Table of Contents Introduction
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Symptoms of PTSD
The Tsunami and the Psychological Effects
Post-Tsunami Management of PTSD
The Theory of Psychoanalysis
Introduction The Tsunami disaster that occurred towards the end of 2004 resulted in a huge burden on the community both in physical terms and psychological trauma. A big number of the population lost their lives and property worth millions of dollars was destroyed. In addition, members of the families that were diseased were left with psychological trauma that affected them after the event.
The community and government were left with a major challenge of how to cope with the physical and psychological stress that was quite evident. Many individuals were not only in need of material assistance, but also psychosocial care to help them cope with the psychological trauma they went through.
Most of the individuals suffered from anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, as well as post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). PTSD is a disorder people go through after experiencing a dangerous event. This is a severe disorder and can last for a few days to months. The severity depends on the intensity of the dangerous event as well as the surrounding circumstances.
PTSD is also experienced by solders after taking part in wars and the symptoms can affect them for the rest of their lives. Most of the Tsunami victims experienced PTSD which affected their family life, social life as well as their work. Most of them had to shelter in camps since most of their houses were destroyed. It is in these camps that they received both physical and psychological help.
This paper will look at what is meant by PTSD and the symptoms of this disorder. It also gives an overview of the Tsunami disaster including the physical and psychological effects of the dangerous events. It will go further to highlight the recovery response that was initiated to help the Tsunami PTSD patients and conclude by looking at the psychoanalysis theory developed by Sigmund Freud.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety people go through after experiencing a dangerous event. When people are in danger, they are normally engraved with fear and uncertainties of the outcomes of such an event. This is a health response and it is meant to help the body as it defends itself against danger. However, a person who experiences post traumatic stress (PTSD) may have a damaged reaction. Individuals under PTSD most of the time feel strained and terrified even when out of danger.
They fear for their lives and most of them suffer from sleepless nights because they are even afraid of sleeping (Myers, 2010). The occurrence of the dangerous event keeps recurring on people’s mind causing anxiety and depression. If a person is not treated early, he may suffer from PTSD for the rest of his life and may even lead to untimely death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any person can be a victim of PTSD; it affects children, the youths, and even old people. It normally affects people who have gone through a dangerous situation or witnessed a dangerous event. Events that can cause PTSD include war, sexual assault, motor accidents, and natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, the tsunami, and many others.
However, it is worth noting that not every person that experiences PTSD has actually experienced a dangerous event. There are people who get PTSD after receiving bad news, for instances, news about the death of a loved one or a friend.
Symptoms of PTSD The symptoms of PTSD vary with the kind of danger. These symptoms can be classified into three classes as follows:
Re-experiencing symptoms- this includes flashbacks about the dangerous event, bad dreams, or terrifying thoughts. These symptoms may interfere with a person’s daily routine because of lack of concentration. Some people even day dream and may bust out crying, shouting or running for help. Symptoms may be re-experienced where object or even prevailing situations may elicit the signs (Myers, 2010). These symptoms require professional help to deal with because a person experiencing them live with self denial and does not accept what he is going through. They can last for 4-6 weeks or even months after the event but this depends on a person’s willingness to accept assistance and the desire to change.
Avoidance symptoms- a person experiencing PTSD tries to keep away from any object or situation that will be a constant reminder of the event. Others even withdraw themselves from the society and their participation in social activities diminishes. At times, they may be overcome by feel emotions and start carrying without a reason. Other people experience depression, worry or remorse, while others may tend to shun away from activities that they found enjoyable before the event took place. The first step in helping a person with these symptoms is to remove all objects that may act as a constant reminder of the event and also to change his environment so that he is able to see life from another angle.
Hyper arousal symptoms- they include feeling tense, insomnia, or being angered easily. These symptoms are hardly triggered by objects that remind a person about a dangerous event but they are rather constant. They make a person to feel stressed and angry most of the time which may not be pleasant especially in a work place (Myers, 2010). These are the most severe symptoms since they do not only affect the individual psychology but also that of the people around him. It is very normal to go through these symptoms after going experiencing a dangerous event. Some people experience them for a short period of time while others may experience them for months if not years.
The Tsunami and the Psychological Effects A great tsunami occurred on December 24, 2004 and affected a large population from some parts of East Africa and South Asia. It was a natural disaster that did not only take the lives of many people but also destroyed a lot of property. In Sri Lanka (which was the most hit region) alone, 31, 187 people were reported dead, more than four thousand were reported missing, over twenty thousand had been injured and almost half a million people were displaced (Tull, 2009).
As it is normal in many dangerous events, the tsunami was not an exemption as many people were left with psychological problems especially those who witnessed the disaster in Sri Lanka. A study that was carried out about 4 weeks after the tsunami discovered that about 39% of children were suffering from PTSD (Daily News Sri Lanka, 2005). A similar study found out that more than 40% of adolescents and about 20% of adult women showed symptoms of PTSD 4 months later (Daily News Sri Lanka, 2005).
However, the researches do not provide enough information about the long-term effects of the crisis but according to WHO a bigger percentage of people gradually developed symptoms of PTSD due to the event. To verify this claim, an international research group was formed to study the post-tsunami effect.
A study was carried out in Peraliya in Sri Lanka district about one year after the disaster. This is an area where more than 2, 000 people had lost their lives and proximately 450 families had been displaced, and the entire society was in a mess.
We will write a custom Essay on Effect on People Who Have Been Through Tsunami specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A part from the natural disaster, many people had gone through many psychological effects. For instance, about 80% feared for their life because they could still visualize the event that took place. More than 50% had already lost at least one member of the family and they had constant flashback of the event while approximately 80% had lost a friend.
On the other hand, part of the population that was interviewed explained how some of their family members and friends had been seriously injured as a result of the crisis and they could spend sleepless nights. Out of all the participants of the study, 21% experienced PTSD, 16% suffered from severe depression, 30% had relentless anxiety, while more than 22% had somatic signs (Tull, 2009).
Some of the symptoms that were common among many victims of the Tsunami were tension, fear, anxiety, confusion, flashbacks, plus other permanent emotional scars. Other people expressed pessimistic thoughts, withdrawal from social activities, among other physical symptoms.
Some people were able to cope with these psychological effects while others needed professional care. Some of the disaster survivors developed psychiatric disorders including but not limited to anxiety disorders, depression disorders, and PTSD. Most of the victims suffering from PTSD depressed and could not understand what was happening to them (Daily News Sri Lanka, 2005).
They resorted to crying a lot to at least try to ease the pain although this did not work. Some of them wished to die because they could not carry the burden that was imposed on them. It was difficult for family members trying to help those suffering from PTSD because they too were still in agony. It is not always easy to witness the death of a loved one and lead a normal life. What was happening to the post-tsunami victims was normal and it is associated to all dangerous events.
Post-Tsunami Management of PTSD Many people can recover from PTSD on their own if they are given proper education, they are supported, and their lifestyles modified. The first step in helping a person under PTSD is to help him come into terms with the condition he is going through and to reassure him that what he is going through is normal and is as a result of the traumatic event that he experienced.
Also support from family members, friends, and other professionals helps a person to recover quickly from PTSD. Some anxiety management strategies such as breathing techniques and involvement in social activities have also been known to play a big part in the recovery process. However, patients with severe symptoms of PTSD such as recurrent flashbacks, and lack of sleep and those not responding to PTSD treatment should be referred to a psychiatrist (WHO, 2005).
Most of people who were displaced from tsunami crisis lived in relief camps. Following the disaster, many people were concerned with what had happened and were ready to offer their help in order to help the victims recover from the psychological trauma they went through.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effect on People Who Have Been Through Tsunami by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A large number of volunteers all over the world visited these camps to sympathize with the victims. They carried their toolboxes of psychosocial and trauma recovery activities which added confusion and amusement to the people who benefited from their activities as well as the authorities that were concerned with the recovery process.
Psychosocial and mental health programs were initiated in the relief camps by the United States agencies, non-governmental, and governmental institutions to help the victims come into terms with the event.
These programs revived political support, which accelerated the recovery process and many PTSD patients were able to benefit from these programs. In addition, the president of Sri Lanka supported psychological intervention process both financially and psychologically.
He gave these processes the first priority among all the programs that started as part of post-tsunami recovery plan. He realized that if those victims continued to suffer psychologically, no amount of material support would help them come out of the crisis. The president went further to caution all authorities involved in the recovery program to make sure that all personnel hired to conduct the post-trauma counseling were qualified and had enough experience (WHO, 2005).
This is for the reason that some people may be so much willing to offer their help but such assistance may sometimes not be professional and may be only based on belief which can engrave the problem instead of solving it. The acronym PTSD and the word psychosocial were used too often and they became part of the post-tsunami recovery plan. They even became the widely used terms by both politicians and news columnists.
As a team, we also took part in helping the internally displaced persons from the Tsunami. We organized a small fund rising within the school compound where we collected money, clothing as well as food. We visited the victims at the camps and donated some of the material things we had managed to collect and went a head to talk with then.
We played with the children who looked depressed to help them come to terms with their predicament. Since we could not offer any professional psychological help, we just had a general talk with some of the victims and assured them that, they are people out there who care for them and a ready to offer a should to cry on.
The Theory of Psychoanalysis From research, it has been found that psychoanalysis forms part of the recovery treatment for people under PTSD. This theory was first developed by Sigmund Freud. He is one of the ancient psychologists. The aim of this theory was to study the psychological functioning of human beings and their behavior. Fraud established clinical procedures that would be used to treat mentally ill persons. According to him, individual personality is developed from childhood experiences.
The aim of this therapy was to convey reserved thoughts and mind-set into consciousness in order to free the patient from suffering recurring fuzzy emotions. These reserved thoughts and feelings are brought to consciousness by encouraging a conversation between the doctor and the patient. Patients are encouraged to talk freely and express their dreams and experiences (Asiado, 2007).
According to Freud, psychoanalysis is a process used to treat individuals suffering from psychological problems. He called it “The doctor’s ‘treatment’ and it involves eliciting repressed memories from the patient by interpreting the responses to his questions” (Asiado, 2007).
He observed that a person suffering from psychology problems would be encouraged to re-live previous experience and this would be used as a technique for treatment. The theory involves intervention such as confronting and illuminating the patient’s pathological suspicions, desires, and guilt. Through analysis of individual’s conflicts, psychoanalysis treatment can be used to prove that patients’ unconsciousness is the worst threat of causing symptoms.
This progression assists in determining solutions for the reticent conflicts. In the psyche, the interpretation of Dreams, Freud proposed that dreams can be used to demonstrate the judgment of the unconscious mind. He described dreams as the noble road to the unconscious. In the unconscious mind painful memories are repressed but can be accessed through psychoanalysis treatment.
Conclusion PTSD can affect, children, adolescent, and even adults. It knows no borders and affects everyone including soldiers who are believed to be the ‘hardest’ persons. Some of the symptoms of PTSD include: recurrent flashbacks, anxiety, depression, insomnia, bad dreams, and pessimistic thought.
They are people who exhibit these symptoms for a very short period of time while others continue to suffer for months if not years. An example of a dangerous event that left many people with PTSD is the great Tsunami of 2004. Apart from the physical damage that resulted from this event, many people suffered from psychological disorders including PTSD.
Children, adolescents, and adults were displaced and were sheltered in relief camps. Some of the symptoms exhibited by the individuals suffering from PTSD included flashbacks, depression, stress, anxiety, loss of self control, pessimist thoughts, and many more. Most of the people who were displaced were sheltered in relief camps where they received both local and international visitors who sympathized with their predicament.
This is where many non-governmental, governmental and U.S. agencies offered their assistance to the victims. They were given both material support and psychological support. Psychological intervention programs were initiated with the support of the president of Sri Lanka to help the people who were suffering from PTSD. The psychological treatment which they received was based on the psychoanalysis theory developed by Sigmund Freud.
Reference List Asiado, T. (2007). Sigmund Freud and His Couch. Web.
Daily News, Sri Lanka (2005). Editorial: The Primacy of Mental Health Protection. (12 February 2005). Colombo 10: Lake House Press.
Myers, D.G. (2010). Psychology (9th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers
Tull, M. (2009). The Psychological Impact of the 2004 Tsunami. Web.
WHO (2005). Psychosocial Care of Tsunami-Affected Populations. PDF File. Web.
Technology and Writing Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Technological advancement has led to great impact on writing. Like in other areas, advancement in technology has influenced the way people write both positively and negatively. Writing emails, chatting using social networking websites and writing short text massages have become day to day activities.
Today computer has become the basic tool for writing. Instead of using pen and paper or typesetting, today people prefer to type their work using word processors. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. I prefer to use word processor software when writing instead of conventional ways. In the paper, I report impact of word processors on my writing process.
Using word processors has transformed my writing to a higher level. When using traditional pen and paper, I had to care more on mechanics of writing than communicating my message. I paid undue attention to hand writing, spelling, sentence structure and other basic mechanics. By using word processors, I am able to concentrate more on writing rather than caring about my hand writing or trying to check up spelling in a dictionary.
Word processors have allowed me to write at ease and improve on my critical thinking and writing. Before embracing word processors, writing seemed very complex. Before producing a final piece of writing, I had to go through many tedious steps including making an outline, writing a draft, editing and recopying the final draft. Using word processors has not only helped me to overcome mechanical difficulties in writing but also improve my attitude towards writing.
Word processors have many advantages over conventional pen and paper or typesetting. The main advantage of using word processors is ability to edit work without having to recopy. Word processors make it easy to edit, enabling one to correct mistakes, add or remove ideas without having to rewrite a piece of work.
Ability to rewrite my work without having to recopy motivates me to revise my work and therefore improve my writing skills. Unlike when using conventional ways, using word processor allows me to write quickly. Word processors have inbuilt support that make writing and editing to be considerably fast. Because of support provided by word processors, I do not worry much about style when using them but instead concentrate on communicating my message.
Good writing is a process that can take many years to achieve. Practice and learning through mistakes are important to writing. Using word processors makes writing enjoyable to me and motivate me to practice the skill. Using word processors, I can retrieve pieces of writing written in the past and try to improve on them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to revisiting my work, work processors makes it possible to share my work with other people who can advice me on how to improve. In spite of many positive contributions of word processor to my writing, they have shortfalls. Sometimes I am not able to spot my mistakes in writing when using word processors. In addition, dependence on some tools in word processor such as spelling checker inhibits ability to do so without help.
Technology significantly influences writing. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. Using word processors enables me to concentrate on communicating my message rather than worry about mechanical difficulties. Using the technology I can edit or improve my work much easily than in conventional ways. Technology has become part of our life and adopting technology in writing is in order.
To what extent did the Cold War shaped the US relations with Latin America? Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents A case study of Central American in 1980s
The US and Nicaragua
The US and El Salvador
The US and Guatemala
A case study of Central American in 1980s After the Second World War the relationship between the US and Soviet Union was changed from anti Nazi partners to latent enemies. But because of the nuclear threats from both sides, the possibility of a real battle became very small and a new form of cold war known as the competition between military, economies, politics, diplomacy, ideology and so on started.
During the cold war both sides were trying to gain more international influence and power, so foreign policy became especially important. In term of the US and Latin America relation had changed a lot because of it. This essay is going to talk detailed about those changes and focus on countries like EI Salvador，Nicaragua and Guatemala .
During the Second World War the partnership relation between US and Latin American was very good and strong. For example, in the first two years of the war most Latin America countries were neutral as US, after US joining the war they stopped diplomacy with those fascism countries and claimed war against them Mexico and Brazil even sent troops to fight with US.
Other Latin American countries also had done a lot to provide many material supports to US (Zhu 2002 p19). After the war although US did a lot to deepen its influence in economic, political and military terms but because its interventions anti US sense was popular in those Latin American people. In 1959, the Cuba victory pushed this sense to a very high level and rang the alarm to US.
In 1960, US have changed a lot of its attitude to Latin America. The reasons are on one hand, the great fear to the Soviet Union catch up and expansion, on the other hand the fear of Cuba bring communism domino effect to the Latin America countries and finally surrounded by the red empire (Priestland 2010 p48).
From 1960, US launched a lot of actions to suppress communism and gain its power in Latin America. Firstly, the long term actions toward Cuba to intervene and subvert the communism government. One thing should notice is it was not an independent movement but a collective one, countries like Dominica and Guatemala also involved. (Priestland 2010 p48). The relationships between the US and Latin American countries divided into clear branches.
Secondly, ideology competition with communism accompanied with military actions. This movement was trying to reconcile the relationship through ideology penetration and economic aid and at the same time defeat the communism ideologically and physically. (Zhu 2002 p26) But outcomes are not all good as predicted because these ideologies also raised disputes between the US and authoritarian regimes in Latin America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, mainly after the 1980s besides dollar diplomacy to Latin American, the US gave more concentration to Central America and Caribbean area as their most urgent task and changed their military and political strategy to a low intensity one. Nicaragua and EI Salvador can be good examples to understand the policy. (Priestland 2010 p51)
Nicaragua is quite different from other communism country, the reform of the Sandinistas was relatively soft and did not rose much class conflicts maybe partly because the avaricious Somoza regime that only the Somoza family owned 20% of the country’s cultivable land. (Skidmore
Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
This paper intends to discuss the similarities and differences of two different styles of pieces. The first one is Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres’s, Grand Odalisque, and the second piece is, Henri Matisse’s, The Woman with a Hat.
The discussion will show the emergence of exotic cultures’ influences, similarities and course the painters’ similarities on different eras of time. Even though, there are six to seven decades in between these artists’ working eras, their styles of redirecting the art education towards new limits, are familiar.
Both artists’ pieces are influenced by the near East exoticism; to be more specific, Matisse’s, The Woman with a Hat, was painted in south France, when at the time, traveling between continents started to become a more efficient possibility, resulting in increased numbers of different cultures emerging from human trade and ending up in south France.
This was enough cause for Matisse to get influenced and experiment with the wild colors and exotic appeal of the idea of the East even he never left Europe to see the North Africa nor its wide palette of cultural connections made available on his time.
On the other hand, Ingres Grand Odalisque’s cause of birth was more politically involved under Napoleon’s leadership. With the help of the new technologies helping human kind to travel through oceans more efficiently, through the early stages of industrialism, and of course Napoleon’s unstoppable urge to walk towards the East, brought in a forbidden curiosity to the neoclassical art world’s newly trained artists to take a step beyond from what was thought to them.
Napoleon’s sister, Queen Caroline Murat, commissioned the piece in 1814 for which Ingres never get paid for, because of the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815 on Ottoman ground; by the end of the Napoleon’s dynasty, he ended up in Rome (Krén 1) where he belonged because of his —.
The primitive state of the East, with its savagery of women being held in Harem’s, exploited and available, was a clear sign of a fallen empire already (Krén 2). Even though, the idea of Harem was not accepted at all on Europe, it sure exhilarated the French artists, enough to start a new movement called, romanticism in its essence with sincerity and need of new exotic visual tastes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jean-Auguste’s Odalisque caused serious amount of criticism because of the style mixes of neoclassicism with new unorthodox romantic themes (Grande Odalisque 1). Imaginary world of romantic love, freedom of thought, individualism and self-expressionism was everything the Ingres chose instead of an accepted single style of academic art thought and imposed on class teachings (Wright1).
As the best student of Jacques-Louis David’s, Ingres refused the foundation of an orthodox teaching of arts at an early age. Instead, he focused his self-educatory behavior on the original Greek and Roman art.
The initial response towards the piece was the close and brutal examination of the women’s body’s proportions and the lack of realism on anatomical level (Grande Odalisque 2). Ingres was not aware however, that in a year, Manet’s Olympia, would be admired by the whole art exhibition community making it unfair his time.
Time passed and his unorthodoxly executed piece would find its real value after couple years by getting accepted from the artist community and by later years encourages artists like Matisse to discover female nude all over again (Wright 2).
Henry Matisse was one of the most influential and progressive artists of the 20th century. His works were also greatly influenced by new technological advancements and cultural relations. It was reflected in the psychology and spirituality of his works. His “stylistic innovations fundamentally altered the course of modern art and affected the art of several generations of younger painters, spanned almost six and a half decades” (Dabrowski n. pg.). His main intention was to examine the essence of things.
Much of his works were inspired by Ingres’ Grand Odalisque which was not recognized by critics of the Ingres’ period, but was acknowledged later. New tendencies in painting were reflected in Matisse’s use of colors, which he used “in their maximum strength” (Lewis and Lewis 396).
He discovered that colors can have a great influence on produce a desirable effect. The discovery of this idea helped him to add many decorative elements to his pictures and, at the same time, avoid chaotic scenes. He promoted that color and shape can give to the artist more freedom and let the fantasy create unpredictable scenes.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the paintings of Matisse are full of life and energy. His innovative style suggested the escape from the rules of realism and gave “a respond to natural world, that he called a living harmony of colors, a harmony analogous to a musical composition” (Lewis and Lewis 396). Though, some of Matisse’s works were not pleasantly accepted, he remains one the of the first artists “responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture” (Henri Matisse n. pg.).
Thus, Henry Matisse and Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres are two painters that brought innovations in the paintings of their époques. Their works were formed under the influences of great social and cultural relations and both artists were innovators who introduced new technological advancements in their times. Thus, two paintings under analysis, Grand Odalisque, and The Woman with a Hat show the differences and similarities in the styles of both artists.
As it has already been mentioned, the painting by Ingres was inspired by the exotics of the East. It depicts “a woman of the harem surrounded by luxurious accessories in a pose reminiscent of David’s Madame Recamier”.
The artist used mild colors and lines to transfer the beauty of a real woman, and “not an allegory of Venus” (Krén 2) like it was in works by Titian and Giorgione. In addition, the artist managed to show the Western beauty surrounded by Eastern scenery, though, he was not inspired by the works of Eastern artists, as their traditions did not allow painting nude women.
Moreover, women in Turkish harems were dressed in costumes, rather than being nude. So, the painting of Ingress was a mixture of classical traditions, exotic Eastern theme and modern technique of painting. He was the first who managed to unite these issues in one picture.
As well as Ingres’ Odalisque, Matisse’s The Woman with a Hat was an innovation in the world of art and “in the center of controversy” (Woman with a Hat n. pg.) that put a beginning to a new artistic movement. As it has already been mentioned, Matisse made use of new methods in use of colors that allowed creation of everyday scenes without adding chaos to the whole picture.
The Woman with a Hat suggested more individualistic and expressive style that marked out the author as innovator. The unnatural use of colors add life and expressiveness to the picture. The woman is depicted in a classical French dress, she is a typical French bourgeoisie. However, the lines and colors make it passionate and expressive. The hat is very significant detail that puts together the focus of the picture, in other words, it is a central figure of the painting.
The hat is the most bright and rich in color element of the picture. It attracts attention and, actually, holds it. With closer look, the picture seems abstract and non-real, however, the technique suggests that one should have the overall impression and perceive each element as a single unite. This technique was also adopted by Pablo Picasso who also made his contribution to new artistic movement called later expressionism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More So, Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres and Henri Matisse are two great artists separated in time, but very close in perception of art. Each of them introduced new painting technique in painting that literally changed the attitude to the meaning and purpose of art. Both, Ingress and Matisse, were representatives of different styles and schools. However, it was Ingres who inspired Matisse to create many of his works.
The major issues that made those artists introduce such radical changes into the world of art were great social, political and scientific innovations, as well as technological development. Society could not stay the same and, as art is the reflection of the social changes, it could not be unchanged as well. Thus, new tendencies in art were the result of new psychological and cultural changes in society in times of Ingress and Matisse.
Works Cited Dabrowski, Magdalena. “Henri Matisse (1869–1954)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
“Femme au Chapeau.” SFMOMA.org 15 Nov 2010. Web.
Krén, Emil. “Ingre, Jean-Auguste-Dominique, Biography.” Web Gallery of Art. Web Gallery of Art, 01 Jan 2005. Web.
Lewis, Richard, and Susan I. Lewis. The Power of Art. New York. Cengage Learning, 2008.
Vassilika, Eleni. Greek and Roman Art. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Wikipedia contributors. “Grande Odalisque.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Jun. 2010. Web.
Wikipedia contributors. “Henri Matisse.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 Nov. 2010. Web.
Wikipedia contributors. “Woman with a Hat.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 May. 2010. Web.
Wright, Anne. “Ingre’s Grand Odalisque from a Book Talk by Susan Siegfried.” Yahoo! Contributor Network, 12 Apr 2010. Web.
Footnotes For a full description neoclassical attitude to exotic East, see Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, 354 – 356.
“Femme au Chapeau.” SFMOMA.org 15 Nov 2010. Web.
Eleni Vassilika. Greek and Roman Art. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.) P. 6.
Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, The Power of Art. (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2008) 396.
Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, The Power of Art. (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2008) 396.
Monogamy as an acceptable system of marriage in America Essay cheap essay help
The choice between polygamy and monogamy family patterns requires considering the psychological, sociological, and spiritual aspects of marriage. The definition of family as a spiritual union of two partners is a weighty argument for justifying monogamy as the only acceptable practice of marriage in the United States.
The forms of families differ significantly throughout the world and the choice of the appropriate pattern depends upon the religious, philosophical and cultural background of a particular community. Monogamy as the marriage between two partners is recognized as the only legal form of marriage in the United States (Mooney, Knox and Schacht 161). At the same time, there are some situations in which the cultural background of an individual contradicts the current legislation of the country in which he/she lives.
For example, immigrants who come from the countries in which the polygamy is accepted, as a rule, do not give up their accustomed lifestyles but have to hide it from the community. According to the current legislation of the United States, polygamy can become the ground for deportation. The question is whether the state should make an exception for those who have polygamy families because of their ethnic origin and the system of their beliefs.
However, it would mean that people who can justify their persuasions with their system of beliefs would have the right for violating the law because along with the ethnic origin and cultural background the polygamy is rooted in the system of beliefs. The assertions of Augustine, an influential philosopher and theologian, concerning the family as a spiritual union of two people have not lost their actuality nowadays and might be taken into account for solving the moral dilemma of the acceptable family patterns.
Analyzing the marriage of Adam and Eve before the Fall as a purely spiritual relationship, Augustine tried to define the concept of sin with regards to family and procreation (Reynolds 241). Augustine shifted the emphasis from procreation as the primary and natural motivation for marriage towards satisfying the spiritual needs of the spouses.
Considering the customs and the cultural background of the American community, the marriage traditions are rooted in the Christian doctrines which depreciate polygamy as an example of lust. Still, even the interpretation of the Bible Holy Scripture concerning polygamy and monogamy is not unanimous and the examples of patriarchs who lived with several wives and had children with their lovers gave rise to the prolonged debates.
Explaining this controversy between the Bible teachings and the personal example of patriarchs, Augustine pointed at procreation as the only their motivation for marrying several women. “He [Jacob] used the women not for sensual gratification, but for the procreation of children” (Braun 247).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking into account the changes in the system of beliefs and the society norms, the need for the procreation became obsolete and cannot be regarded as the primary motivation for creating a polygamy family. “In the present altered state of customs and laws, men can have no pleasure in a plurality of wives, except from an excess of lust” (Braun 248).
The goal of procreation was obsolete even in Augustine’s times, not to mention the American society of the third millennium. The moral desirability of preserving the monogamy as the only acceptable pattern of creating a new family can be justified with the demand for satisfying the spiritual needs of the present day men and women which is possible only on the condition of ensuring the equal rights for both spouses.
Considering the spiritual needs of contemporary citizens and Augustine’s definition of family as a spiritual union of two partners, monogamy should remain the only acceptable marriage pattern.
Works Cited Braun, Nathan (ed.). The History and Philosophy of Marriage: A Christian Polygamy Sourcebook. San Francisco: Imperial University Press. 2005. Print.
Mooney, Linda , David Knox, and Caroline Schacht. Understanding Social Problems. Belmont: Cengage Learning. 2008. Print.
“He [Jacob] used the women not for sensual gratification, but for the procreation of children” (Braun 247).
“In the present altered state of customs and laws, men can have no pleasure in a plurality of wives, except from an excess of lust” (p. 248).
We will write a custom Essay on Monogamy as an acceptable system of marriage in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reynolds, Philip. Marriage in the Western Church: The Christianization of Marriage during the Patristic and Early Medieval Periods. Danvers: Clearance Center. 2001. Print.
Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The origin of Globalization
Positive Impact of Globalization
Negative Impacts of Globalization
China and India and the World’s Economy
Introduction The debate of globalization still rages with critics and proponents alike failing to reach a consensus on its benefits and detriments. This follows the prevailing differences pictured by people in their attempt to provide the real meaning of globalization.
Is it the coming together of political, economical, or cultural organization around the world, or is it the power behind the ontogeny of economy, success, or democratic liberation? It is worth noting that these, among other questions relating to globalization, will attract conflicting responses, majority of which will depend on people as well as place.
For instance, the answer from a person in Cairo will differ from one in Washington, which will also differ from the one in Johannesburg. In fact, the response will also differ with people from the same place.
Therefore, to come up with a standard definition of globalization may prove hard and hence the debate. Of paramount importance is the fact that, the answers will as well vary based on how various people in various places perceive globalization. There are those who will base their answers on culture, politics, while others will base them on economy. Nevertheless, the pertinent question remains, what is globalization.
Values come in handy when specifying the implication of globalization. For instance, when one pictures globalization as ‘McDonaldization’ or simply ‘Americanization’ of the world, it stands out as a process, steered by the American culture whereby, all other cultures follow suit. In addition and based on culture, globalization can stand as the intermingling of variety cultures in their pursuit of, not only learning, but also sharing with each other.
According to Rothenberg, “Globalization is the acceleration and intensification of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations” (2) This definition stands out as the most unbiased because it takes into account all the areas, which initially were separately used to define globalization. It considers the human welfare like security and health. It also carries with it the issue of environment, not sparing culture, which is a combination of religions, ideas, and politics.
Economy and the success of different societies around the globe stand out within this definition. However, this is not the final definition. As time goes on, different values will arise as expected, a situation that will alter the meaning. As a result, it leaves a room for such a circumstance and hence the most favored definition. However, it is important to consider some issues that surround globalization instead of majoring on its definition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The origin of Globalization The precise emergence globalization is not well known. While some learners claim that it came in the course of the current epoch, others say that it bears a deep-rooted origin. Among the people who regard globalization as having a deep-rooted history is Gander Frank, the economist, who developed the dependency theory. Frank posits, “A form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between summer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC” (29).
Consequently, this implies that globalization of economy and culture has been in existence for a long time going back to the third millennium. For instance, during the Hellenistic era, commercial centers established at this period targeted the entire Greek culture. As a result, trade spread covering a large area beginning all the way from India to Spain.
This is the period when trade spread at a rate greater than ever realized before. It is the period, when the thought of cosmopolitan was used for the first time referring to a ‘world city’, which implied the coming together of a variety of Greek cultures. This scenario is perceived to be the first form of globalization, but not the only one.
The trade network composed of the Han Dynasty, the Roman Empire, and the Parthian Empire also stands as an early form of globalization. According to Adela, “The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Road, which started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome” (Para. 2).
The Islamic Golden age cannot escape mentioning. It stands as another form of globalization in which a significant world economy was established. The establishment of global crops, knowledge, trade, as well as technology marked this period. As a result, crops like sugarcane and cotton dominated the Muslim world. In addition, the learning of the Arabic and the Hajj resulted to a global Muslim culture.
However, as all these happened, they could not be viewed as bearing the issue of globalization. According to the then peoples’ understanding, these were just but normal happenings expected in a growing culture, economy, and politics, to mention but a few. The events that unfolded as from the dawn of 21st century brought to light the issue of globalization.
People could not learn the subject of globalization the easy way until the outbreak of the World War I and II in the twentieth century. These wars were the root cause of the many global issues established as a result. In this century, the subject of human rights was discussed at large following the repercussions of the wars whereby, people were severely mistreated since there lacked a body or a policy that could protect them.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the century when a global announcement of human rights was made in 1948, to take care of people in case of another war outbreak. In addition, the issue of establishing world services emerged as a result.
The World Bank saw its dawn in this century. Ambassadorial organizations like the League of Nations as well as the United Nations came to existence too. Global education also arose with the establishment of a global University in Tokyo, Japan. World Health Organizations, World Trade Organizations, among other global organizations were born in this century.
Moreover, a world economy emerged in the course of this period. Based on the aforementioned comprehensive definition of the term globalization, all these occurrences were incorporated therein, be it economy, culture, and politics. It therefore suffices to associate the origin of globalization with the 20th century.
Positive Impact of Globalization Globalization has influenced the world to a large extend in different ways. The industrial, economic, financial, health, political, to mention but a few sectors, bear a significant influence of globalization. The outgrowth of global output markets as well as the broadened access of a variety of alien goods and services, not only for industries, but also for consumers, has led to the global growth of industries.
This arises from the increased flow-in and flow-out of materials and goods both within and beyond the national boundaries. Bhagwati exposits that ” International trade in manufactured goods increased more than 100 times (from $95 billion to $12 trillion) in the 50 years since 1955” (27). The growth referred to here is industrial growth that was realized because of globalization.
Therefore, it is deducible that globalization has seen the growth of industries in the world. The emergence of globalization leaves a mark in the financial sector. The efforts employed in curbing the worldwide wars revealed the possibility of paving ways for the establishment of some of other worldwide services. The financial services sector bears this mark of globalization.
Globalization has seen the dawn of global financial markets while at the same time broadening the proximity of financing services, both internal and external. For instance, the dawn of 21st century was marked by a significant increase in currency trade, with more than $1.5 trillion being merchandized daily to cater for the increased investment and trade levels. The economy sector has also been influenced by globalization.
Globalization yields a positive impact on economy. People have made efforts to come up with a common world market where they are at liberty to exchange both capital and products. It is worth noting that, these markets depict a pronounced interconnection such that a fall or a rise in one is enough to bring a corresponding effect to the others.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, globalization has led to the production of goods and services at a cheaper cost. This on the other hand has paved way for the movement of employment opportunities to locations with less salary, minimal security of workers, as well as less health considerations. The impact of globalization in the field of health sector also stands out.
Global trade and global economy have led to the establishment of global health policies, which on the other hand remain favored by the rising technology and the medical trade. According to Ollila, “Global priorities, in this situation, are sometimes at odds with national priorities where increased health infrastructure and basic primary care are of more value to the public than privatized care for the wealthy” (6) Globalization has also influenced the area of politics.
In fact, some scholars have viewed globalization as the establishment of a global government, which portrays no more than a political foundation. United States offers the best illustration of this. Since it ranks highest among the world powers, it has grown politically because of globalization.
However, following the significant impact of globalization to the Chinese government, people have predicted that following China’s high rate of growth in technology, economy, wealth, and industry, it may soon alter the political arena. ” China will rival the United States for the position of leading world power” (Hurst 91).
Since this is a result of globalization, it suffices to say that; globalization bears a significant positive impact on politics. However, globalization carries with it some few negative impacts, for instance, environmental degradation.
Negative Impacts of Globalization The large amounts of CO2 emitted in the atmosphere following the advancement of industries because of globalization, have negatively affected the environment.
Countries like China are currently producing large capacities of these harmful gases and virtually all of its people inhale it. It is predicted that within the next few years, most of the tropical rain forests will be logged off, especially those of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. In addition, the extensive interconnections among countries brought by globalization, have led to the famous financial crisis.
This follows from the experienced collapse of the mortgage market prominent in the U.S. This, on the other hand, has led to a momentous loss of jobs. Moreover, the increased job opportunities in the developed countries like the U.S have taken away talents of people, specifically from the African continent. This arises when the jobless people end up being utilized in doing jobs even if they do not match their talents.
Ultimately, they relinquish their talents completely. Globalization has also led to a rise in the spread of some lethal diseases. Robert points out that, “Starting in Asia, the Black Death killed at least one-third of Europe’s population in the 14th century” (262). This spread comes because of the accelerated interaction of people associated with globalization. The trades of illegal drugs like heroin and cocaine is on the rise, following the evident increased rate of entry and exit of goods in countries from all over the world.
China and India and the World’s Economy The world’s economy cannot be well understood without incorporating the contribution of China and India. The two stands as the world’s swiftly budding economic forces, and as a result, they have significantly influenced the global economy. Desai posits, “There will be a much larger percentage of the world’s economic growth in Asia, particularly driven by China [and] India” (12).
It suffices to infer that through globalization, the two are able to bring a growth of the global economy. Though China and India are competitors, it is predicted that as their powers rise, they will turn to be collaborators. Further inferences concerning China and India indicate that there is a high possibility of the two to challenge the U.S, following their entry into the global economy.
Referring to China, Zhiqiang says that “…it has to phase-in the liberalization of such services as banking, insurance, telecommunications, external trade, internal trade and tourism as well as the national treatment for foreign enterprises” (56). These are among the many contributions that China is making in the global economic sector. In terms of exportations, China has become the largest in the world and as a result, it is thought to affect the world’s economy.
China bears a vast manufacturing industry compared to any other country. This boosts its reasons for participating in the international market. India, on the other hand, has significantly influenced the global economy owing to its rapid development in the export sector.
According to Isabelle, “The two countries have thus in common the fact that, in the past ten years, they developed their strongest specialization in sectors linked to information and communication technology” (140) In terms of communication, transportation and insurance among other services, the two countries have highly established services in relation to other countries. All these factors sufficiently tell the reason as to why the world’s economy recognizes the impact of globalization of both China and India.
These services are not as established in the other countries as they are in China and India and this is why the world economy relies much on the contributions of the two. Worth noting is the notion that, if the share of the two was excluded from the global economy, the world would be unable to sustain its people. This is a clear indication that both China and India posses a good chunk in the world’s economy because of globalization.
Conclusion In conclusion, globalization viewed as the integration of economies, cultures, as well as societies, has been achieved following the worldwide political and communication connections. While people have set out to research on the origin of globalization, the results are debatable.
This arises because some claim that globalization bears a deep-rooted historical origin, while others associate it with the unfolding of the twentieth century, the period when many worldwide events happened, for instance, the world wars, WHO, UN, world universities, among others. Although, globalization has positively influenced the world, it in turn bears some negative impacts. It is good because it has brought the evident radical economic, industrial, health, as well as political growth.
However, it is bad because issues like environmental degradation, sweatshops, brain drain, food insecurity and spread of contagious diseases among others, have resulted from globalization. Fortunately, the merits of globalization outweigh its demerits. Of the contributions made to the global economy by the many countries, the one by both India and China remain the most significant.
This arises from the fact that the two are highly globalized in terms of industries, communication and insurance coupled with transportation services. The two have a good share in the world’s economy and if this share were eliminated from the world economy, the result would be no more than an unsolvable economic crisis. This is enough to prove that they significantly influence the global economy founded on globalization.
Works Cited Adela, Lee. Ancient Silk Road Travelers, 2010. Web.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Desai, Vishakha. The Growing Economic Influence of China and India. London: Word Press, 2008. Print.
Frank, Gander. Reorient Global Economy in the Asian Age. U.C: Berkeley Press, 1998
Hurst, Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. USA: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Isabelle, Bensidoun. The Integration of China and India into the World Economy: a Comparison. New York: Word Press, 2006.
Ollila, Edward. Global health priorities: Globalization and Health. England: HVAC, 2005.
Robert, Gottfried. “Black Death in Dictionary of the Middle Ages.” The History of Human Populations 2.1 (1983): 257–67.
Rothenberg, Laurence. The Three Tensions of Globalization. New York: Maxwell Publishers, 2003. Print.
Zhiqiang, Hwang. “Globalization.” The European Journal of Comparative Economics 6.1 (2004): 131-155.
Factors Related to Hypnotisability Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Time and Hypnotizability
Executive Summary The scope of the research is to measure people’s levels of hypnotizability and whether it relates to empathy, absorption and imagery. Studying hypnosis susceptibility helps us understand and identify different characteristics that make individuals react to hypnosis and how effective the proposed measurable scales are.
Hypnosis susceptibility study is conducted through experimental analysis that employs computer generated and self-report measures. Our comprehensive analysis concluded that all the three mentioned factors were positive predictors of hypnotizability. Importance of conducting this study was that medical professionals will be able to relate to new events and develop effective treatment inventions and therapeutic techniques to treat the most diverse forms of pains.
Introduction Manmillar et al (2005) defines hypnosis is a mental state, usually induced by a procedure known as the hypnotic induction. According to their definition, hypnosis uses the imaginative role-enactment which relaxes individual’s objective area of the mind, or may be delivered in the presence of subject.
To broaden our understanding Carli (2007) defines hypnotisability as “the cognitive trait allowing subjects to module perception, emotion and behavior according to specific suggestions” (p.64). Their contemporary research suggests that hypnotisability is a procedure that awakens our focused attention. Accompanied by physical relaxation and induced mental concentration, hypnosis scores are obtained after hyptonic induction, on a standardized hypnosis scale.
The ability to destruct the metal concentration is engrossed in the idea of training thoughts which may subsequently result to individual unconsciousness or even the progressive relaxation term known as ‘nervous sleep’.
Most clinicians agree that hypnosis is an effective therapeutic technique that can be used with people suffering from diverse forms of pains. It’s however argued that the degree to which people receive hypnosis vary from one individual to another and the levels of susceptible hypnosis as mentioned by Manmillar et al (2005) may range from high and low hypnotisability.
To come to a better understanding of the relationship between high and low hypnosis, Manmillar et al (2005) defines high hypnotizable generally as the ease of relaxing minds while Brynt and Idey (2001) defines it as the display of more fantasy proneness and greater absorption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While there are many similarities in high hypnotizable definition, Hilgard (1979) adds that individuals which such susceptible experience greater imaginary involvement while Kumar at al (1996) strongly focuses on their conscious experience in response to the imagery offered by the hypnotist.
In measuring hypnosis effectiveness, Braffman and Kirsch (2001) suggests two detrimental methodologies to include; simple and go/no go reaction times. His analysis further concluded individuals on hypnozability were positively related with simple reaction time and correlated with go/no go reaction time, when non hypnotic suggestibilities were statistically controlled.
It is evidenced that different characteristics make individuals react to hypnosis different and some may be more susceptible to hypnosis than others. Since their applications in both clinical and research settings, hypnotizability scales have never been evidenced to measure effects of hypnotizability.
Since hypnotizability is a stable construct, identifying its predictors would be helpful in comprehending individual differences observed in suggestibility (Paul and Mathews, 2003). Using a set of standardized suggestions to check individuals’ responses, followed by a standardized induction, to know the measure of hypnotic ability they posses is applied.
Barber, Spanos and Chaves (1974) further clarifies that individual differences in ability to respond to hypnosis could be described with the aid of imagination and absorption constructs. Paul and Mathews (2003) on the other hand suggests that hypnotic suggestibility and individual differences are most likely to be experienced with people with the ability to respond to waking and may not necessarily lack the ability to respond to hypnotic procedures.
Kogon et al (1998) define imaginary as the ability of a person to receive an experience or emotional state in one’s mind. He provides that relationships among imaginary and hypnotisability are complex and the methodologies used can easily inflate the relationships.
In this case, Kogon et al (1998) suggests for careful application of the results obtained as many may differ in their degree of association and functionality depending on context of their hypnotic application. In vivid imagery hypnosis application, Kogon et al (1998) performed an experimental analysis where they correlated computer generated and self-report measure of imagery with hypnotizability to measure the degree of their relationship.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Computer generated imagery measures were used due to their ability to provide accurate results and because they are better predictors of hypnotizability. Credited as good hypnotizability measure, the computer generated results did not yield satisfactory results as most of the experiments were conducted outside hypnotic setting.
Moreover, the imagery modality used in measuring correlation between imagery and hypnotisability were valid. This is according to (Carli et al, 2007) reports that stated that “instructions of globally reduced perception” (p.14). In this case the research should have based their analysis on particular sensory modalities which would have yielded positive results that related to the study question.
Milling et al 2000 define absorption as an individual’s characteristic, which encompasses openness, to experience changes in cognitive and emotional, state over rage of circumstances. Green and Lynn (2008) defined it as the capacity for self- altering attention that is considered to be significant component of hypnotozability.
When relating back to highly susceptible individuals, Milling (2000) argue that individuals with highly susceptible are believed to get involved in a variety of imaginative practices more on faster when measuring absorption. Another study conducted by Council, Kirsch and Gran (1996) considers absorption as a predictor of hypnotizability and suggests use of scales designed specifically for measuring absorption to be used.
However in determining the relationship between absorption and hypnotic susceptibility, the most commonly used measures implied that the absorption scales were consistent and reliable related when tests were administered in the same experimental setting (Green and Lynn, 2008).
Szlyk (2003) defines the emotional processes underlie the experience ad creation of hypnosis. He speculates that empathy plays an important role in hypnotic subjects put together in hypnotic experiences. Szlyh (2003) experimental analysis included observations from various researches speculating the particular trait empathy and its relationship to hypnotizability.
He first defined empathy as the ability to understand another person’s feelings and motives. His experimental analysis however showed strong correlation of trait empathy with hypnotic ability. Higard (1970) further examined an individual’s capacity to empathetically recognize characters in drama and literature makes empathy a notable predictor of hypnotizability.
Wickramasekera (1998) study of ‘High Risk Model of Threat Perception’ that examined relationship between emphatic process of emotional contagion and imitation in relations to behavioral and experimental indices of hypnotic ability observed that development of psychosomatic symptoms were more susceptible in high hypnotizable’s as a result of increased empathetic characteristics they posses.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Same clinical observations conducted by Spiegal and Spiegal (1978) confirmed that individuals with high hypnotic ability tend to relate to new events and begin to develop symptoms that resemble the ones they have observed in others.
Results The study recruited 244 participants among whom 239 successfully completed the questionnaire booklet. The study was aimed at identifying factors that best predict hypnotizability, along with the effect of time on hypnotizability. A series of correlations were employed in investigating factors favorable for hypnotizability completed with t-tests aimed at measuring the effect of time on hypnotizability
Our experimental analysis measures whether hypnotizablity relates to three factors; empathy, absorption and imagery. I first hypothesis that mpathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability. And secondly, there would be little difference between pre-group and post-group scores.
The results did however find correlation and intercorrelation values for hypnotizability to be as follows; the correlation for hypnotizability and empathy were r (237) =. 254, the correlation between hypnotizability and imagery as r= (237) = .1.141, hypnotizability and absorption is r (237) = .196
Table 1: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and
Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. When measuring the absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.5 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation. Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.2, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors.
When using inter-correlation measurement, empathy and absorption were rated as r (237) = p .503, while empathy and imagery as r (237) = p .274, and imagery and absorption as r (237) = p .445
Table 2: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and
Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Inter-correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. Measuring absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.4 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation.
Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.1, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors.
Time and Hypnotizability The research used time to focus on the relationship it has on hypnotizability. With regard to the hypothesis empathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability and little difference between pre-group and post-group scores will be evident, a pre-hypnosis questionnaire was compared to a post-hypnosis questionnaire group. The overall hypnosis results showed a mean rate of 5.38 (SD 2.58). Below is a detailed summary of the results.
Green – Control group mean
Blue – Treatment group mean
Group comparison indicated the group that had the questionnaires before hypnosis (n=120) had a mean of 5.44 (SD 2.55) whereas the group that had hypnosis after the questionnaire (n=119) had a mean of 5.31 (SD 2.62). Am independent sample t-test was considered to compare two mean groups to determine whether the mean Group 1 was significantly different from mean Group 2. The results showed no significant differences between the means and the two groups, t (237) = .391 given p<. 0.5. on both groups
References Brynt, R. A.,
Drinking Age in the United States Essay essay help
The United States legal drinking age of twenty one years has been the subject of discussion for a long time based on the fact that some people are for it, while others are against it. The act which was established in 1984 prohibits drinking below the age of twenty one as it states that any state which allows teenagers under the age of twenty one to purchase alcohol would not receive any revenue.
Before 1984, the minimum drinking age varied from state to state such that some states would allow teenagers to consume alcohol publicly while others would not allow it to happen. However, although it is believed that all states go by that law, some states still allow teenagers to drink in private settings.
Consequently, different agencies and scholars have come up with their proposals concerning the same issue. As much as both sides have got their own reasons, based on several factors, the legal drinking age should be lowered to eighteen years. In addition, since America recognizes an adult after attaining eighteen years, it is illogical to prevent such a person from enjoying rights being enjoyed by other adults.
Therefore, bent on that, this essay argues for the idea that the drinking age should be lowered to eighteen years since the current law does not make much sense.
Majority who propose the drinking age to remain at twenty one argue that teenagers drink irresponsibly and end up getting involved in irresponsible and risky behaviors like careless driving. However, in the same country, a person can be taken to court and be tried at the age of eighteen years and above.
Therefore, even if someone commits such a crime, there is usually a way to deal with such incidences. In addition, the court is supposed to maintain law and order and therefore, teenagers under the age of twenty one ought not to be prevented from drinking in order to prevents accidents and other unlawful behaviors (Engs, 1998).
In United States, a person is allowed to join the military after attaining eighteen years of age. Therefore, it means that in legal terms, a person aged eighteen years can be considered as an adult and more to that, such a person can be trusted with very sensitive and important responsibilities like protecting the country from military attacks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, such a person is also allowed to make decisions that affect the future of a country like voting. Bent on that, it is clear that in legal terms, a person who has attained eighteen years is mature and should be allowed to enjoy other rights that are being enjoyed by the rest of the population (ICAP, 2002).
Before making major conclusions, it is important to compare the problems of alcohol that existed before the establishment of the law and after the establishment of the law. According to Engs (1998), even after the establishment of the alcohol law in the year 1987, teenagers below the age of twenty one were still involved in irresponsible drinking which is characterized by behaviors such as missing classes, poor performance and other forms of violence.
The same study illustrates that the main cause of such behaviors is as a result of prohibiting teenagers from drinking in the company of adults who can teach them responsible drinking behaviors. Therefore, even though consumption of alcohol has reduced, other problems that emanate from the same have increased.
Since the main aim of rising alcohol drinking age is to lower such problems, a critical evaluation indicates that that the law does not entirely serve the intended purpose. It would then be more logical to lower the drinking age and allow teenagers to drink in public places; together with the older members of the society so that they can be taught how to drink in a responsible manner.
A study conducted by ICAP (2002) indicated that although United States is among the countries that have the highest drinking age; it has more problems with alcohol than other countries which have a lower minimum drinking age. For instance, in a country like Netherlands, the minimum drinking age of teenagers is eighteen although at sixteen; one is still allowed to buy alcohol from premises which are licensed.
Nevertheless, any one below the age of eighteen is not allowed to purchase and consume spirits. Similarly, in a country like New Zealand, the minimum legal drinking age is eighteen years meaning that all teenagers above the age of eighteen can purchase and drink alcohol at all licensed premises like bars and restaurants.
In consequence, since more countries have a legal drinking age of eighteen years, the minimum drinking age of United states is not is only strange but also impractical. Although countries like Britain and United Kingdom still record deaths that result from road accidents caused by driving under the influence of alcohol, U.S still records higher death rates than such countries (Engs 1998).
We will write a custom Essay on Drinking Age in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More United States is characterized by many violent activities that require the attention of police officers and other law enforcement agencies. With such a high minimum drinking age, the police officers usually have a lot of work in monitoring the drinking age of teenagers below the age of twenty one.
Worse still, research that has been conducted indicated that teenagers below the age of twenty one drink more than even the people above that age. If the minimum age was lowered, the police and other agencies that enforce law and order would concentrate on other activities instead of focusing on college and high school students.
As much as anyone may want to argue that increasing the drinking age is helpful, the available research and evidence illustrates otherwise. The main problem emanates from the fact that rising the drinking age has little if any impact on behavior. To confirm this, Hanson (n. d.) records that in a study which was conducted among teenagers aged sixteen to nineteen years, the daily intake of alcohol did not change even after minimum drinking age was raised.
In addition, in yet another study which was conducted in the District of Columbia, results illustrated that there were more accidents in states which had a high minimum drinking age. Studies conducted illustrated that once the drinking age was raised, teenagers below the drinking age developed a habit of borrowing alcoholic drinks form their older colleagues and that is the main reason why the consumption rate remained high.
A critical review of the alcoholic related issues prior to the increasing of the minimum drinking age and after clearly illustrates that the law does not solve the intended problem. The main reason is due to the fact that it targets a certain age group and not the alcohol problem at hand. Although no one negates the fact that alcohol is a major problem to teenagers, it is important to come up with a law that can solve the problem instead of aggravating it.
Even if alcohol abuse is serious since it carries serious consequences, it is possible to come up with a law that can mitigate the problem. For example, even without much struggle, studies have indicated that in societies where alcohol is not prohibited like in the Jewish society, young people have less problems than in a place like United States where there is a law prohibiting anyone below the age of twenty one from taking and buying alcohol.
References Engs, R. C. (1998). Why the drinking age should be lowered: An opinion based upon research. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~engs/articles/cqoped.html
Hanson, D. J. (n.d.). The Legal Drinking Age: Science vs. Ideology. Retrieved from https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/legal-drinking-age-science-vs-ideology/
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drinking Age in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Internartional Center For Alcohol Policies (ICAP). (2002). Drinking Age Limits. Web.
Adidas vs Nike: Marketing Communication Strategies Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction At the end of a product cycle, a company needs to get the products to the target customer. To do this, the company has to adopt some marketing strategies. Marketing strategies are required for both service and goods businesses. Sporting has moved from a recreational activity and has become a professional career for different people.
Companies manufacturing sporting equipments ranging from clothes, shoes, and other equipments need to market their products effectively. Despite the market for the industry increasing, there are international companies in the industry that adopt different marketing strategies for their success.
Such companies include Adidas and Nike; both companies operate internationally but they adopt different marketing strategies. Though the companies are rivals in the business, they find themselves facing the same competitor with the strongest one as Puma and Reebok (Reid
Extinction of minority languages Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The process of globalization has become very intensive recently. Indeed, the whole world seems to turn into one great community with a unified culture, lifestyle, and system of values. What is more, this community tends to speak fewer and fewer languages, preferring to speak the language that is popular or simple, rather than the one that is native. On one hand, this process is essential, as far as it is based on the law of natural selection.
On the other hand, the extinction of minor languages leads to the extinction of certain cultural groups and their individualities, turning the world into a global grey crowd. So what should be done about the mentioned situation? Undoubtedly, the minor languages should be preserved.
The meaning of the languages that are on the edge of extinction today lies far beyond the linguistic concept. Indeed, languages do not only serve as a means of expression and comprehension; their function is much deeper. Apart from being a system of signs, a language carries a certain mentality, the character of the community it is spoken by. Moreover, the changes in the community’s life are inevitably reflected in its language.
Community and language function as one organism, and when a language dies out, the community also stops existing. In fact, it can become a part of another community, or adopt another language, but losing a native language means losing authenticity with no opportunity for further development and life. That is why, the process of languages extinction should be resisted.
Today the language policies aimed at preserving the minor languages are treated as unpopular and needless. The politicians see no sense in investing money into saving some language of an African community, as this investment will have no obvious use for USA or Europe. More and more money, however, are being spent on popularizing several “strong” languages, such as English, Russian, and Chinese. Indeed, all the countries of the world are to some degree English-speaking.
This is advantageous from economical and political points of view, and is bound to the experience of USSR, where the attempt to create a superpower started with accepting one unified language. The result of that policy, as well as of the one that is led today, is that the half of the world turns into one community with no certain culture, customs and traditions, but with one certain language to speak.
Due to the mentioned facts, we should realize that the preservation of minor languages is a worthy idea. This mission is close to the attempts to preserve the diversity of the nature, saving all of its creatures, their families and creatures. Every language has a history, and no language was made up just for fun.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supporting a language that is on the edge of extinction means saving its history with the underlying culture. After all, if there is a number of popular languages, there should also be some private ones, which should be able to express some very intimate and very native feelings of their speakers.
All in all, it can be said that the intense process of modern globalization has led to the extinction of many minor languages. This process is hard to resist, however there is definitely a need for preserving the minor languages that still exist. Language policies aimed at supporting them should be treated as an attempt to save a piece of original culture, contained in a system of written and spoken signs. Popularizing the minor languages may be a purposeless task; however, their protection from dying out is extremely important.
Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts Research Paper custom essay help
Abstract Although it is rather sad fact to admit, the modern world is highly preoccupied with the threat of terrorism which has recently emerged in the modern society. Such is the situation that the numerous terrorist acts have caused people to panic over their endangered future. Since everyone can remember the tragic events of 2001 and less known but nonetheless terrible accidents that have been caused by terrorists, it is quite understood why the modern world has frozen in anticipation of the inevitable to happen.
Because of the growing anxiety of the uncertain future, people started making assumptions of what the terrorist acts could lead to and if the safety is at high risks now. Instead of looking for the facts carefully, people start believing rumors and the suppositions that were not based either on logic, or on the events that did take place.
As a result, the population of Europe and the USA has been scared stiff and cannot think of the Arabic world in other way than of a world where cool-blooded murders and troublemakers live. Still such statements have nothing to do with the reality. One of the chief goals of the government must be the one of clarifying the issues of terrorism with people to help them to know more about the danger that they are exposed to, because those forewarned are forearmed.
The Roots of the Terrorism: Where the Evil Began Because of the fact that the modern world has faced the danger of being involved into a terrorist act accidentally, there has been a major concern about the phenomenon and its roots. Although the issue does not suggest broad discussion, it is still important to know what the grounds of the terrorists are.
The research on the reasons for terrorism, the people who commit it and the events that trigger this splash of violence are important fro the further preventive measures which have to be taken in order to save the lives of thousands of people. In case these measures are successful, there is hope that people will no longer suffer from the fear of a dreadful death.
The Reasons for the Savage Actions
As a rule, nothing happens out of a sudden, and every single event in a human’s life is triggered by the action that has been undertaken before. The same goes for terrorism, as the actions of the people who have been given a reason to act against the rest of the world. It would be a useful practice to trace the events that lead to the aggression from the Muslim world with its dangerous idea of revenge.
It cannot be doubted that the dangerous people have been influenced by the by the growing power of the leading countries. The influence of theirs, together with the economical and military power have added to the uncertainty of the world of the Muslim people, and the most daring ones started showing their protests to the actions of the world leaders, yet in their own way.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The terrorist acts that have occurred so far seem to have been inspired by the threat that the East thought the world leaders to pose to the eastern well-being and their traditions and customs. Te ingenuity of their life was the clue of the Eastern culture and the idea that it is so vulnerable and subjected to the influence of the West was unbearable for the Islamic people.
The Prerequisites of the Terrorism
Like many other historical tragedies, terrorist acts did not appear out of nowhere, but had certain prerequisites which could have been foreseen. Since the political reasons for the terrorist acts to occur are predominating, it seems that those responsible for the tragic events are the people who are in charge of the political safety of the country. Indeed, there are no other pretexts but the economical and cultural ones that can trigger such calamity and result in a bloodbath.
However, it cannot be stated that the leaders of the countries that are suffering from the terrorist acts occurring constantly have nothing to be blamed fro. The recent survey shows that there have been the elements of malpractice in the politics of the state during the recent years. Such political issues of rather doubtful nature have been emerging constantly over the past years. The politicians that do not compete fair for the parliament chair or the post of the president have proved o use the most indecent methods and means to achieve their goals:
So-called negative, or comparative, political advertising has been used increasingly in recent years. It conveys or seeks to evoke a basically unfavorable view of the opposing candidate or party, often by means of comparison with the sponsoring candidate. (Coleman 2000, p. 16)
The Right to Live – Or to Die?
According to the existing human rights, the right to live is one of the prior rights of a free person in the modern world. It is quite understood that the people all over the world cannot feel safe at the moment, regarding the international situation that is most tense nowadays. Together with the threat of terrorism, it makes people’s lives unbearable. However, the UNO has recently come up with something that can be considered an attempt protect people, their freedom and their rights.
There has been also discovered the link between the threat of terrorism and the political instability of the country. Rooting from the people losing the trust in the government, this issue has a great impact on the further development on the country and can result in continuous regress. As Davis (2004) put it,
At low levels of trust in the government, those who have great concern about another terrorist attack differ little in their support for civil liberties from those who have little or no concern about another terrorist attack; but among those who have some or a lot of trust in the government, greater concern about another attack is associated with a sharply lower support for civil liberties. (p. 40)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Most Notorious Terrorism Acts Because of the dreadful consequences and the deaths that a terrorist act triggers, it is impossible to say which of them was the most terrible one; yet it is possible to calculate the damage that they have caused and to figure out which of the acts of terrorism has been the one of the biggest damage and the most desperate and mournful cries.
It can be said with certainty that the terrorist act that the whole wide world ahs seen and will probably remember for good is the accident that took place on September, 11 in 2000. The planes driven by the terrorists have taken hundreds of lives with them, and it was the most terrible event that the USA has ever witnessed since the day it was founded. The cruelty and the aggression of the terrorists was indescribable, since they aimed not on the government only, but also on the innocent people which did not do practically nothing bad.
It can be said that the terrorists have hit the head – the house of Pentagon – and the heart – the so-called Twins – of the United States. If the first act can be described as a political crime, an unlucky assassination the second is no doubt, the most cruel and inhumane action that could have ever be done to a country and the people that are living there.
Taking innocent lives with them has never bothered terrorists, but there is still something worth mentioning, namely that the idea of killing the other people for the sake of the idea can be a rather precise description of the terrorists’ military actions. The way Al-Qaeda operates leaves no room for mercy, but merely cool-blooded reflections on the results which the acts will trigger.
The 11th of September: They Hit U.S. in the Head and in the Heart
Although the tragedy occurred long time ago, there are still the things that remind of the tragic events. Because of the controversial facts that have been presented to the public, there are still heated debates concerning the question of the “authorship” of the crime. The most popular answer is that this is the deed of the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden.
However, there are still certain doubts concerning this mysterious personality. There is no doubt that he exists, but the place where he is concealing from justice now is unidentified and it seem that it never will be, regarding what has been learned about his whereabouts at the moment.
The whereabouts of the headquarters of the terrorists are no secret to the international police and the governmental bodies, but the danger that the states will dispose themselves into as they approach the root of the terrorism is immense and thus the governments cannot risk the well-being and peace all over the world.
One of the main problems which the international police have encountered on its way to fighting terrorism is its unpredictability. Since walking the tightrope is not what the international police are fond of, they do not haste to take steps towards elimination of the headquarters.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the principle of transparency that Obama provided, nowadays people can find out more about the reasons that made the terrorists attack the U. S., yet there is a tint of some things unsaid, in order to keep the people calm and to hush down the fear of the terrorists assaulting the United States citizen once again:
Many of the Bush administration’s most controversial national security policies – the warrantless wiretapping program, the torture program, the rendition program – were conceived, developed, and authorized in secret. The American public found out about these policies long after they were put into place, and after a great deal of damage had already been done. (Establishing a New National Security, Establishing a New Normal, 2010, p. 4)
The Problem That Is Yet to Be Solved The Residence of the Evil: Terrorists’ Headquarters
Nowadays probably everyone knows the way the terrorists’ headquarters is called and where it is situated. Al-Qaeda is considered one of the most dangerous terrorist organizations because of its being highly organized, which is posing a certain threat to the society. Disregarding the fact that this is t one and only terrorist organization that is known all over the world, it is still necessary to admit that it has certain power and it uses the power possessed aiming at the opponents’ life values.
It hits the most vulnerable spot on the body of a country that is straight against Al Qaeda, and there is no stopping to the awful acts of the people who are in charge of it. Formed by Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan in 1988 (Katzman 2005, 1), it is posing a deadly threat to the world safety.
Yet there is one more body of ever greater influence that has begun the continuous fight which is going on even at present, though the battle ahs been hushed down for a while. The name of the force that is ever greater than the one of the terrorists and their organization is the regime of Saudi Arabia. According to Yamani (2008), the abovementioned formation was the first to be blamed for the Islamic aggression that took place shortly after the regime began to take its toll over the political situation:
The Saudi Arabian regime, aided by oil money and custodianship of Islam’s holiest sites, has in recent years emerged as one of the most active and creative diplomatic players in the Middle East. It was a key covert supporter of the United States’ decision to invade Iraq, of efforts to achieve a comprehensive negotiated settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian dispute, and especially of efforts to counter Iran’s hegemonic ambitions. (p. 143)
Taking into consideration the above-mentioned, it can be suggested that the war that was started between the West and the terrorists was due to the political reasons, namely the reason of money and the economical profit. Since oil is rather valuable substance, there is no doubt that the battle was started only to obtain the right to behold the source of everlasting richness.
The case when the concern for their own future and the easy money have prevailed over the spirit of neighborliness is, unfortunately, not so rare. Anyway, the war was started and millions of innocent people were involved into the deadly process.
One of the most notorious questions is whether the people who were involved into the terrorist acts were persuading specifics goals or if the very act was the result of their inner tenseness and the desire to change things so that the country could live again without the invaders and the people who would make them get adjusted to the new ideas that were so foreign to their own ones.
Anyway, the day when Al-Qaeda officially started opposing the rest of the world is considered September, 1st (Leahy 2009) – the notorious and mournful day when hundreds of people perished in the building suddenly attacked by two planes.
The Way the Government Sees It
There is no need to tell that the government pursues the goals of the nation safety and the political stability. Unfortunately, it is not always that the two are compatible. However, in case when the government is threatened with an assault that has been successful and taken away several lives, there is a reason for a deep concern.
It might be useful to reconsider the means that the government uses to enhance its political strength and to find a way out of the complicated situation that the leaders have been trapped in. Whenever there are some political arguments, it is always better to listen to the opponent and to draw necessary conclusions rather than to oppose the rival directly and cause undesirable results.
In spite of the fact that the threat of terrorism is on of the most notorious ones in the modern world, the USA does not hesitate to take immigrants from the other countries. It is clear that the control in the airports has been enhanced, but that does not explain the carelessness of the U. S. government. As Chishti (2003) claimed,
The government’s major successes in apprehending terrorists have not come from post-Sept. 11 immigration initiatives but from other efforts, such as international intelligence activities, law enforcement cooperation and information provided by arrests made abroad (p. 7)
However, it must be admitted that the government did take the necessary precautions as they came to the conclusion that the safety of the nation must be the prior concern of the state:
Shortly after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President Bush authorized a highly secretive National Security Agency (NSA) program to eavesdrop on electronic communications involving U.S. persons without a warrant and outside of the process set forth in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). (Keiber, 2006)
Conclusion In spite of the fact that the modern politics insist on the terrorist danger as something that has already been overcome and that has to be remembered as the tragic remainder of the past, there are still some roots of it left somewhere deep inside people’s minds, and in the politics’ craving for more influence and power.
Yet it must be understood that, despite the threat of terrorist acts occurring, there must be no prejudice against Muslims, as well as their culture, belief and traditions. It must be remembered that there are no right and wrong in the war and international conflict, for these are both opponents that are being misled. Wong (2006) was completely right saying:
The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is a challenge unprecedented in American history. It dictates a reexamination of the balance between national security and civil liberties to accomplish the dual goals of preventing future attacks and maintaining our commitment to the U.S. Constitution. (2)
It is necessary to understand that Wong is speaking about the war on terrorism, not on the people. Emphasizing the necessity to maintain peace, he admits that there must be some military actions undertaken, but the peaceful citizen must not suffer. Instead of constant conflicts between the nations, there must be some common decision that the nations must come to.
That concerns the Asian countries as well, since they cannot be called as the conflicting ones at all. A few people who are constantly causing calamity and making the government undertake military actions to calm down the rebellions are not the reason to judge the whole nation.
The reasons for the Asian countries to conflict with the rest must be understood as well. Taking into consideration the economical and political tenseness in the abovementioned countries, it can be easily understood why those people display such aggression towards the unknown world. What the western countries must do is to take time and wait until the leaders of these conflicting countries are ready for a constructive dialogue.
While military actions can only make the situation worse, a civilized approach can help the nations become friendlier to each other and build the relationship based on mutual trust and understanding. With a humane approach to the opponents, it is possible that the war will be won without a single shot. Yet the question of how much time it will take for the leaders of the Asian countries to build partner relationships wit the western states.
References Chishti MA et al. American’s Challenge: Domestic Securities, Civil Liberties, and National Unity after September 11. Migration Policy Institute (MPI): Washington, DC, USA, 2003. 5-20. Print.
Davis DW et al. Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attack on America. American Journal of Political Science (AJPS), 48(1); 2004. 28-46. Print.
Establishing a New Normal: National Security, Civil Liberties, and Human Rights Under the Obama Administration; an 18 Months review. American Civil Liberty Union, 2010. 1-22. Print.
Katzman, K. CRS Report for Congress: Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment. Congressional Research Service, the Library of the Congress, 2005. 1-6. Print.
Keiber, J. National Security and Civil Liberties; Director of Studies Strategy. 2 (3) Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2006.
Leahy, P. J., and B. L. Cardin et al. Protecting National Security and Civil Liberties: Strategies for Terrorism Information Sharing; Hearing before Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security of the Committee of the Judiciary; United States Senate. One Hundred Eleven Congress, first session, 2009. 1-95. Print.
Wong, L. et al. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties. Strategic Studies Institute; Conference Brief, 2006. 1-4. Print.
Yamani, M. The Two Faces of Saudi Arabia. Survival: 50(1), 2008. 142-156. Print.
Cross Cultural Communications Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Cultural conflict
Assimilation and integration
In the globalized world, the need for people from different cultures to communicate effectively is essential. Yet, attaining effective cross-cultural communication is not always an easy undertaking. What with every person believing that his or her culture is the best and even more people not willing to learn or accommodate another culture? Moreover, human beings tend to be stereotypical, usually judging people from other cultures based on long-held biases.
Regardless of the stereotypes and biases, the human relations across the conventional world are such that governments need each other, and hence cross-cultural communication must be enhanced if understanding between governments and the people they represent is to be attained.
Among the cultures that have always been in conflict are the Islamic culture and the American culture. The latter is predominantly based on Christian principles, although the government and its people are quick to denounce any religious affiliations, choosing to remain a liberal society. Islamic culture on the other hand is based on Islamic religion, and Muslims perceive their religion as a way of life. Specifically, Muslims do not separate their religion from the life they lead publicly or privately (Hamada).
As Shaheen observes however, the casual American observer usually associates Islam to hatred, fanaticism, violence, women oppression, and jihad (2). This affects cross cultural communication between Americans and people who adhere to the Islamic culture because the former always view the latter as a group of people who believe, feel, think and act as one based on their religious inclinations.
Muslims on the other hand perceive adherents of the American culture as a “proud culture” with little tolerance to ideals that differ from what the ‘liberal culture’ advocates.
Cultural conflict Most cultural conflicts between the American culture and the Islamic culture are based on stereotypes. According to Shaheen, people form stereotypes through hearsay or imagination (5). As such, their perceptions are not based on personal experiences or knowledge.
The perceptions based on stereotypes however shape their future relationships with people from ‘the other’ culture, hence affecting communication between the two parties. One however wonders why effective cross-cultural communication between adherents of the Islamic and American cultures is such an important issue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is an average 6.5 million Muslims living in the United States. Some are Americans by birth, while others are immigrants. More important is the fact that the United States as a nation needs to comprehend the Islamic culture in order to serve its strategic geopolitical needs as well as uphold its constitutional ideals such as religious tolerance. There are also a significant number of American scholars, investors, and even students in countries with a predominant Islamic Culture (Ahmed “Journey” 7; Shaheen 6).
There is evidence in literature to the effect that cross-cultural communication between adherents of the American and Islamic culture can only be effective if both parties take time to understand each other (Ahmed “Journey” 7; Shaheen 6; Zaharna 245). Notably, communication breakdown as observed by Zaharna occurs when one “observes the differences of another through the prism of one’s culture” (241).
Lacking knowledge regarding another person’s culture occurs because people are ignorant, and often times such people believe that their culture is the best. Such attitudes towards a different culture eventually breed ethnocentrism, which in turn leads to negative perceptions towards ‘the other’ culture. According to Zaharna, only a conscious awareness of differences that exist between two cultures can help facilitate understanding (241). As such, there is a need to investigate how the American and Islamic cultures differ.
Diversity With the United States being a cultural melting pot, it is hard to have a definite definition of the American culture. In the same way, it is hard to define the Islamic culture since it is made up of people of diverse backgrounds and origins. For example, during a 2001 ethnicity study in the United States, the Muslim community compromised of 25 percent Arabs, 3 percent Africans, 35 percent Asians, 30 percent African-Americans, and 25 percent Europeans (Theis).
In the same study, it was established that Americans will most likely pick a person of Arabic descent as a Muslim since there is a widespread concept that all Arabs are Muslim, while ignoring the large percent of Asians or African-Americans.
In communication, the Islamic culture can be defined as a high-context culture while the American culture can be identified as a low-context culture (Hall 18). In high-context cultures, communication is neither coded nor explicit. Often, the communicator expects the recipient to understand the physical and contextual cues of the message in order to get the “full meaning of the message” (Hall 98).
In most cases, the communicator avoids giving specific details, expecting the interlocutor to interpret the message for him or herself and hence unearth the meaning of their communication. Americans on the other hand practice a low-context culture, where the burden of making communication clear lies with the person articulating the message. As such, it is the responsibility of the person conveying the message to ensure that it is clear, precise, and accurate in order to avoid any misinterpretation by the recipient.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Cross Cultural Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A clash in cross-cultural communication occurs when neither of the parties knows how to interpret each other’s communication methods. Samovar, Porter and McDaniel specifically point out that mutual misconceptions occur between adherents of the Islamic and American culture since people on both sides do not have the patience, or the knowledge needed to understand each other’s point of view (164). Adherents of the American culture are specifically unfamiliar with the Islamic way of communicating, praying, and even relating.
Adherents of the Islamic culture on the other hand usually lack the knowledge and tact needed in presenting their faith and lifestyles to others (Samovar, Porter, and McDaniel 116). As a result, adherents of the Islamic culture (especially those of Arabic origin) have always been perceived as the “uncivilized character, the cultural other [or] someone who appears and acts differently [from] the white western protagonist…” (Shaheen 12).
In an example from (Ahmed “Journey” 11), the author observes that Muslim women may become nervous and perturbed when male officials in America or elsewhere look them direct in the eye, speak to them in a loud, show aggressive behavior or come too close to them. Modesty rules in the Islamic culture hold that men should address women in reasonable mild tones. Moreover, the Islamic culture expects people of opposite sex to maintain reasonable distance while communicating as a sign of modesty (Ahmed “Journey” 11).
Ahmed further notes that the nervous and perturbed nature of a Muslim woman may however be interpreted by the American male official as a sign that the woman is ill-at ease because of something she may be hiding (11). This suggests that unless adherents of both the American and Islamic cultures make deliberate efforts to understand each other’s cultures, a breakdown in communication between people of the two cultures will always occur.
According to Zaharna, while the American culture stresses the need for univocal openness, the Islamic culture relies more on using ambiguous communication (146).
This then raises the question, how can people from the two cultures communicate effectively with each other? More so, what are the chances that a Muslim working in America will learn to communicate effectively with people in the host country or vice versa? According to Zaharna, the answers to these questions are contained in people understanding each other’s culture (147). For Muslims living in America, the burden of effective communication is on them.
The same case applies to Americans working in Middle East countries where the Islamic culture is prevalent. In both cases, the person moving to the other culture has to research, understand, and in most cases make changes in his or her communication methods in order to conform to the host culture. Unfortunately, this cannot be an easy undertaking especially since change would call for one to set aside what they have always practiced and adopt a set of different communication approaches.
A Muslim faithful who has always used ambiguous styles of communication would for example need to adopt open, univocal communication while residing, working with, or dealing with people from the American culture. Notably, such a transformation in communication skills would not only require patience, but dedication too.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross Cultural Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having observed that the Islamic culture does not differentiate between religiosity and lifestyle, it is worth noting that people from the Islamic culture associate their well-being with God’s blessing. According to Zaharna, how different people perceive their positions in life also affects the way they communicate (248).
Notably, the American culture lays special emphasis on the need to work hard if one is to attain measurable accomplishments. According to the author, the American culture’s perception to material well-being can be defined as a “doing culture.” The Islamic culture on the other hand believes in a “being culture” where Allah’s blessings are deemed essential for success in life.
The two concepts as proposed by Zaharna are well captured by Ahmed, who indirectly alludes to the fact that the American culture borrows from Darwinian principles where the fittest people succeed or survive in life. On the same breadth, Ahmed indirectly equates the Islamic culture with Abrahamic faiths, where self-interest is abhorred, while virtues such as selfless love, concern for the needy and the dispossessed are encouraged (25-26).
Ahmed further notes that the American culture’s anxiety, competitiveness, anger and fear towards other cultures is deeply rooted in Darwinian thinking (26). This assertion can be interpreted to mean that there are suspicions on both sides of the divide, which could very well hinder effective communication.
The American will on one hand, relate with the Muslim with some skepticism especially considering that there is a wide held-misconception that all Muslims are violent. Muslims on the other hand relate with the Americans cautiously based on the selfish impression that most Muslims have towards the American culture.
Assimilation and integration Assimilation in the American and Islamic cultures is desirable if effective communication is to occur between adherents of the two cultures. However, the magnitude of the goodwill required from both sides cannot be underestimated if assimilation and integration is to become a reality (Tareen). As has been noted by Shaheen, the first step to progress would both cultures to contest stereotypes that exist between them (65).
Citing John F. Kennedy, Shaheen observes, “it is necessary to remove the prejudices of the people, enlighten their ignorance and convince them that their interest will be promoted by [the] proposed changes; and this is not the work of a day” (65). Seeing the extent of work that such changes would call for, one wonders just where the starting point would be.
The potency of mass media as a communication tool would perhaps present one of the most wide-reaching and effective means of enhancing cross-cultural communication between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures. Shaheen’s analysis of nine hundred American-produced films reveal that most such movies contained racist and nonobjective representation of the Islamic culture mainly through characters of Arab origin.
According to Samovar, Porter and McDaniel, the unrealistic messages and images passed through media channels can be changed if producers and writers are taken through literacy programs, which encourage critical thinking amongst them (169). One such effort as cited by Theis was the “Islam in America” campaign that published weekly advertisements in local newspapers across the United States in 2003. The campaign targeted the general audience including writers, publishers and the general citizenry.
Beyond the role that the mass media needs to engage in, the roles of governments and individuals are vital (Tareen), especially if people from the two cultures are to attain assimilation and integration. Governments also need to help the citizenry overcome some of the biases held towards the two cultures by overcoming the “ideological principle of antagonism” that has characterized American-Islamic relations in the past (Hamada).
There is no doubt that there are suspicions from both sides and hence opinion makers in the Islamic culture; just as is the case with leaders and opinion makers in the American culture. Yet these parties have an important role to play in helping the masses overcome these suspicions.
Conclusion For effective cross-cultural communication to occur between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures, there has to more deliberate action from both sides in order to change people’s perception regarding the “other” culture.
As has been noted in this essay, stereotypes formed mainly from hearsay and imaginations have always characterized relations between Americans and Muslims. In the post 9/11 world, Americans have become particularly suspicious of the Muslims because of widespread association of terrorism with Islam (Ahmed “Islam” 26).
Muslims on the other hand, having suffered rejection, mistreatment, and suspicion from their American counterparts have a deep-rooted perspective of the American as an arrogant person who cares little about the well-being of the other person. The situation can be described as “Muslims are for Americans what the Russians were for Churchill’ as noted by Ahmed (“A Journey”). Apart from these stereotypes clouding people’s judgment, they also affect how people from the two cultures communicate.
The communication process between the American and Islamic cultures is made worse by the fact that one is a high-context culture, while the other is a low-context culture. For effective communication to occur therefore there has to be a compromise between the two. Usually, the immigrant who needs to communicate effectively takes the responsibility of learning about his or her host culture and conforming to the same, and as observed in this essay, the process requires both dedication and patience.
As Shaheen has observed, relationships between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures are dominated by long held clichés and stereotypes (65). As such, for successful cross-cultural communication to occur, people in both cultures would need to find effective means to contest and overcome the stereotypes. More importantly, people in the two cultures must be willing to overcome their prejudices and ignorance by adopting change.
Both sides must also understand that any vilification based or religion or race is wrong. Through Muslims and Americans humanizing each other, there is a possibility that people from the two cultural divides can establish effective communication relationships. In the contemporary globalized world, adherents of both American and Islamic cultures will need each other for economic, political, or social reasons. Their relationships can only be successful if there is effective cross-cultural communication.
Works Cited Ahmed, Akbar (“A Journey,” online). 2010. A Journey into America, Past and Present. Web.
Ahmed, Akbar S. (“Islam”). Islam under Siege: Living dangerously in a Post-honor World, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.
Ahmed, Akbar (“Journey”). Journey into America: The Challenge of Islam. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2010.Print.
Hall, Edward Twitchell. Beyond Culture. NY: Double Day, 1976. Print
Hamada, Basyouni. “Global Culture of Cultural Clash: An Islamic Intercultural Communication Perspective.” Global Media Journal 3.5 (Fall 2004). Web.
Samovar, Larry, Porter Richard, and McDaniel, Edwin. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Shaheen, Jack. “Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in the American Popular Culture.” Occasional Papers Series (1997):1-91.
Tareen, Amra. America’s Schizophrenic Muslim Policy- Journey into America: The Challenge of Islam. All Voices inc., Aug. 2010. Web.
Theis, Rolf. “Muslim Americans in American Society- and in German Classroom.” American Studies Journal 52.1. (Sept. 2008). Web.
Zaharna, Rhoda. “Bridging Cultural Differences: American Public Relations Practices
Adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding Essay essay help
Gay parenting involves a situation whereby gay people including lesbians are allowed to act as parents to one or more children through foster care, adoption, surrogacy, and co-parenting (Bozett ix). Therefore, gay parents are allowed by law to establish a normal family in some parts of the world.
According to different census studies, about 33% of Lesbian couples and 22% of gay couples take care of at least one child in their households. In addition, the same studies show that gay or Lesbian parenting has several advantages as opposed to foster care and some aspects of heterosexual parenting (Aiken 182).
Here, the supporters of gay or lesbian parenting argue that a considerable number of gay parents provide their adopted children with more secure emotional surroundings compared to heterosexual parents. Moreover, gay parents give their adopted children a chance to realize the importance of a full-time family compared to single parenthood, which is characterized by many shortcomings such as poor academic achievements and questionable behavioral characteristics in children.
On the other hand, evidence tends to support the perception that lesbian parents who are given a chance to bear their own children through artificial insemination are better parents in terms of providing emotionally stable homes and raising well-adjusted children. Lastly, gay or lesbian parenting serves to minimize the shortage of adoptive parents experienced in foster homes across the United States (Aiken 180-183).
Furthermore, studies show that gay or Lesbian parenting does not significantly differ from heterosexual parenting in terms of raising psychologically sound, well-educated, socially healthy, and well-adjusted children. On the other hand, most studies involving gay parenting and gay adoption seems to support the idea that adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding in different aspects of life and academics. As a result, this essay looks at different aspects of gay or lesbian parenting, which seem to support adopted children in their mission to succeed.
First, many gay or lesbian parents tend to support the idea that children who will live in the future age should belong to each individual living in the present age. As a result, gay or lesbian parents have many long-lasting dreams and hopes for their adopted children as opposed to foster and heterosexual parents. Therefore, apart from realizing that love builds a family, gay adoptive parents are aware of the need for the family to act as the first teacher for their children.
Moreover, these parents are aware of the society’s view of their sexual orientation, and thus they tend to worry more about the safety and welfare of their children particularly in schools (Letts and Sears 163). Consequently, gay parents taking care of adopted children tend to build a strong attachment with their children and other adoptive and heterosexual parents who are sharing the same experience and vision for their children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the existence of children from gay or lesbian families in both private and public schools has forced school administrators and the society to reconsider their traditional perception of these children. Therefore, schools and the society become more committed towards guaranteeing the safety and integrity of adopted children from gay families thereby giving these children better chances of succeeding in academics and other social activities (Letts and Sears 170).
Secondly, studies show that the number of infants who are born out of wedlock is significantly increasing in the United States, and therefore, compromising care services at foster and adoptive homes. For example, in 1995, about 258,000 children aged below 18 years were living in foster homes across the United States (Aiken 182).
In the recent past, additional foster homes have been established to cater for the rising number of children from different races. However, studies note that abandoned children are brought in and out of different foster homes, and thus, the chances of these children developing emotional stability and personal identity are very minimal.
On the other hand, the same studies note that adopted children including those raised by gay parents have better chances of becoming emotionally stable and developing strong personal identities compared to their counterparts in foster homes. Here, the supporters of gay adoption argue that there is a high probability that many adoptive adults will want their adopted children, and thus, they are more willing to make various preparations and concessions for such children in terms of schooling and their social welfare (Aiken 184).
Lastly, studies on the quality of gay fathers and their parenting tactics show that gay parents are more willing to support paternal nurturance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. On the other hand, gay fathers are less likely to support economic provisions and empowerment for their young children.
Furthermore, most gay fathers show no signs of supporting the traditional characteristics of parenting, and thus they are more unlikely to provide their children with sex-typed toys and presents. In fact, gay fathers tend to endorse role models who are of the opposite sex for their children (Bozett 15).
Overall, there is evidence to suggest that gay parents have positive interactions and relationships with their biological and adopted children. Additionally, the parent’s sexual orientation shows no significant impact on the relationship between parents and their growing children (Bozett 15). Therefore, gay parents tend to establish stable homes in addition to long-term positive relationships with their children, and in so doing, they give their children the opportunity to succeed.
We will write a custom Essay on Adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Aiken, Lewis. Human development in adulthood. New York: Plenum Press, 1998. Print.
Bozett, Frederick. Gay and lesbian parents. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1987. Print.
Letts, William and Sears, James Thomas. Queering elementary education: advancing the dialogue about sexualities and schooling. Maryland: Rowman
The Issue of Bullying in the Schools Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Personal experience
Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying
This paper attempts to look at the issue of bullying in the schools. A personal story about how I was bullied when I was young is included. The paper looks at this issue by considering aspects like causes and forms of bullying as well as examples of bullying cases.
Since the number of bullying cases has been on the increase in schools, recommendations will be offered on the best thing to do when bullying cases are reported. Main ideas on the topic will be presented so that the issue can be presented in a comprehensive way (Smith, Pepler, and Rigby 56-60).
Personal experience I grew up in south Bronx until I was thirteen years old when we moved to an Irish neighborhood. My brother and sister are half Irish and half Puerto Rican, unlike me; my whole family has a very fair skin. The first time I landed on this neighborhood, I was very delighted since unlike our previous home I could play outside the house.
I still recall what befell me the first time I went out to play; all the children in the neighborhood were white and the girls started harassing me by telling me that if I was hoping to live there I had to be white, they even spread baby powder on my face. We later become friends although some of their parents resented me because I was Spanish. The situation did not get any better since some children nicknamed me Goya bean: this made to hate Goya beans
When summer ended, I joined school and it so happened that I was the only Spanish girl in the whole school. Things did not go well here either since I picked fights frequently because other children teased me. At some point, it became a routine that I had to be involved in a fight everyday. The principle took the initiative of calling my mother to discuss the matter. When my mother came, she was told that I was a problematic child since I frequently fought with other children.
The board of directors claimed that with my stubborn nature I deserved to be taken to a special school where other problematic children studied. Since then, I was regarded as a problematic child. My mother was forced to transfer me to another school since I was expelled from my former school. I developed low self-esteem and I started taking drugs, soon afterwards I dropped out of school at sixth grade.
This victimization made me to start thinking of ways that I could change my way of life to show that I was still strong hence prove to my aggressors wrong. The events acted as a motivating factor for me to make a difference. Each time I feel like giving up my efforts of trying to be what I want to be, I look back and remember all the challenges that I have overcome in my life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes me to realize that I have much more challenges to face and overcome; thus I become a stronger person. Every time I look back, I do not regret what I have gone through since it is through these chain of events that I have become what I am today.
One thing that I am proud of is that I managed to turn anger into motivation. Nevertheless, I must admit that these experiences left me with a scar since when one is a victim of bullying he or she is tempted to believe that something is wrong with them one asks questions like ‘why me?’ Bullying kills one’s self esteem and also makes one to feel isolated.
The victim may fear or feel ashamed to tell anyone since he or she may think that this has never happened to anyone else. It gives me joy to know that the issue of bullying is now a pubic affair since bullying stories were unheard of when I was growing up. It is also important to note that children are no longer afraid to report bullying cases.
Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying Slavens and Kerrigan (23) see bullying as a term used to describe a pattern of behavior that is cruel and humiliating towards another person, he further notes that it can affect people of all walks of life and age.
Bullying can occur in two forms, verbal and physical. One can be bullied verbally when the bully attempts to verbally anger the victim by mocking them on purpose. Physical bullying occurs when the bully or aggressor forces physical contact with his or her victim, this may be in form of kicking or punching to the point that the victim becomes submissive.
Physical bullying is more serious as compared to verbal bullying since it can lead to serious injuries and sometimes death of the victim (Orpinas, Horne, 12-34). Bullies enjoy intimidating others to either gain fame or to satisfy their ego. Teenagers may bully others due to peer pressure since they may want to fit in a certain click. Factors that can lead to bullying include differences in physical and cultural characteristics; in addition, showing signs of inferiority can also be a major cause of bullying.
This vice has many effects on the victim. Since the bully has control over the victim, the victim can become stressed to the extent of becoming depressed. Most victims of bullying have low self esteem since they do not feel self-sufficient. The victim can also develop negative attitude towards the environment and the people around him.
We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Bullying in the Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a person may isolate him/her self from the rest of the world because of a feeling of inadequacy. School children who have been bullied may drop out of school or start taking drugs so as to seek consolation (Field, 211-250).
Teachers should be strict when dealing with bullies. Heavy punishment should be given to the aggressors so as to prevent them from repeating the act again and to also warn others not to repeat the same mistake in future. Victims of bullying should be encouraged to report to their seniors if they are bullied.
It is important for the teacher to diagnose any physical and psychological problems affecting the students. Schools and other institutions should set up advisory centers where students can be helped to overcome the aftermath of bullying. These centers should have friendly counselors so that students can feel free to discuss their problems with them (Slavens and Kerrigan, 12). The counselors should also be well trained so that they can offer professional help to the victims.
Conclusion Bullying is the act of humiliating others either verbally of physically. A bully is the aggressor who undertakes bullying. Although bullying is common in schools, it can also occur in other settings such as the workplaces. It is important for the school administration to come up with ways of dealing with bullying cases such as punishing the bully heavily. People bully others for different reasons such as the need to feel superior. The vice bears negative impacts to the victim to the extent that it can be verbal.
Works Cited Field, Tim. Bully in sight: how to predict, resist, challenge and combat workplace bullying: overcoming the silence and denial by which abuse thrives. New Jersey: Success Unlimited, 2000. pp. 211-250
Orpinas, Pamela, Horne, Arthur. Bullying prevention: creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. MI: University of Michigan, 2006. pp. 12-34
Slavens, Elaine and Kerrigan, Brooke. Bullying: deal with it before push comes to shove. Toronto: James Lorimer
Culture and Diversity Argumentative Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
America is a country built by people from different backgrounds. It is a nation comprising of people who migrated from other parts of the world, some willingly and others forcefully through slavery. All these people have their different cultures and the majority of them hold to them making America a land of cultural, racial and religious diversity.
The people who founded and built America migrated from various places of the world and they included the Europeans, Jews, Italians, Germans, Filipinos, Indians, Africans and the Irish among others. Even now, America still experiences massive immigrations mostly from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The increased development of different cultures in America as well as social, political economic, racial and religious diversity affects the American nation in many ways.
There are both merits and demerits of the diversity in America. This diversity has enabled the people from different backgrounds to live together and understand the diverse cultures and practices of other people. The diversity is important in the educational processes of the American people as they learn from what is practically present with them.
These people also participate in these educational processes, which contribute to their development. Cultural diversity is important in economic development. It gives people involved in business to know the desires and needs of other cultures in the world and thus help them to come up with business strategies. The diversity in language is well exploited in this process.
Diversity also determines the health of a country or region. The more diverse a country is, the more innovative its citizens are likely to be and less resistant to innovations and change. It also gives individuals an opportunity to develop their personal skills by learning from each other. This not only leads to personal growth, but also leads to economic, social, spiritual and political growth.
On the other hand, diversity in the American nation has a number of negative effects. Segregation and discrimination in America has led to a heterogeneous nation divided along racial lines. This affects development negatively as the segregated group does not get enough opportunity to exploit their potential. They also pull back in developmental issues, which can impair the development rate of the country. Conflicting cultures also create conflicts between the citizens thus disrupting the unity of the nation.
Most of the immigrants to America came in with their traditional heritage and they are determined to maintain their practices. In this way, these immigrants overlooked the heritage of the traditional Americans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of maintaining a diverse heritage in America is what brought a misunderstanding between the communities involved and led to the marginalization of the immigrants. Some of the immigrants, such as some groups of the African Americans, felt inferior in their culture and decided to drop their heritage in favor of the original American heritage; however, they did not succeed.
Still, the traditional heritages of the immigrants make it easier to draw clear lines between the different communities holding different heritage practices in America. Their heritage makes them to be more unacceptable by the early American nationals who demand that the immigrants be assimilated to the American culture.
In order for a nation to remain one, the people have to accept the diversity of cultures in the nation and appreciate each other’s culture. The governing bodies should also do away with discriminative policies and come up with those that can unite the country.
In conclusion, America is a country that was founded on “the back of immigration” and therefore has people with different cultural and historical backgrounds. To unite this country language is a major tool to use and the American people should learn diverse languages. The citizens should appreciate each other’s culture and learn to live together as a united nation.
The Character of Joseph Grand in “The Plague” by Albert Camus Analytical Essay scholarship essay help
In this paper, I would like to discuss such character of Camus’ novel The Plague as Joseph Grand. Although it is too early for me to advance any far-fetched arguments, I can say that Joseph is very much similar to Sisyphus; he becomes accustomed to the routine nature of daily life, and his existence reminds us of Sisyphus’ attempts to roll a rock to the top of the mountain.
Albert Camus creates this character to show that the majority of modern people do not strive for intellectual or spiritual development, while focusing on the material side of their lives.
If they do decide to make a difference to their existence, their attempts are usually very superficial. Another purpose which Grand serves is to prove that as a rule people do not search for good qualities within themselves, and only a sudden misfortune can force them to do it. In order to elaborate this argument, I need to discuss the behavior of this man, his relations with others and, most importantly, those expectations, he sets for himself.
At first, one has to show how the author describes this person. Camus points out that “ambition was not the spur that activated Joseph Grand… All he desired was the prospect of a life suitable insured on the material side by honest work” (Camus, 56). This indicates that he was quite content with his status in community and the quality of his life. In part, this lack of ambition explains why he has served his entire life as a clerk and why his wife left him.
It should also be noted that Grand also attempts to write a book, most probably, a novel. However, he never even finishes the first line of this alleged masterpiece. In his defense, Conrad says that he struggles to find the most suitable words and phrases for this novel and this perfectionism prevents him from progressing further.
At this point, an attentive reader has to ask oneself a question whether this behavior can ascribed only to perfectionism or to something else, for instance to the fear of a making a mistake, laziness, and reluctance to take risks.
He changes his lifestyle only when the epidemic of plague breaks out in the town. This calamity helps Joseph to rediscover the traits of which he was unaware before, namely, fortitude and resolution. He is seen by others as the “embodiment of quiet courage” that raises the spirit of other people (Camus, 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the plague, he stops being a Sisyphus, engaged in senseless labor. He becomes a person who realizes that his life must not be spent in vain. At the very end, we learn that Joseph resumes the work on his novel, but we do not know for sure whether he has ever completed the first line. The author leaves it for the readers to decide whether Joseph Grand is a changed man, who can take initiative and responsibility for his actions, or he is the same Sisyphus, who is more content with the safety of daily routine.
It is quite difficult to determine how this novel would have looked like without him. Most likely, the plot of The Plague would have remained unchanged, yet the impression, produced by this literary work would have been different.
The thing is that Joseph Grand embodies the strengths and weaknesses of modern people, including their aspirations, fears, and prejudices. Again, this character proves an idea that people usually do not attempt to change for the better on their own accord, unless there is a powerful external stimulus. This is why the character of Joseph Grand is important to this novel.
Works Cited Camus Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. 1955. Available at: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/hell/camus.html
Camus Albert. The Plague. BookEden, 1967.
Planning and decision making in management Reflective Essay best essay help: best essay help
Planning and decision making are among the most valuable foundations on which businesses and organizations are built. For any organization to succeed in its undertaking, it needs to properly plan for virtually all aspects of its operations. The right decisions have to be made by its managers to see the business through successful operations.
Since the success of managers is reflected by the welfare of the organizations they manage, it is indubitable that planning and decision making cannot be separated from the practice of management. This paper is a thoughtful reflection of the usefulness of planning and decision making skills, acquired in class, in the practice of management.
As an aspiring manager, the ideas I acquired about planning and decision making in organizations will be very useful. This is because the topic was covered with clear explanations of the usefulness of planning and management in management and it also covered how one can plan well and make right and acceptable decisions.
Among the things that will be particularly useful in my life as a manager is the idea that planning and decision making is efficiently done using a bottom-up approach. This is because the use of a bottom-up approach in planning and making of decisions results in decisions that are characterized by sufficient consultation.
More importantly, the decisions made using a bottom-up approach are in most cases acceptable to both managers and junior employees (Smith 33). Other issues covered in the topic were equally useful and I am sure I will be applying most of the ideas I got in class, about this topic, in my life as a manager.
There are so many new things I learnt about planning and decision making. One of the new things that substantially impressed me is the fact that good managers are able to make decisions by just listening to their fellow employees (Smith 35).
That is, if someone comes with an idea of objection to a given plan, a good manager will listen to him/her and after evaluating the value of the suggestion, approve it or reject it. Since his/her evaluation is assumed to be based on shrewd judgment, the suggestion is, in this case, bound to have a positive effect on the organization. Much of the credit from such success goes to the manager for his/her coordination and leadership skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My realization of the fact that listening to other people’s ideas makes a good manager will be very useful in my life. This is primarily due to the fact that I like putting my ideas across so much that it sometimes interferes with my listening skills.
After the course, I am a better manager since I can now start working on my listening skills and try to have a positive perspective towards every idea that another person puts across. I now appreciate the fact that to be a good manager, I do not have to do all the thinking and planning work but I should have good evaluation skills for gauging the usefulness of ideas suggested by other people.
As it can be deduced from the discussion above, good managerial skills require good planning and decision making. Taking a course that tackles the same is very important since, as students are taught on how to be good planners and decision makers, they are given a chance to evaluate themselves. This is very useful since after evaluating themselves, students are able to perfect their weaknesses as far as planning and decision making is concerned and consequently be good managers.
Works Cited Smith, Jane. Planning and Decision Making. New York. Wadsworth Publishing, 1996. Print.
Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) Descriptive Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
This is an open space Park in Jefferson County with both geological and cultural importance to the whole nation. This park has offered great and wonderful views for a long time.
Most hikers and other outside fanatics have fun in deer Creek Park. Within the park compound there are various types of wild flowers especially the rainy seasons. Attractive views of the plains and the beautiful flowers, create a good photographic opportunities for the visitors (Hall 345). Most of people have preferred to visit this park due to its wide range of facilities that fits different types of visitors.
To begin with, the park has a wonderful and comfortable restroom facilities. Within its compound, the secluded areas for picnic are well secured with barbecue wires to ensure safety for the visitors. Both hikers and bikers are provided by multi purpose trails while climbing the mountain.
Any visitor to this park gets a chance to go through the park information, as there are information places equipped with brochures. The parks cleanliness is maintained through provision of many trashcans all over the place, thus it’s hard to see litter within the compound (Lipker 89).
The visiting time is relatively enough as the park is opened an hour before sunrise and its closed one hour after sunset. There are also attractive shelters within the compound and more beauty to the natural environments. The center of attraction lies in the presence of scrub oak habitat that is uncommon within that locality. In the park, wild animals enjoy oak as their food and their shelter. The atmosphere of the park is made wonderful by sweet melodies of different types of birds.
The most powerful force that is recognized in the formation of this park is erosion by water and wind. Other minor forces include Colorado River, volcanism, and climatic changes. Although this park is located in the desert, water also has a great impact during its formation. During the rainy seasons, the park soils do not absorb water as it is hardened completely by the strong sun (Yanagihara and Denniston 103).
When raining the water flows with force making the situation worse. The plants in the park have got shallow roots enabling them to absorb as much water as possible during the rainy seasons. On the other hand, these roots cannot control soil erosion as they are very weak and cannot hold the soil together.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deer creek park occupies a big space approximately 1881 acre. In the beginning, its fertile soils attracted activities like mining and farming. Currently, people around the park also do a lot of hunting especially the deer that are common wild animals in the region. In the park, there are several well-managed trails that one can choose which to use (Hall 530).
Hiking trails are traveling paths inside the park. Some of the trails that are mostly used are Plymouth creek trail, Plymouth mountain trail, scenic view trail, and red mesa loop trail among others. The commonly used trail in deer Creek Park is meadowlark trail. This trail is estimated to have a length of one and a half miles. It’s a trail for pedestrian only although there are other that bikers can use. Through the help of residents around the park, the deer creek park has been able to offer protection and maintenance of wild animals and trees.
People from outside have also gotten an opportunity to be educated and conservation (Hlawaty, 210). The main aim of the deer creek park is to make use of that open space land as well as preserving natural resources. Some of the recreational activities that are conducted in the park include, luxury and family traveling where people enjoy themselves through trekking or by use of bikes.
Different types of sports, running and marathons have for a long time being conducted here especially the winter sports. During vacations visitors come in this park for leisure with their friends or family. Boating and sailing is also a common activity in this park especially when there are no water sports in progress.
The red rocks formed by the wind and water erosion are estimated to be 335 million years. These red rocks are formed by marine limestone and dolomites among other components (Samelson, et al 93). These red rocks are about 400 to 500 feet going upwards separating the lower and the upper sides of the deer creek park.
A slope for climbing these rocks is created where there is a crack. The strong and admirable red color is as a result of iron oxides from other layers as the original color of these rocks is dark brown. Some marine fossils are seen on these red rocks for instance snails, and fish among others. On these red rocks too caves and arches are also available.
In conclusion, the geological and the cultural aspects of the park have made it of value. Through these two people have learned, have funs, and enjoyed their leisure time well in the deer creek park. A lot of recreational activities have been organized and taken place in this park bringing people together (Lipker 113).
We will write a custom Essay on Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has contributed in promoting the social aspect of people and unity among them. The most surprising thing I observed in the park is the presence of the rattlesnakes, thus one has to be very careful when making a visit there. Weather conditions are also to be observed keenly when visiting, as there are several eruptions of the rocks due to contraction and expansion.
Works Cited Hall, Frank. History of the State of Colorado, Volume 2, ISBN1110812094, 9781110812097, BiblioBazaar, LLC, New York, 2009. Web.
Hlawaty, Stephen. Mountain Biking Colorado’s Front Range: From Fort Collins to Colorado Springs, ISBN0762725559, 9780762725557, Falcon, New York, 2003.
Lipker, Kim. 60 hikes within 60 miles, Denver and Boulder: including Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, and Rocky Mountain National Park, ISBN089732627X, 9780897326278, Menasha Ridge Press, Birmingham, 2006.
Samelson, Jenna, et al. Colorado Campgrounds: The 100 Best and All the Rest, (3rded), SBN156579334X, 9781565793347, Big Earth Publishing, Colorado, 200I.
Yanagihara, Wendy and Denniston, Jennifer. Grand Canyon National Park, (2nd ed), ISBN1741044839, 9781741044836, Lonely Planet, Adelaide, 2008.
Business Management Plan Research Paper essay help
General description of the business The business will be structured as a limited liability company. The international hotel business has a lot of potential as more people are moving across borders for leisure, business or tourism purposes. United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) has been categorized as 18th among tourism competitive businesses by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
The UAE is well known for its great shopping facilities, hotels and other tourist destinations. All the year round, tourists and business people flock the UAE to catch a glimpse of the splendid world out there and spend some money too.
The hospitality industry in the UAE is experiencing a boom in business as new and returning customers are flocking the local hotels causing an influx of patrons. Travelers, such as tourists are in pursuit of comfort, which they are willing and able to part with a fortune, while businessmen are in search of convenience and the business opportunities the region offers.
Considering the hospitality industry in the UAE, there is still a lot of potential although the market is quit dominated by established brand names. However, for new entrants into the market there is still a lot of potential. We intend to establish a startup company in Dubai, by the name C-Zones Bar
Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Loyalty becomes a euphemism for blind obedience in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. A curious relationship exists amongst the main pairings of fathers and sons therein. Though grown men, the sons in Hamlet essentially do exactly what their fathers tell them to do, without so much as a word of protest.
These boy-men adopt their fathers’ arguments, vendettas, and wars as their own, and seemingly guide their actions entirely by paternal approval. In the case of Hamlet, he surrenders his own life and future to the will of his father, albeit following significant hesitation, not to mention the passage of an entire play. Nonetheless, this essay examines the core action Hamlet, Laertes and Fortinbras share in Hamlet: the absolute subjugation of their own personal ambitions and desires to paternal rule.
Let us begin with Hamlet. His case begs particularly close scrutiny when we consider that the elder Hamlet has passed away. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet receives the dictum of action from the ghost of his father, demanding revenge against his treacherous brother, Claudius, with a decidedly passive aggressive manipulative tactic: “List, list, O, list! If thou didst ever thy dear father love – …Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder” (Shakespeare 1744).
More about Hamlet How did King Hamlet Die? 5 108 Which Statement Best Describes Gertrude’s Development Between Act 1 and Act 4? 5 57 What is the significance of the Willow Song in Othello? 5 1059 In act 1, scene 1, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense? 5 111 Interestingly, at no point in this initial exchange between father and son does the elder Hamlet ask his son if he might be agreeable to the challenge. The ghost simply indicts the king. “Now, Hamlet, hear: ‘Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark, Is by a forged process of my death, Rankly abused: but know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father’s life, Now wears his crown” (Shakespeare 1744).
The ghost then employs heavy handed tactics to remind Hamlet of his station and duty: “If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not; Let not the royal bed of Denmark be, A couch for luxury and damned incest” (Shakespeare 1745).
Significantly, the ghost reminds Hamlet not to exact revenge on Gertrude herein: “But, howsoever thou pursuest this act, Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive, Against thy mother aught: leave her to heaven” (Shakespeare 1745).
The significance of these lines lies in the ghost’s assumption that the deed has already been accepted. In essence, the ghost takes for granted that his son will avenge him, by virtue of his role as a son, while reminding him not to hurt his mother. Hamlet’s father, apparently, still rules the roost from beyond the grave. Tellingly, he meets with no complaint from Hamlet.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Laertes exhibits a little more freedom and self-direction when compared to Hamlet, however, he too directs his life according to the approval of Polonius, as evidenced by his return to Denmark after Polonius’ death. Laertes’ vulnerability to dutifully honor and obey his father becomes his undoing in the masterful hands of Claudius.
Laertes bursts into the castle, after nearly exciting a riot, and demands revenge for the death of his father: “And so have I a noble father lost; A sister driven into desperate terms, Whose worth, if praises may go back again, Stood challenger on mount of all the age, For her perfections: but my revenge will come” (Shakespeare 1786).
Claudius, spotting another boy-man and thus, easy prey, smoothly uses Laertes’ anger to his own purpose, using the same calculated appeal to obedience that we saw earlier with the elder Hamlet.
Claudius makes use of the same masculine weaknesses which Hamlet falls prey to so effortlessly and consistently. “Laertes, was your father dear to you? Or are you like the painting of a sorrow, A face without a heart?…Not that I think you did not love your father; But that I know love is begun by time;…There lives within the very flame of love, A kind of wick or snuff that will abate it;…that we would do, We should do when we would; for this ‘would’ changes, And hath abatements and delays as many, As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents; …Hamlet comes back: what would you undertake, To show yourself your father’s son in deed, More than in words?” To which Laertes, ever the good son, replies, “cut his throat i’ the church” (Shakespeare 1788).
Fortinbras, for the purpose of this essay, represents the man whose actions appear the most practical and explicable, in that they exist beyond the realm of emotion.
He seeks revenge not for the sake of his father, but to recover the lands and inheritance that the elder Fortinbras forfeited in the battle. “Our last king, Whose image even but now appear’d to us, Was, as you know, by Fortinbras of Norway, Thereto prick’d on by a most emulate pride, Dared to the combat; in which our valiant Hamlet – For so this side of our known world esteem’d him – Did slay this Fortinbras; who by a seal’d compact, Well ratified by law and heraldry, Did forfeit, with his life, all those his lands, Which he stood seized of, to the conqueror: … Now, sir, young Fortinbras, Of unimproved mettle hot and full, Hath in the skirts of Norway here and there, Shark’d up a list of lawless resolutes,… But to recover of us, by strong hand, And terms compulsatory, those foresaid lands, So by his father lost” (Shakespeare 1733).
In Hamlet, the vengeance that Fortinbras undertakes against Denmark and the elder Hamlet is essentially self serving, and less colored by emotion and obedience than that of Hamlet and Laertes. However, it is vital to note that Fortinbras praises the manner of Hamlet’s death at the end of the play, which suggests that he also values and acts by paternal rule. “Let four captains, Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage; For he was likely, had he been put on, To have proved most royally” (Shakespeare 1803).
We will write a custom Essay on Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why do these men feel so beholden to this idea of surrendering to the will of their fathers, even if they should die in the attempt? Identity. Though both Hamlet and Fortinbras are named after their fathers, only Fortinbras’ action directly benefits him. Hamlet’s loyalty to his father cost him his life. Both, however, are princes, and dutifully accept the limitations of public office.
Further Research How do the actors’ physical appearances affect their adaptations of Hamlet? 5 73 Why does Hamlet kill Polonius? 5 38 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 166 If Shakespeare kills the character of Hamlet, what dramatic convention would he be using? 5 237 In the brilliantly prophetic scene between Laertes and Ophelia, Laertes asserts that Hamlet’s blind compliance to his father’s will stems from his position as the Prince of Denmark; his role is to obey and serve the dictums of royalty, regardless of his personal wishes. “His will is not his own; For he himself is subject to his birth: He may not, as unvalued persons do, Carve for himself; for on his choice depends, The safety and health of this whole state” (Shakespeare 1740). The relationship between fathers and sons in Hamlet seems to suggest that in Shakespeare’s time, sons of kings were little more than pawns to the larger will of the paternalistic monarchy.
Works Cited Shakespeare, William. “Hamlet.” The Annotated Shakespeare. A.L. Rowse, ed. New York: Greenwich House, 1988. 1731-1803. Print.
Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
In life, people do things for different reasons; however, all these reasons boil down to two broad issues viz. happiness and obligation. A person will either do something to achieve happiness or as a duty. Nevertheless, regardless of the motives behind one’s actions, the actions will be a means to an end or the end itself. Therefore, in this context, happiness and obligation might be the means to a desired end or the end itself.
Logically, the basic element in any pursuit is the end itself; consequently, the task here is to determine the element that stands out as the end as opposed to means to something else. The means to an end is necessary for the end is unrealizable in absence of the means. The debate on the basic elements in ethics still rages. Proponents and critics alike have their side of story, with critics claiming that obligation is the basic element in ethics while proponents hold that obligations are a means to an end and not the end itself.
The superiority of one element over the other determines its viability as the basic element in ethics; consequently, the element that surpasses the other becomes the basic element. At this point, one might confuse the means for the end and vice versa; however, as aforementioned, there can only be one end. Happiness is the basic element in ethics; not honor.
As aforementioned, the end is superior to the means to the end; consequently, happiness is superior to honor. One would wonder why he/she would seek happiness and not honor. Well, happiness is the end because “…we always desire happiness for its own sake and never as a means to something else…” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). Therefore, if people desire and pursue happiness as the end, then happiness surpasses honor.
However, happiness is not autonomous; consequently, there has to be other elements that work in concert towards the realization of the same. Honor lie in the category of the ‘other elements’ because people do not pursue honor basically for what would come out of it but “…as being means to happiness, because…they will prove the instruments of happiness” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In the light of these observations, happiness outscores honor validating the reason why people should pursue happiness and not honor.
In its entirety, happiness does not seek to accomplish honor because in happiness, honor exists. However, this argument is relative depending on what is important to humans. There cannot be a one-fit-all answer to this question; however, the initial argument that people pursue the end and not the means answers this question. Happiness being the end stands out as the most important element amongst humans.
If honor were the most important element, then it would surpass happiness and having achieved honor, people would not pursue anything else. Unfortunately, this is not the case as even those in honorable positions seek happiness. Aristotle argues that, goodness of a man comes from executing good deeds carried out in proper excellence. For excellence to exist, virtue must be present, and in the presence of the two, one’s goodness becomes an activity of the soul as Aristotle insinuates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To understand the superiority of happiness to honor, it is worth considering Aristotle’s argument that, the “good of a man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In other words, the motive behind any one’s activity determines the good of that person.
Virtue in this context surfaces with practice and knowledge; that is, one has to practice virtuous deeds and be aware of their implications. If one executes a virtue without knowing it is a virtue, then the activity is not good anymore and one’s goodness becomes obsolete. Virtue minus knowledge turns out to be mere duty and duty cannot define one’s goodness.
Moreover, for virtues to function optimally, they should relate to some morals and this leads to moral virtues. According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the consequence of a habit. Habit sprouts from actions that one continually do. The role of habit in achievement of moral habit is paramount here.
Just the same, way artists have to practice art after learning it; people have to practice virtues to qualify as having characteristics that associate with the virtue. For instance, by practicing kindness towards others one can be termed as kind. Likewise, by showing love to others one passes for a loving person. Without action that leads to habit, then a virtue does not qualify as a virtue. Aristotle likens habit of exercising virtues to that of exercising any other learned aspect of life.
For instance, he observes that not until someone plays a harpist, he/she does not qualify as a harpist. Similarly, virtue that is not exercised is no virtue. However, as aforementioned, Aristotle cautions against use of virtues void of knowledge, and he puts across some conditions that a virtue has to undergo to qualify its excellence.
One should “…know what he is doing…deliberately choose to do it and to do it for its own sake… do it as an instance of a settled and immutable moral state” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 129). If these conditions are unmet, then the virtue holds no moral support thus negating its worth.
Critics would fault this argument and question the modality of distinguishing what is moral from what is not. At this point, Aristotle introduces the ‘mean’ as a way of balancing the extremes of any moral issue.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aristotle seeks to explore mean value not from mathematical perspective where one obtains absolute mean, but from a philosophical point of view where mean is relative depending on an individual. Taken in this context therefore, ‘mean’ means that which is not excess and not deficient, depending on an individual. Critics would again raise the question of how to balance the relativity of this mean given the fact that no one is a replica of the other.
As aforementioned, virtue void of knowledge is no virtue and knowledge comes with emotions. Emotions coupled with actions executed at the right time underscores the mean state of any virtue. “To experience these emotions at the right times and on the right occasions and towards the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 130-31).
Therefore, time, occasion, subject, cause and manner are functions of ‘mean’ state in any virtue. Given the relativity of determining ‘mean’ state of a virtue, prudence and reason are the key factors that weigh one’s mean state.
There are different forms of mean states as even in some cases; mean is either an extreme or a deficiency. Nevertheless, these inherent differences do not nullify the superiority of happiness to honor or obligations. As previously mentioned, some mean states represent extremes where there are no excesses or deficiencies. For instance, there is no excess or deficiency of wickedness; therefore, the mean state here is an extreme; wickedness.
Murder, rape, adultery and theft among others are inherently wicked states. There cannot be a good or bad murderer. Nevertheless, some cases have clear-cut extremes and deficiencies thus mean stands out conspicuously. For instance, in giving and receiving of material things, the extreme is profligacy while the deficiency is illiberality; liberality is the mean. Whichever, way one perceives and determines his/her mean, the best way to hit the mean is by pushing one’s position towards the mean.
That is, to “choose the lesser of two evils…by steering clear of the evil which is further from the mean…drag ourselves in the direction opposite to them; for it is by removing ourselves as far as possible from what is wrong that we shall arrive at the mean…(Mulvaney, 2008, p. 134). In other words, doing things for the common good of all people underlines the principle behind the best way of hitting the mean.
In conclusion, people do things for different reasons; some do what they do for fame, honor, money, or leisure among other things while others do what they do to get happiness. To determine the basic principle in ethics calls for extensive exploration to distinguish the end and the means to the end. The end is superior to the means to the end and as analyzed above, happiness is the end while honor is means to the end. Therefore, happiness is the basic principle in ethics.
That which brings happiness to all people underscores what is ‘good’ for humans. The goodness of a person lies in the virtue surrounding any action performed. Virtues become virtues only when a person exercises them with full knowledge of their implication and chooses to exercise them deliberately. However, virtue has to be practiced continually giving birth to habit, which works towards realization of moral habits.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regrettably, virtues exist in extremes and if not balanced in a state of mean, they become vices. Mean is that state in which there are no excesses or deficiencies, a state of balance. There exist different types of mean given the diversity of those who practice is it. Overall, the best way of hitting the mean is to choose not the excess or the deficiency of a virtue. By doing so, everyone will achieve happiness with honor being one of the means to this felicity.
Reference Mulvaney, R. (2008). Classical Philosophical Questions (13th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall