Emerging Nokia Research Paper College Admission Essay Help

Abstract This paper examines the developments that have been witnessed in the mobile phone industry with particular attention to those witnessed at Nokia Corporation. A brief history of the Nokia Company and the products it has produced are given in the paper. The operations of Nokia Company in the developed nations and in the developing countries are examined with a focus on the probable course of action.

The paper examines the internal and external factors that can affect the operations of Nokia both at the local and at the international level. The necessary reinforcements and developments that are likely to be adopted by the company are also presented briefly.

Introduction The current local and international markets are characterized by a lot of competition. The organizations that strive to have a large market should be sensitive and responsive to the changing trend in the market. The understanding of the forces within an organization and those external to the organization are of importance in developing a strategic marketing plan for the organization.

The management of an organization should be in a position to identify the strengths and weaknesses within its premises. It is then important that the management find a way of overcoming the weaknesses as well as capitalizing on the identified strengths of the organization. The management should also focus on the external forces that will influence the operations in the organization.

The competition that is got from other companies providing the same products and services becomes a threat to the organization. On the other hand, what appears to be a weakness on the competitors is an opportunity that an organization should use to gain competitive advantage over the others.

The needs of the customers often change making the market a very dynamic environment that requires constant monitoring. The companies that wish to capture a larger share of the market need to embark on inventive and innovative practices so that they always match the changing needs of the customers. There is a continued need of provision of better quality products and services at considerably lower prices.

Companies are therefore sandwiched between two opposing forces of the need to maximize revenue and that of lowering the prices to capture the customers. Keeping up to-date track of the developments in the market and extensive market and marketing research through innovations will enable an organization to maintain its share in the local and international level.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mobile phone industry Various developments have been seen in the mobile phone industry since the use of the first mobile devices in the early 1980s. The early phones that were an improvement on the radio calls were heavy, bigger, and very expensive. Motorola launched the first mobile handset in 1983. This was very bulky, weighing about one kilogram and costing about $4000.

Few individuals could afford this and thus there were not so many subscribers in the world. The mobile phones during this period are termed as the First Generation devices.

They were characterized by analogue technologies with the products developed according to the standards in a particular country (Alcacer et al, 2010, p.3). More developments were seen and towards the end of the decade, there were companies that provided both the mobile network equipments and the handsets. Much of the operational procedures in the mobile industry were under the control of the mobile operators.

The 2nd generation mobile phones developed in the early 1990s as a shift from the analogue technology to the digital technology. There were additional services like messaging, call forwarding, and geographic positioning.

The devices were now developed not according to the local standards in a given region but according to the two internationally recognized standards namely the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The introduction of these two standards would later dictate the course of competition in the market.

It turned out that GSM became more popular than CDMA and the companies that first adopted CDMA like Motorola found it had to maintain their position in the market since GSM provided services that were more current (Alcacer et al, 2010, p.2).

This is where Nokia overtook Motorola that had dominated the market in 1980s. The legal provisions by various governments also catalyzed competition in the industry. A significant global growth was recorded in the mobile industry during this period.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Emerging Nokia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third generation (3G) phones included voice calls as well as data transmission through the mobile devices. It involved the use of internet, sending or receiving videos, pictures and music. This resulted into other developments in the industry. The mobile operators now charged the individual services that were offered rather than the usual monthly fee they used to levy on the users.

There were further regulations from the governments that were reflected onto the users. The introduction of internet-enabled mobile phones attracted the attention of software developers like Google and Microsoft that embarked on developing programs that are compatible with the mobile handsets.

Currently, the mobile phone industry is the second fastest growing industry in the world after the Internet, with mobile phones that were sold in 2008 globally being estimated at 1.3 billion (Lippoldt


Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA Research Paper college admission essay help

Description of Oysters and Clams Oyster is a type of seafood with high nutritional value both to marine life and human beings. Experts note that the plant is normally high in fat, protein, Iron and Vitamin D (Judy, 2010). However, oysters are not only part of marine and human nutritional delicacies; they are also an integral part of the sea environment. In the US Gulf coast, oysters are located near the shores (Freeman, 2010).

Due to the close proximity to dry land, oysters and clams play a vital role in the prevention of shoreline and wetland erosion because they act as a natural barrier to slow down tidal waves (which cause wetland erosion).

Due to this reason (and several subsequent factors), oysters and clams contribute significantly to the environment because besides purifying seawater, Oysters and Clams are aquatic plants that provide shelter to other marine life (Freeman, 2010, p. 1). In the purification of seawater, oysters prevent the occurrence of algal bloom.

This is the major reason why oysters and clams are usually perceived to be the backbone of marine life since they are at the centre of the food chain, providing food to other aquatic life.

Despite the integral role oysters and clams play in the sea ecosystem, sea pollution (like the recent BP oil disaster) significantly affects sea eco-balance and subsequently, the sustainability of seafood for humans. This study analyses the impact of the BP oil disaster on the Gulf Coast of Mexico.

Immediate Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams Though it is scientifically proved that adult oysters can potentially reduce the harmful impact of toxic petrochemicals, it is also a well-known fact that these petrochemicals can significantly kill oyster larvae (Freeman, 2010, p. 1).

This effect is only felt in the short-term because in the long-term, it is feared that the chemical dispersants which were used to break the oil cover may have a long-lasting impact on the oysters. The method used to eliminate the oil spill (through fresh water release) was also disastrous to the beds of oysters and clams because it killed all growing oysters in the region (Freeman, 2010, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Freeman (2010) affirms that “…..importantly, this freshwater release killed the oysters growing on the interior of the estuaries, an area protected from the oil and chemicals that were washing up on the intertidal oyster beds along the coast” (p. 1).

There were more concerns registered from environmental officials analyzing the impact of the oil spill because it was feared that the chemicals used were killing the oysters and clams too.

It was also reported that the oil spill also negatively affected the reproduction of oysters because they normally produce sperms and eggs in the water to fuse and grow into oysters, but the oil spill caused them to close their shells and eventually suffocate the oyster larvae (Weise, 2010).

Current Impact of the Oil Spill’s on Oysters and Clams The real impact of the BP oil disaster on the oysters and clams cannot be easily quantified because it is feared that small sea animals may have consumed the petrochemicals from the oil spill (plus the chemicals used to curb the oil spill). These small sea animals will consequently be eaten by larger fish and finally by humans, to affect comprehensively the general eco-balance of sea life.

Already, oyster growth and numbers have been severely affected by the oil spill and it is still difficult to quantify the damage caused by their death on sea life. Moreover, scientists have observed that it is sometimes difficult to quantify the real impact of the oil spill because the effect of the oil impact is interlinked with other disasters waiting to happen (Judy, 2010, p. 3).

However, it is assumed that some adult oysters may not have been severely affected by the oil spill because they have the capability of reducing the negative effect of the toxins. However, the small oyster larvae may have died in large numbers.

The reason, why it is said that mature oysters may potentially survive the oil spill is because when mature oysters taste oil, they close as a result. Though they may not increase in number (because of the curtailing effect of the oil spill), it is assumed that the plants will generally survive (Judy, 2010, p. 3).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Long-term Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams The long- term impact of the oil spill on the oysters and clams is not easy to determine because the larvae are said to die from the effects of the oil spill but the mature oysters are said to survive the oil spill (Freeman, 2010, p. 2). However, it should be noted that the oil spill significantly affected the oyster beds and this may have a long-term impact on the number of oysters in the sea.

Consequently, this means that the number of oysters and clams will potentially reduce, but the situation will normalize once the reproduction process of the oysters start again.

Nonetheless, as a result of the reduction in oyster numbers, the marine ecosystem maybe affected because the eco-balance will be destabilized. The situation is expected to normalize after a year because the oil disaster struck at the reproduction period and it may take another year for the situation to normalize again.

Impact of the Oil Spill on the Louisiana Economy Impact on Economy during the Spill

Effect on Fishing Industry

The BP oil disaster was identified to have significantly affected the operation of the Louisiana economy because Louisiana is known to supply about 40% of America’s seafood (Weise, 2010). Because of health reasons, some of the oyster beds along the Louisiana coastline were closed.

This closure was bound to affect the supply of seafood in America and consequently the economy of Louisiana because for example, about 23% of all red-snapper fish caught in the US came from the state of Louisiana.

Moreover, since fish can swim away from the zone of oil spillage, it is feared that subsequent harvests are bound to be affected by the fish migration. Consequently, Louisiana fishers are bound to be significantly affected, in terms of low fish production.

Effect on Oil Industry

The oil spill had a significant impact on the economy of Louisiana and the surrounding marine life, but in the same manner, there was also a significant impact on the oil industry.

Not to mention the volumes of oil lost in the spillage, one significant impact of the oil disaster was the financial damages brought about by law suits and cost directed towards clearing the oil spill. In total, BP lost millions of dollars in financial damages and costs that went into restoring the company’s image and reputation in the eyes of the public.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effect on Restaurants and Tourism

The hospitality industry also suffered great losses as a result of the oil spill because restaurants suffered insufficient supply of seafood because of the death of sea animals and the ensuing health risks posed by the oil spill on seafood.

Tourism was equally affected because the sea was polluted with petrochemicals from the oil spill and in the same manner; the sea was also polluted by chemicals meant to clear the oil spill. Hotels and resorts were therefore significantly affected because leisure activities at the shores were prohibited, consequently leading to a low turnout of visitors.

Current Impact on the Louisiana Economy

Fishing Industry

Currently, the fishing industry is slowly recovering from the impact of the oil spill after it was cleared. However, the industry is still wiling under the long-term effects of the oil spill because the population of oysters reduced as a result of the oil spill and consequently, fishers have to deal with competition from other seafood suppliers who have invaded its primary market to supplement its shortfall.

Oil industry

After the oil spill, the oil industry is still suffering from the effects of negative publicity as a result of the extensive damage the oil spill did on the environment and people’s livelihoods. It may probably take a long time before public confidence is restored.

Restaurants and Tourism

Restaurants and the tourism sectors also have to contend with waning public confidence about the impact of the oil spill on their services. For instance, many customers are now shunning seafoods in restaurants because of the fear that it may be unsafe to consume seafood because of the negative impact of the oil spill on aquatic life. Tourism is also suffering in the same regard because many visitors are still not confident to use the sea.

Cleaning After the Spill

After the oil spill cleanup, the sea situation has not come back to normal because scientists are still grappling with the problem of transferring oyster larvae from healthy sources into the affected areas.

After this process is completed, it may take a long time before the situation goes back to normal. In concurrence to these efforts, environmental bodies have also sued BP for the environmental damages it has caused. Most of these cases are yet to be finalized (Mcgill, 2011).

Conclusion The BP oil spill has caused extensive damages not only to the environment but people’s livelihoods as well. It is difficult to undo such a disaster in a couple of weeks or months and therefore the impact of the oil spill is yet to be completely eliminated.

More so, its impact on the growth of oysters and clams may have a long-term impact on the marine ecosystem and therefore the comprehensive damage of the oil spill cannot be accurately determined. Nonetheless, it is no doubt that the effect of the oil spill is very extensive.

References Freeman, M. (2010). The Oil Spill’s Impact on Gulf Coast Oysters. Web.

Judy, J. (2010). Oil Spill Threatens Gulf Oysters, May Impact Seafood Worldwide. Web.

Mcgill, K. (2011). Lingering Effects of BP Oil Spill Topic for Oyster Industry Leaders. Web.

Weise, E. (2010). Spill’s Effects Unlikely To Make Way to Grocery Aisles. Web.


Please read attached file Hide Assignment Information Turnitin® Turnitin® enabledThis assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®. Instructions Milestone Two: Environmental essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Please read attached file Hide Assignment Information Turnitin® Turnitin® enabledThis assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®. Instructions Milestone Two: Environmental and Industry Analysis Chapter 3 gives a good overview of Environmental issues, while the article located in the module reading and resources area will support your analysis. The Environmental Analysis consists of two major elements, 1) an analysis of the internal factors that effect a small business and 2) external factors that effect a small business. The internal analysis assesses the strengths and weaknesses of your company. It identifies what it is that your company can do well, as well as what it can do better. The external analysis assesses the opportunities and threats present at the time the business plan is written. Use the external analysis to identify trends and changes that are happening outside of a company’s control (at the local, national, and/or international levels) which may influence the future of the business. Such external categories as economic, competitive, legal, political, cultural, and technological can all affect your business and should be included in the external analysis. Also, you will do an industry analysis that will describe the industry within which your business will operate. In your analysis, include the size of the industry (amount of revenue generated) and whether the industry is growing, stable, or declining. Also, focus on specific industry trends. To complete this assignment, review the prompt and grading rubric in the Final Project Guidelines And Rubric document. When you have finished your work, submit the assignment here for grading and instructor feedback. **I approve of the Project Proposal for your Final Project: Business Plan Purpose – Startup/Restaurant, Business Name – Community Delicacies, Business Structure -??. For this assignment, I suggest you presume the grand opening for 6-12 months from now (March – August 2022). Now that I have approved of your business idea for the final project, Milestone 1 becomes the Company Overview section of the final version of the Business Plan. Milestone 1 may be written in 1st person; however, the Company Overview section of the final Business Plan and all remaining milestones (2-7) must be written in 3rd person.


Organizational Capabilities of Consulting Company Essay scholarship essay help

We are glad to receive your request for information. Our company works in the field of consulting for more than ten years. Over this period we have already gained trust of a large number of clients. This company specializes in the following areas: technology implementation, change management, strategy development, operational improvement, technology implementation, and employee training.

We have already assisted several companies that underwent mergers and acquisitions. Moreover, we have already worker with those organizations which needed to prepare, guide and assess the merging of networks. If you refer to them, they will tell you that our consulting firm gives the best price-quality ratio.

Executive Management This diagram presents the services our company and its structured development. It shows how various departments of our company interact with one another.

This are the services which we can offer to you. Our IT consultants, HR managers and financial accounts can assist you with implementation of this project.

Our team of consultants can address various aspects of your network mergers. The IT experts will determine the IT needs of the two companies. They will make sure that the two networks perform to their full capacity.

Their work will be based on continuous cooperation with your managers and administrators and they will take into account the opinion of different stakeholders. Moreover, our HR consultant will help your company to develop training for the personnel. These people have in-depth experience in this area and they will do their best help you with the network design.

Our consultants will evaluate various alternatives what your company can choose from and provide you with information about the possible costs entailed by this project. They will help you with selection of equipment and software solutions. Their assistance will allow you to minimize the costs at no expense for the quality of network design.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the merger is completed, we will conduct follow-up assessment of the network design. We know that you as our prospective client value meticulous planning, attentiveness toward customer needs, integrity, and continuous improvement. Our consultants attach great importance to each of these things and you can expect them from us.

There are several things that our consulting company can offer to you. One of them is complete confidentiality; we ensure that the information provided to us by our clients is never transferred to any third-parties.

Secondly, our consulting company guarantees customization of our services; we never offer generic strategies to our clients. The recommendations, provided by our consultants are always based on in-depth research of the situation within the company, its managerial policies, organizational structure, or financial performance. Thirdly, accountability is another thing you can expect from us.

Our consultants provide regular reports about their progress. In addition to that, out consulting firm ensures that customers are directly involved into decision-making. Our consultants always inform the clients about the options available to them and explain their advantages and disadvantages. By using the services of our consulting firm, you will ensure that your best interests are strongly upheld.

Reference List Alred. G. Brusaw C. Oliu W. 2006 Handbook of technical writing. London: St. Martin’s Press.

Oppenheimer P. (2004). Top-down network design. NY: Cisco Press.


Consumer Behaviour: Effects of Taglines as a Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help

To break even and maintain competitive advantage in the ever changing business environment of the 21st century, companies around the world are employing a broad range of advertising and marketing strategies specifically aimed at appealing to the consumers’ most intrinsic and latent motives regarding their purchasing or spending behaviour.

Company taglines, also known as slogans, are one such technique that has found wide usage within the marketing industry. This essay purposes to evaluate the outcomes companies hope to achieve by employing taglines and if the strategy is working in the broader marketing domain.

Jackson Hewitt, a tax preparation company operating in a number of countries, has a tagline “you get more in return”, while Pemco Insurance has a popular tagline asserting that “safe drivers get it.” Through the use of such slogans, companies, more than anything else, aim to convey information on the product or service on offer as well as to occupy prime consumers’ memory space.

The memory space is inarguably influenced by the appeal made by the tagline to their latent motives, especially when it comes to purchasing or buying behaviour. In this perspective, a tagline or slogan reinforce consumers’ brand awareness, brand identity, brand evaluations, and brand loyalty by serving as a memory aid (Rosengren


Wal-Mart and Tesco Incorporation Dissertation college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Wal-mart Analysis and Interpretation of Sales and Profit Figures

Wal-Mart and Tesco operate within the retail industry. Wal-Mart Stores Incorporation has a number of retail stores under different formats which are distributed around the world. In the United States, Wal-Mart operates three main formats which include Sam’s Club, International and Wal-Mart US. Since its inception, Wal-Mart has been committed towards saving the customers money (EBIT Financial Analysis Center. 2011, para. 4).

Over the past few years, Wal-Mart and Tesco have been successful as a result of effective management. On the other hand, Wal-Mart has incorporated a low pricing strategy which enables it to attract a large number of customers.

Besides, the store stocks a large assortment of goods to as to be able to have a constant market for the different products. However, as a result of the 2007 economic recession, the firms experienced a significant reduction in their sales level. The table below illustrates Wal-Mart’s growth in sales over the past five years.

Gross and Net Profit Margin

According to Booker (2006, p. 34), these ratios are used to indicate a firm’s profitability. Wal-Mart has experienced a rise in its profitability for the past five years. However, Wal-Mart’s profitability has been relatively high compared to Tesco’s. Its gross and net profit margins have been on an upward trend as illustrated in table 2.

According to Pinson (2008, p. 115), a high gross profit margin indicates the efficiency of the firm in paying for the goods. From the chart below, the rise in the firm’s gross profit margin indicates that Wal-Mart has been effective in paying for its goods.

Operating Profit Margin

This ratio describes the proportion of a company’s revenue that remains after the company has settled its cost variables. An efficient company should have a relatively high operating profit margin for it to be able to take care of its fixed expenses. Wal-Mart has been effective in improving its operating profit margin. On the other hand, its operating profit margin for the past five years has been fluctuating.

Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Ratios Return on Assets (ROA)

This ratio indicates a firm’s effectiveness in utilizing its assets to generate profits (Needles, Powers


Union Management: The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Term Paper essay help free

Introduction Nowadays, the role of unions in society is great indeed. People want to gather their opportunities and skills in order to create appropriate groups and promote their ideas to improve the quality of life. Each union is a kind of democratic organization the members of which support an idea of improving the working conditions by means of a number of voices which should have certain power.

It is hard to define why one particular union is powerful and another group of people is not able to organize the work accordingly. The point is that administrative changes which take place in unions, organizational activities, and impediments may be of different nature, and each union has to consider its own possibilities to overcome the challenges and create appropriate conditions for development.

In this paper, the conditions under which the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) union has to be developed will be evaluated. The chosen local union, IBEW-1250, serves South Dakota and some parts of Nebraska from 1941 (“Local # 1250”, n.d.) and has a number of positive and negative aspects.

Its strengths lie in the abilities to create good leadership, introduce appropriate financial practices, make use of growth strategies, and organize constructive membership meetings. However, there are also some weaknesses which show that company’s administration has a number of goals to strive for. They are as follows: involvement of members to union’s activities and promotion of the required union’s culture among its members.

The current administration of the International Brotherhood of Electric Workers 1250 shows how it is possible to improve the conditions under which the union may exist; still, the evident weaknesses prove that the union has a number of steps to be taken to achieve better results and create the atmosphere under which the impediments such as poor control of members’ involvement or wrong attitude to union’s culture may be overcome by means of proper placement of local resources as well as communication methods and meetings’ organization.

About the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

According to Clark (2009), union effectiveness is considered to be rather complex and highly dynamic concept by means of which three aspects of the union are evaluated: the possibility to organize new members, evaluate the outcomes of the collective efforts, and consider the effects of the union on society (p. 6). The IBEW is the union that strives for effectiveness and tries to attract the attention of society by a variety of means.

The peculiar feature of the union is that it is still considered to be one of the oldest electrical unions in the whole world those purpose is to make uses of the skills of each member in order to create better life for every citizen (“History of IBEW”, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company takes into consideration a variety of spheres such as telecommunications, manufacturing, government, constructions, and even railroads to admit the problems and do everything possible to improve the situation. Taking into account the variety of purposes and attempts, it is not a surprise to observe some problems within the administration of the company.

However, it is not the reason to start thinking that the success of the company is under some doubts. What is actually required to be done is the evaluation of the administrative activities and introduction of the strategies which may be implemented by the company.

Strong Aspects of the Union

The IBEW is the union with strong financial practices: within a short period of time, the company tries to organize annual budget meetings and define the weaknesses of the system. The revision of previous budgets allows the union to identify the spheres in which the company is good enough.

According to Lund (2005), “every private or federal government sector labor union, as well as public employee local unions with one of more private sector union members, must file a financial report with the U.S. Department of Labor” (p. 9). This is why in regard to Lund’s management of finances, the union under analysis does right to promote the improvement of the system.

Talking about the communication system, Clark (2009) defines that each union is free to share information in a variety of ways. The IBEW 1250 chooses the following ideas to engage the citizens to their activities: newsletters aim at informing people about coming events, development of the local website where all the necessary contact information, service description, and helpful tips are offered.

Formal and information socialization is defined by Clark (2009) as the necessary orientation programs which are conducted by the members of the union in order to introduce new members. However, some challenges in the orientation programs still take place as not all members are able to participate in discussions and share their opinions.

In other words, members’ involvement is not as bright as the union wants it to be, this is why it seems to be useful to consider the ideas offered by Clark or other researchers and implement some of them on practice.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Union Management: The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The point is that the union should organize the orientation program earlier than the members will know about it. The quality of the program depends on how the members understand their rights and duties, and the union under consideration fails to organize the necessary preparatory steps beforehand.

The importance of the public image has to be also discussed in the chosen context. The point is that the IBEW tries to use different methods to promote the chosen image. First of all, it is the participation in different events by means of which people are free to know more about the activities developed by the union.

For example, the Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is the competition under the conditions of which some innovative eco-friendly designs are offered. Local 1250 finds it interesting to participate in such activities as students get a chance to learn more about the conditions under which the union is organized. The name of the union is mentioned on boars, T-shirts, and flyers.

Clark (2009) admits that the role of media is huge indeed for the company that tries to improve its public image. However, it is not always possible to use media and avoid some unpleasant situations.

This is why even too frequent usage of media does not prevent the union from the threat of lower rates of members’ involvement into union’s activities. Even promotion of union’s culture suffers from media involvement as the union is not able to create one particular image and meet the criteria set.

The grievance procedures inherent to the union are also crucial as they define the attitude of the union’s members to the conditions under which they have to cooperate and the outcomes which may be observed at the end of the process. The role of the grievance procedure is integral in case the necessity to change the circumstances or to understand the essence of unforeseen situations comes (Clark, 2009).

Not all people are ready to accept the reality as it is, this is why some people want to be sure that the union may organize the activities and solve misunderstandings which take place.

Such careful attitude to the conditions makes society believe that the union evaluates each point in its work, still, the evident inability to involve as many members as possible to the discussion is a serious weakness, and in this paper, the attempt to introduce various strategies and improvements for the chosen local union will be made.

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There are two main aspects which have to be improved in the union administration. First, certain attention should be paid to members’ involvement that remains to be poor in the union. Though it is not a disadvantage of the union, still, it is its evident weakness that has to be improved by the leadership, overall attitude to the problem, and possibilities which are available for the union.

The vast majority of the unite members truly believe that no changes are necessary for the system. People do not want to be involved into improvements which are required, this is why it could be too late to change something as the factor of human confidence in personal correctness is a serious aspect to be considered.

There is a burning need to explain the importance of changes in the union, and the leadership should think about the ways of how the members may be encouraged to participate in various activities of the union.

Another important problem of the union that has to be solved is based on weak promotion of the union’s culture. Clark (2009) informs that union culture becomes a very important issue in people’s attraction to the union. The fact is that people should have a chance to learn better about the local union, and union culture is an effective means to be used.

Unfortunately, the IBEW union does not find it necessary to focus on personal interests and promote their power within the frames of the union. What the union tries to create is the public image that will be interesting to society neglecting the demands of the current members. This is why it seems to be crucial to address this aspect and create strategies which will be effective.

Administrative changes to be adopted to enhance the organization’s future effectiveness

It is obvious that efficiency of union practices and activities is closely associated with the level and quality and frequency of participation of union members. In this regard, the major emphasis should be placed on union leaders who should be encouraged to increase the membership participation.

In fact, taking into account the union involvement in telecommunications, it is imperative to introduce specific types of participation, such as supportive, informal and unstructured. All these types of participation can contribute greatly to encouraging the union members to engage in disputes and discussions and provide viable solutions to existing problems.

While evaluating the types of participations, particular attention deserves union citizenship behaviors of OCB. Such kind of engagement is aimed to get a better idea of the approaches employees choose beyond their job obligations as well as informal behavior that contribute to the success of the organization.

In other words, each member of organization should be always informed about the major events happened within the union (Clark, 2009, p. 15).

With regard to the information presented above, it is necessary to introduce an advanced model for increasing the union participation that involves a number of stages to be implemented. In order to construct a successful model, it is necessary to understand the main individual and environmental issues that shape a union behavior.

While considering individual characteristics, it is necessary to evaluate knowledge, abilities, skills; believes and outlooks, and, finally, personally traits. Demographic factors should also be taken into deepest considerations and, therefore, such aspects as gender, age, and educational background are also of great importance (Clark, 2009, p. 16).

The consideration of individual preferences and interest are more important because they construct the common standards of the union behavior. Lack of interest in personality traits can worsen the union participation.

While considering the union’s culture, the major problem that comes to the forth is lack of efficient training programs and consistent education background because of inaccurate information presentation. Disrespect for history, traditions, and rituals can generate more ignorance and indifference to the role of the union in lives of employees (Clark, 2009, p. 213).

The problems of organization’s cultural myopia can be solved with the implementation more consistent cultural principles of communication that will be separated from the public images and media, but based more on personal interests, concerns, historical and cultural background.

The recognition of the organization’s uniqueness and “authenticity” can be achieved only when each event and extract of culture is known by each member of the community.

Second, the existence of subcultures should also be encouraged because they play a significant role in forming beliefs and ideals of the organizations. If organization’s culture is weak, the marginal cultures can compete with the general, or core culture, which negatively contribute to developing a strong cultural platform.

Impediments while implementing the changes

In order to re-construct the participation management system and the IBEW culture, it is possible to face certain challenges and constraints on the way to implementing the changes. First of all, lack of involvement is premised on lack of effective leadership and communicative strategies that are not that easy to implement in a timely manner.

Here the major problem lies in spreading common laws and regulation among the members to initiate them into the participation in specific activities, which unveils the drawbacks of leadership and motivations among the union members.

What is more problematic is that the process lacks consistent parliamentary rules and procedures that will make IBEW members be engaged in voting, motions, and other important meetings (Casey and Daniels, 2009, p. 23). In particular, there is no a clear structure of meeting arrangements as well as agendas that would discuss the most critical problems.

Second problem to building a consistent model of member participation and meeting management is closely associated with lack of members’ awareness of the existing adversities within the organization.

The organization’s leaders fail to inform people about the most challenging problems as well as the way they can threaten the employees’ welfare. As a result, such a situation creates even more grounds for ignorance and indifferent of the union members.

The changes that should be introduced to the union culture improvement are also under the threat of specific limitations. In particular, the IBEW culture can face significant problems while facing the idea of change itself. Being one of the oldest unions, its laws and regulations are not sufficiently adapted to the contemporary social, political, and economical settings.

Need for change, therefore, is not fully recognized by the union, which is the major obstacle for further development. In addition, just like policies and strategies are evolving outside the union, corresponding values and positions should also be taken into consideration by the union leaders.

Second hindrance for introducing changes to cultural policies is lack of understanding of existing marginal cultures that, in fact, significantly influence the overall cultural atmosphere within the organization.

Failure to understand diverse ideas and discuss them equally along with the majority opinion can prevent the organization from introducing democratic tendencies in conducting activities and involving more people in debating.

The case presented by Straus and Blum (2003) proves that the consequences of ignorance and reluctance to be involved in problem solving and decision-making for the union are significant and can lead to legal complications.

Strategies for the leadership to considered addressing the impediments

In order to meet the above-described challenges and threats, effective strategies should be implemented. Particular focus will be made on the analysis of communication and leadership strategies, discussion of legal and regulatory issues, ethical considerations, and implementing more focus on marginal groups within the union.

While considering communicational and leadership strategies, it is essential to pay attention to such aspects as transparency, clarity, identification of needs, and analysis of communicational models (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 40).

Effectiveness of involvement management will also largely depend on leaders and their attitude toward the necessity to implement more strategies into the development and enhancement of the IBEW local infrastructure. Beside website organization and electronic newsletters, the union’s administrative staff should take care of website design and options to attract more members of the organization.

Discussion of legal and regulatory issues should be prioritized within the union for the member to recognize their rights as well as benefits they may take advantage of. Abundance of choices and options can make IBEW employees think over their professional perspectives and engage them into the optimization of the working environment.

In such a manner, they will be more interested in participating in specific events and enriching the union with cultural and spiritual resources (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 66). Knowledge of laws can also invest in their welfare and the leaders’ task is to explain all that issues to the union members.

Ethical considerations and analysis of margin culture related problems should also be tackled more carefully. In particular, the union members should encourage practice and experience sharing activities to be aware of each other needs. Backgrounds and personal concerns will be, then, incorporated and analyzed to fill in the gaps of cultural changes (Shelley and Calveley, 2007, p. 138).

More importantly, although cultural changes should be implemented, they should be more related to historical and traditional background of the organization to fit the best future employees’ needs and preferences.

Finally, margin culture itself should not be ignored and in order to cope with the problem of cultural diversity, the union should organize more meeting dedicated to discussion of individual problems. At the same time, there should a strategy allowing members to have wider opportunities for expressing their opinion.

According to Shelley and Calveley (2007), “union education… is more than an understanding of roles; instead, it has to do with coming to inhabit a certain socio-economic realm defined by a particular objective hierarchy…” (p. 138). In this respect, sensibilities are often developed within a social construct.

In this respect, social, moral, and ideological frames should be carefully considered while analyzing the role of marginal culture, and therefore, it should be taken into consideration what influence it has on the common cultural approaches within the union.

Conclusion In general, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers is the union that helps a number of people create better conditions for living. There are a number of strategies and changes which may be implemented into the system, however, there are also several steps which may be taken beforehand to improve the effectiveness of the union itself. In this paper, two aspects of the organization have been analyzed.

The point is that the union has good leadership, still, it is evident that some problems influence the development of the union in a variety of ways. This is why it is necessary to introduce the strategies and try to solve the impediments by means of properly chosen steps and ideas which will be announced to all members of a particular union.

Reference List Casey, L. and Daniels G. (2009). Parliamentary Procedure and Effective Union Meetings. Union Communication Services, Inc.

Clark, P. F. (2009). Building More Effective Unions. US: Cornell University Press.

History of IBEW (n.d.) Retrieved from .

Local # 1250 (n.d.). Smart Wire. Web.

Lund, J. (2005). Auditing Local Union Financial Records: A Guide for Local Union Trustees. US: Library of Congress.

Shelley, S., and Calveley, M. (2007). Learning with Trade Unions: A Contemporary Agenda in Employment Relations. US: Ashgate Publishing.

Straus, V., and Blum, K. (2003). Apathy and Secrecy Filled Teachers Union, Many Say. The Washington Post.


Feminism in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Mary Shelley is the second born daughter of a great feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft, who is perhaps the earliest proponent of the feminist wave. Mary Wollstonecraft expressly makes her stand known in advocating for the rights of the women in her novel, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, but her daughter is a bit reluctant to curve a niche about women in Frankenstein; The Modern Prometheus.

Did Mary Wollstonecraft have any influence on her daughter’s writing Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus? Does Mary Shelley have the same zeal as her mother regarding the rights of women in the novel? “Men, in general, seem to employ their reason to justify prejudices, (Wollstonecraft pp. 7)” Her mother’s advocacy of feminism is outright.

Feminism is regarded as women having equal rights and equating to men in social status, economic, financially, just to mention a few and shining attention to the thesis that Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus is not a feminist novel.

Female Characters in Frankenstein Practical analysis of the theme of feminism in the novel requires the study of the female characters and the role they play or how they are portrayed in the novel. We meet Victor Frankenstein’s mother, who died, and her death affected Frankenstein to the extent that Frankenstein sought to come up with a creation that would defy nature’s laws, for instance, death.

Justine is accused of the murder of William, and she accepts the accusations placed on her for William’s death, and this leads to her death. She does not prove that she did not kill William, and this portrays her to the reader as very weak. Elizabeth, on the other hand, is murdered by the monster, and she does not defend herself as she was waiting on victor to protect her from the monster.

More about This Topic Who Was the Youngest Alphonse Frankenstein’s Son? 5 45 What Is the Movie “Abbott


Disneyland Resort Paris Report a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors that influenced the location of Disneyland Paris Resort

Difficulties faced in the running of Disney Paris

Reference List

Introduction The Disneyland Paris Resort is one of the many theme parks of Disney destinations situated in different parts of the world. As the name suggests Disneyland Resort Paris is located at the outcasts of Paris the capital city of France in a place called Marne-la-Vallee. Among the numerous Disneyland Resorts, the Disney Paris resort is attributed to be the most challenging resort.

In the year 2006, the Disneyland Paris had three parks that included; the Disney land Paris, the Disney Studio Park, and the Disney village. The Disney village incorporated restaurants and stores while the Disney Paris hosted the theme park itself and the Disney Studio Park was more centered on movie making concepts (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010).

Factors that influenced the location of Disneyland Paris Resort Prior to its current location of Marne-la-Vallee, at the outskirts of Paris the Disney Company had considered a number of promising and potential locations across Europe, which could be used to proposed Disney Park resort. The major countries that were under consideration were Germany, Britain, France, Spain, and Italy.

After considerations and discarding of some countries off the list of contenders, the two countries that remained were France and Spain. Spain chances were boosted by its climate, which resembled that of Florida, a state in which one of the Disney resort is located. However, France carried the day after careful consideration of various factors.

The availability of a suitable site that was strategically located on the outskirts of Paris was a crucial factor that was used to determine the Disney resort location.

The strategic location of the proposed site as a factor was boosted by the fact that millions of people could access the proposed Disney resort in a matter of hours regardless of if one is driving or taking a flight. This therefore presented a golden opportunity to the Disney Company of tapping the vast unexploited customer base.

The good infrastructure system that was coming in and going out of the proposed Disney resort site was also another crucial factor that weighed in deciding France to be the Disney resort destination of choice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More France was about to be connected with England by a channel tunnel that was due to be opened in 1994 thus offering an additional infrastructure route that was bound to increase the customer base. In addition to this, the site connection with the rest of Europe could be facilitated by the high-speed TGV network and the French autoroutes network (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010).

Paris, being one of the favorite tourist and vacation destinations in the world, was bound to rhyme with the idea of a Disney resort that related to a vacation destination in one way or the other (Sehlinger and Testa, 2010). The favorable tourist turnover in the region was a motivating factor to its location in Paris.

According to a research carried out, majority of citizens in France embraced the idea of a Disney park in France. In addition to this, both the national and local governments in France had gone a step further by offering financial incentives and even expropriation of land from its citizens all with an aim of facilitating smooth construction process of the Disney Park.

Difficulties faced in the running of Disney Paris Challenges that faced the Disney Paris were eminent and rocked the park even on its opening date. On the opening date, the smooth opening of the park was park commuter trains’ strikes and to make the matters worse a bomb had exploded on the night to the opening date.

The expected 500,000 people on the opening date were down sized to 50,000 people who attended. The protests from the neighboring villages on the noise arising from the park only added more woes to the just established Disney Paris.

In the early days of its operations, Disney Paris recorded a low number of visitors as opposed to their expectation. The anticipation of more French visitors as compared to the visitors from other countries turned out to be nightmare for the newly constructed Disney Park in France (McGuigan, 2004, p. 69).

The low attendance of guest was attributed to the protests that were conducted by the neighboring villages and the fear possess by the French citizens of losing their culture.

We will write a custom Report on Disneyland Resort Paris specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, a glass of wine was vital while eating according to the French visitors but unfortunately, the Disney Paris was an alcohol-free park. In addition to this, the hotel rooms at the park were expensive with prices ranging from 110 380 dollars per night (Anon, 2011).

The initial weeks of operations in the Disney Paris were filled with a huge number of employees’ resignations. Numerous reasons were stated regarding the resignations that were going on but majority of them were directed to the chaotic operations of the park (McGuigan, 2009, p. 45).

The situation was made worse late in the same year when Europe was hit by a recession thereby making property value to drop. This situation forced EuroDisney to experience financial crisis.

Reference List Anon. 2011. Case Study: The Not-So-Wonderful World of EuroDisney. Web.

McGuigan, J., 2009. Cultural Analysis. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

McGuigan, J., 2004. Rethinking cultural policy. NY: McGraw-Hill International.

Sehlinger, B. and Testa, L., 2010. Unofficial Guide to Disneyland Paris. London: John Wiley and Sons.


Quebec Bridge Collapse Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Problems Affecting Construction

Analysis of the Bridge Construction

The Role of Systems Engineering


Works Cited

When the federal authorities in Canada decided to expand the railway network in the country, the Quebec Bridge was a part of the plan. The initial plan for the bridge was drawn in the early 1900s. The bridge was built to provide a reliable passage across the Saint Lawrence River.

Prior the construction of the bridge, the only way to cross the river was by the use of a ferry. The river was a major barrier to transport due to its breadth. While there were no major flaws in the initial design of the bridge, changes to the initial plan resulted to the eventual collapse of the bridge (Manitoba 2).

The engineer who designed the bridge added some to length to it, and failed to account for the extra dimensions in the calculation of the stress limit for the bridge. The person in charge of the bridge construction ignored several warnings of faults developing in the bridge since the construction had gone too far to stop without dire financial consequences (Wilson 52).

When it became apparent that the bridge would be lost, the engineer in charge tried to contact his senior, and both engineers issued a warning message to stop the construction (Manitoba 4). However, the message from the engineers arrived at the construction site a while after the collapse of the bridge.

Problems Affecting Construction Construction of the bridge went on for three years from 1904 to 1907, when the engineers noticed that flaws were appearing in the girders supporting the bridge. At first, it did not occur to the chief engineer that the bridge structure was failing (Wilson 24). Consequently, he took action on the new development after the bridge’s situation had deteriorated beyond salvation.

Eventually, the bridge claimed the lives seventy-five of the eighty-six workers working on the bridge when it collapsed. An attempt to reconstruct the bridge was successful, but at a cost of another 13 lives of workers who were killed when the middle span fell into the river below while being hoisted into position.

Analysis of the Bridge Construction The construction of the bridge cost more that it had been planned due to the initial failures. By the time the bridge was commissioned, the total cost stood at 25 million Canadian dollars. In addition, the bridge cost 88 lives of the workers killed during the ill-fated construction missions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the bridge was fully constructed at more than twice the initial budget projection. Since engineering flaws were the cause of the collapse and the delayed completion of the bridge, little could have been done to ensure that the cost of the bridge fell within the budget.

The only thing that could have checked the cost of the construction was application of flawless engineering design and assessment. However, at the time of the construction of Quebec Bridge, architectural technology was not advanced to such a level to monitor the construction properly (Åkesson 54).

Apart from the inflated cost of the bridge, time was another setback for the construction of the bridge. The bridge, which was scheduled to be completed in 1907, was finally completed in 1917, ten years behind schedule. The collapse of the bridge in 1907 caused the major delay, while the second failure in1916 caused a minor delay.

In the overall assessment of the engineering project, it can be concluded that the performance of the engineers was poor (Holgate 12). While they were knowledgeable enough to steer the project in the right direction, they neglected clues and indications that the project was slowly developing into a major catastrophe.

This led to the first collapse of the bridge while it was almost complete. The initial plan for the construction of the bridge was changed and the engineers did not account for the additional weight and length of the bridge.

One of the major problems that affected this project was the lack of proper calculations to determine the final dead weight of the bridge (Holgate et al 18). The tension and compression forces on each of the girders had to be determined to assess whether the structure could hold its weight, and that of the people and vehicles using it.

The engineer overseeing the project did not review the new plan and design for the project carefully (Nava 3). This resulted in the oversight that saw the construction of a flawed bridge turn into a disaster.

We will write a custom Essay on Quebec Bridge Collapse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Role of Systems Engineering Systems engineering can be used to assess the physical viability of such a project. Using systems engineering, the construction can be analyzed to determine its ability to meet the requirements. The theoretical estimates of the capabilities and the limits of the bridge can be determined by a systems engineer (Sheard 40).

If the project had employed a systems engineer to design the bridge and determine the requirements that were necessary for construction of a robust and flawless structure, the disasters that followed could have been avoided. A systems engineer could have determined the fine mathematical details of the whole structure and made proper estimates for the construction of the bridge (Sheard 31).

Conclusion This project was one of the few of its kind at the time. The failure of the project proved that inadequate theoretical analysis of any engineering work of a significant scale could brew disaster. The importance of observing procedures and giving prompt response to emerging issues is also highlighted by the account of the Quebec Bridge construction.

Works Cited Åkesson, B.. Understanding bridge collapses. London: Taylor


Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Environmental context Racine, Wisconsin is a city that occupies an area of 18.7 square miles. Of the total area of the land the city comprises about 15.5 square miles. Water occupies about 16.76 percent of the area. As of the 2010 census report, it was established that Racine had about 78,860 people.

This figure comprised 33,887 households. The city has a balanced racial mix. For example, according to the same census report, the white population was 60.91 percent, the African American population took about 20.32 percent, the Native Americans took 0.61 percent, and Asia took 0.05 as the Pacific Islander comprised about 0.05 percent of the total population of the area.

The Racine Unified School District is a diverse community. With a student population of about 21,000 students the district comes out as one that takes education with a lot of interest. The students come from diverse backgrounds. Students come from urban, rural and even suburban regions.

All in all, the students come from a catchment area that is within 100 square miles. The urban district of Racine is located on the shores of Lake Michigan to the south western part of Wisconsin. In the district, there are 21 elementary schools with 3 magnet schools.

The SC. Johnson Elementary school is located on the south western part of Racine. The school occupies about 13.5 acres with 33 rooms. Majorly, the school has a kindergarten and first grades based in one wing while the other wing houses second through to fifth grades are housed in another wing. The school is replete with an outdoor learning center.

Contextual Classroom Factors At SC Johnson Elementary every student comes to class with distinct learning abilities based on experience and personality. It is important for teachers to design the learning environment in the classroom to be accustomed to every learner.

A classroom’s physical features include; information posted on the classroom walls and notice boards. This includes; parts of academic subjects’ content in short form descriptions of school’s vision, statement and mission and school rules. Such information if well arranged on the classroom walls acts as a reminder to the students of their purpose in the classroom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Students’ artworks and pictures especially the most outstanding also form part of classroom wall hangings. This acts as a motivation to the students as they feel recognized for their efforts in class. There are other physical features that have been installed in classroom, to help in the improvement and effectiveness of learning process.

A sink is installed in the classroom to use when doing art activities and science experiments. There are many outlets since there are many things to be plugged in. There are also projector connections, and sound proofs. Lockers and rest rooms should be close to the classroom. Counter tops, book shelves, and cabinets are many in the classroom for learners to place their books and files. Ventilation and widows are essential for air circulation, and improving the classroom environment.

Technology equipment and resources such as desk top computers and laptops serve as important teaching aids in class. These equipment and resources can be used for demonstration and research learning. Most learners are fascinated by the presence of computers in class. Presence of such facilities in class enhances their participation in the learning process. Proper rules and regulation should be put in place to ensure students don’t spent most of the time on computers at the expense of other subject areas.

There are amplification equipments installed in the classroom since the teacher’s voice has to be above the noise that might be coming from outside the classroom. When the voice of the teacher fades, the students can be able to hear even when they are sited at the back. It also improves the ratio of signal-to-noise.

These are the speakers which should be well installed and set to avoid learner’s interference. There are other essential interesting items that can be used to enhance good learning environment in a classroom. These include small refrigerators, a stereo system that has a CD player and a TV. This will allow the learners to access some entertainment which to a great extent contributes positively to learning.

There are visual presenter, digital projectors, and white boards that are electronic, which are used by the teacher to create versatile lessons and at the sometime engaging the students. There are also interactive aids of learning, net book computers, and other essential software that are academic. Education technology is utilized by teachers to make the learning environments to be teacher-centered. They use technology to make improvements in new lessons, visuals, ideas, and new levels activities.

Parental involvement in students’ learning process should be highly encouraged. Research indicates that parental involvement in their children’s education improves performance and quality of education. Concerned parents would for example ensure that their children attend school regular basis. They will also be involved in the evaluation and progress of their children both socially and academically.

We will write a custom Essay on Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Researchers have found that parental involvement in the learning process contributes to improvement in the child’s behavior, and affects positively the achievement of the child. Parents can achieve this by involvement at home-by, helping with homework, studying with their children, and discussing the events of the school. They should also attend functions organized in schools, and volunteering to be with children in classroom.

The institution should communicate with parents regularly, and incorporate them in the process of learning. The parents should also encourage the child, and appreciate them when they do well, discussing their progress with the teacher. Parents’ involvement helps to reduce the risk of failure of children, and prevents school dropout. The morale of the children and their attitude towards learning are improved.

The arrangement of a classroom shows style teaching of the educator. Tables or desks for group discussion should be arranged in a circular manner or in clusters. A u-shaped arrangement or circle is recommended for effective participation and contribution of every student in the group. Self-spaced individualized arrangement plan is also recommended. Plants used for in the study of sciences, arts, and other academic material should organized and accessible.

Good thoughts and planning are essential in selection of the type of child-centered environment in a classroom. This is because the features layout reflects positively to the success of the learners. The physical material in the class should be accessible to avoid confusion, disruption, and delay in the learning process. Desk arrangement is also very essential in a classroom, and the teacher is allowed to make changes at any time in the class. In a classroom of 30 desks, desks are arranged in rows of five or six to avoid confusion.

School rules and regulations guide the students on how to conduct themselves when they are within the school, and outside the school compound. The school rules help the institution to ensure that there is order in school. The rules and regulation of the school will normally define the rules and the penalty that an offender can face in case of breaching. The SC Johnson school’s rules and regulations book has guidelines on students dress code, grooming and conduct in school.

The school routine spells out the normal daily activities undertaken by students at various times. The routine schedule at SC Johnson School lists students’ names and activities assigned to them at various times. Students are guided by the routine to carry out manual work, which includes; cleaning the compound, washing classes and maintaining the lawn.

All these rules contribute positively to the learners’ progress, socially, morally, and academically. For the learner to excel academically they need to be disciplined and follow the school rules and regulations to the letter. Basic rules such as mode of dressing, language of communication, general respect, and punctuality are emphasized in this learning institution.

Parents are also conversant with the schools. When a leaner breaks one of the rules, he or she is imposed a punishment, and the parent or the guardian is notified. Records of indiscipline are also well recorded and filed for future references. This helps the institution to bring up all rounded students, who are presentable in the society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contextual class factors on the example of the United School District Racine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact of Students’ Contextual Factors on Design of Instruction and Assessment The gender issue has received a lot of focus in the design of instruction material form. Numerous complaints of gender discrimination emerge in various instruction materials and evaluation modes. It is important that when designing instruction materials and methods, gender sensitivity should be accorded utmost priority.

There is often the problem of male attitude where male teachers perceive female students as weak in particular areas and go ahead to make them feel they are weak. Teachers should take a leading role to encourage both female and male students to have an equal perception of the learning content.

Special needs students come to class with learning challenges that require special attention by teachers to effectively guide them in the learning process. Before designing an instruction and evaluation program, a teacher should examine the composition of the learners and identify students with learning difficulties caused by disabilities. They should then devise an effective way to include the needs of the special needs students in the classroom.

For example, the design of instructional material for a deaf student should be of a similar standard as to balance his/her needs with other classmates without special needs. This will be critical as it will make special needs student’s feel comfortable, adaptable, and have a fair access of the curriculum.

Also, the Include strategy should be used when designing instructional material for special needs students. On this, a student performance in school is based on the interaction with the instructional environment, thus, what happens in the classroom can either magnify or minimize the impact of special needs student on his/her learning, compelling adaptation.

Culture describes “a peoples’ way of life”, it affects the way people learn and perceive different aspects of life. Culture contributes largely to ones’ personality and experience. The aspect of cultural differences should be properly addressed in the process of designing instructional materials to ensure dominant and minority cultural aspects are captured.

Language which is one of the aspects of culture is a key component of learning and teaching process. Students’ consciousness of the differences in language can either promote or inhibit learning. Learning resources in school’s library should reflect the culture of different cultural practices for inclusivity. The learning process in class should be directed in a manner that values the diversity of language as well as cultural practices.

Skills level equally plays a big role in the design and evaluation of a learning process. Both instructional materials and assessment must reflect the level of the students’ comprehension. Higher order content beyond the students’ comprehension discourages them from participating in the learning process.

The design of the instructional materials should check/analyze student strength, in other words, what a student can do successfully. Success promotes a student motivation and self-image.The instructional materials should be able to address the social-emotional and academic areas; this will help in identifying a student’s skills and strengths and thus designing effective instructional materials.

SC Johnson Elementary school has been designed in a way that incorporates all the student’s needs and diversities. There are sinks in the classroom to be used by the learners in science experiment. High level learners are given opportunities in this school to engage in enterprises, and therefore, the school is designed in a way that allows extra rooms and spaces for these activities.

The students with partial impairments are also considered through the structures and design of this school. Painting and modeling special rooms have been well equipped to take care of those who have such interests and talents.

Influence of Prior Learning on Design of Learning Goals, Assessment and Instruction Students’ prior learning experience comprises of the skills and knowledge a student brings to class that is relevant to the content prepared for instruction. Teachers need to build on this experience to formulate instruction content that progress from known to unknown content. This section looks at the influence of students’ prior knowledge on formulation of learning goals, instruction and assessment. Learning goals point to what a learning process aims to achieve.

It should be understood that what the students knows about the subject content can either be constructive or destructive to learning. The teacher should therefore seek to understand the extent to which the learner understands the subject content to know the aid and effort they require to achieve the learning goal(s).

Students’ prior knowledge should be taken in consideration in the instruction process. It helps a teacher build learning content in a systematic and hierarchical manner. Quality learning can be achieved if content is developed from known and basic concepts of the subject to more complex ones. The instruction process should develop continuous links between what the students know, to what they do not know.

The main aim of an assessment is to establish the level of student comprehension of a given content area. Any meaningful assessment should haves specific goals and objectives. The SC elementary school teaching program is organized in a manner that teachers are provided an opportunity to carry out an initial testing on the students at the beginning of the term.

It is important to carry out a prior assessment on students in order to establish the learner’s prior knowledge before introducing new content.The success of the learners and their knowledge level will guide the teacher on which learning method is appropriate and efficient to apply.

School Demographics Survey Add the following data in percentage format:

School Ethnic Makeup: (as a %) White 25% Black 42% Hispanic 29% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 1% Other 3% Your class (es) Ethnic Makeup: (as a %) White 33% Black 56% Hispanic 11% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 0% Other 0% Teacher Diversity: (as a %) White 84% Black 7% Hispanic 9% Pacific Islander 0% Asian 0% Other 0% Male 15% Female 85% Using raw form, add the following data:

Number of students (school-wide) with an IEP (officially designated as Special Needs) 106 Number of students receiving Free Lunch (school-wide) 483 Number of English Language Learning Students School-Wide 93 Your Class 2 Gender of students (school wide) Male 291 Female 291 Other issues of diversity (i.e. religion) Economic Disadvantage 494


Understanding Public Policy. Social Impact of Policy. Coursework essay help

Policy analysis plays an important role for developing and implementing every initiative of the government. Its strategies can be more successful if they are based on the findings of social scientists, psychologists, or medical researchers. Overall, policy analysis is supposed to show what kind of actions will help to achieve a particular goal or solve a certain problem (Fox, Bayat,


Violence in Hockey Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Violence in Hockey

History of Violence in Hockey


Works Cited

Introduction Human beings and driven by emotions that originate from deep within them. Rage is one of the emotional responses that individuals have while responding to an incident or a situation (Andrews 21). In the process of expressing their rage, humans usually turn out to violence or violent like behaviors.

Violence from rage can arise in a number of situations. Violence experienced in homes, public places, recreation areas and even in sports. A number of incidences have been reported regarding to the eruption of violence in the course of a game. This is highly common in rugby, basketball, football, and soccer.

However, violence is a unique phenomenon in a sport. This sport is ice hockey. Ice hockey is one of the popular indoor games in the United States of America and Canada. The game attracts huge crowds of fans from these two nations as well as the rest of the world who follow the game.

Crowds enjoy the fast pace of the game and the skills and techniques that players use to score and win matches. In addition to this, fans also enjoy the eruption of violence between players who fight to settle down any differences that may have risen between them. Due to this, hockey has always been regarded as one of the aggressive sports in the where violence is condoned.

Violence in Hockey Violence has been an integral part of ice hockey. Due to its importance in the game and the impact that it has, violence has developed into a strong culture of the game that has been passed from one generation to the next. Violence in hockey commence during the first half of the 20th century (Andrews 32). According to Andrews (2003), 1904 saw the death of 4 players in hockey games as a result of the violence and brawls (71).

This was but just an introduction of violence and violent related acts into the game. In modern times, violence has erupted in the game under numerous occasions. The most common causes of violence in the game arise from brawls. Violence also erupts as a result from the end point of fans. In addition to this, fights also come about as a result of officials being physically abused and players deliberately injuring each other.

There are rules and regulations that have been developed to control the game of hockey. According to these rules, any form of violence is prohibited. Should violence occur, the individuals who are involved in the fight and to some extent, their clubs suffer penalties (Andrews 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may include fines and suspension from playing games. Thus, acts such as kicking opponents from behind or inappropriate swinging of sticks are prohibited. In addition to this, fisticuffs are also penalized. However, this is the most common form of violence in hockey. However, players and fans of the game consider this form of violence to be so exciting.

To some extent, some of these individuals feel that violence is part of the game. According to many people, fisticuffs is an effective means through which rival players of opposing teams can settle down any differences that might have been present between them.

Thus, to regulate the violence and other violent acts in the game, several rules and regulations have been developed. In course of the game, the referees usually implement these rules. Thus, a referee has the power to penalize players who are involved in violent acts in the course of the game.

The punishment that a referee chooses to take depends on the degree of violence. However, the power that referees have is limited. Off the game, the National Hockey League (NHL) controls the acts actions of player. This includes their involvement in violence. The NHL thus has the power to conduct investigation, charge or even convict players on the grounds of being involved in violence.

The NHL also has the power to fine, suspend and even expel players as a result of their violent behaviors. Usually, these decisions are arrived at after careful investigations and considerations have been put on the matter at hand. The picture below shows linemen separating players from a fight.

History of Violence in Hockey Even during its early days, hockey has been considered as a violent sport. During the early years of the sport, violence was a common phenomenon in the game. It was until after the death of two players that stiff measures were put in place to minimize the occurrence of violence and violent acts in the sport.

To show cause, the individuals who had been responsible for the murders were taken to trial. However, despite the efforts that were put to bring these people into justice, the accused were all acquitted of their crimes. Despite this decision however, setting up of stiff rules and regulation was considered a necessity as the game faced a risk of being banned. This would have put hockey on the levels of sports such as cockfighting.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Violence in Hockey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules and regulations that have been set by the NHL have greatly reduced the occurrence of violence in hockey games. However, there are incidences in which players and/or fans engage in fisticuffs and stick-swinging inflicting pain and injury to others. In such events, stiff punishments in the form of fines, suspensions have been arrived at after careful investigations have taken place.

Up to the present moment, only one individual has ever been banned for life from hockey. During a Stanley Cup game, Billy Coutu assaulted one referee and tackled another one (Andrews 133).

In addition to this, Coutu started off a bench clearing brawl. After an investigation of the issue, Coutu was banished for life by the president of the NHL in 1927. However, after consultations, the ban was lifted by the NHL two and a half years later although Coutu never played again. Several other incidences of this nature have been reported in recent times.

Violence in hockey does not only occur in the NHL alone. Fights also break out in lower leagues. A prime example is the fight that broke out on August 1st 2012 in Texas, USA (Moore 11). The fight erupted in an adult hockey game when a player hit his opponent with a hockey stick on the face.

Due to the severity of the injury, paramedics were called to the scene to save the life of the victim. Witnesses stated that the act was deliberate since the assailant swung the hockey stick straight into the victims face in a similar manner as one would swing a baseball bat. The case is still under investigation.

On the other hand, there are those people who support violence in hockey. The acquisition of John Scott by the Buffalo Sabres is a prime example (Palumbo 13). Being close of 7 feet tall and weighing over 270 pounds, Scott is regarded as one of the best fighters in the league. It has been speculated that the Sabres acquired Scott as an intimidation measure. The Sabres have been facing a lot of intimidation especially from their rivals, the Boston Bruins.

The Sabres have been facing a lot of criticism from the media and the public on the grounds of cowardice. The team has been criticized for failing to respond to concussions that have always been arising against them.

As a result, the onetime proud franchise has been struggling with humiliation especially during the last season. It is therefore believed that with a player like Scott, the team will respond to such situation. This will not only intimidate their opponents but it will also motivate and boost the morale of other players leading to increased victories and a shot at the national championship.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Violence in Hockey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the present moment, the level of fighting during hockey games has greatly reduced. This might be as a result of the strict implementation of the rules and regulations against fighting. On the other hand, the number of concussions has greatly increased. However, unlike fights, concussions usually arise accidentally. However, investigations are already underway to establish the causes of concussions and means through which they can be regulated to improve on the quality of the game.

Conclusion Hockey has always been regarded as one of the most violent sports on the planet. As a result of these violent acts, a number of individuals have ended up with serious injuries while other have ended up dead. To intervene, the NHL has come up with rules, regulations, and different forms of punishments. This has tried to reduce the level of violence in the sport although violent incidences do arise occasionally.

Works Cited Andrews, Lamar. Violence: Not Part of Youth Hockey. New York: Sage Publications, 2003. Print

Moore, Marcus. “Violence ends North Texas Hockey.” KHOU 3.2 (2012): 9-14. Print

Palumbo, Lenny. “Fighting is Good for Hockey and Sabres.” The Sports Journal, 12.1 (2012): 13-15. Print


Mobile Money Transfer as an alternative product for Vodafone Group Plc Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The paper seeks to justify a Mobile Money Transfer (MMT) as an alternative product for Vodafone Group Plc. The company is multinational with headquarters in London. It is a leading telecommunications company based on 2011 annual revenue and subscriptions (439 million).

Vodafone offers information technology and mobile phone services to its customers in over sixty-five countries. In addition, Vodafone Group has 45 per cent shares in Verizon wireless. Verizon wireless is the leading mobile telecommunications company in the US.

Vodafone has been chosen to implement the MMT product because of its wide customer base and its ability to set a side enough resources to implement, test, launch and market the product. Its wider customer base is important because many people across the world will be able to enjoy the product and its benefits (Morawczynski, 2008).

MMT is an electronic product that helps the consumer to electronically send and receive money on a mobile phone. Consumers will register their simcards with Vodafone using their national IDs or pass ports. After registration, an MMT menu will be up dated on the customer’s phone.

Registered customers will be able to send and receive money, pay bills, loans, and utilities and also buy air time. Customers can also access their commercial bank accounts if they register their mobile numbers with their banks. To withdraw money from a mobile account, the customer approaches an agent and initiates the transaction through an agent code. The customer and the agent then receive a message that a specific amount of money has been withdrawn.

The agent then gives the customer the specified amount of money and the transaction is completed. To deposit the money in the mobile account, the customer approaches the agent with the amount of money they want to deposit, the agent deposits the money and both receive a confirmation message (Hughes


Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives Case Study essay help online free

An ethical dilemma is a situation that involves conflicts between moral principles in which obeying one ultimately results to transgression of the other. The utilitarian ethical perspective holds that a good course of action maximizes happiness for the parties involved, and therefore the moral worth of a certain action is determined by its outcome.

Libertarian ethical principles hold that individuals have the right to be respected and the only limit to an individual’s ability to enjoy these rights is the obligation to respect others’ basic rights.

Deontological theories are also referred to as duty-based ethics. In deontology, morality is judged through examining the nature of the actions and the will of the individuals to do the right thing. Drawing judgment from an individuals will and control of certain actions is based on the argument that the future is not controllable. Virtue ethics perspective emphasizes on the influence of character traits and moral virtues toward the resultant ethical behavior.1

For the utilitarian principle, completion of the project could give a team a satisfaction for its achievement. Melanie and other members of her team were putting in extra time to ensure that the project was completed and launched in a few weeks. Several individuals at Zagante were forced to put in extra working hours to complete their assignments related to the software code project.

Some dedicated members of the staff were forced to sleep in their cubicles because of the demands of their assignments. Melanies hard work was aimed at ensuring a successful launch of the product together with hopes for promotion to the project’s senior vice president.2

On the contrary, considering the deontological theory, Melanie and the team were working on TerraPix 2.0 map-making software meant for enhancing topographical view for the oil companies. Technology related companies in the region had suffered in the previous two years and Zagante was not exception.

Although the company survived through the hard time, it was affected financially thus forcing its management to freeze the hiring process. This meant that although the present employees were lucky to retain their jobs, they had to work extremely hard to ensure that the product was a success. In an effort to maintain their jobs, zagante staff was exploited through the requirement to put in extra time and effort at the minimal pay.3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the process of carrying out evaluations for her team members, Melanies comparison between Tom’s and Jeremy’s profiles is a dilemma. This brings into focus the virtue ethics. Although both candidates displayed outstanding qualities, Tom’s profile was more striking professionally but Melanie leaned on Jeremy’s side because she considered him as a close friend.

On the contrary, considering libertarian principle, Melanie caught Jeremy programming a game instead of working on the running project, TerraPix. Later on, Jeremy admitted that he was working on a project he had picked from his brother-in-law’s company. His brother in laws company was pressured by the need to complete the programs before the commencement of a certain trade show.

According to Jeremy, the offer, that includes the payment was good such that he could not decline. Melanie confronted Jeremy for moonlighting, and inquested to know how he felt about it. According to Melanie, the team had their own project, which might not be as enticing but it was important for the company.4

On the utilitarian principle, Jeremy argued that he was fully engaged in the project and only took the side assignments because he felt that he could comfortably handle them off his working hours. According to Jeremy, his brother in law’s company was conversant with his tight schedule at work and were okay with it.5 Melanie was angered because he felt that the best programmer in the organization was on his exit from the company.

On the contrary, considering the deontological principles, Melanie continued to question Jeremy if he would take up the opportunity if they offered a full time position and whether he was happy in his current job. Jeremy took up the side job to have fun, break the monotony of doing the same thing day in day out, and he was interested in gaming from childhood.

In addition, he was learning new techniques which could be helpful to Zagante in the future. For example, he said that he was learning to use MAX 4 modelling tool, which at some point zagante had considered checking it out.6

According to Simons, straightforward ethical decisions are meant for enhancing both short-term and long-term benefits of the growth of the business.7

We will write a custom Case Study on Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethics are aimed at protecting and maintaining a good business and individual’s reputation. For example values like honesty, conscientiousness, and integrity create a connection between ethical principles and the expected business activities. Jeremy’s need for extra income to support his family brings in the deontological principle. Melanie demanded to know the precise reason as to why Jeremy decided to take up the extra work.

Was it because working at Zagante had become monotonous or for the need of the money. Jeremy made it clear that he was not sacrificing to be away from his family , especially the newborn for fun, but it was because life was becoming expensive day in day out. In addition the fact that his wife was not going to work for some time meant that he had to provide for the entire household solely.

In the interest of the company and Jeremy (utilitarian principle), Melanie requested Jeremy to focus on terrapix because they expected his entire devotion to enhance successful launching of the project. Melanie promised to keep the secret of Jeremys moonlighting so far as Jeremy would not do anything that would jeopardize the success of the project and his reputation.8

Appropriate ethical behavior acts as a guideline to what may be considered in a business organization as the right course of action. According to American Psychiatric Association, decisions made for proper business management are never ethical even in situations in which they seem to adhere to the required ethical principles.9 Ethical decisions are considered to be right when they in conflict with important business decisions.

The awareness of the existing conflict justifies the decision. In the process of safeguarding the interest of the company, deontological principle , Melanie carried out research in an effort to understand the consequences of moonlighting. Melanie found out about a case involving a supervisor from the city water department.

The supervisor operated an irrigation business besides his job and had used his employer’s resources to carry out his personal work. Melanie related this to Jeremy’s case whereby he was using Zagantes computers to carry out his personal tasks. In another case, a teacher moonlighted as a stripper in which although she enjoyed doing it, it was not beneficial to her toward her growth managerially. Jeremys case still bothered her.

This is because he moonlighted for a company which was not a competitor meaning that he had little to gain from the side job and he was using Zagantes resources (computer). But onto her fears, Melanie was not ready to fire Jeremy because the company could not afford to lose such a talent. Melanie considered that moonlighting could not earn Jeremy a promotion and after his search, there was no other case of an individual who had been promoted for moonlighting.10

In situations where an organization does not regulate a certain behavior, its activities can be regulated by external policies. For the virtue ethics, Melanie further inquested from the company’s human resource director, Jill Darby, if there were any policies on employees moonlighting. Melanie lied that there was no one involved in moonlighting, but she was only concerned because the issue came up with her team. Jill confirmed that the company did not have any policies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarian, Libertarian, Deontological, and Virtue Ethics Perspectives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, according to Jill, the state has stipulated clear rules about it, in addition to the vacuum created by the incomplete agreement signed when one is hired. In business organizations, there should be a coincidence between the quest for personal interests and ethical behavior.11 Covering up of behavior is usually harmful to the business in the long run.

When Jill asked whether the company was facing a potential problem, Melanie covered up for Jeremy and lied that her team was a source of solutions and not problems. Melanie explained that her concern was fueled by frustration of her team members because of bare minimal pay rises in the entire year.

Melanie tried to explain that although employees understand the financial situation of the company, they could take up side jobs to meet their financial needs. To solve the employees financial strains, Jill referred Melanie to Aaron who could offer low interest rate loans to employees who were in a fix.12

Virtue Ethics Perspective The ethical dilemma presented by the case study can be solved using the virtue ethics principles. A behavior which is detrimental to the business in the short term but enhances growth of the business in the long term should be encouraged. According to Grace and Cohen, the ideas acquired from such practices can be used in redefining the business.13 Changing of the new ideas into a profession enables the business to benefit from the inventions.

As Melanie thought about Jeremy, she gathered that he was faithful to the company, he had worked there for five years, earned promotions and importantly enjoyed working for the company. She informed David and Marc that Frank Lloyd was fired for moonlighting.

According to David, that was a bad managerial decision that most probably his boss regretted for a long time. Melanie said that she was not going to fire Jeremy because moonlighting was kind of normal to programmers. David supported her idea by explaining that when he worked at way bridge associates, the architects had side businesses of designing houses that paid less. In these circumstances, virtue ethics principle allows Jeremy to carry out the side business as far as it does not affect his performance in the project.

Melanie asked whether these side businesses affected their jobs and David said that it had no effect because it was expected. In addition, moonlighting for the architects gave the firm a reason to pay the architects less than their worth. However, side jobs enabled the architects to learn new ideas and bring them into the project.14

In conclusion, Melanie called jeremy in her office and explained to him that the company could give low interest loans and thus he would not be required to take up side jobs. Jeremy declined the offer and Melanie was upset because the side job was not beneficial to the project. In addition, she was afraid of the implications of Jeremy’s moonlighting to the rest of the team. Jeremy did not care about the effect of his actions to the rest of the team.15

He considered them as grown ups who were obligated to perform their duties. In addition, Jeremy considered that so long as he performed his duties to meet the project’s expectations, it was not important to the team and the management on what he did with time out of the office.

Melanie was agitated by this statement and realized that it was time for her and the organization to fire Jeremy. In trying to offer Jeremy a solution to his financial constraints, Melanie did not consider other interests Jeremy derived from taking the side job and this made them to fall apart.16

Value Ethics

Bibliography American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Pub. 1994.

Drumwright, Minette, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.

Grace, Damian and Cohen, Stephen. Business Ethics: Australian Problems and Cases. 2 Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Hinman, Lawrence. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.

Rachels, James. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Robinson, Mary 2000, Business and Human Rights: A Progress Report. PDF File. 8 August 2012.

Sandel, Michael. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.

Savulescu, J et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): 666-670.

Simons, Paul. Be Interested in the People You Serve and Your Life Will Be Happy”, Fourth Annual Lecture. Sydney: St. James Ethics Centre. 1994.

Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1993.

Footnotes 1 Savulescu, J. et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): p. 669.

2 Savulescu, J et al. “Why We Should Allow Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2004): 669.

3 James, Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. p. 226.

4 Minette, Drumwright, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.

5 Robinson, Mary 2000, Business and Human Rights: A Progress Report. PDF File. 8 August 2012.

6 Minette, Drumwright, and Murphy, Patrick. “How Advertising Practitioners View Ethics: Moral Muteness, Moral Myopia, and Moral Imagination.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2004): 7-24.

7 Simons, Paul. Be Interested in the People You Serve and Your Life Will Be Happy”, Fourth Annual Lecture. Sydney: St. James Ethics Centre. 1994. p.16.

8 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.

9 James, Rachels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. p.56

10 Michael, Sandel. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.

11 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994.p. 106.

12 Michael, Sandel. “The Case Against Perfection.” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2004): 1-11.

13 Damian, Grace, and Stephen, Cohen. Business Ethics: Australian Problems and Cases. 2 Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998. p.2

14 Hinman, Lawrence. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994. P.211.

15 Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1993. p.183.

16 Lawrence, Hinman. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994. p. 304


Jordan Events Company: Management Skills and Entrepreneurship Proposal college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Exectuive summary Jordan Events is an events management company that manages corporate, professional and personal events. The company will be located in Jordan and will organize, design, plan and manage events for companies, corporate organizations and weddings among others. It will offer high quality services at affordable prices and services will be structured to meet specific client needs.

The goals of the company will be to achieve customer satisfaction and exceptional quality of services, so as to lead in the events management market (ADAMS


How people react to pregnant women Essay essay help site:edu

Depending on the culture of the people different people react differently to pregnant Women. However, there is a perception that is common in most societies.

When people see a woman who is pregnant, most of them perceive her to be a mother, although this is just a thought, it is not exactly true because anything may happen to the child or mother between the time of conception and birth. People will first think of the child then later of the mother.

According to the western culture, motherhood is believed to be what defines and dignifies a woman, while those who are barren are considered to be highly disadvantaged and ill fated in the society.

Furthermore, those women who intentionally refuse to have children are perceived to be psychologically abnormal. In the industrialized society, pregnant women are viewed as those who possess an active maternal instinct. Besides, the community further puts up pressure on women through the mothering mandate to have children (Crawford 277).

How might these reactions contribute to women’s emotional responses to pregnancy? The character of humans is nurtured from the expectations and believes they are taught by their parents and the society around them during their childhood. This determines the character of the person, which may be portrayed by the person’s choices in life. Pregnant women make their choices with regards to their pregnancy either consciously or unconsciously depending on the values they were brought up with.

This might be seen by the choice of a woman getting married before getting a child, others getting children out of wedlock while still others decide to live a childless life. Positive emotional response is perceived by those women who choose to have children as the society expects, while those who are childless either intentionally or by choice may have negative emotions towards pregnancy (Crawford 278).

Hostile and benevolent sexism Sometimes, pregnant women may experience hostile sexism from their fellow women due to jealousy for not achieving similar results. This may be due to a failed relationship of the woman who is not pregnant, or the inability to have children due to barrenness or otherwise. In addition to that, they may face a hostile glance from most of the people when they take up roles meant for men while pregnant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise, they experience benevolent sexism from the husband family and friends, as well as the community especially if she is married. A woman may receive a special treatment by members of the public while shopping, and the whole family at home. This may be a show of gratitude from the society for taking up the mothering role.

The effects of pregnancy in regards to career To most women, pregnancy is a life changing experience that is filled with mixed feelings of confusion and contentment both at the same time. However, when women become pregnant while pursuing their career, some of them take it as simple but find it to be very complex.

This is due to the endless needs of the infant and increased roles due to the change from a career woman to a mother and a house wife. It becomes a real challenge for the woman before she can adapt to the point that some of the women see the child as a barrier to their career (Crawford 273).

Works Cited Crawford, Mary. Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill Publishers, 2012. Print.


Cloud computing in supply chain management Essay essay help online

Cloud computing is one of the advancements, which have significantly transformed the manner in which several companies manage and access information within and outside the firm. In general, this technology allows an organization to access its information technology services like, applications and infrastructure through the internet.

For this reason, companies adapt to ever-changing business environment and create better opportunities by opening up the market. Massive use of internet technologies is considered as one of the reasons why most firms find it easier to use cloud computing in supply chain management (Kefer 2012).

Additionally, companies prefer using cloud computing because it offers opportunities to market new products with a lot of ease. In fact, it is believed that most supply chains have been put under pressure because of the pace at which most products and services are being introduced.

It is important to underscore the fact that there are several ways through which cloud computing works in supply relationship management. These can be understood by focusing on how LyondellBasell has successfully incorporated the technology in its daily operations. The company specializes in plastics and chemicals, and sells its products in more than one hundred countries around the world (Kefer 2012).

LyondellBasell uses cloud computing to manage its supply management relationship because of the involvement of multiple organizations, which have to access unique information, depending on the products being channeled to consumers. In essence, this technology allows a firm to develop a platform, which promotes the company’s visibility and control of crucial elements. Consequently, LyondellBasell is able to oversee international logistics and has opened the tender process by attracting an array of partners.

The main reason why several companies are investing in cloud computing is based on the overall implications of the technology. It has been found out that “icloud” has a wide range of benefits in the management of a company and its suppliers. Firstly, it augments a company’s visibility within the market.

This is essential in cases where supply chain reliability and agility are needed due to expansion. In most cases, cloud computing ensures that there is a single source of trusted information needed by partners. It also gives updated information, regarding real-time delivery of products, to allow monitoring during their supply.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that delivery-delays are eliminated, thus improving customer service and loyalty, coupled with proper management of expectations. In addition, cloud computing allows effective marketing of new products and services in the market. This is made possible through instant access of information by independent organizations and partners, within the entire market. It also enhances large-scale transformation, since icloud-based supply chain solutions have the potential of promoting business competition (Reddy 2011, p. 7151).

Despite the fact that cloud computing has an array of advantages, there are several challenges faced by companies, which have adopted this technology. Like in most cases, massive use of the internet exposes products and the company’s data to cyber threats. Without proper protection, companies are likely to lose customers, data and products, which may have serious implications.

Based on these, companies are forced to invest in protective cloud infrastructure to promote the security of business transactions (Gold 2012, p. 24). With regard to supply chain, companies are faced with the challenge of remaining flexible and predictable in the business market. This is essential in promoting the relationship between the company and its suppliers.

Reference List Gold, J 2012, ‘Protection in the cloud: risk Management and insurance for Cloud computing’, Journal of Internet Law, vol. 15 no. 12, pp. 23-28.

Kefer, G 2012, Three Ways Cloud Computing Can Improve Supply Chain Operations for the Chemical Industry. Web.

Reddy, K 2011, ‘Security Architecture of Cloud Computing’, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 3 no. 9, pp. 7149-7155.


Cross-Cultural Communication Management: Copts in Egypt Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The Copts form part of the Egyptian population. They are the largest minority group within Egypt. A majority of this community inhabit the upper part of Egypt. Some are also scattered within larger cities. These bigger cities include Cairo and Alexandria. Generally, the Copts are well represented within the major social classes.

However, most of them are found within upper or middle class. This is because of their love for education. Most of the Copts pursue the doctrines of the “Coptic Orthodox Church” (Hasan 2003, pp. 34). This church was founded by Saint Mark. He is also believed to have brought Christianity into the land of Egypt. This paper analyses the interaction between the Copts in Egypt and the Muslim majority. Apart from this, it examines how the Copts are treated in Egypt.

The Interaction between the Copts in Egypt and the Muslim Majority There is no constructive relationship between the Copts and the Muslim community. Their religion differences have widely contributed to this soar relationship. Notably, the Copts are a potentially endangered minority group within Egypt. They have eminent differences with the majority Muslim community.

There are indications that their population is gradually dwindling. The two communities do not integrate effectively with one another. The Copt community has been largely compromised (Scott 2010, pp. 43). They have restricted access to equal leadership opportunities. They are exposed to persistent and subtle tensions from the majority Muslim group.

The differences between these two groups caused sharp divisions in the dispensation of vital services. This trend is notable within public institutions. Due to increased tensions between the two communities, most Copts have been exiled. Generally, there are several Copts residing in the Diaspora. This is relative to the number of their majority Muslim counterparts. They have been mostly noted within countries such as the U.S., Canada and the United Kingdom (Shatzmiller 2005, pp. 31).

The high rate of emigration of the Copts indicates the tension that exists between these two communities. Indicatively, some scholars have noted that the majority Muslim groups are gradually taking over Egypt. The disparity between these two groups can be noted within the country’s leadership structure. It is observed that very few Egyptian political and public leaders originate from the Coptic community.

Most people from the Coptic community are gradually transforming into Islam. However, it is vital to note that this transformation in religion is not out of their wish. They convert to Islam because they fear the likelihood of persecution. The majority Muslim society have frequently engaged in the prosecution of the Copts (Wiedl 2007, pp. 72). The faithful Copts in Egypt get marginalized through social oppression.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observably, the Copts are gradually getting alienated and extinct in their native country. There are very minimal social interactions between these two communities. The few remaining Copts have their own institutions and residences. They also share very few intrinsic social values. Perhaps, this is largely attributed to their different religious beliefs.

These communities attend different churches and learning institutions. However, it is notable that there are also categories of the Copts that have converted to Muslim faith. Basically, this has been a survival mechanism (Watson 2002, pp. 24).

Although there are considerable efforts to unite these two communities, very minute steps have been achieved. There is a remarkable level of social segregation between these two communities. The supremacy of the Muslim community has overpowered the dominance of the Copts in Egypt.

How the Copts Are Treated Within Egypt The Muslim dominion in Egypt has caused severe oppression of the Copts. There is eminent discrimination within basic service delivery sectors. The Copts have limited access to essential services. These include education and property ownership rights. The Muslim majority have dominated these vital sectors.

Consequently, they practice segregation in the delivery of these services. The Copts face restrictions related to worship and practice of faith (Watson 2002, pp. 54). They have to seek permission in order to practice their faith. This is also observable during the worship times. The authorities offering these worship permits are majorly comprised of the oppressive majority Muslim community. These elements propagate the marginal treatment of the Coptic community within Egypt.

The government has made education free for both the Copts and Muslim communities. This is observable from the elementary levels up to the university. However, there are still obvious disparities in the education system. The Muslims enjoy certain advantages within the education system. The Copts are not included in some of the state funded university courses. An example of such courses is medicine (Wiedl 2007, pp. 91).

It is also observable that unlike the Muslim, the Coptic religious learning institutions remain excluded from government support. There are also notable disparities in scholarship opportunities. The Copts have severe restrictions concerning property ownership and real estate. The Muslim building designs and preferences are given more priority. There are bureaucratic processes in the certification of development processes for the Copts. Conclusively, it is evident that the Copts have been marginalized in their cradle land.

We will write a custom Assessment on Cross-Cultural Communication Management: Copts in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More List of References Hasan, S 2003, Christians versus Muslims in modern Egypt: the century-long struggle for Coptic equality, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Scott, M 2010, The challenge of political Islam non-Muslims and the Egyptian state, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Shatzmiller, M 2005, Nationalism and minority identities in Islamic societies, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal.

Watson, H 2002, Among the Copts, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, England.

Wiedl, N 2007, The role of the Copts in the national movement in Egypt until the 1919 revolution, GRIN Verlag, München.


Community Development: History, Themes and Issues Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What is community development?

Development and growth

Community development issues

The root of community development challenges

Change in community development

Difficult Change

Conflict management among workers

Advantages and disadvantages of conflict management

Compromise in change management


Reference List

Introduction Community development remains a major concept in the world today, being integrated in learning institutions and in several communities. This emphasis is immensely based on the role, which it continues to play in most countries around the world. Due to the changing needs of the society, community development has significantly advanced in order address several emerging issues, as it empowers the people.

Throughout history, community development has been faced with issues and challenges, which have been handled through a myriad of approaches. On the other hand, issues, which affect community development, have hampered the realization of some of the agenda driven by groups and organizations, with the aim of empowering the community (Ledwith 2011, p. 13).

This essay discusses change management in community development, with regard to how conflicts are handled and use of comprise to achieve desired results. In particular, the analysis will focus on examples of change for workers and communities, looking at the strengths and limitations that are involved. To achieve this target, up-to-date references will be used, to allow a comparison of views discussed by different authors and researchers, regarding the concept of community development.

What is community development? In understanding the concept of community development and some of the issues, which affect it, it is essential to appreciate that most of these activities take place in rural areas, under rural community development. Community experts define this as a process, which is usually carried out by the community, by helping its members to be fundamentally able to manage the expected change.

Importantly, major benefits of community development occur as a result of efforts injected by local people through mobilization of skills, change of attitude, different approaches in solving problems, improved networks and use of available assets through unique and new ways (Phillips, 2009, p. 3).

Even though community development aims at empowering the community economically, it is crucial to appreciate that it gears towards establishing a strong functioning community. The five capitals of a community, which are normally emphasized by rural communities, are: physical, environmental, social, human, and financial. Through the community, people are able to reconsider their stance on various problems and expand contacts and networks.

From a literal point of view, community development merges the idea of “community” with “development” through different ways. Based on the fact that a community is formed by people, who have a shared identity, community development solely depends on interactions between people and collective action, instead of emphasizing individual activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is commonly referred to as collective agency by some sociologists. In addition, development is widely viewed as a process, which is capable of increasing choices for members of the community. With increased choices, the community is further exposed to new options, diversification, analyzing of issues and anticipating change (Defilippis 2007, p. 9).

Development encompasses an array of issues, including but not limited to change, improvement and vitality, and the quality of life. Other analysts view it as the creation of wealth at a community level. In this case, wealth does not only refer to money, but also to other things, which are highly valued by the community. This further contributes to the net total of a community’s assets, thus avoiding the “zero sum-crisis.”

Based on this analogy, it suffices to mention that community development means that a community is involved in a process that is totally aimed at improving the environmental, social and economic situation of its members. In other words, the community can be viewed as the means and the end of community development, regardless of the path taken (Ferguson


Achieving Competitive Advantage through Talent Management in Etisalat Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction With a customer base of 135 million, the Emirates Telecommunications Corporation based in the U.A.E, better known as Etisalat, has grown to become one of largest telecommunications companies in the world spanning several continents with an assortment of products and services ranging from mobile networks to internet service provision.

The success of the company is in part due to its expansion into various global markets such as those in the Middle East, Africa, and various parts of the Asian continent.

As indicated by Quisenberry


Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

The foundation of intelligence testing The definition of intelligence is elusive. However, scholars relate intelligence to logical reasoning and adaptation to prevailing situations. Still, there is a challenge over objective testing of intelligence. In order to understand intelligence testing and its basis, we have to look at its origin and theories.

Binet and Simon developed the Binet-Simon test to aid in assigning French students to appropriate classes. Educators had not developed any method to identify learners’ difficulties, such as retardation, behavioral problems, or lack of prior education. These researchers identified that learners did not have the same course of intellectual growth, and learners’ mental capabilities developed at varied rates.

Binet and Simon referred it to mental age (an average level of age when learners can perform intelligence test) but not the chronological age of an individual. They used mental age to assign appropriate tests to learners based on individual’s capabilities. This was the first approach to psychometric testing. Binet cautioned on over reliance on the test and the dynamic nature of intelligence and errors associated with tests.

Lewis Terman developed Stanford-Binet test from Binet test. Terman coined “the term Intelligence Quotient (IQ)” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). This test related to American children and culture. IQ relied on dividing the “mental age by chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100 to give the IQ of an individual” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). Terman adapted IQ tests to reflect individuals’ test scores with the average scores of learners’ peers.

David Wechsler developed Wechsler-Bellevue test and scale of intelligence as a reaction to Stanford-Binet test. He introduced several specialized IQ tests for different groups. He developed scales for both verbal and non-verbal tests consisting 14 tests. He tested “verbal, performance and combined IQ scores of the tests” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).

This approach had advantages based on its performance scale and various tests for different age groups. The performance scale was independent of skills like reading, language and writing. Thus, it could test illiteracy, verbally challenged learners and non-communicative aspects.

Theories of Intelligence Testing Charles Spearman developed “the general intelligence known as g” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He believed that there was “a single and dominant factor of intelligence” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He derived this conclusion from observing positive correlations or associations among grades of various learners in unrelated subjects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Spearman believed that there was “an interaction between g and a specific factor of mental task, S (a person’s ability that was responsible for an individual’s skills in certain mental tasks)” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).

For instance, Spearman believed that people who possessed vocabulary skills had a better memory and could also show better skills in mathematics. However, this approach was not reliable. Instead, it attempted to provide explanations why tests scores of the same learner had relations in different subjects (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).

Howard Gardner introduced multiple intelligence theory as an attempt to explain intelligence testing. In his approach, Gardner introduced testing in multiple abilities, such as linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, visual, bodily, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Gardner argued that other approaches to test IQ were not conclusive.

In addition, Gardner also noted that such IQ tests could not predict or show outcomes and success in life or school. Gardner argued that individuals had different levels of intelligence. This explained why people had unique cognitive skills. Gardner’s argument provides a basis of intelligence as both cultural and biological.

Robert Sternberg also introduced Triarchic theory. According to him, intelligence has three elements, namely analytical, creative and practical. Analytical intelligence enables people to provide logical solutions to problems through breaking them down. The fundamental process of this approach is analysis. People with high-levels of analytical intelligence rely on their acquired knowledge in solving problems.

However, such individuals may lack creative abilities in terms of new knowledge or ideas. Sternberg’s creative intelligence entails synthetic thinking. Individuals with creative intelligence use knowledge and understanding for being able to formulate new knowledge in an intuitive manner.

Sternberg notes that people with the highest IQ are not the best in this method of thinking. According to Sternberg, individuals who possess high-levels of creative intelligence do not have sufficiently developed universal IQ tests for rating skills of creativity and problem solving. Practical intelligence involves the use of common senses. Individuals must use both their creative and analytical intelligence on daily encounters for problem solving (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that individuals with practical intelligence can succeed in most settings. They can apply both skills to achieve best outcomes. In addition, Sternberg notes that people can achieve excellence above these forms of three intelligences. Thus, some individuals may integrate all three forms of intelligences and demonstrate high standards of intelligence (Sternberg and Clinkenbeard, 1995).

Challenges to definitions of intelligence by Gardner, Spearman, and Sternberg In reference to multiple intelligences, education systems promote acquisitions of linguistics and mathematical skills. According to Gardner, this is unfair method of IQ testing. For instance, learners who have high-levels of intelligence in other areas may end up in special classes due to the lack of mathematical and linguistics skills. To Gardner and his supporters, educators should find relevant ways of assessing learners’ strengths and weaknesses accurately.

Learners do not learn in similar manners. Thus, uniform assessments are difficult. In this sense, educators should not create uniformity in assessing learners. Lazear argued that knowledge of how learners master skills enabled teachers to provide a reliable assessment (Lazear, 1992). Thus, it is useful for making informed decisions in learning processes.

This approach does not require learners to follow traditional test approaches that have predetermined answer such as multiple choices, essay, but it advocates for giving learners opportunities to respond in their ways through applications of multiple intelligences. However, this process is cumbersome as developing every possible profile of intelligence to match various abilities of learners is time-consuming.

Other critics also note that Gardner’s approach does not have empirical evidence to support it (Waterhouse, 2006; Klein, 1998). In addition, cognitive neuroscience studies did not support Gardner’s theory (Waterhouse, 2006). Other scholars related it to the g factor of Spearman (Visser, Ashton and Vernon, 2006).

Spearman’s idea of general intelligence gained prominent in the 20th century. However, its critics, such as Thorndike and Thurstone, argued that it was inappropriate to test an individual’s IQ using a single construct. However, people still viewed intelligence as a united concept (Deary, 2012).

Sternberg based his theory on meta-components that were responsible for planning and execution of solutions and feedback related to performance and gaining knowledge. Thus, meta-component processes were responsible for individual differences. According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of high-level components for problem solving but not a low-level component of gathering information that supports problem solving.

Critics like Brody and Gottfredson argue that Sternberg’s theory is a statement on manifestation of intelligence than an explanation of intelligence. Further, these scholars have shown “recent reviews of the theoretical and empirical support for the theory do not support the notion that creative or practical intelligences are as important as analytical intelligence (i.e. an approximation of general intelligence) in predicting life success” (Gottfredson, 2003; Brody, 2003).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Theorists have grouped theories of intelligence into multiple intelligences and psychometric. Psychometric group involves theories of Wechsler, Spearman and proponents. On the other hand, multiple intelligences account for theories of Gardner, Sternberg and others.

The theory of general intelligence shows correlations on individuals’ abilities. Researchers have shown that problems that have high-levels of difficulty rely significantly on the g factor (Gottfredson, 1998). For instance, Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices relied on the g factor in developing its test. This suggests that there is a link between g and cognitive skills.

A number of scholars have also expanded the g factor by providing additional types of g, such as fluid (Gf), and crystallized (Gc). These classifications covered nonverbal and cultural-free aspects along with the skills and ideas individuals collect through acculturation.

General intelligence gained popularity due to empirical evidence from different tests scores that demonstrated correlations of cognitive tests among diverse individuals. The g factor has remained prominent in most psychometric test batteries, diverse individuals and analytic approaches to problem solving.

Scholars note that all forms of cognitive tests, both simple and complex, despite their informational aspects, have elements of general intelligence. We can not view g factor in terms of test materials, their contents or psychological aspects. This is because the g factor is in the brain.

The g factor in both simple and complex tests shows correlations of the tests with other non-psychometric elements. Brain cognitive systems have modular arrangements. However, the g factor shows consistent and positive correlations with every cognitive skill which also reflects differences among people (Jensen, 2000).

Proponents of multiple intelligence approaches argue that intelligence has a number of factors. These proponents believe that components of intelligence are multiple and interact with one another.

They work as combinations in order to solve problems. Gardner believes that the brain has different segments responsible for various skills (Gardner, 1998). He argues that damage to a specific area in the brain only affects a specific skill associated with that particular area. This is why Gardner concludes that there are multiple intelligences.

Most of the critics have argued that multiple intelligences lack supporting empirical evidence. This has made the approach unpopular among educators and researchers. Critics, who attribute multiple intelligences to the g factor, do so because of the Gc and Gf in assessments.

Gardner had argued that assessments of intelligences that focused only on mathematical and linguistics skills were unfair. This has been the trend in traditional standards and schools have encouraged such approaches. From this point, we can note that Gardner’s approach to IQ testing goes beyond mathematical and linguistics abilities and includes other areas of intelligence.

Gardner demonstrates uniqueness of different learners and that every learner has specific strengths and weaknesses. This observation may make proponents of multiple intelligences approaches argue that psychometric approaches are restrictive and apply to disadvantaged groups.

Jensen argues that the g factor also shows differences among people in processing information (Jensen, 1998). He observes that IQ scores may also reflect correlations among tests. Jensen acknowledges differences among tests and needed skills, but points out such correlations do not exist in the factor analysis.

Instead, they reflect the presence of the g factor in learners’ cognitive processes. Thus, Jensen may relate g factor to information processing skills among learners. He also relates the g factor to biological aspects in terms of brain contents and information processing. Researchers that have interests in brain studies have established associations between the brain’s gray matter and high IQ in certain parts of the brain, using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Haier et al, 2004).

Gardner also associates the brain with intelligence, especially in logical-mathematical and interpersonal skills. Haier and colleagues’ study seems to support the approach that differences in weaknesses and strengths among individuals of same IQ occur due to “variation in mental skills that influence information processing instead of interactions among various intelligences” (Haier et al, 2004).

Failures in models of intelligence tests have created issues that seek to establish relevancy of IQ testing. Critics of these models believe that such tests do not have bases because these models do not offer any kind of intervention that may help individuals classified as disabled (Benson, 2003). They also argue that the best approach is to observe an individual’s behavior both at school and home in order to gauge an individual’s ability rather than abstract IQ tests. This is the only way to get appropriate tests for learners.

In conclusion, we must acknowledge that a conclusive definition of intelligence does not exist. In fact, scholars in this field concur that the debate is ongoing through several theories that have emerged over the years. However, when we look at multiple intelligences and psychometric tests, we agree that they differ in manners each theory tries to explain intelligence testing.

However, both sets of theoretical approaches aid in understanding the concept of intelligence and testing. We must also understand the importance of emerging studies in fields of neuroscience and cognitive development. These studies also help people to comprehend intelligence. For instance, we can note the importance of such studies in understanding the g factor, individual differences and the process of problem solving.

On the other hand, multiple intelligence theories tend to demonstrate that intelligences also depend on other factors, such as experiences. In addition, these theories also show that individuals may express their intelligence in forms of behavioral aspects. The theory of multiple intelligences will gain power with emerging empirical evidence to support it. However, the future of this theory lies on evidence from other fields of study, such as neuroscience and genetic, but not on psychometric testing.

The trends of research in the field should prove Gardner’s idea that intelligence has many elements. This theory should also appeal to educators who see learners as unique individuals who have diverse talents and capabilities, weaknesses and strengths. Thus, the theory can support the idea behind learner-centered learning.

The definition of intelligence depends on several factors such as allocation of resources in the education sector. Thus, some of these IQ testing instruments may be biased depending on their origins and purposes. Most governments have advocated individual differences and most of their policies may support such approaches. We should see whether diverse or standard approaches to education IQ testing will yield positive results.

References Baltes, P. B. and Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122- 135.

Benson, E. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing: Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it. Monitor on Psychology, 34(2), 48.

Brody, N. (2003). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence, 31(4), 319-329.

Deary, I. (2012). Intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 453–482.

Gardner, H. (1998). A multiplicity of intelligences. Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence, 9(4), 19-23.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Discussion: On Sternberg’s ‘Reply to Gottfredson’. Intelligence, 31(4), 415-424.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific American, 1, 24- 34.

Haier, R., Jung, R., Yeo, R., Head, K. and Alkire, M. (2004). Structural brain variation and general intelligence. NeuroImage, 23 (1), 425-433.

Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor and the Design of Education. Intelligence, Instruction, and Assessment , 1, 1-2.

Jensen, A. R. (2000). The g factor: psychometrics and biology. Novartis Found Symp., 233, 37-47.

Klein, P. (1998). A response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, empirical evidence, and pedagogical usefulness in educational psychology. Canadian Journal of Education , 23(1), 103-112.

Lazear, D. (1992). Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation.

Sternberg, R. J. and Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1995). The triarchic model applied to identifying, teaching, and assessing gifted children. Roeper Review, 17(4), 255- 260.

Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J. (2002). Practical intelligence, g, and work psychology. Human Performance, 15(2), 143-160.

Visser, B., Ashton, M. and Vernon, P. (2006). “g and the measurement of Multiple Intelligences: A response to Gardner”. Intelligence 34 (5), 507–510.

Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories. Educational Psychologist , 41(4), 247-255.


E-warehousing (logistics a level english language essay help

The case is an illustration of two ways of taking orders by a hardware; type 1 and type 2. The following is a summary of how these ways of taking orders operate.

Type 1

An order contains one or more products. The online line system identifies product through a unique key. The operator can see the available stock on hand that can be used to satisfy the order. If there is insufficient stock the operator has the opportunity to back order the goods if requested by the store. The operator can also see the expected delivery date for new stock which comes from hardware manufacturing companies.

Type 2

The remote device ordering system is accepted via another system which stores the individual store orders. Every hour the online system interrogates the subsidiary system and transfers complete orders then the online system validates the details on the order. Products are validated for a correct unique key and a decision on back ordering is made depending on the customer preference to have goods out of stock back ordered.

New improvements It is a matter of fact that the warehouse needs to make new improvements to make it perform its function properly. The choices are few considering that the company does not have resources to finance expensive new warehouse system. In addition, the company is consumer centric and has no plan to expand the warehouse physical space. These are the main issues which should be considered while making the new improvements.

Any new improvements made should improve the quality of service the customer receives. The store people need to differentiate between frequently ordered goods from those that are not regularly ordered.

The warehouse could then ensure that the limited space at the warehouse is used majorly to store the frequently ordered goods. This would ensure that the consumer never fails to find such goods in the store. Goods which are not frequently ordered could be kept in manageable amounts so that whenever a customer makes large orders the ware house officials can negotiate for a back date.

In addition, the company could make arrangements with suppliers so that in case of urgent orders, the supplier should be willing to give the warehouse some special treatment like sending goods directly to consumer and then getting the real amount of the goods from the warehouse later after the goods are send to the consumer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This would demand a lot of trust between the ware house and the supplier accompanied with some documentation. This method is effective for both type 1 and 2 ordering methods and would ensure that the warehouse never fails to fulfil urgent orders.

Alternatively, the company could install a similar system of information communication technology with its main customers. Through this, the warehouse person can be able to frequently communicate with these customers and make inquiries about which goods could be needed in the near future and then make arrangements of acquiring them.

The warehouse could also consider making contacts with local suppliers so as to avoid shipments from international suppliers once every two months by sea freights which are costly and time consuming.

In conclusion, the efficiency of the warehouse relies on creating a good relationship with its local suppliers so that it can be able to quickly and adequately respond to urgent orders.


Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction According to Lalley and Gentile (2009), having very clear objectives is one of the important components of the learning process. In this regard, the teacher should have clear goals that serve as the guidelines for the learning process. The goals will help the teacher to be in a position to have an understanding of whether the learning process has been successful or not. It has been postulated that there are three components of the objectives namely- conditions, behavior and criterion.

Conditions refer to the material that the students will either be availed or not availed with when the objective will be assessed. Behavior refers to the activity that will be manifested by the students after the learning process.

Criterion is the standard that is used as a measure to determine whether or not the learning objectives have been accomplished in the learning process. These three components of the objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process, and ensuring that the students grasp the concepts that are taught (Lalley and Gentile, 2009).

Learning Goal 1 In the first goal, the students will be taught how to write the nouns in plural. In this regard, the students will be taught on how to use the suffixes –s and –ies.

Measurable objectives

The objectives of this learning goal will be to equip the learners with the skills that will enable them to recognize the plural forms. Moreover, the learners should also learn how to add the suffix –s to nouns in order to make them plural. At the end of the lesson, the learners should be in a position to read and form plurals that end with the suffix –es.

Additionally, the learners should be able to make a distinction between those nouns that require the use of suffix –s to make them plural, and those that require the use of the suffix –es. For this reason, the learners should know that the nouns that end with ss, x, ch, or sh should end with the suffis –es in their plural forms. On the other hand, those nouns that end in y must change the y to an i and add –es.

Standard addressed

The standard that will be addressed in this session will be the WI DPI Standard (R6). This standard outlines the objectives of the learning process. It can be used as the benchmark against which the learning process is evaluated in order to find out whether the learning process had been successful or not.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This standard set it that the learners must demonstrate the ability to listen, read, view, and the most appropriate thinking strategies and techniques. This goal will be achieved since the students will be in a position to identify words that are in plural form and those that are in singular. This will have an impact in influencing the way that they read these words (Nemec and Bussema, 2010).

Analysis of the learning goals

In this lesson, the learning goal was to teach the students how to read and write nouns in plural. This is critical since it enables the students to communicate effectively. In this regard, the students can make a distinction between the words in plural form and those in singular. This will enable them to accurately communicate their ideas, which is one of the goals of this standard. In addition, this will enable them to distinguish those nouns that use the suffix –es and those that use suffix –s in their plural form.

Learning Goal 2 In the second goal, the learners will be taught how to develop, use, and adapt the language according to the context and purpose. For example, the learners will be in a position to use vocabulary in the right contexts. In this lesson the teacher will make use of flashcards to ensure that the learners gain an understanding of the various vocabularies. The teacher will start with the introduction of the concept of the multi-meaning words. As a result, the students will learn that homophones are words that sound similar but have different meanings.


The learners will be expected to show that they understand the use of words with multiple meanings. Additionally, the learners should learn how to define and identify homographs. In addition, the leaner will be equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them to develop, use, and adapt language in accordance to the context and purpose.

The standard addressed

The goal in this lesson is to enable the learners to select the most appropriate words to use in a variety of settings. This is in line with the standards as outlined in WI DPI Standard (E2). This standard has it that the learners should be equipped with the right skills to enable them to develop, use, and adapt language according to context and purpose. The goal of this learning activity is to ensure that the aims of this standard are achieved.

Analysis of the goal

This goal is very important since the learner will be equipped with the right skills that will enable him to communicate effectively. Failure to select the most appropriate words in a variety of settings will result to a scenario whereby the students might not be in a position to be understood by the recipients of their messages. The learners should be in a position to communicate effectively using the right words and phrases in a way that do not distort the intended meaning.

Learning goal 3 In this goal, the learners will be expected to develop their fluency when communicating using the English language. Consequently, the learners will be in a position to use the right diction, intonation and emphasis when communicating. To ensure that this goal is achieved, the teacher will be expected to facilitate a session whereby all the learners will be given an opportunity to read out aloud. In this case, the learners will be expected to manifest the appropriate intonation, phrasing, expression, and rate.

We will write a custom Essay on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectives

The first objective will be to ensure that the learners are fluent while communicating with others. In this regard, the learners should use the correct intonation, emphasis and diction that will help them to communicate effectively. The teacher should stress the importance of reading every word accurately or correctly. Consequently, when the student does not read a word in the right way, the teacher should encourage him to reread in order to clarify the meaning of that sentence. In so doing, the students will improve on their reading skills.

Standard addressed

The standard addressed in this lesson is the WI DPI Standard (R6). The major objective of this standard is fluency. In this regard, the students should be in a position to select and apply the listening, reading, viewing, visual representation, and thinking strategies and techniques. This will enable the students to have the right diction, intonation and emphasis that are required to communicate effectively.

Analysis of the goal

Having the right diction, intonation and emphasis will have the effect of helping the students to communicate effectively. This is because failure to pronounce the words the right way could have the effect of distorting the meaning of the words, and by extension the message that is being communicated. By directing the students to reread the words that they may have mispronounced, the teacher will be impressing on the students to always read and pronounce the words in the right way.

Learning Goal 4 In this goal, the role of the teacher will be to equip the learner with the right skills to enable them to understand the context and the applicability of the text to the contemporary settings.


The students will be expected to be in a position to identify the characters in the story. In addition, the learners will be expected to understand the setting of the story. This will entail understanding the plot of the story, and where possible relate it to the events that are taking places in the current world.

The standard that are addressed

The standards that are addressed in this lesson are highlighted in WI DPI Standard (R4). The major goal of this standard is to promote the comprehension capabilities of the students.

For this reason, the students should be taught how to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and evaluate text objectives. This is because there is a very big difference between reading for pleasure and reading for understanding. By understanding, the learners will be in a position to retain much of the information that they come across while reading books (Jiang and Elen, 2011).

Analysis of the goals

Sometimes, the students read books for the purpose of enjoyment and not necessarily to understand the issues that are portrayed therein. However, this lesson will help the learners to have an appreciation of the role of literature in pointing out the issues that take place in the current world. When the student are taught ways of ensuring that they understand fiction, they will be in a position to relate the issues that are highlighted and those that reflect what happens in the contemporary world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To enhance the efficiency of the teaching method used, the teacher will explain the elements of fiction. Students are supposed to learn the themes and setting of the story. Moreover, they are expected to learn the plot and the point of view. By having a better grasp of those concepts, the students will be well equipped to understand the stories that they read, and identify the issues that are portrayed (Jiang and Elen, 2011).

Conclusion It has been postulated that the objectives are very important in the learning process. This is because they help the teacher in defining the learning outcomes. Additionally, objectives ensure that the teachers are focused in their teaching sessions to ensure that the students get the maximum benefits for the learning process.

Additionally, these learning objectives help in clarifying, organizing, and prioritizing the learning process (Jiang and Elen, 2011). The objectives are important in evaluating how well the students have understood the concepts as well as giving them a chance to learn on their own.

Reference List Jiang, L.,


International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism Essay essay help

Introduction Whether the nation state is of any more importance as compared to supranational organisations remains an intriguing question. Ralston Saul, the author of ‘The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World’, as well as Ronkainen Czinkota, Sutton-Brady, and Beal, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition’ come in handy to provide a clear-cut distinction between the two in terms of their importance. Examples of nation states include Japan, Portugal, and Iceland.

On the other hand, supranational organisations involve all the Non-Governmental Organisations, Inter-Governmental Organisations characterised by treaties signed by each member state, collective decision making, and a committee body elected by each member state (Demirpolat, 2009, p.98).

Examples of such organisations are the United Nations, World Bank, Common Wealth, African Union, European Union, and World Health Organisation amongst others. They, too, have their own pros and cons. Though the paper so far is silent in terms of the pertinence of the two, it argues out that the nation state is not as important as supranational organisations.

Why not go for the Nation State Loose of sovereignty

Sovereignty is “the quality of having supreme independent authority over a geographic area such as a territory” (Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). It is the power of a state to rule and make laws. Arguing against the nation state, Saul criticises the sovereign states like the US referring them to as “confused empires…suffering from negative nationalism” (2005, Chap. 25). The world is constantly changing daily. New forms of technology are being introduced each day in the markets.

This is posing a very great challenge to the nation state, as it has to change constantly with the other people outside its territory. This forces the nation states to join other states to form supranational organisations in order to conduct trade with them. In agreement with Saul, Mukherjee shows the importance of unity among the UN member states.

According to Mukherjee, all the 191 nations who are members of the United Nations had agreed “…to work together towards the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015” (Mukheerjee, 2010, p.593: Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). They also agreed to work together to fight the challenges faced in the individual states

Internal friction

A nation state can have two different communities in a territory as it is in Rwanda in Africa where there is Hutu and Tutsis communities. In relation to this, Saul relates the nation state to an “Oligarchic giant that squeezes out the less competent or wealthy countries from having an equal role on the world stage” (2005, Chap. 26). Some countries have “different religious groups with different beliefs and practices” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hepburn and McLoughlin, religious or ethno-national cleavage in Northern Ireland that has resulted in violent inter- ethnic conflicts (2011, p.384). Since such groups usually have different number of people, there are minority and majority groups. Majority groups often marginalise the minority culture groups, a situation known as internal friction that Saul addresses as ‘squeezing’.

This can cause conflicts among the people, which can result into internal war. A good example is the genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1991 leaving over half million people dead. According to the UN reports, the genocide in Rwanda happened when the Hutu started slaughtering the minority Tutsis leaving about 800,000 people dead.

Difficult in migration

In the nation state, the issue of globalism, as Saul says, “…has indeed failed thereby failing people as well” (2005, Chap.26). People in these states do not bother to follow them. Saul addresses this as lack of democracy in the nation state. He says this has “Weakened the nation-state through the idea of inevitable international forces” (Saul, 2005, Cha. 27). This in turn raises the number of illegal migrations, which in turn increases crimes like robbery, rape and drug abuse.

According to the article by Lomsky-Feder, global orientation is a process aiming at reducing migration costs and removing barriers among the states of the world (Lomsky, 2011, p. 593). He further argues that this can only be achieved through international unity. In other countries, to acquire migration documents is very expensive and many people in such countries cannot afford. Migration is discouraged barring “people from moving freely from one country to another” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).

Conflicts with the opposing groups

Nation states tend to get opposing challenges from the supranational organisations. Not all countries may have all the resources required by a state to live independently. Saul comes with the subject of “Public good” (2005, Cha. 25) as a key goal that the nation state do not uphold. Others need advice and other financial materials. Hence, they have to collaborate with other countries. This forces this state to join international organisations in order to do business and trade with other countries.

Lomsky asserts that ‘global citizen’ competes with more traditional prototype of the ‘national citizen’, which is primarily identified with the nation state system, but the ‘global citizen’ is winning (Lomsky, 2011, p.593). All the nation states are currently getting opposing conflicts from supranational organisations, and it may cause their distinction soon. Nationalism is currently being replaced by supranational organisations!

Soon and soon, each country will have to join the other countries in globalisation. Finally, the whole world will be like one small village maybe with one president. This, as Saul predicts, is the “Free-trade paradise where the inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth” (2005, Chap.28).

We will write a custom Essay on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vilification of globalism

Those for the idea of globalism have declared nation states as “heading toward irrelevance: that economics, not politics or arms, would determine the course of human events; that growth in international trade would foster prosperous markets that would, in turn abolish poverty and change dictatorships into democracies” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 29).

The world is currently changing. Every person living today will have no choice but to change with it. When one goes to Rome, he/she should behave like Romans. Currently new scientific methods and machines are being invented. Human beings have to adopt those methods for better living conditions. Burgess argues in his journal that European countries are currently accepting changes from nationalism to supranational organisational systems.

This has resulted to the creation of European Union (Burgess, 2011, p.9). He also argues that people “must therefore abandon the forms of the past and enter the path of transformation, both by creating common basic economic conditions and by setting up new authorities accepted by the sovereign nations” (Burgess, 2011, p.14).

Concurring with Saul, he argues that Europe should rediscover the leading role she used to play in the world, which she lost due to division of its states. Globalism and change go together. Globalism is like a policy that places the interests of the entire world above those of individual nations. Nationalism, Saul says, tends to vilify globalism hence making it infamous (2005, Chap. 25). It tends to malign the idea of globalisation.

Increased corruption cases

In the countries, which practice the nation state systems, there is a large number of corruption cases. In fact, Saul criticises the nation states based on their rampant cases of corruption involving money. “You can always tell you’re in deep trouble when people start thinking money’s real” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 23: Bekus, 2010, p.389).

This is the trouble faced by nation states. Having in mind that supranational organisations help to fight corruption, these countries lack pressures from such organisation as the United Nations, which help their members to fight corruption. Wilding argues that, presently, there is increased sense of the global nature of many problems, which can only be dealt by interacting with other states (2009, p.736). He also says that these problems cannot be solved by one nation.

Rather, they require action at higher, transnational or even global level. Problems as increased corruption cases have a negative impact on the lives of their citizens. The minorities live in very poor living conditions while government officials live like kings. Alexander asserts that leaders in nation states have raised the corruption rates while seeking for national dependency (2010, p.868).

Why supranational organisations are Important Economic Importance

Czinkota et al, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition, second Edition’ come in handy in favor of supranational organisations: the stance of the paper. Nations, which have joined hands with other nations to form supranational organisations, get economic benefits. These benefits include trade conducted by the member countries that Czinkota et al (2011, p.23) refers to as ‘international marketing’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supranational organisations are international organisations formed by a conjunction of several states. The member countries form intergovernmental organisations, which set rules and regulations by which the trade within these countries should be carried. The cost of the importation of goods is reduced and this in turn boosts the trade between these countries. The international trade has reduced poverty in the member states.

Economic growth is the only result, as Czinkota et al points out based on the increase in the amount of goods and services which are produced by a country, a state, a nation or any economy (2011, p.28). The free trade pact policy in supranational organisations such the UN, the EU and the AU has boosted trade in its members.

Development of member states

Supranational organisations enhance international relations between their member states. In fact, Czinkota et al “focuses on Australian and New Zealand firms looking outwards, principally but not exclusively towards the Asia–Pacific region, as this is the major focus of their international business activities” (2011, p.45). Development can be in many forms. It can be inform of international relations or the physical developments.

Development is a significant event or occurrence that causes change, growth or advancement. It is evolution, progress or expansion in a country or the whole world. Physical development includes urban settings, infrastructure and technology while international relations include intergovernmental friendships or any other relations between two or more states (Hill, 2003, p.56). They also advance common interests of the member countries as well as the common good for the humanity.

They provide financial, technical and humanitarian assistance to the member countries (Czinkota et al, 2011, p.65). This in turn increases the rate of development in such countries. Countries borrow ideas from each other. Ideas of urban planning are passed from one country to another. This is why most urban cities in the world are identical.

These organisations cause development of infrastructure in their member countries. Infrastructure “helps determine the success of manufacturing and agricultural activities. Investments in water, sanitation, energy, housing and transport” (Jan, 2003, p.26), which are parts of infrastructure also improve lives and help to reduce poverty. Information and communication technology that is highly employed in supranational organisations, promote growth; improve delivery of health and other services.

In line with this claim, “European institutions, networks and lobbying organisations have provided an ‘opportunity structure’ for sub-state actors, and European integration has opened up new possibilities to pursue territorial interests that were once ‘closed’ by the expansion of the nation state” (Hepburn,


Organization in the America Red Cross Research Paper best college essay help

Introduction In every organization, the way in which people behave is determined by organizational culture, communication, authority and motivation and other work techniques. A favorable culture is that which makes people feel important. This type of culture should embrace good communication, motivation for workers and good work techniques.

The Culture Embraced At the America Red Cross Organization The culture of an organization can fall under pluralism, dualism or salad bowl. Everyone should be able to adopt their organization’s culture although sometimes it might be hard to assess and understand that culture. As employees interrelate with each other at their place of work every day, their various cultural demonstrations practically begin to disappear and they begin to adopt the organizational culture.

However, how employees behave in terms of workmate relations, enjoyment of work and performance in their duties is shaped by the organizational culture, as stated by Norgren


How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Throughout history, the world economy has been significantly influenced by financial institutions and rules in the international monetary system, in ensuring financial stability. In particular, these institutions have played major roles, during financial crises, witnessed in recent years.

Even though there are numerous financial institutions, it has been argued that the International Monetary Fund is one of the most influential organs, with immense impact on the world economy (Peet 2009, p. 56). This can be proved by the manner in which it responds during critical financial moments, like during the Global Financial Crisis and the current Euro zone stalemate.

Since its establishment in 1944, at a United Nations conference held in Bretton Woods, IMF has initiated a wide-range of reforms in the global financial market. Importantly, only forty-four governments were represented as they agreed to develop a framework, aimed at enhancing economic cooperation among members.

This move was mainly triggered by devaluation errors, which had resulted into the Great Depression that was witnessed in 1930s (Peet 2009, p. 71). In addition, IMF stepped-up organized exchange arrangement, which was essential in promoting stability among its members. This further sought to eliminate competitive exchange depression, which had dominated the world at the beginning of the 20th century.

Moreover, IMF wanted to eliminate restrictions within the international market, which would hamper expansion of trade around the world. To achieve this, members agreed on the establishment of a multilateral payment structure that streamlined transactions among member states.

It is worth noting that these reforms aimed at stabilizing the international monetary system, which remains crucial in shaping the world economy. These initiatives have also been applauded for promoting economic growth, reduction of poverty and improvement of people’s living standards around the world (Peet 2009, p. 67). Based on ever-changing financial challenges, IMF has considered reviewing its mandate in responding to global financial crises.

This essay focuses on how the role of the International Monetary Fund has changed since its establishment in mid 1940s. More importantly, the analysis will explore some of the factors, which have contributed to the restructuring of the institution, on the basis of the world financial issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this, the paper will also cover the body’s response to recent economic crises, which have had significant implications. Lastly, the essay will discuss the future of IMF, in terms of its functions as it enhances the stability of the international monetary system.

How the role of the IMF has changed since 1945 In understanding the role of the International Monetary Fund since its establishment, a lot of attention has always been put on how its role has continued to evolve. In fact, some people argue that what IMF does today, differs completely from what it used to do immediately after its formation. How has this evolution occurred?

Are there factors, which have contributed to the change of the body’s original roles? These are some of the questions addressed in this segment of the analysis. For better understanding, a chronological performance of the institution will be reviewed, in order to create a link between the past and the current status, of one of the most influential financial organs in the world today.

IMF after Bretton Woods According to the history of the International Monetary Fund, it is believed that Bretton Woods’ agreement, which was signed in the 1945, was abandoned in 1970s. This period was primarily characterized by floating exchange rates, which led to a sharp rise in the exchange rate volatility, leading to a disrupted global financial system (Underhill et al. 2010).

Additionally, the institution appeared to have survived its significance and was unable to contain the bouts of financial volatility which surged frequently. Volatility was highly unpleasant to the market even though it was not easy to realize stable rates.

In addition, there was a high likelihood of reduced pressure due to the high level of uncertainties, and looming inflation that was to escalate as a result of intense devaluations. In this regard, most of the member states were not prepared to cope with uncontrolled floating rates. Nevertheless, developed countries played a major role in coordinating exchange rate policies, even though it was done without involving the IMF and undeveloped countries.

Furthermore, this period saw the International Monetary Fund shift its attention from member states to developing countries. For instance, it terminated the financing of the payment imbalances of developed countries, as its financial support gradually shifted to developing countries (Underhill et al. 2010). To be more specific, the last programs to be financed by the IMF in developed countries were carried out in the United Kingdom and Italy in 1977. This was mainly after the general move by countries to float exchange rates.

We will write a custom Essay on How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unfortunately, the Fund’s shift to support developing countries did not have any impact on its overall view towards the causes and solutions for balance of payment crises, which had dominated the international monetary system. Even after the great crisis, which was witnessed in 1982, and left Mexico, Brazil and other developing countries Bankrupt, the IMF did not initiate any reforms, which would have helped the affected economies to recover easily (Kirshner 1995, p. 34).

The problem persisted until mid 1980s, when the Fund merged efforts with indebted countries to adopt structural reforms. Importantly, there is a new image that emerges by focusing on the adjustment programs, which were negotiated by the Fund in 1990s. In fact, the Fund’s help was mainly based on the structural reforms as opposed to the immediate measures of fiscal restraint.

This was clearly evident in 1997, when the IMF was authorized to take care of East Asian countries; fiscal restraint was temporarily terminated during the implementation of structural reforms (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134). This was the determining condition for the IMF to continue supporting the care-program. The following segment of this analysis discusses the role of the International Monetary Fund in the 90s.

The IMF in the 1990s Unlike the previous period, 1990s was characterized by stable exchange rates among most member states. Despite the fact that floating exchange rates played a major role in defining the relationship between powerful currencies in the world, most countries remained obedient to fixed rates as they struggled to stabilize their exchange rates (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134).

This group comprised of several developing countries, which targeted to use stable exchange rates at the moment to tame inflation or eliminate trade uncertainties that were common for export-oriented economies. This environment of fixed and semi-fixed exchange rates favored the thriving of the International Monetary Fund.

By this time, it was clear that the functions of the IMF had tremendously changed, including its original mission, which had served as a major driving force in early years of its establishment (Eichengreen 2008, p. 172). There was uneven flow of capital in countries, as private capital flows became more dominant compared to public and multilateral flows. Additionally, a conservative anti-government ideology found its way in most Western nations, resulting into massive deregulation of private transactions and numerous privatization initiatives.

Consequently, the views of the IMF with regard to capital controls were treated with a reversal shock. Moreover, the Fund got concerned with not only the efficiency of capital controls, but also their desirability. On the other hand, it paid more attention to the efficacy of domestic financial sectors as it dealt with high volume of resources (Eichengreen 2008, p. 210).

Similarly, the Fund embarked on championing the cause of financial freedom, in order to allow free circulation of capital around the world by eliminating controls and restrictions, which were in place. Additionally, the IMF got interested in improving the financial sector in most developing countries, by allowing them to have access to foreign banks. Furthermore, the Fund went on to interfere with domestic financial policies of its members, through direct support of changes in domestic policies (Dodge


Global Marketing Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help

Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou


Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).

In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.

The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.

Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.

It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.

In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott


Global Marketing Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou


Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free

Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).

In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.

The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.

Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.

It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.

In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott


Venus Inc. Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Problem Identification Venus Inc. is a company located in the United States that deals with medical supplies. Having operated in the United States for 12 years, it hopes to expand its operations across the world. The company has four major departments including sales, marketing, supplying and manufacturing all of which work together to enhance the performance of the organization.

The managing director, Kimberly Johnson, has been the manager of the company for the last seven years and has seen diminished growth of the company in terms of productivity and performance. Indeed, the company has recorded losses for the last three years. This has raised concerns for the stakeholders and Kimberly seeks to reverse the trend by enhancing a positive organizational behavior. Particularly, she has explored various reasons that could have led to the downtrend that the company experiences.

At the outset, she notes that the organization has four incoherent departments. The sales department head, Ryan Kiste has steered his department to growth notwithstanding the poor performance exhibited by other departments. Nonetheless, he has always been at loggerheads with other departmental heads owing to his ability to inspire performance within his department.

During management meeting with Kimberly, the differences among the managers remained apparent, as they have already created divisions among the employees. Kimberly realized that the problem is deep rooted in the organizational behavior of the company. She therefore seeks to see the solutions that the managers would present to respond to the diminishing performance.

It also comes to light that the employees’ motivation has decreased and Ryan pinpoints that lack of a remuneration strategy could have been the major cause of divisions among both employees and managers.

Organizational Level Analysis of Venus Inc Organization Culture

Organizational culture of an organization refers to the prevalent practices are common within departments of a company (McKenna 2000, p. 56). It distinguishes the organization from other organizations and makes it unique. Normally, organizations use their culture as a competitive edge over their rivals. It fosters common beliefs and practices within an organization and cultivates a sense of the belongingness among the employees.

According to McKenna (2000, p. 58), organizational culture is instrumental in ensuring that the practices and beliefs of people remain in line with the organization’s needs and ensures that a company is able to achieve its goals of maximizing on profits and revenues. To that end, all organizational practices and beliefs are synchronized in such a way that they reflect the organizations core values and vision (Black 2003, p. 71).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For Venus Inc., the organizational culture seems to be a major problem. Every department seems to have differentiated practices that have led to a fragmented organization. The beliefs possessed by employees working in Ryan’s department seem to be different from those of other departments.

Therefore, Venus Inc. faces challenges in coming with a uniform organizational culture that guides the employees and ensures that the identity of the organization is upheld. Further, the employees seem to be following the respective departments’ practices and have no shared beliefs, norms and practices that guide their code of conduct. Indeed, it is reasonably hard for Ryan to influence and motivate employees belonging to other departments to achieve their goals.

Hofstede organizational culture demands that all organization’s employees have a shared mentality and assumptions to guide the identity of the organization. This culture entails the ability of the managers to have a mind changing training in which all members get to understand the importance of the organizational culture as a source of belongingness and shared values and beliefs.

It is also noteworthy that informal sub cultures have emerged within the organization. McKenna (2000, p. 83) points out that the managers ought to be wary that subcultures that groups form may be detrimental if they deviate from the goals of the organization.

Organizational structure



Barriers to Creativity and Innovation Essay essay help site:edu

Background of the study Some barriers to innovation and creativity can affect employees considerably. Notably, deprived creativity and inadequate innovation are influencing (negatively) the productivity and expansion of various institutions. Critically, gaining exemplary performance and competitive advantages in business operations requires a high level of innovation.

This is to advance product quality in order to satisfy customer needs adequately. Meeting customer needs entails intelligent understanding of their concerns and designing amicable procedures based on innovative ideals to satisfy the concerned preferences. Indeed, innovation and creativity are fundamental pillars that influence realization of set objectives in diverse institutions.

It is imperative to note that institutions, which perform exemplarily, are driven under innovative and creative ideals. This has contributed in elevating their product quality and service delivery.

Innovation entails the capacity of creating new ventures and production procedures. It sets unique systems of operation that has not been fully exploited to gain competitive advantages. Innovation is achievable through determination and consistent pursuit for knowledge that defines institution’s competitiveness.

As noted, no institution that can leverage its performance without innovation and advancement of products based on creative ideals. Ideally, institutions should develop strong innovative and creative department to drive product growth and eliminate barriers that may hinder commodity development. The department should be operated with determined, intelligent and passionate individuals with requisite capacity of learning new ideals of operation.

They should also be able to carry out detailed research on emerging issues based on quality and the opportunities that are presented by the environment. Organizations that perform better and hold global presence, for example, Toyota Company, develop its products under innovative ideals. The company recognizes that innovation is the key to survival in the current competitive environment.

The company’s management states that innovation is an element that seeks to add value to consumers by delivering products that hold unique but essential features conforming to their specifications. To achieve high standards of innovation, their must be superior communication, training, career development, technology advancement, and performance of research.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Variably, individuals must exhibit positive attitude, perception and eradicate the fear of failure that influences execution of credible concepts (Dhillon, 2009, P, 3). Innovative initiatives are developed through understanding of the current needs and future expectations in terms of product functionality.

Innovators are constantly in pursuit of how well a product can serve its purpose efficiently and effectively. This is guided with available capacity and the needs of consumers. It is clear that innovators are individuals who set realistic, measurable, attainable and specific goals that hold growth orientation.

They are first thinkers (innovators) always keen to provide solutions to complications/problems that might hinder execution of duties in various sectors. Developed nations, for example, US and Japan, are putting more emphasis on innovation as a performance measure. The authorities in the nations asserts that, evident barriers to innovation that includes poor research and lack of resources influences generation of new ideas.

Variably, brainpower, inferior ICT integration, negative attitude, perception and lack of superior communication channels, also hampers production of new commodities and the implementation of new ideas. Proper solution measures should be undertaken to mitigate the complications that hinder innovation.

The nations have developed superior policies with an aim of boosting innovation with the Japanese governing stressing on the kaizen system that presents credible capacities that foster creativity. This study evaluates the barriers that influence innovation and creativity that forms major performance elements in institutions with focus to Toyota and Samsung companies.

Purpose of to study This study strives to unveil how innovation and creativity form credible aspects of employee development. It also shows how some barriers can affect the innovation and creativity among employees. The study is conducted to provide essential and insightful information on the barriers that influence effective innovation and creativity in institutions. It is set to equip policymakers with the imperativeness of enhancing innovation and creativity in corporations.

The study also seeks to relay essential information on the barriers that affect innovation to aid formulation of relevant mitigating mechanism. This is set to ensure that individuals or institutions acquire full knowledge on the relevant steps necessary to improve growth and facilitate production of quality items that conforms to customer specifications.

We will write a custom Essay on Barriers to Creativity and Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rationally, managers should develop a strong performance mechanism that encourages innovation. They should provide pertinent incentives and emphasize on research to advance production of unique products (Griffin