Effective Business Communication Report Scholarship Essay Help

Characteristics of the audience must you consider Effective business communication is an important aspect in business presentations because the quality of business decisions made often depends on how well individuals communicate within the organization. Communicators must be able to communicate with their audience effectively so that their intended message can be captured and interpreted effectively.

Business presentation and in this case presenting quarterly sales information should be approached carefully in order to ensure that the main message and objective of the communication is achieved (Dick, Carey


Phonograph Invention and Evolution Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction Phonograph is not a new concept or tool. Different names have been used to refer to it in different places for instance record player, turntable or gramophone. The device was introduced towards the end of the 19th century, in 1877 by Edison Alva Thomas while he was carrying out his normal duties at his laboratory in New Jersey. The purpose of the phonograph was to record and reproduce sound recordings.

The phonograph has undergone a lot of notable evolutions, the first invention being marked by some wavy lines that were either etched or grooved on a cylinder that rotated in order to produce the desired results (Pingree, 2004). This paper gives a general overview of the phonograph with much emphasis being given to its invention and evolution as well as how it has affected arts and its connection to humanities.

The time period the phonograph was invented and the circumstances that led to the invention.

The Edison’s phonograph was invented in 1877. The device comprised of a drum in a cylindrical shape which was wrapped in a tinfoil and mounted on an axle threaded in an organized manner. It also had a mouthpiece through which sound would be recorded. The invention was a product of Edison’s other inventions, the telephone and telegraph.

Although the phonograph is greatly attributed to Edison’s efforts, various people had come up with the idea earlier, for example Kruesi and Charles Cros.

The circumstances that surrounded the invention of the phonograph include the desire of man to have documentation whereby they would have a reference of what happens for instance expression of the human voice/ speech and various artistic performances such as music that proved a bit hard to preserve in the human memory. The need for entertainment also contributed to its invention since things like radios and TV were not present at the time (Moore, 1908).

How the phonograph has evolved over time and the effects of the evolution on later time periods Just like any other development, the phonograph was not invented in one day. It took some time, considerations and combination of different ideas. Its evolution has been deemed to have a lot of impact on various life aspects especially in art and humanities. The early invention involved use of tin foil cylinders. Wax cylinders were later developed to deal with problems associated with tin foils like wearing out quickly. Hard plastic cylinders were then developed in the early 20th century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The invention and advancement of the phonograph and its operations has had a part to play on other inventions. This is because the later inventions like radio and TV have drawn ideas on the earlier phonograph and made some improvements to enhance efficiency and effectiveness (Millard, 2005).

How phonograph affected the arts within the time period it was invented Phonograph has had a part to play in the different forms of art including music, theatre and drama among other arts. Phonograph has been deemed to have contributed positively to the field of art and humanities through bringing about diversity which in turn makes these fields interesting.

The phonograph added importance to the art arena by providing a way through which the different works would be recorded and archived for use at a convenient time by any individual that could own the instrument.

Music and drama would for example be recorded and reproduced later and this aspect contributed to the growth of the art industry where artists enhanced their talents and were able to create their presence among the public as opposed to earlier times where they would only be known at the time of performance since there was no form of retrievable storage (Du Moncel, 1974).

How the advancement of phonograph is connected to the humanities According to Ramadhan (2011), the invention and advancement of the phonograph has not existed in isolation but rather amongst many other concepts where some form of dependence has been witnessed. It has, for example, played a great part when it comes to the field of humanities.

The phonograph has made human life easier because they don’t have to rely solely on their memory for their works. People were also in a position to bring different aspects of the world into their homes, an aspect which led to the emergence of a global culture as a result of integration of different elements from different cultures provided by the recordings. Entertainment was also enhanced by the phonograph in a great manner.

Conclusion Technology advancement is inevitable. It is a concept that has been there all along with the speed and sophistication increasing day by day. The phonograph is an instrument that is deemed to be a reference point when it comes to the field of art and humanities especially Music.

We will write a custom Essay on Phonograph Invention and Evolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Later developments have drawn ideas from it and made some improvements. There are various circumstances that surrounded the invention of phonograph as mentioned earlier and with the changes of times, there have been implementation of modifications in making of instruments to incorporate the changes.

Reference List Du Moncel, T.A.L. (1974). The Telephone, the Microphone and the Phonograph. New York: Arno Press.

Millard, A.J. (2005). America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Moore, C.C. (1908). A Treatise on Facts: Or, the Weight and Value Of Evidence, Volume 1. New York: Thompson Company.

Pingree, B.G. (2004). New Media, 1740-1915. New Jersey: MIT Press, 2004.

Ramadhan, A. (2011). Facts about the Phonograph. Retrieved from https://ourpastimes.com/history-vinyl-records-5373550.html


Non-alcoholic beverage industry Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Industry competitive structure analysis

Gross profit Margin comparison

Financial comparisons of key competitors

Analysis of the Financial Statements

Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000


Works Cited

Introduction Pepsi Company is one of the world leader producers of food and non-alcoholic beverages. It has got a snack branch in North America known as Frito-Lay, PepsiCo Beverage International and what is known as Quaker Foods also in North America.

Research reveals that the non-alcoholic beverage industry comprises of three major competitors which are PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Schweppes. PepsiCo is known to currently control around 21% of the total market share within beverage industry. However, Frito-Lay controls 60% of the total snack-food market share within the U.S market (Pepsi Company Overview).

Industry competitive structure analysis The structure of the industry is oligopolistic; this is since the industry is dominated by three major players which are Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Cadbury Schweppes. Analysis and description of beverage products in relation to competition focuses on market share owned by Pepsi in relation to its competitors.

The industry’s relatively slowing market is characterized by tremendous and stiff competition. The rivalry has majorly been between Pepsi and Coca-Cola for fairly longer time. Top ten ranked companies in beverage market based on market coverage includes; Coca Cola, Pepsi, Snapple, Cott, National heritage, Hansen natural, Red bull, Big red, Rock star and others with Coca-Cola at the top and Rock star at the bottom rank with only 0.4% market coverage (Pepsi Company Overview).

Coca-Cola Company owns four soft drink brands which includes; Minute Maid Juices, Minute Maid Lemonade, Fruit Drinks and others. Minute maid orange juices have tremendous success within the market. The success of Coca-Cola in business is based on conducting effective advertising and promotional programs which still keeps them ahead of competitors (Coca-Cola Company).

Pepsi Company deals with products ranging from Fritolay Brands, Gatorade Brands to Quaker Brands and best range of Tropicana juices under the Tropicana Brand. However, PepsiCo has shown improvement over the years in building great brand name.

Example of the companies struggling within the beverage industry is Snapple Juice Company. They have not succeeded yet in consolidating range of Snapple juices through retailers which could be of benefit in efficient product delivery to the target markets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has also found it difficult to cope with the pricing which are always affected by costs of raw materials determined by their availability. They have been unsuccessful in offering Snapple brand having the capability of attaining to consumer’s level of health consciousness. Their new flavors have not yet been fully accepted within the market (Pepsi Company Overview).

Gross profit Margin comparison Pepsi (%) Coca-Cola (%) Cadbury (%) Industry Average (%) 2000 60.46 69.67 53.86% 61.77% 2001 59.46 69.92 52.86 61.43 2002 53.67 63.68 47.9 55.8 2003 53.6 62.9 48.6 55.8 2004 53.7 64.7 49.3 56.98 The comparison of the gross profit margin shows some great concern within PepsiCo’s profitability based on sales. Coca-Cola has clear gain of more profit on sales as compared to other competitors. This gives some hint on PepsiCo’s ability in the management of the cost of production since most of its values are less than industry average.

Financial comparisons of key competitors Despite the low concentration of firms within the beverage industry, the three major firms PepsiCo, Coca-cola and Cadbury Schweppes accounts for almost 80% of the entire global market. The largest market share within the industry is under the command of Coca-Cola accounting for almost 50% while PepsiCo controls around 21% of the total global market share, Cadbury has below 10% coverage. The level of competition amongst these firms is basically based on product differentiation.

Some of the key accounting policies applied in the analysis and valuation of the company’s financial status include revenue recognition, income tax expense and ascertained accruals, quality of brand and valuation of goodwill as well as stock compensation expenses. For the purposes of maintaining high reputation for superior products, PepsiCo resorts to recognizing their revenue upon delivery of products (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Evaluation on the accuracy of PepsiCo accounting policies gives clear picture of their economic reality within the industry in comparison to other companies. All the companies within beverage industry recognize revenue upon transfer of products.

They also apply the use of credit terms allowing payment to be made within 30 days of delivery, at the same time PepsiCo and Coca-Cola applies the same principle on brand and goodwill valuations. Indefinite intangible assets are not amortized while definite intangible assets are amortized within the beverage companies, the three companies also applies the use of fair value methods for the purposes of accounting for employee stocks (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Analysis of the Financial Statements Overall operations of PepsiCo outside United States have proved viable since it generates approximately 35% of the total net revenue. Twenty percent of these are obtained from potential hubs such as Mexico, United Kingdom as well as Canada. The other percentage ranging between 13-15% is generated from other countries of the world.

We will write a custom Essay on Non-alcoholic beverage industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, PepsiCo’s market penetration is exposed to threats such as foreign currency and political unrest. Prevention of such risks involves strategies such as entering into forward contracts having terms of no more than two years (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000 2009 2003 2002 2001 2000 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.28 1.08 1.06 1.17 1.17 Quick Asset Ratio 1.0 0.75 0.72 0.76 0.8 Inventory turnover 9.76 8 7.84 7.51 7.87 Receivables Turnover 7.8 9.5 1.0 13.0 11.4 Profitability Ratios Gross profit margin 53.6% 53.56% 53.67% 59.46% 60.46% Net Profit Margin 14.4% 13.23% 13.19% 9.88% 10.68% Asset Turnover 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.24 1.11 Return on Asset 15.05% 14.09% 14.11% 12.26% 11.90% Return on Equity 31.24% 30.15% 35.81% 30.76% 30.11% Capital Structure Ratio Debt to Equity Ratio 1.07 1.14 1.53 1.51 1.53 Examination and analysis of several accounting ratios helped in determining the liquidity of PepsiCo. The current year financial breakdown and previous years gives the clear analysis on the changes experienced within PepsiCo. The ratios reveal the company to be relatively liquid.

The current ratio reveals favorable status, the increase from 1.2 in 2000 to current 1.3 shows that the current assets have increased compared to current liabilities. The firm’s liquidity is further revealed by quick ratio which determines its ability to meet current obligations on the basis of improved liquid assets.

The improvement could be recognized from 0.8 in 2000 to 1 in the current year, showing that current and future obligations of the company can now be solved faster than previously. However, receivable turnover have since decreased posing some threat to liquidity. Inventory turnover has experienced considerable increase indicating valuable productivity in the use of inventory, the increase from 7.9 in 2000 to current 9.76 clearly indicate this (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

The level of profitability for PepsiCo is considered moderate as revealed through the financial analysis. The company has experienced decrease in Gross Profit Margin, indicating an increase in the level of cost of goods sold over the years. This means that the company spends more on the production of their products compared to the output.

There is an increase of around 0.12% from the previous years. Net profit Margin has since changed creating some positive impact; the notable increase has been around 4.4% since the year 2000. Asset Turnover has however decreased from 2000 indicating that PepsiCo has got trouble in converting the available assets to sales (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Conclusion The analysis of the financial ratios indicates that PepsiCo has slightly positive results on the capital structure. The ratios show positive Debt to Equity ratio, hence the company’s ability to finance its businesses debt free. The level of liquidity ratios revealed indicates that PepsiCo has got the capability of meeting short-time obligations better off than other competing beverage companies within the market.

Works Cited Coca-Cola Company. Hoovers, 2006. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-alcoholic beverage industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pepsi Company Overview. PepsiCo. Web.

Sila, Emon


Intelligence testing Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theories of intelligence

Triarchic theory of intelligence

Multiple intelligence theory

Effectiveness of intelligence testing



Introduction Intelligence entangles one of the subjects widely addressed in psychology. However, many scholars do not have a harmonized definition of what it constitutes. Some of the scholars hold the opinion of intelligence as a general ability, while others stick to the idea that intelligence entangles varying aptitudes, talents and skills.

Theories of intelligence Spearman “…a psychologist from Britain, used the factor analysis concept to describe an intelligence theory he referred to as the general intelligence by examining various mental aptitudes” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 2) Charles observes that individuals who performed excellently in one cognitive test had the highest probabilities of doing better in other tests.

Those who did badly in one test also reflected so in other tests. Consequently, he concluded that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 3).

The theory of primary mental abilities, put forward by Louis Thurston, looks at intelligence from a seven-mental-capability perspective point of view opposed from a general single ability point of view. The seven abilities that he described include reasoning, spatial visualization, perceptual speed, numerical ability, associative memory, verbal comprehension and word fluency.

In the Triarchic theory, Sternberg (1985, p. 45) laments that intelligence is “mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Multiple intelligence theory, postulated by Howard Gardner, ignores the test score analysis subscribing eight intelligences laid on the foundation of abilities and skills appreciated within differing societal cultures.

Triarchic theory of intelligence Triarchic theory takes into corporation three facets: practical or conceptual sub theory, analytical or experiential and componential or analytical sub theories.

According to this theory, one can measure and test analytical intelligence theory using his/her capability levels of solving academic problems such as analogies or puzzles, which correspond well to the individual’s prior componential intelligence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sternberg (1985, p. 47) strongly inclines to the idea that “Analytical Intelligence (Academic problem-solving skills) is based on the joint operations of meta-components, performance and knowledge acquisition components of intelligence”.

The meta-components have the responsibility of evaluating, controlling and monitoring the cognitive processing abilities of an individual constituting the highest hierarchical order components that organize all other components of performance. The creative facet entangles insights capacity to respond to various noble stimuli and synthesis of these stimuli. Practical facet draws the capacity to grasp followed by amicable understanding of information then reflected in daily routines.

Sternberg (1985, p.103) says that the intelligence encompasses “Purposive adaptation to, shaping of, and selection of real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Practical intelligence is a repercussion formed by the capability to actively adapt with respect to the environment so as to ensure objectives and goals are met, adjust accordingly as the novel situations vary and in case the priory mentioned two combinations fail, the individual relocates to a new environment.

Multiple intelligence theory Howard Gardner claims, “…expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people’s abilities” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 5). In his theory of multiple intelligence, therefore, he deviated from Charles Spearman’s theory approach, which indicted that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 6).

Gardener described eight characteristics that he totally believed could constitute intelligence. The intelligences in this theory include naturalistic, musical, logical mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal linguistic, bodily kinesthetic and visual spatial intelligence. This theory offers the criteria for selecting the abilities that warrants for inclusion in the formation of any intelligence model for testing.

Effectiveness of intelligence testing Based on methods such as those put forward by Stanford Binet, Wechsler (WAIS) and WAIS-IV, intelligence testing proves effective in several ways. For instance, it gives opportunities for determination of the students who critically require special services. The intelligence testing methods prove effective in the determination of risk factors when it comes to delinquent behavior relationships particularly when deficiencies in students need to be determined.

Consequently, “By administering the IQ test, educators stand a good chance to determine which students have deficiencies, as well as what these deficiencies are” (Anastasi, 1996, p.53). Realization of such deficiencies in good time is vital if at all, the teachers wish to get the appropriate corrective measures worth implementing to ensure students back to norm in good time.

We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More IQ tests too stand out as effective measures of intelligence since their results correlate with the measures of general knowledge such as SAT and ACT. “The American Psychological Association has found that those students who score well on an intelligence test have higher grades and learn/retain more of what they are learning in school than classmates with low IQ scores” (Anastasi, 1996, p.87).

Even in the light of effectiveness of the intelligence testing methods, critics’ record some dissatisfaction by arguing out that they poses some downfalls. One enormous down fall is that the intelligence testing fails to incorporate environmental factors which may account for the observed differences in the intelligence levels among students.

The tests also do not cover a wider spectrum of variables that may constitute intelligence such the ones identified in the multiple intelligence theory. Consequently, a larger number of students remain left out based on the consideration of their giftedness. This omission is critical since one can use IQ tests to determine an individual’s ability, which in turn reflects itself in job performance.

Conclusion People perceive intelligence as the general ability or their varying aptitudes, talents and skills. As discussed in the paper, four theories need substantial consideration in arriving at a parameter to measure intelligence levels. However, the existing intelligence testing methods among students remain crucial if at all academic deficiencies in schools need be identified and solved fast enough before students possessing them get out of track.

References Anastasi, A. (1996). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Cherry, K. (2011). Theories of intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/theories-of-intelligence-2795035

Sternberg, R. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.


A Critique of Locke’s Natural Law of Property Essay a level english language essay help

Natural Rights Locke viewed property as a natural right derived from a natural law. Locke put forward that the natural law could be known by all the people through their reasoning (Tuckness, 2010)

His view on natural law is normative rather than descriptive. It is what should be happening in society and not what is happening in the society. Once man had been created, he has a right to live. Secondly he has a right to freedom, as long as it does not interfere with other’s people right to life. The third right is the right to property as long as it did not affect other people’s right to life and freedom.

His right to property comes from his right to live given by God and as such it would not be right to deny anyone their natural rights. Locke put forward that man had changed the natural order of things

Looking at Locke’s theory on natural law, there are a few points that I disagree with. There are natural rights such as the right to live and freedom if one adheres to the law of the land. However when it comes to land or property, with the introduction of a monetary medium of exchange, it ceases being a natural right.

That is why the governments of this world have two categories of land: public land and private property. Private property system allocates land to an individual and others are excluded from using the land without his or her permission (Waldron, 2010) Public land belongs to the state and no one can say they own it. One will only have access to land and its use if they have bought it at a price from the previous owner. Others cannot use the land without the owner’s permission.

Natural right to property Locke put forward that when God created man he gave him the right to property. All men had the opportunity to have land and enjoy it. The second activity that took place is that people started to apply their labor to the land and thus took possession of the land. Locke saw labor as something that was owned by the individual, the concept of self-ownership.

Whatever the man mixed with his labor became his (Locke, 1988 [1689], II, para 27). As they applied productive labor to the land there was enough goods and services for everyone (Forde, 2001). However, further along in the society there was the introduction of a monetary medium. Now people could accumulate land.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it reaches this stage, it created the need of a political and social order (Suits, 1977). The government was put in place by the people and would only operate if the people consented to the government. Locke wrote that if the government did not ensure that the people got their natural rights of life, freedom and property, it would be overthrown.

Locke also saw labor as something owned by the individual however that is not the case now in the capitalist community. Marx put forward that in the capitalist society, the workers would not even own their own labor. It would come a point where they would have to work or starve to death as there was a reserve of unemployed labor in the market anxious to get employed. The worker’s labor therefore belongs to the rich (Simmons, 1992, p 335).

The worker therefore ends up working for low wages and he does not enjoy his productivity. It is the employer who ends up becoming richer. The poor laborer or worker, once the land becomes scarce cannot equitably enjoy the fruits of labor with the landowner. Furthermore, when the worker puts his labor on the land it does not become his, it is still held by the owner till he can afford to purchase it.

I agree with Locke on the need of a political and social order on the administration of property. Land is a scarce resource. It therefore needs a means of allocation that is measurable and equitable. Locke recognized this and that is why he stated the creation of a political society to see the allocation of property (Tully, 1980, p165). It therefore ceases being a natural right. One cannot just demand for a piece of land unless they have the financial resources to buy the land (Hume, 1978, p 489).

I agree with Marx that the government cannot be relied on to ensure Locke’s natural right to property as it would be under the control of the rich elite. (Marx