Effects Of Technology And Globalization On Gender Identity Essay Writing Essay Help

Table of Contents How improvements in sciences affected homosexuality

How globalization affected homosexuality

Effects of internet and media on homosexuality



Over time, improvements in technological advancements and globalization have had immense effects on gender identity. Currently, innovations play key roles in our daily social lives. Throughout history, improvements in technology have had a dynamic relationship with gender identity (Shaver, 1991).

Unlike in the past, the speed at which the technology changes in our current society is affecting contemporary societies in new and transformative ways. As such, these changes in social norms and dominant ideologies are quickly changing the perceptions held about gender. Notably, the media, internet, and other influential powers are constructing beliefs, norms, and perceptions of gender identity.

During the last 2 centuries, several gender identity theories have been developed. According to the sociologists, gender is identified through physical body features, behaviors, and interpretations of our physical and physiological inputs (Shapiro, 2010). Currently, it is widely believed that gender is an experience of the mind. This implies that gender identities are not necessarily inborn. In the existing literatures, the authors acknowledge that globalization and technology have had immense effects on gender identity.

However, these literatures focus on gender identity in general failing to detail on the effects of technologies on specific gender aspects such as homosexuality and transgender. This paper comprises of three sections. In the first section, effects of scientific advancements in homosexuality between the 15th and 19th century are highlighted. The second section focuses on the effects of globalization and technological improvements on homosexuality in the 20th century.

In the third section, the effects of technological advances and globalization on homosexuality in the 21st century are investigated. Finally, the final paragraph summarizes the whole paper confirming that improvements in technology and globalization have changed the world’s perception about homosexuality. In general, this paper seeks to investigate whether technology and globalization has changed the world’s perception about homosexuality.

How improvements in sciences affected homosexuality Across Europe, during the 15th to the beginning of the 19th century homosexuality was regarded as a sin or a crime against nature (Caplan, 1987). During this period, homosexual acts were considered offenses punishable by the rule of law. As such, several countries formulated harsh penalties against homosexuals. Throughout this period, several individuals were killed for being homosexuals.

Researchers agree that in spite of the harsh laws prohibiting homosexuality, homosexual social networks thrived and function privately. In the early 18th century, science played a major role in the developments across Europe. Researchers argue that the rise of science in the 19th century was not only important in the development of economies but also in the discoveries about homosexuality (West, 1968).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Earlier, before the adoption of science in studies related to human behavior studies, scholars believed that sodomy and lesbianism were against the laws of nature. In the 18th and the 19th centuries, scholars did extensive studies on human behaviors. Through these studies, it was noted that man existed freely in nature, and that he is supposed to submit to the laws of nature. Following these scientific studies, sodomites began to realize that all actions in nature were governed by natural laws.

Based on these revelations, sodomites argued that their sexual conducts were natural. In the 19th century, improvements in technology, medicine, and psychology led to several studies and discussions on homosexuality. Doctors were mandated by the courts to crosscheck defendants accused of homosexuality (Shapiro, 2010). Similarly, the practice of homosexuality became prevalent with increase in school attendance.

In addition, improvement in medical technologies and psychology enabled physicians to account the causes of homosexual behaviors. Through these advancements, the medieval perceptions that homosexuality was a sin against nature faded progressively as the public became aware of the issues. Modern perceptions of homosexuality as a harmless behavior and natural act are attributed to globalization and advancement in technologies.

How globalization affected homosexuality In the 20th century, globalization redefined the understanding of gender identities (Shapiro, 2010). During this century, the world witnessed enormous infrastructural developments. Through these developments, people were able to travel and mingle unlike any other time in history. Owing to this, several cultures and beliefs integrated leading to different understandings on gender identity.

Researchers argue that out of globalization effects, homosexuality did not only become prevalent, but also became acceptable among diverse societies. During the century, several countries acknowledged the fact that laws that prohibited homosexuality were against the human rights entitled to every individual (Shapiro, 2010). In the same period, several countries abolished gender biased laws and laws that prohibited homosexuality.

Following this initiative, same sex marriages and gay sex became acceptable among most modern societies in the developed nations. In general, globalization increased public awareness in homosexuality leading to its acceptance in the current societies. During the 1960s and 1970s, gay movements sprung up across America and Europe. These movements consisted of homosexual members and their sympathizers (Ojeda, 2004).

Through these movements, these individuals championed for equality in the society. Before these movements, there were several laws such as labor laws that discriminated against the homosexuals. Following the rise of these movements, before the early 1980s, further studies and researches were conducted to understand the minority group (Kitzinger, 1987). Through these studies, several philosophical theories were developed enhancing gay and lesbian understanding among scholars and the public at large.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Technology and Globalization on Gender Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During this period, the movements attracted extensive media coverage and analysis. As a result, more people got a chance to learn several facts related to homosexuality. For instance, through media coverage several people were able to understand that homosexuality is a natural, harmless act. Before the end of the 20th century, awareness about homosexuality led to some individuals disapproving past prejudices and myths associated with homosexuality (Greenberg, 1988).

Effects of internet and media on homosexuality Since the early 21st century, technological revolution has enhanced the public change of perceptions about homosexuality. Similarly, through these technologies, homosexuals have been able to understand and accept their behavior as any other natural behavior.

Through television shows, radio shows, movies, and documentaries, the public understanding of homosexuality has been greatly changed (Shapiro, 2010). Currently, there are several movies, documentaries and radio shows that address the issues of homosexuality in the contemporary society.

Equally, the current media industries have been mandated to avoid sexual or gender biases in their shows. By being forced to do so, implies that the media houses have to portray positive attitudes and perceptions related to minority groups such as the gays and lesbians. Through these initiatives, the public perceptions on homosexuality have improved significantly. Moreover, through the media the public has been able to realize that homosexuality cuts across all races, ethnicities, and societies (Shapiro, 2010).

For instance, some of the prominent actors, politicians, and musicians have been known publicly through the media as homosexuals. Through this, the public has not only enhanced their awareness on the issue but also forced to embrace the behavior. With the invention of the internet, the public has been able to access information from their computers and phones. Several websites have been created to champion against gender and sexual discriminations (Shapiro, 2010).

Through these websites, internet users can learn about gay and lesbian rights and other issues related to the behavior. By doing so, awareness of the behavior has been enhanced leading to the increase in positive attitudes about the homosexuals. On the internet, there are several popular websites dedicated to the homosexuals. On these websites, homosexual members and non-homosexual members log in, and thereafter they chat freely with other members (Shapiro, 2010).

These websites have enhanced dissemination of information between members in various parts of the world. According to gay users, the websites allow them to express their feelings and attitudes freely with other members, something they could not have been able to achieve through face-to-face conversations. Out of their interactions, homosexuals have come to accept their sexual conducts allowing them to socialize freely in the society.

Conclusion Through this article, we realize that over time improvements in technology and globalization have had immense changes on homosexuality. As such, during the 16th to 19th century improvements in the field of science, psychology, and economics forced the world to change some of its archaic perceptions about homosexuality.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Technology and Globalization on Gender Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, during the 20th century, further improvements in technologies and globalization led to further acceptance of homosexuality in our societies. In the 21st century, new inventions in the media industry and the invention of the internet have not only led to deeper understanding of homosexuality, but have also led to widespread interaction of homosexuals all over the world.

I believe that, further advancements in online technologies will continue to affect our perceptions on gender identity. In this regard, gay and lesbian activists should continue to develop interactive websites through which they can educate the public on various issues related to homosexuality.

Similarly, these online communities should enable the homosexuals and non-homosexual users to interact freely without fear of condemnation. Correspondingly, through our daily activities we must strive to ensure that gender and sexual discrimination are abolished in our society (Bozett, 1989). This implies that we should advocate for appropriate policies that uphold equality in our societies, schools, and institutions.

References Bozett, F. W. (1989). Homosexuality and the family. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Caplan, P. (1987). The Cultural construction of sexuality. London: Tavistock Publications .

Greenberg, D. F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kitzinger, C. (1987). The social construction of lesbianism. London: Sage Publications.

Ojeda, A. (2004). Homosexuality. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Shapiro, E. (2010). Gender circuits: bodies and identities in a technological age. New York, NY : Routledge.

Shaver, J. P. (1991). Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan ;.

West, D. J. (1968). Homosexuality (3rd ed.). London: Duckworth.


Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Machiavelli and Aristotle’s perceptions towards virtue endure until today. The differences in their perceptions towards politics allowed the two to come up with diverse dimensions of ethics and virtues as well as their role in politics. Aristotle comes up with a clear distinction between personal virtue and civic virtue and has the conviction that the two are autonomous. Hence, “it is evident that the good citizen need not of necessity possess the virtue which makes a good man” (Aristotle “Politics” 54).

According to Aristotle, civic virtue is critical to politics and it facilitates in promoting national harmony. On the other hand, Machiavelli takes a different position with respect to ethics and virtue. Unlike Aristotle, Machiavelli does not find virtue to be of great significance. Machiavelli posits, “Therefore, if a prince wants to maintain his rule, he must be prepared not to be virtuous and to make use of this or not according to need” (65).

Machiavelli vs. Aristotle According to Machiavelli, “if one considers everything well, one will find something appears to be virtue, which if pursued would be one’s ruin, and something else appears to be vice, which if pursued results in one’s security and well-being” (62). Machiavelli uses an empirical approach to explain what entails virtue. He posits that an individual might have limited cognitive abilities and thus can fail to fathom why something is erroneous.

On the other hand, things that were once considered virtuous can turn out to be erroneous. In a way, Machiavelli is referring to both authority and self-examination. At times, people fail to acknowledge virtue not due to flaws in their perception, but because they may have been wrongly instructed. Consequently, Machiavelli believes that when deciding on what is virtuous, people should not consider only what is ethically right or abide by custom authorities.

Machiavelli comes up with a utilitarian understanding of virtue. He claims, “For something to be a virtue in the moral sense, it cannot seriously compromise our worldly well-being” (Machiavelli 69). In this way, he restricts the scope that moral virtue can cover. One wonders if he accords any significance to moral virtue.

Machiavelli considers those leaders that are capable of transforming the world to meet their needs to be virtuous. In addition, he perceives outstanding political skills as virtuous. One of the limitations of Machiavelli’s idea about virtue is that he does not show what virtue really comprises and how one can cultivate it.

Both Aristotle and Machiavelli believed that no virtue could come out of ignorance. Machiavelli posits that when one reflects on everything well, s/he can identify what is virtuous (Machiavelli 62). Hence, one engages in virtuous acts after a thorough deliberation and no one partakes in the acts unconsciously.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Aristotle claims that virtues are temperaments for choice. He holds the conviction that for one to act from virtue, he or she has to determine if his or her undertakings are ethically correct. For one’s intentions to reflect virtue, s/he must proceed with complete awareness of the state of affairs. One cannot proceed out of ignorance. Aristotle asserts that only the premeditated or deliberate actions can be accorded praise.

According to Aristotle, virtue trait is neither defective nor excessive (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 41). He claims that virtue trait does not yield either defective or excessive feelings or actions. Hence, individuals ought to feel and act in line with the mean. Nevertheless, Aristotle posits that it is hard to come up with a definite formula for determining the mean.

In its place, virtuous people should depend on morally sensitive views to understand where virtue lies (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 51). The virtuous people identify and react to the morally significant elements available in varied contexts and modify their intentions and actions accordingly. John McDowell buys to this Aristotelian idea of virtue when he claims that virtue comprises perceptual sensitivity to the ethically pertinent qualities of one’s plight, which is a form of perceptual skill.

Aristotle refutes the claim that virtue depends on nature (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 56). He is against the claim that a person may be born with virtue.

For Aristotle, nature subjects people to embrace virtue. Even though habit facilitates in the establishment of virtues, Aristotle holds that a virtue does not comprise a habit. He states that for an individual to nurture a certain virtue, one ought to partake in activities that resemble the virtue (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 59). Aristotle claims that for a person to develop a sense of justice, s/he should engage in just actions.

The habit of engaging in just actions makes one just. Nevertheless, the habit itself does not make one just. By participating in virtuous actions, an individual is acquainted with what right deeds are like. Once he develops the virtue, he can employ the empirical wisdom to work rightly (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 63). Hence, according to this argument, Aristotle believes that one can acquire virtue, and hence it is not an inherent quality or something given by nature.

Political philosophy Due to their divergent ideas regarding virtue, Aristotle and Machiavelli hold different political philosophies. Machiavelli believes that virtue entails doing what one feels is of great benefit to him or her even though others might suffer from it. He believes in a political system where the leader has absolute powers (Machiavelli 52).

We will write a custom Essay on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to him, a bad state is one whereby the leader depends on advices from his juniors. Machiavelli believes that for a political system to be stable, one ought to depend on his or her principles and not borrow ideas from other people. He claims that virtues acquired from other people might plunge one to problems when it comes to a point of defending his or her actions (Machiavelli 68).

He claims that it is hard for a leader to maintain power if s/he has not acquired it out of his or her virtue. Machiavelli believes that depending on another person’s fortune or will is disastrous to leaders since such will or fortune is unstable. It becomes hard for a leader to take full control of his or her subjects given that the leader does not develop the art of commanding (Machiavelli 72).

Aristotle holds the belief that political leaders should serve their subjects and not enrich themselves at the subjects’ expense. Based on his perception of virtue, he puts forwards six forms of government.

They include tyranny, oligarchy, monarchy, aristocracy, polity, and democracy (Aristotle “Politics” 58). He compares all the systems of government and castigates the systems that seek to enrich the leader. While democracy bestows power to the public, Aristotle believes that such a government system had adverse effects on the less fortunate in the society.

It promotes insecurity, especially if the poor opt to take to the streets seeking to enrich themselves at the expense of the rich (Aristotle “Politics” 60). Aristotle believes in a political system that promotes sharing of power between the various classes in society. A system of government like polity ensures an even distribution of power among the poor, middle class, and the rich. Hence, the system fosters a peaceful coexistence in the entire society.

Conclusion After analyzing both Aristotle’s and Machiavelli’s ideas, I agree that the two are influential, but in different dimensions. In a bid to identify the correct theorist, I approach the two men from a perspective of an individual that is seeking to determine the most appropriate form of governance suitable for the contemporary world. Aristotle’s views on the objectives of politics, forms of governments, and duties of the public are convincing and they fit well to the contemporary global politics.

On the other side, Machiavelli’s views on the role of ethics and virtue in politics appear to be in line with what is actually happening in the contemporary political environment. Nonetheless, this aspect does not imply that according to me, Machiavelli is the correct theorist. Aristotle is the correct theorist here. Unlike Machiavelli, Aristotle backs all his arguments with real life situations.

Besides, he approaches his arguments from different dimensions and manages to show how one can nurture and practice virtue. On the other hand, Machiavelli fails to back a majority of his arguments with real life situations. Besides, he approaches the idea of virtue from a self-centered approach. Moreover, Machiavelli does not give an account of how one can nurture virtue, thus affecting the credibility of his argument.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concept of Individual Freedom Introduction Rousseau and Mill were political philosophers with interest in understanding what entailed individual freedom. Nevertheless, the two do not share common views regarding individual liberty. Mill perceives individual liberty as freedom of self-control in a mutual context (Mill 11).

He focuses on the development of man’s ethical character through psychological, social, and political liberty. Mill believes that everyone in the society is bound by an equal measure of personal freedom. Hence, the main reason why people come together in the society is to ensure that they do not infringe into others’ liberty.

In addition, Mill has the conviction that the society works to maintain its advancement and prevent its extermination, by giving room for an open personal expression. On the other hand, Rousseau views individual freedom as comprising of a collective body bound by a general will (Rousseau 3). This paper compares Rousseau’s idea of individual freedom with Mill’s idea.

Rousseau vs. Mill According to Mill, a belief is insignificant if it is only approved as a fact without being comprehended by those who embrace it. He elucidates, “There is only too great a tendency in the best beliefs and practices to degenerate into the mechanical…” (Mill13). Mill claims that to curb this issue, a belief should be discussed fearlessly, regularly, and completely.

Otherwise, people will consider it a dead doctrine. Mill claims that for any truth to apply to an individual, one has to use his or her views and judgment in ascertaining the truth. He believes that the veracity of any opinion makes part of its usefulness and no opinion that is against the truth can be of any use. Consequently, Mill believes that for individuals to trust in any opinion, it has to be of significance to them. Moreover, people are different, and thus truth ought to vary from one person to another (Mill13).

Based in these postulations, Mill holds that limiting individual freedom means rendering the entire society inert and inhibiting its progress. Progress comes from allowing individual liberties like personal expression. Allowing individual freedom gives a society a wider range of opinions and ideas to choose from, thus encouraging growth.

Conforming to traditions without understanding their values does not facilitate personal development. Consequently, individual freedom is identical to individual growth. Mill claims that when a person values him or herself, s/he is in a better position to be of significance to others (Mill15). He asserts that through personal development, an individual develops the entire society.

Mill claims that to understand how individual freedom facilitates in social bonding, one ought to understand the interaction between individuals and the state. Mill posits, “The individual is not accountable to society for its actions in so far as these concern the interests of no person but himself” (21). Besides, individual freedom, just like other freedoms, surpasses all other authorities.

Therefore, individuals are allowed an open exercise over them in Mill’s principle. Mill is categorical that the law should not enforce itself, for example on a person acting in a manner criticized by others, since s/he has the ideal liberty to act and bear the cost of his or her actions as long as the actions do not infringe into the freedom of others. The society only takes control of individual freedom if an individual’s actions tend to violate the society’s freedom.

Rousseau views the general will as the foundation of freedom, justice, and order in the society (Rousseau 3). He believes that the general will is superior in the manner that it differentiates the will of individuals. The general will cannot wish or injure itself since it comprises people it affects, and thus all its interests are in congruence with the interests of the people. For Rousseau, general will always comes up with decisions that are beneficial to all (Rousseau 4).

In addition, it derives its generality from the mutual interests that unite people and not from the number of voices. Hence, popular vote can facilitate in making effective determinations. Rousseau claims that in spite of the general will, every person remains independent. Although the “general will” determines what is right, individuals have voluntarily opted to embrace it, thus remaining their own masters.

More particularly, the common dedication amongst all people is such that, “… in fulfilling it … a man cannot work for others without at the same time working for himself” (Rousseau 5). However, it is hard for an individual to detach himself or herself from the general will. This aspect inhibits individualism, as one has to obey the rules of the general will.

The better regime Evaluating the two regimes, one may claim that they both have their benefits and limitations. Although Rousseau’s regime would promote social cohesion as people come together to address common interests, the system would be prone to resistance from its members. In spite of people sharing some common will, they might also have private will that differs with the general will.

In such a case, the regime would encounter stiff opposition as people seek to have space to attend to their private will, which in a way might violate the established general will. Moreover, the dedications that bring people together in Rousseau’s regime are mandatory only since they are communal. It would be hard for one to leave the social body should he or she cease to share mutual interests with others. In such a case, the affected person would not enjoy his or her freedom since s/he would remain in the group unwillingly.

Mill’s regime is better as compared to Rousseau’s regime. The regime not only gives room for personal rights, but also provides the mechanism to safeguard these rights.

Such a regime encourages commitment from the society. In a situation where one is not constrained by anything apart from the effects of his actions on others, it is possible for an individual to pursue his or her personal goals without interference. A regime that calls for people to observe mutual interests not only frustrates individual’s effort to pursue personal goals, but also inhibits innovation.

Every person works towards improving his or her living standards. Consequently, individuals would be willing to go a step further to come up with innovations to help them to pursue their goals. Nevertheless, if people were required to ensure that their innovations are in line with the needs of everyone in the society or a set of regulations agreed upon by the entire society, they would be discouraged from pursuing their goals in fear of violating the established regulations.

Without individuality, it is hard to accomplish individual liberty in society. I would rather be a citizen in Mill’s regime. The fact that this regime promotes individuality makes it possible for individuals in the society to uphold social order. In a bid to pursue personal goals, one has to enjoy personal liberty as well as peace.

In Mill’s regime, people would work hard to preserve their freedom and avoid infringing into the freedom of others. Hence, such a society would coexist in harmony. Mill’s regime would promote individual freedom, order, and justice. In such an environment, it is possible for an individual to make significant steps towards development.

Conclusion Rousseau and Mill present two opposing views about individual liberty. They put forward two regimes that perceive individual liberty in different dimensions. Rousseau’s regime perceives liberty in the form of the general will that brings individuals together to work towards achieving mutual interests.

On the other hand, Mill’s regime perceives individual liberty as independent with every person having a set of personal interests and goals. Mill believes that individual freedom brings people together as they seek to come up with measures to make sure that they do not infringe into the freedom of others. The main limitation of Rousseau’s regime is that it is susceptible to opposition from the members due to conflict of interests.

Moreover, the regime discourages innovation and individual growth as mutual interests bind all members. On the other hand, Mill’s regime has numerous benefits. The regime allows individuals to pursue personal interests as long as the interests do not interfere with the freedom of others. Hence, Mill offers a better regime that can foster not only personal growth, but also societal growth.

Works Cited Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics, London: Penguin Classics, 2004. Print.

Aristotle. The Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.

Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, New York: Hackett Pub Co., 1995. Print.

Mill, John. ‘On Liberty’ and Other Writings: Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Print.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract, London: Penguin Books, 1968.Print.


Analysis of Marxist Theory Essay best college essay help

According to Marx, primitive accumulation plays an important role in triggering the capitalist relations because it constitutes the starting point of the production mechanism. The point of departure has a historical nature because capitalism is the product of pre-historic development and economic revolutions.

Specific attention should be given to the moment when the production process was separated from the means of production. Hence, when the leading actors, including the high social classes and lower layers offering labor force, entered the free market, even the slight inequalities existing among those groups could be significantly amplified.

As a result, the manufactures depend on the workforce to produce consumer goods whereas laborers were free in choosing the producers to whom they are ready to sell their labor power. The exchange is unfair because the workers make this choice to earn money for living. The service offered by them has become a commodity for the leading employers to offer their specific price.

The historic foundation of the emerging primitive accumulation is explained by the pre-historic existence of the classes that accumulated wealth and the groups who agreed to sell their services for manufacturing goods. Therefore, the workers did not have other choice than propose their own workforce as the commodity which they could sell.

Such a decision points to the emergence of capitalists relations. Such a system of commodity exchange has become the starting pointing in divorcing the manufacturer from the means of producing goods and services. The emerged distribution is also premised on the transformation of social means of production and subsistence into capitalist system.

As Marx states, the main principle of primitive accumulation lies in absence of equality. In particular, the economist elaborates on violent dispossession of the entire social class from taking control over the production means through illegal acts. Such a process, therefore, can be regarded as the victimization of the population that is initiated by the governmental apparatus.

The role of the state in shaping the primitive accumulation is emphasized, although violence was the leading means of controlling the population. In order to explain the nature of the necessary evil practiced by the state, Marx refers to the origins of primitive accumulation taking roots in sixteenth century to examine how this phenomenon was established. In the course of this exploration, the economist finds out that the capitalist structure has developed from the feudalism by dissolution of the constituents of production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gradual displacement of feudal system occurred by means of mutual engagement into developing a new system of commodity exchange. Presenting the human labor as a product that can be purchased has become the trigger of reconsideration of feudalist power, as well as the enslavement of the labor workers. Such a change can also be interpreted as a transition to a new type of servitude. The proposed interpretation differs much from the one introduced by Marx because it ignores the economic strategies of development.

In fact, the labor relations could be accepted as the mutual agreement between two classes entering the free market. Humans possessing labor as the only commodity should be more concerned with selling it to elite class whose wealth is enough to purchase means of production. Therefore, Marx’s explanation of the primitive accumulation seems to be more reasonable because it emphasizes the essence of capitalist system.


Assimilation in American Life Essay essay help: essay help

Assimilation is defined as the process through which different things come together and adapt to each other’s habits, creating completely new habits. (Salins 97). In the human society, it happens when a family or an individual moves to a different location either voluntarily or through unavoidable circumstances and over time they adapt the cultural and social habits of the hosts. Some of the causes of voluntary migration includes education, work, the need to relocate to a different environment among others.

The circumstances which force an individual to relocate on the other hand include war, natural calamities, cultural issue and so on. Assimilation is important to both the hosts and the immigrants since both parties are able to learn a lot from the others in all spheres of life (Chorlton 24). Every culture has something that sets it apart and so the coming together of two or more cultures creates a blend that is neutral and one which is easy to adopt.

James is a citizen of the United States by birth since his parents migrated from Africa before he was born. They came from Kenya specifically which is in the eastern part of Africa. James’ parents migrated to the United States two years before he was born and this was brought about by the scholarship attained by the father in Massachusetts State University.

Since he had already married but without children, relocating with his wife was not such a hustle and it would save his young family from the statistics of families which have broken up due to long distance. James’ father had the option of studying at home but he decided against it since he considered it wise to travel the world and learn other people’s cultures and traditions.

This family arrived in the United States in the year 2005 and settled in Massachusetts where the university is located. From this therefore, it is clear that their choice of state was for convenience since they were not conversant with the country and having to move from one state to another would be hectic and expensive since again they still didn’t have jobs. They arrived as a family of two, husband and wife but later on they bore three children, James being the first born.

For successful assimilation to take place hence ensuring that both parties are comfortable with each other, every member of the family has to play a role (Gordon 64). According to an interview with James, assimilation begins at the point where both the hosts and the immigrants accept and appreciate each other’s presence. This means that the hosts do not develop negative attitudes towards the new presence in the neighborhood and the immigrants do not develop the feeling that they are unwanted.

In most cases, the first reception the immigrants get on arrival determines every other feeling and actions that might occur later on. In his case for the example, the parents were warmly welcomed in the neighborhood they moved into since there were other people from Africa who had already settled there. They were given the best orientation and this made them comfortable in the state from the onset. As a result, both the wife and the husband were able to express themselves with no reservations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enabled them to pick the culture of the state easily. They were also able to pass over part of their culture to their closest neighbors and to them the time they spent with the neighbors comparing their different cultures was golden. They were also able to understand the rules and regulations of the state within a short time hence were never caught up on the wrong side of the law, a common mishap with most immigrants.

The assimilation strategies that were used by this family were mostly primary and secondary strategies. Primary strategies involved hanging out with the hosts in social places hence being able to develop personal relationships (Early 99).

From these personal relationships, they were able to develop trust with the neighbors and this ensured that they were always given any relevant information especially with regards to matters of security. As a result of this trust, they were not considered as a threat and so people were free to interact with them.

The other strategy that they used was the secondary strategy which is concerned with the relationships created in the workplace and schools as well. On arrival to the United States, James’ parents secured part time jobs so that they could be able to provide for their basic needs. The workplace relationships played a major role in their assimilation process since they were able to interact with people from different professions.

This helped them specifically in choosing their career paths since they were able to know the kind of professions that were on demand in the country. This assimilation can also be attributed to the fact that they were still young and hence more flexible. It is a universal belief that age plays a major role in adaptation to different environments. Elderly people are less likely to pick up new trends as compared to the young age as was the case with James’ parents.

In this family assimilation took place with less effort since each person played their role in accepting the changes. They were however careful not to lose it completely in terms of their culture and beliefs.

They did not fully embrace the American culture but only took what they needed to fit into the community. As for the cultural assimilation, they maintained more of their culture and adopted less of the foreign culture especially in their private lives. In cases such as education where it was inevitable, they were able to embrace it fully (Barth 46).

We will write a custom Essay on Assimilation in American Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In social assimilation, they had to take up the social behavior of the hosts in order to fit into the community. They adopted the living standards of the country which were completely different from what they were used to at home and this forced them to work extra hard so as to catch up.

On marital assimilation, this did not affect them much since they were already married before they migrated, hence not having the need to look for partners in the new country. Both of them were however keen on preserving part of their culture especially where the family order is concerned. Most African families believe that women are supposed to cook and take care of their husbands, a norm that is long forgotten in the western countries.

They therefore decided unanimously to conserve this part of their culture to avoid negative issues in their marriage. The experience this family had in the host country was as a result of the changes that have taken place in the recent past in favor of assimilation. Earlier on, immigrants especially from the less developed countries were not welcomed in most states hence they had a hard time assimilating with the hosts if they ever did.

Works Cited Barth, Kelly. Assimilation. Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Print.

Chorlton, David. Assimilation. Charlotte, NC: Main Street Rag, 2000. Print.

Early, Gerald L. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation. New York, NY: Penguin Press, 1993. Print.

Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1964. Print.

Salins, Peter D. Assimilation, American Style. New York, NY: BasicBooks, 1997. Print.

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Belief without Prior Evidence Essay custom essay help

William Clifford’s famous essay The Ethics of Belief is aimed at showing that it is immoral to believe something without sufficient evidence because unjustified opinions can pose a significant threat to others.

In his work, the author demonstrates that in some cases, a person’s conviction can imperil the lives of many people; therefore, one has to ensure his/her decisions are based on facts or reliable observations, rather than wishful thinking (Clifford unpaged). Overall, it is possible to develop an objection to William Clifford’s argument. In particular, there are circumstances when people can derive evidence only when they act on some preliminary and often unsupported beliefs about something.

For example, researchers often try to substantiate a certain theory or conjecture, but their efforts are guided by the assumption that this conjecture can be true. Very often, people’s convictions and opinions lead to the discovery of data that can eventually establish the truth or falsity of these convictions. This paper is aimed at examining this objection to Clifford’s essay in more detail. To a great extent, this critique relies on the ideas of William James who discusses the nature of faith in his lecture The Will to Believe.

First, it should be noted William Clifford formulates his argument in a very concise way; in particular, he says, “it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” (Clifford unpaged). This is the main claim that he makes in his work.

In order to explain this viewpoint, Clifford describes a situation when a person can convince oneself that something is true without even trying to obtain any evidence (Clifford unpaged). One can remember the famous example of a ship-owner who convinces himself that his ship is safe and takes no effort to determine whether this assumption is true. As a result, he endangers the lives of the sailors (Clifford unpaged).

Certainly, it is possible to accept this example, because it shows that very often an individual can choose to believe that some proposition is true; moreover, he/she does not search for the facts that can verify this proposition. Clifford believes that this behavior is unethical because it can pose a threat to the wellbeing of other people. It seems that this idea should be kept in mind by every person who has to take important decisions.

Nevertheless, the central argument of Clifford’s essay cannot be fully accepted. In some cases, people have act on a certain belief, and only in this way, they can gather empirical evidence substantiating this belief. For instance, in his lecture, William James mentions a chemist who conducts a series of experiments in order to demonstrate that a certain hypothesis is true (James unpaged). Additionally, medical workers have to test a drug on human subjects, even though that they cannot ensure that it is completely safe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can also refer to the empirical studies carried out by physicist who try to demonstrate the validity of their theories or models. In other words, the actions and decisions of these people are based on preliminary and unsupported beliefs. Nevertheless, there is nothing unethical in such behavior; moreover, in some cases, it can lead to scientific discovery. On the whole, such situations are familiar to people who study natural or social sciences.

In his lecture William James argues that researchers often have to act on insufficient evidence and only in this way they can make meaningful discoveries (James unpaged). This is one of the main issues one should bear in mind. William Clifford’s implies that evidence should precede the beliefs or conviction of a person. However, the example provided by William James indicates that this process can be reversed. Therefore, the validity of Clifford’s views can be questioned even by people who conduct empirical studies.

It should be noted that William Clifford might have responded to this objection in order to defend his arguments. In particular, he could have pointed out that many researchers can easily twist facts so that they could fit their theories. Moreover, they may deliberately disregard the evidence that contradicts their hypothesis.

In other words, their studies can become biased, and the validity of their discoveries can be easily undermined. Such a possibility does exist and it creates significant problems for researchers; however, modern scientists take various safeguards to make sure that their research methods are objective and unbiased.

As it has been said before, unsubstantiated conjectures can guide the research efforts of many scientists. This is better for them to have at least unsupported beliefs, than no conjectures at all. Without them researchers may not be able to achieve any progress in their work. This is how one can justify the existence of opinions that are not sufficiently supported by empirical observations. It should be pointed out that very often one cannot gain sufficient evidence.

For example, in mathematics, a statement cannot be called true, even when it is supported by thousands of observations or empirical tests. Therefore, the main task is to find a proof showing that a theorem or conjecture is true in every possible case. This is why mathematician may spend many years in order to prove theorems or conjectures. So, William Clifford’s emphasis on sufficient evidence may not always be justified because it may be difficult to determine when the evidence is sufficient or not.

Secondly, people’s relations with one another are often based on beliefs without sufficient evidence. These beliefs become substantiated only in the course of their day-to-day interactions and experiences. In this case special attention should be paid to the concept of trust or reliance on someone else’s good intentions, expertise, friendship, or loyalty. It implies that people may have confidence in something without having substantial evidence.

We will write a custom Essay on Belief without Prior Evidence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, people can put trust in the competence of medical workers, even knowing that sometimes they can commit errors. Similarly, a person has to rely on the loyalty and integrity of his/her friends, colleagues, or relatives. It is difficult to find something unethical in these actions, in part because they are often inevitable. Very often, these decisions can be based on intuition or impressions produced by other people.

These intuitive opinions may turn to be true or false in the future, but very often people can determine it only through action. So, William Clifford’s approach to beliefs may not be applicable to daily lives of many people whose decisions are based on intuition, rather than empirical data.

Admittedly, one can argue that such behavior can lead to very adverse effects, especially in those cases, when their trust is abused by others. Nevertheless, one cannot say that people always act unethically when they rely on their intuition. Overall, these examples indicate that people can act on unsubstantiated belief and sometimes they can find evidence that support or refute their convictions only in this way. So, this examples show the limitations of Clifford’s ideas.

Certainly, one cannot entirely overlook his argument because he warns people about the dangers of unsupported beliefs and their effects on people. Moreover, his essay clearly highlights the need to search for empirical evidence or at least some confirmation of a person’s opinions.

Nevertheless, he does not take into the possibility that evidence cannot be obtained unless a person acts on certain beliefs or assumptions. In some cases, an individual may have no other options. This is the problem that William Clifford does not address in his essay.

Overall, the nature of belief continues to attract the attention of many philosophers, scientists, and epistemologists who want to. One of the main issues is the need to prove ones convictions by providing logical or empirical evidence.

In his work, William Clifford attempts to demonstrate that it is unethical to have beliefs that rely on insufficient evidence. However, this argument extends only to those situations when people refuse to search for data that can support their conviction and prefer wishful thinking. Such conduct can indeed be criticized from an ethical perspective.

However, very often people have to act on the beliefs that are not fully supported by empirical observations, and only in this way, they can discover the necessary evidence. This is one of the main points that one can make in response to William Clifford’s essay The Ethics of Belief. Still, despite these limitations, the work of this philosopher should be considered by modern scholars.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Belief without Prior Evidence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Clifford, William. The Ethics of Belief. 1 Aug. 2008. Web.

James, William. The Will to Believe. 2 Dec. 2001. Web.


God is responsible for the continuation of evil Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts

God’s and Human’s responsibility


Works Cited

Introduction The essay on the problem of evil has been a focus of argument since the sixteenth and the eighteenth century. The argument about the theodicy problem in the early modern philosophy was as a result of the new scientist’s dream. The dream was about a perfect science that could explain everything on the surface of the earth. Philosophers have treated theodicy philosophically by use of ideas to explain the challenge of sin in the present world and theologically to identify, understand and justify sin.

These intriguing questions about God are: Is God able to prevent sin? Is He willing to prevent sin? Is God powerful and good? If God is not able to prevent or unwilling to prevent sin, then He is impotent and malevolent, thus consistent with the existence of sin. If God is all powerful and benevolent, then there should not be a problem with sin (Kremer, 17). In this paper, the focus will be on Hick’s idea that God is responsible for the continuation of sin.

The attributes of God as good and powerful may not be fully understood by human beings. In addition, atheists argue that God’s attributes should be defined based on genuine theodicy showing the consistency in relating God with evil, and not just hypothetical (Kremer, 21).

Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts Suarez argued that God is the cause and answerable to every effect produced by human beings. However, the immorality of sin cannot be traced to God as a source. Suarez classified moral sins into two categories: a sinful act that has a rational good will, but has defects in due perfection with regards to a free action and evil of punishment as lacking due good inflicted as a result of sin. He also implied that some of the sins human suffer are not in any way related to their faith. In faith, all the sins that befall humans are as a result of sin (Kremer, 34).

This is especially the original sin as God’s initial intention when he created man was to keep him free from sin, suffering, and death. Natural sin is traced from the imperfect power that cause them resulting in imperfect effects. These evils are indirectly traceable to God who is the origin. Therefore, evil is not intended by God, but He permits it. On the other hand, other causes of sins can be willed by God as He cannot just be the cause of evil, but also the cause of other kinds of evil (Kremer, 65).

For something to occur, there should be a first cause that is received by a secondary cause resulting in the final completion of the secondary cause by producing certain effects. The occurrence is a manner of principles because the action of the secondary power result in a complete power. Suarez, in his conclusion, stated that God concurs with human actions since He freely offers occurrences.

He emphasized that, for human beings not to sin, they must have the ability to be self determiners with God’s concurrence, which is not the case. In addition, he agreed with the Catholic doctrine that God is the provider of the world. Therefore, every action affected in the world is either knowingly intended by God or knowingly permitted by God (Kremer, 79).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many writers deny the the perfectness of God in moral goodness, but Christian writers have not denied good as omnipotent. An early religion that was rival to Christianity believed that God did not have the power that could stop bad from occurring.

In fact, they considered both good and bad powers equally strong. Many theologians in the past have talked vaguely concerning the weakness of God in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Nonetheless, it is not clear if they thought God could not prevent Christ’s crucifixion (Kremer, 81).

Some Christian theologians have claimed that God allows evil to occur for the purpose of good. The followers of Christian traditions are worried about moral sin than natural evil. In the Christian history, natural evil was seen to be inevitable. In this case, humans were seen as immoral and embodied as many things could harm them. Augustine pointed out that natural suffering could be intended for the good purpose if the choices were made for the good purposes (Kremer, 92).

God’s and Human’s responsibility God did not ignore human responsibility for having the sovereign responsibility over his creation. Christ freed sinners from captivity even though believers still battle with the devil and the struggle against own sinful desires. Human beings do not have the power to overcome the sinful desires without the help of the holy spirit. It is a mystery that sin continues in the lives of humans after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and can only be taken out by daily repentance.

Christian considers moral evil in relation to human freedom and responsibility that involves right or wrong. Some philosophers argue that God should have created human beings who do not sin. In the same breath, He would have created people who are genuinely free and guaranteed to act rightly. This argument has caused contradiction that God made humans as genuinely independent in relation to Him (Cheetham 72).

Another contradicting argument is that God gave human freedom in relation to Him. Hick explained that this is not a genuine freedom: that a person is shaped by God and the same applies to the nature of his or her actions. Hick also argued that humans have no ability to explain a free act.

Therefore, the mystery of human freedom would always relate in understanding the origin of evil. Suffering as a result of sin draws a connection between freedom and moral evil (Cheetham 91). In this case, the moral incompetence of humans causes them a great deal of suffering.

We will write a custom Essay on God is responsible for the continuation of evil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some pain and suffering that man undergoes through as a result of sin. In some cases, the suffering is not necessarily as a result of sin or rather due to the structure of the earth. In such cases, the theodicy follows a negative path hence does not support the argument that human suffering is for the divine good purpose. God had an intention to create a perfect world for a perfect and a completely created human being.

The world is full of hardship that Hick considered not to have been made by a perfectly benevolent and powerful God. According to Christians, the world was intended to be a comfortable place for the inhabitants without pain and suffering. However, it is seen as a “soul making” place of suffering to enable human become heirs of internal life (Cheetham 93).

The nature of sin, as advocated for by Hick, makes it necessary for human beings have a reason for committing sin. This seems to conflict with the nature of sin because it makes it hard to explain. For instance, when a person makes a wrong deed, the individual usually has a choice not to do so.

The fact that a person might go ahead and do it means that there is some motivation involved. Whatever action one takes, it always serves to satisfy a certain desire. Those opposing the claims of the soul-making project make the nature of sin seem inexplicable and irrational. In response to this, Hick questioned why God created creatures acting in an unreasonable and inexplicable way. If one tries to answer this question, one can end up attributing the origin of sin to God (Cheetham 97).

Conclusion Some Christian atheists considered the death of Jesus as one of the worst thing that had ever happened out of the bad. The initial intention of God for sending his beloved son to the earth was to save the human race. The question is about why did the blood of Jesus fail to restore the relationship between man and God back to where it was before man sinned.

This could have meant that the salvation through the blood of Jesus was perfect. Some of these questions may not be understood by man. In a way, I agree that the continuation of sin is God’s will as He has power over every creation. Thus, only God can stop the occurrence of sin. God is good and powerful. Thus, whether He allows sin to continue or not, His intentions are always good as it was in the beginning of creation.

Works Cited Cheetham, David. John Hick: A Critical Introduction and Reflection. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Print.

Kremer, Elmar J. The Problem of Evil in Early Modern Philosophy. Toronto [u.a.: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2001. Print.

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Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Company profile Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry is known to provide services aimed at economic development. This is done through promotion of new ventures such as Luzerne county area which harbors Pepperjam.com. The organization forms members of community’s economic development service capable of serving community with business opportunities based on partnerships.

The company assists in improving community’s quality of life through strategic planning, programs as well as investments. Greater-Wilkes-Barre works on range of projects starting from business and job creation programs. They also indulge in downtown revitalization, entrepreneurial as well as employee empowerment programs (Camardella 103-107).

Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business believes that the key to success is based on balancing stakeholders’ interests through empowerment of community and employees. The company is focused on delivery of quality services capable of sustaining community in the long-run.

This also encourages as well as acts as reminder to employees on their roles of providing satisfactory services to stakeholders. Such focus has since made Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber to become world leader in supply and delivery of business oriented services. The basis is not only in satisfying customers but in meeting their expectations by providing professional services.

Benefits of the internship The company is involved in Social entrepreneurship which caters for business activities characterized by numerous charitable activities. This kind of business is tied to primarily social objectives and not profits. In the event that the business makes surplus profits, the excess in reinvested in the business or better still in the community as opposed to profits benefiting the shareholders.

The company indulges in addressing poor people’s needs based on access to better services. This is done through appropriate information and communication channels. Such social enterprises are anchored on key assumption that effective management of information and communication technology leads towards enriched society.

Frameworks and models that support integration of economic development programs best analyzes business model which allows the poor to receive affordable services from various sectors such as healthcare and education offered within their localities. However, the rich members of the society are on the other and charged highly for these services (Camardella 103-107).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All the company’s plan focuses on the targeted customers, services offered and appropriate means of delivery. The vision of Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber is provision of social services capable of providing quality and affordable services to intended population. Their mission is based on timely delivery and profound economic development through business initiation and offering care services with best efficiency and reliability possible.

In addition their strategy is focused on targeting low income earners within the City’s vicinity and at the same time including developing countries. Such services are at times delivered through internet websites and mobile phones, those in remote places are assisted through appropriate channels as prescribed by the company’s board (Magretta 86-92).

Importance of the Internship Within the first days after commencement of internship, there was meeting with the Vice president of the company and other management team members. There was orientation on the kind of work done within the company. This included familiarizing with main points of company’s services provided to customers on a daily basis. The organization deals with large population segment. The process involved a lot of desk work including data entry.

Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce is involved in variety community programs which demands prior preparation. This requires thorough checking since there are possibilities of confusion caused by large group of customers invited for specific meetings. Such meetings include those of Women Businesses which deals with detailed management of schedules since most venues are within learning institutions.

There’s constant upgrading done within the systems for the purposes of updating current available customers the company is dealing with. To avoid cases on ghost members, the organization uses electronic systems during process on membership renewal. Analysis of results requires application of statistical programs.

The work involved updating some files of memberships as well as adding new files within database. Moreover, organization requires reorganized communications file within system databases. This is accompanied by drawing up-dates from articles and newspaper concerning chamber operations. Such information is considered important when it comes to making decisions from public point of view. All information follows organization protocol and structure since it has to reach the top management organ.

After dealing with membership up-grade, customers are constantly up-dated on company’s service provisions. Most of the work involves internet searching which assists in reinforcing proficiency in computer networking processes. Out of various searches fact sheets were obtained on annual basis concerning company operations. The fact sheets indicate trends within the labor market such as employment and employment rates per annum.

We will write a custom Report on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rates on resource consumption per country per annum are calculated for accountability purposes. Included are rate of taxes levied on consumer basic needs as well as salaries. Fast Facts 2012 of Greater Wilkes-Barre, PA and it’s publication of the Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of business and industry are availed in the company’s website. Moreover, a reorganized communications file is done by data entry employees. Organization of the database also involves bio-data of various company top officials who are mainly used as referrals.

Part of the work involved sending letters to chamber customers and at the same time doing necessary up-grade. Moreover, there is making of invitation letters to Annual Dinner and sending specified loyal customers of Chamber. Besides sending letters, the company up-dates are sent to customers including successive events.

During event organization, guests are given thorough check and at the same time their names printed on labels for identification purposes. Such process is in line with criminology cause which basically involves dealing with criminal minds and those trying to breach rules of law.

Updating membership files assists in identifying unwanted and wanted customers from chamber’s database. Such process should be monitored closely based on reorganized communications file basically done within the databases. As discussed earlier meetings such as Chamber Women in business lunch takes place often.

This grants opportunity on familiarizing with gender issues which is of profound help when dealing with criminal cases. Free interaction involved during these meetings enables an individual to benefit much from expansive knowledge brought by individuals from different regional backgrounds. Such up-dates form crucial part of communication channels (Daley 201-214).

Evaluation Processes The programs undertaken by the Chamber involves investing resources in form of time, information technology for data collection and analysis, funding, work force and partnership as well as operation premises. There is always an expectation producing results in form of data and information.

This presents vital tool used for critical decision making within various institutions. Such information further influences changes in operational procedures within business institutions. The data generated from company’s database is used in supporting development of initiatives within required areas of operation (Chan and Lynn 57-87).

Evaluation Design Description This section intends to describe the flow of activities during evaluation process and determination of relationship existing between relevant entities. This model enables the program to focus on SMART objectives. This implies the objectives must be Specific (S), Measurable (M), Attainable (A), Realistic (R) and Time-bound (T). The model appears in form of tabulated information as follows.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Table 1: Activity Structure for the internship

Inputs Tasks Outputs (measures resulting from various tasks) Effects Evaluation For Example Funds, Work-force, Equipment and Information Technology Resources For example Data Collection, Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation Information from the respondents to questionnaires and interviews Detailed Analysis of data after collection The standard implications, which assist in conclusion, recommendation and critical decisions Organization Chart Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry operates in a three tier framework as indicate in the chart below. The first tier reveals organization at international level which included customer orders, Customer support and care, as well as Personnel management. These positions are managed according to categories based on international markets. Such level of categorization assists the organization in commanding larger economies of scale.

Second tier has regional management offices dealing with customer orders and site customer care and support. Third tiers incorporate site specific customers dealing with specified line of business operations. Site managers are endowed with responsibility of providing prompt solutions to remote customers. In case of mismanagement and making decisions, responsibility is given to personnel managers at each tier.

Figure 1: Account Management Chart for Chamber

Works Cited Camardella, Mathew. “Effective Management of the Performance Appraisal Process”. Employment Relations Today, 30(2003): 103-107.

Chan, Huang


Adolf Hitler Biography Essay college essay help online

The birthplace of Hitler was Braunau. This was an insignificant town found in Austria. He was born to Alois Hitler, his father and Klara Hitler, his mother who was a third wife to Alois Hitler. Adolf Hitler was a very bright student. He did very well at primary school and seemed to have secured a strong foundation for a bright academic future as he grew.

At school, he had fame and pupils envied the qualities of leadership that they saw in him. Adolf was also religious to the extent that he thought and considered the possibility of him becoming a monk (Toland, 16).

In the secondary school, academic competition was tough for him. When he discovered that he could not excel in classwork, he stopped trying. Adolf Hitler became stubborn. He never listened to the counsel of his seniors who encouraged him to continue with education. His father, Alois was disturbed and disappointed by his son. He had thought that Hitler would emulate him and become a member of the Austrian military once he finished school (Nicholls, 23).

Everything about Hitler started changing. His fame with other students started to fade away as they started dismissing him as one of their leaders. He became bossy because he gave orders and spent most time with small pupils. He was into games that involved fighting, bullying, and harassing.

He only liked Leopold Potsch among other teachers. Potsch was Hitler’s history master. His teacher liked many people who lived in Upper Austria because he was a German nationalist. The teacher taught his students about the wars won by German in early 1870s. The chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck, was one of Adolf Hitler’s early historical heroes. The other main interest he had in school was art. His father was shocked when Hitler told him that he wanted to pursue a course in art (Waters, 135).

At the age of fifteen, he was incompetent in academics, and his performance in exams was pathetic. He did not like the idea when he was told to repeat. He successfully persuaded his mother to drop out of school without a secondary education certificate. He had no vision because instead of feeling bad, he celebrated by drinking. Nonetheless, this experience was not satisfying, and he swore to refrain from drinking (Waters, 136).

On receiving the inheritance from his father’s will, he relocated to Vienna. He had dreams of studying art, but the dreams were shuttered down when the Vienna Academy of Art rejected his application for not having a school leaving certificate. He regretted the fact that he was unfocused (Jones, 24).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolf Hitler was unwilling to serve Austria. He instead volunteered for the German Army during the outbreak of the First World War. He regarded the German Army as the most superior to other European countries. Adolf Hitler could offer himself in dire situations and lead from the front. This character of Adolf captivated his seniors in the military ranks. During the First World War, he won five medals. However, despite the fact that he was decorated in the war, he only reached the rank of corporal (Weber, 323).

The war ended, and Hitler was posted in Munich, the capital of Bavaria. He opposed the leader of the Independent Socialist Party when he declared Bavaria a Socialist Republic. The German soldiers entered Munich and overthrew the BSR. Hitler was promoted to become a political officer after convincing the soldiers that he was against the party. He made political speeches and taught soldiers on matters concerning politics. This was a great start for Adolf Hitler to venture into politics (Weber, 325).

After a long involvement in politics, Hitler realized that he had skills as an orator, and this gave him confidence to challenge Anton Drexler, a leader of the Nazi Party. He swiftly managed to become the new leader. Hitler was capable of instigating hatred and anger amongst his followers.

In this case, he was could influence them to engage in violence. He was imprisoned for beating a rival politician. Hitler was selfish and greedy. This is portrayed when he promised to occupy Russian land if he won. In his mission to overthrow the government, he took three top commandants into a separate room and forcefully made them to collaborate with him. This happened because he was to be the next new leader of Germany. He used force to get what he wanted without caring for others (Weber, 325).

He was arrested for another year, and upon his release, he pretended not to be committed to politics. He took most of his time travelling and touring different places in Germany. His party Nazi gradually grew through the efforts he put into a campaign for power. He looked determined to take over the leadership of Germany. Hitler avoided being asked to explain how he would improve the German economy (Nicholls, 80).

After being elected as the chancellor of Germany, Hitler developed a dictatorial character. He also ordered all media that supported the other parties to be closed during the general elections in 1933. In spite of all those means to shutter the other parties, his party still did not win (Nicholls, 80).

When Hitler took control of power in Germany, he used a divide and rule method due to the fear of being overthrown. He knew he was a dictator. He did so much for German, but this did not outdo the damage he had caused. He was a racist and did not mince his words of hatred towards other races. For instance, in Mein Kampf, he made it clear that he hated the Jewish race. Being an opportunist, Hitler tried to fight the nations that surrounded it.

We will write a custom Essay on Adolf Hitler Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He expanded the size of Germany and tried to take control of Europe. There is a time when he felt ill, but this could not stop his army. He was so inhuman that he used to laugh whenever he was told about the deaths of his soldiers at war. His reign came to an end when the U.S., the Soviet Union, and Britain combined forces to fight back leading to his overthrow. When he heard that the Soviet troops had entered Germany, he decided to commit suicide to prevent them from humiliating him (Nicholls, 82).

Adolf Hitler could have overcome this humiliation if he had good qualities of leadership. A good leader should know how to communicate. Despite the fact that Hitler was a good orator, he was not a good listener. He never listened to any advice especially when his army was at war. Even when things were hard for them, he commanded them to fight to the death. This shows that he never recognized the value of others. Being an opportunist, he used them as a bridge to his success (Iorg, 28).

A good leader should also be truthful and honest. Adolf lied to his mother that he had joined an art school. At one time while at war, Hitler was shot and ran into hiding. However, he lied that he had rushed a shot boy to the hospital. If he had a focused mind, Adolf would not have dropped from school.

This made him appear as an incompetent leader. Hitler escaped from responsibilities. For example, he avoided explaining how he would raise the economy of Germany. A good leader should have a vision. With a positive attitude towards his nation, he would have realized the harm he had caused the people he led (Iorg, 30).

If Hitler was a respectable leader, he would not have had an affair with his niece. Being a family man would have helped him from possessing bad characters such as dictatorship and being disrespectful. By being approachable, accessible and accountable to all, he would not have hate given speech against the Jews.

The Jews were of great importance to Germany. An intelligent leader always makes wise decisions and thinks deeply before judging or acting. Adolf killed one of his allies after being fed with false propaganda by other “supportive friends” who were against the victim. He should have used tactics to know whether they were lying. Adolf Hitler failed because he did not possess the qualities of a good leader (Iorg, 32). A leader of the people by the people and with the people should have strong and good characteristics.

Works Cited Iorg, Jeff. The Character of Leadership: Nine Qualities That Define Great Leaders. Nashville, Tenn: B


The Ethnic Issues of the Hispanic American People Essay college essay help: college essay help

The article ‘Hispanic Americans’ covers the ethnic issues of the Hispanic American people. In the article, it is evident that the population of people from the Hispanic American origin has risen over the years, and currently, they contribute to approximately fourteen percent of the entire population of the United States. There are several sub-groups of people from the Hispanic American origin, and for that reason, the author concentrated on attributes of three principal groups, which include Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans.

Over the years, the United States census has used different names to describe people from Hispanic American origin. However, for the last two decades, the term Hispanic has been used to refer to the ethnic community. Recently, the term Latino has been applied in reference to various groups within the group of the Hispanic Americans. Some studies have revealed that the Hispanic Americans appreciate identifying themselves by their original community.

The article clearly reveals the wider ethnic group of Hispanic Americans by indicating the various groups that make up the community. It also highlights the manner in which the group migrated to American, and their racial status in the American society. At the same time, the article points out how Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans developed as minority groups in the United States.

Based on the article, it is possible to access information concerning demographic trends of the Hispanic Americans in the United States between 1990 and 2000. The information provided specify regions where the Latinos inhabit in the United States. At the same time, an analysis of the status of the Latinos within the entire class system of society is reflected.

The analysis involved a study of the Latino socioeconomic status in the regions where they mostly occupy using income, wealth, and poverty as the main parameters. To create a clear picture, the author chose to compare their status with that of other ethnic groups such as the whites and African Americans. In the analysis, the article points out factors that contribute to the socioeconomic status of the Latinos in the American society.

The author posits that some of the factors that contribute to the level of socioeconomic status of the Hispanic Americans in the society include discrimination, and education. In addition, it is clear that the Cubans occupy a better socioeconomic position compared to the other Hispanic ethnic groups. From the time of their migration, the Cubans, unlike other Latino groups, came with a class background that was markedly different from the rest of the sub-groups.

They were also equipped with occupational skills that enabled them to adapt easily to the society’s mainstream economy. Unlike the Puerto Ricans and the Mexicans, the Cubans immigrated into the United States when they were already occupationally successful and well educated. Their educations levels and occupational skills were instrumental in helping them gain a rapid upward mobility in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article also illuminates on the position occupied by the Latinos in the corporate world and the political sphere. Additionally, it undertakes to reveal the prejudice and discrimination associated with the minority group in the United States. However, the level of prejudice and racial discrimination is less than the one experienced by African Americans.

From the article, it is clear that the Latinos faced the problem mainly because of their ‘in-between’ minority status. Unlike the African Americans, the Latinos within the United States have maintained their ethnic traits, particularly the Spanish language. Lastly, one notable factor that has contributed to retention of their original ethnic traits is the proximity to their country of origin.


Allegory of the Cave Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Plato’s cave represents human knowledge “showing the intellectual journey to truth as a gradual and arduous process”.[1]He likens people with prisoners in a cave whose only perception of realism is a play of shadows spread on a wall that faces them. Everyone has a role to play in bringing change to his/her life.

One has to make a decision of leaving the thoughts that prevent them from perceiving the world from a broad perspective. Only then can they get an understanding of the real world. Plato sums this in four stages. The first stage includes forming an attitude that is based on the reality’s outward appearance constituted by sights and sounds of experience though it takes a while before the human mind distinguishes reality.

The second stage is the ability to recognize the distinction between a deceptive entity of knowledge and the real ones. In this case, the shadows of the carving walls and the true carvings. The use of puppeteers by Plato inside the cave and things outside indicate that empirical discoveries never penetrate the ideal realm of truth thus calling for the need to move outside the cave.[2] The third stage is where people get outside the cave into the sun that tends to cause their blindness.

This sun indicates the light of truth thus causing reality to be foreign to the familiar. This makes it hard to understand the nature of reality that happens to be ideal and not material as Plato later realized. Accordingly, practice and learning are key ingredients for realization of the true form of reality. The fourth stage is where one acknowledges the intellectual light source. Plato realized that the Good does elucidate concepts that help us to understand truth.

The prisoner knew that holding his head high and standing on his dignity would signify victory as far as addressing the masses was concerned. Plato maintains this concept by saying that it is only those that can pull off enlightenment that ought to be leaders of the rest.[3] The prisoner is a leader because he has achieved enlightenment over time and he is well able to lead the rest. He did not resist enlightenment as others did but rather embraced it with open arms.

The allegory of the cave can be compared with Breyten’s ‘You Screws’ which holds that people will always drag you to the pit immediately they realize that the light has finally shone upon you. Breyten having been a prisoner for while who never let his form of imprisonment deter him from advancing in knowledge, is addressing the screws who turned up in large numbers to listen to him as a way of gaining knowledge.

He says that he does not regret much of having been shattered from the world but “I normally resent all attempts at dragging me back particularly when they come from the sentimentally deprived or the vicarious heart-eaters and self shitters who wallow in victimization and heroism by proxy”.[4]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ordinary folks that have not been enlightened will always misunderstand them that have the intellectual insight. The individual in the Plato at last understands his environment and tenaciously overcomes the challenges experienced in the cave, in this case being its mental incapacitation, through a long and tortuous intellectual journey.

In conclusion, everyone needs to change their thoughts and attitudes to be able to live a worthy life. There is nothing for the free or the slaves since all have opportunities even if they are bloated. Mental imprisonment is definitely the worst situation in life as far as enlightenment is concerned.

References Breyten, Breytenbach. “You Screws.” Harper’s Magazine, Feb. 2007.

Plato, Allan. ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato. New York: Basic Books, 1968.

Ralkowski, Mark. Heidegger’s Platonism. London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009.

Footnotes Alan Plato, ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato, ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1968), 134.

Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 102.

Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 113.

Breytenbach Breyten, “You Screws,” Harper’s Magazine February, 2007, 15.


Naming Middle East: Outline Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Geographic Limitation

Preservation of the Middle East Identity

Relationship with the Rest of Asia

Effect of Name Change on the Economy



Introduction Geographically, Middle East is in West Asia. People have traditionally used the term ‘West Asia’ to differentiate the region with the Eastern part of Asia. However, ethnically, the Middle East is different from other parts of Asia because of its high Arab population.

From this notable difference, the Middle East has defined its identity from the rest of the Asian continent. Nonetheless, there are calls to rename Middle East as West Asia because of its significance in the Asian continent, and its geographic position in the same region (Telhami, 2002).

This paper opposes this view by proposing three reasons for the preservation of the Middle East name. First, the extension of Middle East into Asia and Africa shows that Middle East is not exclusively part of the Asian peninsular. Secondly, this paper suggests that Middle East has its unique identity, which differentiates the region from other parts of Asia, like China or India. Therefore, if Middle East is renamed West Asia, the region may lose its identity.

Lastly, this paper acknowledges that the social and economic relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia is strong, but this relationship is insufficient to warrant the renaming of Middle East as West Asia. Comprehensively, there are significant geographic, social, political, and economic differences between Middle East and the rest of Asia, which suggest the preservation of the Middle East name.

Geographic Limitation Traditionally, the Middle East comprises of many countries that stretch across several parts of North Africa and West Asia. Therefore, besides the common Middle East countries such as Jordan, Kuwait, and Lebanon (located in West Asia), there are other traditional Middle East countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, which are located in Northern Africa.

Therefore, the distributions of Middle East countries stretch across two continents. It would therefore be incorrect to rename Middle East as West Asia because North Africa is also part of the Middle East. Moreover, Africa is an independent continent that has its geographic boundaries, which is independent of Asia. The conception of the ‘West Asia’ name is therefore narrow because it fails to capture the full scope of the Middle East region.

Preservation of the Middle East Identity Middle East has a special identity that differentiates the region from other parts of the world. Its identity not only cuts across its social and political spheres, but also its geographic and economic makeup. For example, Middle Eastern people dress differently from other countries around the world (not only in Asia).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, women wear the Niqab as a respectable formal wear in the region (Omair, 2009, p. 412). Other parts of Asia (such as India) adopt a different style of clothing. Middle East architecture is also different from other parts of Asia. For example, Middle East architecture greatly differs from Chinese architecture.

These differences show the varied identities of Middle Eastern people and the rest of the Asian continent. These differences are deeper while analyzing religion, lifestyle, and politics. Therefore, after considering the significant differences between these two regions, it is crucial to preserve the Middle East identity. It is also incorrect to change the name of Middle East to west Asia.

Relationship with the Rest of Asia Molavi (2011) says that the trade between the Arab world (GCC countries) and the rest of Asia supersedes the level of trade in the Middle East region. Molavi (2011) estimates the trade between Asia and the rest of the Middle East to peak during 2017 (observers estimate that Asia will be Middle East’s biggest trading partner).

To this extent, some people have voiced their suggestions to rename Middle East as West Asia. However, the strong trade relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia does not provide sufficient grounds to warrant a name change. Comparatively, many other regions around the world have strong trade relations, but they do not consider a name change because of their strong trade ties.

For example, there is an increased volume of trade between China and America. In fact, billions of dollars in trade revolve between the two countries alone (Morris, 2001). The strong trade relation between China and America has however not warranted a name change from either of the two trading partners. Therefore, it is incorrect to claim a name change for Middle East, just because it shares a cordial trade relationship with the rest of Asia.

Effect of Name Change on the Economy From the growth of globalization, regional economic dynamics spread fast among different countries. Therefore, if Middle East changes its name to West Asia, it may suffer the same economic fortunes as the rest of the continent. For example, developed countries allocate aid to regions and continents around the globe. A name change would therefore mean that Middle East has to share the same aid as Asia. This would undermine its economic prospects.

Conclusion The effect of a name change on the Middle East would be profound. Traditionally, the world has understood Middle East as a region with unique economic, social, and political dynamics. This paper identifies that these unique attributes of the region may disappear with a name change.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Naming Middle East: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Middle East is slowly making a name for itself as a global economic powerhouse. This trend has seen Middle East develop close ties with the rest of Asia. However, if the region loses its identity, it may lose its economic dominance in regional trade. Lastly, it makes no sense renaming Middle East as West Asia, while a large portion of the region is not even in Asia. Comprehensively, these dynamics show that Middle East should preserve its identity.

References Molavi, A. (2011). ‘Middle East’ Is Pulled Towards Asia By Economics And Affinity. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/middle-east-is-pulled-towards-asia-by-economics-and-affinity-1.404925

Morris, D. (2001). China: The Bitter Roots Of Foreign Trade Through The Eyes Of Asian Culture. Journal of Global Competitiveness, 11(2), 25 – 38.

Omair, K. (2009). Arab women managers and identity formation through clothing. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 412 – 431.

Telhami, S. (2002). Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East. New York: Cornell University Press.


Role of Each Mode of Transport Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

According to Anderson (1999), transport is the movement of people, goods, and services from one location to another. Effective transport systems play a critical role in achieving the economic and social needs of a given society. Air, land, and water are the most common modes of transportation in the United States of America and many other nations in the world. Air transport is usually facilitated by aircrafts. Land transport on the other hand is facilitated by rail and road.

Water transport occurs on seas, lakes, rivers/canals and so on. Transport in general plays a significant role in developing and sustaining economic, demographic, and political factors of a given community and the world at large (Frankel, 2011). Effective modes of transport facilitate the expansion of town and cities by enhancing the movement of people as well as goods and services. Transport mechanisms also assist in the spread of individuals resulting in growth and development.

In the United States of America, roads are the most common modes of transportation accounting for approximately 68% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011). Interstate highway systems have been built to facilitate the movement of people within a given locality or from one state to another.

In most parts of the country, people own personal vehicles. However, in urban centers where there is massive traffic congestion, transport is facilitated by mass transit and railways transport. Unlike in the 1940s, railway transport system in the USA mainly consists of freight train shipment (Frankel, 2011).

The use of passage trains has greatly reduced as a result of changes in economic needs as well as the introduction o faster and more reliable transportation systems such as bus shuttles, personal vehicles and airplanes. However, railway transport in USA accounts for 32% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011).

As of 2004, the USA has been ranked 17th in the world as the nation with the busiest airports. Over the years, there has been a significant increase in air transport in USA especially between states. Water transport in the United States is regarded as the cheapest mode of transport. However, due to lack of efficient water ways, it is the least common mode of transport.

Development of Transport Modes In the USA, rail transport developed as a result of the presence of a wide spread railroad network that covered most parts of the USA. Transforming from early passenger cars that were common during the 19th century to high speed commuter trains, the efficiency of rail transport highly increased due to technological advancements (Garrison


Critical Evaluation of Synchrony and Diachrony Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu

The article covers language aspects that reveal how multilingual experts have progressively become acquainted with the intricate interdependency between synchrony and diachrony. It revisits the ideas of De Saussure and those of his critics. The writer attempts to expose divergent view of the experts with the aim of unveiling the meaning of synchrony and diachrony.

The writer portrays De Saussure’s critics as ignorant on the topic. He/she reveals Jakobsons’ argument that langue cannot be identical with statistics and that langue is immutable. The writer also reports the opinion of Theses and Jakobsons that langue cannot be changed unconsciously. The article, however, fails to provide evidence to support these ideas. This helps the writer to achieve his/her objective.

The article also covers Trnka’s argument that the distinction between synchrony and diachronic is insignificant. It provides facts that disapprove Trnka’s idea. The author asserts that it is almost impossible to trace and identify anyone else from the school of Prague.

Another critical school of thought is of the view that diachrony has a system and a structure. Theses says that De Saussure was wrong to claim that there is insurmountable barrier between langue and parole. This, according to Theses, is because there are mixed elements in the langue.

On the other hand, the article reveals the strong elements in De Saussure’s argument. It cites page 108 of De Saussure’s work that says langue is a heritage of the preceding time. He says that time guarantees the continuity of the langue. It is evident that De Saussure suggested that several conditions influence langue balance.

Moreover, he records that the effects of transformation are counter-balanced by analogy. In addition, acco0rding to the article, De Saussure says that there are phenomena phonetically connected with distinctive conditions. The writer therefore succeeds in dismissing the opinion of the critics.

Additionally, it records that De Saussure said langue change might occur subject to certain conditions. He does not refer to accidental or blind changes, as reported by critics. The article provides that De Saussure believes synchrony and diachrony are independent of each other, due to a different point of view.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regarding consciousness of change, it is apparent that De Saussure stressed that literary language does not develop naturally. This points out at Jakobson’s lack of information.

The idea of state of langue according to De Saussure is that synchrony and diachrony has a state of langue and a phase of evolution. However, minimum changes may occur after some duration. The writer records some human weaknesses of De Saussure. For example, he records De Saussure’s admission that he did not know the causes of change in langue. The admission makes the article real and trustable. It depicts practical human weakness.

Evidently, the critics have no evidence to back their arguments up. This makes the article appropriate for supporting the ideas of de Saussure. The article is even more helpful because it provides the accurate position of De Saussure making comparison of the varied ideas easy.

Despite the writer’s success in supporting De Saussure, his/her article has weaknesses. First, the article says that De Saussure’s critics are completely ignorant. In deed, since, he/she agrees that further researcher is necessary, dismissing unconfirmed ideas is wrong. Next, the writer concludes by supporting De Saussure. The conclusion may make critics say that he /she is partisan.

Nevertheless, after reading the article, it is comprehensible that misconception is the leading cause of criticism of De Saussure’s work. The writer successfully portrays the critics as unable to identify traces and elements of the past that are found in language. He/she communicates that language is always developing, unraveled, fickle, and unbalanced in detail at the edges. In addition, the writer rightly advocates for further research to solve the differences in opinion.


Functions of Management Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fayol’s Four Functions of Management



Introduction Management is the process in which a person or a group of people run or control things or people. Management is accomplished using the set guidelines and the limited resources that are availed to achieve the established goals and objectives. Management can be applied in organizations, homes, or other social settings. Management in an organization focuses on human resource, capital, and other resources towards the attainment of a set goal (Wren, Bedeian and Breeze, 2002, p. 907).

There are different levels of management including the top level management, middle level management, and first level or low level management. There have been various people from ancient times who have attempted to study management. Their focus has been on how the aspect of management should be employed, its functions, the impacts on the overall performance of an organization, and how it can be improved for better results and effectiveness (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 590).

One of the first scholars to study management and advance its functions and principles was the Frenchman Henri Fayol. Fayol was born in 1841, and he was a director at a coal mine in France. He initially identified five functions of management. He described functions of management as those things that proper management helps to attain (McLean, 2011, p. 32).

The five initial functions were planning, controlling, leading, organizing, and staffing. However, authors of management books have combined them into four functions, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 589).

In this essay, the focus is on the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, and how it employs the functions of management and the impact to the organization. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was founded in 1911 under an Act of parliament. The bank started its business in 1912.

Its main functions are to carry out general banking services and savings for the Australian people. Currently, the bank has over 800,000 shareholders and has employed about 52,000 employees. It was owned by the Australian government until 1991 when it was listed publicly. This paper looks at each function of management, and how they have been used in the bank and the implications.

Fayol’s Four Functions of Management Planning is the act of setting goals and objectives and coming up with ways of achieving them given the limited resources of time, human resource, and capital among others in order to meet the goals effectively. It is a futuristic act done to try and foresee how a combination of different activities instigates certain results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the process that determines who does what, what resources to employ, and when to do what (Norman and Media, 2012). Planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is done at the beginning of every financial year. This plan is a long term plan that sets to meet objectives of profit maximization, increase of customer base, market share, and capital base.

However, there are other short term plans that are set quarterly in order to meet the long term goals. The planning is also done at the branch level in each of the over 1000 branches of the bank (Cassidy, 2006, p. 69). All these plans are set to support the main plan of the bank. What differs is the approach and strategies that each branch employs. Different managers at different managerial levels also plan based on the people they manage. This is in regard to how they can meet the goals and objectives (McNamara, 2009, p. 65).

The unique thing about planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is that this function of management involves the people that are being managed. Some of the strategies that the bank sets out in the planning stage are training of staff and other personnel. The training equips the staff to carry out tasks effectively as they try to meet goals. Another strategy used by the bank is the establishment of a follow up system. In this case, when they meet the quarterly target, they are able to plan the next target.

Organization comes after planning. It is the process by which available resources are combined and synchronized in order to meet goals and objectives. The resources combined include human resources, finance, raw materials and physical resources. Planning includes determining the proportions of each resource to be used in meeting goals. With the organization function, roles and responsibilities are clearly defined (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 126).

At the Commonwealth Bank, organization entails identifying the activities that have to be performed with regard to certain goals such as ensuring sales are made, quality control, accounts preparation, and accounts opening among others. All these activities are then grouped into different units. The bank also combines related activities into departments. This is to ensure easy flow of information between these related units and coordination.

The bank also assigns an authority to each department so that there is a hierarchy. The top level management deals with policy formulation. They include the chief executive officer and managing director Ian Narev, the different group executives of financial services, corporate affairs, and human resource among others.

The middle level deals with the supervision of their respective departments includes branch managers while the lower level management deals with the supervision of foremen. Finally, the bank ensures a clear outline between any level of authority and the responsibility that comes with it. The management also conducts weekly meetings at different levels as part of organizing (Cassidy, 2006, p. 71).

We will write a custom Essay on Functions of Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third function is leading, which some authors also refer to as commanding. Leadership/commanding is the process of providing guidance to the people in an organization. It involves motivating members of staff, inspiring them, and providing guidance for them. It involves influencing and providing direction for the behaviour of personnel towards achievement of goals and objectives (Mirescu and Dragomir. 2008, p. 3030).

Leadership also involves providing future visions for a group of people. Management should have goals that are clear, commitment, and relevant skills in order to implement the leadership function effectively. Effective communication is also a quality of good leadership (Breeze, 1995, p. 40). At the Commonwealth Bank leadership is key in its operations. The members of the executive council are the first group of leaders. Others include the branch managers and group leaders of the sales teams (Cassidy, 2006, p. 68).

Leadership qualities are enhanced through regular leadership workshops. The bank’s leadership emphasizes on the need to solve conflicts as soon as they arise. The bank also comes up with different incentives for different employees as it recognizes people respond differently to different motivators. Where the conduct of an employee is in question, the employee is informed of the consequences on performance. Leadership at the bank emphasizes on teamwork (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 132).

The last of Fayol’s functions is controlling. Controlling involves ensuring all efforts of the organization and resources are directed solely at the set goals and objectives. It entails measuring actual performs to the set standards at the planning stage. At this stage, the management identifies errors or setbacks and takes appropriate action (Norman and Media, 2012). The Commonwealth Bank targets are set on a daily basis and compared all through the day.

At the end of each working day, tracking sheets are taken, and weekly statistics are evaluated. In case of any problems or delays in meeting the objectives, plans such as coaching and some role play for employees who are not performing as expected are implemented. In the case where improvement is still not seen, then a three month performance improvement plan is enforced. This is meant to improve performance of employees (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 148). This exhibits a wholesome evaluation process by the bank.

Conclusion The Commonwealth Bank applies the traditional Fayol’s functions of management. In this way, the bank enjoys the benefits of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Through planning, the bank reduces uncertainties and risks that come with the banking industry. Planning also boosts employee morale. The bank is one of the most established banks in Australia. It has low employee turnover as the employees continue to increase each year due to good leadership and management.

Fayol’s functions of management are an important aspect of management today. His functions and principles are relevant due to their effectiveness and the results they provide. Over the years, other authors, theorists and scholars have adapted and enhanced these principles. The principles provide a detailed system of running an organization successfully.

Bibliography Breeze, John D. 1995. “Henri Fayol’s centre for administrative studies.” Journal of Management History 1 (3): 37-62.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Functions of Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cassidy, Carlene, and Robert Kreitner. 2009. Supervision: setting people up for success. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Cassidy, Julie. 2006. Concise corporations law. Annandale, N.S.W.: Federation Press.

McLean, Jacqueline. 2011. “Fayol – standing the test of time.” Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 74: 32-33.

McNamara, Daniel E. 2009. “From Fayol’s Mechanistic To Today’s Organic Functions Of Management.” American Journal of Business Education 2 (1): 63-78.

Mirescu, Cristina and Gheorghe Dragomir. 2008. “Particularities of the Managerial Functions in the Small and Middle Enterprises.” Annals of the University of Craiova, Economic Sciences Series 6 (36): 3029-3035.

Norman, Leyla and Demand Media. 2012. What Are the Four Basic Functions That Make Up the Management Process? https://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-basic-functions-make-up-management-process-23852.html

Pryor, Mildred Golden and Sonia Taneja. 2010. “Henri Fayol, practitioner and theoretician – revered and reviled”. Journal of Management History 16 (4): 489 – 503.

Wren, Daniel A., Arthur G. Bedeian and John D. Breeze. 2002. “The foundations of Henri Fayol’s administrative theory.” Management Decision 40 (9): 906-918.


Venture Capital in JTB Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Market opportunity

Marketing Strategy

The products

The Advisory Team

Exit Analysis and Deal history

Executive Summary Venture Capital is a type of financial capital given to early stages of growth for start-up companies. It is always a high-risk fund with a high-risk potential. The fund owns equity in the company with a business model. The stages of the fund are normally six. Seed money is the first stage and entails low-level financing required for proving new ideas. Crowd funding was developed as an alternative to seed money.

Start-up funding is another stage of funding and goes to marketing and product development needed by early stage firms. Growth funds are for early sales and manufacturing. In the next stage, funds are given to companies that are already making sales but have not experienced the returns on profits. This is the working capital. The last stage is the exit venture. This fund goes to the firm that wants to go public.

Jade’s Toy Box (JTB) is the company of interest in this investment. This is a New York City based company.It specializes in the manufacture and sell of educational theme based children toys and books that are Eco-friendly.

They design their products to assure parents of the safety of their children. JTB aims to offer parents with the tools and resources they need to spark a lifetime love of learning in their children. In an effort to align the company goals with the market dynamics, the company relies heavily on the experience and ability of the faces behind it.

Angela Ledoux for instance worked as a picture editor for TIME, a kid’s magazine before starting this company. Her knowledge ranges from having a master degree in art along other children related careers. Robby Ledoux has however, learned child entertainment, worked for the creative talented idea company, and is involved in picture animation apart from being a music composer.

Market opportunity Jade’s ToyBox is based in New York City. However, it has spread its wings and now works in major cities. The cities include Boston, and Chicago. The company has expanded its marketing capacity by introducing free shipping to customer destinations irrespective of where the customer lives.

JTB uses the US postal services to ship its products. This idea has helped the company to increase its customer base broadly. With increased technology, the company engages in online marketing and sales. Clients from across the world can get access to a range of products available. The company understands that some parents are very busy. Following on the same, working mums can give their needs and the firm delivers the right products to them. Toys of high quality for parents in class are availed to them at the right prices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The response from the customers over a long period has been overwhelming. This has been the key behind JTB’s expansion. Customers whose responses have been received are positive with all of them indicating satisfaction. Working mums now agree that JTB is the link they were missing. The management has really perfected delivery of goods. Customer satisfaction tops the priority list among the company’s employees. Whereas the delivery is fast, customers do have sixty days to respond and return the goods that do not satisfy them.

This system builds a customer base that is very important to an investor. The strategy put forward by the management and outlined above serve to proof to an investor that such a company is worth putting money. There is an increase in competition over products in the manufacturing industry.

The competition also comes from the media industry. Televisions now come with programs that compete for the interest of the children. The performance of the toy industry as whole in the United States has increased. Major improvement has been in the export department. Competition is likely to grow as we head into the future.

Marketing Strategy With the increase in competition, JTB has revolutionized its sales strategy. The policy on marketing is now customer centered. The company targets children. Six gift boxes are designed for children. However, it creates boxes specific to the desires of the children. Parents are allowed to ask for specific designs for their children and they are delivered.

The boxes in this category have dolls, books and other products that represent different cultural heritage. In this case, customers create the gift boxes with individual items for their children. For instance, the company offers this package at $ 120 for five boxes.

All the company products are available online. This gives the customer ample time to sample the goods from anywhere, whether in the office, at home or even when traveling. This saves customers the burden of traveling to shops and stores to go and window shop. Working mums do not have this time. Customers make payments from anywhere, as delivery is free of charge. Delivery is within seventy-two hours.

This has been positive to the company as it has a strong customer base. Such is a type of company worth investing in their equities. The customer base assures potential investors of the continuity of the business.

We will write a custom Essay on Venture Capital in JTB specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products Jade’s ToyBox Company offers a variety of products, which target the children. Jade’s concept box has funny, educational, and Eco-friendly books. Green Bambino is one such product. It has a starter library for parents and the baby with wood ABC blocks that can be replenished, rubber duck, letterpress baby update, and a fair trade Yoyo animal. The boxes also have games for teaching important themes and concepts.

The areas that are covered include art, health, music, and sustainable architecture among others. The products are safe to the children and devoid of phthalates, lead, and BPA, which are harmful to children. Other services offered include the green safe children parties. These parties are outdoor services. This diversification of products suits all the people of different religions, economic status, and social backgrounds.

The Advisory Team Jade’s ToyBox Company has the advisory team led by Angelique Ledoux. Her experience, expert knowledge, and style of management leave no loopholes in the company’s delivery of services. With two master degrees in art and bachelors’ degree in the same field, Angelique understands what the children need. She leads the homework assignment for the other staff members in coming up with the eco-friendly products.

Having edited a kid’s magazine before, her ability is relevant in the designs. Robby Ledoux is another member of the advisory board. He has a lot of knowledge in child entertainment, he worked for a company that specializes in creative children products, and he is a music composer. A company with this type of leadership steers the business in the right direction and is ideal for an investor.

Exit Analysis and Deal history Jade’s ToyBox is a private company with a broad capital base. With such a wide market that covers major cities in the US, its financial stability is assured. The company plans to increase its export capacity to cover North America, United Kingdom, Asia, and Africa. This will widen its customer base and add to the sustainability of the business.


The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy Research Paper essay help online free

Source of data – United States Census Bureau 2012

The economy of the United States grew over the last ten decades due to the impact of the immigrants in the labor industry. As a group providing cheap labor and specialized skills, immigrants’ contribution to the economy of the United States has doubled in the last ten years.

In fact, as indicated in the above graph, the number of immigrants within the civil labor force reached 23.1 million. Reflectively, this number represents 16.4 percent of the total labor force as of the year 2010. Despite constituting 13% of the total population, immigrants’ contribution in the growth of the United States economy has been seen in the agricultural, construction, housing, health care, real estate, education services, and mining and food services industries. Reflectively, these industries are the backbone of the American economy.

As a matter of fact, at present, the immigrants in agricultural and mining industries have surpassed the 30% mark as provider of labor in these labor intensive spheres of production. Besides, the census results indicate that immigrants have become a driving force in the labor market for high-skilled workers in the field of information technology. Within this technical field, immigrants constitute 23% of the civilians employed.

Moreover, immigrants also supply labor in large proportions in industries that require mass low-skilled employees. From 1970 to 2010, it is apparent that the contribution of the immigrants in the labor force, thus the economy of the United States has grown steadily. As the values indicated in the graph show a steady rise in the percentage of immigrant workers in the United States economy from 4.9% in 1970 to 16.4% in 2010. Despite being only 12.9 percent of the total population, they represent 16% of the total labor force.

Thus, as indicated in the above statistic graph, the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy since immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market. Specifically, their contribution is noted in the agricultural, mining, IT, construction, and manufacturing industries which require special skills that these immigrants posses.

Relationship between median income and foreign birth The graph below shows the relationship between median income and foreign birth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Explanation The graph above shows a cluster diagram of median income and foreign birth. A straight line can be drawn from the cluster diagrams. The straight line (upward sloping) in the diagram implies a positive relationship between median income and the rate of increase of foreign birth that is, an increase in foreign birth leads to an increase in median income. Further, from the graph we can deduce that immigration has significantly increased the presence of foreign born workers in the United States as shown by the increase from 0.0% to 45.0%.

Various studies have been carried out to show the effect of immigrants on the U.S economy. Most of the studies focus on the effects of immigrants on employment, wage rate, total productivity and overall impact on the US economy. These studies give varying results. Some indicate that immigrants cause a negative impact while others shows that immigration has a positive impact on the US economy.

For instance, some stories indicate that immigrants compete for job opportunities with the native. Various economists who have analyzed the labor market in the US reveal that immigrants have no large effects on the US employment and wages of the US natives.

A recent study conducted by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco revealed that “immigrants expand the economy’s productive capacity by stimulating investment and promoting specialization thus producing efficiency gains and boosts income per worker” (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1).

In addition, the study showed that there is no significant effect of immigration on net job growth for US born to work in the long run and the short run. The study further revealed the economy has taken in the immigrants and the foreign born by growing job opportunities rather than putting out of place employees in the US. Further, presence of immigrants increases availability of cheap labor in the country.

This encourages business to expand their capital expenditure. The net effect is an increase in output per worker. This effect of increase productivity and thus increase in income is felt in the long run because the firms have ample time to adjust their scale of production (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1)

It is evident that increase in immigrant and foreign born results to increase in productivity in the economy. Increased productivity implies an increase in household median income. It also implies increased gross domestic product of the country and increased per capita income. This relates to the second hypothesis of the study which states that the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy. Immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 2010, The Effect of Immigrants on U.S. Employment and Productivity. Web.

United States Census Bureau 2012, Graphs. Web.


The Unknown Citizen Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The foremost reason why I think W.H. Auden’s poem The Unknown Citizen represents a particularly high literary value is that themes and motifs, explored in it, reflect the discursive realities of a modern living. At their turn, these realities are being concerned with the process of people growing increasingly disfranchised from their sense of self-identity.

This, however, causes them to experience the emotionally disturbing sensation of an existentialist ‘anonymousness’. In my paper, I will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length.

When readers get to be exposed to The Unknown Citizen for the first time, many of them end up experiencing the sensation of a cognitive dissonance. This is because, even though the name of this poem implies the lack of a factual information about the citizen in question, the poem’s actual body contains a detailed description of what kind of a man the concerned individual was:

“He worked in a factory and never got fired,

But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc…

And had everything necessary to the Modern Man,

A phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire…

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was married and added five children to the population” (Auden par. 1).

Nevertheless, after having read the poem, they begin to realize the actual rationale that prompted Auden to name his poetic masterpiece, in the way he did. Apparently, the author wanted to advance the idea that our possession of the statistical data about a particular deceased individual, does not provide us with an insight as to what were the qualitative aspects of his or her stance in life.

This is the reason why, even after having found out about the ‘unknown citizen’ just about everything they could, readers usually do not get closer to understanding what accounted for his actual individuality:

“Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd: Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard” (par. 1).

Hence, the philosophical implication of Auden’s poem – despite the fact that in today’s world people can well enjoy a number of life-comforts (due to their ability to afford buying technological gadgets), they nevertheless remain ‘anonymous, in the existentialist sense of this word. This simply could not be otherwise, because nowadays, it is specifically people’s willingness to suppress their individuality, while leading thoroughly conventional lifestyles, which defines their chances of securing well-paid jobs and attaining a social prominence.

However, the same willingness, on these people’s part, makes them less likely to leave a mark in history, while increasing their likelihood to be turned into a nameless ‘cannon meat’, during the time of war – just as it happened to Auden’s ‘unknown citizen’. Therefore, there can be few doubts, as to the thoroughly humanistic sounding of The Unknown Citizen. This is because this poem subtly promotes the idea that the cost of one’s eagerness to lead a conventional lifestyle is his or her ahistoricity (anonymousness).

This is exactly the reason why, I believe this particular Auden’s novel should be recommended for reading – it resonates perfectly well with the discourse of post-modernity, which defines the specifics of a contemporary living in the West. Moreover, it also contains insights as to why, despite their conventional happiness, many of our contemporaries nevertheless continue to experience a number of deep-seated anxieties, in regards to what they really are, as individuals.

We will write a custom Essay on The Unknown Citizen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that the provided line of argumentation, as to what I consider contributing to Auden poem’s actual value, is being fully consistent with the initial thesis.

Works Cited Auden, Wystan Hugh. The Unknown Citizen. 13 Dec. 2012. Web.


Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The Agriculture discipline is very diverse because it incorporates crop and animal farming. Agriculture was the center of early civilization because the human race depended on agricultural products for survival (Eaton, 1998). Modern agriculture is very different from ancient agriculture due to the mergence of new technologies.

The need for sustainable agriculture has made many farmers to shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Agricultural experts have come up with new technologies such as irrigation and selective breeding that have contributed a lot in increasing agricultural yields. Research and development in the field of agriculture plays a very critical role in coming up with new pesticides, fertilizers, high yielding crop varieties and most importantly modern management techniques (Andrews, 1994).

Biotechnology and genetic engineering are important aspects of the agriculture discipline that have taken it to a higher level. The incorporation of science in agriculture makes it to be a very wide discipline with many branches such as agricultural engineering, animal husbandry, agronomy, crop biotechnology and industrial agriculture (Clark, 2012).

Genetics is a biological discipline that deals with the study of heredity and the analysis of variations in organisms caused by heredity (Clark, 2012). The concept of genetics is very useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Genetics and heredity are much related because they are all concerned with generational passage of hereditary traits (Gelehrter, 1998).

Genetics is a field of biological study that has led to many scientific breakthroughs that have been useful in coming up with a variety of cures for various diseases. The genetics discipline has been evolving over time especially with the emergence of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is a branch of genetics that deals with a direct intervention in genetic processes in order to alter genetic materials (Clark, 2012).

Genetic engineering has been very useful in developing new treatments for certain diseases. The Human Genome Project has redefined the genetics discipline by introducing the study of the functioning of different genes in human cells (Khoury, 2000). The genetics discipline has a lot of application in environmental studies, clinical medicine and public health (Khoury, 2000).

The central dogma of the genetics discipline is based on Crick’s theory that came into place in 1963 (Khoury, 2000). Crick discovered the DNA double helix that formed the foundation of genetic science. According to Crick, the DNA double helix is a molecular structure that acts as an agent of inheritance in both plants and animals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central dogma of genetics assumes that the genome of an organism accounts for all of its inherited traits (McKusick, 1997). This theory by Crick failed after it was tested in the Human Genome Project. The scientific rationale of the Human Genome Project proved that Crick’s theory was wrong because there are very few human genes responsible for inherited traits.

The collapse of Crick’s theory was a setback to the genetics discipline because the foundations of genetic engineering are based on the central dogma premise. Biomedical research depends on the central dogma that has been around for over forty years (Tropp, 2011). The central dogma emphasizes that DNA is the exclusive agent of inheritance.

The DNA gene is composed of four distinct nucleotides strung together in a linear sequence (Tropp, 2012). According to Cricks’ theory, the genes in DNA segments give rise to inherited traits by undergoing a series of molecular processes. An inherited trait is a product of molecular processes in a single DNA gene. According to the central dogma in genetics, the totality of inheritance in living things is controlled by the DNA genes (Andrews, 1994).

The synthesis of proteins that are the main catalyst in the production of inherited traits is governed by genes (Eaton, 2012). According to Crick’s theory, the structural similarity between genes and proteins makes protein synthesis to be possible under the control of DNA genes. The DNA in a particular gene consists of subunits of molecules with a linear arrangement.

The sequence hypothesis compares the nucleotides in a gene and the sequence of amino acids in a protein. The formation of proteins takes place when the DNA nucleotides are transcribed to RNA molecules that are responsible for trait formation in living things (Vogel, 1997). A gene code from the DNA nucleotide is incorporated in protein formation to influence the inherited traits.

The RNA plays the role of a messenger because it facilitates the delivery of gene codes to the site of protein formation. The sequential order of amino acids is determined by the gene code during the process of protein formation (Vogel, 1997). According to the central dogma in genetics, each particular gene in a living thing has a correspondent protein.

The inherited traits of a person are represented by their genome (Rothstein, 1997). The genetic code in DNA is universal and can influence the formation of a particular trait in any kind of species. Every living thing has a DNA with four nucleotides that facilitate the formation of a specific protein. Any sequential information that goes into protein can not in any way come out (Task Force on Genetic Testing, 1998).

We will write a custom Essay on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the second doctrine of Crick’s theory that explains the source and the destination of genetic information. The DNA nucleotide sequence is the source and the protein amino acid sequences the final destination according to Crick’s theory. The central dogma gives the gene total power and influence on protein identify and the resultant inherited trait created by the protein (Clark, 2012).

The central dogma in the agriculture discipline is from Ralph’s theory (Clark, 2012). This theory led to the introduction of genetic engineering in agriculture. According to Ralph’s theory, the formation of takes place in corporate-like sequence.

The formation of inherited traits follows a sequence of directives from the DNA that acts as the top management. The RNA molecules act as middle management molecules that give directives to proteins that act as worker molecules (Tropp, 2012). This version of the central dogma is widely used in agricultural research.

According to Ralph’s theory; a particular gene can be transferred from one species to another without any problem. The central dogma of agriculture is the foundation upon which genetically modified seeds are produced (Tropp, 2012). Researchers incorporate alien genes with superior qualities in the host plant to come up with crops with superior qualities. Researchers manipulate genetic processes by introducing an alien gene in protein formation (Gelehrter, 1998).

The alien gene influences the inherited traits in a particular crop. Ralph’s theory is very essential in the production of transgenic plants. The presence of an alien gene does not in any way interfere with the natural complement of the plant’s DNA (Vogel, 1997). The protein mediated systems and the gene systems must be compatible for the modification process to be successful.

The bacterial gene is very essential in the production of transgenic plants through the genetic engineering process (Clark, 2012). Ralph’s theory often comes under pressure when the experiments to produce transgenic plants and other organisms fail due to the disruption of the host’s protein mediated systems. Ralph’s theory takes several years of testing for the desired results to be achieved (McKusick, 1997). Genetic engineering can lead to the production of harmful proteins due to the unexpected alteration of the plant’s genome.

Ralph’s theory of genetic engineering has experienced numerous failures as a result of the unpredictable disruption of the protein systems of the host pant (Eaton, 1998). DNA miscoding is one of the reasons why there are many experimental failures when it comes to production of transgenic plants. Genetic engineers have come up with modified seeds from corn, cotton and soya beans because the mentioned plants possess some proteins with the ability to repair all kinds of DNA miscoding (Vogel, 1997).

The Human Genome project demonstrated that the genetics central dogma by Crick was not convincing (Clark, 2012). The emergence of new facts that refute the one-to-one matching of genes and proteins is a great challenge to Crick’s theory. Some biologists argue that proteins lead to the formation of molecules like DNA but the central dogma emphasizes the opposite (Khoury, 2000).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The central dogma for genetics has generated a lot of interest in the study of molecular genetics in an attempt to find the secrete of life. The central dogma for the agriculture discipline needs to be re-examined because there is no guarantee that an alien gene can only transfer positive traits to the host plant (Andrews, 1994). Many genetic engineering experiments have failed due to the disruption of the genetic composition of the host plant.

References Andrews, L. (1994). Assessing genetic risks. Implications for health and social policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Clark, D. (2012). Molecular Biology: Understanding the genetic revolution. London: Elsevier.

Eaton, D. (1998). “Genetic susceptibility” in environmental and occupational medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.

Gelehrter, T. (1998). Principles of medical genetics. Baltimore, MD: Williams


SWOT Analysis: Al Capone’s Essay essay help

Introduction Al-Capone’s restaurant came into existence in 1927 under the initiative of Gladys Meyers. The restaurant is located along the shores of Fox River and operates in a big and spacious house. In the course of its operation, Al Capone’s mission is to achieve sustainable growth by providing its customers with an untouchable dining experience (Al Capone’s, 2012).

The firm’s operations are guided by one major objective, which entails offering its customers great and diverse wines, spirits, micro-brews, and foods. Al Capone’s focuses at maintaining the real taste of food and alcohol beverages that it offered during the 1920’s. In addition to positioning itself as a unique drinking point, Al Capone’s also focuses at offering its customers unique entertainment.

One of the ways through which the firm attains this goal is by entering into contracts with renowned music bands such as Dixieland stars and saxophonists such as Johnny Waters, Franz Jackson, and Glenn Koch. These elements are some of the main areas that have contributed towards the firm’s survival (Al Capone’s, 2012).

SWOT analysis Strengths

Strong brand – Branding is one of the avenues through which organizations can derive their competitive advantage. According to Healey (2008), branding entails a continuous commitment to deliver product meaning and promise to customers.

The restaurant has managed to maintain the quality of products it offered during the 1920s. As a result, it has developed a strong identity within the society in which it operates. People travel for long miles in order to enjoy the tasty spirits, great food, and lively entertainment within the restaurant (Al-Capone’s, 2012).

Customers who patronize the hotel experience the roaring characteristic of the hotel that persisted during the 1920s and 30s. This element has played a critical role in enhancing a strong attachment with the society. Consequently, the firm has been in a position to nurture a strong level of customer loyalty. According to Healey (2008), customer loyalty is a key ingredient in the survival and success of firms considering the high rate at which the business environment is transforming.

Product diversification- Since its inception, Al Capone’s has been able to diversify its product offering. The firm has achieved this by adopting a multiproduct strategy. The strategy enables firms to become more diversified hence improving their performance. Effective integration of multiproduct strategy is realizable by integrating the concept of focusing. Consequently, firms’ management teams have to focus on the most profitable product to integrate in their product offering (McDaniel, Hair,


“The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Literary work is a reflection of what is happening in the society. Authors normally voice their opinions about issues affecting the society through various themes. These themes are closely linked together through analysis of a character’s actions.

In the contemporary society, introduction of literature research has extensively increased the volume of literature in every topic of interest researchers may be interested in especially in use of expression tools such as metaphors to present a symbolic view that a character display in a play or a book. As a matter of fact, irrespective of the level of knowledge and understanding of research facets, literature versions are inclusive of literature tools such as metaphors.

Literature comparison is about enjoying the phrases, feeling the narrator’s words in action, imagining, and placing oneself in the writer’s shoes. Writings with consistent assumptions and symbolic insinuation add comprehensiveness to sentence structures or phrases with hidden meaning. The play, “The Revenger’s Tragedy” by Brain Gibbons presents a violent and vivid portrait of ambition and unending lust in an Italian community.

Specifically, this play typifies artistic cynicism and satire to present a picture of a revenge quest that culminates into unfounded tragedy for both parties. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly prove that revenge is dehumanizing in the play. Specifically, the paper concentrates on the death of the King and his attitude and treatment of his mother. Across the paper, the analysis draws critical reflection on the events that culminate into revenge and their eventual results.

Gibbons was successful in addressing hypocrisy that was dominant in the early century in the theme of revenge desires. This theme forms the foundations upon which the society of this play was built.

It resonates across generations since its influence is inherent. Revenge desires as a thematic touch on identity crisis, tradition, manipulation, and marriage. The play “The Revenger’s Tragedy” portrays deep decay in political and moral parameters of the society. Irrespective of social class, religious inclination, size of accumulated wealth, epoch inclination, and beauty, death kisses people equality every time it knocks on the door of its victim. The tragedy delves on love, life, and tyranny.

As a matter of fact, the key antagonists and protagonists demise eventually. Interestingly, death is presented as a redeemer of what each character stands for. Specifically, Vindice forms the image of an avenger who links economic disparities and female chastity to plot a dehumanizing plot on the old irresponsible king. Thus, “the smallest advantage fattens wronged men” (Gibbons 1.2.98).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The king is morally bankrupt and very corrupt in dispensing his authority on the subjects. Irrespective of the position of a person, revenge is presented as a poisonous object that sweeps away both the antagonist and the ‘revenger’. Despite having been an ideal person at the beginning of his quest, Vindice incessant activity resorts to the very ideals he protested against in the process of fulfilling “that bald Madam Opportunity” (Gibbons 1.1.55).

Reflectively, Vindice becomes the victim of moral decadence and follows the ill practices concocted by the nobility in the society. In the process of revenge, the dehumanizing acts of aimless killings, habitual lying, and irresponsibility replaces gentlemanly attributes that were associated with him. Revenge is a continuing inspiration to overturn the wrongs that were committed by a third party.

When internalized, though may appear fulfilling, the art of revenge inspires hatred and unreasonable response to stimuli. For instance, in the process of plotting a revenge on the King, Vindice climbs overboard and convinces his parent to resort to prostituting his only sister Castiza to complete the revenge plot.

Reflectively, the journey towards revealing truth makes him adopt a ‘Machiavellian cynicism’ that undermines his quest. He states, “Thou hast no conscience; are we not revenged? Is there one enemy left alive amongst those” (Gibbons 108).

In the end, Vindice loses his outstanding personality and replaces it with self righteousness that is characterized by distributing blames and hanger on innocent third parties. He claims “And therefore I’ll put on that knave for once…for to be hones is not be in the world” (Gibbons 1.1.93). Vindice can be described as an agent of his own downfall. In the end, just like the slain King, Vindice ends up dead while fulfilling the burning desire to avenge.

Across the play, the same fate crowns Hippolito, Ambitioso, Lussurioso, and Supervacuo. Death is a natural thing, and despite the fact that it is a sad affair, it might be less hurting if someone dies a natural death. However, Vindice, Ambitioso and Spurio fail to redeem themselves from the consequences of revenge and ends up in an unending holocaust.

Specifically, the moral weakness of Vindice is seen when his personal indignation on the manners of the court and corrupt system of the judiciary metamorphoses into a radical immorality of a crime he later commit. As a result, Vindice states “the foul practice hath turn’d itself on me” (Gibbons 5.2. 299-300). Death is a tragedy that is unexpected, and it is not pleasant at all. The ground as to why inhabitants do not appreciate death is because it causes emotional damage and pain.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bitterness and resentment of Vindice make his vows that “in the midst of all their joys they shall sigh blood” (Gibbons 5.2.22). In a twist of events, these words culminate into the tragic destiny of Vindice. Thus, revenge is dehumanizing since those plotting it resort opt for the murders as political expedients of convenience and stimulates cosmic disorders in the society.

The play ends in the purges that horrify other characters. Vengeance becomes the only Pyrrhic victory to these characters obsessed with the tasks of fulfilling tasks that are pre-ordained. For instance, Vindice states, “I do repent but heaven hath pleas’d it so…that I must be their scourge and minister” (Gibbons 3.4.173).

This arouses inhuman acts of indiscriminate revenge actions with ill motives. For instance, Middleton’s my inspiration towards revenge was to institute a revulsion arousing dramatic tool. Besides, Vindice idolized revenge and painted it with words like “sweet, delectable, rare, happy, and ravishing” (Gibbons 3.5.1).

This arouses suspicion into the underlying motives which sends Vindice into a medieval vice. Thus, revenge cripples these characters with hatred that culminates into premeditated murder. As a result, revenge “throwne luck upon the forehead of our state (Gibbons 1.2.4). Moreover, the remedy of the court was an alternative resort that was exercised only when disputes happened.

The judicial proceeding was intended to provide solutions to existing disputes. The court was responsible to handle injustice cases that had already happened in the society and reassure the mass of fairness and accountability. However, the King’s revenge motives completely defaced the functions of this court. In his bid for revenge and center power, the King neglected justice in the court.

Revenge games compromises integrity of the parties involved. Reflectively, this happens due to the fact that some of the players are naïve, while others are indifferent. For instance, Vindice is unhappy at his parent’s inability to resist bribery. The mother states, “I blush to think what for your sake I’ll do” (Gibbons 2.1.24). In this aspect, revenge is dehumanizing in its characteristic of making parasites out of people, internalizing corruption, and being the engine that drives greed and unending lust for advancements in the social endeavors.

All the characters in the revenge matrix have selfish and debased ambitions that inspire their urge to maintain the status quo irrespective of any collateral damage in the process. Interestingly, the Duke who should symbolize justice and moral authority asserts that “I’ll try them both upon their love and hate” (Gibbons 2.3.86).

In fact, Vindice’s reaction reveals an unfounded hatred, ignorance and blindness of high magnitude as they climaxed. In an ironic tone, Vindice retorts, “Pray heaven their blood may wash away all treason” (Gibbons 2.3. 98). The other revenging characters destroy Vindice as a survival tactic on realizing that he plans to destroy them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Justice was a notion that concerned duties and rights of people in this society. Justice was an interpersonal concept that sought to resolve conflict among people. Nevertheless, this was not to claim that inferior interests were suppressed. Justice aimed to sustain and build right behaviors while judicial court was responsible to deliver judgment among peoples. However, the rejection of justice by the King resulted in series of revenge plots that swept the morals and ethics of this society.

Works Cited Gibbons, Brian. The Revenger’s Tragedy, New York: Norton, 1967. Print.


Treating Race and Ethnicity in History Essay college essay help online

The fact that American history is strongly associated with racial and ethnic issues in undeniable. Over the centuries, the migrated ethnic groups faced rigid discrimination on the part of dominating population. The indigenous population of America also confronted significant social and cultural pressure on the part of white people coming from Europe.

The point is that differences in races are not premised on biological characteristics, but on social ones. Indeed, social perceptions are strongly linked to cultural beliefs of various ethnic groups. Diverse ideological systems have become the corner stone for various groups to become a united community with common values and belief systems.

There is no unanimous opinion concerning the nature of racial confrontation. Nevertheless, the history testifies to the dominance of white race over the others. Therefore, racism often served as a tool for colonizing, enslaving, and conquering new territories. Similar to racial distinctions, ethnic groups are also divided in accordance to different cultural and racial backgrounds.

In case the population of one ethnic group prevails, the other ones are considered as minorities whose beliefs, culture, and traditions are often under the pressure. Prejudice, bias, and stereotypes have been formed as a result of these confrontations. In this respect, the African people migrating to the United States were not accepted by the dominating society and, therefore, they were deprived of the human rights, including freedom and equality.

Despite the fact that racial discrimination has been exterminated in the course of time, some stereotypes and prejudices have been left. Ethnic stereotypes have been shaped as predominant images that are applied to discriminate the members of various communities. The existence of negative prejudices, however, distorts the overall information about specific community.

Discrimination is another effect of unequal distribution of ethnic groups on one territory. To be more exact, there is always a prevailing group that shapes and influences the attitude of the rest of the population. Inequality stands at the core of relation between racial and ethnic groups due to the unequal treatment of each other. Such a perspective can still be applied nowadays since many stereotypic images exist and have a potent impact on social organization.

The history of U.S. immigration proves that stereotypic images and discrimination have not contributed positively to the development of a socially and culturally healthy environment. Enslavement and pressure imposed on migrated African Americans, as well as overall treatment of immigrants, prove that people are unable to reconcile with biological differences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethnic minorities tend to undergo racial discrimination due to their differences from the majority of social groups. These differences, nevertheless, have now become more respected by prevailing communities due to the globalization trends and tolerance of cultural diversity. Such a treatment creates a politically correct environment within which people should have enough space for self-expression and development.

In conclusion, all the communities have dominating norms and values, as well as those that are rarely used. Therefore, it is logical some of the cultural norms are not accepted by the majority groups.

Such a situation creates contradictions in terms of treating various ethnic groups whose traditions and customs are not respected in the community. In the course of time, the conditions have changed and closer attention is given to understanding cultural diversity in a globalized world. The tendency is a necessary solution for all the ethnic groups and races to be treated equally.