students can use phones and tablets to download instructions and complete their assignments. This means that the learning process is better because it saves time.
Teachers will no longer have to stick to tight schedules trying to plan their lessons and practical sessions. The content is becoming shorter such that it can be delivered to the learners via their mobile devices (El-Hussein
Managing Global Relationships and Marketing Crisis Report college admission essay help
Executive Summary Management of global relations is very important for any company that is anticipating to carry out its operations in a global scope. In the view of the stiff competition created by the global marketing participants, it is good to put structures in place that will see that there is not only development of such relationships but also there is adequate management of the same.
The following brief report tries to examine how Apple Inc. Company that is operating in an electronic industry can develop global relationship in a foreign marketing region, Russian Federation and to what extend it can benefit from those relationships. The reasons behind the establishment of such relationships and the best possible strategies that can be applied are thereby expounded in this report.
Furthermore, the justification for establishment of such relationships is comprehensively provided in the report. The report also looks at the reasons why Russian Federation is a potential business operating zone giving highlights of some of the business and marketing opportunities available in the region.
As it will be observed in the report, the development and management of good relationships can encounter some challenges that may threaten the company’s operations in the chosen country. In the event that Apple Inc. Company encounters a marketing crisis like the one witnessed when the company’s appointed logistic company fails to deliver goods to the customer as agreed, the remedial measures that need to be taken are analyzed and how best Apple Company can prevent such a crisis from occurring in future.
In brief, the company needs to have adequate mechanism for handling not only marketing crisis but also any other crisis that is likely to affect the performance of the company.
Introduction With the increasing global competition, any marketing participant needs to maintain foreign and global relations that are sufficient to enable an enterprise secure a significant market share in the industry. The success of all the business entities is dependent on its relations with the outsiders since a firm cannot operate in isolation; that is it needs support from various stakeholders for instance the firm’s suppliers of various materials (Vernon 1966, p.194).
The relationship also targets the entity’s customers and it is quite imperative that the firm’s policies provide systems and solutions that may solve any prevailing marketing crisis. The relationships with the customers can be strengthened through provision of required products in the right quantity and quality, within the stipulated time period without any delay and meeting all the other expectations that the customers may require.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this may not be an easy task since there are some limitations rendering the achievement of excellent global relationships. Cultural differences do arise among different countries of the world as well as huge spending required in maintaining such relationships. Marketing crisis may too be beyond the organization’s scope and therefore its management becomes difficult.
The following brief report analyzes how Apple Inc. Company can develop such relationships, the reasons for their development, their associated benefits and the appropriate actions that need to be taken to solve any marketing crisis that may arise in the selected company (Perlmutter 1967, p.92).
Relationship development Before a business organization develops any global relationship, a comprehensive analysis of the targeted group of people or customers in which the company needs to establish such relationship is crucial to determine the extent to which such relationship will benefit the company (Cavusgil 1984, p.115). In the provided context, Apple Inc. Company has identified Russian Federation as its potential business customer with whom it plans to establish business relations with.
Background information about the Russian Federation The background information of Russia Federation gives enough justification as to why it was chosen as the preferred target area (customer) for the Apple to extend its marketing activities. Russian Federation was founded in the year 1991 upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia’s economy is the tenth largest in the world and the country is believed to have one of the strongest economies in the world.
Russia is known for having a strong power with significance influence on matters related to economic development. It is a country with massive economic activities and prospects bearing in mind that the country hosts huge oils and mineral reserves including coal and forestry reserves. In addition, the country is a world supplier of ammunitions and other weapons that have boosted the country’s GDP and its economic status to a greater extend.
The per capita income of the nation is as high as those of other advanced nations. This means establishment of business relations with Russian Federation maybe of significant benefits to the interested party since the country has all what it requires providing promising prospects to the interested investor.
Apple Inc. company, dealing with electronic products need to develop relations with a relatively strong economic zone where there is likely to be strong customer base for its products. In this case, Russian Federation can provide the company with reliable customers who can impact positively on the performance of the company.
We will write a custom Report on Managing Global Relationships and Marketing Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Russia’s market economy has huge natural resources that make its resident’s economic welfare better off. Russia is one of the countries in the world with the highest purchasing power parity. Since 21st century, the country has had high domestic consumption therefore; provision of products to the region is a golden opportunity to any investor.
In the year 2008, the average salary for the Russian employees was about $6400 per month. This is a good indicator of strong consumer’s purchasing power. The number of residents living below poverty line in the year 2011 was merely an estimate of 13 percent. In 2006, the middle class persons in the country amounted to approximately 55 million out of a possible 147 million people.
Reasons for Apple Inc. to develop good relationships with RF Apple Inc. is well known for the manufacturing of high quality phones. Since its establishment, the company has been able to develop strategies that are aimed at increasing its market share in the global marketing environment. One of the ways through which the company has achieved this is identification of potential customers with whom the company maintains good relations (Firat, Dholakia
Technology Adoption in Healthcare Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Medical professionals face many challenges in their attempts to provide quality health care services, especially disease prevention. This article addresses the problem of diseases that are not easily preventable.
It is a problem that gives doctors a lot of work since it is their responsibility to ensure that people are free from diseases.
The approach used to propose a solution is based on research that has been conducted on technology adoption in hospitals such as barcode technology and computerized scans.
Doctors should make use of barcode technology to collect specimen, identify surgical instruments and manage medication. They care about the use of barcode technology and computerized scans because they prioritize health of their patients.
Introduction Technology adoption in hospitals involves use of computerized disease diagnosis and prevention. Instead of using traditional and inefficient methods to diagnose and prevent diseases, doctors should use computerized methods such as CT scans to detect heart diseases.
In addition, barcode technology is used to increase efficiency of doctors in identification and management of diseases (Weinfurt 20).
A lot of research has been conducted with the aim of establishing how computerized disease diagnosis can be used in hospitals to prevent certain diseases. Researchers have discovered that medical experts focus on the use of technology to treat diseases but ignore its preventive ability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research has shown that computerized tomography can be used to detect heart diseases before their symptoms become more pronounced. The contribution of this article is provision of important information on how doctors can use technology in hospitals to diagnose and prevent diseases.
This is important information that can improve provision of health care services if doctors follow the proposed technology. The main points of the article include use of computerized tomography, popularly known as CT scans to detect heart diseases.
The article has also highlighted how barcode technology is used to manage diseases, collect specimen and identify surgical equipment. It addresses use of traditional and inefficient disease diagnosis methods that doctors have been using for a long period of time.
From the information provided, this gap would be filled after doctors adopt computerized disease diagnosis methods such as CT scans and use of barcode technology (Russell 109).
Technology is important in hospitals for various reasons. The first one is that it helps medical professionals to administer quality health care services to patients.
The second one is that it makes it possible for many patients to receive treatment at the same time while the third reason is that it reduces costs incurred during treatment sessions.
This article is important since it encourages doctors to adopt barcode technology and CT scans to detect heart diseases. Adoption of technology leads to provision of quality health care services to the patients.
We will write a custom Essay on Technology Adoption in Healthcare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article is organized into an abstract, introduction and conclusion. The abstract gives a brief summary of technology in hospitals. The introduction gives examples of technology in hospitals such as CT scans. After the introduction, the main points of the article and its contribution are outlined.
Conclusion It is important for doctors to adopt technology in the areas of disease diagnosis and prevention. This article has highlighted how technology such as CT scans and barcode technology is used by doctors to provide quality health care services.
Doctors should use the information in this article to improve health care provision by using technology to diagnose and prevent diseases. They should also think about using computerized systems that can identify patients hence prevent occurrence of errors.
Works Cited Russell, Louise. Technology in Hospitals: Medical Advances and Their Diffusion, New York: Brookings Institution Press, 2000. Print.
Weinfurt, Philip. Biomedical Technology Assessment: The 3Q Method, New York: Morgan
Police Suicide and Preventive Programs Research Paper college essay help online
On Christmas Eve 2010, my phone rang at 10:45 PM. The voice on the other end was the peer-officer support coordinator for a nearby police department. One of their police officers had not shown up for work that evening. For sometime, he had been involved in disciplinary action on the job and others were aware of his personal challenges.
The patrol sergeant decided to drive to his house for a welfare check and when hr arrived, the front door was open as if the owner knew someone would be stopping by. After calling out his name several times, the sergeant slowly navigated herself through the house that offered very little light.
As she looked to her right, she saw the officer lying on the floor by the bathroom doorway. “Maybe he fell and hit his head,” she thought, or “Did he have a heart attack?” but as she got closer, she noticed the pool of blood next to his head and his service weapon lying next to his body. Her suspicions were right; he had taken his own life.
She radioed dispatch for medics and supervisors to respond to his address. As the information blasted over the radio, dispatch and other officers who heard the call, knew what had happened. The above incident depicts how police officers commit suicide due to stressful circumstances related to their job coupled with personal issues.
Recent statistics carried out in the United States showed that, New York State ranks third after California and New Jersey consecutively in the rates of suicide incidences among police officers. According to Eagle (2005), “police officers are eight times more likely to die by suicide than by homicide, and they are three times more likely to die by suicide than from accidental causes” (p.1).
Hence, high incidence rates of suicide among police officers as compared to general population are due to traumatic experiences of their job. Police suicides occur for a variety of reasons, which may include work or personal stress, critical incidents, substance abuse, and financial issues, as well as failed relationships, which enhance trauma and subsequent suicidal feelings.
It is important to note that, however, the role that the stigma attached to seeking help plays in pushing officers to make the decision to end their lives is significant. Robert Douglas, Jr., executive director of the National Police Suicide Foundation notes that, about 97% of police suicides occur by service weapons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies that availability of weapons in police service can be a predisposing factor that contributes to high incidence rates of police suicide in the population. I agree with the thinking that an officer’s gun becomes his best friend and it is an officer’s first defense in protecting his or her life. Since police officers depend on their guns when doing their jobs, when they make decision to commit suicide, they use the available weapon, the gun.
Statistical studies confirm that despite introduction of several preventive measures to counsel and educate police officers, the incidence rates of suicide among police officers are still high. Eagle (2005) reports that, “the police suicide rate is 17 for every 100,000 officers compared with a nationwide suicide rate among the general population of 10.6 suicides for every 100,000 persons” (Para. 6).
Although the statistics depicts that police incidences of suicide are very high, it is still subject to other parameters in the population that may exaggerate true figures, but the fact remains that police officers experience traumatic experiences that predispose them suicide. The traumatic experiences that the police officers encounter and endure during the course of their duties make them susceptible to suicide.
Law enforcement community frequently encounters traumatic experiences that have contributed to high incidences of suicide among the police officers signifying that trauma is the cause of suicide. Prevalence study carried out in Taiwan showed that about 21% of the law enforcement officers experience trauma.
Leeds (2009) argues that, “police officers experience frequent and ongoing stressors in their work that range from cumulative stress – constant risk on the job, conflicting regulations, and public perceptions that may be inaccurate – to critical incidents: violent crimes, shootings and mass disasters” (p.4). All these stressors and traumatic experiences are potential causes of depressions that have made police officers become susceptible to suicide.
Police profession is emotionally stressing and physically dangerous thus eliciting suicidal feelings that expose police officers to suicide. Anderson (1998) argues that, “police have been tuned to dissociate from their emotions or suppress their emotions to endure the scene, but chronic, long-term and cumulative stress takes its toll on police officers resulting into trauma syndrome” (p.12).
The traumatic syndrome consists of suicidal feelings that at some instances overwhelm the police officers making them commit suicide. Therefore, police officers endure traumatic experiences up to a point in life where they develop depression that triggers devastating suicidal feelings. It is hard to grasp what goes in the mind of police officers that makes them contemplate suicide.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Police Suicide and Preventive Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The only way I can know and explain is by getting firsthand information from the police officers who have considered committing suicide. The police officers experience greatest trauma that an ordinary person cannot withstand and such experiences push them to take desperate measures of saving themselves.
In trauma, they experience tunnel vision to such an extent that they cannot see the available resources such as an EAP, Peer Officer or Chaplain. The tunnel of vision, unfortunately, has no light at the end of it. All they want is the pain to stop, so suicide becomes a plausible solution and their gun just like their best friend, is the only thing left, which they can trust to save them from the traumatizing circumstances by committing suicide.
When faced with traumatizing circumstances due to cumulative trauma experiences, police officers prefer dying than enduring the pain. Renee Meador, a retired Virginia police officer with 28 years of service, believes that although many law enforcement professionals insist the blue wall of silence is not prevalent, or deny it exists, this term suits most officers feelings about seeking mental health services.
Despite the fact that traumatic experiences that police officers experience during the course of their career contribute significantly to high incidences of suicide among police officers, police chiefs claim that police work is not only to blame for officers committing suicide. The police chiefs attribute the increasing incidences of suicide to personal and family issues.
Thus, as a comprehensive approach of addressing stress and other hazards of police work, I highly recommend that suicide prevention programs should not only focus on police career stress, but also the impact their careers have on their families. Reflecting back over my years of service providing support services to law enforcement personnel, I have found three common factors leading to stress expressed by officers who utilized my services: family dysfunction and marital discord, financial issues, and substance abuse, all separate issues, yet interrelated.
However, police officers do not see the three areas as related to the stress from their work. They express more frustration dealing with management issues and other internal factors that have nothing to do with their ability of policing. Nonetheless, stress generally has a tremendous impact on their mental health and well-being.
Ultimately, we end up with more officers dying through suicide rather than through the course of their duties.To demonstrate that both internal factors and job related stress could affect law enforcement officers, I have included this illustration of the 25 most stressful law enforcement critical life events outlined by James D. Sewell in his book titled: The Development of a Critical Life Events Scale for Law Enforcement.
In this chart, he places a numerical value next to traumatizing events experienced by law enforcement officers. Based on this scale, you can observe that the numerical value for a promotional pass-over, 68 is almost as high as a personal involvement in a shooting incident, which rates 70.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Police Suicide and Preventive Programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Officers need to realize that the accumulation of stress over time does have an impact, regardless of where the stress comes from. I often share with officers in the police-training academy that they should not concentrate on what causes their stress, but they should concentrate in managing the stress.
It is very important to recognize fully the impact stress plays on an individual and doing something about it. We can offer every type of assistance available for officers, but if they make a conscious decision not to take responsibility for their personal issues, we cannot make any significant changes in their lives.
Prevention of suicide among police requires comprehensive educational and counseling programs to help police officers cope with traumatizing experiences in their job that predisposes them to suicide.
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences of policing have psychological residual effects that lead to depression and subsequently development of suicidal feelings; hence, Violanti, and O’Hara (2011) recommend that police officers should undergo counseling and educational process during their training, service, and retirement to alleviate potential consequences of cumulative trauma (Para. 5).
The counseling and education programs should also incorporate their families for they play significant roles in alleviating traumatic experiences of the police officers. Mental health support services and other resources should also be available for police officers to access easily necessary information or services whenever they need.
References Anderson, B. (1998). Trauma Response Profile. American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 8, 1-15.
Eagle, W. (2005). Researcher: Police Suicide Rate ‘Epidemic.’ The Police Study Policy Study Council. Web.
Leeds, A. (2009). Police Officers’ Responses to Chronic Stress, Critical Incidents and Trauma. Law Enforcement Bulletin, 12, 1-8.
Psychological Disorder: Depression Exploratory Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Depression as a type of the psychological disorder is often characteristic for people who suffer from definite difficulties in their life and have to act in stressful situations regularly.
From this point, the situation of caring for the loved person who suffers from Alzheimer’s disease can be discussed as a stressful one, and it can cause the development of the carer’s depression.
To answer the research question “What is the rate of depression in adults, ages 40-60 years, caring for loved ones with Alzheimer’s disease compared to adults of the same age group in the general population?”, it is significant to analyse the possible correlation between the situation of the necessary care for the person with Alzheimer’s disease and the growth of the carer’s depression with references to the research provided by Rosness, Mjorud, and Engedal.
Thus, the researchers state that the rate of depression in carers of the persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease is significantly higher than the general rates of depression in persons from the examined age group (Rosness, Mjorud,
Apple Inc Strategy Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Core Issues Facing Apple
Significance of the Issues Facing Apple
Primary and Secondary Issues
Most Substantial Competitive Advantage Apple to Focus on
How Apple Should Exploit their Competitive Advantage
Core Issues Facing Apple Despite Apple Inc. recording spectacular growth and profitability in recent years, the company still faces a number of challenges.
Some of these challenges include increased competition, maintaining its position in the market, dynamic technology, and the challenge of resource allocation between the traditional products and the emerging products such as iPods, Apple TV and iPods. The company also has to handle issues relating to its retailing approaches to enhance the company’s product decision (Richard Ivey School of Business, 2009).
Significance of the Issues Facing Apple To this far, the growth and profitability of Apple has been based on competencies such as superior technology, innovative products and empowered employees. The development and design of hardware and software brought sweeping innovations, thus, offering the consumers superior products rich in value. From Apple 1, the company was able to develop different brand products such as the iPod, iPhone, and iTunes.
Hence innovation has been a key competitive advantage for this company. In spite of this, competitors such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Nokia, and Sony are continuously introducing innovative products and applications which rival Apple’s products.
Apple, therefore, has to put up with competition from these companies that provide subsidiary products and services such as Microsoft’s Zune product that is more or less Apple’s iTunes (Richard Ivey School of Business, 2009). This threatens the company’s success and market place. This implies that the company must endeavor to grow its market and maintain its market position.
Primary and Secondary Issues The primary issues Apple has to face are the stiff competition and the dynamic technological innovations in the business environment. In the technology industry, it has to compete with companies like Nokia and Sony. These competitors often offer products that are low priced, potentially impacting on the value of apple products.
Having diversified on the products it offers, maintaining its competencies is a primary issue that cannot be ignored. Having depended on marketing, innovation and relationships to succeed, Apple must manage the broader products to maintain its wide consumer base. Apple has to place efforts in sustaining brand innovativeness due to the dynamic technological developments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondary issues facing Apple include resource allocation and utilization of retail outlets (Richard Ivey School of Business, 2009). Given the expectations of consumers, the company must focus on strategies that will promote brand exposure, perhaps by expanding the retail outlets and employing more sales staff.
Most Substantial Competitive Advantage Apple to Focus on Innovation remains the most substantial strategy for Apple. This is particularly pertinent in protecting its brand image and market base. This can be done by maintaining and upgrading the capabilities of products to create entry barriers to the competitors. Investing in its human resource by creating an atmosphere favorable for creativity and innovation is also a core competitive advantage.
Empowered personnel are able to interact well with the consumers hence generating significant input for the design of the brand. This is essential in innovating products that are customized to consumer specifications (Richard Ivey School of Business, 2009).
Physical stores that serve as retail outlets have also strengthened and created brand awareness. These outlets serve as customer care avenues as the sales people help the consumers become conversant with Apple’s products. This grew the market share and increased Apple’s revenue and profit.
How Apple Should Exploit their Competitive Advantage Apple can apply incremental innovation to enhance the capability of existing products so that to maximize their value and lifespan; and therefore, promoting brand loyalty. Retail stores and online stores serve to increase brand exposure as they act as distribution networks.
The company will focus on opening more retail and online stores in order to exploit the competitive advantage fully. This will be essential in broadening the consumer base and providing support experiences, hence raising market penetration.
Reference Richard Ivey School of Business (2009). Strategic planning at Apple Inc. Ivey
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An Evaluation of the Suitability of ‘New Headway- Intermediate’ by Liz writing essay help
Introduction Banks et al. (1989) say that the intangible aspects as well as symbols of a society make up their culture. Banks et al. add that the most important element of culture is how people interpret and attach meaning to the components of culture (1989).
According to Damen (1987), culture is the share of human models that enable people to carry out day-to-day activities through socialization. Lederach (1995), on the other hand, describes culture as the material and non-material practices that differentiate a particular group of people. Culture is specific to groups of people based on race and language.
Hofstede (1984) says that culture is the programming of the mind that helps differentiate different groups of people. From the definitions above, culture can be defined as the patterns of behavior that are shared among peoples, and the cognitive constructs that determine the behavior of people in everyday life.
English is taught as a foreign language in Iran. According to Dollerup et al. (1992), there is a cultural influence perspective in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. Dollerup et al. add that teaching English in the country is always accompanied by the teaching interpretation skills from English to the local language that leaders believe is important for Iranian politics as well as international development (Dollerup et al. 1992).
The leaders also believe that it is an effective way to preserve the indigenous Iranian language. This is because, while learners undertake English lessons, it ensures that they are knowledgeable about the indigenous language. High school learners in Iran aged between 15-18 use the textbook New Headway-Intermediate (Soars and Soars 1996).
The research will center on the question of whether the book is suitable for teaching the English language. Additionally, the research will seek to find out whether elements of Iranian culture need to be incorporated into the system when teaching these students when using books such as New Headway. It is important to note that culture here means all the material and non material features that characterize the way of life of Iranians.
Jenkins (2007) says that generally, the cultural aspect among learners especially high school learners is clearly embedded in the learning process. According to Jenkins, the learning process involves both formal and informal processes that aim at preserving the Iranian culture. Similarly, the system emphasizes the importance of the cultural aspect even in the teaching of foreign languages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jenkins (2009) also adds that there is concern among course drafters in Iran that any foreign language teaching in Iran is tantamount to adopting the culture that the language represents and, therefore, recommends the incorporation of the local cultural aspect so that learners can learn the foreign language while appreciating their own culture.
It is not to say that western culture is inappropriate for Iranians; rather, Iranians may consider some elements of western culture such as the modes of dress that may be considered offensive and, therefore, not desirable. For instance, a woman wearing trousers and exposing her hair will be considered offensive in the Iranian culture, as will words that describe the undergarments worn by both men and women that have been developed by the dynamic nature of commerce these words include ‘pants’, ‘Lingerie’.
However, it would be wrong to assume that any incorporation of British cultural aspects into teaching English in Iran using the new textbook is not appropriate. The research will, therefore, explore both sides of the argument to determine what merits and demerits accompany whatever approach high school learning takes in Iran.
Aims and objectives of the research The main aim of the research will be to evaluate the cultural content of New Headway with a view to evaluating the degree to which it is appropriate for Iranian high school learners. Cultural content here refers to all the elements in the book that refer to culture as defined at the beginning of this paper. It is important to note that high school learners are students aged between 15-18.
The system in Iran separates women from men, even in learning institutions. Students are introduced to English as a second language from grade 7. The students are expected to follow academic/general or technical/vocational training. The research will also aim to determine the learner attitudes towards increasing or decreasing the observance of cultural aspects in English teaching.
Concisely, therefore, the research will seek to determine whether the new textbook is suitable for teachers and students in the culturally sensitive environment of Iran. Other objectives of the research will include:
An investigation of learner attitudes on the suitability of the book among Iranian high school students through the use of qualitative studies of 15-18 year olds and evaluating this within the context of New Headway Intermediate (Soars and Soars, 1996).
An evaluation of the content of New Headway Intermediate (Soars and Soars 1996) as a learning medium for Iranian EFL students between the ages of 15-18 in the culturally sensitive environment of Iran.
Research questions According to Slavin (1995), research questions will provide a platform for answers to be arrived at.
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Views on Writing Style by Plato, Aristotle and Dante Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Plato Plato was one of the first philosophers to discuss the importance of the way in which a message is presented. Plato developed his method of coming to truth, and he called it dialectics. Dialectics is a process of coming to truth in which two opposing sides, thesis and antithesis, are presented by two people in the form of argumentation.
Every person states their opinion and supports it with arguments. In the end of a dialogue or a debate, the truth is supposed to emerge from the clash of the two opinions, and the defeated one is morally obliged to accept the force of a better argument.
In this process, logic or reason is crucial. Plato believed that each of the persons in a debate has to obey logic, and can examine the logic of the opponent’s argumentation, and if any contradictions or fallacies are found, they can reveal them, thereby winning the argument.
Since reason is very important to Plato, he strongly opposed the use of any other rhetorical devices. He claimed that appeal to emotion in an argument is not only wrong but dangerous. For that reason, he is known for saying that poets have no place in an Ideal state.
Aristotle Aristotle realizes Plato’s idea of rhetoric expressed in “Phedre”. This idea, for Aristotle, still corresponds to dialectics. Which means that persuasion has to have its foundation in logic. However, there is a difference between rhetoric and pure dialectics in that the former is concerned with style and the latter with the truth. In Aristotle’s works, the two are not mutually exclusive but complementary.
The differences and similarities between rhetoric and dialectics open up the problem of language and thought. Plato and Aristotle solve this problem favoring thought. They claim that thought can always find a word through which logos and truth will speak.
In that light, language has to emancipate itself from myth, and be subordinated to logos. Aristotle, however, finds that this task is impossible; language has an inseparable mythic element to it. In speech, this mythic component gives strength to what is said.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the end, he claims that there is no separation of argumentation and style, and a person has to incorporate style into the delivery of a message. It is, nonetheless, crucial to respect the logos, without which any sort of style is vacuous.
Dante Dante was an Italian poet, who lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The period in which he lived is important because it is the period of renaissance and the rebirth of Ancient Greek ideas.
In his view on rhetoric, Dante is closer to Aristotle, he believes that wisdom without rhetoric and eloquence is worth little, but eloquence without wisdom is worse. It is crucial to utilize all the potentials of language as a means to deliver the truth to the masses.
In this immense potential of language to appeal to human emotions, Dante recognized a real threat and danger. For that reason, he found a place in his Inferno for those who use language to take advantage of people. That place was in the eighth circle, alongside thieves and falsifiers.
He also placed poets like Horace and Ovid in this circle, and admitted that they are his likes. One can find the influence of Plato in these claims. From this ambivalence, it is evident that he was struggling with the problem of language and thought just like his great masters Plato and Aristotle.
Leading with Soul Response Response Essay essay help site:edu
The foremost characteristic of post-industrial living is the fact that; whereas, the exponential progress in the fields of informational technology and genetics had left very little room for monotheistic religion in the minds of most Westerners – due to being affected by intellectual and very often biological degradation, many of these people nevertheless continue to assess life’s emanations through the lenses of irrational religiosity.
As it was pointed out by Carrette and King (2004): “There is widespread disillusionment within contemporary Western societies and a growing sense of disempowerment with regard to the operations of the major institutions that govern our lives” (p. 11).
This is exactly what explains the phenomenon of a so-called ‘New Age’ movement, the proponents of which are known for their tendency to indulge in sophistically sounding but essentially meaningless rhetoric about the importance of soul-nurturing, spirituality-enhancing and tree-hugging, in time free from organic-coffee-drinking.
The 2001 book Leading with soul: An uncommon journey of spirit by Bolman and Deal represents a classical example of ‘new-ageist’ thinking at its worst. In it, authors aimed at promoting a nonsensical idea that the effective leader can only be the ‘loving’ one. According to them, the functioning of modern governmental, commercial and educational organizations cannot be considered truly effective, because: “Love is largely absent in the modern corporation.
Most managers would never use the word… They shy away from love’s deeper meanings, fearing both its power and its risks” (p. 109). Nevertheless, having dedicated my life to educating others, I am being perfectly aware of a simple fact that children’s exposure to unwavering ‘love’, on the part of teachers or parents, often proves utterly counter-productive.
One does not have to be overly smart to realize why – teachers overfilled with love towards the subject of an educational process, will be naturally predisposed towards treating him or her with leniency. This is exactly why, contrary to rationale-based expectations, immigrant-parents rarely help their children to become bilingual, in full sense of this word.
The reason for this is simple – as it was pointed out by Brown and Hanlon (1970), while indulging in social interactions with their young ones, such parents tend to pay foremost attention to what they children say, as opposed to be concerned with how they say it. As the result, such children’s linguistic ability to utilize proper grammatical and stylistic forms suffers a great deal of harm – all thanks to their parents’ ‘love’.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, I could not disagree more with Bolman and Deal when they suggest that truly effective leaders (educators) must be ‘spiritually-aware’ type of individuals: “A return to spirituality will lead us to seek wisdom. In matters of spirit, wisdom and experience count far more than technique or strategy” (p. 175).
The sheer fallaciousness of such a suggestion appears especially self-evident for just about any teacher who understands that the concepts of ‘spirituality’ and ‘education’ are utterly incompatible. After all, the much-cherished ‘spirituality’ is best defined as nothing but simply one’s tendency to personify nature, which in turn, serves as the foremost indication of his or her intellectual primitiveness.
Why is it that the bears that injure their underbellies against stinking out tree-branch, while crawling over the log, often end up hitting that branch with their both paws, as it was alive? Because, just as it being the case with today’s new-agers, such as Bolman and Deal, bears think that the nature is indeed ‘alive’.
This is the reason why the extent of people’s intellectual primitiveness correlates with their tendency to ‘blend’ with the nature and to endow nature with ‘spiritual aliveness’ in geometrical progression – the more intellectually primitive a particular individual happened to be, the more he or she will be likely to profess the values of ‘spirituality’.
And, as we are being well aware of, the very reason why we have schools, colleges and universities, in the first place, is to provide children and adolescents with an opportunity to educate themselves, so that they would be more capable to effectively oppose nature/social environment, as the foremost precondition of attaining social prominence.
It is important to understand that the very concept of Western civilized living came to being as the result of our ancestors having grown less depended on nature. This is the reason why it is namely ‘spiritually rich’ but flea-ridden people from the Third World countries who strive to immigrate to ‘spiritually impoverished’ Western countries, and not the vice versa.
Unlike many of Western particularly ‘progressive’ new-agers, they know perfectly well that it is namely rationale-based technology and not savage ‘spirituality’, out of which high standards of living and consequentially such notions as tolerance, open-mindedness and love derive, in the first place.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leading with Soul Response specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another idea, which is being promoted by Bolman and Deal and that is being utterly inconsistent with the very concept of Western education, is that leaders (teachers) must strive to ensure that the process of people’s managing, on their part, appears deeply ritualistic: “When ritual and ceremony are authentic and attuned, they fire the imagination, evoke insight, and touch the heart.
Ceremony weaves past, present, and future into life’s ongoing tapestry. Ritual helps us to face and comprehend life’s everyday shocks, triumphs, and mysteries” (p. 117). Yet, had both authors bothered to educate themselves on the basics of biology, sociology and psychology, they would know that one’s ritualistic-mindedness is nothing but the behavioral proof of his or her evolutionary atavism (underdevelopment).
After having successfully dealt with a particular life’s challenge, savages naively expect that their ritualized experiences, in this respect, will continue to help them addressing qualitatively different challenges in the future.
For example, after having been given some gifts by American soldiers, quartered in New Haiti during the course of Pacific War, and after having been exposed to the sight of these soldiers indulging in marching exercises and constructing landing strips for planes, country’s natives had established a new highly ritualistic ‘cargo religion’.
Even up to this date, they march back and forth with bamboo sticks on their shoulders (meant to symbolize rifles), built ‘cargo planes’ out of tree-branches and naively expect that their unwavering adherence to the empty ‘cargo’ ritual will yield some practical benefits.
The intellectual arrogance and inflexibility is the actual root of a ritual – an empty form without any affiliated content, whatsoever. Therefore, it is only individuals not overly burdened with intellect, such as Bolman and Deal, who may seriously think that ritual is the pathway towards attaining a higher state of consciousness.
On the contrary – ritual is the pathway back into primeval savagery, where there can be no consciousness by definition, but only animalistic instincts. And, as I have pointed out earlier, the notion of savagery and the concept of education simply do not interrelate. For those who believe in otherwise, it would not hurt to pay a little visit to the psychiatrist.
References Bolman, L.
“After the Snow” Painting Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction From the Feltner collection, I was drawn to the section at the end of the museum, which only hosted works about the Civil War. After going through all the pieces, I settled on the one titled After the Snow for this analytical review.
The painting is set in the Winchester, in War period of the 1860s, and it appropriately fits in the Civil War interest of the Feltner family.
About the artist Mort Künstler is well known as a historical artist in the USA, whose main inspiration came from the American Civil War (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 1). He was born in 1931 and he attended the Brooklyn College, Pratt Institute and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), graduating in 1953.
His first job after college was in the print industry, where he provided illustrations for books and magazines (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 2). He also created posters for films like The Poseidon Adventure and The Taking of Pelham One Two Three.
In the 1970s Künstler switched focus to painting, with his initial works touching on American history, starting with life in prehistoric America to the odyssey of the space shuttle. This work attracted the interest of serious collectors, which gave him the motivation to continue painting.
In the 1980s, he started working on paintings from the American Civil War, with most of his works being done in the Oil on Canvas technique. The painting After the Snow was created in 1998, with 2750 limited edition prints released (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 5).
Description of the painting For the purpose of providing a comprehensive description of the painting, two elements of composition and two of art will be explained in regards to their relation in the artwork.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Composition
The painting After the Snow depicts activities outside the Frederick County Court House in Winchester (Künstler After the Snow 1). The date is 6 January 1862 and it is the winter time. In the painting, there are various items and characters.
First, in the foreground, there are wooden containers and casks. There are vessels on the near right corner and on the ground we can see evidence of thinning snow.
Still in the foreground, there are two policemen on the right, three boys (two in front and one behind) walking towards the centre of the foreground, and two women ahead of them. On the left of the foreground, there is a group of four people – one man and three women, appearing to be engaged in a conversation.
The middle ground is where most of the activity in the painting is. There are at least 15 horses in this particular section, with at least 12 carrying a rider.
One of the horses on the right is tied to a tram, with a lady seated on it. It has no rider and the lady appears to be waiting for the one to move her from the place. There is also a boy playing with a dog, in the centre of the middle ground.
In the background, there are buildings, one of which is the Court house, with clouds forming the extreme background. It is evening, judging from the street lights and other lights scattered around the area.
One of the key elements of composition that Künstler utilized effectively in the painting was balance. Even without giving the subject matter a critical look, one gets a general feeling of a well-structured architecture within the painting (Kiefer The Principles of Composition 1).
We will write a custom Essay on “After the Snow” Painting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the painting is split in half, from top to bottom, one can easily tell that the amount of activity on the left is almost symmetrically balanced with that on the right. However, the more realistic balance approach that the artist had in mind during the creative process was radial balance.
Each and every item on the painting appears to have been put in place in relation to the activity in the middle-ground.
Künstler intended to depict the peace and tranquility that the people were experiencing and he achieved this by making the people and the activities they were engaged in more prominent than every other item in the picture.
The foreground items appear to have been strategically scattered around the area in order to allow the viewer to notice the reducing snow thickness on the ground, giving relevance to the title of the painting.
Proportion and scale
The painting After the Snow is a realistic artwork and depicts events that possibly happened in real life. In this regard, the approach by Künstler was to make everything appear the way they as if they had a camera to document the scenery.
Everything in the painting is in the right proportion, with children and adults fitting in their respective profiles. By properly placing all the contents of the painting in their right positions and playing around with perspective, Künstler managed to get everything to fit its natural size.
By properly scaling the constituent elements of the painting to each other, the artist managed to include very many items in the artwork, hence making it interesting visually and appealing to the eye, while at the same time giving out the message that the artist intended.
Elements of art
The elements of art that have been well utilized in the painting which are shape and space. In the painting Künstler has used representational shapes to create the image of a real world. The shapes used are not standard and were created as need arose.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “After the Snow” Painting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The human beings are presented in the realistic way as well as animals, buildings and other elements. Spaces, particularly three-dimensional spaces, have been well used in order to give the painting the photo-realistic feel that the artist had in mind.
In order for every element on the painting to attain its realistic size and appearance, Künstler had to take into consideration its interaction with other elements in the painting and their fit into the available space.
Ultimately, he had to ensure that all the items in the painting had their own unique presence and that they balanced well with all the other constituents (Kiefer The language of Form 1).
Künstler’s style of painting has been replicated throughout his work. For instance, comparing After the Snow with his other work Wayside Farewell (also in the collection) he uses both balance and proportion the same way in both paintings.
Like in After the Snow, in Wayside Farewell the foreground is very minimalistic with most of the detail set in the middle ground to offer balance (Künstler Wayside Farewell 1). Proportion has been achieved by ensuring that every item on the painting is in a realistic scale.
The same applies to the elements of art (shape and space). In both paintings, the artist puts in use representational shapes and makes sure that the spaces between elements are well presented to offer a three-dimensional feel to the paintings.
The main compositional difference between the two paintings consists in the fact that in Wayside Farewell, there is one main subject of interest, the hugging couple. In this painting there is a man and a woman hugging, as if one (most likely the man) is leaving.
It is winter and there is a thick layer of soil on the ground. Surrounded by houses and trees, the couple still commands the attention of the viewer.
Conclusion This assignment set out to provide a complete evaluation of the painting titled After the Snow, by Mort Künstler. To this end, a brief biography of the painter was provided to help further understand the origins from which the painting under study came from.
With this groundwork set, the discussion delved into a description of the painting, using the elements of composition and art. After this exercise, I value the painting even more, particularly because of the sentimental value it brings to me.
I am very familiar with the environment around the old town of Winchester, and it was interesting to see Winchester in the Civil War era. It was interesting to see a building now and compare it with its original form noting the stark differences.
This sentimental attachment makes me value the painting because I know that even when changes are happening around, I can still visit the museum and appreciate the old times.
Besides using the collection as an aesthetic piece, a teaching lab and a tribute to the Feltners, the University can use the collection for revenue generation by hiring the paintings out to other museums around the world.
The paintings can also be loaned out to state offices and other public establishments such as the White House on a seasonal basis, so that visitors at these places can appreciate the distance that the United States has pass since the days when Civil Wars were the order of the day.
Works Cited Kiefer, Geraldine. Art 200, Art Appreciation: The language of Form. Shenandoah University, 5 October 2012. Lecture notes.
Kiefer, Geraldine. Art 200, Art Appreciation: The Principles of Composition. Shenandoah University, 5 October 2012. Lecture notes.
Künstler, Mort. Wayside Farewell. 1996. Feltner Museum, Winchester. Oil on canvas.
Künstler, Mort. After the Snow. 1998. Feltner Museum, Winchester. Oil on canvas.
Mort Künstler: America’s Artist. Web.
Tesco Strategic Decisions Problem Solution Essay college essay help: college essay help
Abstract To attain competitiveness amidst of modern changing business environments, an organization’s leadership team needs to implement operational, project and strategic management strategies that are responsive to the needs of the particular market the company is trading. With effective strategies, a company is able to resolve problems and conflicts that are likely to create a weak link in the companies operations.
Modern contemporary business environments are also posing some dangers to organizations as leaders are finding their old policies and business approached being challenged by the environment prevailing (Wheelen and Hunger,1998). This paper discusses the strategic issues facing the retail industry in the domestic and international market; it will focus on Tesco Merchandise Company.
After discussing the issues, the paper will discuss some strategic measures that the company can take to improve its business as well as improve its competitiveness.
Background of the company Tesco is an international merchandise company with its main market in the United Kingdom; the company operated a chain of grocery that can amount to over one thousand supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Asia and Central Europe. Although the company was initially involved in the food sector, it has diversified its operations to clothing, consumer electronics, financial services, and internet services.
The company’s management vision is to develop lifetime customer loyalty and ensure that it adds value on consumers. The company’s vision and mission statement establishes close links and connections with its customers and aims at understanding their needs and enacting policies that improve the relationship.
Other than focusing on customer needs, the company maintains an effective human resources department that ensures the Tesco maintains and sustains trained, motivated, and adequate staffs at any one point in time. Despite the company being among the oldest and successful retail companies in the world, it is facing some challenges that are limiting it meet its profitability (Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011).
Problems facing Tesco Other than being a leader in the retail industry, the company is facing some challenges; the first issue facing the company is regard the use of e-commerce tools. Although the company has a computerized system of marketing as well as payments for goods, it is still lagging behind some of its competitors like Wal-mart that seems to have moved a step ahead.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tesco’s system accepts only a limited number of electronic payment systems like debit cards, credit cards, and online payments buts lack some of the main upcoming e-business or payment methods like PayPal, western union transfer, and wire transfers. The weak system has locked some customers from buying form the company.
In the same line of computerization, the services cannot be differentiated thus a customer lacks the motivation or the drive that can make him or her come again for the services. The internet section of the company is facing some challenges especially when it comes to browsing and downloading works; the computers are slow and sometimes customers are expected to wait for over ten minutes to get a download.
With the large chain of works and variety of commodities they stock, the company has had deficit of products in some stores; at times, the products may have run out of stock without the management being aware or there has been a delay in delivery.
This is brought about by system failures and the interdependence of branches (when buying commodities that cannot be bought in bulk; the company joins the needs to two or more branches than orders the product in bulk), when this happens, some commodities are found not in their shelves (Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011).
Genetic tool kit to identify challenges and how to solve them To identify the above problems and solve them, the company should use a hybrid management toolkit; a method of management that combines the strength of Six Sigma management approach and Total Quality Management strengths. Under the method, the company will be required to set some benchmarks of operations that should be maintained at all times in the organization.
To ensure that the benchmarks are attained, the management should set some operational system appraisal methods.
Identification of problems
All operations with the organization should be documented and optimal operation levels set; the document whether in print or electronic should be made available and accessible to every employee in the firm; the responsibility of every staff as long as the attainment of the set standard should be well defined.
We will write a custom Essay on Tesco Strategic Decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some challenges face an organization because of reluctance of employees or those companies that have been subcontracted; to ensure that this does not happen, the company should have a punishment mechanism of any person whether natural or artificial who limits the attainment of the benchmarks set.
The blue print document acts as the point of reference in day-to-day operation and the best strategy line of operation should be formulated. With the strengths of Six Sigma, which allows a company to establish its areas of weakness and inefficiency, then the approach will help know those areas that need to be addressed for a competitive business.
To have efficiency, the company should strengthen its internal control and review its contacting policies; those operations that are not core, like cleaning the stores, should be outsourced to ensure that the company’s management concentrates in the main line of business (Wheelen and Hunger,1998).
The over one thousand chain should have an independent or regional management approach; having a central management structure of more than one thousand stalls is not practical and If made, then chances of high inefficiency can be expected. The management should change its structure to ensure that managers are responsible for few stalls.
This will improve e delivery and facilitate solving of problems at local or regional level. The computer and internet system seems to be one of the thorns that the company should be looking at; the failures that the company is getting are coming from adopting technology that is outdated or one that cannot be fully be relied upon.
As far as the system is concerned, the company has two options; to either change the complete system and adopt a better version or improve the current one. The choice of the matter depends on the situation and the availability of either option.
The company should continuously restructure and rebuild its vision and mission; developing a strategic vision and mission involves thinking strategically about the following three questions
What are the customer’s needs?
How much is the company offering? Can we do better?
Where are we now?
Where do we want to go?
How will we get there?
The following diagram shows how the company can use the Hybrid system to counter check its processes and probably improve them:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tesco Strategic Decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chart 1
A vision is a view of an organizations future and business course: it is a guiding concept for what the organization is trying to do and become. All must be looked into to ensure that there is no one area that benefits at the expense of the customer. Setting objectives that are aimed at meeting the gap that the company had not been filling in the past; the aim of setting the objective is to ensure that the company has embarked on the fulfillment of the need of the customer.
The aim is to improve the feeling that the customer will get when he has transacted with the business. The objectives are aimed at improving all the area of the organization and the measurement is the satisfaction that the customer will get. A satisfied customer will be a loyal customer and the business stands to benefit (Kotter and Schlesinger, 2008).
The failures in deliveries can be a matter of internal controls, supply chain management or the computer system; this is a sensitive area that needs to be addressed independently; by independent it means that the problem should be handled separately and the root causes sort. After noting the area with a problem, then the management should seek to handle and solve the root cause.
The following is a sample of a supply chain chart that the company can adopt to have an effective supply chain management:
(Goold and Campbell, 2002)
Periodically, the company should be taking internal and external business analysis: internal business analysis seeks to show the strengths of the company, how well it is compiling with the set standards and establishing any area that need improvement. When undertaking internal analysis, the managers should ensure that the benchmarks they have set are complied with and when they have not, the cause of the deficit should be diagnosed.
Through TQM, the company will be able to develop customer royalty; it will be able to surpass other companies to become the world largest merchandise retail chain. For a company to continuously improve its processes and attain the set goals as well as surpass the expectations of the customer the company should keep reviewing its policies (Fred, 2008).
Strengths of the proposed method A hybrid management-tool kit has its main strength in the approach that it will take; the method address all areas of the business and ensures that problems that the company may be facing are recognized at the earliest time possible. On the other hand, the process involves every human capital in the organization for its success; it does not overburden the managers but spreads the functions across the board.
Strength with hybrid system is that it ensures that a benchmark has been set which operates as the line of best business pathway. With such moves, Tesco will establish those areas that might be causing problems and be able to address them accordingly.
Weaknesses of the method The method is an overall quality and problem recognition approach, this means that it can only operate when all mechanisms are set to go; it does not offer advice on what to do but only evaluates the mechanism set.
The method establishes weaknesses and areas of inefficiency but does not offer mechanisms of preventing the occurrence of challenges; the main concentration is how to identify a problem and solving it but no-much has been provided to avid the occurrence of a problem, thus the business may be identifying problems when danger has already happened.
Method of improving the system To ensure that the system works better, management should integrate a gap analysis mechanism: gap analysis is a tool used by managers to decide which tactics and strategies to use in order to increase production. It is a tool used to link a business vision with its strategies and goals. It helps in identifying a discrepancy in the performance that helps in selecting appropriate strategies to fill the discrepancy.
It was necessary to conduct a gap analysis on the implementation and use of TQM in the company. This was done by asking two simple questions, where is the company now? Where does it want to be five years from now? The following diagram shows the process of identifying the gap within the company (Camillus, 2008).
New policies As Tesco continues with the hybrid system of detecting and solving issues, the management should understand that every outlet has its unique issues that can be solved by unique management techniques. They should be open to adopt new approaches to different outlets.
Conclusion Tesco is an international merchandise retail company that is facing strategic issues; the main issues are caused by changing business environments that calls for continuous policy formulation. To ensure that the company remains competitive amidst changing business environments, the management should adopt a hybrid management system. The system will assist the company identify weak points and solve them before they become substantial threats to the company.
References Camillus, J., 2008. Strategy as a wicked problem. Harvard Business Review. 86(5), pp. 98-106.
Fred, D. ,2008. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Goold, M. and Campbell, A. ,2002. Do you have a well-designed organization? Harvard Business Review. 80(3), Pp. 117-124.
Kotter, J.P and Schlesinger, L.A.,2008. Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review, 80(30), pp. 117-124.
Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011.
Wheelen, L. and Hunger, J.,1998. Strategic Management and Business Policy: Entering 21st Century Global Society, 5th edition, Reading, Massachusetts and Harlow: Addison Wesley.
Earth Science and Environmental Education Reflective Essay writing essay help
The most exciting experience for me during the first year of school was learning about nature. I was five-years-old at the time, fascinated by the natural environment surrounding us. So was our science teacher, Miss Asma, who valued wild plants and small animals.
She adopted pedagogical approaches that aimed at getting the children involved and interested in the subject such as a cooperative learning and stations approach as outlined by Fjørtoft (2001).
On several occasions, Miss Asma took us to her house, where she had an amazing collection of natural species. She treasured small animals such as rabbits, birds, snails, mice and butterflies as well as wild plants in her garden.
Such a variety of species enabled us to understand vital issues about the nature. So did the field trips to other regions, which gave us an insight about our environment (Wisneski, 2000).
It has been adopted recently not to use artificial props in science classes and uses nature itself to educate children (Coates, 2002). This form of education is associated with multiple benefits in children’s lives.
Through children’s social interaction with natural environment, they learn a lot about real nature and the environment we live in (Fjørtoft, 2001). Such an approach allows children to be explorative and critical towards every aspect of nature.
As a result, they can formulate their own conclusions based on the discoveries they make. Meanwhile, the surroundings offer children an ideal environment to form a basis for their own understanding of the world (Charlesworth
Organizational Culture Assessment Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Every organization has its own competitive strategies. However, these strategies cannot work without a strong organizational culture. Organizational culture has the advantage of increasing employee commitment to the firm. In addition, it enables the organization to define its strategies effectively.
This is essential as it ensures successful execution of activities necessary for achievement of organizational goals. Organizational culture is also important in maximizing production through employee motivation. This is particularly significant to human capital whose value is maximized by the right organizational culture.
In essence, organizational culture forms an integral part of management competency. While these attributes can be achieved through implementation of the right organizational culture, determining an effective culture is quite difficult.
This paper will explore corporate culture, its roles in organizations and the factors that influence its implementation (Senge, 2006, p. 55).
Organizational culture encompasses concepts such as assumptions, values, beliefs, artifacts and behaviors, among others. It, therefore, works to reduce variability in the workforce. This allows for easier control and shaping of staff behavior.
In essence, it defines the distinct character of an organization since it varies from one organization to another. Culture, therefore, plays a crucial role in organizational setup. Organizational culture connects employees together and ensures efficiency in execution of activities.
Moreover, communication is essential for implementing the right culture. In addition, when the right culture is implemented, employees are usually motivated to maximize production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, it is necessary that the right communication framework is put in place to achieve desired objectives. Furthermore, motivation is a central factor in determining an organization’s competitiveness (Andreas, 2006, p. 159-172.)
Motivation Motivation can be defined as the urge to do something. For instance, organizations with motivated staff enjoy their work. This improves both efficiency and quality of production. Moreover, it saves time and creates opportunity for innovations. Motivation is essential to every organization.
In fact, when employees are motivated, they are able to create as well as implement inventive ideas. Strong identification is important in enabling employees to be part of the organization. This gives them a sense of belonging, which is significant in entrenching spirit of unity in the team.
Besides, their sense of innovation can only be achieved if the organization embraces innovative norms. Interestingly, these norms can only be achieved through implementation of strong organizational culture. Motivation is usually derived from effective organizational culture.
Organizational culture is essential in creating commitment among employees. This strengthens their motivation to achieve organizational goals. Motivation is a very significant factor in organizations because it affects returns.
When employees are not motivated then organizational objectives cannot be achieved. Moreover, it is important that employees enjoy their working conditions. This helps in influencing on the team spirit as well as motivation. Corporate culture reinforces shared and individual beliefs.
This is then allowed to develop as employees share the same values. Organizational culture is thus significant in driving employee motivation. However, it is necessary to note that some organization cultures are uninspiring.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Culture Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such organizations face such issues as lowered standards of performance. Motivation is thus a vital factor in corporate culture (Bisel, Messersmith
Theory of Knowledge Explicatory Essay online essay help: online essay help
Knowledge is very fundamental in the life of a person and it is therefore very necessary to fully understand the various ways of knowing. Traditionally, there are four basic ways of knowing which were developed by different philosophers. These four ways of knowing are depicted in the TOK diagram of knowledge.
The sources of knowledge represented in the TOK diagram include sense perception, language, emotion and logic. Sense perception is the first way of knowing that is based on body senses such as vision and touch (Lehrer 34).
The second source of knowledge is language and in this case knowledge is passed down from those in authority and through reading. Language is used as a medium to pass knowledge from one person to another.
The third source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is emotion. Knowledge about certain things is obtained through intuition and emotional feeling.
The fourth and final source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is logic which emphasizes the importance of reasoning as a source of knowledge. Rational thinking leads to generation of ideas and solutions that become a very important source of knowledge and understanding.
Philosophers and psychologists claim that there is a fifth way of knowing that is yet to be fully exploited. Many scholars agree that memory plays a very significant role in helping a person know and understand things (Lehrer 112).
Although memory as a way of knowing is not featured on the TOK diagram, many scholars agree that it plays a significant role in generating crucial information that is used in historical studies and social science.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will substatatiate and explain why memory is an important source of knowledge apart from the four ways of knowing highlighted in the TOK diagram.
The idea of classifying memory as a source of knowledge is always discussed in most TOK discussions. Memory is a concept that combines different sources of knowledge and is normally used by many people to make knowledge claims. Memory is a combination of past experiences, perception and emotion.
Ideas generated by memory are reliable but not in all instances (Dicker 59). Some of the ideas generated by memory end up being faulty and hence not trustworthy at times.
Cases of mistaken identity are very common in courts and it is therefore true to say that the reliability of memory as a source of information or knowledge is not a hundred percent. There are instances where eyewitnesses commit a lot of errors in their testimonies due to forgetfulness and misconception.
The fact that eyewitnesses can not be completely relied upon in a court of law makes many people to question whether memory is a reliable way of knowing. It is believed that memory can easily be altered if a person uses drugs or listens to other suggestions.
The memory of a person keeps changing as time passes with the one that is relived more that once losing its truthfulness over time (Dicker 78). The mind of a human being is very vulnerable and it can therefore be easily manipulated by other external sources.
The fact that the memory of a person can easily be influenced under different circumstances proves that it is sometimes difficult to find the actual truth of a particular case by completely relying on memory.
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite its shortcomings, memory is still considered as an important source of knowledge in fields such as history and social science. Memory can not be completely ruled out as an unreliable way of knowing because it is sometimes useful in cases where there is no manipulation (Dicker 145).
It is always a great challenge to convince some people that memory is a very reliable source of knowledge that is used in fields such as history and social science. Psychology scholars have discovered that memory is a very important element of cognitive psychology and other social sciences.
Cognitive psychology deals with how the human behavior is affected by the mental processes of a human being (Pollock 46). Many people underestimate the importance of memory and only coming to realize its significance when it fails to help them.
Forgetting occurs as a result of memory failure and therefore memory should be seen as a very important asset. In psychology, memory is classified into three categories that include the working memory, sensory memory and long-term memory.
The sensory memory is directly connected to mind with the information delivered or the impression created fading in the shortest time possible. The human mind could be completely overwhelmed if it had to remember all the information it receives (Pollock 46).
The human mind tends to remember only the information that grabs its attention. The human mind finds it difficult to remember everything that a person sees of hears. The amount of information that can be kept and worked on by the memory at a particular time is very limited.
A working memory is normally used to keep information while working on it at the same time. The people who speak faster are a perfect example of how a working memory works. The information in a working memory tends to fade if it is not stored in a long-term memory.
It is always easy to retrieve information from a long-term memory since the information stored is permanent. A person’s name is normally stored in their long-term memory and that is why its retrieval is automatic.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other shortcoming of using memory as a source of knowledge is the possibility of new memories interfering with the new ones (Pollock 46).
The memory of person can be distorted by stress, passage of time and the power of suggestion. There are three ways through which the memories in the mind of a person can be retrieved.
The first way is through recall where previously learned information is retrieved in its original order or randomly.
The other way through which information can be retrieved from the memory is through recognition. In the case of recognition, previously learnt information is retrieved through identification of the right option from a number of choices (Hoerl 396).
The third way of retrieving information from the memory is through reconstruction. Reconstruction occurs through remembering particular details of a scenario and building concrete information from the remembered details.
The majority of historical information was obtained through the use of memory to remember past events. It is therefore very important to examine the reliability of memory as a source of historical information (Hoerl 396).
Many historians are always skeptical about the use of memory as a source of historical information. Social historians are the main proponents of oral history that relies majorly on information obtained from oral interviews.
The use of memory in recalling a past event makes some historian to view oral history as subjective and unreliable. The use of documented sources as a source of historical information has become a common trend with many historians but it is important to state that those sources are not always accurate (Hoerl 396).
Some of the discrepancies in documented sources are normally discovered when oral interviews are conducted. This scenario justifies the fact that memory can be a reliable source of historical information.
The subjectivity of oral history is what makes the memory a unique source of knowledge for historians and social scientists. Critics of oral history bank on the argument that memories decline with time but the argument is yet to be substantiated with concrete evidence (Hoerl 396).
Supporters of oral history argue that when interviewing a person to obtain historical information, the only thing that is required is the motivation to remember.
Knowledge claims are categorized according to their source. The primary category consists of a person’s own understanding and ideas whereas the secondary category is based on the ideas and findings of others.
There are cases where knowledge claims are based on a combination of both primary and secondary sources (Guyer 89). The majority of new ideas and theories are normally derived from other people’s ideas and it is therefore very difficult to classify them as original.
The majority of knowledge claims are based on both primary and secondary sources because new knowledge is normally built from the existing one.
The two categories of knowledge claims include positive and normative knowledge claims. Positive claims of knowledge describe the past; present and future nature of a system, process or activity (Guyer 89).
The statements that are normally formulated from positive knowledge claims describe the relationship between things. The best way to come up with positive knowledge claims is through careful observation of processes and systems.
Positive knowledge claims also describe systems, things, processes and activities in detail. These descriptions are based on both personal understanding and understanding of others. Positive knowledge claims are very common in science because science aims at discovering why things happen the way they do.
By claiming that academic success depends on how hard a person works, an individual is said to have used a positive knowledge claim to describe the relationship between working hard and academic success. A statement of relationship is used in the mentioned example to describe a process.
The normative category of knowledge claims is based on judgment. The value, morality and importance of a process or thing are normally expressed in this category of knowledge claims (Guyer 89). The normative knowledge claims judges whether a process, system or thing is wrong or right.
Knowledge claims come with issues that limit what people claim to know. The first issue that arises when particular knowledge has been claimed is whether evidence is required and the reason why it is needed.
The second issue regarding knowledge is that the number of knowledge claims that do not require evidence is very small. The majority of knowledge claims require evidence for people to believe in them.
The implications that a knowledge claim without evidence brings is another knowledge issue (Guyer 112).
The fourth issue regarding knowledge is the level of importance that some areas of knowledge have compared to others. Knowledge issues should be critically analyzed before a person comes up with a knowledge claim.
Works Cited Dicker, Georges. Kant’s Theory of Analytical Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason. New York: Hackett Publishing, 2004. Print.
Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.
Hoerl, Christoph. Time and Memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Lehrer, Keith. Theory of Knowledge. New York: Westview Press, 2000. Print.
Pollock, John. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. New York: Rowman
University Students’ Emotions in Lectures Critical Essay college essay help near me
In their article “University Students’ Emotions in Lectures: The Effect of Competence Beliefs, Value Beliefs and Perceived Task-Difficulty, and the Impact on Academic Performance”, Greek researchers Georgia Stephanou, Petros Kariotoglou, and Konstantinos Dinas present the results of the investigation on the problem of correlation between students’ emotions at lectures in Psychology, Linguistics and Physics and their academic expectations and performance.
The article was published in The International Journal of Learning in 2011. This quantitative research is related to the problem of academic performance in the field of education with its dependence on such factors as the students’ cognition and emotions.
The researchers have focused not only on examining students’ usual emotions at lectures during the academic semester but also on their performance expectations, the category of ability self-perceptions, on value beliefs, estimated task-difficulty and on the interdependence of these factors with students’ successful and unsuccessful academic performance.
In the study, the authors have presented several hypotheses with the main one suggesting that students who experience positive emotions at lectures are more successful in their academic performance than those students who often experience negative emotions at the same lectures.
Those students who consider their performance as successful experience more positive emotions at lectures. That is why, they argue, the process can be discussed as interdependent.
Furthermore, the level of value beliefs, performance expectations, and ability self-perceptions also depends on the correlation between positive emotions and successful performance.
These hypotheses are based on the results of the previous studies according to which such positive emotions as, for instance, curiosity and pride can affect students’ motivation, cognition, and achievements positively as well as negative emotions provoke students’ unsuccessful performance (Stephanou, Kariotoglou,
Nationalism in the Modern-Day World Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Every person in any corner of the earth has a country that he or she considers as his or her motherland. Therefore, no matter where he or she moves, there is something in the back of the mind that reminds him or her of his or her country.
For example, United States of America has for along time being considered as the land of milk and honey by the immigrants from other countries especially the developing ones. However, regardless of this perspective, Taiwo (p 21) observes that such people remain attached to their country of origin in spite of the difficulties found there.
He point out that most of these people move there to look for greener pastures and that when they are satisfied with that they will return to their country of origin. He claims that to show their patriotism, he notes that the immigrants will not invest heavily in the foreign land but rather will invest in their country of origin.
As a result he portrays these kinds of people as nationalistic because they have put the welfare of their country ahead of their country. According to him nationalism is the loyalty or devotion to ones country. Gellner (p 54) claims that nationalism is solely responsible for the creation of a national identity.
In addition he says that nationalism makes a people in a country appreciate and have respect to each other irrespective of their faith, race, and even ethnic affiliation. Therefore, peace and stability in a region or a country is promoted when people learn to co-exist with others in spite of their varying cultures. He observes that as long as people have a unifying factor for example the president, then nationalism will be promoted.
Theories of Nationalism In the contemporary world a number of scholars have come up with various explanations to explain why people feel honored to be identified with their countries. Samir (p 100) has come up with a theory which he calls the instrumentalist theory. In this theory the most striking feature is that it focuses more on the ethnic groups rather than countries or the nations.
In his discussion he observes that ethnic identity is variable as well as flexible. That is, both the content and the boundaries of the ethnic group are not rigid and therefore can change according to the prevailing conditions. He observes that ethnic affiliations are a mere way of promoting economic interests. To add on he point out that some people are ready to change their group membership once they have fulfilled their desired and set goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modernization theory According to Bellamy (p 15) modernization theory asserts that nationalism emerges as a result of the process of transition from traditional to modern society. He claims that the modernization theory proponents zero in on the spread of industrialization, political, cultural conditions as well as the socio-economic.
According to him these are some of the issues that make a people in some countries be proud of their nation. He says that in the developed countries of Europe, Asia and the United States of America industrialization and a strong economic base has in particular led to rise of nationalism in them. Taiwo (p 15) states that modernization theory of nationalism stems from the tradition of Enlightenment rationalism and more specifically in the area of scientific materialism and empiricism.
In his discussion he tends to relate nationalism with the historical, economic as well as political advancement that is necessitated by the science and its effect to politics and also social life at large. According to him nationalism affects traditional social ties in that it breaks the progress that had previously been witnessed in the market relations for instance.
Evolutionary Theories Andersson (p 50) states that people begin by having an ethnic sought of nationalism before they can develop the ‘real’ nationalism. He observes scholars have not managed to explain the period at which people change their perception from ethnic to national appreciation.
He attributes this to lack of an in depth research o how these transitions occurs and the failure to see the implication of ethnicity for today’s nationhood. According to Geertz (p 115) there exists a gap between the medieval and the modern notions of a nation. As a result of this he point out those national identities has to be re invented in the modern world.
Types of nationalism Anti colonial nationalism
Scholars have identified a number of nationalisms that are different from each other depending on their nature and the times at which they take place. According to Sukumar (p 251) there is the anti colonial nationalism. He notes that, this took place in the period after the World War II.
After the World War II many countries especially in Africa and Asia that had for a long time been under the colonial rule of the Europeans began to rise up against such rule. In Africa for example he claims that nationalism movements claimed a lot life in Algeria and Kenya as they wanted their countries from the colonial chains.
We will write a custom Essay on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1952, a group calling itself MAUMAU waged a full war against the British colonial government and true to its expectation the country attained her independence in 1963 after more than a hundred thousand people had lost their life.
He observes that although the Kenyan and Algerian nationalism turned out to be bloody other countries like Tanganyika managed to negotiate with the British who had been given the mandate to run her affairs after the defeat of the Germans in the First World War.
Ultranationalism Blaut (p 198) observes that this kind of nationalism is characterized by people’s immense support for their country. He claims that people come in their numbers to show their solidarity with the actions of their government. He says that when a country is attacked by enemies like it happened in the United States in September 11 2001, members of the public are likely to come out in large numbers to demonstrate that they are in solidarity with the government.
According to him other actions that may cause this kind of nationalism include, the government plan to control the number of immigrants entering the country, expulsion out of the country of suspects who are considered a threat to the state security, fight against drugs as is the case in Colombia and Mexico.
Other include going to war against another country that is perceived as a threat to that country. He thus argues that this kind of nationalism is normally peaceful and in many instances do not last for a long time. This is because its occurrence is catalyzed by an event that is at hand.
Bellamy (p 22) has noted that some countries especially those that have advanced technologically have a tendency of looking down upon those countries that are poor and technologically behind. He contends that this kind of behavior people originates from infancy when a child is taught by the parents on what or who he or she should relate to.
He says that in the twentieth century, black people in the United States of America and in Europe were despised which made it extremely hard for them to co exist with the whites. He point out that with changing time, the perception has changed and as a result such people can relate and help one another during the times of need. He calls this kind of nationalism as ethnocentrism.
Civic nationalism is another type of nationalism. According to Snyder (p 102) civic nationalism shows a country as an assembly of different people who view themselves as belonging to that nation. He argues that such people consider themselves as having same political rights and allegiance to similar political procedures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he says this kind of nationalism is meant to instill certain values such as equality, tolerance, respect for human rights, and freedom in people as they participate in the process of nation building.
Impacts of Nationalism in the modern day world In the world today, nationalism has contributed greatly in shaping the world in its present state. Tilly (p 127) points out that, as people try to search they national identification on the international scale various events has taken place that have made what they are today. He says that one of the impacts of nationalism is the rise of new states.
According to him, prior to the Second World War, the world was literally owned by the European powers led by the British and the French authorities. In the African continent for example he states that French and British government claimed over 80 percent together while the rest of the European powers controlled the rest.
After the Second World War, most of the African soldiers taken by the British to be carrier corps returned home and demanded that the Europeans leave their territories. He points out that the India’s independence of 1947 gave a fresh impetus for these Africans to demand for their independence.
This wave spread across the whole continent and by the year 1970 more than 60 percent of African countries had been liberated from the colonial rule. This therefore gave rise to many countries that had previously not existed. He says that prior to independent Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania used to be referred to as East African Protectorate.
But with attainment of independence, each country adopted its own name with a complete government. He notes that to date there are those regions of the world fighting to secede from another country. He argues that this is all brought about by nationalism.
Furthermore, Andersson (p 54) asserts that nationalism has brought about war between one country and others. He says that the terrorism attacks on the 11th September 2001 in the United States of America made the then president, George Walker Bush to declare war on Afghanistan that was blamed for protecting the then leader of Al-Qaeda the late Osama bin Laden.
He claims that the members of the public came out in large numbers and urged their government to retaliate by waging a war against Afghanistan. According to him, the attacks on the Twin Towers and the World Trade Centre brought together the entire American citizens. As a result they united behind their leaders and offered their support for the country to go to war as they considered it a war against terrorism.
Nationalism has also led to an increased pride among nations. Geertz (p 110) claims that as countries compete with one another, the winning one feels more superior to the other although it is the players alone involved. He says that in Brazil, their winning football culture has made the entire nation proud.
Therefore as they play another country, the entire nation is behind them so that they can continue with their winning ways. In addition he says that, countries that have progressed technologically have developed a negative attitude towards the poor and the impoverished countries.
According to him some of the citizens in the developed countries got so much pride that they cannot take or consume anything made from such a country because he or she believes that their country has the best product while the others are sub standards. Tilly (p 147) points out that nationalism have led to the fall of government in different parts of the world.
He claims that dictatorial forms of government have witnessed its own people rising against it in popular uprisings. This usually takes the form of mass action organized by the pressure groups and other activist. If this fails to work, he notes that others takes arms and uses force to topple such government. He gives an example of how the late Mobutu Sese Seko of the former Zaire was overthrown.
Therefore, a government has to be responsible to its people or else people will revolt against is and bring it down. In addition Sidwell (p 214) argues that nationalism has brought about unifications in some countries in the world today. He says that in Italy and Germany for instance, nationalism as a tool for unification.
According to him, prior to this nationalism in Italy the whole country was divided into many city states that claimed autonomy. As a result of nationalism he points out that the city states came together and managed to form the modern day Italy. He argues that once the citizens have learnt to live peacefully with one another, they are likely to cooperate and work together for the good of the country.
Sukumar (p 254) points out that nationalism have led to the emergence of a new crop of leaders in a number of countries in the world. According to him, the young people have become tired of being referred to the leaders of tomorrow and therefore want to take up the leadership o their countries now and not any other day.
He notes that in most of the developing countries the heads of government are usually old people above the age of sixty five who have been blamed for lack of vision in their leadership. As a result there has been a rise in the number of young people taking part in elections where a significant number is vying for the top seat in their country. Nationalism has increased accountability in many government institutions.
According to Hroch (p 73) many government that had previously blamed for lack of accountability are today being held accountable by the electorate. To ensure that they gain the electorates’ confidence and thus stand a chance of being re elected in the subsequent elections, he asserts that these government have yielded to the calls by the members of the public to increase transparency in all their transactions.
As a result incidences of corruptions have gone down significantly. Furthermore, nationalism has led to persistent conflict between neighboring countries. According to Feld (p 99) when colonial government laid their hands on the colonies they drew up boundaries without bearing in mind the effects the boundaries would have on the communities residing in those areas.
He says that, while carrying out a research in East Africa, he realized that the British government divided the Somalis from Kenya with their families in Somalia. As a result of this the Somali government that came to power after the British had left tried to annex the northern part of Kenya into Somalia. He observes that even today the Somalis in Somalia considers the north eastern part of Kenya as rightly theirs and therefore continues to cause conflict with their Kenyan authorities.
Nationalism has also led to increased democracy in a number of countries. Gellner (p 127) argues that when people stand united to demand certain things from the government are bound to get them because the government is aware of the potential danger posed by the citizens should they all decide that enough is enough.
He points out that as a result of this the government yields in to the demands of the people and allows room for more public participation in the running of the government affairs. He adds that nationalism has led to some countries looking down upon others. According to him, the developed countries have put in measures that ensure that the developing countries don’t improve economically without their help.
By so doing he says that the developed nations are able to spread their influence on these nations and make them compel to their wishes. Woolf, (p 123) points out that nationalism has been responsible for the ethnic and religious clashes in some countries in the world. In Northern Ireland for example there have been for a long time clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants based on ideological differences.
According to him, these people fight with one another because of their unity in religion. That is, the believers are proud and ready to die in the name of their religion because they are proud to be associated with either side of the divide. In addition, he argues that such people will do anything possible to protect their religion from interference from other people.
Minaham (p 211) contends that nationalism has helped a lot of people to know their basic human rights. According to him when people feel attached so much to their country, they get a good chance to be taught their basic rights and therefore critic their government when such a person realizes that the government or any other state agency is not respecting human rights.
Moreover, nationalism has promoted the relationship between a country and the others. He notes that when the members of the public show their solidarity with their government actions, people and governments from other countries begin to show a keen interest in such a country and the countries may end up becoming good trading partners hence benefiting the citizens of both countries and more so those who realizes a positive balance of trade.
Hayes (p 54) has argued that if not properly looked at, nationalism can lead to degeneration to groups. He point out that, once become proud of their nation so much, they can attract potential enemies who would attack them using propagandas in order to divide them.
Once such propagandas have sunk in them, people tends to develop a sense of mistrust and with time a country that was perceived as intact may begin to disintegrate slowly and after a while some of the leaders may begin advocating for secession. He says that this was the case when the cold war ended in the late 1980s and early 1990s after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
According to Kohn (p 78) nationalism has impacted on the manner in which people conduct themselves whether in public or in private. He points out that once the people realize the importance of being royal and appreciating their country and the leaders, they develop a new attitude towards that country and begin behaving in a manner likely to suggest that they respect and honor all those in authority.
Conclusion Being a nationalist is a virtue that each one of us regardless of age, sex, race and religious affiliation should have. Although some of our rulers have not created a good environment for us to be proud as citizens we should take that and try to ask other people to join us in campaigning for patriotism and nationalism.
People should learn that it is their noble to duty always be ready to protect their country from external as well as internal attacks. In order to promote nationalism from an earlier stage in life the government should start an awareness campaign in school for children to be taught the importance of being patriotic as they grow up.
In addition to that, the government should introduce a mandatory unit that will be taught right from the primary school to the University level. By so doing people will be in a better position to decide for themselves on whether to be patriotic or otherwise. One way of promoting nationalism is to ensure that democracy prevails in the country.
Members of the public on the other hand should learn to co exist peacefully at all times regardless of the prevailing conditions. Liah (p 211) asserts that peace and harmony are important ingredients in the realization of nationalism. This is because for people to be considered nationalistic, they must show cohesiveness among themselves so that they can get whatever they want to achieve.
As earlier stated there are certain types of nationalism that can bring hatred among people and to an extent generate into a full scale war like it was the case in the Northern Ireland between the Catholics and the Protestants. In order to avert such crisis leaders in both camps should sit down together and iron out their differences so that no blood shed is witnessed in the future.
Once people in a country have learnt to live peacefully in their own country, it is the government’s obligation to establish good working relationships with other countries so that the citizens in those countries can benefit from such a relationship in terms of doing business.
Works cited Andersson, Eliud. Culture, Identity and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008
Bellamy, Charles. Nationalism and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001
Blaut, Jim. The National Question. London: Routledge, 2004
Feld, Jordan. Minorities, Autonomy and elf Determination. London: Sage, 2003
Geertz, Clifford. Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006
Hayes, Carlton. The Historical Evolution of Modern Evolution. London, Blackwel, 2007
Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002
Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism. New York: Macmillan, 2009
Liah, Greenfeld. Nationalism, Roads to Modernity. London: Penguin, 2007
Sidwell, Alex. The Age of Nationalism. New York: Harper
The Three Choirs Vineyard Research Paper scholarship essay help
The wine industry is one of the most competitive industries in many countries around the world. Companies involved with wine production have to put in place the right marketing and promotional strategies in order to retain and attract customers.
The Three Choirs Vineyard offers different wine varieties and accommodation services in addition to a beautiful and relaxing environment. The Three Choirs Vineyard facility has a wine shop, gift shop, daily guided tours, a restaurant, eleven boarding units, and a state of the art winery with 75 acres of vines.
To fully analyze the Three Choirs Vineyard, it is important to highlight the organization’s marketing strategies such as segmentation, targeting and positioning.
To begin with, Three Choirs Vineyard has tried its level best to divide its market into segments of consumers with a common inclination towards a particular brand of products and services.
Market segments are created according to demographic variables, income, behavior, lifestyle and the type of benefit sought from the product or service. Consumers with the same interests and needs are divided into small segments to ensure that everyone is fully satisfied.
The success of Three Choirs Vineyard is attributed to its segmented market. Three Choirs Vineyard provides a unique experience for its customers with the different varieties of wine and other recreational facilities being perfect segments for its customers.
Three Choirs Vineyard caters for wine enthusiasts, gift shoppers, holiday makers and those just looking for a beautiful place to relax. The organization produces different brands of wine according to the different preferences of its segmented market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promotional schemes of products and services depend on the unique tastes and preferences of a particular market segment. After creating market segments, the next step to be taken by the organization is targeting the created segments.
An organization develops marketing schemes and plans to effectively reach the created market segments. In an attempt to target its wide range of segments, Three Choirs Vineyard has elaborate marketing schemes targeting its market segments.
To begin with, the organization has wine tasting tours that target wine lovers and holiday makers. Three Choirs Vineyard has discount plans for each market segment according the marketing goals of each segment.
The organization offers two packages of wine for both its rich and average income customers through the adopt a vine with wine promotion. An organization strives to create a particular perception in the mind s of customers with regard to their market segment through positioning.
Taking Three Choirs Vineyard as an example, the organization has different wine brands for the rich, middleclass, teenagers, the old, women, men, Christians and non-Christians. All brands are created with the aim of creating a particular perception in a targeted market segment.
Positioning is an effective marketing strategy that ensures that all market segments are accommodated. Each brand of wine is prepared, priced and positioned according to the requirements of a particular market segment.
The three marketing strategies have been effectively used by Three Choirs Vineyard in an attempt to retain, satisfy and attract customers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organization needs to analyze and fully understand its environment of operation for it to achieve its organizational goals. In order to analyze its environment of operation, there are certain external factors that the organization needs to understand.
These factors are commonly referred to as the PESTLE factors. Three Choirs Vineyard faces some legal, social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect its daily activities. The legal and environmental categories of the PESTLE factors are very crucial in the UK wine industry.
Three Choirs Vineyard faces strict regulations that guide the winemaking industry. The alcoholic strength of each wine category has both minimum and maximum limits that need to be followed. Enrichment and de-acidification of wine produced in the UK is also regulated to ensure that the standards are maintained.
The legal regulations limit export business of wine making companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard. The level of sulphur dioxide in red wine is limited to 150 milligrams per litre for all UK wine industries.
Records concerning wine bottling and enrichment must be recorded immediately and kept for a minimum of five years for accountability purposes. The UK wine labeling regulations are very strict because they are harmonized with the EU wine labeling regulations.
The wine label must include the alcoholic strength, the nominal volume, country of origin, sulphur dioxide content and the type of wine. Fluctuating values of international currencies affect the price of wine at the international market.
Wine companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard end up incurring loses on its exports due to weak foreign currencies. The Three Choirs Vineyard holds daily tasting events and it is therefore required to have a Winery Special Event Permit.
There are quite a number of environmental regulations and issues that affect the wine industry in the UK. Environmental factors form part of the PESTLE factors that affect the UK wine industry.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vineyards and other winery operations are considered as Agricultural activities by the UK authorities and therefore the zoning of farms is done by bona fide government agencies.
All wine producing facilities like Three Choirs vineyard are inspected after very six months to check whether there are any activities which are harmful to the environment. All companies that produce wine must have a Winery Waste Disposal Permit to ensure compliance with environmental legislation.
The PESTLE factors affect the marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard in a number of ways. To begin with, the sociological factors help the organization in the process of market segmentation. The organization uses the data gathered from sociological analysis to segment its market.
Three Choirs Vineyard has segmented its wine market according to age, sex, level of income, religion and the type of satisfaction sought from wine. The data obtained from analyzing external sociological factors helps a great deal in market segmentation.
Economic factors such inflation and exchange rates play a significant role in the pricing of goods and services at Three Choirs Vineyard. Promotion of goods and services is an essential component of a marketing mix that is enhanced by the PESTLE factors.
It would be difficult for Three Choirs Vineyard to promote its products if the UK as a country was politically unstable. The success being enjoyed by Three Choirs Vineyard is as a result of the good political and economic relationship that the UK enjoys with the rest of the world.
An organization or company can only develop an efficient and effective marketing plan if all the PESTLE factors are put into consideration. The marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard brings good results because the organization constantly considers the PESTLE factors.
The Psychology of Personality Essay college admission essay help
Introduction This case study outlines the process of counselling, which composed of six sessions that my client underwent. The case study I have chosen has great significance to my life and career due to several reasons. Firstly, it was my first experience dealing with a client during my first year of training as a counsellor.
Secondly, I managed to counsel a client successfully despite the conditions that surrounded her life. Thirdly, the experience was quite enriching as it gave me the impetus to build my career. Nevertheless, I will elaborate how the case study is significant to me through the six sessions of counselling that my client underwent.
Confidentiality is important in counselling because it protects clients from undue stigma arising from the use of confidential information. Since confidentiality is important in protecting clients, I have used different names to protect my client’s identity as well as identities of her relatives and friends.
To elaborate the case study well, I will outline it as follows:
Firstly, I will introduce the case study by providing background information of the client and the case study. The background information will enable readers to get a glimpse and understand the essence of the case study.
Secondly, I will describe the six sessions that my client underwent, as an endeavour to elucidate the process of counselling that occurred in the case study.
In the description section, I will describe the following aspects of the case study: therapeutic interventions, the client’s process, experienced instincts, my own process, evolution of our relationships, learning gained, and the role that my supervisor played. Description of these aspects gives an insight of my experience coupled with client’s experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, I will discuss how supervision played a role in helping me overcome the numerous challenges that I encountered during the six sessions. Given that the case study represents my first experience as a counsellor, supervisor helped me to resolve ethical dilemmas and apply my theoretical knowledge professionally.
Although I will try to recapture all that transpired in the case study, I admit that I cannot recapture every detail. Therefore, I will try to provide a glimpse of what transpired during the six sessions in an attempt to present my firsthand experience in counselling. Interaction with my client involved intricate nuances that I cannot articulate well or present them as they occurred during counselling.
How can I explain the nature of glances that my client usually gave or describe the nature of pain and depression my client expressed in my presence? Thus, it is impossible to explain the emotions that my client was fighting at the time of our interaction throughout the counselling session.
Background The case study underscores the life of my client who is a 65-year-old female showing signs of depression. For the sake of confidentially, I have named her Ita. Ita is a depressed woman because she has many issues bothering her. Firstly, she is a widow because her husband died five years ago, and his death anniversary is approaching.
She is also about to celebrate her 40th wedding anniversary without her husband in a few months’ time. Ita lives a lonely life because she has only one daughter who rarely visits her due to their volatile relationship.
Moreover, Ita has several health complications as she has an inoperable breast cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and arthritis in her both hands. Cancer therapy leaves her fatigued and sensitive to warm sunny weather.
Given her conditions, Ita is unapproachable, bitter, and angry about the world. Her family members have forsaken her; they did not even support her during her husband’s illness. Moreover, they have cut off any communication with her. Ita is also upset by the negligence on the part of her family members because they have not done much to help her disabled sister, who suffers from schizophrenia.
We will write a custom Essay on The Psychology of Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The First Session
During the first session, Ita came to the room that I had rented since she was my first client. After we talked and I understood her condition, I decided to employ the Rogerian model of psychotherapy in helping her to overcome depression. As it was the first session, I started by seeking an informed consent from her and creating a rapport.
According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, relationships between a client and a psychotherapist form the basis of a therapy. Thyer (2008) states, “Rogerian therapy sought to transform the therapist from a resident expert to transparently honest human sojourning with the client” (p.299). During the first session, I aimed at creating a good relationship between Ita and me, so that we could engage freely in subsequent sessions.
When Ita arrived at the counselling room, she had many reservations. She did not want to express her depressing conditions because she had fears regarding the revelation of her confidential information. Moreover, Ita expressed some of the problems she had been experiencing in life.
With my counselling skills, I probed her gently and assured that the information she could give would only be applicable in the counselling process only. Glassman and Hadad (2008) warn, “The therapist must act in an open and genuine way; not hiding behind a professional façade” (p.431). After managing to create a rapport, Ita was in a position to communicate freely without any fears.
At the end of session one, I had obtained enough information from Ita, which enabled me to understand the cause of her depression. Eventually, Ita went home happy because she got someone who listened to her problems attentively and was willing to help her.
When Ita entered the counselling room, I welcomed her warmly and offered her a seat. Although it was difficult to introduce myself, I gathered courage and informed her that I was a counsellor and I would take her through several sessions of psychotherapy. After the brief introduction, Ita sat restlessly and somehow bored.
As a counsellor, I had to take charge of the situation and create a friendly environment to enable her participate actively in the therapy. Although I managed to encourage Ita to express her misery, she intermittently broke into tears.
Shulma (2011) argues, “psychotherapists should understand the power of emotion in their own lives before understanding their impacts on clients” (p.322). Thus, although her feelings moved me, I managed to control them so that I could help her.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Psychology of Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The relationship between Ita and me developed gradually as we shared our experiences. The more she narrated her experiences in life, the more we became close to one another. The narration of her experiences moved both of us and in some way bonded even more.
Thyer (2008) notes, “The fundamental change is determined by the relationship between the therapist and the client” (p.299). Hence, in the first session, the relationships between Ita and me transformed from just being a client to being friends who could share anything to each other.
The first session was the first experience in dealing with a client, and I gained from it a great deal of empirical skills. The major skill that I gained during the first session is that, I learned how to create the necessary rapport for any therapy.
Close interaction with Ita resulted into fruitful communication, which enabled me to gather enough information for the therapy. I applied the Rogerian psychotherapy strategy of creating psychological contact between the client and the psychotherapist. Ultimately, I learned that client-psychotherapist relationship plays a significant role in the process of psychotherapy.
Prior to my first session, my supervisor and I discussed what I was to do on my first session. Since counselling was my first experience, I had to consult my supervisor who provided me with necessary skills to perform psychotherapy.
The Second Session
In the second session, Ita arrived in time because she was eager to have her depression relieved. Ita described her condition as total misery because she lived a lonely life, suffered from inoperable breast cancer, was diabetic, and experienced a host of other social issues in her life. In this session, I had to identify and classify her problems as well as examine possible solutions to each of the problems.
An important step in psychotherapy is the identification of the presenting problem and then contextualising it (Shulman 2011, p.76). Hence, I discovered that Ita’s problems emanated from social and health aspects. From here, I could formulate hypotheses about possible interventions that might help her recover from depression and live a normal life.
At the beginning of the session, Ita viewed her life with lots of complications without any possible intervention. She cited that she lived “a solitary life” where nobody was willing to help her. Moreover, she said that her inoperable cancer and diabetic conditions contributed to her depression.
At first, I too perceived these conditions as very complex for I could not figure our possible interventions that could help Ita overcome her depression.
However, after taking her through the process of identifying possible interventions using different hypotheses, she became convinced that her life would change for the better. Hence, at the end of the second session, Ita was longing to proceed to the next session and have her problems solved.
According to my experience, the second session was somehow easy to handle since we had created a good rapport in the first session. Nevertheless, I experienced a challenge in identifying the problems and formulating possible solutions. Given that Ita viewed her condition as irredeemable, it was challenging to convince her that the hypotheses that we set would work effectively.
Barlow (2007) asserts, “A therapist can facilitate the transition to a more active and structured approach by maintaining a problem-oriented stance” (p.268). In this view, I made sure that Ita transitioned from having pessimistic attitude to having optimistic attitude for her to internalise the possible interventions.
At the beginning of the second session, Ita viewed me as a friend who would perform a miracle to get her out of her condition. As the session progressed, Ita gained an insight of her condition and possible interventions. Ita expected me to come up with interventions and make them work to improve her life.
However, with time, she realised that interventions emanated from our interaction. Therefore, at the start, Ita viewed me as a helping friend, but at the end of the first session, she recognised me as a partner who wanted to help her overcome her miserable life.
The second session gave me great insights of how clients perceive their problems. Moreover, I learned how to identify and classify problems so that I could formulate possible interventions. I noted that formulation of interventions is the hardest part in the process of psychotherapy.
Clark (2006) argues, “In constructing the model of a patient, the therapist is often able to activate affective and imaginative processes that provide an empathic understanding of a patient’s experiential state” (p.117). I realised that involvement of the Ita in the formulation of possible interventions is central in psychotherapy. Therefore, the second session gave me an invaluable experience of formulating possible interventions with Ita.
Given that I experienced some challenges in the first session, I had to consult my supervisor on what to expect on the second session, lest I would experience similar challenges.
My supervisor helped me a lot because he provided me with reading materials that enabled me to prepare well. Without my supervisor, I could not have managed to counsel Ita during the second session. Hence, I attribute my success in the second session to my supervisor’s guidance and instruction.
The Third Session
The third session started well as Ita arrived on time as usual for the therapy. Since the Rogerian psychotherapy is non-directive, I commenced the therapy by letting Ita recollect what we did during the previous session to see whether she could remember anything. The non-directive approach to counselling is effective because it enables a client to take charge of the counselling process (Barlow 2007, p.268).
The aim of the third session was to formulate feasible goals that Ita could achieve at the end of the counselling process. Therefore, in the session, I did ask her to state goals that she sought to achieve at the end of the counselling.
During the third session, Ita made significant progress that encouraged me. At the beginning of the counselling, Ita was reluctant. She did not want to play an active role in the counselling process because she believed that I was the one to guide her through the process of counselling and recovery. However, using non-directive skills of the Rogerian psychotherapy, I managed to convince her to become active.
Clark (2006) argues, “…a therapist’s attitudinal stance of congruence is fundamental to the quality of therapeutic relationships” (Clark 2006, p.68). For me to probe Ita well, I had to be congruent and attentive to her needs. Eventually, Ita trusted me and started becoming active throughout the counselling process.
I had prepared well for the third session, but when I started counselling Ita, I realised that she was quite different. Although she arrived as usual, she looked disinterested with the discussion. I too felt uneasy as I did not know how and where to begin the session. From expressions, she looked more depressed than previous sessions. She uttered some words saying, “life is unfair because my misery has no end.”
These words compelled me to encourage and comfort Ita because she said them while crying. I empathised with her while encouraging her to face the reality. The situation seemed tough, but I eventually managed to contain her and progress with counselling.
The counselling relationships in the third session evolved from a therapist-centred to client-centred. At the beginning of the third session, Ita assumed that I had the overall responsibility of directing her in the process of counselling. She believed that a therapist performs everything, while the client simply receives the therapy.
However, continued discussions on her condition allowed her to discover that she had a noble role to play in the counselling process. In the end, Ita formulated feasible goals that she wanted to achieve. Hence, the counselling process started from a therapist-centred and ended as a client-centred process.
Before the third session, I was quite aware that employing non-directive approach in counselling is difficult. As the Rogerian psychotherapy entails using non-directive strategy, it was challenging to transform Ita from playing a passive role to an active one.
According to Shulman (2011), non-directive strategy involves “reinforcing and encouraging positive statements to enable client become active in the counselling process” (p.67). The application of non-directive strategy helped me in transforming Ita’s attitude. Although she was reluctant to participate, my constant probing prompted her to open up for the session.
After opening up, Ita became active in formulating the goals that she expected to achieve at the end of the counselling process. Ultimately, I realised that non-directive approach is critical in counselling because it enables a client to own the counselling process.
Since I knew the third session was more complex than previous sessions, I consulted my supervisor regarding the probable challenges that I would face. My supervisor cautioned me to be ready for any relapse that could happen since Ita was vulnerable to depression.
Thus, the caution helped me when I found that Ita was not in the mood to continue with the counselling process because the depression overwhelmed her. In this view, my supervisor gave invaluable advice that I applied in the third session.
The Fourth Session
At the fourth session, we focused on formulating interventions to the problems that we had examined in previous sessions and aligned them to the goals we had made. Ita’s problems constituted health and social aspects. Hence, we started by formulating interventions to social problems that she had faced in life.
In the social interventions, we agreed that Ita should forgive her family and daughter for not giving her the support she deserved. In addition, we concluded that Ita should begin engaging her family members in a friendly manner. Concerning the medical issues of diabetes and inoperable breast cancer, we agreed that she would seek medical attention on management interventions, as well as live a positive life.
According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, “by adapting cognitive behavioural intervention to the individual client’s background, life history, and experiences, psychotherapist is helping a client to attain a state where there is meaningfulness in life” (Thyer 2008, p.126). During the counselling, I helped Ita to find meaning in life and uplift her spirit.
In the fourth session, Ita made considerable improvement because as we started the session, she was in depression due the conditions in her life and left when she was a bit happier. When she arrived at the counselling room, Ita confessed that her troubles were weighing her down and she was tired of facing another day. She cried saying, “I am desolate and wretched without anyone caring about me”.
As she cried, I comforted her to regain strength and live a positive life. After a lengthy discussion of issues affecting her and formulation of possible interventions, Ita improved for she went home hoping the interventions could work in her life.
I perceived the fourth session as a bit technical, for I had to formulate interventions that seemed feasible enough for Ita to accept and apply them in life. I knew that, for an intervention to be effective, Ita must accept it wholeheartedly.
Thus, I was quite careful in formulating interventions and describing the expected outcomes to Ita. Since the depression at times overwhelmed Ita making her unapproachable and bitter about life, it required a tactful approach to convince her. For that reason, I had to formulate workable interventions that suited her condition.
During the fourth session, our relationship changed as we progressed with the counselling session. At first, Ita perceived me as a therapist who wanted to impose unreasonable interventions that would not work in her life. However, as counselling progressed, she realised that interventions emanate from the available resources.
After examining several interventions, we had a privilege of choosing the most appropriate ones among them. Hence, at the end of the session, Ita had entrusted me with her life since I was sensitive and did show great concern towards her attitude and feelings.
From the experience of the fourth session, I learned that winning the trust of a client is a critical factor in the counselling process. Trust is important in collaborating with patient, “because collaboration requires that the patient trusts the therapist; we emphasise those interpersonal qualities that contribute to trust” (Barlow 2007, p.380). Trust enabled me to engage Ita in the formulation of feasible interventions.
Although the interventions seemed obvious, the trust that Ita had developed enabled her to understand the feasibility of the interventions. Overall, I have learned that a therapist must first develop trust before engaging a client in the development of possible interventions.
My supervisor helped me in the formulation and development of possible interventions that suited the case of Ita. Before the fourth session, we discussed with my supervisor various interventions, which gave me an insight into psychological interventions. During the counselling session, I applied the interventions because they suited Ita’s situation.
The Fifth Session
Given that we had formulated interventions to achieve set goals in the previous sessions, the fifth session sought to find out if Ita had applied the interventions and made any significant changes. When Ita arrived at the counselling room, I welcomed and asked her how she had progressed after applying the interventions we had set in the previous session.
She responded, “there is no difference because I was so depressed last night”. Though she looked fine that morning, her statement indicated that she needed extensive counselling to allow the needed change. Corsini and Wedding (2010) argue, “More individuals seek therapy because of concerns about the purpose in life than often therapists often realise” (p.313).
Since Ita was willing to go for therapy, I realised that she was determined to have a purpose in life. Hence, in the fifth session we re-examined the goals and interventions that we had established and planned to re-apply objectively.
During the session, Ita progressed well since we started the session after she had experienced mild depression, and at the end of the session, she reported that she felt much better than when she came for the therapy.
Her progress during the fifth session indicates that she had not only made significant achievement, but also the Rogerian psychotherapy had effectively changed her condition. Her determination made her apply the interventions that we had formulated. Moreover, the trust we had developed enabled her to communicate freely and follow my instructions to the letter.
When Ita responded that the therapy had not done much to her, I thought I had employed the wrong intervention in the counselling process. Since her problems revolved around social and medical aspects, I made sure that the formulated interventions addressed all the problems for Ita to recover well from the depression that had weighed her down.
Corsini and Wedding (2010) assert, “More and more patients come to therapy with vague complaints about loss of purpose or meaning in life” (p.311). Therefore, I began questioning whether the non-directive approach in the formulation of goals did not target the problem well. Eventually, I re-examined the process of counselling and reapplied the strategies while having conviction that they would work well.
Throughout the fifth session, our relationship remained relatively constant except that she entrusted me with her life because she thought that I was the only person who would make a difference in her life. In this case, I was like a family member who had the responsibility of taking care of her in times of distress and need.
At the end of the session, Ita felt much better and could not help thanking me about the therapy she had received. As she moved out of the counselling room, she smiled and told me that, “you have brightened my day, I am now better with great hopes”. Such a response encouraged me because I knew my intervention had made her life more tolerable.
As usual, I consulted my supervisor before I started the fifth session. Since I was worried about the effectiveness of the intervention, I inquired from my supervisor whether I could change the intervention in the middle of the counselling process.
My supervisor told me that relapses are common occurrences in the counselling process, and I should be ready to tackle them whenever they occur without necessarily changing the intervention used. Therefore, by the time Ita showed signs of relapse, it was not strange to me. Hence, I handled the situation well and encouraged her to continue with the therapy.
The Sixth Session
The sixth session involved assessment and termination of the counselling process. As a therapist, I had to ensure that my intervention had worked well and empowered the client. Since engagement of the client is important when starting a therapy, disengagement is also essential in termination of the counselling process.
“Under normal circumstances, after a client has made progress in reaching therapeutic goals, it is the therapist’s responsibility to explore what the client thinks and feels about ending the therapy” (Mozdzierz 2009, p.427). In this case, when Ita came for the sixth session, I observed that she had progressed well, and she even confirmed the same verbally.
Afterwards, I proposed that the therapy might end at the sixth session and she did not object it. She only asked that I allow her to see me whenever she wanted because we had become great friends. Thus, we recapped the interventions that we had agreed upon and scheduled to meet after a month or any day that she deemed fit to see me.
In the sixth session, Ita seemed quite happy because she believed that the therapy had helped her to live a better life that is free from depression. Despite her conditions, Ita promised that she would live a positive life with a meaning and full of hope.
The counselling process has been good to her in that she was unwilling to terminate our relationship for we had established a strong bond between us. Eventually, Ita ended the counselling process with a considerable progress for her to manage depression and accept reality of life.
The sixth session was quite enriching for both of us. It is inspiring to interact with a client, share problems, and eventually reach a successful conclusion.
The counselling process started with sorrow and misery, but through various psychological interventions, it ended with fulfilling happiness that gave us a sense of achievement. Thus, the sixth session enabled me to assess the achievements I had made through the process of counselling and gave me a reason to terminate the process.
During the sixth session, our relationship evolved from a client-therapist association to great friends with common experiences.
The experiences we shared made us one. In the Rogerian psychotherapy, “there is a considerable amount of emphasis on the working relationships between the client and therapist” (Carducci 2009. p.215). The working relationships made us friends because at the end of the session, Ita was willing to meet me again on a friendly level.
The sixth session made me understand the essence of engagement and disengagement with clients. As the Rogerian psychotherapy is client-centred, therapists should engage a client in the process of counselling, and when the client has achieved considerable progress, there should be a process of disengagement.
The process of disengagement is very important because it determines the effectiveness of interventions employed during counselling. According to Mozdzierz, psychotherapist must try as much as possible to end counselling process on a positive note (2009, p.427). In this view, I disengaged Ita smoothly from the counselling process to protect her from relapsing.
Prior to the last session, I did not know what to do because I deeply empathised with Ita. The condition of her life required someone to support her throughout her life.
Since I did not want to terminate the counselling process abruptly, I consulted my supervisor who informed me about the process of termination and disengagement of a client and when I applied the skills, I was successful. Therefore, my supervisor guided me through the counselling process from the first to the last session.
Conclusion From Ita’s case, I can conclude that the Rogerian model of psychotherapy is effective in counselling a person with depression due to a combination of social and health issues. The Rogerian psychotherapy entails the use of skills that are client-centred. The non-directive approach is another attribute of the Rogerian psychotherapy for it allows a client to be active in the formulation of his/her goals and interventions.
The main objective of the Rogerian psychotherapy is to help the client accept and face reality in life. Since I applied the Rogerian model of therapy in the case study, it was effective despite the fact that it was my first experience. The process of counselling was quite successful as I managed to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling Ita to recover from depression.
The process of psychotherapy was interesting because it was my first experience to counsel a client. Moreover, the experience of interacting with a client at a personal level was quite inspiring as I managed to win Ita’s trust.
In the course of the counselling process, I noted that relationships change according to the progress of the client. As Ita progressed, I also advanced because I had to keep abreast with any developments that occurred in each session. At the end of the counselling process, I was happy to have achieved the objectives that we had set with Ita during the counselling.
The experience of counselling Ita has enhanced my knowledge and skills. Firstly, I have understood how to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling a client with depression. Secondly, I have known how to engage a client into psychotherapy, utilise various skills in the counselling process, and eventually disengage a client from the process of counselling.
Thirdly, I have learned how to create a rapport that provides room for growth and progression in psychotherapy. I managed to learn all these skills with the help of my supervisor whom I consulted throughout the process of counselling Ita.
References Barlow, D 2007, Clinical Handbook of psychological disorder: A step-by-step treatment Manual, Guilford Press, London.
Carducci, B 2009, The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and Applications, John Wiley
Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The article under analysis called Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation considers the role of leadership styles, as well as supervisor-subordinate relationships, in increasing organizational performance and culture (Butler 139). The author provides an overview of connections between efficient decision-making and its influence on productivity levels in a company.
The article starts with identifying leadership in terms of its relation to business performance. The researcher also provides a distinct analysis of leadership, particularly how it differs from managers. Further, the author proceeds with the assessing communication that is crucial in promoting leadership skills.
Therefore, leaders should be able to generate favorable behavioral patterns and shape an effective organizational environment. With an emphasis on organizational culture, leaders should be able to use power effectively to influence other people. As a result of such relations, leaders evoke certain moods, expectations, and images which later allow managers to carry specific roles.
To emphasize importance of leadership for organizational performance, the author also touches on the problem of cultural diversity in Arab multicultural organizations. Implementing specific leadership styles can both encourage and motivate employees to work more enthusiastically.
Therefore, concept of cultural diversity comes to the forth. At the end of the studies, the scholar concludes that leadership should underline charisma to attract employees’ attention and increase their satisfaction. It has also been found that commitment to organizational goals is strongly associated with quality of relations between supervisors and their subordinates.
Clarity and Usefulness
The article has well organized and transparent structure. The author’s ideas closely relate to the structure and organization and provide the readers with the overall concepts and connections. Therefore, the article is consistent and logical. In addition, the article is useful because it highlights aspects and challenges of managing cultural diversity in UAE. The author has managed to shed light on leadership in a narrow cultural concept.
The author also presents information about features and conditions under which multicultural organization can improve its performance. In addition to the consistent structure, the article provides a number of reliable evidence stipulating the usefulness of the research under consideration. In particular, the authors provides similar research studies related to cross-cultural issues.
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The study is based on a qualitative methodology which allows to analyze 137 employees working in a multicultural Arab company. By means of Likert scale, the participants had to choose seven variants of answers, which ensure greater objectivity of the text. The chosen sample for the research is adequate for conducting a research provided the sample covers the entire population.
Although the give methods allows to provide significant findings, as well as practical implications for future research, introducing quality methods, such as interviewing of the focus groups, individual interviewing, and recording of the answers, could contribute greatly to the analysis of employees behaviors, as well as their attitude toward the challenges of multicultural environment.
Quality of Hypothesis and Data
The hypotheses of the research study are relevant because they are confined to a specific problem investigated in an Arab leadership context. Each hypothesis out of five is followed by detailed explanations of purposes and arguments that should be researched and discussed. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the necessity to establish frames within which leadership influences other organizational aspects, as well as human resources.
By discussing various traits of leadership, the author skillfully finds correlations with other dimensions of organizational leadership, including employees’ commitment, reward and recognition schemes, cultural backgrounds, and leadership styles.
Apart from the topic relevance, the given hypotheses allow for assessment of employees’ behavior. They also predict further implications for studying leadership styles and their influence on a multicultural environment. The quality of data delivered in the article is justified because it is taken from the real-to-life environment.
Discussion Evaluation (Good no need to add any more points, just I need explanation on some point, so I can get it for my discussion with my teacher)
Though there is no particular heading for discussion, it still involves explanations that are matching with all hypothesis posed at the beginning of the research. The explanations, however, do not provide consistent and systematic responses to the research questions, but are incorporated into thematic domains.
While evaluating the persuasiveness of the highlighted themes, specific emphasis should be placed on considering logical connections established between employees’ responses and leadership theories.
We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The value of the discussion is enhanced because it relates to a specific cultural context within which leadership styles are considered. Despite the consistency and clarity, much concern is connected with the generalized conclusions based on the surveys.
So, there should be more references to the initial hypothesis, instead of generalized statements. In particular, the discussion focuses primarily on general assumption, but not on practical implementation of the discussion.
Findings and Practical Implications
The findings are represented in a clear and transparent way. Each of the conclusions made in the passage correspond to the numerical data received during the survey. Because the research refers to a certain multicultural variety, as well as the way it is treated in an Arab world, the findings could be used to make the corresponding changes to work and objectives of an organization.
Despite the narrow context, the findings can also be applicable to the multinational organizations established in other countries. For example, it has been defined that “commitment to the organization is related to the quality of supervisor-subordinate relations” (Butler 139). The finding proves the importance of introducing person-oriented approaches in managing multicultural organizations.
Therefore, the research proves the reliability and validity of the findings. Practical implications introduced in the article reflect further perspectives for analyzing business environment in terms of culture and organization.
Limitations for Academics and Consultants
The limitation of the study lies in a narrow-focused discussion of supervisor-subordinate relations in a particular organization. The findings related to this topic could not be applied to other organizations with various cultural backgrounds.
Indications on Future Research
Because the research under analysis focuses mainly on the analysis of leadership qualities and their impact on employees’ performance, future research should be dedicated to the analysis of employees’ behavior and their influence on the development of new leadership styles.
In addition, the author pays closer attention to language and communication skills as essential components of successful cross-cultural interaction. Managers and leaders should be more concerned with understanding cultural peculiarities. A person-centered approach is more justified.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Relevance of the Research to an Arab Management Context
The research studies are based on the survey of employees working an UAE multicultural company, but their nationalities differ. On the one hand, because UAE culture shapes the basis of organizational culture, the research findings are highly relevant to the topic.
On the other hand, the employees who take part in the research originate from different cultures and, therefore, their answers that do not depend on the UAE cultural peculiarities. Such perspectives, however, could be used in any multicultural context to meet the needs of culturally diverse employees. The task of Arab leaders, therefore, is to correspond to international standards of managing business.
Works Cited Butler, Colin. Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation. Leadership
Differentiated Instruction’ Strategies and Benefits Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Responding to the requirements of unlike students
Introduction Differentiated instruction entails giving students unlike avenues to gain content, develop, build, find the meaning of ideas, and construct teaching stuff to ensure that every student in a classroom learns efficiently, irrespective of differences in capability (Ellis, Gable, Greg,
Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Strategic Planning Mission and vision statements, core values and organisational goals have become defining forces in the formulation of organisational strategy.
To this end, some strategists note that mission and vision statements, core values and goals can offer options to a tedious work of organisational planning (Dobson, Starkey and Richards 10). This is because stakeholders look at organisations in terms of their mission and vision statements, core values and goals. These factors define the long-term purpose of a company with regard to its services and products.
Organisational strategies and objectives must support its vision and mission statements, core values, and goals. Vision and mission statements, core values, and goals should show the purpose of the firm in terms of the main business, principal values and aspirations. It should also show key stakeholders and principles of the code of conduct to guide employees on how to behave.
Therefore, we shall focus on these strategies when formulating vision and mission statements, core values and goal for Gulf Fertilizer. This is a start-up organisation that needs well-formulated statements to provide strategies that can radically transform it for the markets it serves. These are the mission and vision statements, core values and goals of Gulf Fertilizer.
Gulf Fertilizer is a global leader in the provision of fertilizer to farmers. We are a leading fertilizer company that combines various processes and technology to produce high quality fertilizer. There is no other company in the world that produces fertilizer to farmers the way we do by integrating technology and research.
Gulf Fertilizer is dedicated to providing the best quality fertilizer with the aim of value creation for farmers and quality performance of crops, and providing productive and sustainable farming in society at large.
To provide the best fertilizer manufactured with the state-of-the-art technology and research.
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Proving the best quality natural and organic fertilizers available
Delighting and satisfying customers through meeting their diverse needs
Creating ongoing win-win partnerships with suppliers
Caring about farmers and the environment
Promoting the safety and health of farmers through education programmes on fertilizer handling and usages
Description of the organizational environment, both the internal functions and the external context
The internal environment an organisation reflects features within the organisation. These are resources, culture, strategies, competence, and behaviours among others. Some elements of the internal environment may relate to the management, whereas others affect the entire organisation.
Gulf Fertilizer is a progressive organisation that empowers its workforce to make decisions that drive business. Some elements of the internal environment of the company include the following.
These refer to the company’s human resources and other inputs that produce products through combinations of various processes.
Gulf Fertilizer needs resources like money, raw materials, facilities, knowledgeable workforce, and manpower in order to produce products for various markets. Gulf Fertilizer must ensure availability of products and meet the costs of these resources so as to ensure success of its goals, strategy, mission and vision.
These are behaviours within the organisation originating from forces and influences of management and workforce. They can influence usages of available resources. Gulf Fertilizer promotes functional behaviours to ensure that relevant departments get adequate resources.
This is the strength the company has among its major rivals.
The company has distinctive competence in its core functional area like research and development, finance, human resources, and marketing systems. The company evaluates its strength in terms of skills and abilities that enable it to implement its core strategies.
We will write a custom Report on Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer can address its weaknesses by investing its resources so as to achieve the strength necessary for implementation of strategies. The company can also change its mission so that the available skills and resources can support it (Roberts 49).
Functional Plans and Policies
The company strategy should serve its plans and business policies. Implementation of these plans and policies influence the effectiveness of strategic management. Functional plans and policies shall help Gulf Fertilizer in the following areas. First, plans and policies ensure that the company implement its strategic decisions across all departments.
Second, the company has capabilities to control processes in different areas of its operation. Third, functional plan and policies shall reduce time spent in decision-making processes as the organisation already has plans. It shall also help the organisation distribute its resources fairly in core areas that need them. Finally, there is coordination among all departments of the organisation.
The external environment entails all elements outside the company which have effects on growth its growth. The company has little or lack control over external environment elements. However, the organisation must monitor them and adapt accordingly. We shall focus on areas that have significant effects on Gulf Fertilizer.
Gulf Fertilizer shall face competition from well-established companies like FAUJI Fertilizer Company, Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT), Saudi Aramco, and Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) among others. These industries have a regional presence, strong market relations, large in sizes, better facilities, and high skills.
Gulf Fertilizer shall directly supply its products to farmers. It will also set up distribution outlets in the region.
The company shall assume a regional context in the Gulf region and Middle East. Its expansion strategy shall focus on Africa, Asia, and the US.
The company shall rely on external resources such as efficient road networks in the UAE, logistic capabilities, power supply and manpower for its success.
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The company shall utilise available and qualified labour pool in the production of its products especially in research and development of new products. It shall also observe changes in the labour market so as to adjust with shifts in the labour market. This shall prevent the company from losing qualified employees.
Gulf Fertilizer shall avoid any disruption in the supply of raw materials to ensure its continuous operation. It shall also watch fluctuating costs of raw materials. This shall also include storage facilities, transport facilities and subcontract to other organisations.
The company shall rely on its initial investment of one billion dirham in driving its operation. Since Gulf Fertilizer is a start-up company, it has little avenues of raising capitals.
The company shall rely on technology for efficiency in its production. This shall also include technical tools in the production processes.
Laws and Regulations
Gulf Fertilizer shall apply good corporate governance and ensure effective implementation of the region’s laws and regulations. However, it shall also take into account costs associated with compliance especially in the environmental area.
Current organizational chart showing functional relationships and lines of communication
Management structure strengthens the culture of a company by providing foundations, showing planned relationships, communication line, and providing outline boundaries in which the firm’s activities take place. The management structure must accommodate all aspects of varied departments. However, it can ignore conflicting expectations of the constituents (Miner 147).
There are two main strategies of designing a company’s structure. These are mechanistic and organic structure approaches. Traditionally, structures depicted power delegations, authority relations, and communication lines among others. The mechanistic management structure provides a single line of reporting and communicating that employees follow rigidly.
Employees in similar horizontal structures have no power or authority over each other. On the other hand, the organic structure lacks rigid or fixed hierarchy. Workers can work together to finish a project, and then provide help in other areas. In addition, employees can also handle more than a single project at any given time. Workers can have a manager, many managers, or none at all.
In such situations, the firm expects its workforce to exercise self-leadership. Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt an organic management structure to ensure effective operation and coordination among departments. This structure shall also work best because the company is new. Below is the proposed management structure.
Breakdown of the organisational structure in terms of characteristics, size, line and staff components or administrative and operational components, and examples of differentiation in terms of vertical and horizontal components, integration, centralization, standardization, formalization and specialization
The organisational structure and related information depict the division and coordination of the work of the firm among various departments (Kazmi 25). This provides specific functions for every department among all functional areas of the organisation. Breakdown of the organisational structure is necessary so that processes and policies have clear coordination for maximum achievement of the core goals and strategies.
These strategies become functional strategies of the organisation. The firm can create them from its corporate and business strategies. It is necessary that the company aligns its strategy implementation with the capabilities of its resources (Griffin 78).
Organisational strategies work at different levels. However, a company must create congruence and coordination of all its different strategies. This is the importance of vertical and horizontal elements of strategies. These processes should create both vertical and horizontal fit for the company.
Vertical elements create a necessary definition of various functional strategies with regard to their capabilities within the functional area so as to enhance the strategic advantage of the company. Gulf Fertilizer functional strategies with the focus on both horizontal and vertical elements shall focus on the following key areas.
First, the company shall focus on strategic sales and marketing management. The aim of this strategy is to align marketing strategies of the firm alongside its core goals in order to achieve strategic advantage in the market.
Second, the company shall also focus on strategic, financial management in order to control costs of operation and maximise returns for shareholders. This is a key strategy that the company will use to achieve strategic advantage against its competitors.
Third, the company must also pay attention to its operations management. The company should align operations management with its business and organisational strategies so that it creates a competitive advantage.
Fourth, Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on recruiting and retaining the best talents in order to achieve success from its human resources capabilities. This implies that the company must focus on demographic shifts in the workforce and adjust its recruitment strategies.
Strategic management of human resources shall ensure that the company has recruited, retained and exploited its human resources for the overall strategic advantage of the company.
Fifth, the company must also manage its research and development strategies in order to create the best fertilizer for its customers. This is a crucial area in the success of the company. It ensures growth and survival the company. The company must introduce technology, facilities, and knowledge and skills that can facilitate this strategy.
Horizontal element of the company shall ensure integration of different operational activities within the company that produce products for customers. Thus, the company must ensure integration during implementation processes of operations management.
The company shall operate with heads of departments that report to the director.
The company shall learn to standardise its processes as it comes of age. In the beginning, there shall be limited standardisation of processes.
The company shall not operate with formal written rules. However, it shall change its rules as it matures.
Organic management structure allows employees to have overlapping roles and perform various tasks. However, this is likely to change as employees become specialists in their areas.
Estimate of the organizational life cycle in terms of where it has come from and where it is going and comment about short term objectives and longer range strategy
A start-up like Gulf Fertilizer must go through a life cycle like any other company. This implies that directors and other staff must perform all the necessary functions to keep the business running. However, the future survival of the organisation requires changes from these practices found in start-ups. Thus, the management must recognise processes that the firm is undergoing.
The management must understand issues that the company faces in its life cycle. This creates a sense of insight and provides opportunities on how management can respond to various issues the company faces during operation. As the organisation changes, it acquires new features different from the old ones. Daft provided a summary of an organisational life cycle upon which we define life cycle of Gulf Fertilizer (Daft 135).
Gulf Fertilizer Life Cycle. (Adapted from Daft, 1992)
Birth Youth Midlife Maturity Size Small Medium Large Very large Division of labour Overlapping tasks Some departments Many departments Extensive, with small jobs and many descriptions Centralization One-person rule Two leaders rule Two department heads Top-management heavy Formalization No written rules Few rules Policy and procedures manuals Extensive Internal systems Nonexistent Crude budget and information system Control systems in place; budget, performance, reports, etc. Extensive planning, financial, and person Short-term Objectives
The short-term objectives of the company shall focus on the first year of its operation. The company shall focus on growth and expansion in terms of sales, finance, and market share.
The company shall also concentrate on employees and management of the company. The process shall involve recruiting top talents for the organisation. New employees shall also undergone training and take various responsibilities within the company.
Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on sales and income. However, this may change as people learn about its products. The company must consider prices, outputs, and demand within the region.
Gulf Fertilizer shall focus on revenue growths as its core strategy. In order to achieve this goal, the company shall study the market, competition, customers buying behaviour, and provide new products to drive sales.
The organisation shall also focus on customer service. The company targets at least 95 percent of positive response from its regular customers. It will redesign customer service approach where necessary so as to ensure customers’ satisfaction.
Gulf Fertilizer shall also engage in employee appreciation and reward systems that ensure low staff attrition. This also aims at attracting creative inputs from employees.
The company shall also focus on community and the environment. Employees shall volunteer to support community projects and environmental conservation efforts in areas it operates.
Strategy Development SWOT analysis
SWOT analysis shall offer Gulf Fertilizer advantages by identifying areas where it can focus and create a niche. At the same time, the company shall also understand the fertilizer industry in the Middle East and Gulf region. This process shall also enable the company to identify potential threats and formulate strategies to counteract them.
Strength Massive capital of 1 billion dirham
Favourable distribution channels
Suitability of location
Low operational costs
Weaknesses Low market penetration
High costs of production
Similar products in the market
Unreliable supply of skilled labour
Opportunities Research and Development
Technology in production
Favourable distribution channels
Availability of natural gas
Reliability of supply
Increasing capacity for raw materials
Threats Market saturation
Shortage in key inputs including skilled labour
Economic uncertainties such as recession, exchange rates, inflation rates
Arab uprising threats
Changes in regulations and trade policies
The PESTEL analysis
The globe financial crunch of 2008 and the euro crisis were the main economic factors that tested start-ups in the recent period. The prevailing economic conditions influenced how consumers, resellers, and other stakeholders in markets purchase products.
Some start-ups closed because their business systems could not sustain difficulties of the recession. However, the financial crisis may create opportunities for new investors with low operating costs. Gulf Fertilizer can take advantage and exploit the vacuum in markets.
The fluctuation of exchange rates also has huge potential of affecting the company’s earning and profits. The prevailing market factors are difficult to predict. Thus, the company should prepare for such eventualities in the market.
These may entail taxes, regulations, political unrest in the Middle East and other related political factors. Gulf Fertilizer must operate within the regulations of Middle East and the Gulf region.
The unrest in the Middle East and the Arab spring are major factors that can cause instability in the company. The company must anticipate effects of such unrest before exploring new markets.
The company shall engage in social responsibilities such as conserving the environment and supporting local communities’ initiatives. This shall create a favourable company’s image and enhance its relationship with customers. Such approaches have influence on consumers’ emotions, attitudes, opinions and interests regarding the company and its products.
The company must also avoid any negative publicity that may affect its operation. Thus, it must relate well with its customers, communities, suppliers, and other stakeholders in order to enhance it social image among competitions.
Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt technology in its core operation. The company must actively engage technology in research and development of its new products. Changes in technology shall ensure efficiency and low costs for the company. Technological advancements have changed the way companies conduct business. In fact, Gulf Fertilizer must adopt technology in all its operation and in dealing with external suppliers and relations.
Gulf Fertilizer must operate with the law of the fertilizer industry in the region so as to avoid expensive lawsuits that shall affect its profits. Therefore, it must avoid charges from regulators, customers, competitors, labour unions, environmentalists, and trade unions among other interested parties.
Environmental factors shall also influence Gulf Fertilizer practices. Regulators are keen on the effects of fertilizer materials on the environment. As a result, the company must ensure compliance with the environmental requirements regarding its products in terms of chemical compositions and packaging. It must also minimise production of waste materials during manufacturing processes.
Protection of the environment has become the key sustainability approach among many manufacturing organisation. Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer must also adopt best practices in the industry when conducting its manufacturing processes.
Competition profile analysis
Fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East mainly engage in manufacturing or mixing of fertilizer materials from other sources. The fertilizer industry in the Gulf region grows at a high rate predicted to reach 7.5 percent per annum by 2016. As a result, fertilizer companies should embrace long-term strategies for sustainable growth.
Top fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East
Company Market share FAUJI Fertilizer Company Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT) Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Borouge Fertil Saudi Aramco Total Petrochemicals Strategy map for Gulf Fertilizer showing the different perspective of it along with the cause-and-effect relationships between these different dimensions
The strategy map shows cause-and-effect relationships among various key performance indicators and overall goals of the company. Strategy maps originate from the Balanced Scorecard framework (Kaplan and Norton 64). It shows organisational performance through four key areas.
Analysis of cause-and-effect relationships in the strategy map breaks down a mission and a strategy to a point where we can identify key performance indicators (KPIs) and objectives as the organisation focuses on detailed and specific objectives.
However, in a case where various departments engage in promoting the mission and strategies, then KPIs build a chain that ensure the implementation of organisational, strategic goals and mission. KPIs show the relationship among key activities of the company.
For instance, Gulf Fertilizer shall recruit qualified employees and provide them with the necessary training. Highly qualified and trained staff shall improve internal processes of the business through developing quality products, and maximise use available resources to satisfy customers’ needs.
This has potential of creating customers’ loyalty. Loyal customers will come for repeat purchases thus, increase the company’s profitability and shareholders’ returns.
Strategy map adapted from Kaplan
“Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The book ‘impossible subjects’ by Mae Ngai focuses on the history of immigration in the twentieth-century America. It offers a concise illumination of the illegal immigration of the late twentieth century. Though considered illegal and a serious problem, the author sees the immigration as a legal endeavor.
According to him, the inclusion of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was a politics-based activity. They government wanted to use these immigrants to boost the political economy in the Southeast region.
In reality, these Mexican immigrants became the major source of cheap labor in the Agri-business sector, which was dominant in the region.
With the aid of border policies, inequitable control of visas and the Immigration Acts, the Americans and the American government went on to institutionalize racism against the Mexican and Asian Immigrants.
According to the author, ‘illegal aliens’ is a construction of positive immigration-policy laws and the implementation of border laws that propped the labeling of ethnically foreign immigrants.
The chronological scope of this book revolves around the twentieth-century immigration into the U.S. Most of these immigrants came from Mexico and the main actors were the Mexican government, Mexicans, American government and the American people.
Arguably therefore, the author uses the concept Impossible Subjects to denote this immigration that seemed impossible according to law, but turned out to be a social reality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her exploration, the author seeks to answer two major questions: what is the origin of the label ‘illegal aliens’ in the American society? Why does the immigration policy consider the ‘impossible subjects’ a national problem? These are the key questions the author attempts to answer throughout the book.
In her exploration, the author uses content analysis and literature methods to carry out her study. This methodology entails a methodical and critical analysis of the American historical sources. She also uses theories to reinforce her arguments concerning the twentieth-century American immigration policy.
In her analysis, the ‘Critical Legal Theory’ plays a very critical part. This theory is critically instrumental in determining the role laws play in the process of social formation.
Therefore, theoretical approach in this inquiry makes posited arguments about the American immigration highly persuasive and historically excellent.
Such sources as case studies; archived historical documents; government documents, and historical journals were primary in the provision of necessary information relevant to the study.
In regard to the issue of national origins, the author is trying to persuade her audiences that the United States is a fabled country of immigrants. On the question of racial discrimination, the author fails to understand how people from certain ethnic origins became culprits of racism while every America is a country of immigrants.
Before the inception of the U.S., America was inhabited by Asians, Caucasians, Latinos and the Indians. Ironically, these are the racial groups that later came to suffer colonial subjugation.
We will write a custom Essay on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of 1020s, the colonial government called for more immigrants so as to get enough cheap labor. The imperialist government used the immigration policy to administer immigrants under the provisions of the American law.
However, an intricate strategy came into play in institutionalizing discrimination against the immigrants on grounds that they came to America through illicit means. As a result, the label illegal alien was introduced to refer to the immigrant population in the U.S.
The Mexican immigrants became socially known as new political and legal slaves whose inclusion in the country had no legal basis though a social reality.
Therefore, these immigrants became culprits of racism for many years since the so-called ‘aboriginals’ saw them as ‘illegal aliens’ who didn’t deserve the American citizenship.
As the author illustrates, there was a huge recruitment of Mexican and Filipino laborers into the U.S. to work in the Agri-business sector at the start of the 1920s. This was a legal endeavor that constitutionally granted these Mexican and Filipino immigrants the U.S. citizenship according to the constitution.
However, as time passed, these immigrants began to face racial discrimination. As the situation continued to worsen, these legally recruited and accepted Mexican and Asian immigrants became known as illegal foreigners in the American society.
According to the author, the whole endeavor was aimed at ranking racial categories, excusing mistreatment of certain races, and elevating economic, political and racial status of the European-American people in the U.S.
During the Second World War, Americans of the Japanese and Chinese origin opted to leave America for their mother countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though this was as a result of disappointments from the abusive and discriminatory American society and the subsequent reinforcement of their cultural bonds, they received a wrong depiction as treacherous citizens.
In reality, these were the original American citizens. In addition to their patriotism, they were also native-born and deserved all rights and protection that citizens should have unlike their illicit immigrant counterparts.
The author also notes how the American government put in place extreme measures to prevent Chinese immigration to the U.S. According to her, all these were aimed at protecting Americans from the Chinese communist ideology.
This book deserves academic appraisal. It offers critical and realistic historical insights about the American society. It has contributed much to American History, Ethnic Studies and Legal History.
In a nutshell, Impossible Subjects is a perfect exposition of the twentieth-century immigration to America. Therefore, history scholars should make good use of the information in this book.
Data Results of Statistics Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help
Statistics is a supportive measurement that has an objective to evaluate and enumerate a situation to find the most probable conclusions. It is, therefore, factual to state that statistics do not always evidence situations (Bartholomew, 2004). Rather, statistics provides an overview of the situation in a probability manner.
The accuracy of collected data depends on the strategies and techniques incorporated. It is clear that inaccuracy in collected data leads to the wrong results. Data collection, therefore, requires adequate experience and commitment to prevent failure in results.
Einstein describes data collection as a hitting and missing strategy of trying to support conclusions. He suggests that what might require considerations during data collection may be missed for another that does not (Einstein, 2000). For instance, during data collection in ecological studies, the random methods involve the collection of data relying on the randomly picked areas.
This method only allows collection of data held in the area. Also, the measurement made in that area might not all be necessary or accountable in the study. For instance, in a study to measure how perform when employed by the government, effectiveness is a vital factor to consider. Measuring effectiveness is quite hard.
This, therefore, calls for other strategies that could be counted in the study. In management, where the personality of decision making is unavailable, the decisions made by managers when giving data are impartial and unreliable. These are the types of data that cannot count. In this way, the postulation made by Einstein is workable.
There are different types of scale classified as parametric or nonparametric data (Sheskin, 2007). The distributions of parametric data can be predicted easily using the parametric tools. However, nonparametric data do not assume any distribution.
Ordinal and nominal scales are used in the nonparametric while both interval and ratio scales are used in parametric statistics. In graphical representation, we use tools such as histograms, box plots, the Q-Q, and P-P plots among others. They determine the normality of data.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, there are four types of scales used in the measurement. These types are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales (Louis, 1980). Nominal scale measures qualitative data. The origin of the word nominal originates from the Latin word ‘nomen’ which means name. This scale represents data that have something in common but with different names.
In this case, no data points are superior to the others. For example, data with the data points as Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Pagans are nominal scale. We observe that a Muslim is neither superior nor inferior to a Christian. All data points are equal to each other. In nominal scale, items are categorized to belong in a similar category. For instance, the four constituents written above belong to religion classification.
Just like the nominal scale, ordinal scale is a scale used in qualitative data belonging to the same category (Louis, 1980). However, unlike the Nominal scale, it has an element of hierarchy and superiority (Louis, 1986).
For example, if we would consider the category of education to classify data in different levels, we might have undergraduates, graduates, masters and PhD. In this case, PhD is a higher level than the Masters level whereas the undergraduate level is a lower level.
Unlike nominal and ordinal scale, interval scale is used for quantitative data (Louis, 1980). In this case, the data points are at similar distances from one another. For example, the data points 1, 2, 3 and 4 are in interval scale. This is because the quantitative items are at an interval of one from each other.
The point zero is used as a reference point. It allows the use of negative and the positive integers. For example, we can have a temperature of -5 degree Celsius and a temperature of 5 degree Celsius.
Ratio scale, just like the interval scale, also represents quantitative data (Louis, 1980). It measures data such as the mass, weight, amount of energy, and age among others. It is possible to make comparisons on data in ratio form because the numbers are multiples of others. In this scale, the point zero has a meaning. For example, an energy value of zero means that there is no energy. We can either divide or multiply the ratio scale by a scalar.
We will write a custom Essay on Data Results of Statistics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The statement made by British prime minister that refers to statistics as a lie applies here (Tolman, 2012). Statistics do not prove whether or not the theoretical facts presented are true. Instead, statistics supports what we already know. It, thus, implies that the conclusions we make after doing a statistical research appear to be consistent with the present knowledge.
It is not what we obtain from the statistical analysis that we always aim to investigate. In most cases, researchers are unable to collect the data for the whole population and hence consider a sample of the population. It is true that data collection relies on samples.
The results retrieved from these samples determine the population properties such as mean and median. This clearly shows that assumptions made in deriving concepts for the whole population lead to wrong conclusions. This is unrealistic and supports the statement made by the prime minister.
References Bartholomew, D. J. (2004). Measuring intelligence: facts and fallacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Time Value of Money Exemplification Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), time value of money means that money at hand today is worth more than the same amount at a future date. It is the amount by which money will grow to in the future. In simpler terms, it is the net increase or decrease in the amount of money. He affirms that the concept helps to determine the amount that one will earn in the future.
This concept results from the existence of charges due to the use of other people money. There are different sections under time value of money. According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), the concept of simple interest, compound interest, compounding and discounting are used to assess the time value of money.
The process of growing money from its present value to its future value at a given duration and interest rate is known as compounding. Discounting is the process of calculating how much future value of money equal to at present.
Decisions that utilized the concept of time value of money The instance was when one of my business partners owed me money which I had lent to him as a loan. The person was reluctant to repay the money, and I took him to a law court. After the careful analysis of the evidence that I presented, the case was ruled in my favor and the judgment specified that the loan should be repaid to me.
I further made a request that the borrower should not repay the exact amount that I lent. In that instance, I was claiming that the amount I lent should be repaid with an interest. An agreement had to be entered to determine the amount of interest that was payable to me. The rate of interest was determined by considering the prevailing economic conditions, and it was determined as the prevailing market interest rate at that time.
Compounding was done on the amount that I had lent out using the market rate over the duration of time the person held my money. As a result, the amount of money that I received increased tremendously.
Computation was done using the future value annuity factor, considering that variables like principal, interest rate and duration were known. Having applied the concept of time value money, I was able to obtain extra income from that transaction. If I had claimed the original amount I had lent out, I would have obtained relatively less.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another instance where the concept of time value of money was applied was during a rotary competition in my home country. The winners were to be awarded a total of half a million shillings. It happened that I was declared a winner among other people. As the winner claimed their money, I was reluctant since I had a decision to grow the money so that it could increase.
An agreement was entered between the rotary committee and me so that they could be paying me as an annuity at the end of every month. This was advantageous move as the money was earning me interest at the prevailing interest rate. The compounding formula was applied to determine the amount at the end of every month. If I had claimed the money as a lump sum, then I could have obtained a lesser amount than what I finally got.
Reference List Kuhlemeyer, A. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. USA, Pearson Carroll College: Waukesha Pearson Education Limited.
Motivation and Reward Systems Used In Today’s Companies Research Paper writing essay help
Abstract Human resource is one of the vital resources that organizations require to remain competent. Organizations should have favorable motivation and reward systems to retain their employees. The two-factor theory holds that tangible rewards do not act as the main motivators. Expectancy theory maintains that employees are motivated if they realize that their effort will lead to material or tangible rewards.
The stewardship theory focuses on managers in the upper stratum of an organization. Social cognitive theory focuses on self-efficacy and concurs that employees are motivated to pursue certain projects after realizing that they have the capacity to achieve the goals in question.
The fifty-fifty principle asserts that fifty percent of employees’ motivation comes from within while the other fifty percent comes from people that the employees interact with and the working environment. Organizations use varied rewarding systems to motivate their employees. Some organizations believe that extrinsic motivation plays a significant role in promoting employee motivation.
Such organizations have monetary reward systems to reward employees according to their performance. On the other hand, some organizations trust in the power of intrinsic motivations. Such companies have policies that enhance employee growth and development as one of the motivation mechanisms.
Introduction The present competition in the business world is compelling organizations to come up with reward systems that aim at enhancing employee motivation, thus boosting their performance. Currently, organizations are coming up with reward systems that reward employees according to their contribution to the organizational success. In most cases, organizations use rewards whenever they wish to achieve certain goals (Andrew