Introduction There are significant numbers of adverse effects caused by the depletion of the ozone layer, as supported by several publications. The negative health impacts that are brought about by
the depletion of the ozone layer and climate change and are categorised as either acute or chronic (Rass, 2006). The acute effects include minor skin injuries, such as skin dryness and photokeratitis, also known as the snow blindness (Neale, 2007).
The chronic impacts of ozone depletion on human include effects, such as skin cancer, photoaging, and the long term damages that the ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the human eye (Parker
Observational Systems Discussion Essay college essay help: college essay help
The choice of the method of how different behaviors may be observed and categorized is considered to be one of the most difficult decisions that have to be made by a professional psychologist.
Flanagan (2005) admits that such difficulty is caused because get used to think about human behavior as something continuous and seamless instead of consider it as a particular system of behavioral components.
As a rule, observations have to be conducted in the early stages of an assessment process and remain to be informal in order to see how a child behaves in an ordinary environment without some disturbing factors (Weiner, Freedheim,
Forbidden and Dangerous Information Technology Essay online essay help
Introduction Due to the dynamic pace with which technology keeps popping up in the information and communication sector, developing codes of conduct for regulating ethics in the industry continues to face a difficult task.
Markedly, the moral codes of conduct help in regulating the culture of information dissemination and sharing. The moral codes play a critical role in nurturing a morally upright society.
Unchecked information within the internet and other social network forums jeopardise the ability of controlling information that require discretion (Drahos
Preparation for Academic Success at the Graduate Level Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Education is crucial to the development of the human civilization and the progress of an individual in modern society.
This paper discusses how a person can prepare for academic success at the graduate level. It begins by highlighting the characteristics of graduate writing and how they differ from other writings. It then discusses the elements of effective written communication.
The paper also addresses the issue of plagiarism, which can have deleterious effects on graduate studies. It reveals how a student can avoid plagiarism. The paper concludes by highlighting best practices that can be adopted by graduate students to help them effectively manage their time.
Education plays a crucial role in the development of the society and the progress of an individual. Through academic success, a person is able to make a greater contribution to his community and attain social and economic benefits for himself/herself.
The benefits of education increase as one attains even higher levels of education. With this understanding, individuals who are committed to enhancing their careers and making a contribution in their areas of specialty study at a graduate level.
This level of higher education is challenging and one needs to be adequately prepared in order to achieve success. To achieve academic success, one needs to understand the features of graduate writing and how to avoid plagiarism.
The graduate level candidate should also possess time management skills and effective methods for coping with the stresses associated with graduate school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A key component of graduate school is graduate writing. Every graduate student is expected to write numerous papers before the course is completed. These papers range from simple reports to complex dissertations.
In order to achieve academic success, the student should be aware of the characteristics of graduate level writing and especially how they differ from other forms of writing. A significant characteristic of graduate writing is that it emphasizes on analysis as opposed to reporting.
Castello and Donahue (2012) state that the graduate student is expected to synthesize the information learnt and provide a critical analysis of the issue. This analysis should provide a personal perspective by using the theories learnt in class.
The graduate student is expected to come up with original arguments that are well-supported by theories and facts learnt in class and from reliable sources. This differs considerably from other forms of writing where the student only reports on the topic given.
For example, most undergraduate papers do not require students to come up with original arguments, but rather to show that they understand the subject matter. Another characteristic of graduate writing is that it relies heavily on the works of noted authorities in the field for references.
The works of such authorities contain original research and are published by reputable journals (Castello
Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching and Testing Vocabulary Proposal college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Significance of Research
Effects of Second Language
Introduction Research has been intensified on the teaching practice of teachers using English as a second language. The areas of research revolve from the teaching practice, writing, reading, and use of grammar, previous education background and the effectiveness of their teaching foundation (Alexander 2007).
An analysis of primary school teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards teaching and testing vocabulary in countries using English as their second language (ESL) have generated different attributes from scholars.
According to Oppenheim, teachers using English as their second language have improved due to the level of improved research on their attitudes and beliefs (Oppenheim 2012).
The augmented interest in the practices of the teachers matches the conduction of research on development of the teachers and their education on the diverse contexts in teaching languages.
Theoretical Framework The research conducted in early 90s indicate that teaching have improved in the classrooms from improved teacher practices in matters concerning teaching practice (Resnick 2009). The learning of students in classrooms depends on the knowledge and learning practices acquired by the teachers.
This point out that information is transferred from the teachers to their students and the occurrence of an error in teaching results to similar results from the students. The teachers’ beliefs and attitudes on teaching grammar and knowledge on grammar are the basic foundations on the second language teaching research (Pajares 2013).
The positive attitudes and beliefs of the teachers results in better results in classrooms. The students depend on the information gathered in the classrooms; hence, their teachers offer positive attitudes and beliefs in their teaching to produce better and significant results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The level of acquired knowledge from the teachers’ demonstrates equivalent teaching practice. The higher the level of knowledge acquired by the teachers from the countries and areas where English is a second language the higher their level of expertise and teaching practice in the classrooms (Resnick 2009).
The teachers’ knowledge and modes of teaching should be dynamic to cater for the different levels of understanding of the students and to produce clarity in the classrooms. Various research practitioners have conducted research on the teaching practices and attitudes of teachers and their use of vocabulary.
According to Arends, the research on teachers using English as a second language indicates that the teachers’ use of grammar is directly proportional to their knowledge and level of active participation on individual learning (Arends 2008).
Significance of Research According to research, the basis of teaching grammar and vocabularies depend on individual determination. This illustrates that the use of English as the second language does not determine the level of teaching expertise (Watkins 2007).
According to research conducted on the teachers having English as their first and second language, the teachers using English as a second language have an upper hand in the provision of better learning materials and information in learning.
This shows that the teachers level of determination and need to learn and teach the English language ranks his/her level of expertise higher than that of the native speakers. The use of explicit and implicit knowledge on languages is evident in this factor (Watkins 2007).
The native English speakers teach English with respect to their frequent use of the language. However, the non-native teachers make the use of their learnt knowledge in their teaching practice.
We will write a custom Proposal on Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching and Testing Vocabulary specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leads to the conclusion that the teaching practice of the teachers using English as a second language is better in vocabulary and grammar than the teaching of the natives. This is the result gathered from the use of implicit and explicit knowledge in teaching practice.
Effects of Second Language The review of the research conducted by different research practitioners on the knowledge of the teachers using English as second language give implications of a broad and conceptual room for further research on the same topic.
From the research conducted, the teaching practice, knowledge, components used during teaching and the relationship between the modes of teaching and need to capitalize on individual improvement on learning are the basic requirements for a successful transformation of the teaching and learning fraternity.
The teachers’ knowledge is usually analyzed and based on the outcome of their teaching practice (Pajares 2013). The higher the performance levels of the students the higher the teachers’ knowledge.
The detailed research on the level of knowledge in teaching practice, reading, grammar and writing has resulted in determination amongst teachers. Vocabulary teaching and learning occupies a considerable location in the teaching and learning of languages.
In conclusion, the use of vocabulary in second language teaching is essential but research indicates that it does not improve in the acquisition of the second language. However, proper vocabulary teaching using relevant and improved strategies leads to better teaching and learning methods.
According to Nisbett, the modes of teaching depend on the teachers’ ability to acquire knowledge and the existing level of their knowledge (Nisbett 2011).
A clear understanding on the effects of the teachers’ knowledge on the students indicates that it is directly proportional to the students’ performance. The higher the teachers’ knowledge the higher the performance levels of the students.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching and Testing Vocabulary by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Alexander, G 2007, New concept English, Longman, London.
Arends, R 2008, Learning to Teach, McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Nisbett, R 2011, Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Oppenheim, A 2012, Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement, Pinter, London.
Pajares, MF 2013, Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct, Review of Educational Research, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 307-332.
Resnick, LB 2009, Knowing, Learning, and Instruction, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.
Watkins, D 2007, Learning and teaching: A cross-cultural perspective, School Leadership
Terrorism and Poverty Research Paper essay help free
Terrorism is one the foremost threat to global peace and stability in the 21st century. The sharp increase in transnational terrorist attacks is a source of concern for world leaders as evident in the 2014 G8 Summit.
While there are conflicting arguments regarding the factors that influence terrorism, scholars agree on the need to evaluate evidence on the causes of terrorism and develop concrete strategies and approaches to tackle a vice that is threatening the cohesion of societies all over the world.
An analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors on terrorism tendencies demonstrates a weak link between poverty and terrorism.
The proponents of the positive relationship between poverty and terrorism argue that poverty leads to social upheavals related to income inequality, unemployment and lack of education.
Social, economic and political inequalities influence resentments by individuals who consider that the society has deprived them of their freedoms, opportunities and standards. Social, economic and political strife increases the susceptibility of the affected individuals to embrace extremist ideologies.
For example, poor families in Afghanistan send their children to madrassas because they are affordable and provide children with free food, clothing and other items. Madrassas in Taliban strongholds allow the indoctrination of young children into terrorism.
A significant number of the original Taliban fighters in Afghanistan were madrassas students. Terrorist develop extremist doctrines around the social, economic and political struggles faced by ordinary citizens.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proponents of the positive link between poverty and terrorism argue that fostering economic development in impoverished countries will significantly reduce the threat of terrorism (Gupta, et al. 108-110).
An excellent illustration of the fact that poverty is not the chief cause of terrorism is the 2007/2008 UN Development Programme report, which presents the statistics on the regional distribution of terrorism between 2000 and 2006.
The report shows that incidents of terrorism are not dependent on the socioeconomic status of a region.
For example, Sub-Sahara Africa has significantly low incidents of terrorism compared to regions such as the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, North America and Asia despite the fact that these regions have a higher regional human development index compared to Sub-Saharan African countries.
The report demonstrates that the socioeconomic status of a region is not a catalyst for terrorist activities. The region of Western Europe and North America experienced about 16 times the incidents of terrorism in Sub-Sahara Africa between 2000 and 2006.
The regional human development index in the two regions is 0.916 and 0.493 respectively (Piazza and Hippel 41-50). While a significant number of the poorest countries in the world have experienced rampant cases of civil wars and political strife, terrorism has not emerged as security issues in those countries.
Pakistan and Iraq have a higher per capita income than most countries in sub-Sahara Africa. The two countries are hotspots for terrorism activities. On the other hand, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Chad and Ethiopia have witnessed minimal cases of terrorism despite the social, economic and political strife in those countries.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Terrorism and Poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An analysis of the socioeconomic status of the perpetrators of the 9/11 attack contradicts the claim that poverty promotes terrorism. The masterminds of the attack were university graduates from at least middle-income backgrounds.
Osama Bin Laden was the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire and studied civil engineering at King Abdul-Aziz University. Ayman al-Zawahiri, the current leader of al-Qaeda, studied medicine at Cairo University.
Mohammed Atta studied in Germany and was the son of an attorney. The 2005 London bombing incident demonstrates the weak link between poor persons and terrorism. Criminal investigations into the incident revealed that one of the terrorists was the owner of a highly valued estate.
The perpetrators of the terrorist attack at Glasgow International Airport were persons from middle-income backgrounds. The masterminds of the attack were a medical doctor and an engineer. Similarly, a significant number of the members of the Muslim Brotherhood movement are graduates from universities in Egypt.
An analysis of the socioeconomic status of the members of Palestinian terror groups highlights the fact that Palestinian terrorists have a higher level of education compared to the average male population in the region.
Other cases of educated terrorists from privileged middle and upper-income backgrounds include Farouk Abdulmutallab and Dr. HUmmam al-Balawi. Abdulmutallab studied engineering at London University College.
He is the son of a wealthy banker and a former Nigerian commissioner. Farouk attempted a terrorist attack on a flight headed to Detroit. Dr. Al-Balawi studied medicine at Istanbul University and worked at the Jordan University Hospital.
He was the perpetrator of the Camp Chapman attack and suicide bombing at a CIA base in Afghanistan. The numerous incidents of educated and wealthy terrorists demonstrate a weak link between an individual’s income level, education and the likelihood of engaging in terrorism (Rgo, 42).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Terrorism and Poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The data on human development index and terrorist attacks perpetrated by educated individuals from wealthy backgrounds demonstrates the fact that poverty does not lead to terrorism.
Impoverished regions in Sub-Sahara Africa, South America and East Asia have had minimal incidents of terrorist attacks. The weak link between poverty and terrorism highlights the need for world leaders to re-evaluate their strategies to tackle transnational terrorism.
Works Cited Gupta, Dipak, Lowell Huesmann, and Graham Huesmann. “Is Terrorism the Result of Root Causes Such as Poverty and Exclusion?” Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge, 2012. 108-119. Print.
Piazza, James, and Karin Hippel. “Does Poverty Serve as a Root Cause of Terrorism?” Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Conflicting Perspectives on Causes, Contexts, and Responses. Washington, DC: CQ, 2010. 35-62. Print.
Rgo, Tore. Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and Ways Forward. London: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Organizational Culture of Walmart Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Sam Walton, a small town merchant who rose to be the American tycoon, second richest after Bill Gates, founded the Walmart Corporation in the late 1950s, starting with a small store and expanding to present top stores worldwide (Walmart Corporation, 2015). He defined the norm of inclusiveness in the company and referred to all his employees as associates.
The firm operates under a slogan “Exceed the customers’ expectations.” It has four pillars of operation: the customer, anchor is the boss, get it done before sundown, and greet any customer who is within ten feet (Reinsch
Causes of Land/Boundary Disputes Analytical Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of Land Dispute
Causes of Land/Boundary Disputes
Introduction According to the primeval Greek folklores, land was communal. There were no cases of land or boundary disputes since resources were shared equally. Communities coexisted peacefully, and everyone was free to settle at any location.
However, the peaceful coexistence did not last for long. The emergence of the Iron Age led to people subdividing communal land into numerous pieces and privatising it. Land privatisation resulted in conflicts1.
Today, land disputes are indeed extensive phenomena and can arise in any country at any time. The disputes arise due to both demand and greed. Besides, rise in land worth and paucity escalate the problem further. In most cases, disputes arise if people are likely to acquire land for free.
The majority of inheritance conflicts emanate from land issues. Lack of proper land management systems paves the way for influential people to grab private and unutilised land. Moreover, it leads to the poor losing their land to affluent individuals2.
In African states, where land is gradually gaining value, people use all means to amass property. Land disputes are not only experienced in African countries, but also in European states. In the European states, local people lose their properties to the privileged and mining companies.
This paper will discuss the causes of land disputes, particularly in Africa.
Nature of Land Dispute Land/boundary disputes are manifested in different forms. Some conflicts involve single parties like boundary dispute between neighbours while others involve families. Cases of land inheritance disagreements are common in African states. Additionally, communities disagree over the use of public land3.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such conflicts are not difficult to resolve. Other land/boundary disputes involve numerous parties like group incursions and expulsions of whole settlements. Such differences take time to resolve, and at times, they degenerate to public strife.
The most intricate land disputes are those that comprise fraudulent land management and state capture. In most cases, land/boundary disputes affect the aboriginals. Indigenous people are ever on the verge of losing their ancestral land because states do not recognise them or communities do not understand their rights to ancestral property.
In other instances, states invalidate or privatise ancestral land leading to conflicts. For example, in Guatemala, the government declared all unoccupied land neglected and assigned it to coffee growers. Since then, the country always experience land disputes that degenerate to violent conflicts4.
In Kenya, the Ndung’u report showed that influential people in the government were the primary recipients of unlawful allotments of public land. Land grabbing in Kenya is prevalent such that it is even echoed in present-day art.
Inducement, nepotism, scam, and clientelism in land management and national land control are familiar phenomena and result in increase in cases of land disputes worldwide.
Causes of Land/Boundary Disputes In the majority of developing states, land management systems have numerous loopholes. Property rights are frequently embodied by conflicting or disjointed laws or legal pluralism.
Therefore, it is difficult to establish the legal owner of any particular land in the event of a complaint. Besides, land demarcation is weak, and this results in boundary disputes among the citizens5.
We will write a custom Essay on Causes of Land/Boundary Disputes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Land administration authority lacks qualified staff, relevant plan and infrastructure to manage and allocate land accordingly. In addition, administrative services are in most cases centralised and immature with duties not being precisely assigned or contradicting each other.
Therefore, it is hard for land management officers to work together and consolidate their data. The available data is always incomplete and unreliable. Apart from inadequate data, the majority of land administration authorities are prone to corruption6.
Therefore, they do little to mitigate or avoid cases of land disputes. The authorities do not put into practice established land policies. Additionally, many of the land systems are incongruous and hard to implement. Thus, poor land policies and flawed organic land market organisations contribute to land disputes.
Dysfunctional bodies serve as avenues to land/boundary disputes. People should understand that shortfalls of land institutions are not the primary cause of land disputes; they only stimulate conflicts.
Numerous individuals in property institutions take advantage of inadequate and unclear legislations to make money by grabbing land and selling it to private developers7.
In addition, they manipulate land policies to their benefit. The majority of staff members in the land sector are paid poorly. Therefore, they result in corruption as a way to supplement their salaries.
Most land disputes arise due to disagreements between family members. At times, family members or relatives fail to agree on how to share or use family land. For instance, they fail to agree on demarcation procedures and members to benefit from a property, especially for the case of a polygamous family.
Besides, land disputes may arise due to encroachment by neighbouring families8. In Uganda, cases of land conflicts associated with family members are prevalent. Economic factors also contribute to land disputes in Uganda and other African states. Most African communities regard land as a vital economic asset.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes of Land/Boundary Disputes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Africans trust that one cannot survive without land. Therefore, disagreements arise when people battle to share in a single piece of land. The disagreements are aggravated by the view that it is hard to acquire land because of population growth. Most youths do not want to engage in agricultural activities.
However, they need money to meet their needs. Hence, they at times sell families’ lands without consulting relatives and keep all the money for personal use. In Acholiland (Uganda), youths sell family lands without consultations leading to disputes9.
Another primary cause of land dispute is illegal sale of land by traditional chiefs. In Africa, traditional chiefs are entrusted with communal land. The society reveres them and trusts that they are the best custodians of public land.
However, they at times engage in illegitimate practices and sell the land they are supposed to protect rendering their subjects landless10. In some cases, they allocate a single piece of land to many people leading to conflicts. The majority of communal lands are not documented.
Besides, some countries have numerous ways of acquiring land. Thus, the presence of legal pluralism enables chiefs and other people entrusted with private or public land to sell the property to multiple clients. In Nicaragua, people can acquire land through twelve ways. Therefore, it is possible for corrupt individuals to allocate a single piece of land to many people11.
Today, cases of land disputes in Nicaragua are rampant. People have gone to the extent of even selling the land that is reserved for forest. The problem of multiple allocations is also common in Ghana. Plots are sold to many people without their knowledge.
They only learn that they were duped when they begin to construct, and other people appear and claim ownership of the same land. Nowadays, cases of property demolition are widespread in Accra due to double or multiple allocations of land.
Rural-urban migration is another cause of land/boundary disputes worldwide. Besides, natural population growth also contributes to land disputes. Many people migrate from rural to urban areas in hope for a better life. The majority of the immigrants are from poor backgrounds.
Therefore, they cannot manage to buy food, leave alone to rent houses. In order to survive, such immigrants settle on public land since they know that they are unlikely to be evicted. However, they subject themselves and cities to uncertainties because they do not know when the government will ask them to leave.
On the other hand, it becomes hard for cities to develop since it is hard to evict immigrants from public land. Cases of squatter settlements are common in South Africa and Turkey.
In Turkey, urbanisation and industrialisation began in 1960s. Since then, numerous slums have emerged around Istanbul and Ankara. The Turkish government has been trying to evict squatters from cities, but the inhabitants always oppose the attempts to expel them.
The issue of land dispute in Turkey is an excellent example of authenticity versus legitimacy. Long time ago, only religions had authority over land. People were allowed to use land on short-term basis, and no one had legal authority.
The public depended on local endorsement and local authenticity and did not need arbitration from land officials. However, in 1926, a system was devised by the Roman law that changed land ownership. People were allowed to possess private land, and they had to have documents to show that they are the legal owners of particular properties.
The fiercest disputes over boundaries are, however, those that comprise two or more ethnic communities. In Africa, cases of ethnic communities fighting over land are regular. For instance, in 2006, tens of thousands of people were displaced due to tribal clashes in Southern Ethiopia.
Two clans claimed ownership of a joint land leading to skirmishes. The Ethiopian government awarded a piece of land that belonged to Borenas to Guhis community. The Borenas did not take the matter lightly. Their determination to get back the land led to clashes that left over one hundred people dead and many others injured.
In many cases, ethnic disputes arise due to competition for grazing or arable land. Others are triggered by environmental dilapidation. A study by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) found that land degradation and poor customs are some of the factors that caused land disputes in Darfur12.
According to the study, the majority of people in Darfur are either farmers or pastoralists. Thus, Darfur has suffered immense deforestation and overgrazing. Farmers and ranchers compete for the remaining arable and grazing land leading to violent confrontations.
The Darfur problem is a classic case of land disputes that emanate from various changes and deteriorate to war. Many land/boundary disputes come as a result of climate change, population growth and economic transformation. Population growth and the environmental dilapidation lead to scarcity of productive land.
In the end, people start to scramble for the available land13. On the other hand, economic transformation leads to privatisation of land. Land privatisation opens room for illegal deals, which deprive innocent people of their land.
Lack of legitimate and efficient land management system has led to the privatisation of urban land in Mongolia. Moreover, incidences of double allocations of land are frequent in the country. Rulings of double allocations of land are in most cases biased and favour the wealthy.
In Georgia, the second phase of land privatisation triggered disputes. The process was stage-managed leading to some people and groups being left out.
While ethnicity is one of the leading causes of land/boundary disputes in Africa, modern-day international border conflicts between countries are as a result of state and fiscal significances and concerns.
During pre-colonial and colonial period, some communities fought for exclusive rights to inhabit and benefit from resources found within certain regions. The same happens even in modern days. For instance, in Bamenda (Cameroon), boundaries were established without factoring in sociocultural facts.
Consequently, disputes emerged between communities that previously coexisted harmoniously14. Land in Bamenda was subjected to numerous incongruous economic practices that were meant to profit colonial masters.
The majority of the economic practices exist until today and are the primary causes of land disputes in the region. Besides, economic-induced countryside conflicts and constant political crises have aroused ethnotribal consciousness in Cameroon.
Additionally, the majority of politicians support preferred ethnic groups when it comes to land allocations. Hence, they spur conflicts among ethnic groups.
According to Cambodian ancient customary laws, land was a preserve of the royal family. The king had control over land, and people were allowed to cultivate without restrictions15. Hence, cases of land/boundary disputes were rare in the country. However, colonial masters abolished the system and introduced private ownership.
Privatisation led to surfacing of land disputes16. Today, cases of land dispute are very rampant in Cambodia due to vagueness of land rights. Lately, the value of land has gone up leading to conflicts over ownership among the communities.
Currently, most land conflicts in Cambodia involve government officials. Government officials evict people from public and unregistered land and allocate it to private investors.
A report by the Non-Governmental Organisation Forum on Cambodia claimed that the country was plagued by serious land conflicts. According to the report, over 188 families were involved in land disputes in 200817. The majority of Cambodians do not have land ownership documents.
Consequently, they are evicted anytime the government decides to privatise public land. Besides, the government does not acknowledge customary laws. Hence, no one can use customary laws to claim that s/he is the legal owner of any land.
Many land disputes involve one person claiming ownership based on the duration that s/he has possessed the land and the other person arguing based on possession of legal documents.
Thus, it is hard to arbitrate such disputes. The person in possession of legal documents ends up winning the case because it does not matter how one obtains the documents.
Poor governance is a primary cause of land/boundary disputes in Africa. Many African countries rely on agriculture. Therefore, land is a valuable asset. Every citizen craves to have a piece of land. African leaders know the importance of land. Hence, they use it to either appreciate or discipline those who do not support their policies.
For instance, in Kenya, the government uses land to lure people to support its manifesto18. Additionally, it uses land to discipline those opposed to its agenda. The majority of Kenyans depend on agriculture for income generation. Many families cannot thrive without land.
In Kenya, there have been cases of successive regimes appreciating their followers by settling them in public and ancestral lands. The government does not consider why some land stays unused for long. Allocation of ancestral land to private investors and government supporters triggers disputes among communities.
Incidents of indigenous land owners clashing with alien occupants are extensive in Kenya19. The incidents occur mostly after every presidential election. One major problem in Kenya is that an individual bearing a second title may contend for land.
Thus, influential people identify productive properties, apply for titles without considering if the properties are occupied and use their powers to evict the legal owners. Today, the country is strewn with squatter settlements in Mombasa, the Central Province, and around Nairobi.
Kenya has land laws, which aim to ensure that every citizen has the right to land ownership. However, the people given the responsibility to enforce the laws are corrupt. The majority of land conflicts in Kenya arise due to poor execution of land legislations. The authorities construe title from an absolutist’s perspective20.
According to the authorities, for one to own land, s/he only requires to be registered and given the title. The procedure used to acquire title does not matter. Hence, as long one has a title, s/he owns the land.
Kenyans have occasionally blamed the government for misusing its powers to allocate land to its allies. In fact, land disputes fuel the majority of ethnic clashes in Kenya.
The United Kingdom has created laws that oblige families to relinquish their land for infrastructural developments21. The major limitation of the laws is that property owners are poorly compensated. The laws aim to reduce government expenditure.
Many people argue that the laws are not supposed to be applied since private companies run the majority of infrastructural projects22. Private companies profit from the laws at the expense of landowners.
The companies purchase properties at low cost since the public is obliged to sell. In addition, the laws do not consider challenges that accompany constructions like interference with wildlife and noise.
The United Kingdom encounters bitter confrontations as land owners seek better compensations. Currently, England is planning to initiate over 200 road projects23. Besides, water and energy companies intend to lay down their infrastructures.
These projects will require many rural landowners to relinquish their land. The intrinsic inequality of land laws in England leads to bitter confrontations between landowners and private companies. The country will continue to experience land disputes unless the laws are revised.
Conclusion Incidences of land disputes are numerous worldwide. All land disputes have adverse impacts on both a country and society. Numerous households across the globe have lost their land either to the government, alien occupants or private investors.
In Africa, many homes lose their land to affluent people who allege to own the properties. Besides, cases of double allotments have led to households losing land. In Latin America, poor families lose their properties to plantation farmers.
Land disputes result in people incurring economic losses. In other instances, people end up becoming squatters. The disputes deprive farmers of their sole source of income and render them poor. However, that is not the only consequence.
Where there are numerous land disputes, social cohesion in the community is disturbed, since the disputes damage trust and amplify panic and doubt. They make it difficult for families to coexist peacefully. Land disputes have shocking impacts on individuals who feel vulnerable.
For people who have experienced land disputes, they live in fear of the incidents reoccurring. Thus, they fear to develop their properties because they can lose them at any time.
Improper management of land not only leads to disputes, but also adversely affects a country’s budget. It leads to social segregation and environmental degradation that are detrimental to a country. Moreover, land disputes result in improper and amorphous land use.
Therefore, it is difficult for a country to provide the requisite infrastructure. Land dispute is not an African problem, but a global menace that slows down development. Unlike other disputes, land conflict is complicated and challenging to arbitrate.
Therefore, the only way to solve land disputes is to identify the visible interests. Land disputes can be resolved if interest and rights of the conflicting parties are addressed. For instance, conflicts between farmers and pastoralists can be dealt with by looking for ways that the parties can share available resources.
In most cases, land conflicts arise due to fear and suspicion. Individuals feel insecure and fear to lose their property. Thus, they become combative and intolerant to the idea that they can relinquish their land even if it is for the sake of the entire society.
Apart from considering people’s interests, it is imperative to have reliable and workable land laws. Moreover, land authorities should shun corruption and abide by established legislations.
Shunning corruption will make the public have confidence in the authorities, thus turning to them for assistance instead of using barbaric ways to resolve land issues.
Bibliography Aghemelo, A.
Corporate Culture of Vintage Tourism Ventures Evaluation Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Company Rituals and Ceremonies
Company’s Organizational Language
Socialization of New Employees
Introduction In the contemporary super-competitive age, organizational culture is increasingly becoming an important domain in the way business is being conducted owing to its substantial impact on firm performance and competitiveness, employee job performance, as well as employee job satisfaction.
Using a hypothetical company referred to as Vintage Tourism Ventures, this paper purposes to discuss some underlying issues concerning the organization’s culture, including its legend, rituals and ceremonies, language and socialization of new employees.
Company Legend The company “Vintage Tourism Ventures” will be established against the backdrop of a maturing tourism industry, which provides numerous tourism packages to the youth and the working class, but fails to consider the elderly and pensioners as major consumers of tourism products.
Customers within this group of the population (the elderly and pensioners) require to be showered with warmth and compassion owing to their advancing age, not mentioning that they need to be treated with respect and utmost integrity.
Additionally, it has been decided that potential customers for the company need to be entertained in a pleasurable and stress-free environment not only to leave long-lasting impressions about the company but also to instill happiness in their sunset years.
The company will be developing around these cultural variables (demonstration of warmth, compassion, respect, integrity and happiness), implying that employees are expected to treat the customers with big smiles and affection.
It is expected that the company will make a niche for itself in the tourism industry in the foreseeable future, as employees and other relevant stakeholders will have the capacity to know what is expected from them when it comes to treating the elderly customers and maintaining the company’s cohesiveness for enhanced performance and competitiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a matter of fact, the company expects to be identified with affection, compassion, happiness, and integrity.
Company Rituals and Ceremonies The company will employ birthday parties and happy hours not only to establish team unity and allow employees to feel appreciated by the management but also to provide a more enjoyable workplace experience in the line with its projected culture and ethical principles.
Happy hours will be held on weekends and will be dedicated to employees who will complete individual accomplishments for the company and contribute to the steady growth of the customer base.
The company will use birthday and other parties to encourage their workers to reach higher goals and also to show that it values employees as human beings, rather than as an impersonal means of production.
These rituals and ceremonies will be wholly funded by the company and will contain an element of compensation through monetary and nonmonetary rewards to show the commitment of the organization to its human capital base.
Senior leaders will use these ceremonies to underscore important variables of the company’s culture (e.g., warmth, compassion, respect, integrity, cooperation and happiness), and also encourage employees and management to have more opportunities for social interaction with each other away from the stressful office environment.
Company’s Organizational Language It is a well-known fact that organizational language reflects a collective strategy among organizational members and is instrumental in reinforcing a company’s culture, particularly with regard to ensuring that employees exhibit or project patterns of behavior underpinned by values, attitudes and assumptions for optimal organizational performance and productivity.
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Culture of Vintage Tourism Ventures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drawing from the main variables of the projected corporate culture (demonstration of warmth, compassion, respect, integrity and happiness), it is plausible to say that the organizational language will revolve around creating the happiest place on earth for pensioners to enjoy their sunset years with utmost peace and tranquility.
The organizational language of creating the happiest place on earth for pensioners to enjoy their sunset years through tourism and adventures will form the foundational element of the culture at Vintage Tourism Ventures, particularly in terms of ensuring that employees will be able to work in an environment that is full of warmth, compassion, respect, integrity and happiness.
It is only by working in such a fun-filled and respectful environment that the employees will have the capacity to joke with customers and guarantee their happiness.
Owing to the fact that the hallmark of an adaptive organizational culture is embedded in the capacity for employees to accept change and take on the challenge of initiating and implementing new strategies for organizational growth and competitiveness, it is essential to align organizational language with the prevalent culture to reinforce in employees the value of change in facilitating the improvement of the company.
Drawing from this elaboration, it should be the function of the company’s leadership to open channels of communication to ensure that employees are inculcated into an organizational culture that values warmth, compassion, respect, integrity and happiness.
Opening channels of communication between employees and management will also ensure that change efforts are not resisted when they arise.
Additionally, it should be the function of the company’s leadership to develop a learning environment that provides employees with the capacity to learn about the culture and language of the organization.
Lastly, it is essential for the leadership to provide employees with training opportunities in order to ensure internalization and comprehension of essential components of the organizational culture.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Culture of Vintage Tourism Ventures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The discussed variables (opening avenues of communication, developing and implementing a learning environment, providing training opportunities) will be instrumental in ensuring that Vintage Tourism Ventures maintains productivity and competitiveness due to a strong adaptive corporate culture.
Socialization of New Employees Socialization of new people into the company should commence by undertaking an orientation exercise aimed at ensuring that the employees not only embrace the corporate culture of the firm, but also understand all the cultural values, ethical principles, and expectations for behavior.
The orientation exercise should also introduce the new hires to the company’s vision and mission statements, not mentioning that it should assist the employees to understand the value of working together as a team in the realization of the company’s strategic and business objectives.
The next step in the socialization process should involve giving the new people a real view of the organization, particularly in the context of the company’s origin, pathways for the future, major functions or activities undertaken, as well as existing customers and customer base.
Lastly, management should ensure that the new people get to know the whole team by striving to help them establish constructive relationships with the rest of the staff. For example, a welcome party could be organized to provide the new hires with an opportunity to connect with other members of staff and share in their experiences.
Conclusion This paper has discussed some of the underlying issues related to the establishment of a strong corporate culture for a hypothetical company referred to as Vintage Tourism Ventures.
Drawing for this exploration, it can be concluded that a strong corporate culture is to a large extent dependent on the company’s legend, rituals and ceremonies, organizational language, as well as how well new people are socialized into the organization.
Effectiveness of Complete Care Division Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Problem statement and background information
Purpose of the Research
Data Collection, Processing and Analysis
Budget and Timeline
Dummy Table for the Analysis
Problem statement and background information Customers are the main source of motivation for the existence of any business. A mutual relationship developed between a firm and its customers should provide benefits to the two parties. Customer complaints are handled by a team of experts who are skilful in the field of customer care services.
The integration of customers’ feedback in a solution seeking project is an ideal approach (Davis, 2000). Computer R Us company is faced by problems of mising enough technical operators for the telephone care centre.
The sub-contracting scheme for delivering machines to the company is also unreliable, and some parts required for the repair of certain machines are unavailable. Moreover, the complete care centre for the firm is inefficient according to the complaints raised by customers (Zhu
Employee Motivation in Spanish Hotel Chains Proposal a level english language essay help
Introduction Purpose of the study
There are several types of leadership feedback attributions in organizations. For instance, addressing feedback with anger may result in abusive supervision. On the other hand, addressing feedback as evaluation that is based on the results of poor performance may not give the ideal picture for proactive organizational behaviour module.
As a result, the subordinates may feel disengaged and might not display optimal performance. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and involvement are critical elements within an effective organizational culture (Wang, Tsui,
The Transition of Russia to Capitalism Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Who is to blame for Russia’s failed transition?
What should be done?
Russia, in an attempt to end communism and adopt capitalism, engaged herself in a number of reforms after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or the Soviet Union). Beginning late 1980s, the new nation started massive economic reforms aimed at relieving the state ownership of the process of production and encouraging private and corporate ownership of the process.
Backed by the west, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the Russian government, under Boris Yeltsin and his group of young advisors, started the Neo-Liberalism, a transition period that would see the country undergo massive privatization, liberalization and stabilization (Kosals, 2006).
Nevertheless, Russia’s economy faced serious problems and failed to achieve the capitalism dream as planned, instead it faced rapid decline, increased corruption and reduction in vital state gains (Kosals, 2006).
Scholars have identified a number of issues that faced the transition of the Russian economy to capitalism, causing the decline. Scholars state that Russia failed to achieve a dynamic capitalist economy and instead, it achieved a malevolent form of capitalism known as “crony capitalism” or “mafia capitalism” (Abdelal, 2001).
The cause of the problem is based on the process of expropriation of the state assets initially controlled by the state during the Soviet Union era. A small group of people, probably less than 100, appropriated the state assets during the transition period.
They were individuals with strong connection with powerful state officials and integrated into criminal groups or clans. They developed notorious oligarchs with an aim of making money through banking and trade (Guriev
Caterpillar Company Analysis Using Porter’s 5 Forces Model Report best college essay help
Introduction Porter’s five forces analysis is necessary for Caterpillar Company as it assists in comprehension of the market strengths and weaknesses.
Although the Caterpillar Company has been a household name in the global heavy machinery manufacturing industry, there are several players that have limited its competitive advantage in the industry.
The five forces determining the competitive advantage of companies operating within the heavy machinery manufacturing industry in the US are discussed below.
Potential entrants Economies of scale
The current players in the heavy machinery manufacturing industry have been in existence for long and have very large production capacities. For instance, Caterpillar, Deere, Kubota Corporation, Komatsu Limited, and AGCO Corporation have diverse and very big manufacturing plants spread across the US.
Therefore, it is easy for these players to lower their prices as a competitive strategy since they directly benefit from economies of scale. Thus, a new entrant is disadvantaged in terms of pricing of its machineries since it will not benefit from economies of scale in the same magnitude as the current industry players (Wright, 2007).
Cost disadvantages from other than scale
The cost of putting up a single production unit is very expensive for a new entrant since the current players such as Caterpillar, Deere, Kubota Corporation, Komatsu Limited, and AGCO Corporation have breakeven and can easily manage the cost of production with clear market projections.
A new entrant will find itself in the mucky waters of trying to manage the cost of producing a single unit of machinery to compete the average industry cost, which may not be practical for a small player (Wright, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Product differentiation
Players in the industry such as Caterpillar, Deere, Kubota Corporation, Komatsu Limited, and AGCO Corporation have diversified their product as part of portfolio balance strategy.
For instance, each of the above players have diversified heavy machinery to serve construction, agriculture, and manufacturing sectors to boost the total revenues each year.
A new entrant may not be able to compete with these players since their diverse products and strong brand presence is almost impossible to challenge, especially when the new entrant plans to start small (Johnson, Whittington,
Ryanair vs. Easyjet: Corporate and Competitive Strategy Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction There are many low-cost airlines in the world. In Europe, major airline companies, such as Flybe, Wizz Air and Aer Lingus, dominate this space (Dobruszkes 2006). Jet2, Ryanair, and Easyjet are other dominant airline companies in this category.
Within this space, Ryanair and Easyjet are the two biggest low-cost airlines in the region (Elderman 2014; Dowling 2010). The two airlines are also the most popular low-cost airlines in Europe. Ryanair is an older airline company than Easyjet because its operations started in 1985, while Easyjet’s operations started in 1995 (Freire 2014).
Ryanair has evolved from a family owned business into one of the most successful regional brands in the market. The company brands itself as “Europe’s only ultra low-cost airliner” because it is the region’s largest low-cost airline company (Mayer 2008).
From 67 operational bases, Ryanair makes more than 1,600 flights daily. It also flies to more than 180 destinations in Europe (Mayer 2008). These destinations spread across 29 different countries in the region. Easyjet is Ryanair’s main rival.
Based at London’s Luton Airport, the company travels to more than 700 destinations and has a market presence in more than 30 countries (Mayer 2008).
Compared to other leading airlines in the short-haul market segment, the two airlines are among the top ten aviation companies with the highest passenger numbers in Europe. The following table shows this fact.
Figure One: Position of Easyjet and Ryanair in the global low-cost airline market (Source: Elderman 2014)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper analyses the corporate and competitive strategies of Ryanair and Easyjet. However, to get a correct understanding of this assessment, this paper demonstrates how both companies create value for their shareholders and reveals the strategic choices pursued by both organisations.
In later sections of the study, this paper shows the operational areas where the organisational strategies of both organisations converge and diverge.
What are the Competitive Positions of both Organisations? Ryanair enjoys a dominant market share in the European low-cost airline market because it was among the first companies to adopt this strategy in the region (Malighetti et al. 2006).
However, because it could not protect this strategic approach from duplication by other airline companies, it lost a significant market share to other companies, such as Easyjet.
Relative to this development, Ryanair has also adopted a “red ocean” strategy where it “steals” customers from other market segments (predominantly the customers of major airlines) (Thomson
Effective Leaders and Managers Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The success of an organisation is determined by the efforts of leaders and managers to ensure employees follow policies and maximise their productivity. Managers and leaders ensure all employees work together to achieve the success.
However, not all managers are good leaders, and organisations should set clear policies on the roles of these two positions. Current paper presents the differences between effective managers and leaders and describes a real leader’s inspiration.
Definitions An Effective Leader
An effective leader is a person who can influence others and ensure they do something that will benefit all of them. The essence of leaders is to make sure that there are the changes in the way the activities are done in organisations.
It means that effective leaders are focused on transforming the mentality of employees to see the need for changes that will improve their work. They lead people and check whether the resources are utilised for the benefit of investors, managers and their subordinates or not.
Effective leaders have followers and influence them to achieve special visions.
An effective leader may set directions and offer alternative ways of achieving the goals established by managers. Such leaders do not make decisions and impose on their followers; instead, all stakeholders participate in certain activities to be sure that their views are put into consideration.
The power of an effective leader is derived from personal charisma, and this means that leadership cannot be transferred through conventional ways like training. Effective leaders appeal to the hearts of their followers and have a passion for motivating other people to change and improve their performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They take risks because they want to achieve what others have never accomplished. The most successful leaders may break the rules and create conflicts in organisations in order to achieve success. However, they do not focus on the negative effects of these acts. Instead, they use such situations to improve the performance of all employees.
This means that effective leaders see the opportunities for change and growth in mistakes; therefore, they do not condemn weak employees. They take the blame and give credit where it is due as their main aim is to seek the right way of improving performance and motivating employees to get satisfaction from their work.
An Effective Manager
An effective manager is a person who uses the required portion of skills in order to stabilise organisations and check whether their subordinates are able to follow all policies or not. These managers have to set a number of short-term goals that have to be achieved with the help of their investors.
Another important thing this type of managers tries to consider is the quality of the possible use of all resources they have an access to. The point is that managers have an access to more resources in comparison to other workers of the same organisation; still, they try to use the same process of this resource management.
This is why it is very important for a really effective manager to know how to define the best resources for their activities. They make decisions and hope other employees will accept them without resistance.
Their authority is derived from formal procedures, including the powers vested in them by their organisations and the trust of other workers.
The leadership style of effective managers is transactional because this group of people seeks to accomplish certain formal objectives. High profits and a good public image are the two main aspects that motivate people to work harder.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Effective Leaders and Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They are afraid of risks and try to minimise them because they want to achieve the immediate results and identify those people, who cannot achieve them as failures. Effective managers do not like to take new roads, but use the old ones to create new impressions.
Effective managers make the rules and expect their subordinates following them without asking questions. They do not provide subordinates with opportunities to express what they actually think and can offer to improve their performance.
The managers under consideration define themselves as those, who are right and who do not take blames.
A Real-Life Example of Level 3 Leadership There are many successful leaders, whose styles of leadership deserve attention. Leadership style is one of the most crucial individual methods of influence on the innovations of an organisation.
The example of Spain demonstrated during Euro 2008 proves that this country and its context have a lot to say in order to improve the understanding of proper leadership. This real-life example proves that the Spanish leadership model is not only about employees’ behaviour and attention to conscious thoughts.
It is about people, their expectations, values, assumptions, and beliefs. From the report of a project manager (Mr. Carlos) to a general manager of a hotel chain (Mr. Hale), it becomes clear that the most successful leaders have to trust their people and believe that what they plan to do should be done in the most beneficial ways.
In other words, a good leader should have a certain number of followers in order to become an effective leader.
The events during Euro 2008 made many hotel managers change their politics and rely on new ideas offered by the experts in the chosen spheres as well as ordinary manages to consider the needs of ordinary people, who are eager to become a part of the Euro world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effective Leaders and Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his report, Mr. Carlos admitted that many workers are eager to offer their own ideas on how to improve their hotel services and attract more customers. Of course, it is easy to consider the demands and offers of different people, still, it is not an easy task to analyse each though and recognise the expectations and values of each worker.
Mr. Hale demonstrated one of the most successful methods and chose a written form of questionnaires for his workers. Mr. Carlos had to organise online questionnaires and attract as many people as possible to that event.
A good leader should never neglect the assumptions of his/her workers, and Mr. Hale proves that he deserves to be an example of “Level Three” leadership style. On the one hand, he considered visible actions and intentions (conscious thoughts) of his managers through the report of his project manager.
On the other hand, he paid enough attention to the Level Three within the frames of which the leaders get to know more about the values and beliefs that have been developed over time taking into consideration cultural norms and preferences that play an important role in a social life.
Conclusion All leaders are good managers, but the reverse is not true because these positions have different requirements. A good leader inspires, gives hope, and shows the direction by being an example to other employees, and good managers use the policies to influence other employees like it was demonstrated by the Spanish example during Euro 2008.
Dengue Disease in Africa Analytical Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Distribution and determinants of the Dengue Disease
Gaps in knowledge about determinants and distribution
Review of studies on the determinants of disease
The treatment and prevention of the Dengue disease
Areas for further research
Critical appraisal of available data
Distribution and determinants of the Dengue Disease Dengue can be mostly observed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In particular, one should speak about Southeast Asia since it is more affected by this virulent disease. Yet, much attention should also be paid to Sub-Saharan Africa as well as South Africa (Figueiredo, et al., 2010, p. 1).
One should keep in mind that Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease; it is transmitted by Aedes aegypti (Schmidt et al.. 2011, p. 1). This disease can occur in very densely populated areas, but at the same time, the outbreaks of this disease adversely affect rural areas.
Overall, researchers argue that the major determinant is the absence of tap water supply (Schmidt et al.. 2011, p. 1). The problem is that Aedes aegypti often breeds in water containers, and people, who use such containers, are at a greater risk of being bitten (Schmidt et al., 2011, p. 1). As a rule, these individuals have a very low income level.
Admittedly, such outbreaks can occur in large urban centers as well because these areas significantly contribute to the spread of this disease; this argument is particular relevant if one speaks about absolute numbers. Nevertheless, such cases can occur if the population density is extremely high.
Therefore, the availability of tap water supply is the main independent variable that can explain the distribution of this disease. In turn, socio-economic status of a person is one of the determinants that can increase the probability of being infected.
Gaps in knowledge about determinants and distribution There are several gaps in the literature about the distribution of this disease. First, it is important to mention that many cases of this disease may not be properly reported (Bhatt, et al., 2013). Therefore, researchers should take into account that some of their estimations about the prevalence of the Dengue fever may not be accurate.
Additionally, scholars should explain the cyclical nature of the disease outbreaks (Schmidt et al., 2011, p.8). In other words, one should explain why these outbreaks reach certain peaks at regular intervals. Furthermore, it is vital to explain the reasons why this disease spreads so rapidly. These are some of the main gaps that should be filled.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Review of studies on the determinants of disease While examining the distribution and prevalence of the Dengue fever, researchers focus on several important aspects. For instance, they try to identify potential at-risk areas and estimate the burden of this disease. In this case, the term burden can be defined the number of people who may be infected (Bhatt, et al., 2013, p. 506).
According to their projections, approximately 390 million people can acquire this virulent disease (Bhatt, et al., 2013, p. 504). Among at-risk regions, one can distinguish Asia, Africa, and Oceania. According to them, poverty will be one of the factors that can contribute to the spread of this disease.
Additionally, one can refer to the study carried out by Schmidt et al. (2011) who pay attention to such a variable as availability of infrastructure, in particular, tap water supply.
Additionally, the researchers can focus on those cases when this diseases progress to Dengue Shock Syndrome which can threaten the life of a person (Figueiredo, et al., 2010). They pay attention to the role of such co-mortifies as diabetes and various allergies (Figueiredo, et al., 2010).
Another very important determinant is vector control. In this context, the term vector denotes any biological agent that transmits the disease (Guzman et al, 2010). In this case, one should speak about the mosquito named by Aedes aegypti.
The adoption of various insect control methods can be a factor that significantly reduces the risk of this disease.
The treatment and prevention of the Dengue disease While discussing the screening and diagnosis of this disease, researchers focus on some of the key symptoms such as rash, headache, fever, and malaise (Guzman et al, 2010, p. 59). Additionally, they note that resuscitation can be critical for avoiding some of the complications that associated with the Dengue fever.
We will write a custom Essay on Dengue Disease in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, one should keep in mind that there is no vaccine that can treat this disease. This is one of the challenges that should be considered. Additionally, the scholars lay stress on the documentation of cases because such precautions are important for surveillance and identification of potential outbreaks.
In turn, the prevention activities should be related to such areas as insect control and the development of infrastructure, especially tap water supply (Guzman et al, 2010; Schmidt et al., 2011). These are the main details that should be considered.
Areas for further research One can distinguish several areas for further research. In particular, researchers should determine whether the education of patients about the risk of the Dengue fever can lead to the reduced prevalence of this disease.
If physicals and nurses work on this task, more patients will seek medical assistance, provided that they detect the sign of this disorder. Moreover, they will be more aware about the risks of using water containers where mosquitoes breed (Schmidt et al., 2011). As a result, the occurrences of this fever can be reduced significantly.
This is one of the hypotheses that should be tested.
Critical appraisal of available data Overall, it is important to systematize data about the Dengue fever because researchers focus on disease outbreaks in countries that differ in terms of infrastructure, healthcare system, the degree of urbanization, and so forth (Bhatt, et al., 2013).
Additionally, one should focus on the way, in which the governments of different countries prevent in the spread of this disease. Researchers should identify the most effective strategies. Currently, this information is not available.
Reference List Bhatt, S., Gething, P., Brady, O., Messina, J., Farlow, A., Moyes, C.,…Hay, (2013). The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature, 497(20), 504-507.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dengue Disease in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figueiredo, M., Rodrigues, L., Barreto, M., Lima, J., Costa, M., Morato, V.,… Teixeira, M. (2010). Allergies and Diabetes as Risk Factors for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Results of a Case Control Study. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(6), 1-6.
Guzman, M., Halstead, S., Artsob, S., Buchy, P., Farrar, J., Gubler, D.,… Peeling, R. (2010). Dengue: a continuing global threat. Nature Reviews, 12(2), 7-16.
Schmidt, W., Suzuki, M., Thiem, V., White, R., Tsuzuki, A., Yoshida, A., Yanai, H.,… Ariyoshi, K. (2011). Population Density, Water Supply, and the Risk of Dengue Fever in Vietnam: Cohort Study and Spatial Analysis. PLoS Medicine, 8(9), 1-10.
Marketing Analysis of 3D Printing Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
3D Systems is currently a South Carolina based corporation focused on manufacturing and design of one of the most discussed and popular innovations of the modern world – 3D (three dimensional) printers. In fact, this company is recognized to be the inventor of the concept of 3D printing.
The corporation was founded in May of 1993. This is a holding company and it functions with the help of subsidiaries of the USA, Asian-Pacific area, and Europe. The price range for the 3D printers manufactured by 3D Systems varies from less than 1000 USD to almost one million.
The company’s main business is focused on solutions concerning design and manufacturing not only of 3D printers, but also print materials, custom parts for professional and nonprofessional consumers; these materials include ceramics, metals, plastics, and edibles (3D Systems Corp (DDD), n. d.).
Besides, 3D Systems provides a number of additional devices such as scan-to-CAD (computer aided design), inspection and freedom modeling tools. The engines the company’s printers are based on are various.
Among them there are SLS (selective laser sintering), MJP and CJP (multi jet and color jet printing), FTI (film transfer imaging), SLA (stereolithography), and finally plastic jet printing known as PJP. These printers are designed to work with a wide range of materials and their blends.
Moreover, 3D Systems provides a number of specially developed software tools such as Cubify and Geomagic that bring more opportunities for design and creativity in application of 3D printing. These software tools allow manipulations with scanners, creation of and work with 3D content and CAD packages.
The professionals of 3D Systems have a goal to democratize adoption of products and services provided by the company. The specialists are committed to the increase of simplicity and affordability of the suggested goods to please a wider range of professionals and consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the efforts of 3D Systems 3D printing will soon stop being the prerogative of professional producers or designers, but move to homes and educational facilities (3D Systems Corporation: Annual report on form 10-K, 2013).
The main acquisition challenge associated with the industry 3D Systems Corporation competes in is integration of cost-effective solutions and introduction of savings in production and services.
The two main competitors of 3D Systems are HP and Stratasys. Currently, the experts agree that even though the whole 3D printing industry experienced a massive growth of revenues over the years between 2010 and 2014, and 3D Systems benefited the most, the future seems to be more favorable for Stratasys (Stoffel, 2015).
There are several bases for such conclusion. First of all, Stratasys employs a clever approach to acquisitions, it recently merged with Objet and Makerbot, and joined forces are definitely going to make the corporation stronger in the long run.
Besides, the company has accumulated what can be viewed as a war chest of funds, which can be spent on a powerful marketing campaign or as resources to attract better specialists in the industry and strengthen the business even more.
Finally, Stratasys has the largest number of 3D printers installed in the world which means that in the future this company will gain the largest income selling proprietary 3D printing materials (Stoffel, 2015).
At 3D Systems it is believed that the best way to become successful in the industry that has so many applications a designer has to be able to offer a wide range of technologies for all kinds of consumers (Heller, 2014). This way, 3D Systems provides a number of tools and different kinds of printers specialized on various tasks.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Marketing Analysis of 3D Printing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is where Hewlett-Packard becomes a serious threat because this company’s Multi Jet Fusion 3D printing technology is a very adjustable and flexible product that can work with a variety of tasks and materials.
Currently, HP is focused on the development and modification of this technology in order to make it even more advanced and be able to modify elasticity, strength, texture and color of printed objects.
Overall, HP is a very serious competitor that should not be underestimated as it has a large budget and an impressive team of developers who are empowered by decades of work with 2D printing.
3D Systems is aware of the potential threats posed by its main competitors Stratasys and HP and still has several years before their innovation and design strategies will hit the market.
3D printing is one of the world’s most successful markets because it is applicable and extremely useful for a number of fields among which there are aerospace, automotive, health and medicine, and a variety of electronic and fashion accessories.
In aerospace and automotive field 3D is popular because it can provide light and enduring details of complex shapes. In healthcare 3D printing allows creation of customized means such as prosthetics, bones, organs; besides, it allows modeling of organs, tumors and veins for better visibility.
Moreover, in the sphere of fashion and entertainment this technology allows printing various toys, customized action figures, and accessories.
Reference List 3D Systems Corp (DDD). Reuters. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Analysis of 3D Printing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3D Systems Corporation: Annual report on form 10-K. (2013). 3dsystems.com. Web.
Heller, S. (2014). 3D Systems Corporation (DDD) Stock: Is Hewlett-Packard Company a Massive Threat? Web.
Stoffel, B. (2015). Forget 3D Systems Corporation, I’m Buying Stratasys, Ltd. Web.
Introducing STEM Education to Young Students Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Exposure to STEM Education
Significant Impacts of STEM Education to Young Students
Introduction Atkinson, Hugo and Lundgren (2007) allege, “We now are in the STEM generation” (p. 15). STEM is an acronym for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Today, the acronym has taken a broader meaning. It encompasses environment, agriculture, education, economics, and medicine.
There is a universal agreement that everyone deserves to be STEM literate. However, there is a distinction between being STEM literate and literacy. According to Atkinson et al. (2007), STEM literacy is perceived as deictic way of acquiring further learning.
STEM literacy is founded on three pillars of learning, which are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Atkinson et al. (2007) claim that STEM literacy “refers to the ability to adapt to and accept changes driven by new technology work, to anticipate multilevel impacts of their actions, and find measured, yet creative, solutions to problems that are today unimaginable” (p. 19).
They argue that STEM is perceived as an essential component in the training of our next cohort. It assists to improve the quality of education system and enables learners to compete in the global platform.
The present competitive world requires a highly educated and skilled workforce. This article will discuss the significances of exposing young students to STEM education.
Exposure to STEM Education There are worries that the majority of the young people in the United States are not ready to react to present or future demands. The Majority of the students perform poorly in mathematics, science, engineering, and technology-related subjects. Additionally, many students do not enroll in STEM-related courses (Atkinson et al., 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, United States is experiencing shortage of people qualified in STEM-related professions. The findings are shocking because it will be difficult for the United States to remain competitive in the global economy.
The country should initiate programs aimed at encouraging students to study STEM-related subjects. Research has shown that mathematics and science contribute to innovation and discovery.
A society cannot achieve innovation if it does not encourage its students to study mathematics and science. Apart from mathematics and science, engineering and technology also play a significant role in economic development and career growth.
Hence, the United States should ensure that it introduces the two courses to students as early as possible. Bagiati, Yoon, Evangelou and Ngambeki (2010) allege that people are expected to acquire varied problem-solving skills and deal with numerous challenges facing the society in the 21st century.
The skills include leadership and teamwork, flexibility and dexterity, and entrepreneurialism and inventiveness. Introducing STEM education to young students will help them to develop these skills at an early age.
Moreover, it will help countries to cope with ever-changing social and economic needs. However, the students will not gain the skills unless the United States transforms its educational standards.
A primary topic that is covered by the majority of the present science education writings is the growing unwillingness of youthful people to embrace STEM education. The authors allege that young students are avoiding science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related courses.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Introducing STEM Education to Young Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scholars have given recommendations on how to address this challenge. One of the recommendations is exposing students to STEM education at an early age (Bagiati et al., 2010). Early introduction to STEM education will facilitate in students’ overall academic development.
It will assist students to develop critical thinking and encourage them to pursue careers that are related to STEM. Over 77% of women and minority groups do not feature in the United States’ STEM workforce. The country does not motivate and nurture these groups to practice STEM education at their early age (Bagiati et al., 2010).
Thus, the government should ensure that it avails adequate STEM education resources and motivates young students to pursue STEM-related courses.
Research has proved that students abandon STEM-related subjects before they join the eighth grade. Many students complain that the majority of STEM-related subjects are boring, challenging and uninteresting.
As a result, they do not prefer continuing with the subjects. Having known that students lose interest in STEM-related subjects at their seventh grade, teachers should focus on learners at this grade (Brophy, Klein, Portsmore
The Effects of Child Abuse: Capstone Project Time Line Research Paper best college essay help
Child abuse is one of the most important social problems in the whole world that has to be solved as soon as it is identified.
People cannot even understand the true effects of child abuse on the future of a society; this is why the question of child abuse as well as child neglect has to be discussed all the time in order to avoid the most unpleasant consequences and help children in need.
The development of a Capstone Project will become a new step in solving the problem and thinking about the possible ways of improvement the situation and creation the most appropriate living conditions for children.
The following time line with the specific dates should serve as evidence that the project mentioned above is about to start and has to be improved.
03/09/15 Read the articles on how to develop a powerful problem of a capstone project. 03/13/15 Identify a problem for a project and prove its urgency for research (the effects of child abuse is a too general topic that has to be narrowed in order to propose definite solutions). 03/16/15 Visit a library and surf the web in order to think about the possible options for a problem statement (the effects of child abuse is a frequently discussion topic, this is why it is necessary to consider up-to-date sources and make notes with all necessary references not to lose the most interesting sources with statistics and real-life examples). 03/20/15 Write a problem statement and get an approval from a tutor. 03/23/15 Start collecting sources that will become a basis for a project. 03/25/15 Interview children and parents around what they think about the issue of child abuse, whether they face this problem, and what solutions they are eager to offer. 03/27/15 Critique and summarise the ideas from different sources in order to create an integrated literature review. 03/30/15 Develop a Literature Review section. 04/03/15 Find the material on how to write a critical analysis. 04/06/15 Create a critical analysis narrative section. 04/13/15 Re-read a problem statement and generate a list of possible problem solutions taking into consideration the material found during the investigation. 04/14/15 Write a Problem Resolution section of a project. 04/16/15 Write an Introductory part of a paper. 04/17/15 Write a Concluding part of a paper. 04/20/15 Make a reference list of all sources used in the paper according to the requirements of APA format and make sure all the names are of proper spelling and grammar and correspond to the names used during the project. 04/27/15 Edit and proofread a paper to make sure all mistakes and shortages are corrected. 05/01/15 Re-read the paper and make the adjustments (if necessary) until it sounds good. 05/04/15 Ask the question: “Do you believe that the question of child abuse is urgent and the offered ideas in the project are worth attention?” As soon as the question is YES, it is time to turn in the final Capstone Project. In general, the above-developed time line seems to be a good plan to be followed while writing a capstone project.
Each stage has its deadlines and purposes. It is easy to follow it, make the necessary improvements in case of emergency, and think about the most interesting ideas on how to develop the chosen topic “The Effects of Child Abuse” properly.
“New World Babel” by Edward Gray Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Gray, in his book, New World Babel, discusses the transformation of Euro-Americas’ views about Native American languages. He traces the journey of their notion of these languages from as early as the pre-Enlightenment period to the modern period.
From the onset, Gray is keen enough to notice the differences in the opinions between different groups during different historical periods. He observes that the Jesuits, Catholics, and Puritan Protestants had varied opinions about Native American languages (Gray 25).
Gray correctly argues that the Catholics gave up teaching the natives Latin after realizing that their languages were devoid of abstract words and phrases necessary for bringing out truths in speech (Picker 363). However, they went ahead to teach them the Gospel using pictures and performances.
In many countries, the performances are in Latin. The decision to resort to the use of pictures and performances must have been driven by the notion that people can notice divine words without necessarily understanding their meanings (Picker 362).
On the other hand, the Puritans believed that everybody must be able to read the bible. Therefore, they used most of their time teaching the Indians how to read and translating the bible. Gray insinuates that the Puritans believed that the natives had to understand the meaning of every word before discovering the divineness in it.
Gray also argues that the advent of the Enlightenment period transformed Europeans’ thoughts about native languages (Gray 34). He correctly presents the then overriding opinion that Euro-Americans held about the existence of varied languages in the world.
Most of them believed in the biblical theory that argues that people speak different languages due to the Babel tragedy. Since everything was explained using the bible during the pre-Enlightenment period, Gray’s description must be a true reflection of the linguistic ideologies that existed during those periods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He cites Locke’s act of discarding Babel as the origin of the differences that exist among different language speakers as an example of the new Enlightenment ideologies about language (Picker 365). Locke argued that human beings’ different experiences at different times were responsible for their differences in culture and behavior (Picker 364).
This argument is also a true reflection of the ideologies during the Enlightenment period since that period was dominated by arguments supported by scientifically tested facts.
The way Gray presents the information demonstrates that sometimes there was progressing and regressing in terms of what the scholars at different times thought about the Native Americans. He argues that the New Americans had initially thought that Native American languages marked boundaries between their speakers (Mandell 201).
However, they discarded this notion when they realized that many groups of Native Americans spoke different languages but had similar cultures (Picker 362). As a result, they began viewing the native languages as ways of understanding the primary and universal nature of human beings (Mandell 201).
They used native lexicons as insights for their own European languages. This move was driven by the belief that the native languages represented the fundamental and universal nature of language (Picker 364). They showed how all languages looked like before they were tainted by social refinements and intellectual development (Picker 362).
Such a practice was only possible after the Enlightenment period. In their study, they discovered that Native American vocabularies came from sensation and emotional aspects as opposed to Europeans vocabularies, which derived from calculations and politics (Mandell 201).
The regression happened in the 1800s, where elements of human universality were substituted by notions of static national and racial variations from the Romantic era (Mandell 201).
We will write a custom Essay on “New World Babel” by Edward Gray specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gray also takes note of the prejudices that Euro-Americans had towards Native Americans. The new Americans always considered themselves superior and more civilized than the Native Americans (Mandell 201).
As a result, they came up with a theory that argued that the native languages were primitive because the speakers’ minds were inferior compared to theirs (Picker 361). Gray quotes Jefferson’s argument that the diversity of native languages was a result of the speakers’ simple and savage nature to demonstrate this notion (Mandell 201).
Therefore, according to Jefferson, the Native Americans’ mental deficiencies were responsible for their discord and linguistic confusion. He went further to argue that language had nothing to do with the environment or the progressive evolution of human beings.
Instead, he believed that it was due to the cultural biases and mental deficiencies (Picker 364). Such an argument is clearly biased and subjective since it favors the speaker and is not backed by empirically proven facts.
The lack of objectivity is also evident in the arguments that existed during the Romantic period. Whereas some Romantics such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge celebrated Indians’ appetite for poetry, others proposed the elimination of the many native languages for the sake of civilization (Mandell 201).
Since this period was dominated by English conquests in different parts of the world, the English wanted their language adopted as the only one spoken all over the world (Mandell 201).
Such a standpoint vividly contradicted arguments by more objective people such as John Eliot and Samuel Johnson who argued that “truths are universal no matter the language” and “languages are pedigrees of nations” respectively (Picker 361).
Works Cited Gray, Edward G. New World Babel. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “New World Babel” by Edward Gray by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mandell, Daniel. “Canada and the United States.” The American Historical Review 105.1 (2000): 200-201. Print.
Picker, Joshua. “New Turn for the Linguistic Turn.” Reviews in American History 28.3 (2000): 360-366. Print.
Importance of Anne Bradstreet’s poem “Contemplations” Proposal essay help
Justification for the Importance of Anne Bradstreet’s poem “Contemplations” Anne Bradstreet’s poem, Contemplations, is a very important piece of Puritan poetry. Its importance is vivid in its use of the Puritan style and its handling of Puritan themes. Precisely, it uses nature in trying to advise people to come back to God despite the many problems they go through on earth: “The trees all richly clad, yet void of pride.”
It passes a divine message to the people in the same manner Jeremiah did in the Bible: asks people to avoid sin and remain pure. The poet compares the pleasures and the beauty on earth to those in heaven. She concludes that those in heaven must be better: “If so much excellence abides below, how excellent is he that dwells on high?”
The Place of “Contemplations” in Relation to Ann Bradstreet Other Poetry “Contemplations” occupies a special place in all Bradstreet’s poems. It demonstrates that she made a discovery that had been hidden from her for a very long time. Before writing “Contemplations”, she wrote poems about a wide range of topics.
They included expressing her love to her husband and making comparisons between Old England and her new home, New England. However, in “Contemplations”, she realizes that everything in life is useless if it does not help one enter the kingdom of God.
This is the reason she compares worldly beauty to heavenly beauty in “Contemplations” and reaches a conclusion that worldly beauty is temporal, but heavenly beauty is eternal.
Why this Poem is Different from Other Puritan Poems This poem is different from other puritan poems because it uses Elizabethan poetry styles such as alliteration, assonance and rhyme. It uses alliterative phrases such as “stealing streak”, and its lines rhyme ABABCCC in all the stanzas.
The use of these devices is against the common Puritan practice that preferred the use of a simple and straight-forward language with the view of making the poems’ divine messages more vivid to the audience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also uses Greek mythology, yet Puritan poetry was known for its simplicity and the avoidance of Greek mythology and other classical analogies: “To Thetis house, where all imbrace and greet:” In this line, the poet uses the term Thetis, which she borrows from Greek mythology.
How Nature in this Poem Reflects the Puritan View In the poem, all allusions to nature are meant to demonstrate the superiority of God over all things in nature. Bradstreet alludes to the sun’s ability to bring life on earth and cause both day and night. She also talks about the long life that plants have and the beauty of trees in spring.
However, she concludes that God is superior to all these wonders. She goes further to argue that human beings also have the ability to be better than nature if only they forget about their problems and go back to God. The use of nature in this manner correctly reflects the Puritans’ view of nature.
They always viewed nature as wonderfully created by God for the purpose of making human beings see His greatness. In addition, Puritans viewed human beings as being more advantaged compared to other things in nature.
Bradstreet demonstrates the same view when she argues that though nature seems to have longer life spans than human beings, human beings have the power to overcome death and live even longer than nature: “Here’s neither honour, wealth, nor safety; only above is found all with security.”
Alliance Supermarket’ Point-of-Sale System Case Study a level english language essay help
Table of Contents New and Innovative uses of Information from the POS System
Using Information to Reduce Costs at Alliance Supermarket
Ethical and Privacy Considerations
Alliance Supermarket has been using a point-of-sale (POS) system for a number of purposes. One of them is to keep track of inventory in the various outlets. The system uses laser to scan the Universal Product Code (UPC) of each item at the checkout counter.
The firm is using the code to track the inventory records of all products. It is noted that the system has enhance the company’s inventory management. However, a number of problems have been noted.
For example, the company is unable to deal with sudden spikes in demand for certain items. In addition, all the outlets are treated by the system as a single unit.
In this paper, the author analyzes the various issues associated with Alliance Supermarket’s POS system. To this end, the author will formulate new and innovative applications of data from the system. Information that can help the company to reduce costs while improving services will be highlighted.
In addition, an alternative strategy that can be utilized by the firm to access data from individual consumers is proposed. Finally, ethical and privacy considerations in relation to the information gathered are reviewed.
New and Innovative uses of Information from the POS System The information from the POS systems can be very useful to Alliance Supermarkets. The company can come up with new and innovative ways of using the data. The systems are used to keep track of all sales in the supermarket, regardless of whether they are big day sell-out for a certain product or a low day for another item.
The information collected can be stored securely in one database. From the database, managers and other end users can analyze what customers have bought in large quantities during that day. It is also possible to see the type of product that has sold out in that specific day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the individuals responsible for sales and marketing can analyze the reasons why customers prefer a specific product. They can achieve this by comparing its performance with that of other products from the same line (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey
Principles of Democratic Structuring Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Essentialness of structure
Creation of structure
Coalitions and their incorporation with Jo Freeman’s principles
Conclusions and recommendations for further actualization
Introduction Competition exists in every aspect of life, and people contesting for a particular post have to employ all efforts to win. The efforts must be strategic, and an effective structure is the main tool for effective organizing campaigns (Bike 12).
This paper outlines the importance of structure, the best way to create structure, and coalitions as they incorporate Jo Freeman’s principles of democratic structuring.
Essentialness of structure In the contemporary world, coherent structures are imperative for effective organizing campaigns owing to the high level of competition in elections. Every political campaign should have an organized structure comprising of staff with different levels of authority.
The topmost leaders of the campaign ought to formulate and implement all possible strategies to win an election. The aspect of specialization is widespread in campaigns, and it works towards the success of the contestant (Gravely 11). Structure enables people with specialized skills to undertake roles that they can perform best.
Moreover, the aspect of accountability is evident in any structure, as staffs have specific duties to deliver, failure to which they become answerable to the entire team.
It is worth noting that a structure enables organizers to work with people, whose career is full-time campaigning. Such people have sufficient experience to make a contestant win a competitive election.
Creation of structure To achieve effective organizing campaigns, organizers should create a coherent structure similar to that of any great business. Every person in the structure becomes a campaign staff by default; however, unlike businesses where staffs aim at making profits, campaign staffs should aim at winning an election.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in creating a structure is identifying a competent manager to foresee the entire campaign process. Campaign managers ought to be smart people, as they have the highest authority. Organizers should consider choosing reliable managers, who would coordinate the main operations of the campaign.
Managers are the core setters and executers of strategy, and they link other staffs to competent political consultants, who analyze campaigns using sophisticated management tools.
The second step in creating structure is obtaining learned fellows to take care of all administrative activities. Financial matters, for example, need people with very high integrity, and that applies to all staffs handling other official matters.
The field department, communication, legal, and technology departments need brilliant people for a successful campaign.
The final people that organizers need in creating structure are the activists. Activists are fourth in the rank after the campaign manager, political consultants, and administrators. Activists are loyal to the group, and they work hand in hand with volunteers.
This group of people comprises of humble individuals, who can do any menial activity towards the success of the candidate. They can go from one door to another canvassing for their candidate, and actively participate in outdoor campaigns (Thurber 22).
They act as office messengers, who undertake all the odd jobs, as long as their candidate wins.
We will write a custom Essay on Principles of Democratic Structuring specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coalitions and their incorporation with Jo Freeman’s principles In campaigns, coalitions comprise of temporary formed groups or teams that have a common goal of ensuring that a particular candidate wins in an election. Coalition organizations bring people together, and they obligate them to fight against a common opponent.
In building a coalition, members act as a group of interacting individuals. Coalition organizational structures are unique, as they have no formal structure (Katz and Mair 20). Coalitions are often powerful, and all members have the capacity to act as bosses without any personal interest or external focus.
Coalition organizations play a critical role in increasing personal power, and they take time to form owing to the need to identify the common goal and the best manner to attain the goal. Coalition members are objective, and they work in some set of connections to attain a mutual goal.
Coalition organizing structures incorporate Jo Freeman’s principles of democratic structuring in one way or another. Jo Freeman insists on the ideology of having no formal structure in managing things. Similar to what happens in coalition organizing structures, Jo Freeman encourages consensus decision-making.
The collective intelligence of every person obligates people to perform their duties with commitment (Webb, Farrell and Holliday 16). Members of coalition organizations exercise much responsibility, as it applies in Jo Freeman’s principles.
Moreover, there is nothing like hierarchical management in coalitions, as decentralization facilitates the distribution of authority amongst all members. Labor specialization is evident in coalitions, and there is open flow of information amongst members of the coalition.
With equal powers, members of coalition organizations always have equal access to resources, which is one of the principles of democratic structuring.
Conclusions and recommendations for further actualization From the discussions, it is evident that coalition organizations meet the common principles of democratic structuring. However, further actualization is important to achieve full democratization. It is important for any organizing structure to have defined responsibilities for every member.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Principles of Democratic Structuring by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, it is important to have some form of hierarchical leadership to have things done properly; otherwise, people may become negligent, and lack of accountability may prevail. Lastly, organizers would rather embark on specialization rather than rotation of duties to achieve optimum results.
Overall, Jo Freeman’s work is worth some credit, as her principles of democratic structuring are superior to any other principles.
Works Cited Bike, William. Winning Political Campaigns: A Comprehensive Guide to Electoral Success. Chicago: Central Park Communications, 2012. Print.
Gravely, Justin. Campaigning On American Soil and the Rules of the American Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Print.
Katz, Richard and Peter Mair. “Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party.” Party Politics 1.1(2008): 5-28. Print.
Thurber, James. Campaigns and Elections American Style. New York: Westview Press, 2004. Print.
Webb, Paul, David Farrell, and Ian Holliday. Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Computer Games: Morality in the Virtual World Essay (Article) essay help online
Table of Contents Is It an Addiction?
Players as Moral Beings
Product Placement in Computer Games
Are There Gender Differences?
Honour among Gamers
Is It an Addiction? The computer game industry is now one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. Millions of people play various computer games. Clearly, children and teenagers are major users of these products but there are many gamers among adults as well.
There is a wide range of games and genres, each person chooses a game or even a virtual world to his/her liking. Some people are too absorbed by the virtual world and computer games become an addiction.
Nonetheless, it is rather an issue of the human psychology than of the product, as only certain people prefer the virtual to the real world.
Players as Moral Beings It is necessary to note that ethics and morality of computer games have been a focus of scholarly research for a number of years (Ford, 2001). Researchers state that the virtual world is a moral world and, hence, players are moral beings.
This assumption is justified by the fact that there are some rules in games and players follow those rules, which creates a certain moral paradigm (Sicart, 2005). An example of such moral rules is the peculiarity of many games where players cannot destroy players of their team or other characters (for example, hostages) (Sicart, 2011).
Therefore, it is possible to state that players are moral beings that have a specific code of conduct and this code creates the bonds and makes up a community.
Product Placement in Computer Games Obviously, being a multibillion industry, computer games are seen as a world of many opportunities for advertisers. Product placement has become quite a common thing for cinematography and television. It is clear that such type of media as computer games can also be of interest to advertisers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Product placement is quite appropriate when it comes to advertising aimed at adults. However, there can be certain ethical issues related to advertising aimed at children. Clearly, in such games, product placement should be minimum and developers of games have to be very responsible (avoid advertising potentially harmful products).
Are There Gender Differences? It is possible to note that virtual worlds that have been created are very diverse. They respond to needs and aspirations of different groups of people. Of course, there are certain gender differences in this sphere as well.
Sicart (2011) notes that the majority of virtual worlds are dominated by males, and females who also want to enter the world and participate in its creation may face certain difficulties (for example, some kind of discrimination, lack of support or communication and so on).
However, there are various worlds where females are dominating (Sims can be seen as one of the examples of the game for females). Males prefer action and creating stories (races, shooting, analysing positions) while females prefer storytelling and details (adventures, searching for details, creating worlds).
Honour among Gamers Since it has been acknowledged that virtual worlds are moral, it is but natural to assume that there is honour among gamers. Sicart (2005) argues that there is a certain honour system among participants and co-creators of virtual worlds.
Each game (each virtual world) has a set of rules that are expanded by gamers and these rules constitute the honour system of the particular game. It is necessary to note that these sets of morals are often employed in the virtual world only as many people create alter egos when playing games (Ford, 2001).
At the same time, many morals can often appear in the real world.
We will write a custom Article on Computer Games: Morality in the Virtual World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Ford, P.J. (2001). A further analysis of the ethics of representation in virtual reality: Multi-user environments. Ethics and Information Technology, 3, 113-121.
Sicart, M. (2005). Game, player, ethics: A virtue ethics approach to computer games. International Review of Information Ethics, 4, 13-18.
Sicart, M. (2011). The ethics of computer games. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Leadership Styles of Yahoo, Blackberry, and Google Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Abstract Leadership plays the role of inspiring followers to work collectively to achieve specific goals. Leadership is an organizational practice that not only influences the followers (employees), but also leaders in a manner that ensures that organizational objectives are achieved through change.
The current research hypothesizes that leadership styles may influence performance levels for different organizations.
Since leadership occurs in the presence of followers and a leader, employees can experience and identify the type of leadership that an organization deploys through observation and participation in organizational processes when certain styles of leadership are evident in the organization.
This paper uses interviews and questionnaires to study Google, Yahoo, and Blackberry employee perceptions about various issues that are reflected in different leadership styles.
Using the identified characteristics of transactional and transformational leadership styles in the literature review, the paper attempts to specify the leadership styles that each of the three organizations deploys using the primary data from the interview and questionnaires.
It concludes that witnessed leadership styles in the organizations can reveal their differences in performance and competitive advantage.
Introduction Yahoo, Blackberry, and Google operate in the telecommunication industry. The internet is one of the most important innovations in the communication technology. Compared to traditional media platforms such as print, audio, and audio-visual, the internet fosters two-way communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Search engines permit people to acquire information at a higher pace by eliminating the necessity of perusing pages as witnessed in the case of books. This advantage has seen the internet develop to an important media for distributing printed academic materials such as e-books and e-magazines among others.
The rapid deployment of the internet as the most preferred media for communication due to its advantages such as speed and its ability to foster two-way communications is akin to the development of the World Wide Web. At the infancy stage of the World Wide Web, Yahoo! search engine had already been developed.
Google Company emerged to take a market share in the web search. Google started by offering web search services. After its IPO, it then focused on developing Gmail, Google Maps, Docs, Check Out, Google Books, finance, and calendar among others.
This progress shows that the company not only endeavored to compete with web service organizations such as Yahoo.com and MSN, but also online sales organizations such as Amazon and eBay among others. The growth of the organization was also supported by products such as paid listings and advertisements.
Corporate values and governance have also been pivotal in supporting its business success. Indeed, Edenlman and Eisenmann (2011) report a high 2008 economic performance of the organization in comparison with its competitors.
This success attracted the attention of the Yahoo Company in 2012. It sought the help of Marissa Mayer, a former Google CEO, to bring her leadership expertise to the Yahoo Company in an attempt to rejuvenate its success in the telecommunications industry and in the web search subsector.
This observation suggests that leadership is critical for the success of any organization, irrespective of its industry of operation. Indeed, many of failures of Blackberry, a Smartphone manufacturer, may be attributed to the company’s inappropriate leadership styles.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Leadership Styles of Yahoo, Blackberry, and Google specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This paper compares and analyses leadership styles for Google, Yahoo, and Blackberry companies.
Literature Review Why Companies Perform better than Others
Leadership is critical to the success of any organization. It integrates and intertwines followers and leaders. It influences organizational objectives and missions and other organizational stakeholders (Sakiru
Company Analysis: Subway Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Abstract Subway Company is a leading fast-food chain of stores. It operates around the globe, but with its main offices in North America. The company is classified as a service sector organization that offers healthier foods as a replacement of pizza and hamburgers, which have been linked to problems such as obesity.
Its main goals entail producing customized foods that meet clients’ tastes and preferences. The company has experienced continuous growth since its inception in 1965. Its operational environment is competitive. Many organizations, which pose a threat of substitution, influence its strategic decisions.
The company has the potential to secure long-term success considering that its strategy of focusing on healthy fast foods aligns well with the growing consumer attention to the consumption of low-calorie foods.
Introduction Subway is a US incorporated organization that operates in the fast-food industry. Mainly concentrating on sea sandwiches, the company expands through the area monopoly strategy. Doctor’s Associate Inc. not only owns the fast-food supply chain, but also operates it.
Subway constitutes one of the first growing single brands across the globe. As at the end of 2014, the organization had an excess of 43,000 different outlets in over 108 operational territories (Covert
Problems of Public Meeting Term Paper scholarship essay help
Public meetings make it easier for societies to come up with the best solutions to their problems. The purpose of public meetings is to address certain challenges affecting different communities. They encourage more people to come together and express their opinions.
The targeted public meeting focused on the issue of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) undertakes similar annual meetings in order to inform the public about the energy issues affecting the country.
The purpose of this meeting was to analyze the developments and issues surrounding the use of SMRs.
The meeting was organized by the USNRC. The elected officials considered the major problems emerging from the use of SMRs. The facilitator wanted the elected officials to deliver their research findings and opinions to the public.
The function of the advisory committee was to deliver quality information to the interested parties. The organizers enjoined different members of the public. The video can be retrieved from “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpCWHWysosk”.
According to the NRC, public involvement is something critical towards the success of its projects. This practice ensures there is fair regulation of the country’s nuclear industry. Public meetings encourage citizens to present their suggestions. The agency also posts such annual meetings on its website.
The agency’s website is “www.nrc.gov”. The facilitator also ensured the meeting was convenient to the public. The meeting took place in the afternoon. This consideration encouraged more citizens and stakeholders to attend the public meeting. The agency used its premises in order to get the best outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This strategy attracted more industrial players, policymakers, and members of the public.
The role of the committee was to present its facts on the use of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). The staff identified the opportunities, gaps, and innovations associated with such SMRs. The relevant members of staff also gathered the required feedbacks from different citizens.
They also made the relevant suggestions and recommendations depending on the information gathered from the public. They also obtained expert-opinions from different stakeholders in the nuclear energy industry.
The citizens were the prime targets of this specific public meeting. The mission of this meeting was to support the use of SMRs. The organizers of the meeting encouraged different citizens to present their feedbacks, questions, and suggestions. Such questions were answered in a professional manner.
The agency also encouraged more people to present their recommendations. A suggestion box was provided in order to collect more ideas and views from the public. The organizers took most of these ideas into consideration. This fact explains why citizens play a critical role in every public meeting.
The other notable thing during the meeting was the role of the media. A number of journalists were evident in the meeting. These journalists took some notes. They also interviewed different stakeholders and scientists. The media is relevant because it informs more citizens about the issues discussed in every meeting.
A number of people raised their issues and concerns regarding the use of different nuclear energies. Such individuals were ready to present their special interests. The problem of environmental degradation is currently affecting many communities and societies.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Problems of Public Meeting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such Special Interest Groups (SIGs) wanted to understand the commitment of the NRC towards safeguarding the natural environment.
It is agreeable that nuclear energy cannot be separated from land management. The agency explained how it was addressing the issues related to land use in the country. The organizers also addressed the connection between urban land-use and nuclear energy production.
The organizers of the meeting also addressed the health and economic issues associated with such nuclear plants. The NRC encouraged every attendee to visit its website. Such individuals would learn more about NRC’s nuclear projects. However, the meeting failed to address some critical issues such as the loss of different agricultural lands.
It is also anticipated that more land concerns will arise in the future. This development will occur due to the continued acceptance of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). There were no agenda items related to the issue at the other levels of government.
The organizers of the meeting were ready to consider the recommendations presented by different citizens. The agency also undertakes similar meetings every year. This practice shows clearly that the agency has been implementing most of the recommendations presented by different industry players.
The agency has also been welcoming many researchers and engineers from different learning institutions. This practice has been supporting the goals of the NRC.
The meeting was also characterized by public hearings. Such public hearings influenced the decisions made by the appointed officials. Such officials believed that it was appropriate to consider most of the issues raised by different stakeholders. The NRC always collaborates with the public in order to produce the best outcomes.
This fact also explains why the NRC always encourages the participation of many stakeholders and the public. I also believe that the agency should attract more stakeholders in order to ensure there is fair management of the industry. The practice will also regulate the American nuclear industry.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems of Public Meeting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This practice will produce new policies and practices that can improve the living conditions of many people. The strategy will also address most of the fears associated with the continued use of nuclear energy.
The meeting did not identify any issue related to grants from higher levels of government. The meeting focused on the major developments and issues associated with these Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). However, the government should support the project in order to make it more sustainable.
This approach will ensure such Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) support the lives of many communities in the country.
It would be agreeable that this was a worthwhile public meeting. To begin with, the meeting attracted many people from different sectors. The inclusion of certain stakeholders such as industrial players, engineers, scientists, and researchers resulted in the best results.
The participants did not give the best representation of the targeted community. However, the public meeting highlighted the developments associated with Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). This event provided a new opportunity for identifying better practices.
This approach was critical towards building consensus. This practice is necessary whenever dealing with specific issues that affect the community.
Future meetings should focus on the safety measures associated with these Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). Such meetings should also disseminate the necessary decisions, information, and data to every person in the community. This practice has the potential to increase public awareness.
It will also ensure more people support the use of nuclear energy. These public meetings are important because they address most of the challenges affecting different communities. The NRC has been using such events to highlight the major developments arising from its nuclear innovations.
This fact explains why I am planning to attend similar public meetings in the future.
I also made several observations during the meeting. Most of the attendees were ready to interact with different speakers. Most of the speakers were passionate about the targeted agenda. They wanted every person to understand the targeted issues clearly.
The professionals in the targeted field avoided the use of difficult words and terminologies. This approach ensured every member of the public understood the intended messages. I think that more people should be encouraged to attend such meetings. This practice will make it easier for them to participate in different policy-making processes.
I now understand why organizers should invite different players from every sector. The practice can result in the best policies and ideas. The approach will ensure more individuals in the society benefit from these meetings.
Public meetings are useful because they inform more people about the issues affecting their societies. These meetings inform the public about the major challenges affecting their lives. They also identify the best practices that can improve their lives. Learning is always an ongoing practice.
That being the case, I will always be attending different public meetings even if I am not required to do so. Such meetings will make it easier for me to gain new ideas and concepts. I will also understand how different political leaders are committed towards supporting the needs of their societies.
I am also encouraging more people to attend such public meetings. This practice will make it easier for them to make accurate political and economic decisions.
Economic Development Incentives Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Description of the issue selected Economic development incentives refer to the inducement policies offered by governments to appeal or maintain local and foreign investors (Long 45). Incentives range from a number of policy forms. Notably, the forms center on tax inducements and infrastructure developments (Aronson 67).
The types of incentives offered vary based on the local government meeting the cost of the inducements (Long 45). As such, the overall aim of economic development incentives is to create new jobs, enhance infrastructure development in remote locations, and generate lasting tax income.
Why I selected the policy I selected the above policy because of its importance in the local government’s economic growth. Based on the above illustrations, it is apparent that citizens can benefit if local governments come up with effective and manageable economic development incentives.
It has been noted that a number of local governments using economic development inducements have dissimilar intentions with the companies receiving them (Long 45). Local governments are focused on offering services to the people, while businesses benefiting from the inducements are centered on increasing their profits.
Therefore, to attain their objectives local governments should review the paybacks of projects benefiting from the inducements in contrast to the cost of public expenditure.
Even though there is no distinct approach for the review providing a detailed and rigorous examination all projects, it is essential for culpability and durable revenue impacts.
Accountable usage of public cash necessitates that developments funded offer an appropriate return for the local government and investments offered in a genuine manner with appropriate knowledge of their temporary and lasting costs and benefits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historical background information about the policy Starting from the early 1990s, China has experienced a huge economic growth. The growth has attracted the attention of both local and international policy makers and academicians (Li 20). The drastic growth of China’s economy is attributed to township and village enterprises.
The key role played by the enterprises in the country’s economic development and continuous reorganization progression has now been extensively recognized. It has been established that economic development progress has benefited the most from the local government policies.
The country’s local governments play a significant part in the economy. In the recent years, their revenue was estimated at 8% of the country’s GDP.
With respect to tax sharing, the additional-budgetary local returns are not necessarily shared with the national government (Li 45). Through this, the local governments are able to come up with a robust incentive to promote local industries.
In a bid to attract foreign investors, local governments have set up distinct industrial zones. The zones are located in rural regions of China.
Is the policy a regional, city, state, or national problem? Economic development incentives are not only spearheaded by the local governments in China but also with the help of national government. In the last decade, the central government and the local governments have come up with two policies to improve its central and western regions.
In the year 2000, the country came up with the Western Development Strategy (Li 45). The policy is aimed at enhancing the economies of the western provinces. In the year 2004, the country established the Rise of Central China Plan. The policy aims at synchronizing local development in six central provinces.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Economic Development Incentives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To attain the comprehensive objectives defined in the plans, the central and the local governments offered a number of initiatives to induce a number of investors to the regions. Based on the above illustrations, it is apparent that economic development incentives in China are national issues.
For investors planning to invest in the country, a comprehensive understanding of the policy will offer an important guide to gaining contact with possible clients in untapped regions.
What circumstances have led to the issue and why it should be analyzed? The step and measure of China’s financial revolution have no past comparison. During the year 1978, the country was ranked among the poorest nations (Li 78). Ever since the economic policy reforms were initiated in the late 1970s, the country’s economy has increased progressively.
As such, the reforms opened the country to the outside world. The quick and continued developments in average living conditions have made the country the second largest economy after the United States of America.
Because the country is reputable for its very high rates of saving and investment, it is evident that its rapid growth in the last few decades has been influenced by productivity growth.
In general, the local governments’ economic development incentives brought about by the government untiring institutional transformation and policy reorganizations that have lessened distortions are the key causes of the productivity growth.
Despite the importance of economic development incentives, it should be noted that the policy has attracted a number of criticisms. According to those opposed to the policy, the projects are usually very costly and benefit the developers rather than the citizens (Li 45).
Others argue that development inducements do not create new industries or employments but simply transfer them. The above argument can be valid when discrete areas of the towns are offered with inducements to draw investors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Development Incentives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To address and to understand the degree of the drawbacks of economic development incentives, the topic should be analyzed. Similarly, the topic should be analyzed to understand how the policy should be effectively formulated, implemented, and managed.
Future trends related to the issue Given that China will face increased competition in the future from other developing countries as an investment destination, the country is expected to announce more competitive economic development incentives.
The incentives will be tailored at retaining and attracting foreign investors. The regions that will benefit the most from these incentives are the central and western parts of the country.
Current policies being taken to address the issue The local Chinese governments have come up with a number of policies to boost incentives aimed at enhancing foreign investment in its remote areas. Through this, the governments will uplift the economic conditions of these poverty-stricken regions.
The first policy aims at attracting investors to central and western parts of the country. Through this, the financial institutions are encouraged to give priority to companies having projects in the region. The other policy aims at identifying distinct industries to operate in the western and central region of the country.
Similarly, another policy aims at relaxing restrictions on investors operating the regions. Through the above policies, local governments aim to attract several multinational companies in their region to create jobs and sustainable tax base.
Desired policies that should be taken to address the issue To address the issue, it is desired that the local governments should increase the amount of soft loans spent on development in these regions. Similarly, the local governments should come up with policies that are unique and tailored at solving the region’s challenges.
The above will ensure that both the foreign investors and the citizens benefit the most from economic development incentives.
The cost to finance the desired issue It estimated that the cost of implementing the desired policies would be higher. With $5.1bn, the local governments can increase the amount of soft loans spent on development in their regions. Similarly, the money will enable the local governments to come up with appropriate policies.
Recommendations for the future In the future, it is advisable that the local governments scrutinize the detailed benefits and costs related to economic development incentives, priorities, programs, and plans. The analysis should encompass a review of the suppositions, cost, paybacks, and procedures being used to validate the incentive.
Even though there is no distinct approach for the review, providing a detailed and rigorous examination all projects is essential for culpability and durable revenue impacts.
Conclusions The article analyzed the local governments’ incentives to attract and retain foreign investments by utilizing the available policies in the country. Throughout the paper, an illustration of Chinese local governments’ incentive policies is provided.
As such, the additional-budgetary local returns are not compulsory to be shared with the national government. Through this, the local governments are able to come up with a robust incentive to promote local industries. In a bid to attract foreign investors, local governments have set up distinct industrial zones.
The zones are located in rural regions of China. Similarly, it should be noted that the Chinese local governments have come up with a number of policies to boost incentives aimed at enhancing foreign investment in its remote areas.
By doing so, the governments will uplift the economic conditions of these poverty-stricken regions. The first policy aims at attracting investors to central and western parts of the country.
Works Cited Aronson, J. Richard. Management Policies in Local Government Finance. 6th ed. Washington: Published in Cooperation with the Municipal Finance Officers Association by the International City Management Association, 2012. Print.
Li, Linda Chelan. Rural Tax Reform in China: Policy Process and Institutional Change. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Long, William J. Economic Incentives and Bilateral Cooperation. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan, 2006. Print.
Attribute Based Encryption Evaluation Essay best college essay help
Attribute-based encryption and other encryption techniques Attribute-based approach is an encryption technique that secures data security in the cloud environment. The features of attribute-based encryption include user key, cipher-text encryption, and user credentials. However, attribute-based encryption is derived for the traditional public-key encryption.
Unlike other traditional encryption techniques, attribute-based encryption has a collusion resistance property. As a result, an adversary must have the user key to access secured files. Attribute-based encryption enables login security to mitigate multiple collusion attacks (Xavier
New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s Essay custom essay help
Introduction Since its inception in 1969, Stew Leonard’s has positioned itself optimally in the United States’ grocery store industry by offering diverse food products. The firm has established four supermarkets, which are located in New York and Connecticut.
The firm’s product portfolio is comprised of dairy products, meat, wine, and juice. In addition, the firm sells its products to over 300,000 customers every week.
A workforce of over 2,000 employees necessitates the company’s operations. Stew Leonard’s has had exemplary performance over the past decades, as evidenced by its listing in the Guinness Book of World Records. This recognition was due to its sales per unit area in the category of all single food companies in the US.
Despite its superior performance over the past four decades, Stew Leonard’s is experiencing pressure from the external market environment such as change in consumer behavior and intense competition. Thus, the firm’s top management team has an obligation to respond to the prevailing market trends.
One of the most effective approaches that the firm should consider is new product development. This paper illustrates the critical aspects that Stew Leonard’s should consider in developing and introducing the new product.
In line with its quest to offer diverse nutritional food products, it is essential for the firm to consider the introduction of a new snack product. The product should be produced from high-energy natural ingredients such as different whole grains, milk, and vegetables in order to meet the customers’ tastes and preferences.
In order to improve the ability of the new product to provide customers with the needed energy within a short duration after consumption, it is imperative for the firm to ensure that the snack product is easily digestible and absorbed by the body.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a bid to improve the snack’s capacity to provide the needed energy, the firm should incorporate some of the ingredients used in the production of energy drinks such as ephedrine, ginseng, ginkgo biloba, taurine, carnitine, inositol, and creatin. These ingredients will meet the customers’ energy requirements and enhance their well-being.
Feasibility and profitability
By introducing this product, Stew Leonard’s will greatly improve its performance. The feasibility and profitability potential of the new product is fostered by a number of factors.
Food consumption habits in the US were affected by the 2008 economic recession. Some market segments such as the private labels were least affected by the recession. During the recession, private labels’ prices varied between 20% and 40% as opposed to the branded equivalent.
However, the trend has been reversed by the improvement in consumer confidence in the country’s economic performance over the past few years.
A study conducted by the Business Monitor International (2014) records that per capita “food consumption is expected to rise by a compound annual growth rate of 2.6% between 2013 and 2018” (par. 5).
Sustained economic performance will spur private consumption expenditure, which is critical in promoting profitability within the retail sector. Business Monitor International (2014) argues that private consumption expenditure is expected to grow by 2.2% between 2014 and 2018.
By introducing the new product, Stew Leonard will be in a position to benefit from the improvement in the consumers’ purchasing power.
We will write a custom Essay on New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change in consumer lifestyle
Consumers in the US appreciate the consumption of healthy food products. This trend has arisen from an increase in incidents of diseases associated with poor eating habits such as obesity. Currently, consumers are shifting to the consumption of healthy traditional snack foods.
However, their preference mainly lies in the snack foods perceived to have high health benefits. The feasibility of the new snack product will be improved by the view that snacking has become a common trend amongst Americans. The NPD Group forecasts that snacking between main meals will increase by 5% to over 86.4 billion eating over the next five years (Prepared Foods, 2014).
By introducing the new snack product, the firm will enhance the attainment of the diversification strategy. Thus, Stew Leonard’s will be in a position to enter a new market segment, viz. the athletic market segment, which will be promoted by the unique product features.
Introducing the new product will improve Stew Leonard’s competitive advantage significantly. The competitive advantage will arise from the view that the firm expects the product to attract new customers due to the associated health, energy, and nutritional benefits.
The health, energy, and nutritional benefits of the new snack will attract diverse customer categories. This aspect will lead to an increment in the firm’s sales revenue, hence its financial sustainability.
Due to the attained level of financial sustainability, Stew Leonard’s will be in a position to finance diverse strategic aspects such as continuous product improvement, hence sustaining its competitive edge in the US food industry.
Recommended mass media and social media channels After successful development of the product, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to create sufficient awareness on the existence of the new product in the market. Creating awareness is fundamental in an organization’s quest to improve the consumers’ purchase decision.
In a bid to create optimal market awareness, Stew Leonard’s should use the advertising technique, which entails mass media and social media channels.
Not sure if you can write a paper on New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mass media
In its effort to create adequate market awareness through advertising, the firm should consider two main mass mediums, which include print media and broadcast media. The core broadcast mediums that the firm should integrate include radio and television.
The firm should develop attractive advertising message in order to improve the likelihood of influencing the target customers. Moreover, the firm should create awareness using different print mediums such local newspapers, magazines, and brochures.
In selecting the mass mediums, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to identify the most well established media houses in order to increase the likelihood of creating successful market awareness.
Market awareness should also incorporate social mediums. The core mediums that the firm should take into consideration include Facebook, Google , and YouTube.
The choice of the print and broadcast mediums will enable the firm to create optimal market awareness due to their capacity to reach a large number of potential customers in the US given their market penetration. Using television and radio will ensure that consumers in different regions receive the intended message simultaneously.
Through these mediums, the firm will create awareness to the older customer group. Conversely, the choice of the three social mediums will enable the firm to reach the younger generation, which is increasingly becoming techno savvy. Furthermore, the two mediums have become critical sources of product information.
Consequently, consumers are increasingly using the two mediums in searching information on different products. Moreover, social mediums are characterized by a multiplier effect due to the ‘word of mouth’ effect.
Pricing structure In order to enhance its competitive advantage through new product development, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to ensure that the product penetrates the market successfully. Price is one of the key determinants that the firm’s management team should consider in order to stimulate the rate of market penetration.
The price structure adopted should influence the consumers’ purchase intention. The consumers’ purchasing decision is subject to the set price point.
The firm should adopt the introduction pricing structure such as the penetration pricing strategy. This strategy will allow the new product to penetrate the market aggressively. The decision to adopt this pricing structure arises from the view that most customers already understand the benefits associated with healthy eating habits.
Stew Leonard’s has developed sufficient economies of scale, hence its ability to set the price of the new product at a relatively lower point as compared to competitors. By adopting this strategy, the firm will sacrifice short-run profits.
However, Stew Leonard’s will develop an efficient market position, which will be a critical source of the firm’s competitive advantage. The strong market position will originate from the capacity to maximize the sales revenue due to the widespread market acceptance.
Additionally, the penetration-pricing strategy will act as deterrence to potential competitors.
Customer relationship management The high profitability potential in the US food industry has increased its attractiveness to investors. Furthermore, the existing firms are increasingly diversifying their product portfolio in an effort to exploit the market opportunities.
Despite this trend, Stew Leonard’s can enhance the dominance of the new product by developing an effective customer-relationship management system. The CRM system should be aimed at entrenching product loyalty.
One of the way through which the firm can achieve this goal entails integrating point of sale systems, which involves high-tech software that has the capacity to capture the customers’ details. Through this technology, the firm will be in a position to offer unique customer experience, for example, by designing loyalty programs.
Symons (2014) affirms that on average, “13% of disgruntled consumers will tell at least 20 people about it” (par. 2). The automated POS will enable the firm to customize its service delivery by generating automated messages such as emails informing customers on different product aspects such as product improvement.
Additionally, the POS will enable the firm to track the customers’ purchase history such as product inquiries. This aspect will improve the likelihood of influencing the consumers’ intention to purchase the product, for example, by designing attractive loyalty programs.
Inherent risk Despite the fact that the introduction of the new product will present an opportunity for the firm to maximize its sales revenue and profitability, it is imperative for the firm’s management team to appreciate the existence of inherent risk.
One of the inherent risks that might affect the development of the new snack product entails change in consumer preferences. According to Ogawa and Piller (2006), consumers are characterized by heterogeneous product demands, which lead to micro-segmentation of product categories.
Due to change in consumer tastes and preferences, it is difficult for the firm to undertake precise forecast on the sales revenue expected to be generated from the sale of the new product. The ultimate effect is that the commercialization of the new product will be affected adversely.
This risk might arise if the firm does not have adequate understanding of the customers’ needs. Therefore, in a bid to minimize such risk, it is imperative for the firm to undertake continuous market research. The firm should use the findings of the market research to adjust its product development plan.
Risks of not launching The food industry is undergoing a remarkable transformation, which is arising from macro-environmental factors such as change in consumer behavior. In order to align with the changing market trends, it is imperative for firms to invest in extensive product innovation programs.
The programs should focus on improving the firms’ market dominance through new product development. Failure to invest in new product development is a major risk that might affect the firms’ long run existence.
The risk arises from the view that the ability of a firm to generate and sustain growth in sales revenue, hence its financial sustainability is hindered.
The problem is further exacerbated by the view that the firm’s market dominance might be crowded-out by the competing entities. Therefore, the firm’s financial strength is diminished, which affects its prospected future growth.
Conclusion The introduction of a new snack product will substantially improve Stew Leonard’s market dominance by attracting new customers. This goal will be attainable due to the unique product features. Product uniqueness will be enhanced through continuous market research, hence entrenching the customers’ tastes and preferences.
This approach will remarkably minimize the inherent risk associated with its new product development. Furthermore, successful new product development will foster the firm’s longevity and market dominance in the US food industry.
References Business Monitor International: United States food and drink report. (2014). Web.
Effects of Technology on Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Background of the Study
The world has incurred critical, extensive, and rapid development as far as technology is concerned. On daily basis, new gadgets are discovered by the technological specialists to ease, support and complement human life (Egger 2010, 291).
Importantly, the history of technological obtained significant meaning during the 1980s when Apple computers started manufacturing high-quality devices with greater capabilities and better experience than the competitor’s products (Bennett 2011, 116).
Where this development has taken place in general terms and transformed the popular culture technologically, it has equally affected the family unit bearing in mind that the devices are mostly used in the family context (Reiser 2009, 276).
As such, it has led to critical implications on the interaction of family members and the manner in which they communicate to each other. This research focused on how the family unit transformed in the technological era. In addition, it showed how these devices changed communication and routes of interaction.
Research Scope of the Study
Whereas the technological advancement has taken place extensively and affected almost all aspects of human life, this paper sought to provide a step-by-step discussion on how technological devices transformed the family unit with advancement in technology.
Importantly, it focused on the effects of devices such as televisions and personal computers on the cohesiveness of the computers. In this light, the research paper emphasized the changes that took place from 1980s to 1990s.
This emphasis was based on the fact that there were robust inventions during this period as far as technology was concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aim and Objectives
The aim of a research is basically the broad focus of a research for which it seeks to achieve at the conclusive end. On the other hand, the objectives are subsets of the research aim which shows how the broad focus will be achieved.
In other words, they provide understandable and more particular ways of attaining the stipulated aim. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the home-based entertainment changed the family unit to a device-centered unit. The objectives are as shown in this list presented below this paragraph.
To determine the historical process of changing the family unit to a device centered unit.
To identify the main players, such as people and devices, that led to the attainment of this condition in the family unit.
To determines some of the family aspects and attitudes that may have contributed or accelerated the paradigmatic shift.
As stated before, the question of how the family unit changed is a broad-focused area of interest. It cannot be discussed from the limited perspective of identifying the steps and stages of the process. Instead, it must be tackled from the idea of the involved players and the attitudes that led to the condition.
What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit?
What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit?
Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit?
Significance of the Study
A family is the basic unit of the society since it comprises of the simple but critical definition of relationships. Indeed, the manner in which people behave towards other colleagues in the wider society is affected by the way the individuals were brought up at the family level.
As such, it becomes crucial to investigate the trends that take place in our families from both internal and external perspectives. Importantly, the relationships within families are determinants of effective communication. In fact, breakdown of communication in a family can lead to devastating moral degradation in a society.
For example, a drug addict who does not have a suitable platform to interact and share his or her problems with parents can degrade completely. In fact, the paradigm shift can be blamed for the moral degradation that is being experienced in the present times worldwide.
In addition to this, the study seeks to track the history of this shift from the beginning. This will help to determine all the factors that led to the change in family orientation. As such, it will be the basis and foundation of providing a solution to the society in order to reinstate the family cohesion and bonds.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Technology on Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understandably, it is very difficult to cure something that one does not acknowledge. Indeed, one needs broad and deep knowledge about the problem before presenting effective and credible solutions. In that regard, therefore, this study is an avenue to obtain the necessary knowledge.
Evidently, this study seeks to study the separating aspect of technology in the family. Interestingly, however, the study will provide insight and ideas on how the same technology can be used to unite family members and reinstate the original family structure.
This is based on the fact that the world cannot reverse technological advancements for the sake of creating better family bondage. However, technology can be manipulated in order to ensure that the original cohesiveness and family unity is reinstated.
As such, this study will be a very crucial inquiry that will help to form the basis of inducing the right change and attitude in the family. As such, parents and the children started consuming different forms of entertainment according to the modernity and trend differences.
As time progresses, each individual in the family regardless of the age warmed up towards personal tastes. This tendency increased the lift between member of the family regardless of whether they were parents or children.
In other words, it drew the family members from each other and pushed them towards their own entertainment preferences, tastes, and interests. Due to such individualized personal interests, the technological devices became personal gadgets of use and the interests towards them became different all together.
Literature Review Family Status before Technological Advancement
A number of authors touched on some of the important aspects regarding the importance of family bonds and technological effects. It was evident that such authors sought to describe some of the critical changes that happened with special interest to interaction and basically communication.
In one case, Gray (2010, 76) focused on the status of the family during the post-war period. During this period, there were various life-promoting undertakings that made life more enjoyable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Technology on Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, the education promotion program, which availed education to children in the society, supported family development and involvement with each other. Parents harbored little stress due to the poverty reduction efforts and health promotion initiatives alongside the postwar baby boom (Groening 2014, 67).
The reduced stress enabled them to concentrate on raising children. Indeed, they interacted with them for longer period of times to provide protection and nourishment. In addition, parents secured employment easily so they could afford money to go for leisure in the theaters.
In different study conducted in 1950s, it was evident that entertainment and family lives were inseparable aspects. In this case, the study describes the transformations that took place in the family due to emphasis put on entertainment.
In essence, the postwar period provided enough time for the family members to have fun since the country got relieve (Katz 2009, 114). In addition, the country was not experiencing critical strains as far as finances were concerned.
In that regard, therefore, citizens could afford enough money to cater for their basic needs and attend the entertainment premises together. As such, the family is depicted as a cohesive and well coordinated unit.
Family Changes Caused by TVs
Whereas the family was very intact during this period, the narrative changed with time due to the introduction of TVs. Murray (2009, 167) explains the challenges posed by the television in the world upon introduction and consumption of content from the boxes.
During the 1970s, the TVs eliminated the traditional orientation of the families that was originally prevalent in the society. Couples slept together away from their children to watch some of the classified programs such as the Mash where the actors showed the belly buttons.
The popular TV shows, such as the Pong, were aired so that people started buying the boxes at a very high rate. The advancement wooed more people to buy the TVs in the country. In 1980s, there was very insignificant development as far as technology was concerned.
In this case, television remained the major invention of the world with few developments such as the VCR. Whereas the development of the TVs as a device was minimal, it was evident that the content was developed extensively during this period.
As such, the developers discovered amazing technological innovations such as the radio stations, new music tracks, and tape players. Some of additional developments included the innovation of tapes, and Atari among many others.
As a result, this became a very critical age for the family cohesion because availability of the devices alongside the content started drifting the family members from each other. Indeed, the 1980s is the period where the family bonds started weakening due to this shift of attention.
However, this period did not play a fundamental role as the later 1990’s. This condition was occasioned by the fact that some of the commodities, such as the Apple’s McIntosh, were very expensive to afford.
Indeed, Apple was one of the major manufacturers and its high prices reduced the prevalence of the computers and their usage in the popular culture.
Advanced Technological Innovations
However, the 1990’s became the true periods of technological innovations. During this period, the personal computers became more affordable than ever before. The personal computers affordability was reinforced by the availability of internet in the country and households.
People could surf on the internet and get entertainment from online platforms. Additionally, the TV shows became more interesting but they included content with violence and sexual incidences (Petrie 2009, 127).
A critical review to this period indicates the start of visible separation of the family especially when it comes to watching sexual content. In essence, parents cannot watch sexual content alongside their children. As such, the television became an effective social separator in the family circles.
In addition to this, the Oxford explains the entry of commercialism during this period. Due to the increased materialism and commercial oriented society, the time used by families to have fun and watch content together reduced drastically.
Parents did not have enough time to move out with their children. This played a very crucial role to eliminate the bonds that existed in the families. In fact, it reinforced the original forces of family-based entertainments.
Invention of Video Games
Finally, the invention of video games became a critical game changer in the family circles. In the first, instance, the TV shows separated the parents from their parents because the toddlers could not be allowed to watch violent and sexual contents.
The invention of the Atari video game came to intensify the individualization of the entertainment in the families. In this case, the children were drawn to the Atari video games (Singer 2001, 79). As such, this eventuality provided two completely parallel entertainment interests and tastes.
As such, the children drew satisfaction from the video games while the parents concentrated on the TV programs. In this situation, therefore, the families could not meet anymore to watch the TVs.
In addition, the low prices of the devices in 1990s enabled the parents to afford both the TVs and the video games (Sultanik 2012, 59). Even in the present times children and parents have been divided by this parallel interest.
Methodology Research Philosophy
This research employed the philosophy of interpretivism during the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. A research philosophy refers to the mechanisms in which a researcher interprets data and make conclusion. In this case, interpretivism allows the use of qualitative data but does not invalidate the use of quantitative information.
On the contrary, the positivism is a research philosophy that allows the use of quantitative data only. However, the use of interpretivism neutralizes this ideology by allowing researchers to analyze data that cannot be quantified.
In this research, the information concerning the historical background and process of transforming families into device centered units is value-laden. As such, only qualitative techniques can be used to extract the necessary information
Research Approach, Design and Time Frame
This study followed the deductive research approach to complete the process and make conclusion. In this case, research questions were posed and the hypothesis stipulated in order to predict the possible outcome. The data was then collected and analyzed in order to answer the research questions.
With regards to research design, the study adopted the exploratory method. This design capitalizes on inquiring into a problem. Indeed, it seeks to obtain more information about the problem identified in the society in order to proceed and find relevant solutions.
Lastly, the time frame was longitudinal in nature since the data used was drawn from previous event dating from 1980s. As such, it focuses of a long period of time from which amounts to about 35 years.
In regard to the research strategy, it is evident that the study adopted the survey method. In this case, the study involved respondents who had vast knowledge and interest in history and technological transformation. They were interviewed by administering questionnaires that had a range of questions.
With the responses provided by the respondents, the data was analyzed and conclusions were made. In addition, the secondary information, which was drawn from the literature review, was used to answer the research questions.
The combination of primary and secondary research provided reliable and extensive information regarding the transformation of family unit by technological development.
Population and Sampling
The population comprised of technological specialists and historians since they were considered as relevant respondents as far as the study was concerned. However, the population is understandably extensive since there are very many technologists and historians with the required data.
However, the population cannot be involved entirely because of the time limit and cost issues. As such, sampling becomes important since it enables the selection of few people in the population to participate in the study. In this case, therefore, random purposeful sampling was used to collect the sample population.
This technique was a combination of two techniques including the purposeful and random sampling. Random sampling is used in order to ensure that the respondents are not selected in a biased manner to get some predetermined results.
On the other hand, purposeful sampling was applied by selecting people who were adults in the 1980s.
Data Collection and Analysis
The data was collected using the questionnaires which were administered during detailed interviews with the respondents. In this regard, the information provided was recorded used thematic gadgets to ensure that all information was available in its authentic nature during the analysis.
As such, the analysis was conducted by reviewing each of the filled questionnaires in details. In essence, each of them was analyzed singly in order to get the individualized approach to all the questions posed to the respondents.
Results Item Description Sample Size (N) 50 Respondents Historical Process Post war stable families
Discovery of TVs in 1970s
Advancement of TVs and content in 1980s-1990s
Discovery of Atari Videos
Main Player/Contributors in the degradation of family bonds and creation of device-centered units TVs Discovery
Low cost of TV boxes with advancement in technological capability
Content incompatibility for parents and children to view together
Atari Video games
Mobile devices helped to individualize the entertainment
Family Attitude Families’ believed in the uncontrollability of information
Parents were reluctant when it came to the control of content
Discussion In order to conceptualize the expectations of this research study as well as the findings that were made, the data was analyzed according to the three questions posed in the introductory part of the research. As such, this was presented in this chapter in terms of the three research questions.
What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit?
According to both the primary and secondary research, it was evident that the post-war period was both peaceful and productive. It was indicated that the nations was regaining its financial stability gradually. As a result, the parents could afford money to take their children to theater or purchase Television boxes.
In essence, entertainment at home and in the theatres was a family undertaking since the members went to the theatres together. Alternatively, they sat around their TVs to watch the movies together. However, the robust introduction of TVs and personal computers in 1908s to 1990s led to massive discovery of content.
This content could not be viewed by the parents and children simultaneously due to the sensitivity of the content. As a result, parents bought private TVs for the bedroom to watch content with sexual ascent or aspects of violence. This separated the parents from the children since they watched and consumed different content.
The final blow to family cohesion was made when the Atari video games were discovered. The children warmed up to the Atari videos while the parents separated themselves by using the bedroom-based TVs.
As such, the further introduction of mobile devices individualized entertainment such that all the family members enjoy different content.
What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit?
Indeed, the main player that contributed to the elimination of family cohesion is the simultaneous discovery of TV boxes alongside the content. Indeed, the Atari videos and violent-laden content made it difficult for parent to watch TVs together with their children.
The mobile devices individualized the entertainment industry and intensified the separation of family members and the creation of device-based family units.
Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit?
Whereas technology has led to the massive separation of family unit and the creation of a device-centered orientation, there are various family-based attitudes that led to this condition. Indeed, the families did not control the type of content that they could consume.
As such, they consumed all the content provided by the developers. As a result, they did not have the control to resist the unfortunate technological twist.
Conclusions and Recommendations The development of technological devices and the subsequent creation of diverse content led to the emergence of different entertainment preferences. The critical review of literature has indicated similar findings showing the before the introduction of TVs and personal computers, people enjoyed themselves together.
During the postwar period, mothers concentrated on raising their children. However, the advancement in technology in 1980s to 1990s led to the reduction in the price of computers and TVs.
Indeed, enabled households to acquire more than one TV so that children and parents could watch separate shows. In addition, the invention of videos intensified the separations and classification of preferences in accordance to age.
In regard to recommendations, there several advocacies that can be proposed especially when it comes to the use of technology to reinstate family cohesion.
It developers should invent family-based applications which helps members to share content using their mobile devices
Media should come up with shows that provide more lessons concerning some of the problems incurred by families. This will ensure that family members are encouraged to live a cohesive and integrated life.
Works Cited Bennett, John. The Televisions. Columbus, OH: Luna Bisonte Prods, 2011.
Egger, Garry. Technology in the 20th Century and Effect on Culture. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
Gray, Jonathan. Watching with the Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Groening, Matt. The Simpsons Family History: A Celebration of Television’s Favorite Family. New York, NY: Abrams, 2014.
Katz, Elihu. The End of Television. Its Impact on the World so Far. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2009.
Murray, Susan. Reality TV Remaking Television Culture. New York: New York University Press, 2009.
Petrie, Kristin. Televisions. Edina, Minn.: ABDO, 2009.
Reiser, Stanley. Technological Advancement and Cultural Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Singer, Dorothy. Handbook of Children and the Media. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001.
Sultanik, Aaron. Cinemulacrum: A Secret History of Film and Video for 1960 to 2010. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2012.
Ford’s Operation in the Global Market Essay college essay help
Introduction The Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 by Henry Ford and it has grown into a multinational company with operations in different nations. One of its most significant markets outside America is the Chinese population. In America, the Ford Motor Company’s Headquarters is in Dearborn.
This essay seeks to discuss the external influences that impacts Ford’s operation in the global market in relations to Competition, Cultural, Legal/political, Economic, and Geographical factors.
External factors affecting a company’s operation in the global market There are several factors that influence the operations of a business both locally and internationally. Such factors include cultural differences, competition, legal and political issues, economic environments, as well as geographical factors. All these factors emanate from outside the business which means the company has no control over them.
The Ford Motor Company has been successful in the business and its years of existence have enabled it to establish foreign operations. China is one of the biggest Ford’s markets in the East.
Cultural factors Unlike Americans, the Chinese are slightly conservative. The Chinese use small vehicles with sophisticated technology. On the contrary, Ford specializes in SUV’s and their vehicles are simple in design and technology. This may prove to be a challenge in a culture that is used to complex technology in a car.
In addition to this, the Chinese are very loyal to their own products hence penetrating this market will affect the strategies used by Ford in their normal operations. Setting up a company in a foreign land requires a clear understanding of the cultural differences between the home and the foreign market.
Ford’s management will have to compromise some aspects of leadership in order to appeal for China’s cooperation in trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In china, for a foreign company to establish a business it must establish a relationship first. In other regions, a business starts its operations then it builds a relationship there after. In China, hierarchy is an important cultural aspect. Therefore, setting a business in the country Ford has to pay attention to hierarchy.
Another cultural aspect that is important and will change Fords operations is the culture of Guanxi (Pradhan, 2012). This means that actions are reciprocal in nature. When someone grants you a favor, you are indebted to grant a favor back as well.
Legal /political factors Currently, Ford has not recorded any interference from the ongoing political changes in China. There have been major changes in the leadership structure and this was influenced by a recent scandal that exposed China’s political elite’s underground indecency.
However, the Ford Motor Company has not been affected by the political tension in and party wrangles in the country.
However, in China there are laws that govern the entrance of a foreign investor, one of these legislations include the mandatory requirement for an investor to obtain an approval license from the Commerce Committee (Lanteigne, 2012).
Another legal and political restriction that the Ford Motor Company has to endure is the joint ventures law. Joint ventures are not allowed to hold shareholders’ meetings as the ultimate decision-making authority (Daniels, Radebaugh,
Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections Evaluation Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Summary The first decade of democracy in South Africa saw drastic changes in the media in relation to the normative frameworks, the ownership of the media companies, and a broadening audience.
These changes propagated more friction between the government and the media because of content coverage, and the need for the politicians in power to protect their reputations. Structural issues of the media were a particular source of conflict between the media and the post-apartheid government.
For instance, in 1994, Mandela was among the first politicians to condemn the media companies because they were racially imbalanced. Most of the companies were still owned by white men who had no experience in the dynamics of the difficult life that the majority of the South Africans led (Wasserman, 2006).
The situation got worse toward the end of the 1990s, and the Human Rights Commission was compelled to conduct an investigation of the alleged cases of racism on the part of the media.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The conflict between the South African media and the government led to the development of a workshop to develop media ethics to ensure that the media didn’t serve as a tool for spreading racism.
Thabo Mbeki, the successor of Mandela also indicated his worry that the media companies were extremely biased in reporting political issues of the nation (Wasserman, 2006). One of the strengths of the South African media over the years has been the ability to highlight the multicultural issues that face the citizens.
Its greatest weakness has been the attainment of a balance in unbiased reporting in relation to the issues facing the minority and the majority racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting
The implications of ethical reporting in the nation were the development of cohesion in the society by using the media as a tool for preaching peace and love to the nation. Working under the set guidelines also meant that journalists in the different media houses had to take part in a national audit that evaluated their qualifications.
The development of ethics in reporting saw the South African media undergo various phases of change. The media started from the exclusionary phase, whereby the whites and the blacks had their respective media reporters who covered information relevant to the respective groups.
The threatening-issue phase was engulfed by the whites media reports that portrayed blacks as a threat to peace. The confrontational phase began after independence, whereby the government fought to change the ownership of the media.
The stereotypical selection phase involved the elimination of racially focused reporting to address other stereotypes in the society like gender. The current stage is the multi-racial coverage stage, which entails the media and the government striving to eliminate racial bias in reporting.
Contribution to Understanding International Media
Through the lens of the eye of the South African Media, one can understand the dynamics of reporting, whereby the media is always on a quest to deliver public interests. Media reporting is a powerful tool that can build or destroy a society, depending on the willingness of companies to embrace reporting ethics.
South Africa’s case also enlightens people about the constant conflicts that the international media companies face with different political entities.
What is the distinction between public interests and national interests? Who is the victim in unethical reporting, the government, the media or the public? Should people always trust the media to deliver public interests? What can compel the media to become an advocate for national and international cohesion among the people in the society?
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summary The article focuses on safety for journalists in their workplaces. Journalists who remain adamant about broadcasting the truth and criticizing politicians and their ideas have faced a rough time (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
Many journalists have been killed under mysterious circumstances that point to their boldness in reporting political issues. For instance, the beheading of the renowned journalist, Daniel Pearl, revealed the danger that journalists face in different parts of the world as they try to report on different political issues.
Many international organizations have taken the responsibility of addressing the plight of journalists. For instance, UNESCO, CPJ, Reporters without Borders, and many other organizations have developed programs that look to advocate the protection of journalists and their freedom of expression.
It is apparent that the globalization of politics has led to the rise in killings of journalist. In the past, journalists from different nations could mingle with conflicting groups without the danger of being attacked. In the current state of globalization, journalists are becoming easy targets for terrorist groups and other conflicting militants.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Many journalists have died in mysterious circumstances, and this is an indication that the freedom accorded to the media is only theoretical (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011). Others have been killed while handling fieldwork, whereby their encounters with terrorists turns sour.
Journalism is a dangerous profession, especially for those who dare to report controversial stories. The globalization of the media and politics has led to an addition to the political pressures that journalists and their media companies face while reporting.
One of the strengths of being in the media is the power to change the world through the delivery of authentic controversial political information. It is, however, a dangerous endeavor for most journalists.
Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting
Ethics in reporting dictate that the media should always give authentic information to the people. Inciting the society to make specific political decisions is unethical, and it should be eliminated by ensuring the media is protected from politicians and business entities (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Failing to observe the required ethics presents the media as a direct enemy and hurdle to both public and national interests.
Contribution to Understanding International Media
The media companies are perfect tools for influencing political changes across the world. The article highlights different cases of journalists who have faced the ultimate injustice in the quest to bring information to the international community.
The article clearly highlights the need for the international community to develop mechanisms to safeguard journalists in their work. Reporting issues of public and international interests has continually become a challenge because of the dangers that journalists face at work (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
The article paints a clear picture of the dangers of being involved in international journalism. The changing climate of politics in the globe has subjected journalists to murderous treatment by conflicting political groups, and this call for the international community to focus on the plight of journalists.
What is the plight of journalists? What factors in the globalization of politics have led to the sudden change in the way conflicting groups treat journalists?
Does the bias in reporting political issues have a role to play in the current challenges facing journalists across the world? Which intervention programs, besides the existing efforts, must be implemented?
References Media and Political Globalization: Killing Stories-and Journalism. (2011). In J. Lule (Ed.), Globalization and Media: Global Village of Babel (pp. 95-120). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman
“Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The author has averred on the idea that education and economy linkage structures do produce variation patterns in the modern or industrial societies.
The author conceptualized two education-economy linkages to theoretically examine how the inter-schools, labor division and firms for personal human capital development as well as the recruitment mechanisms structuring people’s movement out of schools and into employment together with those structuring changes across jobs.
Economic sociologists have anchored much of their aversion significantly to the originality on the careful examination of how the organization or rather the institutional arrangement creates the context within which personal economic demeanors do happen.
With these strengths, the extrapolation of economic, sociological investigation into the research of comparative inequality regimes or periods based on different education-economy linkage would be potentially promising.
The bulk of the theoretical and empirical studies to the present date on the link between institutional arrangement and inequality patterns across the industrial societies have been conducted out of the side of sociology.
The disciplines of political science and labor economics have centered on a significant attention on cross-national variation in wage compression across the skill boundaries.
In my opinion, economic sociologists can profitably derive from the detailed practical work conducted by labor economists and the theoretical exploration of the wage-setting arrangements by both the labor economists and the supporters of the varieties of the capital approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Building upon the theoretical formulations of educational and stratification researchers, economic-sociologists can design a comparative study agenda fashioned to specify further how skill and gender wage gaps are impacted by the different institutional arrangements of capitalism.
The majority of these institutional arrangements precisely stand’s at the point of intersection of the economy and the education. The three outstanding perspectives of economic sociology stress on networks, rational choice and social norms or rather cultural norms that are some of the times entrenched in organizations or institutions.
Each of the perspectives above is critical in comprehending gender. Every ten empirical patterns are consistent with at least two of the perspectives. For instance, returns to experience that work against women due to the time they spend on child rearing may be institutionalized by the employers.
This is out of the fact that workers with experience tend to have increased levels of productivity.
The other reason may be since the turnover is less expensive, more so where the employers invest heavily in training. This may too well be an institutionalized norm bearing a disparate impact against women, despite lack of link to productivity.
Going by the statistical discrimination, this may be put in place to get better employees notwithstanding the fact that it is illegal as well as unfair to those the members of groups with lower average qualifications. In a nutshell, this is the rational choice theory.
Patterns of ethnic or gender discrimination may too well be explained by the beliefs and sex disparities that are exaggerated in terms of magnitude or by worker network recruitment or wholly erroneous racist or sexist cultural beliefs.
We will write a custom Essay on “Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rational choice explanations that feature material interests can be tested easily with the existing or available information.
The only drawback to this is the fact that most of the economists do not take their paradigms seriously. Furthermore, they lack interest in testing the predictions against competing claims from the perspectives that are outside the rational choice model.
For instance, women are synonymous with the work of care whether for free or paid. The emerging study of care depicts it to fit most of the standard assumptions as well as challenging many dichotomies. The work seems to generate externalities and public goods.
Furthermore, economists agree that such factors make up their usual assumptions that markets attain efficiency. This work is performed for a blend of pecuniary and intrinsic motives. The fundamental purpose in question, altruism is at longer heads with the standard assumptions of the market players.
Care workers build emotional relations with the clients of the services they provide. As such, intrinsic motives make it hard to figure out or rather to predict how they will negotiate self-interestedly for wages but at times, they do.
The reaction to such self-centered negotiations is that they do violet norms that some things should be done solely out of love reasons. One remains to wonder whether many types of work generate positive or negative externalities.
Another puzzle is whether many jobs attract workers with proper intrinsic motives and develop those motives as well. Furthermore, are not employees in numerous jobs often connected emotionally to fellow workers as well as the customers or clients? The ways in which the care work challenges the economic model and design may apply widely.
This position is wholly supported by the Contra economics or economic sociologists. Economic sociology discusses networks and institutions. They tend to shy away from considerations of emotional commitments and connections.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The studies relating to gender take one to realms such as the family where emotional ties and norm-based commitments are made with the slightest degree of seriousness. We ought to make households as part of the larger economy.
Even if one elects to inculcate the household as part of the economy, then certain questions are more than likely to emerge. Firstly, what determines which spheres of human activity are characterized by long time commitments?
Furthermore, which are more characterized by each party self-interestedly treating others in the textbook market or exchange models?
According to economists, norms and institutions evolve out of the fact that they are efficient. It is efficient to have altruism govern the family economy, and self-interest dictates the market economy. Going by the views of the economic sociologists who focus on markets, efficiency does not always rein.
By this, it is evident that economic sociologists often tend to ignore questions or issues related to efficiency. They too tend to ignore the household.
The pending puzzles that are to pass to many generations are what blend of commitment and market-like incentives generate efficient results? Secondly, what are the distributional effects of the duo dogmas in various impacts?
Conclusion In summary, the author has averred on the idea that education and economy linkage structures do produce variation patterns in the modern or industrial societies.
The author conceptualized two education-economy linkages to theoretically examine how the inter-schools, labor division and firms for personal human capital development as well as the recruitment mechanisms structuring people’s movement out of schools and into employment together with those structuring changes across jobs.
Economic sociologists have anchored much of their aversion significantly to the originality on the careful examination of how the organization or rather the institutional arrangement creates the context within which personal economic demeanors do happen.
References England, P.,
Social Networks and Economic Applications Essay college essay help near me
Social interactions are responsible for the influences in peoples’ beliefs, behaviors, and decisions. There are several examples of how social networks influence general economics and the modes of passing information. Social networks are also responsible for arbitrary decisions regarding hobbies, education, criminal activities, and careers.
Several scholars have examined how social networks influence and shape economic outcomes. In a chapter titled “The Ethnic Economy”, Smelser and Swedberg explore the role of ethnic groupings in determining economic outcomes.
In their article, the authors address the dominance of some ethnic groups around the world such as Jews, Gypsies, Armenians, and Sikhs. The chapter appears in a book titled “The Handbook of Economic Sociology”.
Another scholarly article that addresses social networks and the economy is the one that is authored by Michael Aguilera and Douglas Massey. The article is titled “Social Capital and the Wages of Mexican Migrants: New Hypotheses and Tests” and it is a case study that focuses on the plight of Mexican migrant workers.
Both of these scholarly efforts address various aspects of social networks and economic prospects. Nevertheless, both articles argue that social networks can easily be applied in modern economics. This paper explores this hypothesis whilst focusing on claims that have been made by the two articles.
Both articles address various aspects of social economics. The article by Aguilera and Massey examines how social capital influences the workers’ wages (Aguilera
Application of Social and Cultural Capital Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Humans are social beings, and thus everything that contributes to the development and environment of humanity revolves around social relations. Psychologists argue that a human’s life is shortened considerably when one is alienated from society.
Human development is eternal as it takes place in the brain, but the quality of that growth is largely determined by external factors that are made of social and cultural norms.
Social and cultural capital of a human being is the key determinant of the development in all life situations such as the productivity of an employee in a business environment and the likelihood of a teenage dropping out of high school due to pregnancy among others.
Different neighborhoods produce different salespersons Sociocultural capital is an essential element in determining the quality of a person’s life in adulthood. A person raised in a ghetto neighborhood can hardly associate well with people from economically flourished environs and vice versa.
This scenario does not play out because the former can get rich and live in a good neighborhood, but can hardly associate effectively with people raised in such neighborhoods. However, the determinants of such inclinations hinge on the strong values instilled by social and cultural capital to a person.
Unfortunately, such values are difficult to break in order to live like people from a different set up. Hence, the two people can make different salespersons.
According to Burt (1995), salespersons are a form of social capital to a business organization. A salesperson has equal rights to the owner of the business as far as the profit-making process is concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The work of a business owner normally ends at the stage where raw materials are combined with other factors such as human capital and finance to produce a finished product.
The social capital in the form of salespersons takes over the duty of finding clients who can buy the product for the business to realize its goals of making profits, and according to Kelly (1998), the effectiveness of a salesperson in delivering required results is determined by the social upbringing with accordance to the social network in a neighborhood.
The question of how well a salesperson finds the client is an issue of concern to the business owner, but Kelly (1998) says that individuals’ social capital is the key determinant of the success of a salesperson.
Social network is crucial for the success of a human being in life as it plays a major role in determining how well a salesperson can sell a product and who is the most preferable party to sell to for successful business. Hence, salespersons would feel comfortable selling products to the people that they socially identify with, and thus it will be hard to sell to persons that belong to other sociocultural backgrounds.
Therefore, it is important to realize that salesperson does well in an environment that comprises people that match his/her social and cultural factors according to Kelly’s argument. Salespersons use their social networks as the main avenue of selling, and thus the first target customers will be relatives or people hailing from the same neighborhoods.
Hence, it is important to note that a salesperson from a ghetto can comfortably sell products that are easily affordable to the poor people. The products must fit such economic and social situations.
On the other hand, a salesperson hailing from an economically flourished environment can comfortably sell to people that match his/her social environments.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Social and Cultural Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the business owner must consider the social status of the salesperson to determine the types of products that can be sold to particular types of customers with regard to their social class. Both Burt and Kelly have valid arguments on how social and cultural capital affects the life of a human being.
This aspect is one of the strengths of the articles. However, it is important to note that such arguments were valid in the last decade of the 20th century when these articles were published.
However, the situation has drastically changed and today, people are not strongly attached to social and cultural factors that defined their environment as they grew up. This assertion underscores one of the articles’ weaknesses, because the argument cannot be applied in the contemporary world.
With regard to competence, Bart (1995) argues that a person with effective social network is likely to get a job that earns a higher pay than one who does not. On the other hand, social network matters for a person to succeed in life.
A salesperson with a large social network is capable of selling more products as compared to the person having a small sized social network. People that grow up in humble backgrounds are highly social and in most cases, they interact with a large number of people who form high population density in such environments.
Hence, a business owner can pay such a salesperson handsomely for selling a product effectively.
On the other hand, a salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood is not socially tuned because there are limited social relations in such environments; hence, s/he can only sell a couple of products because the target population is small.
Hence, different social neighborhoods produce different competent salespersons. However, a salesperson from a successful background can sell products that target economically endowed customers more easily than his/her poor counterpart because of great confidence in both approaching the target customer as well presenting the product.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Social and Cultural Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, in some cases, the quality of social and cultural capital also matters in determining the efficiency of salespersons. The salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood has a higher advantage over his/her disadvantaged counterpart.
According to Kelly (1998), social and cultural factors in such neighborhoods aim at producing competent adults. Parents advise their children to study hard in school in a bid to have a good life in the future and they are taken to competent schools right from tender age.
Children start interacting and building good networks at a tender age, which they retain to their adulthood in most cases. As a person continues with education up to tertiary levels, s/he continues to make reliable social network.
Hence, by the time of being employed, such a person has a wide and effective network, which is an advantage over his/her counterpart from economically disadvantaged background.
Hence, according to Bart (1995), such a salesperson can sell many products of high value to a wide network, thus enabling the business to make high profits.
Therefore, the salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood can reach out to many people belonging to an effective network made in school and retained up to adulthood.
In conclusion, social and cultural capitals are essential elements of human life, hence crucial determinants of success of a person. An adult person relates better with persons that s/he grew up with in the same social environment.
However, with today’s improved technologies enable people of different social backgrounds to interact freely, the authors’ claims are invalid to most individuals and especially to educated adults, which is a point of weakness.
Moreover, the claims are psychological, hence naturally instilled in humans, and thus they exist despite the dominant developments, which is their greatest strength in applicability in today’s life.
References Burt, R. (1995). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press.
Kelly, M. (1998). Social and cultural capital in the urban ghetto: implications for the economic sociology of immigration. In A. Portes (Ed.), The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship (pp. 213-247). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Interview of a Marriage and Family Therapist Reflective Essay college essay help online
Abstract Ethical dilemmas are challenging situations that compel individuals to make decisions concerning certain aspects of life. In families, ethical dilemmas arise when individuals disagree on what they believe is right or wrong. Different views, varying lifestyles, and time management are among the ethical dilemmas common in several families.
Notably, the judgment given by therapists should be free from personal values, cultural affiliations, or ethnic favors. The common ethical dilemma faced by family therapists, is the dilemma of varying opinions since it has profound impacts in family operations.
Resolution of the dilemma requires intensive scrutiny on the actions and their repercussions so that a wise decision materializes.
Introduction Ethical dilemmas are challenges that individuals encounter in an attempt to make decisions concerning certain situations. The need to make a choice drives individuals into a state of mental conflict where they eventually select one of the issues and forego the others.
In families, some of the common ethical dilemmas concern what various individuals in the family believe is correct. To ascertain the various ethical dilemmas that families face, the study interviewed a licensed marriage and family therapist (MFT). Therefore, the essay explains the types of ethical dilemmas in families and their resolution.
Ethical Dilemmas and Personal Values, Culture, and Ethnicity
As a family therapist, some of the common ethical dilemmas encountered during the practice comprise time management, different views and opinions, diverse lifestyles, and varying religious orientations. These dilemmas are challenging as they entail what each member of the family thinks is right or wrong.
While some individuals in the family believe that a given time can be useful for a particular activity, other members think differently. The difference leads to a conflict among those, who think one activity is good and better over the other. Another dilemma concerns opinions, lifestyles, and religious orientations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mead (2012) elucidates that a family entails union of people from different backgrounds, and thus, the diversity of opinions and lifestyles is inevitable.
The dilemma arises when these opinions, lifestyles, and religious orientations offend other members in the family hence, compelling the subject individuals to relax some of their opinions, religious orientations, and adjust their lifestyles
Since I am a licensed therapist with the expertise required in the field of therapy, my values, culture, and ethnicity do not affect my practice. Conversely, in scenarios where my personal views are ethical, I share the values with clients and give them the chance to make their own decisions.
Although my values and cultural inclinations can at times attempt to influence my judgment, I employ the code of conduct and use it to make wise and independent decisions.
According to Dallos (2010), the code of conduct ensures that all the clients receive fair and correct therapy irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds, religious orientations, and places of origin.
Essentially, the therapy should be free from coercion and ought to give the clients the liberty to make their decisions from a range of solutions deemed as right and ethical.
Common Ethical Dilemma, a Challenging Ethical Dilemma, and Its Resolution
The most common ethical dilemma or concern that I experience in my practice regards difference in opinions and views. Principally, union among individuals, who have divergent opinions and views lead to a set of challenges concerning what they think is ethical.
We will write a custom Essay on Interview of a Marriage and Family Therapist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In several instances, people disagree because of the different views that they have and expect from others in the family. The differences always transpire from the backgrounds of respective individuals, which influence their activities (Goldenberg
Cyber Security Technologies Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
Abstract Advanced cyber attacks that target both public and private sectors at the international level have provoked an increase in research and funding for the establishment of novel cyber security technologies.
Government and private institutions are investing in technologies that dynamically appraise networks through real-time and remote agent forensic investigations. Besides, organizations are coming up with cyber security technologies like moving target defense, which prevent hackers from spotting attack surface of a network.
The moving target defense allows a network to alter its variables dynamically, therefore, making it hard for hackers to predict or spot attack surface. Other emerging cyber security technologies include tailored trustworthy spaces and searchable encryption.
The responsibility to guard public and private assets on the state and global level should not fall exclusively on the government. Public and private institutions should work with the government to establish network security measures.
The federal government has taken an active role in curbing cyber crimes by investing in research programs aimed at creating awareness of possible threats and how to address them. Currently, the federal government is trying to fine-tune existing cyber security technologies and to develop novel ones to safeguard networks from emerging threats.
The federal government is working to ensure that private and public institutions install novel cyber security technologies in their networks as a way to boost state economy and curb cyber attacks.
Introduction Recent events like the Georgian incursion and the revelation that hackers have stolen billions of dollars from banks globally have created an indulgence that cyber security does not only involve protecting one’s computer. It has devastating repercussions to state defense and economic interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, cyber security is one of the challenges facing contemporary digital community. Today, majority of cyber work is not automated, and hence, it is done by people (Garfinkel, 2014). Besides, many countries do not have qualified cyber experts. Thus, it is difficult for countries to rely on people bestowed the duty to control cyber attacks.
In addition, “The one consistent theme is that cyber defenses commonly used today are simply not effective against most forms of advanced cyber attacks” (Garfinkel, 2014, p. 568). Currently, state and private institutions are collaborating to plan and create cyber security technologies that aid in the fight against cyber crimes.
The technologies are aimed at detecting and combating any authorized intrusion into both government and private corporations’ networks.
Emerging cyber threats and susceptibilities have “Created challenges amounting to financial damages to governments and businesses” (Speicher, 2014, p. 65). Present digitally linked planet offers immense benefits to countries.
Public and private corporations transmit data across the globe within a short period enhancing their efficiency and productivity. Nevertheless, the digital platform is open to cyber attacks subjecting companies to insecurity. Cases of advanced persistent threats (APTs) among the state and key private organizations are rampant across the globe.
Moreover, hackers are targeting modern technologies like Big Data, Smart Grid, and High-End Computing. Another budding trend in cyber attacks is focusing on data found on social networks. Many people use social networks to share confidential information.
However, they do not know that social networks are prone to cyber attacks. Hackers have capitalized on people’s ignorance to perpetrate cyber crimes (Speicher, 2014). Social networks like LinkedIn have subjected national security agents to problems.
We will write a custom Essay on Cyber Security Technologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is these threats that have prompted the government and private agencies to work together to combat cyber attacks. This article will discuss emerging cyber security technologies and government’s role in nurturing the development of these technologies.
Emerging Technologies Moving Target Defense
One of the modern cyber security technologies is moving target defense (MTD). The technology is regularly designed to alter the attack surface of a network, making it hard for attackers to access a system and reducing the susceptibilities and predictabilities available at any time.
According to Jajodia, Ghosh, Swarup, Wang and Wang (2014), hackers use network’s attack surface to determine its vulnerability. They allege that majority of the systems are static. Consequently, it is easy for hackers to access them.
Moving target defense enables organizations to “Change the network IP addresses, operating systems, open ports and protocols, and many other areas of the environment” (Jajodia et al., 2014, p, 35). Jajodia et al. (2014) recommend that it is imperative to make sure that events are not predictable.
Systems do this by making IP addresses’ movements as unpredictable and random as possible. Increase in randomness confuses a hacker making it hard for him or her to access a network. When an attacker inspects a system, he or she does not get consistent information that can help to launch an attack.
Moreover, MTD reduces chances of penetrating into a network because it regularly changes the network’s environment. Additionally, it fights an attack by lowering the number of components of a system that an attacker is familiar with or can access (Jajodia et al., 2014).
Plans are underway to develop Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), which will allow organizations to run unlimited number of IP addresses. Besides, IPv6 will make it easy for networks randomly to change their internet addresses, which is a fundamental feature of moving target defense.
Today, if organizations want to use 100 different IP addresses weekly, they require setting aside at least 400 addresses every month. It translates to 4800 IP addresses annually (Jang-Jaccard
Globalisation of Logistics and Supply Chains Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Nature of Multinational Business
Benefits of an Integrated Business Strategy
Drawbacks of Globalisation
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of globalisation of logistics and supply chains. It seeks to establish whether Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) can operate an integrated global business strategy in more than one country.
It is argued that operating such a strategy is a reality for MNEs which are able to match their globalisation potentials with their globalisation strategies. To organisations which are not able to do so, operating such a strategy is more of a myth than a reality.
Examples which are discussed include Tesco and Toyota. The paper is based on the backdrop of the increasing number of organisations which are going global. Such an increase is fueled by the need to increase competitiveness, reliance on advanced technology, and the desire to venture into particular markets.
Globalisation Explained Globalisation is the attempt to eliminate the differences between people of the world through interaction and communication. The period before the two World Wars was characterised by minimal interaction, communication, and cross-border movements.
That situation however changed after the World Wars due to the realisation by nations that there was need of working together in various spheres of development such as education, economy, employment, environment, and governance (Beck 2000).
Globalisation is mainly driven by advancement in information and communication technology, improvement of transport infrastructure, and liberalisation of trade and immigration policies. Through globalisation, people are able to work anywhere in the world irrespective of their cultural orientation.
Globalisation has also enabled people to study, marry, and stay in any part of the world (Cole 2005). In terms of culture, globalisation has enabled different cultures to coexist peacefully without cultural prejudice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interaction of people in different spheres of life has made them to appreciate their cultural differences, a situation which has greatly reduced instances of racism and ethnicity (Chrysanthopoulos 2010).
Globalisation Trends The history of globalisation has been a subject of heated debate between different scholars. Some have argued that globalisation started during the time of Greek civilisation while others have stated that globalisation is a concept which belongs to the modern era.
Despite these differences about the history of globalisation, many scholars tend to agree that globalisation was triggered by the conquest of America by the Europeans (Fiske 2007).
According to Clark, globalisation started early before the industrial revolution of 1600 (Clark 2008). On his part, Spielvogel traces the earliest form of globalisation to the Hellenistic Age, during which many urban centres came up in Europe.
Through the early form of globalisation, there emerged popular cities such as Athens, Antioch, and Alexandria (Spielvogel 2010).
According to Kendall and Cole, the integration of trade between the famous Roman Empire and other empires such as the Han dynasty and the Parthian Empire was still another pointer of early form of globalisation (Kendall
Strategic Human Resources Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Review of the Articles
List of References
Introduction In the current highly dynamic work environment, career self-management has become a major tool that one can use to remain relevant to the employer. The job market is getting flooded and employers are very keen when selecting those whom they hire or retain at their firms.
According to Guest and Liefooghe (2005, p. 825), career self-management, also known as independent career management, helps one to develop a career in a way that will not only enhance their satisfaction, but also improve work-life balance.
Employers are looking for people who can balance their private lives with their work-related duties. As an individual, it is necessary to identify personal strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, and any other relevant information that can make a person to perform better at workplace.
According to Sturges et al. (2004, 747), people who are successful in their careers always find ways of intertwining their hobbies and careers. This way, they find it easy to enjoy what they are doing in the workplace. Employers are interested in having employees who can take charge of their own career development.
In this essay, the researcher will conduct a critical review of academic articles about career-self management in order to determine its relevance in the current workplace environment.
Review of the Articles Employees are the most important resources for any organization. They implement the policies developed by the owners of such organizations, and this means that any meaningful progress can only be made if they have the right skills.
According to the research by Guest and Liefooghe (2005, p. 830), career self-management as a concept has gained popularity over the years. In the current workplace environment, it has become relevant to look at an individual employee’s performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues such as performance contracts have gained massive popularity as the employers seek to determine the relevance of an individual employee in the specific assignment within various departments. The time when the performance would only be reviewed at the department and organizational levels is long gone.
Organizations are currently very keen on starting their reviews from the individual employee performance. This means that an individual must be in a position to meet the expectations of the employer in every assignment they are given.
Failure to meet the expectations of the employer may lead to dismissal, demotion or reduction of one’s earnings as per the terms and conditions set out in the performance contract.
This argument is also shared by Castaneda and Kolenko (2009, p. 102) who say that career self-management is as important to the employees as it is to the employers. For an individual to succeed in his or her career, setting out the priorities and finding ways of improving one’s performance is very critical.
The research article by Renn, Allen and Huning (2011, p. 41) identifies some of the steps that one should take in developing his or her career. The figure below shows the proposed steps towards becoming accomplished in any given career.
Source (Renn, Allen
Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Contrasting Views about Learning
Comparative Views about Learning
Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development
More Useful Perspectives at Work
Contrasting Views about Learning In essence, there are various differences on learning methodologies as discussed by the three authors. After analysing the three articles written by the different scholars, it is evident that they emphasize different methodologies of learning.
This emphasis is an indication that the three authors consider the respective methodologies with a certain weight. As such, a learning methodology is one of the outstanding differences when it comes to their perspectives on learning.
First, Zimmerman (2000) gave a special attention to the concept of self-efficacy and the motivation it availed to learners. In his work, Zimmerman indicated that self-efficacy had evoked crucial and vast concern over the last ten years.
In this case, he termed self-efficacy as the most proficient predictor of academic success and a source of inspiration. In addition, the author differentiated this concept evidently as the superior tool of measurement over other evaluators such as self-concept as well as the locus of control.
From a critical point of view, it is evident that the researcher considers the concept as the most proficient evaluation mechanism. In addition, it implies that the author considers motivation as an essential ingredient of academic success.
In fact, he stated that the students’ attitude towards their capability affects their actual academic outcome. In that regard, therefore, it cannot be disputed that Zimmerman paid more attention to motivation and self-efficacy than other methodologies of learning and evaluation.
This focus is very different from the considerations and exemplification of Wenger (2000) and Engestrom (2001) as illustrated in their works. In particular, Wenger (2000) viewed learning from an organizational and a pretty collective perspective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Zimmerman (2000), the author did not discuss or consider learning as an individual venture but a group-based undertaking. In the same light, he did not share the idea that individual motivation was the key determinant of successful skill acquisition.
Instead, he indicated that the capability of people to learn and acquire new skills as well as increase their body of knowledge was determined by their ability to conceive social learning system. From a critical point of view, he believed that learning could not be separated from the socialization and interactional characteristic of human beings.
In fact, the study provided a social-based definition of learning in order to portray the idea of a systematic approach. In that regard, it became evident that learning occured only when the people were willing to take part in the group’s activities.
Importantly, unlike Zimmerman and Engestrom, Wenger indicated that learning occurred within the limits of the social circles. While expounding on this aspect, the author revealed that learning was obtained from communities of practice which were defined by boundary processes in the social context.
In turn, the communities of practice shaped the identity of each participant in accordance to the role they played when interacting with each other. As such, it could be implied that Wenger viewed learning as part of a common life process. He did not treat life as something less than its course.
Unlike Zimmerman and Engerstrom, he focused on the bigger picture as far as learning was concerned. This aspect was based on the fact that the skills were acquired mostly from other people. As such, we must interact first before learning from them and acquiring new skills as well as bodies of knowledge.
In contrast to the approach used by Zimmerman and Wenger, Engerstrom approached the methodology of learning from a theoretical perspective. Although he shared a similar focus with Wenger due to the organizational approach to learning, he did not share the idea of learning as part of the broad social systems.
We will write a custom Essay on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, the author focused on how cultural-historical activity theory was applied in organizational learning. As such, it was evident that he combined the idea of organizational learning with the challenges incurred during the application of cultural-historical theory.
In a nutshell, the cross-cultural theory is concerned with the manner in which people’s thoughts are connected with their actions. In this regard, it states that every learning venture must answer the following questions.
Who is learning?
What are they learning?
How do they learn?
Why are they learning?
This attribute implies that the author views education from multifaceted perspectives which is achieved in the presence of the subject, lesson, rationale, and means of acquiring skills in regard to either organizational or individual perspectives.
From this perspective, therefore, the author differs with the two authors profoundly even though he seems to agree with Wenger that learning is part of the interactional day-to-day life where people learn from each other.
Comparative Views about Learning Although all the perspectives presented by the authors are essentially different, it is evident that there are some similarities existing from the manner in which they view learning. Importantly, it is clear that all the authors accept the importance of the learner in the process of acquiring skills.
All of them attach some importance on the involvement of the subject in unique and diverse ways. Zimmerman indicated that learning depended on self-efficacy. In this case, he expounded that the level of an individual’s motivation affected their output on performance and skills’ acquisition.
As such, it is evident that this author appreciates and attaches the importance of the learner’s attitudes in the process of acquiring skills. Wenger, on the other hand, focused on the use of social systems in the process of learning. In that regard, the interactional and cross-sharing of information becomes a critical aspect in his perspective of learning.
Although such groups are the pertinent factor of learning in his view, it is clear that the social learning systems are made of individual people. The author argued that the interaction among individuals gave them identity according to their roles in the groups.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This factor implies that the learner or the learning groups play a fundamentally vital role in the entire process. In addition, it means that the author values this important aspect of learning and recognizes its high significance.
Lastly, Engestrom (2001) also indicated and appreciated the importance of the learner in the process of skills acquisition but in a hidden and unique way. However, a close look at the exemplifications that were provided showed that he had considered this factor extensively.
In particular, he indicated that every learning theory must answer several questions. Among those questions, the first inquiry investigated the subject of learning and answered the issue of who was learning.
Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development The three perspectives can be used to facilitate effective learning in organizations. In fact, the combination of the three methodologies can provide organizations with the opportunity to make critical progress on acquisition of skills.
First, the social learning systems make critical implications on the organizational management and administration. In essence, the organizations can use social learning for the sake of acquiring more skills. This cross-sharing makes the teams acquire the capability of innovations and development of new ideas.
In addition, self-efficacy and individual motivation can be applied to provide an inspirational environment in the organization. In essence, motivation is an important aspect since it determines the output of an individual.
In turn, the output of the individual employees encourages them to learn and acquire skills to facilitate better performance. As a result, the organization should first cultivate individual motivation before proceeding to nurture the acquisition of collective skills.
Having nurtured the motivation and self-efficacy of the organizational members, the administrators can implement the idea of Wenger (2000). In order to recall, Wenger stated that learning takes place in the form of social systems where people interact and enlighten each other.
With this in mind, the organizations can apply this principle to help in the acquisition of skills. As such, if the author believes that learning can take place through well-organized social systems, companies can adopt a team-based learning system. In fact, this can translate to the use of inter-professional learning model.
In this model, different professionals interact and share their skills. This attribute is fulfilled by the cross-sharing of information in order to solve specific problem. As such, they use multidimensional knowledge and skills in order to solve the same problem.
More Useful Perspectives at Work Although the three authors present valid arguments to explain their perspectives about learning, there are some views that resonate with the organization’s setup more than others. In the working environment, the social system aspect is very important on the acquisition of skills.
In this case, the perspectives argue that learning occurs when human beings interact and share information to increase the knowledge base. In essence, this is more relevant perspective when it comes to organization.
This relevance is occasioned by the fact that organizations are dependant to the process by which its employees interact and share knowledge. Importantly, the innovation capability of an organization is based on the intensity of cross-sharing.
If an organization is able to make departments and individuals work together in the spirit of harmony, there is a very high chance of making the necessary progress in learning. In essence, the community of practice and community boundaries also play a fundamental role in the process of learning in organizations.
The motivational perspective is also very important to the organization’s performance bearing in mind the importance of personal commitment to work. In this case, it is important to understand that although organizations operate in terms of teams and groups, the unit components include individuals.
In addition, the performance of the individuals determines the entire output of the organizations (Lamberson 2010). As such, this aspect of self-efficacy plays a fundamental role in the coordination of the organizational teams to achieve their goals as per the time and terms stipulated.
Therefore, the combination of social learning systems and concept of self-efficacy becomes one of the most crucial pairs of learning strategies. In this regard, the overall effect is the conception of well-coordinated teams that can collaborate easily and make the necessary outcomes.
References Engeström, Y 2001, “Expansive Learning at Work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization”, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp.133-156.
Lamberson, P 2010, “Social Learning in Social Networks”, The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 132.
Wenger, E 2000, “Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems”, Organization, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 225-246.
Zimmerman, B 2000, “Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive To Learn”, Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 82-91.
“Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur Critical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of themes
Introduction This article provides a critical review of the book, Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically, by John MacArthur. MacArthur is a preacher and a teacher at the Grace Community Church in Sun Valley, California. He is also the head of the Master’s College and Seminary.
Together with his colleagues at the Master’s Seminary Faculty, McArthur did an exemplary work in this book by demonstrating a clear biblical perspective of pastoral ministry. This article supports the ideas presented in the book because they are based on biblical teachings, which are needed for effective ministry.
Summary of themes The author makes a good presentation of the common themes and concepts by using them professionally, which proves that he is an expert in the field. Leadership is one of the themes that the author uses as a guide in this text. It entails the exercise of one’s spiritual gifts to serve a particular group of individuals towards achieving shared goals.
These goals aim at glorifying God in all activities. As a leader, one has to be ready to serve the people beyond all barriers. A godly leader has to be humble because the basic purpose in shepherding people is to show them the light by teaching the will of God.
A pastor has to be capable, confident towards the ministry, and lead others to commit their lives to God. The themes of love and compassion are related to leader’s personal and ministerial life.
Pastors should show love and compassion towards their families by being ready to suffer, be an encouragement, and diligently equipping the congregation to realize the spiritual gift of loving one another. Pastors should have unshaken principles rooted on the faithful teachings of the holy Bible.
Pastoral ministry should encourage strict adherence to sound doctrines by rebuking people who act against the word of God. By doing so, the church will be in a position to grow congregations with moral principles and the desire to glorify Christ.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the most ignored, but essential concepts of pastoral responsibility is watching, warning, and counselling those who contradict the gospel. Unfortunately, many people are using Christianity to further personal interests. Therefore, pastors carry the responsibility of guarding their flock from false doctrines and spiritual scavengers.
The author argues that the relevance of pastoral ministry is defined by its ability to outreach and model people into sheep, which are worth to be in the God’s flock. It takes a pastoral leader much time to prepare and understand what to preach to the people and model them in accordance with biblical teachings.
MacArthur advocates the principles of watching and warning people during pastoral work. For people who want to be future pastors, this book can easily avert such interests if not well understood This calls for patient and resilience, the pastor has to take time go through the teachings and seek God’s intervention before s/he can spread the gospel.
The theme Shepherding has been analyzed as a calling where pastors should understand their roles and never be carried away by situations that lead to tainting the pastoral ministry.
Critique Currently, pastoral ministry has been taken for granted with many false teachers flooding the field of evangelism to achieve their selfish objectives. The contemporary society is awash with spiritual predators, and thus it has become hard for people to identify pastors based upon what God desires.
This book is a great reference for anyone who desires to understand pastoral ministry from a biblical standpoint. MacArthur, in collaboration with the Master’s Seminary, provides conservative evangelical principles with a clear reference to biblical teachings.
Every chapter expresses ideas biblically with many scriptural references and links to other credible sources. The book is extremely helpful for anybody seeking to gain biblical perspective of pastoral leadership. When analyzing the roles of a pastor, it is interesting and controversial the way he explains some of the responsibilities.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, coming into terms with his argument about caring for the flock is hard, for he claims that meeting physical needs of the flock is a calling for the deacons or other staff members, but not pastoral ministers. The majority of people will disagree with this claim at the first read of the text.
Some critics will argue that shepherds should be ready to hear the problems of their flock and demonstrate empathy by lifting them up from their situations. On the contrary, the pastors should focus on preaching the word, modeling, outreaching, guarding, counseling, and refuting those who contradict the sound doctrines.
In this era of situational ethics and high disregard for evangelical credibility, the search for relevance and truth becomes inevitable for anyone to establish godly pastors. This book helps to develop essential skills of pastoral ministry after learning the roles of pastors coupled with how crucial it is to uphold this spiritual gift.
One great factor about this book is that the authors emphasize the seriousness of how ministering should be handled. Misguided craving for relevance compromises credibility of the contemporary churches. This scenario is contributed by untrained preachers who purport to be called to serve the congregation (MacArthur 2005, 55).
Unless the reader takes time to go through MacArthur’s book, it will be hard to comprehend pastoral evangelism from a biblical standpoint. The role of a pastor is extremely involving in terms of research and learning.
MacArthur is very clear on what takes to be effective pastor. No short cuts to pastoral ministry, and thus training is mandatory with godly principles for biblical understanding and ministry knowledge.
This book is authoritative and compelling. It shows that pastors must cultivate the habit of referring to the Bible as a philosophy to spiritual shepherding. The author is frank in his appraisal of what pastors must avoid by explicitly taking a biblical standpoint.
For instance, pastors should not be carried away by the physical needs of the congregation. Focus should be on conveying the message and diligently revoking their thoughts to apply knowledge in solving their problems. The author does not acknowledge any alternative to the Bible teachings.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he does not uphold excuse for any deed diverging from glorifying Christ. Any efforts that undermine or conceal the realities of the doctrines and dent the angle of their application are unacceptable in the pastoral ministry (MacArthur 2005, 93).
Careful approach to this book gives its readers an insight on pastoral application in growing a church.
Evaluation Contemporarily, times are changing and so is the study of pastoral ministry. Pastoral ministry is taking a negative slope in terms of significance and credibility of its application. Technology presents many platforms where participants can share biblical teachings.
Unfortunately, most individuals follow the advice given over these platforms regardless of the credibility of the sources or authors. It is necessary for believers to be reminded of the fundamentals and foundations of the church. Pastoral ministry must stay true to sound doctrines (MacArthur 2005, 33).
This aspect will prepare the grounds upon which congregations will anchor and grow by cherishing God’s desires. In a bid to understand how Christians can go back to biblical teachings and avoid becoming a doomed church, believers should read MacArthur’s book.
Keen approach to the book is necessary for one to understand that the author gives the realities of the scriptures to encourage sound doctrine as opposed to scaring the readers.
This book offers detailed information to students on what a pastor should be and do. For instance, ministers should be role models by acting true to the word they are teaching and showing commitment to God’s desires. The author helps the academic community to distinguish spiritual leadership from misguided search for relevance.
According to MacArthur, pastors must lead the church in ministries only transcribed in the scripture like fellowship, missions, prayer, the Lord’s Supper, and the word. This book identifies the balance between ministry and personal life.
MacArthur opines that pastors should be married in church in a bid to show example of a godly family as explained in the scriptures.
Conclusion MacArthur’s book ideas, beliefs, values, and principles demonstrate a clear biblical understanding of pastoral ministry and its purpose in meeting the needs of the contemporary congregation. Some opinions given in the book may seem too strict and authoritative.
However, with the keenness and magnitude of reference to the bible in the study, the book comes out a credible source of information. The author challenges gospel ministers to practice sound doctrines in their pastoral ministry.
Prioritizing this book and keeping true to its knowledge is recommended in a bid grow ministry skills geared towards nurturing sound doctrines coupled with raising people with godly values.
Reference MacArthur, John. 2005. Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
“Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment” by Leda Cooks and David Descutner Report (Assessment) cheap essay help
The study called “Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment: A Dramatistic Analysis of Two Eating Disorder Therapies” was written by Leda Cooks and David Descutner. The authors employ dramatistic analysis to explore the rhetorical elements of therapies for eating disorders experienced by women.
The researchers found out that the therapies have seemingly similar main terms that tend to affect the patients differently due to their multiple meanings and interpretations.
The authors of the article notice that the number of female patients reporting eating disorders has increased in the modern age of information when the knowledge about typical bulimic or anorexic behaviours has become more popular.
Besides, the widening influence of the American beauty standards on women of other cultures causes the growth of rates of eating disorders abroad. In the article it is also noted that low efficiency of pharmacological and behavioural treatments encouraged the professionals and patients to use narrative and visual therapy more often.
The authors view the struggle with eating disorders in the contemporary world as the struggle with the myths shaping the identities of modern white middle to upper class women, as they tend to be affected by the disorders most often. The search of place in the society makes women see their own bodies as the causes of their inadequacy.
The female patients suffering from eating disorders tend to act out using food as a tool. Their eating problems have emotional sources coming from such feelings as despair or anger. Narrative therapy helps women re-evaluate their choices and lives from a new perspective and re-shape their identities.
Spiritual recovery (SR) employs the belief in Higher Power and unburdening the troubles to it. SR works through abstinence from the addictive ingredients such as wheat and sugar. Feminist therapy explains that eating disorders appear when women feel lost in the patriarchal society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It encourages women to find their identities re-uniting with their selves, and perceiving the world as gender-free. The researchers employ cluster analysis as a method to find terms most frequently used by the therapies. The goal is to determine how the therapies function rhetorically using discourses “power”, “body”, and “identity”.
The findings show that SR uses the discourses filling them with religious meanings and works through the separation of earth-bound self from the spiritual self of the patients. All of the discourses are used as symbols of Higher Power.
The patients are encouraged to give up the material aspects of the selves in order to understand their true spiritual power and find selfless equipment for living.
At the same time, feminist therapy works the other way around and encourages women to re-gain control over their selves taken away from them by the patriarchal society and culture. The new living equipment is developed through raising awareness and pride in women.
The texts authors use for the study are the literature and pamphlets of various groups focused on treating eating disorders employing narrative methods. The significance of the literature is provided by the fact that the authors research a variety of literature disseminated by different groups, many of which are rather popular.
The groups apply similar methods and discourses. The authors cover many groups specialised on narrative therapies such as spiritual recovery therapy or feminist therapy. They process the popular literature written specifically for these therapies and groups and monitor the use of concepts and discourses in it.
Clearly, since the researched literature is popular among the patients, it has to be able to make impacts and attract more help-seekers. This way, the authors of the article focus on the research of the two therapies that currently are known to be helpful and efficient, which makes this literature significant and appropriate for the study.
We will write a custom Assessment on “Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment” by Leda Cooks and David Descutner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both therapies work through self-hypnosis or self-suggestion. Yet, they use rather different approaches. Spiritual recovery therapy for eating disorders employs the methods that prove to be effective with alcoholics.
The therapy encourages the patients to give up their selves, let the Higher Power in, and view disorder as “evil” and order as “good”.
Feminist therapy works through the empowerment of women and the suggestion for them to take rational control and become aware of the destructive impacts of the society and its pressure that makes women ruin their health and bodies trying to fit in.
Both therapies use symbolic concepts and images to lead the patients’ minds out of the addiction. The research adds to the scholarly dialogues about the ability to program human minds using specific word combinations and concepts filled with goal-oriented meanings.
The study makes it clear that one needs to determine the inclination of a mind to follow certain principles in order to build a successful program to direct this mind towards certain behaviours. This can be viewed as an intelligent training of human minds based on people’s natural desire for rationaisation and explanation.
Breaking down the mechanisms of disorders using a set of specific concepts the therapies provide the patients with symbolic tools to cope with them.
Quality Management at Memorial Hospital Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Quality management is used by different organizations to serve a number of purposes. For example, it may be used to enhance the consistency of production and other processes. The concept is made up of four elements. The first is quality planning. The second is quality control.
Here, the aim is to ensure that clients receive products that are of high standards. The other one is quality assurance. The company guarantees the consumers of the high standards of their goods and services. Finally, there is quality improvement.
In this paper, the author will analyze a case study of quality management at Memorial Hospital. To this end, the author will analyze, among others, the ways through which the hospital may assess quality.
The potential costs of failures in quality for the hospital, as well as techniques for total quality management (TQM), will be highlighted. Finally, possible ways through which Memorial Hospital could assess the quality of healthcare provided to clients will be discussed.
Quality Management at Memorial Hospital Ways through Which a Hospital May Measure Quality
Memorial Hospital can measure quality in two ways. They include analyzing treatments and procedures, as well as assessing outcomes. The former can be used to evaluate whether or not the employees are providing the right services and prescriptions to the patients as required.
The process involves selecting valid and reliable measures of quality (Vonderembse
Working with Disabled Students Coursework essay help online
Issues Faced by Students whose Parents are in Jail Parents and guardians should support their students in order to achieve their academic goals. Every disabled child should also get the best attention and care from his or her parents. Students whose parents have been imprisoned will encounter numerous economic strains.
This situation makes it impossible for such learners to get quality education and social support. The students encounter numerous health challenges. The children “also encounter difficulties whenever associating with other people because of underdeveloped social skills” (Dale, 2008, p. 29).
Many children of incarcerated parents tend to have underdeveloped behaviors. They also encounter different problems whenever associating with their peers. This situation affects the lives of such students.
The students also experience a wide range of risks. They might copy unacceptable behaviors that eventually result in juvenile delinquency. The learners will also abuse different drugs. The “absence of positive child-parent relationships during early childhood will definitely affect the educational outcomes of such students” (Behnke, 2009, p. 62).
This problem becomes complex for disabled students. Educators should consider several ethical principles whenever working with individuals with disabilities. This should be the same case for educators who support different students whose parents have been imprisoned. Teachers should respect the worth and dignity of these students.
They should also “observe their rights to self-determination, confidentiality, and privacy” (Behnke, 2009, p. 63). Social workers and societies should intervene in the lives of these students. The government should use appropriate policies to strength the relationships between such students and their parents.
This strategy will “promote the healthy development of the targeted children” (Dale, 2008, p. 72). The learners will also achieve the best academic goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues Faced by Students under the Care of Elderly Guardians Many students are usually under the care of elderly parents. Some of these elderly caretakers include parents, grandparents, and guardians. Studies show that such students encounter a wide range of challenges. To begin with, the students will lack the best support from such caretakers.
This is the case because such guardians are usually physically unfit. They also “encounter coordination problems and health issues” (Christian, 2009, p. 3). Such issues make it impossible for them to support the needs of the targeted students. The learners will also lack the best emotional support from their caretakers.
Such elderly parents do not have the required financial strength to support the targeted students. This situation will make it impossible for them to achieve their potentials. Many elderly guardians do not have the strength to empower such disabled students. This fact explains why new policies are required to support these students.
The elderly face numerous problems because of their age. Such caregivers are also unable to empower these students. Many learners are using various technologies and devices in order to achieve the best educational goals. It is appropriate for such students to get the best feedbacks and ideas from their guardians.
Such students will not benefit from modern technologies. The elderly do not have the time to mentor and coach these students (Christian, 2009). This gap encourages them to engage in unacceptable behaviors and practices. The individuals will start to take various drugs. The students will also lack the best care from these elderly caregivers.
Teachers should gather the right information from every stressed family. This information will make it easier for them to support the changing needs of such students (Dale, 2008). They should also develop positive relationships with these elderly caregivers. The practice will ensure every student achieves his or her academic goals.
Reference List Behnke, S. (2009). Disability as an ethical issue: A law school symposium offers an opportunity for psychologists to reflect on the role of stigma within our own field. American Psychological Association, 40(6), 62-64.
We will write a custom Coursework on Working with Disabled Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Christian, S. (2009). Children of Incarcerated Parents. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/documents/cyf/childrenofincarceratedparents.pdf
Dale, N. (2008). Working With Families of Children with Special Needs: Partnership and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style Coursework online essay help
One of the greatest leaders of the 20th century is General Schwarzkopf. His leadership style is an intriguing subject matter, because he was able to accomplish something that has never been done in the history of military warfare.
Schwarzkopf spearheaded a coalition of military forces composed of military personnel, and military equipment that came from different parts of the world. He was tasked to command an alliance comprised of generals and military officers from different parts of the globe.
It was a tremendous challenge to manage their egos, and to inspire them to give their best. He succeeded in persuading military leaders from different cultural backgrounds to work together. At the same time, he orchestrated a military campaign that resulted in few casualties.
In addition, he was able to accomplish major goals in a few months. He defeated Saddam Hussein in less than 4 months (Schwarzkopf, 1993).
If one will contrast his achievements to military generals that were faced with similar challenges in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, it is safe to say that General Schwarzkopf’s accomplishments are almost unequaled. Thus, I have decided to use his leadership style as a basis to improve my own.
I was able to develop a sketch of Schwarzkopf’s leadership style by gleaning insights from his autobiographical book. I decided to use the book because of personal anecdotes, and other important information regarding Schwarzkopf. In addition, the book is also a critical source of relevant information.
It was published a few years after Schwarzkopf’s successful management of Operation Dessert Storm. This historical event was a famous military operation that liberated Kuwait from invading Iraqi armed forces under the command of Saddam Hussein.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership Style His leadership style is a combination of Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. There was a trace of the dominance style of leadership when Schwarzkopf compelled his subordinates, and fellow military officers to accomplish a specific goal.
On the other hand, there was also a trace of the interactive style of leadership in his repertoire, because of his capability to work with others.
His leadership style was characterized by humility. He was willing to work with others. He was willing to make them feel part of the winning team. Thus, he did not take all the credit for the overwhelming success of Operation Desert Storm. His leadership style was also characterized by adaptability.
He was willing to adjust to the requirements of the mission. In other words, he was willing to work even if the circumstances surrounding him were far from perfect.
Finally, Schwarzkopf’s leadership style was defined by cultural sensitivity. He realized that he had to be sensitive to the cultural background of the leaders that he had to work with.
His complex leadership style was derived from adopting skills that were under the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. His effective leadership style was largely the byproduct of his upbringing and experiences. Schwarzkopf was born into a middle class family, and he lived in an affluent neighborhood.
However, Schwarzkopf was not a spoiled brat. When he was a young boy, he was affected by the impact of the Second World War on American families. As a result, his family was able to experience economic hardships. At the same time, Schwarzkopf’s mother was dealing with alcoholism.
We will write a custom Coursework on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Life’s problems gave Schwarzkopf the ability to understand the frailty of human nature. As a result, the multi-awarded general was able to develop a profound sense of empathy that endeared him to his subordinates.
I am fascinated to learn more about Schwarzkopf’s leadership style. I believe that his experience and insights can help me improve my leadership capabilities. If I can learn how to be more interactive, and more adventurous as Schwarzkopf, then, I believe that I can become a better leader.
Before going any further it is important to point out that based on the Disk Self-Assessment, I have the Cautious-Style of leadership. I like this particular leadership style because it means that I am analytical, systematic, and persistent. It also means that I love solving problems. Those who belong to this category are task-oriented leaders.
I also scored high in the sub-category labeled as The Perfecter. In this particular category, leaders have the tendency to pay attention to process and details. Leaders under this category are thorough and dependable.
Although you can depend on me to accomplish goals and follow-up on issues that needs resolution in the shortest possible time, I struggle when it comes to in-depth involvement with people. It is important for me to learn how to be genuinely open to people that have a different opinion or a different approach on how to solve a specific problem.
I realized that my current capabilities are good enough to solve simple problems. However, when it comes to more complicated goals or objectives, it is imperative to develop the skill on how to work with other people. This is the reason why I greatly admire General Schwarzkopf.
He did not only work with people that have a different approach to completing a shared task. He worked with people that spoke a different language. He worked with people that may be offended by things that we find ordinary or inconsequential.
He did not only collaborated with them; he even inspired them to accomplish difficult tasks. I want to adopt certain aspects of his leadership style, especially the part that enables him to persuade people to set aside their differences in order to work as a team.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My strategy for improvement is to continually learn from leaders like General Schwarzkopf. I will look for leaders that were able to blend the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. I will study how to communicate with other people.
I will try to find out how to develop the skill to initiate a consensual and collaborative type of working process (Daft, 2014). I want to understand how to influence people through relationships, rather than through position power and authority.
I want to learn how to share ideas and maintain two-way communication (Lewis, 2007). I believe that this is the only way to empower people, and encourage them to develop their skills even more.
Reference Daft, R. (2014). The leadership experience. CA: Cengage Learning.
Lewis, P. (2007). Management: Challenges for tomorrow’s leaders. OH: Thomson Higher Learning.
Schwarzkopf, N. (1993). It doesn’t take a hero: The autobiography of General Norman Schwarzkopf. New York: Bantam Books.
Leadership Styles in Organisations Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of leadership. It explores the topic by looking at various leadership styles and how they relate to each other. It starts with a discussion of the trait leadership approach followed by a comparison of trait leadership with contingency and participative styles of leadership.
What follows is a discussion of servant leadership, which is the most appropriate for organisations faced with disruptive changes. It is argued that servant leadership has the ability of uniting all members of organisations around a common goal and as a result, it becomes easy to implement organisational change.
Servant leadership also enables organisations to have a cohesive organisational culture where loyalty and commitment to organisational goals are the guiding principles for moving organisations forward.
The paper cites various authors who have written about the concept of leadership. It also uses theoretical frameworks to support the arguments.
Trait Approach of Leadership Wart and Suino defined leadership as the ability of a person to influence other people to do things which they may not do without the influence (Wart
International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality
Criticisms of World-System Analysis
Introduction In the last two to three decades, the world has experienced unprecedented economic growth in all spheres of economy. Despite such encouraging progress in the economy, the gap between the poor and rich people has widened. The rich are getting richer as the poor get poorer.
Further, the world has moved to a more integrated and globalised economy where there is interrelatedness between nations of the world.
Although such globalisation might ideally mean more prosperity for nations based on their increased accessibility and market interaction levels, it has instead acted to increase economic inequalities among societies and nations. In addition, at the global political stage, the powerful countries have amassed more power.
Periphery countries are becoming less influential in the political and economic realms. While trying to explain the growing disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy, different scholars have advanced different theories.
Of the many theories and approaches, Immanuel Wallerstein’s world-systems analysis has been credited for its detailed analysis of the functioning of the world economy1. The theory incorporates different arguments from the existing knowledge in sociology, political science, and economics.
However, it significantly shifts from the existing theories of economic development that focus on the nations as independent units that can traverse their own paths towards civilisation and modernity.
This paper will analyse whether the world systems analysis has been able to explain successfully the wealth and power inequalities in the world. Further, it will discuss various criticisms that have been put forward against the approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More World-Systems Analysis According to Makki, the world-system analysis, which is also referred to as world-system hypothesis, is a modern macro-sociological viewpoint that regards the changes of capitalism and world economy as a ‘total collective system’2.
The theory draws from the tenets of historical sociology and economic history. It is also linked to Immanuel Wallerstein who is credited for building its credibility. According to Jones, developmental theorists have adopted the theory for its synthesis of developmental and unequal opportunities across the world. 3.
Although the theory’s views on capitalism and the global economy differ from those expressed by Marx and Weber, these two theorists have offered a great inspiration to the theory.
The main agenda of the theory is that the world as a whole plays an important role in determining the economic and social dynamics between and among nations. In other words, the theory emphasises the world-system as the main unit of social analysis.
The theory is a shift from Marxist approaches that viewed the nation as the main unit of analysis in the global political economy. By world-system, the theory indicates the inter-regional and transnational divisions of labour that divide the world between the rich and the poor, and the powerful and the weak as Macedo and Gounari confirm4.
Accordingly, Wallerstein views the world-system as a social system with no boundaries, structures, coherence, or rules of legitimating but rather a body that comprises conflicting forces that hold it together or threaten to tear it apart as each group tries to remould it to its advantage.
Further, as an organism, the world-system has a life span. It changes over time while other characteristics remain constant. According to Harvey, its life is not only largely self-contained, but also has some internal developmental changes5.
We will write a custom Essay on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the world classification, nations are joined together through market financial system rather than through affairs of the state. In this incorporation of nations, the relationship is based on the exchange of goods and products that characterise a market financial system.
According to O’Brien and Williams, although there is competition among polities to dominate the system, none lasts forever6.
As a shift from the thinking of the 19th century with reference to society, politics, and economy, the world-system analysis criticises Marxist and other theories of economic development and approaches to modernisation. For instance, it criticises the modernisation theory for its focus on the state as the only unit of analysis.
It claims the existence of one path through which all nations experience economic development. It disregards the transnational structure that hinders local and national economic development.
World-system analysis is a shift from the modernisation hypothesis, which holds that nations follow a given course and stages of development from pre-modern to modern states and that nations are accountable for their individual growth.
Through small assistance to its internal strictures of economy, Wallerstein asserts that any nation can become modern just like other developed countries have7.
As such, capitalism is an inevitable outcome of the previous failures of structures of economy such as feudalism since nations have progressed in their path to modernity.
However, world-system theorists disapprove this notion on capitalism. They view it as a deliberate move through which Europe came to dominate the world economy to create inequalities8.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While explaining the inequalities in wealth and power, the world-system analysis views the world economy as having divisions based on the kind of labour each country or region offers and/or contributes to the system and market economy9.
The theory regards the world economy as a body that comprises three groups of countries, that is, the core countries, semi-periphery, and the periphery countries.
Core nations concentrate on capital–demanding and proficient work production as opposed to a wanting toil or raw-material assembly that is characteristic of semi-periphery and marginalised nations10. By focusing on proficient production, the mainstay nations govern the sidelined or marginalised nations.
However, changes in the system mean that countries may lose or gain more on their status. In this case, Clark says that periphery countries may upgrade to semi-periphery and further to core countries11.
At different periods, some nations may raise to hegemonic status in the system. For example, hegemonic status has passed from Netherlands to the Great Britain and then to the United States of America.
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality As previously explained, the world-system analysis tries to explain the inequalities in the world by viewing the world economy as a single unit where division of labour among its members contributes immensely to inequalities in power and wealth.
In this case, the countries that fall under the core category dominate the world economy since they control the means of production while the peripheral ones control labour.
Tracing the history of the world’s economy from the start of capitalism, O’Brien and Williams see a trend where the world is constantly in a core/periphery economic relationship that began with Europe12.
In this case, Gareau reveals that countries that controlled production were always more prosperous at the expense of those that supplied labour13.
For more than 5 centuries, many European countries have been in the core countries category while the others such as African, Asian, and South American countries, which have historically provided labour for European nations, remain at the periphery14.
According to Harvey, the most important structure of the present-day world system is what he refers to as power hierarchy between core countries and the peripheral ones. In this affiliation, powerful countries govern and take advantage of the underprivileged ones.
Their driving force is to use unrefined ways of getting hold of the weak countries’ wealth. According to Goldfrank, in this equation, technology plays an important role in determining the category where each county falls15.
The countries that have advanced technology such as the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany among others form the core countries while the less technologically developed countries such as Kenya, Venezuela, and other third-world countries form the periphery.
Over the years, the core nations have used their advantaged positions to amass great power both economically and socially over their disadvantaged nations as Tarrow reveals16.
According to the world-system analysis, the core nations’ access to enormous financial resources by controlling the highly lucrative means of production implies that they are able to finance other core areas of their economy and standings in the global stage.
For instance, looking at the hegemonic status of countries over the years, a peculiar trend emerges17. For instance, during the reign of the Great Britain in the 19th century, it controlled more than 85% of world’s industries.
Further, it amassed great powers through its advanced military and superior economic status that allowed it to ‘acquire’ and colonise many territories across the world. One of the main reasons of establishing colonies was to have a ready access of raw materials and a ready market of the finished products.
In this interaction between the Great Britain as the core and its overseas territories as the periphery, it is evident that the interaction was not mutually beneficial. The Great Britain benefited more. It amassed more wealth and more power at the expense of the periphery countries18.
In another case, during the reign of the US as the hegemony after the World War II, the nation accounted for more than 50% of the global finished products.
The interaction between the poor and the wealth nations is characterised by unequal exchange. Unequal exchange refers to the systematic substitution of excess material possessions between sectors that lie in the peripheral category and the highly industrialised and powerful countries.
The powerful homelands amass immense resources using marginal surplus. On the other hand, the continuous deprivation of the periphery’s surplus leads to stagnated or reducing capital for those countries.
The implication is that they are unable to break from the yoke of poverty to a higher economic status as a way of standing in the global arena.
In the process of domination by the core nations, three key processes ensure that these countries amass power and wealth in the end. Firstly, it starts with productivity dominance where the core countries have control over technology and other means of production, which are not accessible to the periphery countries.
In this case, as Macedo and Gounari confirm, with the superior technology and means of production, the countries can produce high superior products at a cheaper cost, thus tilting trade to their advantage19.
As long as the periphery countries do not have access to such technology due to many factors, including capital resources, the core countries achieve dominance whereas the peripheral ones feed the core countries’ productivity with cheap raw materials in exchange of expensive finished products20.
The core countries’ act of accumulating more productivity powers leads to the second process of gaining power and wealth, which is trade dominance. According to Moore, since the cost of production is cheaper and hence able to benefit more from international trade, core countries easily dominate the trade21.
The core nations control trade by selling, as opposed to purchasing, more of their products to other states22. Consequently, there is a favourable balance of trade for the core nations. With trade dominance, more money comes relative to the amount that goes out, thus resulting in economic supremacy.
For instance, the US and European countries get a large percentage of the global monetary possessions.
With strong financial resources, the core nations are able to invest more in activities such as education, economic diversification, healthcare, poverty elimination programmes, research and development, and military among other activities that ensure that they strengthen their dominant position in the world system.
On the other hand, as Harvey says, the peripheral countries are characterised by underdeveloped technologies, less industrialisation, large populations of poor people, and high levels of illiteracy23. In addition, the peripheral nations are greatly influenced by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
In many instances, they have to adhere to the economic policies of the former, although such policies are obviously skewed to the advantage of the rich ones as Firebaugh confirms24.
Due to their focus on few financial means that involve the processing and selling of materials, marginalised states enjoy less fiscal diversity as compared to the major countries25. Further, there is a high availability of cheap and unskilled labour, which is exploited by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
Since the peripheral countries struggle to meet the needs of the people who have little financial resources, no surplus has been availed to invest in high-technology production activities that are done by the core nations.
Further, due to the basic nature of the technology that is available for these nations, the high cost of production makes it difficult for them to industrialise.
Consequently, such nations are locked in a vicious cycle where they are unable to expand beyond their focus on production of raw materials to feed the ever-expanding production capacities of the core nations.
Therefore, with all the odds against the periphery countries, McCarthy asserts that it is difficult for the poor nations to prosper in the highly skewed world system that benefits the rich while exploiting the poor26.
In many ways, the world-system analysis presents the bitter reality of globalisation where issues such as free trade and elimination of previous barriers of trade are advantageous for the prosperity of the ‘world-economy.’
However, upon further analysis, world-economy is a tool that is supported by the core nations as long as it benefits their interests in the world-system.
It is evident that the notion that globalisation is beneficial to all countries is not valid in all its assertions as it has led to the increase of the difference between the underprivileged peripheral countries and the well-off major ones.
In this case, globalisation has provided an opportunity for the rich to exploit the poor countries in an arrangement that benefits the former while disadvantaging the latter. Hence, the world-system analytical approach provides a detailed and a convincing explanation of the present-day power and wealth inequalities in the world.
Criticisms of World-System Analysis Like any other theory, the world-system analysis has received a lot of criticism from different theorists and economic experts who are not satisfied with its main assertions.
The first criticism is that unlike other social theories that explain the economy and inequality in the society, world-system theory focuses on the economy and less on other important issues such as culture27.
While this criticism is strong, it does not lead to a disregard of key concepts other than the world-system analysis. However, there is a need to find a way through which culture can be incorporated into the theory to make it more reflective of the social dynamics of the world economy, power, and inequalities28.
Further, the theory is criticised for being overly core-centric. In this case, the critiques such as Gregory assert that Wallerstein concentrates on explaining why and how the core nations have amassed wealth29.
At the end, he does not focus on the plight of the peripheral nations. Further, he does not offer elaborate solutions of how such inequalities and power can be eliminated30.
However, this claim is not a valid argument since his reference to a ‘system’ is an indication of the fact that perfection can never be achieved.
The theory compensates for this argument by pointing out that just like a system, the various changes that occur with time change the balance where the periphery and semi-peripheral countries change their status up and/or down the classification.
Another valid argument by Hall is that by focusing on the world market and economy, the theory makes a great supposition by assuming the local class struggles and class divisions that play an important part in one way or another in the state and global economy31.
Conclusion The world-system analysis satisfactorily explains the main causes of disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy. The theory views the world as a unitary system that is divided into core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral nations as dictated by divisions of labour between them.
The core countries dominate the economy of the system through their focus on production of high-end finished products and high-skilled labour while others focus on low-skilled labour and production of raw materials.
Accordingly, due to these differences between nations in the system, core countries exploit the poor nations for their raw materials, which create surplus in productivity. In this way, the key countries dictate business and monetary wealth at the disadvantage of the marginalised states that remain underprivileged.
However, the theory has been criticised for its focus on the economy at the expense of other important factors such as culture and class struggles within individual nations. Further, it has been criticised for its focus on core nations whilst showing less attention to the peripheral nations.
As such, a room has been left for expansion of the theory to address valid criticisms that have been advanced by its critics. Overall, the theory has been able to capture and explain the ‘politics’ of the global economy and the inequalities of power and wealth.
Bibliography Clark, Rob. “World Incoome Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58, no. 1 (2011): 565-592.
Drainville, Andre. “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235-246.
Firebaugh, Glenn. New Geographies of World Income Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Gareau, Brian J. “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 187-210.
Goldfrank, Walter. “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 150-195.
Gregory, Robert J. “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 193-196.
Hall, Thomas. A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
Harvey, David. A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Jones, Bary R.J. “Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy.” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357-367.
Macedo, Donaldo, and Panayota Gounari. Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006.
Makki, Fouad. “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149-168.
McCarthy, James. “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 180-195.
Moore, Jason. “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism.” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI, no. II (2003): 97-172.
O’Brien, Robert, and Marc Williams. Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics. 4th. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Tarrow, Sydney. “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 1-20.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561-619.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Uncertainties of Knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
Footnotes 1 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 8.
2 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations,” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149.
3 Bary Jones,”Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy,” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357.
4 Donaldo Macedo and Panayota Gounari, Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction (Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006), 23.
5 David Harvey, A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, 23.
6 Robert O’Brien and Marc Williams, Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 68.
7 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System I (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003), 307.
8 Andre Drainville, “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235.
9 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 15.
10 Immanuel Wallerstein, “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561.
11 Rob Clark, “World Income Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58 (2011): 568.
12 O’Brien and Williams, 13.
13 Brian Gareau, “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 204.
14 Andre Drainville, “Resistance to globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 224.
15 Walter Goldfrank, “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 153.
16 Sydney Tarrow, “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 8.
17 O’Brien and Williams, 19.
18 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 158.
19 Macedo and Gounari, 22.
20 Goldfrank, 176.
21 Jason Moore, “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism,” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI (2003): 151.
22 Drainville, 237.
23 Harvey, 23.
24 Glenn Firebaugh, New Geographies of World Income Inequality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), 42.
25 O’Brien and Williams, 45.
26 James McCarthy, “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 188.
27 Makki, 158.
28 Harvey, 56.
29 Robert Gregory, “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 194.
30 Macedo and Gounari, 13.
31 Thomas Hall, A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology (Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000), 63.
Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction This research paper explores an alternative model of sustainability assessment. Specifically, it highlights a sustainability assessment model adopted in brownfields, greenfields, and Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) as applied in Bowden-Brompton community development.
A discussion of method
Currently, all major cities in Australia are experiencing intensifying pressure due to urban development. Hence, a new alternative model of sustainability is required for brownfields, greenfields and TODs.
This would ensure that old buildings and neighbourhoods are renovated, reworked and retrofitted to attract new businesses and reclaim brownfields and greyfields with the aim of rejuvenating defunct sections of the city through TODs for enhanced accessibility.
This alternative shall curb notable sprawling of the city into outer greenfields and make extensive use of brownfields, inner city greenfields and TODs.
In addition, it would restore public infrastructures, reduce costs, reduce car dependency, enhance accessibility, create space for recreation, and leave agricultural land in city outskirts (Newton 2012).
According to Newton (2012), the NSW and Victoria governments have missed the concept of urban planning and sustainability development. In the recent past, these governments announced that they would continue to ensure “the development of new housing on the fringes of Sydney and Melbourne” (Newton 2012, para. 1).
This approach shows that the current sustainable urban planning in Australia cannot offer the required solutions to sustainability development and therefore sustainable urban development constitutes a critical challenge in contemporary cities (Newton et al. 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a need for urban planning to exploit brownfields, greenfields and TODs within the middle suburbs of the Australia’s largest and fastest growing cities.
An urban regeneration model that focuses on brownfields, greenfields and TODs provides an effective approach to inner city development. Australia has an existing model for inner city development known as the Better Cities.
However, Newton (2012) has observed that a brownfields, greenfields and TOD model, in itself, is likely to fail in the provision of housing required to cater for growing populations and ensure sustainability if there are no effective approaches.
This approach offers sustainable urban development. Lombardi et al. (2011) noted that the concept of sustainability is popular and widely used in the UK, but it has not achieved much in urban regeneration. In fact, urban regeneration has failed to challenge the status quo because of ineffective policy and lack of implementation.
The regeneration of brownfields, greenfields and TODs offers an alternative solution to urban sustainability development. These are ageing areas within inner cities. They have physically deteriorated, not environmental-friendly and technologically backward.
In addition, they are underdeveloped parts of cities. Nevertheless, state governments have attempted to improve housing, business activities and employment and enhance TOD projects. In most cases, these attempts have not succeeded specifically outside the central business districts.
The success of Bowden-Brompton community shows that brownfields and greenfields offer viable alternatives to sustainable urban developments.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More TODs must focus on improving transportation corridors in brownfields and greenfields for accessibility.
Brief definition The redevelopment of old urban structures, removal of waste, establishment of new structures and transport corridors to meet the rising needs of expanding citizens in the urban age has been a major issue for the government (Gleeson 2012). Policies and implementation efforts are the major challenges.
Consequently, it is imperative to develop new tools for assessment of urban development and sustainability. These new assessment tools are necessary to ensure that urban developments have better environmental, social and economic impacts (Davidson
Design Methods Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Generating alternatives-morphological analysis
Introduction Studies show that each phase in the product design process can be made efficient depending on the effectiveness of the tools used in the decision making process. Among the decision making tools that are used include brainstorming, generating alternatives-morphological analysis, and the evaluation matrix.
The tools have different areas of application and effectiveness decision making. The tools are crucial in optimizing available solutions to design a good quality product when seeking for possible solutions.
This study aims to establish the strengths and weaknesses of each of the tools that are applied in decision making at the product design phases and the areas they have been applied to provide solutions to design problems.
Brainstorming According to Bronson and Merryman (2010), the effectiveness of brainstorming depends on ideas generated by individuals working in groups to create a design that balances the goals of the user at the problem definition and possible solution to determine the best possible solution phases in the design process.
Hunton and Gold (2010), brainstorming involves different product design ideas that are put together in group thinking sessions to evaluate the alternatives and generate high quality product design solutions.
However, the limitations of brainstorming, according to Carpenter (2007) are that it is time consuming, hinders other group members from making positive contributions that might hinder the use of better quality product design ideas.
Weaknesses in the brainstorming process can be detected by determining if other group members do not understand the design problems and suggested solutions, do not make contributions, relate with others poorly, and tend to be segregated among their social status (Kinicki
Emirates Airlines CSR Application Research Paper college essay help online
Executive Summary This research paper evaluates the application of CSR by Emirates Airlines. The research is motivated by the need to understand the possible gaps in the company’s CSR strategies, and hence determine the necessary adjustments that the firm should undertake.
Emirates Airlines appreciates the importance of operating in a social responsible manner in order to satisfy its internal and external stakeholders. In a bid to achieve long-term business success, the airline must improve its commitment to establishing a balance between its internal and external environments.
Therefore, the airline should ensure that it adopts a holistic approach in its CSR. The research paper analyses the various CSR activities and strategies that the organisation has integrated into its social responsible strategic human resource management practices.
The paper is organised into a number of sections. A brief company profile, the purpose of the study, and a statement of the research problem are outlined in the introduction section.
The literature review section entails a review of the available literature on the application of CSR strategies and activities in organisations while the methodology section outlines the research techniques used in collecting data from the field. Conversely, the analysis section entails an evaluation of the findings obtained from the study.
The last section outlines the conclusion and the recommendations that Emirates Airlines should consider in order to improve its CSR strategies.
Introduction Emirates Airlines is one of the most successful air travel companies in the United Arabs Emirates (UAE). The firm was established in 1985 and it is owned by the UAE government. The airline’s operations are mainly based at Dubai International Airport, which serves as its hub.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It appreciates the significance of developing optimal competitive advantage in order to sustain superior performance. Subsequently, the company has invested a substantial amount of resources in order to attain competitiveness (Emirates 2014).
The airline is focused on continuous improvement of its fleet size and destinations in order to serve the local and international air travel demands. Currently, the company serves over 142 destinations, which is facilitated by over 230 aircrafts. It operates over 3,000 flights per week to over 70 countries.
One of the unique characteristics about Emirates Airlines entails its independent operations, as it is not a member of the major global airline alliances, viz. Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and Oneworld. Its independent operation was motivated by the need for optimal flexibility in responding to market changes.
However, the airline has entered a number of code-sharing agreements with different global airline companies in order to attain competitive advantage (Emirates 2014).
The airline has established two main divisions, which include Emirates Executive and Emirates SkyCargo. Additionally, the airline offers diverse cabin services such as economy class, business class, and first class.
In its quest to provide a high level of customer service, the airline has fitted its aircrafts with diverse in-flight entertainment system.
It has adopted the concept of global carrier and competitive pricing as its business model, which has remarkably improved its competitiveness against major international carriers such as British Airways, Air France-KLM, Qantas, and Lufthansa.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emirates Airlines CSR Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, it has sustained its positive financial performance despite the prevailing economic changes. During its last financial year, which ended on 31st March 2014, the airline’s net profit grew by AED 3,254 million (Emirates 2014).
Statement of the research problem
The global airline industry has experienced considerable growth because of an increment in demand for air travel over the past few decades. Consequently, the degree of competition within the industry has increased substantially. New investors are venturing into the industry by adopting diverse business models such the low-cost models.
Conversely, some industry players are adopting diverse expansion models such as the formation of joint ventures in an effort to improve their market performance. The industry is characterised by a high degree of volatility due to economic changes (Worthington
Artworks by Jeff Koons Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents New Hoover Convertibles
New Hoover Convertibles Jeff Koon was one of the most controversial artists of the post war time, his works were designed to provoke, shock, astonish, but at the same time, to inform, point out and communicate.1
His work called “New Hoover Convertibles” was created in 1981. The visually distinctive factors of this work are the three vacuum cleaners that were advanced for their time. The artist put them into a transparent container make of acryl and added fluorescent lights in the bottom so that the exhibits were properly lit.
By inserting the vacuum cleaners into the transparent box and adding fluorescent dramatic lighting the artist made the appliances look like very valuable trophies. This was done in order to communicate the public passion for consumption and the change of values in the society.
Koons pointed out that in the beginning of eighties household appliances were something people had to work hard to buy, they represented everyone’s big goal, they were the evidence of an important achievement.
The historic factors that influence Koon and inspired him to create this work of art was the rapid development of technologies and the social passion for consumption and the love for pristine newness.2
Besides, the way the three vacuum cleaners are arranged – in a straight line, makes it clear that the work of art symbolizes not only consumerism but capitalism dwelling in the supermarkets and putting the goods in geometrically correct rows, lines and forms.
His work represents the mass culture of the beginning of the eighties and the use of readymade goods presents the nature of consumption in a controversial way by comparing usual objects to valuables and paying capacity to an achievement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Triple Elvis Triple Elvis is a work of art that contains three levels. They are arranged hierarchically. The closes object seen by the viewers of the work is a blow up pool toy shaped as a red lobster. The second dimension of the work includes three photographs of a half naked Playboy model in seductive poses.
The last layer is the print made of Westermann’s art works arranged one over another in an abstract manner. This layer is located the farthest from the audience. Each of the dimensions overlaps with the ones near to it. Lobster pool toy is put on top of the whole work.
By creating such hierarchy in his art work, Koons demonstrated the reversed values where art is at the very bottom of the pyramid, and pornographic images are more important than it.3 They also are bigger in size. Finally, the very top is occupied by a very simple entertainment item that is not artistic at all.
Adding it to his pyramid of art Koons shows the new attitude towards aesthetics and beauty. Making the lobster a part of the art work and actually placing it on top of everything else Koons demonstrated the ranks of values.
This way Koons’ pyramid of art turns to the pyramid of consumption. The most popular kind of goods and entertainments are represented by the pool toy. The next is a series of images of sexual character – the second most popular consumption product.
Finally, art is at the very bottom and is mixed up. In this work Koons makes art a part of consumption culture of the eighties. This is why all art works of Koons were based on the elements of Triple Elvis.
Bibliography Farago, Jason. “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”. The guardian. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Artworks by Jeff Koons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940. Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010.
Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”. Whitney.org. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”, Whitney.org.
2 Jason Farago, “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”, The guardian.
3 Jonathan Fineberg, Art Since 1940 (Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010), 460.
Self-Forgiveness as the Path to Learning to Forgive the Others Critical Essay essay help
The ability to forgive one’s own faults has never been valued on par with forgiveness towards the others’ failures, which is rather unfortunate, as the recent research shows.
According to the article titled “Self-Forgiveness: The Stepchild of Forgiveness Research” conducted by Julie H. Hall and Frank D. Fincham, people’s attitude towards the others is in most cases defined by their standards for their own behavior and personality.
In their paper, the authors explain the link between forgiveness and self-forgiveness, as well as define various offence-related factors. It is important to stress that the researches of that kind have never been undertaken on a scholarly scale before, since the issue in question has never been considered worthy of a scholarly research.
However, Hall and Fincham have successfully proved the opposite. The key issues that the given research responds to or, at least, attempts to solve, are the definition of self-forgiveness, the relation between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness, and the means to differentiate between self-forgiveness and pseudo self-forgiveness.
As for the results of the research, it must be admitted that the latter proved rather unexpected. It turned out that the forgiveness of others is closely related to self-forgiveness; moreover, the latter often predetermines the former.
In addition, the authors have come up with a model of self-forgiveness that encompasses the stages of the forgiveness process, explaining the specifics of human behavior in the process of forgiving.
According to the authors, self-forgiving people tend to compromise in the process of conflict solving, as well as admit that they are guilty, in most cases. Hence, it can и concluded that self-forgiveness defines forgiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue seems to be beyond exciting. Even though the idea that forgiveness stems from the ability to forgive one’s own faults is not quite new, the research offers a new vision of the problem. Hence, it seems that the paper by Hall and Fincham provides a foil for the further research.
In addition, the paper raises a number of questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, Hall and Fincham claim that at present, there are no measures for forgiveness, which makes the assessment process rather complicated according to the results of Hall and Fincham’s research (Hall