Effect Of Psychological Contract Violation On Organisational Commitment In India Analytical Essay Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Critical Review of the Article

Implications of Shahnawaz and Goswami’s Findings


List of References

Introduction Employees are very important in the normal running of organisations. According to Adetule (2011, p. 94), employees are the wheels upon which an organisation runs towards its goals and objectives. Many organisations that have achieved massive success realised the importance of employees. The management must ensure that there is satisfaction of all the employees, from the middle managers to the junior most workers.

Motivated employees tend to deliver better results than those who work under frustrations. When hiring an employee, there is always a psychological contract that is signed between the employer and the employee. Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 210) defines psychological contract as “An individual’s beliefs regarding the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between that focal person and another party.”

The employer would have some expectations that should be met by the employee. The employee would also have some expectation about the benefits to be offered by the firm, and the kind of tasks that will be assigned. The main problem with this psychological contract is that it is rarely spoken about in a formal setting. In some occasions, these expectations are met in one way or the other. In other occasions, the expectations are not met at all. Failure to meet these expectations would constitute a violation of the psychological contract.

Adetule (2011, p. 73) defines psychological contract violation as “The emotional or affective state that may result from the perception of psychological contract breach.” On the other hand, Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 211) defines psychological contract violation as “The feelings of anger, injustice, resentment and distrust that arise from the realisation that an organisation has not honoured the psychological contract.”

This research paper will analyze the effect of psychological contract violation on organisational commitment, trust and turnover intention in public and private sector organisations in India.

Critical Review of the Article This article has given a detailed insight into the role of psychological contract in boosting employees’ performance. According to McGregor’s Theory X, human being fear work naturally, and would always seize any opportunity available to avoid some of the tasks that they are fully aware they should undertake.

For this reason, the management must always subject them to strict supervision in order to avoid any form of laziness within the organisation. However, McGregor was also conscious of the self-driven people who were always focused on achieving good results even without supervision. He therefore, developed Theory Y which holds that people always have the intention of working hard, and with minimal motivation, they can deliver good results without any strict supervision.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two cases can possibly occur within different organisations depending on the perception of the employees. It is very rare for an employee to get into an organisation with a culture of team spirit and commitment amongst all employees and apply contrary. As Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 211) say, if such a lazy employee finds that the culture of this organisation do not tolerate this laziness, he or she will have the option of quitting the firm or joining others in their organisational culture.

This article observes that when an employee is hired, he or she will develop a psychological contract with the firm and the management on various issues. Some of these issues may include the salaries to be earned, and its possible adjustment as time goes by based on the output of the employee. Others may not be discussed in a formal setting during the process of signing a contract such as organisational culture and team spirit amongst the employees.

However, the employee would develop these expectations with the anticipation that they shall be met. Successful organisations have learnt how to manage these expectations in order to ensure that their employees remain motivated. One of the ways of managing these expectations would be to engage the new recruits in consultative forums about what they expect out of the organisation.

This should be the case both in public and private sectors because the reaction of the employee in both cases would always be similar. When the employee expectations are understood, it would be possible to find a way of addressing them to be in line with the organisational culture, and to find a way of maximising the exact potential of the employees. Understanding individual employee’s expectation within the firm makes it possible for the management to manage them as a way of maintaining focused workforce.

This research article observes that the commitment, trust and turnover of employees will always depend on the ability of the employer to respect their psychological contract. As Adetule (2011, p. 6) says, people would like to be respected. Employees like an environment where their views are given consideration. This way, they feel that they are part of the organisation. Respecting employees is one of the ways of respecting the psychological contract. It helps cement the relationship between the employer and the employee.

The employee will feel committed to the organisation and this will be reflected in the turnover. They would feel obligated to give back to the firm as a way of realising a mutual benefit. Adetule (2011, p. 4) notes that successful firms- both private and public- have realised the importance of respecting their employees and giving their views serious consideration. This helps in eliminating the perception that they are just employees who will one day leave the firm when the terms of service ends.

In its place, it develops the feeling that employees are part of the organisation that forms its future. When the employees are made to feel that their future is tied together with the future of the firm they work for, they tend to be committed, a fact that promotes their output within the organisation.

We will write a custom Essay on Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on Organisational Commitment in India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Any form of disrespect from the management or any employee in authority is always reflected as a breach of this contract. When employees feel that there is some form of breach of the contract, they would develop withdrawal symptoms. The feeling that they are not part of the organisation sets in, and their commitment to the firm wanes away. This would result into a massive drop of their output, a fact that would be reflected in the dismal performance of the firm.

According to this article, it is very challenging to meet the psychological expectations of employees. Firms have started embracing downsizing and rightsizing as a way of improving their output. According to Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 217), one of the factors that have devastating effect on the morale of the employees is the act of retrenchment.

It is a fact that many would expect that after retrenchment, those who remain within the organisation would be expected to be happy, not just because of their luck, but also because it is a sign that the organisation recognises them as pillars that cannot be eliminated. However, this is not always the case. The employees who remain after others have been retrenched always develop a sense of insecurity. They feel that the way psychological contract of their peers were violated, so shall theirs’ be after some time.

This alone, will make them feel that the management has betrayed them. They will feel that their psychological contract with the firm has already been violated. The effect would always manifest itself almost immediately. Employees would focus more on issues that would protect their future than those that are meant to bring success to the firm.

They will develop a feeling that their future is not tied with that of the firm, and therefore, any futuristic benefit to the firm would not be shared with them. This makes them develop a negative perception about their assigned tasks. A lot of their efforts will be taken in looking for alternative jobs that have a sense of security. This happens in both public and private sectors within the environmental context that this research was conducted.

Organisational trust is one of the factors that have been associated with positive output of employees. Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 214) defines trust in the organisation as “The evaluation of an organisation’s trustworthiness as perceived by the employee.” Employees should develop trust with the organisation they are working for, especially the management.

In India, and many other developing nations, there has been a lot of confrontation between employers- in both the public and private sectors- and the employees in the organisations. One of the factors that have been associated with this confrontation according to Adetule (2011, p. 112), has been due to unfulfilled promises.

An organisation can make a promise, out of collective bargain, that it will make a given payment to its employees at a given period. It is the responsibility of that organisation to ensure that such promises are met in order to build trust between the employer and the employees. It is natural that there might a case where the promise made may not be fully met within the originally set period.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on Organisational Commitment in India by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It would be appropriate to ensure that such information is communicated to the relevant people within the right time. The reason given should be valid, and the management should not forget to emphasise on the fact that it is still committed to its promise. It may be necessary to give a date when the promise would be met. This will help maintain trust that exists between the employer and the employee.

According to Adetule (2011, p. 215), the top management is the agent of the owners, and when they make promises to employees, they always believe that the promise is made by the firm itself. These promises made at individual levels should also be fulfilled to ensure that the individual develops trust with the firm at a personal level.

It may appear that fulfilling these promises can be a very expensive process. However, it goes a long way in building a strong trust between the employer and the employee. One factor that the management should keep in mind is that promises should be as minimal as possible. The management should try to avoid making promises that may not be fulfilled because it may lead to a lot of problems in the future.

Psychological contract violation was also considered to be closely related to employee turnover within an organisation. According to Adetule (2011, p. 53), it is important to understand the difference between intention to turnover and the actual turnover. The intention to turnover refers to the resolve that an employee has to quit his or her current job.

This drive may make an employee develop some justification that would make him or her quit the current company to look for other employers. The intention to turnover would lead to actual turnover. The intention to turnover is always affected by the perception of the employees towards the employer. When the employee feels that the employer is not caring for him or her, the intention to turnover would exist.

The drive to deliver good results would go down, and this would lead to low actual turnover. When the employee feels that the psychological contract that existed between him or her and the employer is violated, the intention to turnover would be very high. This will affect the overall performance of such an employee, a fact that reflects the intention to quit the current employment.

Implications of Shahnawaz and Goswami’s Findings The findings of Shahnawaz and Goswami have a clear message to the employers about effective management of employees and how this affects their commitment to the employing organisation. This article clearly states that employees are very important assets within an organisation. However, unlike other assets, employees are human beings with feelings and emotions which have direct impact on their output.

When an employee is hired, he or she will develop a psychological contract with the employer. In some cases, the psychological contract would be based on the formal agreements that the management has made with the employee when signing the contract.

In other cases, the psychological contract would be based on some personal feelings and expectations of the employee based on various environmental issues. From this article, it is important that the management understands this psychological contract in order to maintain a pool of motivated employees.

Employees’ commitment will always be influenced by the ability of the employer to respect this psychological contract. This article clearly indicates that when the management breaches the psychological contract that exists between it and the employees, then it would not be possible for the firm to achieve its strategic goals with the same employees.

According to Adetule (2011, p. 97), many unsuccessful organisations have failed to appreciate the importance of respecting employees. This is particularly common in the public sectors where those trusted with the management do not feel that they own the organisation.

Instead of employing transformational leadership approach that would ensure the rights of employees are respected and their views taken into consideration, some managers still use the dictatorial management approach where their statements are supposed to be respected without any challenge.

This may be in contravention of the rights of employees. Such management practices would constitute the psychological contract violation. When this happens, Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 213) say that employee’s output will drop, leading to a lower output of the organisation.

When the employees feel that they are not respected, their commitment to the firm fades away. They develop the feeling that if the management is not committed to their rights, then it is unnecessary for them to remain committed to the firm. They would start treating various issues and assignments casually.

Their intention to turnover increases because of lack of commitment. They feel that they are not obliged to give a positive output to the firm. This is particularly dangerous in a work setting where the output of a firm directly depends on the attitude with which, employees approach their work. According to Shahnawaz and Goswami (2011, p. 212), there are some work settings that are more sensitive to the attitude of employees than others.

For instance, a hotel that operates with a team of disillusioned employees is more likely to have an instant negative impact on its overall performance. When customers visit the facility only to be met by gloomy employees who feel that they are not obligated to deliver good results, then it becomes almost impossible to satisfy such customers. Some of the customers may ignore such cold receptions, but others would leave such facilities even before they can be given any service.

This article also emphasises on the relevance of managing employees’ expectations. The two scholars realised that managing expectations of the employees is one of the ways of keeping them constantly motivated within the firm. Different employees will have different expectations when they are hired.

Some of these expectations can be met by the firm within the time they shall be working in the firm, while others may not easily be achieved because of various reasons. These expectations would constitute factors that would define the psychological contract that an employee develops with the firm. Adetule (2011, p. 74) says that it is important to ensure that all the expectations of the employee are addressed before they are hired.

This can only be possible by engaging them in a consultative forum where they will be expected to share their expectation with the employing authority. The employer is required to evaluate the expectations with the view of addressing them before hiring the individual. The management should be clear to the employees about the needs that can be met, and those that are beyond the capacity of the firm.

This makes the employee re-evaluate the psychological contract to make it fit within the environment that has just been explained. This will avoid cases where employees harbour some expectations that may appear wild to the management. This means that when they accept the job, they will be accepting the terms offered by the management. They will feel obligated to the firm even when their initial expectations are not met because they were informed before their deployment.

Conclusion Employees form a very important part of an organisation. They are the policy implementers whose activities are expected to make a firm succeed in the market. Public and private organisations have the obligation of maintaining high levels of motivation among their employees.

From the discussion above, it is clear that a team of motivated employees can be very important in helping a firm achieve its operational and strategic goals. This motivation largely depends on the way employees feel that they are treated within the organisation. If they feel respected, then they will be committed to the firm, and this will motivate them to deliver good results. The employer must therefore, maintain respect with the employees.

List of References Adetule, J 2011, Handbook on management theories, Author House, Bloomington.

Shahnawaz, M


Teaching Arabian Students English with the book “Flying High for S.A Student Book” Dissertation college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Background of the Study

English is fast becoming an international language and the Middle East is embracing its usage in various activities. This means that it has gained popularity and learning institutions continue to diversify their curriculums by introducing this language in their programmes.

Saudi Arabian students are embracing the need to pursue higher learning to ensure they diversify their employment opportunities beyond the boundaries of the Middle East region. It is necessary to explain that communication is an important factor in learning and teachers and students in this region look for ways to improve their expression skills (Schein 17).

The need to communicate with the outside world motivates learning institutions in Saudi Arabia to introduce English language in their curriculums. This will equip learners with the relevant knowledge to share information with other students and people from other regions.

The Middle East has widened its investment opportunities and businesses are being established at a high rate in this region. This means that learners will have to adapt to the inevitable changes of modernisation, globalisation and westernisation to ensure they utilise local opportunities created by investors.

However, the study of foreign languages in Saudi Arabia has come under sharp focus and criticism because developers and implementers of their curriculums did not pay attention to the needs of students when proposing and preparing the criteria for teaching them. This has led to the development of a different perception regarding the appropriateness of some learning materials used in class to teach this English.

Students should have a positive attitude towards the importance and suitability of learning materials used in class to ensure they do not have difficulties understanding various aspects taught by their instructors (Dooey 15). Secondary schools are considered to play significant roles in determining the future of individuals in this country.

Most learners start specialising in various courses when they are in secondary schools and this means that the subjects offered and learning materials used must address their future needs to ensure they are aligned to promote healthy intellectual and career development in students.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Speaking, writing, learning and reading are the main fundamental skills of English because they form its foundation that determines the success and progress of students. Students have developed different perceptions regarding the suitability of a study book used in class (Flying High for S.A Student Book) and they think that it has not addressed their needs.

The appropriateness and success of this textbook in promoting the learning and usage of English language in Saudi Arabia will is determined by how students think about its suitability. The perception of an individual towards something will determine his level of interest and concentration on it. Students can be discouraged from learning English if they perceive this book not to address their needs.

They will resist attempts to understand its principles, arguments and presentations because of prior assumptions that this book is not suitable for them. This led to the need to establish the needs analysis of Saudi Arabian students’ perceptions towards their linguistic needs regarding the textbook used to study English.

There is a general perception that study books used in class to teach English do not address the needs of students yet they are the main actors in this field. This research will explore the suitability of this textbook in teaching English and how it has shaped Saudi Arabian students’ perception towards this language and its content.

Problem Statement

The use of Flying High for S.A Student Book to teach English has met resistance from Saudi Arabian students and this has created a gap in learning institutions. All reading materials should be leaner-friendly to ensure there is no resistance from students.

Students do not perceive this book to address their needs and that is why they developed different perceptions regarding its suitability as a reading material. The efforts and hard work of teachers to improve the students’ understanding and usage of English language will be an exercise in futility if they continue to use this textbook.

An individual’s perception affects his concentration, attention and attitude towards something. Saudi Arabian secondary students perceive this book not to address their needs and fail to promote their ability to how to speak, write, learn and read English.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Teaching Arabian Students English with the book “Flying High for S.A Student Book” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Language is an important aspect in human life and students should learn how to use it to ensure they develop their communication skills. However, if students have poor perceptions about the usage of a reading material in learning this means that there will be difficulties understanding the concepts and issues presented in a book.

The study book used in class to teach English has already cast doubt on its suitability to address the needs of students if they consider in unsuitable. They will not be willing and ready to grasp its contents because of presumed knowledge that it is ineffective in advancing learning of English language.

This crisis will threaten the suitability of other reading materials in class and due to peer pressure students may resort to developing poor perceptions towards other study books used in class (Kemaloglu 48). This shows the urgency and need to address issues that affect student’s perceptions towards this book and how to manage them to ensure learners develop positive attitudes towards reading materials offered to them by their teachers or the relevant authorities.

Lastly, the modern Saudi Arabian culture is resistant to anything that is perceived to originate from the west. This means that the differences in political interests between countries in the Middle East and America have infiltrated into the education system of Saudi Arabia. Most learning institutions are reluctant to use books from authors perceived to be from America.

This has widened conflicts of interest between members of these two regions and this has affected their attitudes and perceptions regarding learning materials used in class (Aruna 102). Most Saudi Arabian students believe that their education system is superior and that they do not need reading materials from other regions especially from the west. The need to embrace modernity and globalisation issues forces all learning institutions to use materials that are relevant regardless of their authors’ backgrounds.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to establish reasons that shape the perception of Saudi Arabian secondary students to have different views towards the suitability of Flying High for S.A Student Book used to teach English in schools. This study book was introduced in Saudi Arabian learning institutions (secondary schools) to help students acquire and understand how to use English language to speak, write, learn and read.

However, the reaction that followed from students exposed important issues that should be addressed to make this book an acceptable reading material in secondary schools. This book has led to negative reactions from students who think that is not good since it does not help them to understand this subject. The need to learn, speak, write and understand English is motivated by the fact that societies are embracing similar traditions and this language has become a global ode of communication.

Saudi Arabians have no other options except to learn and understand how to speak and write in English language. This drives them to want to use reading materials that will ensure they do not have difficulties in learning this language. It is necessary to mention that it is not easy to learn a foreign language especially when the individual is aged above 14 years (Scott-Morgan 71). Most Saudi Arabians in secondary schools are not having easy times learning and understanding this language.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Teaching Arabian Students English with the book “Flying High for S.A Student Book” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They need study books that are direct and which respect their traditions and standards to ensure they do not have problems understanding them. Authors should realise the importance of presenting their views and at the same time considering the needs of students. This research aims at establishing the points where this book fails to create a link between advancing learning and considering the needs of Saudi Arabian high school students.

Secondly, this research aims at investigating why students from this country should learn English. This area will focus on the importance of English language in fostering positive interactions between them and the outside world. It will examine how this language influences the action and decisions of Saudi Arabian high school students.

Moreover, students have different needs and various ways of attaining them as much as learning is concerned. This research paper will examine student’s perception about how the controversial textbook satisfies and helps them to achieve their targets. This includes examining students’ perceptions regarding the need to acquire the four skills (writing, speaking, listening and reading) and how they shape their course of attaining learning targets.

Theoretical Framework

Various scholars have developed and advanced theories to explain the importance of different issues in promoting learning of foreign languages. In addition, others scholars have explored the needs of students and how they shape the production of learning materials that are important in ensuring pupils acquire new skills and understand how to integrate theoretical concepts in their real life issues.

The following authors have presented different theories that are important in understanding the context of this research (Mitchell, Myles and Marsden 97). Their views, arguments and presentations will help this research to understand how various issues affect the attitudes of students to learning. The information will enable the research to make reasonable and accurate conclusions regarding its subject of study.

Rosamond Mitchell, Florence Myles and Emma Marsden explain the Cognitive Learning Theory in their book titled Second Language Learning Theories that explain various issues that shape the perception of people towards acquiring language skills. They argue that learning is a continuous process and individuals should not focus a lot of their attention on resisting changes that are inevitable in their lives.

Individuals cannot control the process of acquiring language skills no matter how they try to resist it. These authors argue that the need to discover what lies beyond the boundaries of an individuals’ social setting propels people to want to know how others live in other parts of the globe.

However, they cannot do this if they cannot understand what other people say or do (Callander 17). In this case, the acquisition of skills and knowledge of English language is propelled by the need for Saudi Arabian students and the entire society to know what the outside world does. This has influenced learning institutions to introduce English language as part of its curriculum activities.

Students have developed different perceptions towards learning this language especially because one study material (book) seems to elicit heated debate on its needs consideration to promote learning. These authors claim that such resistance and bad attitudes towards some reading materials can be accommodated due to differences in individuals’ settings (Olson 87).

Secondly, Mathew H. Olson explains Conditioning Learning Theory in his book An Introduction to the Theories of Learning, claim that students should be prepared to learn new skills to ensure they develop positive attitudes towards their teachers, study materials and other stakeholders.

Teachers and parents should involve students in making key decisions that affect the performance and attitude of learners. It is necessary to explain that this book explain the importance of consultation and involvement in shaping perceptions of individuals. For instance, the study book used to teach English in Saudi Arabian secondary schools faced resistance from students because they were not involved in determining its appropriateness in addressing their needs.

They considered the step of including the book in school curriculums as dictatorship since teachers and other stakeholders were perceived to be forcing learners to use this reading material even though it did not address their needs (Chapman 43).Olson believes that consultations are very important in ensuring that the needs of all stakeholders are considered before making key decisions. He adds that students learn and understand issues better when teachers involve them in making key decisions.

Students cannot directly participate in decision-making but there are relevant bodies that can be given the responsibilities of protecting the interests of learners. These bodies should be in charge of ensuring reading materials used in class meet the required standards that will promote the understanding and usage of skills taught in schools. Therefore, this author argues that most learning institutions fail to equip learners with relevant skills because they ignore their roles in promoting education activities.

This leads to wrong perceptions and failure of school programmes to achieve their objectives. In this case, the Saudi Arabian government considered the book appropriate to teach secondary students various aspects about the English language; however, this is proving to be a huge failure because students did not respond as the government expected.

They claim that this book does not address their learning needs and this force the relevant stakeholders to go back to the drawing board and examine issues that are not represented in the book or these that have been wrongly portrayed. This author believes that the process of making key decisions in learning should involve all key stakeholders like teachers, parents, students, scholars and relevant bodies to ensure all issues are evaluated before recommending study books used in class and promote understanding amongst them.

Thirdly, Dale H. Schunk explains Behaviourism Learning Theory and argues in his book Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective that students have different abilities to understand various issues during class discussions. This means that it is not advisable to make general remarks regarding their performance because this will not represent the actual picture on the ground.

This author considers learning differences because of personality variation that cannot be easily changed. This means that students with reading difficulties should not be given similar tests with those that have no problems. This will ensure the needs of students are assessed and addressed using appropriate measures. Saudi Arabian secondary school students may be facing learning difficulties and this may affect their perception regarding the use of some reading materials.

This author claims that parents and teachers should use the feedback of students towards reading materials to plan and develop strategies that will promote learning. This means that is important to ensure that the learning needs of Saudi Arabian students should be given attention to ensure the study books proposed and used address these issues. Schunk believes that learning curriculums are developed based on the need to address some problems that hinder the performance and lives of students.

Therefore, they should be issue-specific to ensure they address the general needs of students. For instance, Saudi Arabian students should learn English language for various purposes including socialisation, career development and improvement of their social standards. All study books used in class should address these issues and ensure students identify their contributions in equipping them with the relevant communication skills in this language.

It is important for teachers and other stakeholders to ensure study books used in class address the needs of students and promote learning. Negative feedback from students shows that some aspects of their needs have not been addressed and it is necessary to evaluate programmes or materials that elicit this response to ensure suitable approaches are used to promote learning.

Lastly, Elif Kemaloglu in his book Project-Based Foreign Language Learning: Theory and Research suggest that learning is motivated by the needs of individuals and thus there must be a driving force to compel students to develop interest in a subject or reading material. He uses the Humanism Learning Theory to explain that people have different needs that must be satisfied through various ways.

They choose simple, cheap and available resources to ensure their needs are met. He claims that people have needs ranging from primary to tertiary institutions and their interests and perceptions towards learning is motivated by the impacts of fulfilling or lacking these needs.

Students that want to pass their examinations will use reading materials that reflect the demands of exams and this will shape their attitude towards all reading materials and teachers concerned with the subject. This theory presents that the process of acquiring new skills and understanding of various issues in the society is determined by how individuals interpret, reason, evaluate and make decisions regarding the benefits of a programme to their lives.

Saudi Arabian students have already made decisions that the study book used in class is not appropriate because it does not address their needs. This is important in evaluating the significance of learning English language by Saudi Arabian secondary school students and if their needs are not addressed by this reading material these learners will develop negative attitudes towards it. This theory supports the arguments presented by Abraham Maslow and William Glasser in addressing how learning is motivated by human needs.

Context of the Study

This research is informed by the need to ensure the study books and other materials used by Saudi Arabian secondary school students are appropriate and suitable to promote learning. This means that it gives an overview of the needs of students and evaluates how they shape the type of materials used in learning institutions. There is the need for authors and publishers to ensure they produce books that have the relevant information that will help students to manage various issues about learning.

In addition, this project will focus on secondary school students. There are various issues that can be observed in different learning institutions but the focus of this research will be on secondary students studying English as an examinable subject in Saudi Arabia. People invest a lot of money in learning activities; therefore, they expect returns that are shown by understanding and use of various concepts taught in schools.

The research will cover all aspects that determine the interest of students in various subjects. However, the results obtained will be narrowed to ensure they reflect the issues that are related to studying English and communication. This will help this research to define and describe important issues that are covered in assessing students’ attitudes towards the use of the controversial textbook to teach English.

Significance of the Study

This research will explore the possibilities that students have different perceptions towards the use of the specified textbook in teaching English. This means that it will examine these attitudes and their impacts on learning. The data obtained will be useful in the following ways. First, it will examine the reaction of students to the book. This information will be important in determining whether the book is good or bad as a learning material.

This will influence the decisions of the departments responsible for preparing and recommending school curriculums. If the attitude of students to this book is negative this will mean that it will not be appropriate to teach them various issues regarding English language. It will be removed from school curriculums and this will threaten the plans of the author because it will mean that he has failed in providing quality materials that promote learning (Rahman 63).

His reputation and credibility will sink and this will discourage him from venturing in academic writing in the future. However, if it attracts positive feedback from students it will considered an effective tool for promoting learning and this will means that the author will have strengthened the credibility of his name and have higher chances of his other work being considered in learning curriculums.

Research Questions

The purpose of this research is to examine the needs of secondary students in Saudi Arabia regarding the appropriateness of a study book that has elicited controversy amongst various academic stakeholders. The following research questions will determine and shape the procedures, participants and analysis presented after the research is complete.

First, it will answer the question “What are the linguistic needs of Saudi Arabian secondary students pursuing English?” This will involve examining the needs of students and how studying English enables them to meet them.

This will ensure the researcher delves into the aspects that motivate students to pursue English and examine whether that are included in school curriculums and in particular, the book used to teach this subject (Morgan 77). The second question will be “what are the students perceptions regarding the reasons for their learning English?” This question will examine salient issues that propel students to study English in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia.

This country has many learning institutions that offer different courses including the study of other national languages like French. This question will strive to answer what motivates learners to decide to study English and their perceived benefits. The expected benefits may include the desire to socialise with other members of the society from different nations, expansion of employment capabilities and personality development.

Thirdly, the research will aim at answering this question. What are the students’ perceptions about how the current text book, known as Flying High for S. A Students Book, satisfies their target needs? This question will investigate the appropriateness of this book in meeting the needs of these students.

However, this book may be appropriate to teach students various issues about English language. However, it may not be appropriate for their age or needs. This question will establish similarities or differences between the content of this book and how it satisfies the needs of Saudi Arabian secondary students.

This means that it will evaluate how this book will help them to speak English fluently and communicate with other people without difficulties. It will assess if this book can help learners to listen and comprehend what other English speakers communicate to or with them.

Definition of Terms

The terms used in this essay will have similar meanings as they are known in common usage. However, it is necessary to ensure that the readers have adequate information regarding all the terminologies used in this research to promote understanding of the study. The following terms will be commonly used throughout the study; therefore, reads should understand their meanings and usage to ensure they do not confuse or misunderstand various aspects presented in this project.

Need analysis will refer to the process of examining issues that motivate learners to study English in Saudi Arabia. This will include all processes and procedures used to identify motivators that propel youths in Saudi Arabia to register and pursue the study of this language.

Need analysis will also refer to issues that are important in determining the decisions of students to know more about this language. This means that it will focus on the gaps created by Arabic language and which pushes students to have knowledge about other languages. Therefore, it will refer to propellers that make students to think that pursuing English study is a noble idea in advancing their careers.

Linguistic needs will refer to all issues that are concerned with promoting the understanding and proper usage of a language. This will include the use of vocabularies, sentence construction, context appropriateness and accuracy of using English language in communication. This will address key issues that contribute o the success or failure of communicating using a foreign language.

Moreover, language skills will refer to reading, listening, speaking and writing that are key contents in learning. This means that this phrase will refer to these ideas because they are important in determining the level of comprehension of students. Students that understand English language will be fluent in speaking it. In addition, they will write impeccably to ensure their readers do not have difficulties understanding eh issues presented in their writings.

Moreover, it will examine how this book develops reading skills that are concerned with observing punctuation marks, tonal variation and speed of reading to ensure an individual or audience understand messages sent to them. Reading refers to the ability of students to differentiate English words and pronounce them properly.

Writing is their ability to present information by using alphabetical letters and punctuation marks to deliver their messages. Listening is the ability to comprehend spoken English words from other people. Speaking is the use of various English language skills to express ides through oral speech.

Book will refer to the reference material that teachers use to educate learners about English language. This means that the study book used in class called Flying High for S. A Student Book. The term textbook will also be used to refer to this learning material; therefore, the audience should treat all such cases as references to this textbook unless the paper states otherwise.

Local language and culture refers to Arabic and Islamic traditions respectively. These terminologies will appear throughout the paper to explain various issues about the local language and traditions. The term student refers to Saudi Arabian secondary pupils studying English as a career subject.


This research anticipates various limitations that may interfere with the quality of the results obtained. The following issues may affect researchers and the credibility of this project. First, the scope of coverage is very expanse and this may create difficulties understanding the significance of the study on a particular issue.

The research cannot be minimised to cover few issues because its subject is diverse. For instance, it examines students’ perceptions towards the appropriateness of this book in ensuring they acquire language and communication skills. It evaluates various issues like effects of attitudes and impacts of extreme perceptions towards the perceived changes to this book.

Secondly, the research requires many participants from different secondary schools located in Saudi Arabia to ensure the data collected represents the views of the entire population. However, there are no adequate funds to conduct a research of this nature and the time allowed for the research will not be enough to cover the subjects (Eggerichs 49).

Lastly, the feedback collected from teachers and other non-student participants may not reflect the actual perception of students towards the use of this book. Their responses will be subjective depending on the positions of subjects regarding the book.

Literature Review ELT in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Learners’ Needs Analysis by Morris M. Rahman

Need analysis has critical importance that underpins the appropriateness of its application in English and other fields of education. In this regard, it enables academicians to identify essential English skills that students require thus enabling them to instil necessary skills and sub-skills. Being aware of the needs of the learners influences not only the content of the language course but also what potential can be exploited through such paths.

Needs analysis is a complex process, which has to take into account what Morris Rahman defines as “target needs”. Failure to conduct such analysis could lead to wastage of resources and time since the instilled skills are not correspondent to the student requirement. Additionally, avoiding need analysis could result to lack of proficiency in skills (Benesch 28).

This is an important part in this research because it will enable the researcher to focus on indentifying salient issues that affect learning and shape the perception of students to understanding this subject.

Rahman classifies needs analysis into two broad categories depending on how an issue is presented. Most scholars classify these needs as objective or subjective. Rahman argues that the personal data of learners is assessed by teachers and this forms the basis of assigning the objective needs of students.

This allows teachers to evaluate the suitability of learning curriculums in advancing learning. He adds that the study book used in class can be considered as an objective need because it focuses on providing learners adequate knowledge on this subject.

It is the source of learning authority in this situation and all references will be made to it and the research will assume that it is the only source of knowledge for students. Alternatively, subjective needs refer to issues that arise from learners; for instance, their physical abilities, talents, age and other aspects that influence learning.

Rahman claims that these issues shape the decision of teachers regarding the syllabus used in learning institutions. Focus will shift to students because they are the major players in this section. He believes that their needs will be given priority over those of their teachers or reading materials and the students will direct the type of reading and learning materials used to ensure they understand the concepts of various subject.

However, doubts have been expressed concerning the effectiveness of a need analysis for a general English course, which seemingly has no specific target domains of its use. People have continuously invested in providing academic knowledge on how English can be used for general purposes like communication. Rahman argues that understanding and using language for general purposes neglects its role in promoting relationships and averting conflicts in the society.

The difference between these two objectives is evident in the process of creating awareness regarding these issues. Teachers must pay attention to the needs of students and address each issue while focussing on its importance. He confirmed that needs analysis should not only be implemented as a pre-stage for designing a language courses but it is considered a continuous process that can be used to design, improve, evaluate and implement language programmes.

This author believes that categorisation of needs will play important roles in shaping the future of teaching this subject and enable learners and students to eliminate conflicts of interests during class discussions. The information offered by this author will play important roles of ensuring this research adopts a qualitative and quantitative approach in analysing its data.

Rahman’s findings and recommendations will give education stakeholders adequate information to concentrate on selecting quality reading materials to ensure they reflect the specific needs of students. He presents that it is not easy for people to learn foreign languages if it has some political connotations. He claims that parents and teachers should not use force to teach their students foreign languages.

This is an easy way of ensuring that there are no conflicts between students and teachers of foreign languages. Therefore, the theoretical perspectives presented by this author will help this research to understand why students have different perceptions towards the use of the textbook in teaching English in their schools. The target needs of these students include knowing how to read, write, speak and understand English as a language used for communication.

He argued that sub-skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing) shape the perception of students’ to ensure they achieve their targets. The study of this language has been given a lot of attention by most learning institutions and this highlights the need to ensure it is of high quality and uses appropriate study materials.

This researcher examined the possible changes that can be made to ensure reading materials meet the demands of learners. Students do not perceive the entire book to be inappropriate but they consider most sections not suitable in advancing their understanding and usage of English language.

The information presented by this author will shape the purpose of this research to include examining possible recommendations that will help the author, publisher and other stakeholders of this book to evaluate its appropriateness and contributions in learning.

This will ensure all areas that require modifications and changes are given adequate attention to minimise wrong perceptions from students and ensure the book addresses their needs. The identification of the needs of students is an important step in deciding which learning materials are suitable for them (Seedhouse 23).

The Second Language Curriculum: Needs Assessment in Language Programming from Theory to Practice by Richard Berwick

According to Richard Berwick, the need analysis process should have clear outcomes that are stated as set of goals and objectives for all the elements of language in education.

This means that learning institutions and related stakeholders should avoid picking reading materials without examining their impacts in prompting learning and addressing the needs of students. Therefore, this author believes that the choice of learning materials for students should be made after conducting extensive consultations and investigations by all academic stakeholders.

Secondly, Berwick argues that the process of identifying the learning needs of students will be made easy by this project. His research aimed at investigating if reading materials met the requirements of learning by evaluating their appropriateness in meeting the needs of students. It identified key aspects that drove students to seek to understand various issues, especially those that have been introduced in their society.

The information collected and offered by this scholar will form a basis for considering the appropriateness of this book for teaching secondary school students in Saudi Arabia. It will help this project to assist teachers to develop plans and learning activities that will focus on specific needs of students. This will ensure they are not fed with junk materials that will waste their time and resources yet fail to accomplish the objectives of academic institutions (Goman 32).

Most learning institutions focus on the needs of students before accepting or rejecting study books and other academic materials. This research will enable them to develop effective plans that will ensure all the needs of students are addressed. In addition, these needs will be addressed depending with students and their abilities to comprehend and use various learning materials in school.

Moreover, the information offered by this researcher will enable education stakeholders in Saudi Arabia to evaluate school curriculums and ensure they meet the needs of students. The recommendations posted after this research will form a basis for quality improvement and ensuring that all students are satisfied and happy with what is offered in learning institutions. This is important in ensuring that the quality of education offered reflects the needs and demand of the local and international markets.

For instance, this research will propose different ways of ensuring the study books used in class reflect and highlight the needs of students (Long 31). This will be an effective way of examining and evaluating the appropriateness of other reading materials used to teach this subject.

It will motivate academic stakeholders to conduct research and establish whether other learning materials are suitable and how students react to them. This will help learning institutions to improve learning and ensure education promotes growth, knowledge expansion, career development and shapes personalities. These issues are important in determining the quality of workforce available in Saudi Arabia.

He believes that all learning institutions and stakeholders should be involved in making key decisions that affect education. This means that there is the need to involve and consider the needs of all parties involved in learning to ensure their interests are taken into consideration when adopting new policies or changing learning curriculums.

Students are the major players in learning and even though they cannot be consulted to get their views it is important to ensure that their interests are considered when developing an education curriculum (Saratson 11). His analysis of students’ needs will help teachers, educational publishers and other stakeholders to develop curriculums that will be perceived by learners to be beneficial in promoting learning and career development.

However, this textbook was introduced and students were required to use it to develop their understanding of English without evaluating its appropriateness and the likely response it will get from them. The information presented by this author will help this project to identify issues that led to students’ resistance to using this textbook and how it was motivated by the fact that learners could not identify their place in selecting reading materials used in class.

Learning English is like a privilege in Saudi Arabia and very few schools offer this subject. Therefore, most students are reluctant to study this subject and this means that there is the need to influence their attitudes to like this subject. Some of them already have businesses that are doing well and only go to school to become literate.

Studying English language is not a priority in their academic life. Teachers must persuade such students to study English by using textbooks that will ensure they develop interest in this subject. The approach of this author in examining students’ needs will help this research to know how this textbook seems not to yield the expected results because most students think that it does not address their needs.

Berwick’s research findings will play significant roles in shaping, proving and examining the appropriateness and strength of hypotheses presented regarding this issue. It will create a link and examine the appropriateness of various learning theories in advancing the quality of education offered in different learning institutions in Saudi Arabia. This will complicate the debate about the appropriateness of various reading materials and in particular the significance of studying English language in Saudi Arabian secondary schools.

The Role of Needs Analysis in ESL Program Design by Alfred Fatihi

Alfred Fatihi argues that there is a strong connection between the difficulties students face in learning the language and the skills they would like to improve (Fatihi 49). They would like to improve the skills that are challenging or problematic for them. This arouses the interest of the need to investigate the difficulties that students face in learning the skills as a kind of need analysis.

He argues that there is the need for parents and teachers to ensure that the materials used for learning allow students to concentrate in class. They should be attractive and engaging to ensure students take part in learning. Learning activities should be developed in such a way that they should accommodate and allow students participation.

Most learning institutions, especially those that teach languages do not pay attention to activities that promote participatory learning (Johnsons 51). They offer many theoretical lessons and ignore the importance of practical activities. This research identifies and highlights the need for teachers to ensure all students are given equal and fair chances to participate in class discussions.

Learning will be successful if students can translate theoretical aspects into practice to prove that they have understood the contents of their class discussions. Fatihi argues that this will help teachers to evaluate the progress made by students in grasping various contents.

Fatihi claims that it is necessary to explain that English and other languages are practical issues that cannot be taught in class and the discussion ended there. Teachers and students should put into practise the theories and other aspects regarding learning. For instance, students should be in positions to communicate in English through writing or speaking after completing their studies. In addition, they should not have difficulties reading and comprehending messages presented in English language.

This motivates this research to examine the views of different students towards learning materials and especially the study book used in class to teach English. Most English lessons involve many practical aspects that will ensure the needs of students are addressed (Berwick 65).

Study material used in this class should pay attention to the need to equip learners with reading and writing skills. This includes accuracy, appropriateness and correctness of different aspects of English language to ensure learners become fluent in their communication with others.

He argues that the context of this research is informed by the need to examine the scope of coverage employed by authors and publishers in ensuring important issues are not left out during learning. It is arguable that most authors in modern societies place a lot of emphasis on the economic importance of their writings and ignore the need to promote knowledge generation, learning and growth in academic institutions.

They focus on producing as much publications as possible and ignore the need to maintain high standard. This compromises the value of education in learning institutions and produced half-baked individuals that have limited skills and knowledge regarding various issue.

His study examined the reasons why students have different attitudes and perceptions towards different textbooks and other reading materials and how this affects learning. This means that it focussed on the impacts of the contents of books in promoting or hindering effective learning in secondary schools located in different regions. This offered an insight into the needs of students that study English as a core subject in their careers.

Therefore, it will strive to present the relevance of addressing the needs of learners and how the book deviates from achieving its goal of promoting learning. It is necessary to explain that the most important thing about this research will revolve around the needs of Saudi Arabian students pursuing English in their studies. This will include the role of this language in promoting socialisation, career and personality developments. These are considered the main important needs that all study books used in class should address.

Fatihi argues that failure to do this will lead to a wrong perception towards a book, author or academic system employed by the ministry of education of this country. In addition, this author examined the effectiveness of learning materials in enabling learners to write, read, speak and understand correct issues that are important in advancing their careers and boosting performance in examinations.

He interrogated whether reading materials are important in shaping the perceptions of students regarding the sub-skills of learning. These skills are important in ensuring that learners can prove that they understand and master this language and thus they can use it without difficulty.

Students face some difficulties while learning the skills and sub-skills of communicating using English language. Therefore, his research findings will answer the question that aims at identifying these difficulties and evaluating their impacts on students’ perceptions towards this book. This will form an important part of informing the research whether the needs of students are reflected in the contents and procedures used to teach various concepts presented in this book.

Lastly, he assessed the suitability of various reading material in shaping students’ interests towards learning. This information will help to answer whether there are possibilities of changing the textbook to influence the attitudes of students. Learners will have different perceptions about how changing this book will affect their perceptions and learning.

This research will examine the presentation of these perceptions and how they will motivate and propel the author to change this book to ensure it address the learning needs of students. The information obtained will be compared with what this researcher has presented and help to establish recommendations that will shape the attitudes of students towards the textbook used in class.

Works Cited Aruna, Gandhi. Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. New York; McGraw-Hill, 2012. Print.

Benesch, Sammy. Needs Analysis and Curriculum Development in EAP: An Example of a Critical Approach. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 4.

Berwick, Richard. The Second Language Curriculum: Needs Assessment in Language Programming from Theory to Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.

Callander, Nicholas. Communication, Language and Literacy (Supporting Develop Early Yrs Foundation Stage). London: Bloomsbury Academic Press, 2011. Print.

Chapman, Gary. Now You’re Speaking My Language: Honest Communication and Deeper Intimacy for a Stronger Marriage. New Jersey: Jossey-Basss, 2009. Print.

Dooey, Peter. Students’ perspectives of a EAP pathway program. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 21. 14-36.

Eggerichs, Emerson. The Language of Love and Respect: Cracking the Communication Code with Your Mate. New York; Wiley, 2009. Print.

Fatihi, Alfred. The Role of Needs Analysis in ESL Program Design. Aligarh Muslim University, India. South Asian Language Review, 1 and 2. 13-18

Goman, Carol. The Silent Language of Leaders: How Body Language Can Help—or Hurt–How You Lead. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print.

Johnsons, Garrison. Now You’re Speaking My Language: Honest Communication and Deeper Intimacy for a Stronger Marriage. California: Puddle Dancer Press, 2012. Print.

Kemaloglu, Elif. Project-Based Foreign Language Learning: Theory and Research.

Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert, 2012. Print.

Long, Mary. Methodological Issues in Learner Needs Analysis, Second Language Needs Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Mitchell, Rasamond, Florence Myles and Emma Marsden. Second Language Learning Theories. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Morgan, Bernard. Consulting Pupils about Teaching and Learning: Policy, Process and Response in One School. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2007. Print.

Olson, Mathew H. An Introduction to the Theories of Learning. New Jersey: Pearson, 2013. Print.

Rahman, Morris M. ELT in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Learners’ Needs Analysis. Berlin: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011. Print.

Saratson, Morris. Understanding Basic Concepts in Learning Activities. New York: Wiley, 2013. Print.

Schein, Edgar. Organizational Culture and Leadership. New Jersey: Jossey-Bass, 1987. Print.

Scott-Morgan, Peter. The Unwritten Rules of the Game. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994. Print.

Seedhouse, Paul. From Needs Analysis to Course Design. New York: The University of New York. Department of Educational Studies, 2011. Print.


Range of Champagne Evaluation Essay cheap essay help

Building a strong customer relation with a product requires competent personnel to enable it thrive in the present dynamic and competitive business settings. For continuous and sustainable brand success, specialists should carefully select and position the products to the target market.

The Champagne house has many skilled brand managers; they took different approaches and attempted several alternatives to position different brands of Champagne to their present status (Hirche 2012). Proper management of Champagne brands has increased the level at which customers identify themselves with the products.

The strong brands have added significant values to Champagne products, as it is in the minds of consumers, thus most customers associate themselves with the brand. Dom Perignon brand makes Moet


Improving Customer Experience in Ritz-Carlton Hotel Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Description of the Company

Ritz-Carlton Hotel is one of the leading hotels in Russia. According to Woodcock (2007, p. 73), the hotel was started in 1905 by Ritz Carlton as a series of restaurants that were run on board SS Amerika ocean liners. Carlton was determined to offer high value to its customers on board these ocean liners. As the firm developed, Carlton realized that his customers wanted high value for the products they purchased.

Most of the customers on board the liners were holiday makers. During this time, the rich would go on a voyage for general entertainment. People of the lower social class could not afford such voyages, and as Faulkner (2003, p. 67) states, it remained a preserve for the rich. The management of this firm learnt the dynamics of this market segment. It realized that this segment of the market was very keen on the value of products offered to them.

They did not mind paying high prices for these products as long as their quality was satisfactory. This is what defined Ritz-Carlton as a major player in the luxury hotel industry. When the World War One started in 1914, the firm had to move from the ocean liners to other facilities along the beaches in some major cities because voyages were no longer safe. Although the firm experienced some growth during this early, period, it was faced with a number of challenges that forced it out of the market.

In 1983, William Johnson bought the brand Ritz-Carlton and a few of its assets. Under his leadership, this firm experienced a massive growth not only in Europe, but also in some selected countries in Asia. Currently, the firm has worldwide market coverage, with 81 hotels in 26 countries.

Reports in their website show that their revenue for the year ending December 2012 was $ 3 billion. Its permanent employee base is also estimated to be over 38000 people, with many others employed indirectly. In Russia, it is one of the leading luxury hotels that are very popular with tourists from Britain, France and the United States.

Some of the products offered in this giant luxurious hotel include a variety of food, accommodation, travel services especially for the tourists, spa, and other entertainment services. The firm has remained focused on the higher end markets, and in Russia, it is considered one of the most expensive hotels. This has worked positively in strengthening its brand, because the rich believe that it is a symbol of class.

Description of the country

It has been mentioned that Ritz-Carlton operates in 26 countries around the world. However, this research will only focus on the Russian market. Russia is a federal state in Eastern Europe comprising 83 federal subjects (

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Quartz Watches Strategic Management Report (Assessment) essay help free

Introduction Emerging technologies have been vital in improving operations of firms in the currently competitive marketplace. However, watch manufacturers have found themselves facing a new threat that they had not anticipated. There has been a shift in tastes and preferences when mobile phones were introduced to the market. Mobile phones have become almost a necessity in the society, and people currently prefer using it instead of watch to tell them time of the day.

Some of the top brands in this industry moved with speed to change their marketing proposition in order to attract the market segment that was being lost due to the invention of mobile phones. These top watch manufacturers have found other sophisticated uses of watches other than telling time.

However, some of the players in the market that were manufacturing simple wrist watches have found themselves in an awkward position as their products are currently considered meaningless in the market. One such firm is Quartz, a brand that is known for its low quality low cost wall clocks.

Its wrist-watches are cheap, with minimal or no functionality beyond telling time. It may not survive the next decade if it continues selling the low-priced limited quality wrist watches. It must understand the market needs by increasing the functionality of its products. It must move from the dying watch industry into the fashion industry that has a huge potential.

This firm must find a way of competing with the giant brands in the fashion segment in order to survive. This paper will focuses on how Quartz can be repositioned to become a leading brand in luxury watches industry using some of the modern digital technologies.

Discussion Current brand positioning

The current brand positioning of Quartz Watch is outdated because it is still emphasizing on the function of the product as telling of time. People are no longer interested in this functionality given that their mobile phones do the same function besides being a communication gadget. Some of the new electronic appliances such as radios, television sets, and even cameras can tell time.

It would not be enough to convince the market that they need the watch on their wrist because its basic function can be performed by other products. This brand positioning was very appropriate when wrist watches were the primary gadgets that were used to determine time of the day.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the world is changing due to changes in technology, but this brand has failed to adjust its positioning to reflect these changes. This led to a massive drop in the sale of this firm’s products. According to Dent (2011, p. 27), analogue watches have lost over 95% of their market share over the past fifteen years. It is even more worrying that this 5% that they currently hold is also moving away slowly and very steadily. This firm must transform its positioning if it expects to remain competitive in the market.

Figure 1: Quartz Watch

Competitor set

According to Rolnicki (1998, p. 49), competition in this industry has taken a whole new approach following the change in preference of the consumers. The figure below shows two of the leading competitors that this firm must outshine in order to achieve the market share that would make it attractive.

Figure 2: Rolex Watch

Whenever one is talking about the industry of wrist watches, Rolex is the first name that would be mentioned as the leading brand. This may be because of the social market niche that this firm occupies in the industry. Rolex is arguably the market leader in the luxury watch industry for the past several years.

This brand has been considered superior to its rivals because of its product offering. As Guirdham (1972, p. 72) notes, this brand offers more than just a wrist watch. The watch is an ornament made of precious metal to reflect its quality. The proposition that it brand has taken in the market is also very effective.

This product’s primary role is not to tell time. Telling of time is just an additional service it offers. Its primary role, as stated in its market proposition, is to demonstrate a sense of class. People who wear Rolex watch are identified with a higher social class in the society. As mentioned in their advertisement, you wear Rolex watch to show your class, just like other top brands in the market. It is more of jewelry than a watch.

We will write a custom Assessment on Quartz Watches Strategic Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 3: Omega Watch

Omega is another top brand in this new market for wrist watches. Just like Rolex, Omega has positioned itself as an ornament, targeting male clients. In one of its famous advertisements, a gentleman is seen equating Omega to a golden necklaces and earrings that women wear to bring out their beauty (Lambert 1978, p. 32).

The message in the advert is very clear and it helps in bringing out the proposition of this watch in the market. Men cannot wear some of the ornaments that women do, but this does not mean that they do not deserve these ornaments. Omega wrist watch offers them this opportunity to have something that is masculine and attractive.

This has made the product very popular with men. Other major market players in the luxury watch industry include swatch, TAG heuer, and Rado. All these top brands have learnt the secret that the market is no longer interested with a time telling machine. This can be obtained from other gadgets. They have to go beyond this if they expect to remain relevant in the market.

Current consumer profile Consumer profiling is an important marketing strategy that enables marketers to segment the market based on various demographic factors. As Wind and Mahajan (2001, p. 56) say, it is irrational for a firm to target the entire market. Different market segments behave differently. They have different preferences and purchasing powers. In this industry, Quartz must understand that it is no longer offering a time-telling machine to its customers.

This firm will now be offering a jewelry that must demonstrate a sense of class. It will be a symbol of status, and this must be demonstrated in the true value of its products. The current consumer profile that this firm targets include the poor and middle class members of the society who can afford cheap prices it is currently charging.

However, it is unfortunate that this consumer class is always sensitive of the worth offered by their purchases. For instance, this group has come to realize that there is no value in having a simple watch and a mobile phone at the same time.

The service that was rendered by the watch can easily be offered by the mobile phones they have. For this reason, they would avoid buying watches and get this service from their phones. This is a way of saving to them. This is a clear indication that this group is no longer a desirable market segment to target. This current consumer that this firm targets do not value brand. They value quantity and pricing that is offered.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quartz Watches Strategic Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Quartz was their favorite brand before the introduction of mobile phones because of its low prices. Currently, they do not need this product anymore, and this has led to a massive drop in sales for this company. This target market should be completely ignored by this firm in its long term strategies. They cannot afford the prices that luxurious products carry.

Relevance of technology to the brand Technology which helped in the creation of this product has been its main undoing because the firm failed to see the dynamism in the market. This brand is faced with the threat of extinction if it fails to define a new approach that it shall take to manage the market forces. The recent emergence of technology has not only been irrelevant to this brand, but also very disastrous. For instance, the major market segment for this product was the low income earners.

The watch had become so common that awareness creation was of little use. Those who did not know the product would easily know it once they were in the market. Given the fact that this segment would always be looking for cheaper products, Quartz would always be the ultimate choice because it was charging the lowest prices.

The management therefore, never made use of some of the modern technological tools such as the Social Media for the purpose of marketing their products. This must have been one of the main undoing of this brand, a mistake that it must correct now. In the planned new strategy, this brand must use online marketing to reach the new market segment. It must also embrace Social Media in its awareness campaigns. It is through this new approach that the management of this firm can achieve success in the current market.

Marketing Campaign Plan It is stated above that the brand Quartz will be introducing itself into the luxury watch industry as a way of remaining relevant in the market. This is a completely new industry for this brand, and it may take time to achieve success. According to Ryan and Jones (2012, p. 78), customers associate specific products with a given social class in the society. For instance, Mercedes Benz and BMW are brands of cars that are associated with the rich.

On the other hand, Toyota was introduced into the European market as a cheap and cost effective car for the low income earners in the society. When Toyota realized that it had ignored the rich who formed an attractive market segment, it came up with other sub-brands such as Prado. However, the tag ‘cheap’ car has never been erased from the mind of the consumers. This means that the rich do not consider Prado a superior car to Mercedes Benz or BMW.

The India motor company, Tata, was keen not to follow the footsteps of Toyota when targeting the rich in the society. When it bought Land Rover and Jaguar car brands, it retained their name and all other brand attributes. It continued producing its cheap Tata branded cars, but the Land Rover and Jaguar were produced under their original name. This worked magic. These two classy cars are very popular with the rich.

This is the strategy that this firm will employ when targeting the customers on the higher end of the social class. Fenwick and Wertime (2013, p. 86) says that it is always easy for luxury brands to attract lower end consumers. However, it is very challenging for firms that have been associated with lower end customer segment to target the rich. This is a challenge that must be overcome.

According to Ryan and Jones (2011, p. 36), consumers will be more willing to try a new brand than to go for an existing brand that was serving a market segment of lower social class. Quartz will be forced to develop a new sub-brand and try to dissociate it from its main brand. The proposed brand name for this new product would be Digit Control.

It would be difficult to associate such a name with the known Quartz brand. The new product will carry this new brand name in the market. The digital marketing campaign plan for this new product and brand will be reflected in the 7 Ps of marketing as shown in the diagram below.

Figure 4: 7 Ps of Marketing Model

This new product must be able to give the desired value in the current digital world. For instance, the watch should be able to receive a message sent from a mobile phone. Another desirable value would be its ability to monitor movements of a car within a given range. This is what the brand should stand for in the market.

As the name suggests, this new product will be more than a watch. It will be something like a remote control used to monitor and direct different machines. The pricing strategy should be completely different from the parent brand. The price should reflect the quality offered, and the segment that is targeted.

The place factor would play a very important role in this new product. It would be necessary to define new distribution models that reflect the new market segment that is targeted. The following innovating model may be appropriate when entering this new market with the new product.

Figure 5: New distribution model

As shown in the above figure, the marketing team should identify the trends in the market in regard to distribution channels used by other major competitors. The team should then adopt emerging technologies in order to determine how they can be relevant in this distribution model.

The team should then scout for relevant technologies that would help achieve the desired results. Online marketing and Social Media marketing may be used as the digital options available for this new product in the market. When the marketing team is convinced that the new model is appropriate, they can then make the last move of entering and operating in this new market.

The promotional strategy of this new product should be an integration of online and offline channels. The Social Media such as Facebook, YouTube and Tweeter can be very instrumental in the promotional campaigns. Traditional promotional strategies such as television commercials and newspaper advertisement should also not be ignored when introducing the product to the market.

People who will be engaged in various marketing strategies should be adequately trained in order to ensure that they deliver the desired output. Given that this product will be majorly marketed digitally, it may be important to define how the physical evidence would be presented to the customers. This may be in form of clear photos of the products being displayed demonstrating all its features, and how it is used. Such displays should be available in the company’s website and in the social media.

This is necessary because the consumers would want to understand why it would be prudent to stop buying Rolex, and instead buy Digit Control. This means that its uniqueness must be clearly elaborated in such displays (Hayes


Is homosexuality an Innate or an Acquired Trait? Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The view of homosexuality as an innate trait

Objections of the view of homosexuality an innate trait

Replies to the above-mentioned objections



Introduction Homosexuality describes people who are sexually attracted to members of their own sex. Male homosexuals are attracted to other males, while female homosexuals are attracted to other females. It is a normal phenomenon for people to have sexual attractions to members of their opposite sex, but homosexuals are just puzzling (Horvath, 2000).

People have always failed to understand what brings about the attraction, and the peculiar nature has raised the eyebrows of various psychologists and scientists. The biologists indicate that some families have the homosexual genes and hormones in their family linage. Therefore, individuals from such families give birth to children who are homosexuals by default, and their sexual preferences are unchangeable whatsoever. Essentially this is the innate view of homosexuality.

On the other hand, the social constructionists believe that the homosexual behavior results from the social and environmental influence. Interestingly, another different school of thought holds that both social and biological processes contribute to the behavior and psychological thoughts of humans.

Indeed, most scientists and psychologists have not developed decisive reasons to support their allegations. This paper will give a critical analysis of the biologists’ view of homosexuality as innate, or as an inherited trait. The paper will convince the audience that the biologists’ view is deficient, and it cannot overcome its problems in its current state, unless some modifications are made to the current view.

The view of homosexuality as an innate trait The evolutionary psychologists argue that the human’s ability to handle issues and solve problems originates from the evolutionary ancestors. Similarly, individuals inherit every other trait from their ancestors. According to the biologists, genes are very important in the development of traits.

Therefore, hormones and genes determine the sexual behaviors of human beings. From the biological view of things, any trait in an individual comes because of the interaction of genes and the cells embed in the body. Some families have aggression traits, and the children in such families are always a nuisance in everything that they do. Consequently, most aspects concerning sexuality come because natural selection.

The Exotic Becomes Erotic (EBE) theory explains that the adult homosexual behaviors start from the prenatal development of a child. The fetus attains the genomes of the parent that would determine the child’s temperament.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children who grow to like competitive and rough activities are male-typical, whereas those who like quietness and non-aggressiveness are female-typical (Horvath, 2000). The gender conforming and gender nonconforming traits will show up in their childhood. These traits are innate, where; the gender non-conforming children are likely to grow into homosexuals in the future.

The biologists argue that there is always an ancestral history of homosexuality for every homosexual that exists. In fact, some reliable studies showed a correlation between the birth order and homosexuality in male children.

According to the study, male children who are born earlier have a less probability to have the homosexual behaviors than males who are born later. The studies attributed their results to the maternal immune response, where, after the first birth, the H-Y (histo-compatibility) antigen strengthens in subsequent pregnancies to bring in some aspect of sexual differentiation in the male children.

The parent population’s sexual traits can enable one to predict the traits of the children to be born in a given generation. Biologists exemplify their allegations by employing the masculine behaviors that emerge in males. Naturally, the males adapt the masculine behavior, and they posses some unique traits like temperament within their linage. By default, at least one of the masculine traits is innate.

Therefore, evolutionary psychologists will hold that the sexual and gender traits that one possesses are innate, and individuals with homosexual genes would have their traits emerging when the right time comes. According to the evolutionary psychologists, homosexuality is a heritable trait that varies from one generation to another.

Therefore, the difference in the environment in which individuals are raised does not necessarily drive them into homosexuality as the desire comes from inside their bodies. According to the biologists, the environment is not a vital input in the development of an individual into a homosexual as any environmental or social aspects that have the ability to influence people to be homosexuals could be controllable.

Objections of the view of homosexuality an innate trait The social constructionists object the allegation that genes and hormones influence the sexual behaviors of individuals. They argue that social interaction strongly determines the sexual orientation and sexual behavior. From the social constructionists’ view, children are born without any sex knowledge.

We will write a custom Essay on Is homosexuality an Innate or an Acquired Trait? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, with time, children are exposed to sexual materials thought all the available media. The social groups that individuals interact with determine their sexual behaviors, and that is where individuals acquire the homosexual traits. Essentially, the genes and hormones will only determine the physical traits, but they will have no contributions on the sexual traits of an individual (Haider-Markel


Customer Management and Customer Intelligence Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Customer Relation Management (CRM) is an important part of any organisation. Managers utilise it to improve sales and profitability. Any organisation that targets to be successful in any field must place the customer central to its operations. Such organisations should make customers their most important assets.

Over the years, many institutions have established the study of customer relations in their curriculum. Managers have also been trained on the most effective ways of employing customer-relation tactics in the course of their operations. Although many industries are coming up at an alarming rate, the fashion and design industry stands out based on the way it has applied CRM to boost its sales through guaranteeing clients quality products.

In the fashion and design industry, the customer is the most important shareholder. Organisations that are able to understand their customers end up being more successful than others that do not have the same policies (Rigby, Reichheld


Distribution Channels and Digital Marketing Report (Assessment) college admission essay help

Introduction The luxury segment of the fashion industry is one of the most profitable industries. Many companies are involved in the development of luxury items. The marketing strategies employed in each of the companies in the industry determine their success and competitiveness. Digital marketing is among the factors that affect the competitiveness and success of a company in the fashion industry. Most of the firms have embraced this form of marketing. Only few of them are conservative.

The past few decades have been dominated by the developments in the information technology sector, as the world is currently in the information age. Globalisation has also expanded the markets for luxury brands. Companies can now market their luxury items anywhere on the planet. The internet remains the greatest asset for digital marketing strategies. All luxury brands have an online marketing platform for their products.

Many luxury brands are internationally known to use the internet to complement the traditional practices in marketing. Nike is a sports shoe and apparel maker that is not in the luxury fashion industry. This report proposes the repositioning of the company to be a luxury company through the production of luxury shoes. It also incorporates a marketing campaign that is aimed at launching the company into the luxury market.

Fashion Brand The selected fashion brand is NIKE, Inc., which is a company that focuses on the manufacture of quality sports shoes and sports apparel. The company was founded in 1962 as a Japanese shoe importer. At the time of formation, the two founders operated under the name Blue Ribbon Sports (Levin


Capacity Management in Emirates Airlines Report essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Background

Emirates Airlines was established in 1985 in the United Arabs Emirates (UAE) and it has become the largest airline companies in the Middle East. The firm is wholly owned by the UAE government through the Dubai Investment Corporation and it has established its presence in different markets across the world. The firm operates in over 76 countries and over 3,400 flights per week (Sambidge 2013). In a bid to satisfy the market, the firm operates both cargo and passenger carriers.

The Emirates SkyCargo division is responsible for handling cargo. In 2012, the airline ranked fourth with regard to the total number of international passengers carried. Additionally, Emirates Airlines ranks as the longest non-stop commercial carrier in the world. The airline is focused on delivering a high level of customer satisfaction.

One of the areas of emphasis relates to the provision of excellent level of service. The airline operates a mixed fleet, which is comprised of Boeings and Airbuses. Its effectiveness in delivering high quality services has not only enabled it to develop a strong brand name, but also in becoming a market leader.

Emirate Airlines is cognisant of the significance of developing a strong level of customer loyalty by providing customers with high quality services. Subsequently, the firm has adopted flight catering as one of its customer service tools in its business model. Jones (2004) contends that flight catering is a large industry. Furthermore, the industry is characterised by a high degree of complexity. Despite this aspect, airline companies are increasingly using flight catering as a marketing tool (Jones 2004).

Optimal operations management is vital in an airline’s efforts to stimulate its productivity. Therefore, operations managers should understand the link between various management aspects such as capacity management and organisational performance. Such an understanding equips managers with sufficient knowledge on how to deal with issues that emerge.

Slack, Chambers, and Johnson (2010, p.2) define capacity management as ‘the set of work processes associated with the provisioning and management of IT infrastructure resources, such as servers, printers, and telecommunication devices, used to support business processes in a cost effective manner’.

Barnhart and Fearing (2012) further postulate that capacity management in the service industries such as the airline industry is challenging due to the unique nature of the services provided. One of the challenges relates to management of demand and supply, and hence the companies’ capability to sustain their quality standards. Capacity management issues hinder firms’ ability to attain their productivity target.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem statement

Emirates Airlines is facing diverse challenges, which might affect its competitiveness in the Gulf and the Middle East regions. One of the main sources of challenge relates to intense competition. The airline’s competitors such as Air France/KLM, Delta Airlines, and SkyTeam are evaluating their competitive strategies in an effort to counter the Emirates’ market dominance (Mahadevan 2009). Demand for commercial aviation has grown at a high rate over the past few decades.

The growth has arisen from a number of factors such as the adoption of open-sky agreement s and increased deregulation of the airline industry by governments.

Increase in the consumers’ disposable income across the world coupled with the high rate of globalisation has also contributed to the industry’s growth as individuals explore new opportunities in other countries. In 2009, the UAE was selected to host the 2020 World Expo in Dubai. The event, which will take 6 months, is expected to attract over 25 million visitors (The Emirates Group 2014)

The level of consumer confidence towards the airline industry has grown remarkably. Most consumers consider air travel transport as a safe mode of transport. Wald (2011) asserts that demand for air travel will continue to grow. Emirates Airlines plans to fly over 70 million passengers across the six continents by 2020 (Sambidge 2013).

The transformations in the domestic and the international air travel industry present a major opportunity for Emirates Airlines to improve its competitive advantage. However, this aspect will depend on the company’s commitment to engage in capacity management and flight catering. The firm has to ensure that its catering department offers customers with high quality food and beverage products.

Scope of the study

The study will analyse all the capacity management for all Emirates flights. Furthermore, the study will also forecast the airlines future capacity with regard to seasons, years, and new flights.

Rationale of the study

The global air transport industry is facing a mixture of challenges and opportunities originating from the external business environment. One of the challenges relates to the volatility of fuel prices. Furthermore, travellers are becoming sophisticated by demanding high value for their money.

We will write a custom Report on Capacity Management in Emirates Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This phenomenon has arisen from the desire to gain a new and unique experience. Therefore, airline companies are not only faced by the challenge of satisfying the market demand, but also meeting the customers’ level of satisfaction. There is a high likelihood of Dubai attracting a large number of visitors during the 2020 World Expo event. Emirates Airlines should perceive this aspect as an opportunity to augment its competitive edge.

The intensity of competition in the UAE airline industry has increased remarkably. Industry players are adopting diverse business models in an effort to improve their competitive edge. An example of such model includes the low-cost model, which is designed to increase the number of passengers carried.

It is important for Emirates Airlines to develop an understanding on how it can improve the capacity of its flight catering in order to supply the existing and new flights without compromising the quality of its products or services. This move will enable the firm to exploit the business opportunity successfully.

Objective of the study

This study intends to identify the gap within capacity management of flight catering at Emirates Airlines considering the expanding capacity of aircraft and other services over the few years. The study also intends to recommend the best capacity operations to be implemented.

Limitations of the study

The study mainly relied on secondary data from reports and other publications derived from online sources. However, only credible sources such as peer reviewed journals, articles from credible databases, and books were used, thus assuring the credibility of the information collected.

The study did not utilise primary results, which limited the ability of the researcher to expound the issues under investigation. However, it is assumed that the information gathered from the literature review and the case study is sufficient to illustrate the concept of capacity management in flight catering.

Literature review Capacity management practices in flight catering

Firms in different industries are experiencing challenges in their pursuit to attain long-term survival. The high rate at which change is occurring in the business opportunity poses a threat to the firms’ operation. Changes in the service sector are the major precursors for firms to adjust their operations.

The industry players should focus on two main aspects, which entail revenue maximisation and optimal capacity utilisation. Ingold (2005) argues that the need for capacity management in the contemporary service sector cannot be underrated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Capacity Management in Emirates Airlines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Yield management

One of the most effective strategies that airline companies should focus on in their quest to adopt capacity management in their flight catering is yield management. Jones (2004) contends that yield management is one of the most widely used capacity management strategies in the airline industry.

According to Withiam (2014), the concept of yield management entails the different strategies used by service firms to assist them in realising their desired level of revenue from operations. Withiam (2014, p.2) defines yield management as ‘the process of allocating the right capacity or inventory unit to the right customer at the right price and at the right time to maximise revenue or yield’. Yield management strategy is mainly concerned with three main capacity management issues, which include

Inventory control

Control of availability

Pricing strategy

Inventory control component is concerned with ensuring that the necessary resources such as employees and aircrafts are availed. On the other hand, control of availability is concerned with managing the number of seats in the aircrafts, while pricing strategy entails setting the price of the service at an acceptable margin.

The pricing strategy in yield management also entails integrating different prices for different products. For example, airline companies may design their catering services to meet the diverse categories of classes such as economy, business, and first class travellers.

Capacity forecasting planning

The integration of an optimal capacity forecasting technique is critical in the airlines’ effort to promote their future success. Capacity forecasting entails modelling an organisation’s future capacity requirement in order to meet the prevailing market demand. The forecasting process entails assessing an organisation’s IT services, the existing facilities and infrastructures, and the quality of the workforce. Hernon and Altman (2010) assert that the level of service provided by airline firms affects the demand for air travel.

Jones (2004) further asserts that flight catering is a complex operations management aspect. The flight catering production unit may be comprised of more than 800 employees and producing over 25,000 meals every day. The catering process is further complicated by the number of flights from the main hubs especially in large airlines companies such as Emirates Airlines. In a bid to perform flight catering successfully, it is imperative for airline companies to understand the approximate number of passengers and their respective needs.

Therefore, airline companies should conduct continuous market research in order to understand the passengers’ behaviour. Understanding the passengers’ needs plays a critical role in the companies’ efforts to produce and develop products that meet the customers’ specific needs. For example, the airline company can forecast the possible type of customer within a particular route, thus giving the airline insight on the type of drinks, food, and equipments to incorporate in specific routes.

Bon and Veen (2009) contend that capacity-forecasting planning is essential in flight catering in a number of ways. First, it forms the basis through which an organisation can plan for its short-term and long-term projects in order to balance the demand and the supply sides.

According to Hellermann (2006), forecasting the demand in flight catering is important in determining whether a particular airline has the capacity to address the needs of the targeted market segment. Capacity forecasting planning in flight catering minimises the likelihood of dependency on outsourcing some services from external flight catering providers.

One of the ways through which this goal is achievable is via assisting the airline companies in identifying the prevailing business opportunities and underused capacities, hence the need to consolidate the two issues. Therefore, the airline company can minimise the cost that it would have incurred by hiring external flight catering services.

Food safety and quality system

Ensuring a high-level safety and providing high quality products is a critical element in capacity management. Safety and quality should not be ignored in the airlines’ effort to manage capacity in their flight catering processes. Klassen and Rohleder (2002) argue that food-borne diseases account for a significant proportion of the total number of mortality cases recorded in the general population. Airline companies serve a large number of travellers from different countries.

Based on the growth in demand for air travel across the UAE, which arises from the 2020 World Expo in Dubai coupled with the Emirates Airlines’ intention to establish new routes, the firm will be faced with the challenge of ensuring that the travellers are catered for adequately. Therefore, airline companies have an obligation to ensure that passengers are not exposed to food-borne diseases. Emirates Airlines’ intention to serve over 70 million customers by 2020 will require the firm to improve its food safety and quality processes.

In a bid to meet this requirement, airline companies should establish a strong relationship with a broad spectrum of stakeholders such as food suppliers, airline companies, and caterers. Airline companies should also integrate food safety experts throughout the food production process.

Furthermore, the flight catering system should adhere to the principles advocated by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). The principles advocate for a flight caterers to undertake a comprehensive hazard analysis, establish the critical control points, and the monitoring system. Airline companies should also institute a mechanism to confirm the effectiveness of the HACCP (Taneja 2004).

Theoretical and conceptual framework

The business environment is undergoing a high rate of revolution arising from different factors. For example, customer needs are changing at a remarkable rate (Graham, Papatheodorou,


Comparison of Strategic Planning and Strategic Management Essay college essay help: college essay help

Strategic planning refers to the process of analyzing a business environment in order to develop strategies that facilitate attainment of goals and objectives. It includes creation of an organization’s mission, vision, and goals and objectives. It also involves strengthening operations and setting priorities.

On the other hand, strategic management refers to the process through which an organization utilizes available resources in order to achieve goals and objectives.

It includes specific strategies and activities that are used to attain goals. A critical aspect of strategic management is the determination of how an organization intends to achieve its goals. For example, developing clearly defined ways of achieving specific objectives is an aspect of strategic management. Both tools are used together, and are important for the growth of an organization.

Strategic planning and strategic management are similar in many ways. First, they aim to improve the future welfare of an organization. Strategic planning defines an organization’s goals and strategic management implements strategies in order to attain the goals. Second, they are managerial tools that are used to create successful organizations. Managers use them to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

Third, they are used to increase organizational output and performance. One tool cannot attain its goals without the input of the other. Therefore, they play complementary roles that serve a common purpose. Fourth, they are used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and thus help to position it in the market.

For that reason, managers use both tools to strengthen the market presence of their organizations by creating sustainable competitive advantage. Successful companies use strategic planning and strategic management to propel their organizations to success. It is important to understand how they are applied to fulfill different organizational needs.

Differences between the two management tools originate from their roles, scope, and effectiveness. Strategic planning involves setting goals and objectives that an organization intends to achieve. In contrast, strategic management involves implementation of processes that help to attain goals and objectives. Strategic management has a wide scope. It incorporates both formulation and implementation of strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, it includes evaluation of strategies in order to determine whether they are effective or ineffective. On the contrary, the scope of strategic planning is narrow. It only involves formulation of strategies and development of goals and objectives. The effectiveness of the two management tools differs.

Strategic planning is most successful when the stability of an organization’s internal and external environment is certain, and its future predictable. In contrast, strategic management is most successful when the future of an organization is unpredictable. It is effective in situations that require managers to respond to unpredictable future occurrences.

In conclusion, strategic planning and strategic management are tools used by managers and leaders to attain organizational success. They are similar because they aim to improve performance and output, prepare organizations for the future, and discover their strengths and weaknesses for better market placement.

They are different because their scope, effectiveness, and methods vary. Strategic planning involves setting goals and objectives, and is most successful when an organization’s stability is certain. In contrast, strategic management involves implementation and evaluation of processes that facilitate attainment organizational goals. It is most effective when the future of an organization is unpredictable. The two management tools are used together because they have a common goal even though they play different roles and apply different methods.


Controlling Function in Principles of Management Essay argumentative essay help

Basic Steps of the Control Function Controlling is a systematic process of checking attained performance against predetermined plans or standards with an object of ensuring organizational success (Morden, 2004, p. 141). It involves the verification of existence of conformities between actual output and established plans and principles.

Controlling ensures effectiveness and efficiency in the use of an organization’s resources. The basic steps of the controlling function include the setting of standards, measurement of output, comparison of the achieved and standard performance and taking corrective action (Morden, 2004, p. 141).

Setting up of standards of performance is the first step in exercising the controlling function. Standards are targets or plans which are to be attained within a specified period in the life of an organization (Morden, 2004, p. 142). They are criteria for measuring and making an assessment of performance.

Performance standards are of two kinds, tangible and non-tangible standards. Tangible standards refer to targets which can be determined and expressed in quantitative terms. Management scholars also refer to intangible standards as non-measurable standards. Measurable standards take the form of output, expenditure, cost, time, and profit among others.

Intangible standards cannot be measured or expressed in quantitative terms since they are qualitative in nature. Examples of intangible standards include performance of a supervisor, attitude towards a matter, employee satisfaction and consumer satisfaction among others. Establishment of standards makes the controlling easy and objective (Morden, 2004, p. 142).

The second fundamental stage in the control process is the measurement of output. Management measures the actual performance to ease establishment of deviations (Morden, 2004, p. 142). Managers measure and express tangible standards in units, expenditure and profit among other quantitative terms. Management practitioners also measure performance using qualitative standards such as the workers’ morale and attitude, development of attitudes and the workers communication with their seniors (Morden, 2004, p. 145).

Once the management has measured performance, it should compare the achieved performance with the predetermined targets. This step aims at establishing deviations. Deviations are performance variances between the set targets and the real output (Morden, 2004, p. 145). At this stage, the management should establish the extent of variability and its causes. The management has a duty to establish whether the variance is positive or adverse or whether the attained performance tallies with the set targets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the management has to practice control by exception in dealing with the variances (Morden, 2004, p. 147). Management has to establish those variances that are critical and significant to the organization. Minor deviations can be ignores while the major ones should be addressed in time.

Once the manager has identified and classified deviations, he or she should proceed to determine their causes. Deviations may be caused by poor planning, disjointed co-ordination, defective actualization of plans or poor monitoring and communication (Morden, 2004, p. 147).

The last step in exercising the control function is taking remedial action. Once the management has determined the extent and roots of variances, it should identify and take corrective action (Morden, 2004, p. 147). The management should focus the remedial actions on the deviations; critical deviations should be given priority while minor ones can be ignored. After the management has taken remedial actions if the attained performance fails to conform to plans, the management should consider revising its targets (Morden, 2004, p. 148).

The controlling function is a cyclic and endless process (Morden, 2004, p. 150). It is also intertwined with the other functions of management especially the planning function. Indeed, the range of activities engaged in planning and controlling functions substantially imbricate. Planning gives the controlling function a footing to operate on, and controlling gives meaning to the planning function.

Reference Morden, T. (2004). Principles of management. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited.


Strategic Marketing Coursework college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Strategic marketing involves appraising the market trends and evaluating the market potential. The business analyst identifies the risks, potentials, strengths and weaknesses of the business from the potential marketing plans. Strategic market also involves understanding the customers’ behaviour in terms of buying the company’s products and the effects of a shift in government regulations (Drummond, Ensor and Ashford 7; Proctor 34).

The presence of different levels in an organization, gives different strategic marketing plans. The corporate strategic marketing involves competitive analysis, environmental shifts, and market dynamics. The marking aspect involves identifying the current happenings in the market place and formulating programs that will help the organization remain competitive (Drummond et al 10; Proctor 37).

A table of strategic business unit in a sales market SBU Car Cell Drink elect. banks pharma Sales 2012 800 1500 600 850 200 1800 5750 sales 2013 950 1300 750 850 380 1750 5980 16% 22% 13% 14% 6% 29% The table above shows the summary of percentage increase in sales as of 2013. The market had an increase in total sales in the year 2013. The reason for the increase is due to increase in strategic business units of car, drinks and banks. Significant decrease of sales is present in strategic business units of cells, and pharma.

A table of car market in the strategic business unit Car market 2012 2013 market growth market share 2012 market share 2013 CBA 800 950 18.8% 25.0% 28.2% BMW 400 450 12.5% 12.5% 13.4% TOYOTA 1200 950 -20.8% 37.5% 28.2% AUDI 300 320 6.7% 9.4% 9.5% KIA 500 700 40.0% 15.6% 20.8% 3200 3370 5.3% 100.0% 100.0% The car market shows a significant increase in sales from the year 2012 to the year 2013. According to the market share columns, CBA has gained market share from 2012 to 2013. On the other hand, the Toyota brand has lost market share for the year 2012 to the year 2013. It is easy to predict the gain or loss of market share from comparison between the total market, growth and the individual car market brands.

For example, it is justified to state that CBA will gain market since its growth rate is higher than that the total growth rate. The Toyota brand should have a higher growth rate than the total growth rate of car market in order to have an increase in market share. Toyota could increase its market share by using competitive prices for its products. It could also focus on new markets across the world.

The chart above shows the relative market share of the car market strategic business unit.

The table below shows the market growth and market share of cell market from 2012 to 2013.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cell market 2012 2013 market growth market share 2012 market share 2013 CBA 1500 1300 -13% 6.9% 5.0% APPLE 5000 7500 50% 23.1% 28.7% SAMSUNG 4800 8000 67% 22.2% 30.6% NOKIA 5000 3500 -30% 23.1% 13.4% LG 1500 2000 33% 6.9% 7.7% LENOVO 1800 1800 0% 8.3% 6.9% 21612 26113 21% 100.0% 100.0% The strategic business unit of cell market show a twenty-one percentage growth increase. The reason for market growth could be increase in cell phone products in the market and improvement in technology. CBA and Nokia have negative growth rates hence low market share in the year 2013.

The cell products of CBA and Nokia may not have evolved to attain the current technological standards. In addition, the prices of the two products may be high that the average earning individual cannot manage to buy. Therefore, the firms could increase their sales by focusing on pricing strategies that could attract and retain customers.

In fact, Nokia products have a good market reputation with regard to quality, but their prices are relatively higher than most of the prices of similar products marketed by other companies. The highest market share increase is Samsung product. The market share increase could be due to large number of products from Samsung Company and subsidised rates of the retail price (Drummond et al 21; Proctor 67). Lenovo has not changed the market growth but overall has gained market share.

The chart below represents the growth rate bubble graph of the cell market Strategic Business Unit.

Drinks market Drinks 2012 2013 market growth market share 2012 market share 2013 CBA 600 750 25% 7.1% 8.4% PEPSI 4500 4800 7% 53.5% 53.9% COCACOLA 900 1000 11% 10.7% 11.2% LC 400 350 -13% 4.8% 3.9% 8412 8913 6% 100.0% 100.0% A table of market growth and market share of drinks market The highest growth market is CBA. The Coca-Cola Company has gained the market share by 11.2%. Coca-Cola Company has stiff competition from Pepsi due to market price and attractive packaging of the Pepsi Company. Coca-Cola Company should refocus on its marketing and distribution channels across the world. Also, it could concentrate on competitive pricing strategies that could be utilized to outdo its competitors in the beverage industry.

LC has lost market share and it is easy to predict from the market growth column. LC has a decrease in the market growth may be due to lack of capital and attractive packages of their products. Taste and preference of the consumers has an effect on the fluctuations of the market price (Drummond et al 25; Proctor 60). LC Company could increase its market share by focusing on new markets in emerging economies, for example, Africa and China. It could also use pricing strategies to attract more customers to buy its drink products.

The graph below shows the market growth of Drinks strategic business unit

We will write a custom Coursework on Strategic Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Electrics market

ELECTS 2012 2013 market growth market share 2012 market share 2013 CBA 850 850 0.00% 8.45% 7.97% SONY 3000 2900 -0.99% 29.82% 27.20% LG 2400 2900 4.97% 23.85% 27.20% TOSHIBA 1800 2000 1.99% 17.89% 18.76% 10062 10663 5.97% 100.00% 100.00% Table of market growth and market share of electric strategic business unit

The table above shows a total of 5.97% growth increase from the year 2012 to 2013. The market increase on electrical is minimal because of market price and durability of the electronics. The table shows a negative growth on Sony products and high percentage increase in LG products.

The three electronic products have gained the market share of 2013 showing significant increase in the preference of electronics. The consumers do not have a preferred choice of electronic because the sales of all the products are almost equal. Sony has significantly lost the market share in 2013 due to decrease in its advertisements of the available products. The business management should strategize on customer, competition and corporation (Homburg, Kuester and Krohmer 50; Proctor 65).

A graph of electric market growth

The graph shows a significant change in the LG and Toshiba electrics in the market. The business merchandize has a role of incorporating marketing strategies in order to improve the sales of Sony electric products. The bubble chart shows the percentage of the market growth of each product hence easy to predict the likelihood of market increase.

A clear marketing definition gives an advantage to the sale of products in the market. The products in the market should have fair competition and allow success of competitor business (Homburg et al 45). It is essential for the marketing strategy to consider when to compete and allow market entry of new products.

PHARMA 2012 2013 market growth market share 2012 market share 2013 CBA 1800 1750 -0.46% 16.67% 16.28% PFIZER 2500 2550 0.46% 23.15% 23.72% GSK 4000 4000 0.00% 37.04% 37.21% XYZ 1500 1350 -1.39% 13.89% 12.56% Jamjoum 1000 1100 0.93% 9.26% 10.23% 10800 10750 -0.46% 100.00% 100.00% The table above shows the pharma strategic business unit growth rate and market share.

The pharma industry is showing significant decrease in its growth. The major reason for decrease in growth is increase of generic and counterfeit products in the market. The pharma companies like Pfizer and GSK are the innovators of major pharmaceutical products. The companies spend more time and resources in drug development than in drug marketing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The advantage of these pharma companies is the significant increase of sales after releasing a new product in the market. Although there is a decrease in growth rate of pharma products, the companies show gain in market share in 2013. The GSK Company shows highest market share in 2013 due to popularity and reliability of its products (Homburg et al 78).

On the other hand, Jamjoum Company has low market share in 2013 because it is a new company in the corporate pharmaceutical marketing industry.

The pharma companies that have recorded negative growth trends could increase their sales by focusing on innovative products and strategic marketing approaches. For example, a company like the GSK should refocus on its marketing approaches for its original pharmacological products.

It should deploy its medical representatives across the world and concentrate on new markets. The medical representatives should be retrained on marketing and presentation skills that would enable them to increase markets of their respective firms.

New markets could provide new growth avenues for the pharma companies. Companies that have recorded negative or stagnant growth sales could also improve their sales by using low pricing strategies, which could enable them to sell more units at lower prices over a shorter period of time.

A graph of pharam market growth

The graph shows a positive market growth on Jamjoum Company and a negative growth on XYZ Company. The Jamjoum Company is a new entry in the market hence getting a first preference in terms of testing its products. The significant growth of Jamjoum could also be attributed to low prices and attractive packaging of the pharmaceutical products.

The methods and standards of marketing also matters in the pharmaceutical industry. GSK is stagnant in its growth from the year 2012 to 2013 meaning that there was no significant sales increase of its products. The GSK Company could not have attracted many customers due to high prices of their products and also lack of new products in the market (Homburg et al 68).

Works Cited Drummond, Graeme, John Ensor, and Ruth Ashford. Strategic Marketing. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd, 2010. Print.

Homburg, Christian, Sabine Kuester, and Harley Krohmer. Marketing Management: A Contemporary Perspective. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.

Proctor, Tony. Strategic marketing: an introduction. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2013. Print.


Cloud Computing Definition Report essay help online free

Introduction Cloud computing refers to a computer system in which users sign in to a service based on the web, which has all the software and storage capabilities that the user needs in order to carry out his/her job. This implies that the user does not have to install a collection of software in his/her computer. All he/she needs is to have access to the cloud computing system. Therefore, with an account in the cloud computing system, a user is able to perform all his/her computer-related tasks like e-mail, complex data analysis, word processing, etc. (Strickland 1).

In a computer system using cloud computing, the workload of running applications is shifted from the local computer to the cloud, which consists of network computers. The user therefore has less hardware and software requirements because most of the processing work is done by the cloud. The computer of the user thus only runs the interface software that links him/her to the cloud. This can be a simple application. In some cases, the interface software of the cloud computing system is a web browser (Strickland 1).

Most computer users have had a chance to use cloud computing in one of its forms. Users who have web-based email accounts with Hotmail, Gmail, and Yahoo! Mail have used cloud computing. This is because in these e-mail services, the user does not run the e-mail program on his/her computer. Instead of this, the user is required to sign in to an account remotely. Therefore, the storage and software for his/her account is not in his/her computer system, but it is on a cloud created by the service provider (Strickland 1).

With this kind of capability, it is no wonder that banks and financial institutions have been keen to use cloud computing in their work. Cloud computing comes with several advantages and disadvantages that make it suitable in certain cases, and unsuitable in others. It is therefore vital that before a business organization switches their computing operations to cloud computing, it carries out a cost-benefit and suitability analysis. This paper defines cloud computing and explores the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing, as well as establishing the ideal environment in which cloud computing can be used.

Domain of usage of cloud computing The use of cloud computing is only appropriate in certain environments. Therefore, businesses in these environments are likely to reap maximum benefits from using cloud-computing services than others in unfavorable environments. An example is an environment in which a business is anticipating to scale up its operations. A business that is operating in a dynamic environment that can see its operations being downscaled unpredictably can also benefit from the use of cloud computing services.

Similarly, a business that is expecting to explore new business opportunities that will be more profitable, and that will need their own IT infrastructure is likely to benefit from the implementation of a cloud computing system. This is because cloud computing will be able to provide such businesses with the opportunity to change their IT resources depending on demand.

Cloud computing is also ideal for start-ups. This is because implementing cloud computing in a business that has been running for sometime can prove to be costly at first. The reason for this is that such a business will have a fully functioning IT department, with staff, hardware, and software. Therefore, in order to implement cloud computing, such a business will have to lay off its IT specialists and dispose its equipment and software, an exercise that can prove to be costly for the business (Lithicum 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of cloud computing services is also appropriate in an environment in which a small business handles large volumes of data. This is because such a business may not be willing to increase its wage bill by recruiting data managers. Such a business will therefore benefit from choosing an appropriate package with a cloud computing service provider (Lithicum 1). This will ensure that its operational costs are minimized, and it will ensure that its data is professionally managed.

Cloud computing is also important in cases where there is need to separate the physical involvement of employees in day-to-day activities of a business with the data that they generate from these activities. In such a situation, the business may be intending to ensure that a third party handles data in order to prevent cases of data manipulation by fraudulent employees. The business may also want the data to be handled by an outsider in order to raise the confidence of shareholders, and to ensure an effective internal control system (Lithicum 1). Thus, in such an environment, a cloud computing system will come in handy for the business. This is, perhaps, the motivating factor for the use of cloud computing systems by banks and financial institutions.

Finally, cloud computing is appropriately applied in business environments where the security of data and information is not a priority. In organizations like the CIA or forensic laboratories, where the security of information and data is a priority, it will be unwise to implement cloud computing. This is due to the security threats associated with cloud computing.

Case of usage of cloud computing BFS (Banking and Financial) institutions, perhaps, benefit the most from cloud computing. This is due to their advancement in adoption of technology and cloud computing, which have been determinants of competitive advantage. It is however important to note that these institutions have tight security concerns that have made them reluctant to fully implement cloud computing. An example of the usage of cloud computing by banks is given below.

The “Spanish BBVA Bank” (Amin 1) was persuaded by Google early this year to use Google’s enterprise software, which Google provides via the internet. The bank, however stressed that the cloud computing software would be used for internal communication, and that “all customer data will be secured in their own data center and will be separate from cloud computing” (Amin 1). Some of the applications that the bank will be using in the cloud include docs, email, chat video, calendar, etc.

This is geared towards ensuring that the bank embraces cultural change and works together as a team. In a statement, the banks management expressed its belief that the cloud would make its workers more efficient and ultimately transform the bank’s operations. The management also hinted that the cloud would improve information accessibility because employees will be able to access information at the click of a mouse button (Amin 1). This deal was sealed early this year, and the bank has been using the enterprise software since then.

Benefits of cloud computing Cloud computing has been proven to have more benefits in comparison with traditional approaches to computing. Some of the advantages of cloud computing are listed below.

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The use of cloud computing can potentially help business organizations to scale down their Information Technology (IT) expenditure. This is due to the fact that using cloud computing ensures that all the applications that are needed by the business are availed on the internet, and thus the business does not need to purchase and install the required software in its computers. Cloud computing also gives business organizations a chance to reduce costs related to software and hardware requirements.

This is because the service provider of the cloud computing system usually carries out tasks like updates and maintenance. Cloud computing also enables a business to reduce its operational costs because the business does not have to recruit people with technical expertise in the IT field. This is because IT functions can be outsourced to the cloud computing service provider. This leads to operational cost savings, and allows the business to concentrate on its specialty (Kumar 1).


A business that uses cloud computing is able to easily upscale or downscale without much interference. For instance, when there is a business need like addition of portfolios or even changes in the conditions of the market of the business, the service provider gives the business the chance to upgrade to a more suitable package. This implies that instances of business growth will be supported without the need to make costly changes to the existing IT infrastructure (Kumar 1).

Access to new technologies

Businesses that use cloud computing are capable of accessing latest technology with relative ease. The business does not even need to concern itself with software upgrades or investment in requisite technology. This is because the service provider usually manages all these issues on the behalf of the business. Cloud computing also gives a business access to hardware, software, and IT functionality, which the business is otherwise unable to access, or which is too expensive for the business (Kumar 1).


Cloud computing gives workers more flexibility in terms of access to work-related resources. The employees can access these resources in and out of the business premises. Therefore, with the use of laptops, netbooks, and even smartphones, employees are able to access these resources. The ability to share files and other documents simultaneously over the internet is also important in supporting collaboration within and outside the business premises (Kumar 1).

The flexibility of the business is also enhanced because cloud-computing services are paid for in models that are based on demand and usage. Thus, a business only subscribes to cloud computing services when it needs them and pays only for the services it has used in a certain period. This is as opposed to having a specialized IT department in an organization that will require all the needed IT equipment, and whose workforce will be paid regardless of whether there were it functions or not in a particular month (Kumar 1).

Back up

Providers of cloud computing services assist businesses in backing up their data and resources. Although businesses have continually been concerned about data protection, service providers of cloud computing services can back-up data and information related to a certain business in a professional manner (Kumar 1).


Even though clouds are considered to lack the required security, they are far much better than traditional systems as far as security is concerned. Cloud computing systems give a business the opportunity to back-up its data in real-time. This obviously leads to a reduction in instances of data loss. In cases where a power outage occurs, customers can be able to use back-up servers, which are normally synchronized with the main ones. That is, customers use back-up servers while waiting for main servers, which pick up from the back-up servers. This implies that the business maximizes its uptime during an outage without losing data. In addition to this, clouds tend to be less prone to attacks and hacks because people may be unable to figure out your data’s whereabouts (Kumar 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cloud Computing Definition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Environmental factors

Cloud computing tends to be more friendly towards the environment than its traditional counterpart is. This is because it potentially reduces the energy consumption of a business organization. On the other hand, providers of cloud computing services invest in large-capacity data centers, which are a greener alternative for businesses as compared to more traditional IT approaches. Cloud computing can also help a business to reduce its rate of equipment wastage because the reduction of hardware needs that come with it limits future redundancy (Kumar 1).

Cloud computing risks It is important for cloud computing users to know the risks that come with this service. In cloud computing environments, a number of serious vulnerabilities and threats should be closely monitored in order to reduce their effect on the business. Some of these vulnerabilities and risks are discussed below.

Security risks

Prevention of a system from attacks is considered as its security. There are a number of security risks that are associated with the use of cloud computing. These include the following.


Private organizations normally have authenticated users accessing their data. Thus, they usually give the privilege of accessing data to the concerned users only. However, in a cloud-computing environment, data and information must be accessed by at least one more person working with the provider of the cloud computing service. This implies that the security of sensitive data and information may be compromised due to more people accessing such data and information (Chandran and Angepat).


Availability is a key concern in cloud computing because customer needs are usually attended to as promptly as possible. However, cloud computing service providers usually have several clients. This implies that their system may at one time be overloaded, leading to programming errors, which in turn lead to system failure. When this occurs, users of cloud computing services in a business will be stranded leading to unattended customer needs (Chandran and Angepat). This will ultimately lead to loss of customers and reduced profits.

Network load

Cloud network load has also affected the performance of cloud computing systems significantly. When several clients request information from the cloud computing system through the cloud network simultaneously, the network can become unresponsive because of the high volumes of data requested. This can lead to crashing of computers and servers (Chandran and Angepat). This translates to poor service or no service at all to the users, which leads to business losses.


In a system that uses cloud computing, the quality, security, and validity of data is able to affect system outcomes and operations. This implies that wrong data or virus-infected files are likely to affect the system, and make the users of the system unable to access the system, or worse still, make users to get undesired output from the system (Chandran and Angepat).

Data security

The indiscriminate inter-system sharing of data in cloud computing is a challenge because it exposes data to vulnerabilities. It therefore becomes a daunting task to ensure proper data handling. Any data misuse may result in reduced profits, or even losses in businesses (Chandran and Angepat).

Privacy risks

Cloud computing is associated with a number of complex confidentiality and privacy issues. One such issue is the fact that there is no legislation controlling the behavior of users of the cloud computing system, and thus these users can disclose sensitive information to undesired individuals. Another issue is that in some clouds, the circumstances of data access by the data owner are not clearly defined. This has often led to misuse of access rights by employees of the data owning businesses. Lastly some clouds store information in a distributed manner, and they do not expressly inform their clients about how they will use the clients’ information (Chandran and Angepat).

Consumer risk

Consumers can potentially be put at risk by the use of cloud computing services by a business organization. The supply of products to consumers through cloud computing is governed by contacts that do not have the consumers’ input. The contract is often drafted by the business offering the products. The terms are sometimes changed without informing the consumer. This exposes the consumer to risks (Chandran and Angepat).

Conclusion Cloud computing is a new technology that is expected to revolutionize business operations. With the opportunity it gives businesses to outsource their IT functions at affordable rates, cloud computing is likely to become the next frontier of cutting business costs. It is particularly advantageous because service providers are more technologically knowledgeable than IT departments in businesses and thus they are expected to give better IT solutions to business problems than their localized counterparts do. It is also associated with several other advantages that are related to the fact that technological services will be offered by knowledgeable people from a centralized location.

Banks and financial institutions have particularly been identified as the enterprises that are bound to benefit greatly from cloud computing. However, the risks that are associated with cloud computing have made the implementation of cloud computing in banks a controversial issue. The Spanish BBVA Bank, which has implemented a Google cloud, did not fully implement it, but rather, it continues to operate its IT department. The cloud is limited to communication functions while the IT department handles all the customer data. This is an indication of the fact that cloud computing service providers have much work to do in convincing businesses that their clouds are secure enough.

Despite the security issues associated with the use of cloud computing in businesses, the technology is valuable because it plays a big role in reducing the operational costs of businesses. Therefore, businesses that do not have strict security requirements should consider implementing cloud-computing systems in order to reduce costs, operate effectively and ultimately increase their profits.

Works Cited Amin, Pratish. Spanish BBVA bank to use Google cloud computing. 13 Jan. 2012. Web.

Chandran, Sneha


The Keys to the Success of Dell Case Study custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons for low average profitability in HP/Compaq PC division

The keys to the success of Dell

Dell’s competitive advantage

Response to Dell’s competitive advantage


Introduction Dell Computers Company operates in the computer industry of the US. The Company engages in development, sales and support of computer services. Michael Dell founded the company in 1984. Dell’s strategy of making sales directly to its clients has enabled it to acquire the position of the market leader in the US computer industry.

Reasons for low average profitability in HP/Compaq PC division The product life cycle of the HP/Compaq PC division is measured in years instead of months. Unlike Dell Company which comes out with a new model every three months, it takes longer for the HP/Compaq PC division to develop interactive products that supports its computers. The need for customized, rapidly updatable databases of information and courseware elements for re-skilling is necessary to restore consumer confidence in the HP/Compaq PC division products.

The HP/Compaq PC division has not endeavored to offer affordable support services to their customers as compared to Dell. For instance, through insurance of products on transit, Dell customers are more protected from loss before receiving what they have bought. This is not the case at the HP/Compaq PC division.

Most of the HP/Compaq PC division’s products are not properly tailored in their market segmentation strategies. Besides, there is a need to make the HP/Compaq PC division’s products available to customers when needed. At present, the products are not properly tailored to meet the demands of their clients.

The keys to the success of Dell Despite communication being rated as a high corporate strategy, action planning of communication method is of essence to create solution oriented task and strategy implementation secession. The main success parameters of the Dell Company include customer acquisition, customer retention, quality services, and proactive response to different business situations. For instance, direct engagement with the customers has ensured fast growth since customized products delivered to the customers have created confidence and loyalty in the US market.

Dell’s competitive advantage Dell Company has an active presence in the US and has an expanding presence in emerging markets such as China, Japan, and Europe. The company’s vulnerability to risk is generally lower since it has endeavored to offer high quality computers that are customized to meet the demands of its clients. Dell offers competitive price tag and discounts as long term strategies. In order to stay afloat, Dell’s competitive pricing has ensured that it remains the choice for middle class income earners yearning for quality customized computers.

Response to Dell’s competitive advantage Some of the competitors of the Dell Company such as HP and Compaq have embraced amalgamation or consolidation to unite a number of sub brands into a single unit to increase their competitiveness and reduce the cost of running their businesses. The strong amalgamated brand in the form of HP/Compaq PC venture has facilitated the restructuring of effective sales and public awareness of their products to weaken the Dell’s competitive advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations In response to the strong competitive advantage of the Dell Company, the HP/Compaq PC venture should resort to developing a good brand positioning as a marketing strategy that guides the marketing plan that illustrates their brand’s essence. Specifically, the branding strategies should be accompanied by reorganization of market segmentation to introduce a direct interaction between the company and the clients when selling products. The company can fortify this relationship by offering free customer online support services. Through online marketing, the HP/Compaq PC venture will be able to acquire almost 40% of the computer market that is currently controlled by the Dell Company.


Furniture Export (International Marketing) Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Political and legal environment

Economic environment

Technological environment

Social environment

Industry structure


Reference List

Introduction Furniture Fripe Incorporation is a private limited company which operates within the UK office furniture industry. The firm’s core product category entails provision of office furniture. To meet its customer’s demands, the firm has integrated the concept of product diversification which has been attained through incorporation of a number of product lines.

Some of the furniture products which the firm supplies include chairs, desks, filing cabinets and tables in its product portfolio. Since its inception in 2000, the firm has been very successful with regard to marketing its products in its domestic market. To attain its profit maximization objective, the firm intends expand into the global market.

According to Kazmi (2008, p.207), there are different market expansion strategies that firms can adopt in their strategic management processes. One these strategies entails the internationalization strategy.

Andexter (2008, p.70) asserts that there are different internationalization options that a firm can consider. Some of these include; exportation, licensing, franchising, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and formation of strategic alliances.

In its effort to enter into the international market, the management team of Furniture Fripe has adopted the exportation strategy. The firm has cited China, United Arabs Emirates [UAE] and Saudi Arabia as its potential export destination.

As a result, the management team has appreciated the importance of conducting a comprehensive analysis with regard to the external environment. This paper outlines an analysis of Saudi Arabia, China and UAE external analysis on the basis of the PEST model.

Political and legal environment Analysis of the political risk of a particular country is a major factor which should be taken into consideration when expanding into the international market (Onkvisit


Evaluating JIT Training: Tasty Coffee Research Paper college essay help

As soon as Tasty Coffee Company purchases iPad devices, E-learning will become efficient and effective and this will enable employees to acquire skills using methods that are most convenient to them. Additionally, just-in-time training means that employees will be in a position to learn when they want to learn in order to solve a particular problem at the work place.

This learning is highly motivational because the problem at hand will be solved immediately after its identification by the employee. Additionally, JIT entails acquiring of relevant information followed by a critical thinking which results to development of problem solving skills (Clark


The Great Ocean Road Triathlon Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Human resources

Risk management

Economic and social impact

Event evaluation


The Great Ocean Road Triathlon will encompass swimming, biking and running. It will occur at Anglesea Victoria, Great Ocean Road. The event includes a series of event management, risk management and administrative functions.

Human resources The triathlon will have a marketing team that consists of a coordinator, media team, and planning group. They will be responsible for the initial announcement of the event using local media outlets. These include television, an event website, radio, newspapers, leaflets and social networking sites. The website will have information about joining the triathlon, and will give advice on how to prepare for the event.

Details on the prize money of AUD 15,000 and training packages of AUD 500 will also be available on the site. The marketing team will also update athletes, sponsors and any interested parties on new developments. Newspapers, magazines, television and radio advertisements will highlight the venue, date, and possible reasons to participate.

The triathlon and multisport magazine will especially be useful for this program because it will allow for a thorough explanation of the event. The marketing team will double up as a media team on the day of the event. It will work with television stations to broadcast the event locally (Xterra 2013).

The executive or administration team will consist of an organising committee. The group will be responsible for the quality, safety and fairness of the event. This committee will also liaise with the International Triathlon Committee, which will give them advice on how to implement the program. Some appointments will be imperative in this group.

The organising committee will have a president who will ensure that all elements of the manual are implemented. This executive team will consist of a technical delegate who will be responsible for the implementation of regulations and rules. Finally, it will have a chief technical official who will handle the management issues of the event.

Together, the administrative team will monitor preparations for the event by carrying out checks and regular meetings. They will delegate duties to the rest of the team and do progress updates every few weeks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This group will also obtain approvals and permits from the local and municipal council prior to the event. They shall supervise water quality tests several times before the competition. Furthermore, they will ensure that all the team members are playing their part.

A finance team will be responsible for the collection, budgeting and management of expenditure in the team. This group will consist of a series of accountants who will make projections on potential revenue sources. Some of them will include corporate sponsors for Xterra Australia, registration fees, training fees for the coach, and municipal or government sponsors.

Suppliers who partner with the Triathlon team will also enter into a contract that will compel them to give a portion of their earnings from the event to the team. This group will also manage expenditure for the team.

This will include accommodation, security, infrastructure management, course management, insurance, medical care, and award ceremonies. They will determine the amount of money needed for each activity and ensure that all the concerned groups will collect and work on it.

The program delivery team will be responsible for operational implementation of the event. Their work will be to ensure that the quality of the event is satisfactory. They will focus on volunteer services, registration of athletes, venue management, program synchrony, awards banquets and the closing ceremony. They will report to the administrative team and receive instructions on the way forward.

First, the program delivery group will register athletes. It will ensure that they are eligible to participate, and that they have paid their full registration fees before entry into the company database. Their names will appear on the company website two weeks before the competition.

Spectator management falls under the program delivery docket. The group will organise bus schedules, road closures and warning signs for the athletes involved. In order to ensure road closures work, the group will liaise with local radio newspapers, radio stations, and blogs to advertise the information.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Great Ocean Road Triathlon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All access roads will have signs a few days prior to the event. Surrounding members will also receive flyers on this inaccessibility. The program delivery team will work with the media team to ensure that this takes place.

The program delivery team will also create an athlete service booth in which they will receive athletes who arrive for the event and escort them to their respective locations. They will organise the placement of personnel who will prepare the bikes, sporting equipment and gear needed to participate in the event. Athletes will receive a course map, information about nearby medical clinics and tourism spots.

Perhaps one of the most critical tasks that the program delivery team will carry out is venue management. They will look into the course design for swimming, biking and running along with their transitions. Here, design specifications for swimming must adhere to international specifications for length, depth, as well as turns and exits.

They will also ascertain that the swim-to-bike transitions occur smoothly by placing signs, and providing athletes with the right clothing for each level. In the bike course, there must be smooth corners as well as an internationally permitted incline. The same will hold for the run course. The finish area will have the necessary aesthetics and spacing needed to work effectively.

Venue management also entails having proper public address systems. The program delivery team will source high quality devices from reputable firms. It will also ensure that event announcers and commentators are in place. Medals will be presented in a designated area during an award ceremony. After the event, athletes will participate in a medical examination or doping control then they will exit to a recovery area.

The human resource team will be responsible for the recruitment, enumeration, and training of workers. Two types of workers will account for preparation of this team: volunteers and paid employees. Volunteers will be recruited through an online application process. They will receive training on the event, for the first two weeks, from the program delivery and HR teams.

They will also be encouraged to promote the event by wearing Great Ocean Triathlon t-shirts or by talking about it. Owing to the immense level of work needed to carry out this mission, it is essential to source paid employees for most of the tasks involved in event management. These will be experienced individuals who will also be recruited online.

A security team will also be instated in order to protect the spectators and the athletes from any prevalent dangers. They will ensure that things like theft, riots or fires do not take place. This group will also look into the proper flow of traffic through access roads as well as the seamless flow of traffic. For a full overview of the event organisational structure, please see figure below.

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Risk management In swimming, the temperature and water quality could be potential risk factors as they could cause illness. To mitigate this problem, the group will measure water temperature, PH and biological contaminants. Theft may also be a challenge during the event. This can be handled by having a prestart zone that will control access to the starting line.

All their (participant) belongings will be guarded by a security team, and placed in portable lockers. Additionally, only two officials will be allowed in transition areas so as to minimise the number of non-competing individuals who have access to sports equipment. If media representatives appear to compromise safety, the security team will remove them from the location.

Stampedes could also be challenges; the security team will control crowds while a program delivery team members will control athletes prior to and during the competition. For thorough safety, the police and security personnel should be present at every intersection or road.

Furthermore, there ought to be a motorcycle official, a vehicle control official as well as a lap auditor on the course. They must ensure that roads remain closed and that athletes do not intersect with moving vehicles (British Traithlon Council 2012).

Injuries are a potential source of concern in any sporting event. Therefore, the transitional areas should have properly arranged bikes and equipment in order to minimise collisions. The space between the bikes, helmets and other clothes should be sufficient to eradicate this risk. It should be a minimum of 75 cm, and must have a code number for each athlete. Crossovers between athletes should not occur in case of these transitions.

The course design and signage during the event will also mitigate this risk. For instance, courses can challenge the athletes by having hills or corners, but these should be within a reasonable limit. The number of laps that athletes can participate in must also be taken into consideration. Things like railroad tracks and bridges will not be in the course as they could cause accidents.

Furthermore, the courses will have fences, and all athletes must wear protective gear when competing. Drowning may also take place, so 15 professional lifeguards with canoes and kayaks will follow the athletes in the sea. Medical personnel will also be on standby.

Additionally, water safety boats will also support the lifeguards. In other sections of the triathlon, there will be medical personnel with cell phones and radios who can notify each other when an athlete requires urgent medical help. Additionally, ambulance services should also be present at key points.

Provisions will exist to allow the injured athletes to move with their bikes to transition areas without causing disruptions among continuing athletes. All athletes should access aid stations every 2km in the competition. Here, they can find water and other necessary supplies (Queensland Triathlon 2012).

Extreme weather could be a challenge in this sporting event. The most disturbing issue would be rain as it would cause the transition areas to become muddy. Therefore, to minimise this problem, the area should be carpeted between the swimming and biking areas as well as the biking area and running course. Bikes should be covered in the event of rain.

Bomb threats or evacuations may also be a risk in this event. The security team will have metal detectors to check all the spectators, athletes, and officials entering the Triathlon areas.

Furthermore, they will assess the whole venue prior to the event for any potential dangers. If an evacuation is necessary after establishment of a threat, then the security team will coordinate these efforts together with the police to terminate the competition.

Economic and social impact The Triathlon will bring spectators, volunteers and athletes to Anglesea, Victoria. The participants in the triathlon have greater income streams than locals at Victoria. This comes with greater appreciation of the experiences and facilities that Anglesea has. Therefore, visitors will create an impact on the town’s economy through their stay there as well as visitation after the event.

Direct dollars from the event will emanate from the amount of money that the spectators and athletes spend on the weekend of the Triathlon. Local businesses, like groceries, restaurants, lodging facilities, and retail centres, will increase their number of sales owing to this event. It should be noted that the event will attract two types of visitors to Anglesea, Victoria.

Some of them will only come to the location for one day and go back to their homes. Conversely, others will spend the night in the near vicinity. Regardless of the category, all visitors will still spend money during the day.

Therefore, the amount of day expenditure and overnight spending will account for the total economic impact. If the event attracts 1,700 athletes, then their total expenditure may be AUD 1,399,336. Assuming that about 2,000 people accompany the athletes, the event could lead to revenue of AUD 478,003.

Indirect economic effects may also be felt through indirect business support. The event will require plenty of sporting and event supplies. Some of them may come from different parts of the country or from the local region.

They include bikes, swimming caps, running gear, swimming costumes, helmets, running shoes, goggles, bags, ambulance services, portable sanitation facilities, radio call devices, tents, podiums, seats, boats, canoes, and medicine.

Some of these devices will already be available at Anglesea, where the event management team will purchase the items. However, if the supplies are not enough, then the team will obtain them from other parts of the country. This will stimulate the economy in other parts that are not even closely tied to Victoria.

Tourism will also generate some revenue for this community. Some of the participants may decide to sightsee or visit different locations in the town. The beach is quite extensive and has accommodations that guests may visit when in the location or they could come back for the same experience. Social media will be quite helpful as most of the visitors will tweet or send Facebook messages about the beauty of the place.

This generates sales for concerned companies, and may boost the economy of the location. People’s perception towards Anglesea could change; this might lead to regular visitations even years to come. Aside from the direct economic impact, the event will also cause participants to donate money to local charities.

The event will also create a positive impact on the social well being of the community. First, most of the volunteers will come from the location. Additionally, spectators and local clubs may also want to involve themselves in the activities. These may cause residents to know each other and bond with one another.

Additionally, travellers will have a better understanding or appreciation of their country. This will strengthen visitor’s sense of nationalism.

Event evaluation In order to assess how successful the Triathlon was, the event management team will conduct a survey among the participants. They will be asked to rate their overall experience of the event. They will also talk about the quality of the swimming, running and biking courses.

Participants will also rate the event organisation of the Triathlon. They can talk about rule clarification, training opportunities and support services. Members will also give their take on possible improvements to the event.

Since most of the participants usually come with their friends and family, it will be critical to determine what their insights are concerning the event. Therefore, another survey will be conducted among them. They will talk about their experience in the event and whether they were satisfied with the ancillary services offered to the spectators.

Aside from opinions and suggestions, the success of the event will be accessed by the number of athletes who registered and participated in the event. All must be placed in their respective categories.

Their numbers should be compared to other national triathlon events in the past. If they are close in number, then the event will have succeeded. This should also tie in with an examination of the number of tickets bought for the event. The projected revenue sources should also be within a 10% margin. These figures will indicate success on the part of the concerned stakeholders.

References British Traithlon Council 2012, Risk management strategy. Web.

Queensland Triathlon 2012, Triathlon event management and race operations manual. Web.

Xterra 2013, Xterra triathlon. Web.


Ethical decision making Problem Solution Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Report

Code of Ethics



The situation presented before us is of dire importance and requires urgent attention. It has been recently brought to my notice that a shipment that is to be dispatched to South America soon has a batch of defective whistles and fails to adhere to the standardized content of lead in the product. This may escalate serious health issues among the young users who are target customers for the toys.

Therefore, this memo presents three options that may prevent any form of health hazard to the children who will ultimately be using the product:

recall the products which are reported as defective,

do not dispatch the shipment and re-make the order considering dire financial consequences,

dispatch the shipment and hush up the whole issue.

The process of decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of options, and ethical control. Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem.

When faced with a decision dilemma that requires critical assessments, analysis resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage. Each option is assigned to a quadrant with predetermined response strategies and ‘follow-ups’ upon implementation. Before we go ahead to choose one of the options as our final choice we must undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the three recommendations as presented above.

The first recommendation as presented above is to recall the products when they are reported defective. This has many financial advantages. If we do not out rightly reject the ones that are defective and do not adhere to the safety level of lead in whistles, then the company need not incur the financial loss of re-producing the whole lot of whistles.

On the other side of the problem is the question, if unethical conduct on part of the company to avoid the issue, is a serious breach of quality standard, especially when it was aware of the pending issue. Passing the products as quality checked would imply that the company had passed the products in its quality checks and it implicitly adhered to the standards set by the governments.

Therefore, the consumers could take the quality standard to be perfects as per the government norms. However, if any of the products failed the quality test this would create a stigma to the company and the image of the company would be irrevocably tarnished. In addition, the company could face litigations for not maintaining quality standards from both the consumers as well as the government authorities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second option was to stop the delivery of the product and re-produce the whole batch of whistles. This option though is apparently expensive for one had to forgo the cost of re-production from scratch and the rejection and dumping of the rejected whistles, however, this option was ethically correct.

The reason for it being ethically correct is that the company would then follow the quality standards set by the government as well as adhere to it when they may have gotten away with the minor disruption in quality standards. This would increase the credibility of the company and may make the consumers more loyal to the products. The problematic concern for the company is the extra cost that it has to incur.

The company has to face an additional cost of producing the whole batch. The financial cost of producing the whole lot again will be very high and the company may have a face a high loss.

The third option would be a highly unethical standpoint i.e. to send the whole shipment for distribution and hush up the whole issue of quality breach. This would sell products and the company need not face any extra cost of production. Further, the products would be delivered on time.

In addition, until the products are specifically tested for lead content in the whistles, chances are that the authorities too would not come to know about the quality violation. This option though financially extremely viable, is unethical and goes against the social responsibility of the company.

If the excess percentage of lead in the whistles do children harm, the onus of the poisoning would be on the company, which may lead to loss of reputation as well as business.

While evaluating the whole scenario it must be noted that the quality testing done by the quality assurance team had identified an anomaly in the lead content in the metal whistles manufactured for the elementary school toy collection. The main market where the toys are expected to be sold belongs to underage children from primary and elementary schools.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical decision making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The case shows that the company tested for quality of the lead whistles attached to the toys. The testing showed that the content of lead was higher than the maximum level of lead permissible in metal toys targeted to children. This is believed to be harmful for the children below seven years and do not qualify the quality standards in the US.

The company had an allotment of a large shipment due to be delivered in South America by the end of the forthcoming week and missing on deadline would be disastrous for the company.

The loss the company has to incur due to failure of supplying or re-production of the whistles adhering to the quality standards would be approximately around $100,000. Now as a socially responsible company, we must adhere to the ethical decision making process.

However, the economical consideration in making a socially responsible ethical decision is a dichotomous path. Milton Freidman has pointed out that the social responsibility of a business is to create profit . However today reducing ethical behavior to solely economical consideration is not enough. If companies are solely driven by profit motif they will end up taking an unethical decision that may do society more harm than good.

Today businesses are responsible in taking prominent roles in societal building and therefore ethical conduct devoid of profit motif becomes more important. Unlike Freidman, the present ethical concern reverses Friedman’s theory and reduces economic profit motif to ethical behavior.

Therefore, the new mantra for businesses is to be socially responsible for “ethics pays” . The moral philosophy that the company must follow begins with the philosophies of Socrates and/or Plato who believed that the

… good and bad, right and wrong, reflect subjective opinion and desire – how we as human beings and as individuals feel about things – Plato and Socrates believed that good and bad, right and wrong, are part of the objective nature of things – how the world around us really is.

Some ethical beliefs portend that necessary economic rationality leads to ethical behavior. In other words, such idea of ethical conduct beliefs that unethical behavior is not profitable for the business. However, in case of the production of faulty metal whistles it must be understood that following the ethically correct path does not necessarily mean that it would be financially viable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical decision making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to make the whole thing in an ethically right point one must understand that it would incur a lot of cost that will not be beneficial to the company or to any other stakeholders. Based on this understanding, the second option seems that most potent alternative that the company must pursue.

Therefore, the company must pledge to call back all the whistles that do not adhere to the quality standards and reproduce them before supplying them to the market. This is the only decision that is ethically correct and helps the company to act in a socially responsible manner.

For the contaminated whistles may do harm to little children who will be the end users of the toys and may cause great harm to their health. This will not be a profitable outcome for both the company and the society. Therefore, recalling the faulty products and producing them again would be the right decision for the company to take. This decision to recall all the products will help in improving customer relations.

This is so because customers will gain greater faith on the ethical conduct of the company and will be assured with the company’s socially responsible stand.

Further, this ethical decision can be used as a leverage to promote the quality standard of the product to assure the customers of the company’s integrity and stand towards making quality toys safe for children to use. This would definitely improve the perception of the company to the customers.

There is a very fine line between the rationally correct, economically viable, and ethically correct decision. Decision making for the company must be based on addressing all three aspects and not only one of them. An ethically correct decision may incur short-term loss to the company but in the longer run, this would be a more profitable decision.

Report Ethical decision-making is an important aspect of doing business. Many philosophers today believe that without doing business ethically one cannot assume profit.

In this respect, the company must undertake ethical decision making in order to remain viable as well as respected. An unethical company may end up losing its customer base for even customers today are highly conscious of the ethical decision making done by companies.

Specifically, the business cannot survive without the customer who must be made to feel part of the business endeavors to win the aspects of brand loyalty, acceptability and support. An ethical decision can be defined as a decision with moral and legal appeal to the wider community. The aspect of commitment is crucial element in examining ethicality of a decision.

In precision, for these decisions to hold and be positively assimilated into the work environment, a series of tests are carried out by gathering facts and incorporating them in defined issues surrounding ethics to test the consciousness in application. Thirdly, the aspect of competency is critical in separating premises from assumptions in making ethical decisions.

The first area that one must understand is that the company should encourage a culture that condemns unethical behavior and rewards ethical work activities. As a company, we must understand that being ethical is profitable. There are two types of dilemmas that companies face today – first, is to forego economic interest in order to remain ethical and the other is to forego ethical behavior to maximize profit.

As a company, we have to decide which one of these problems leads to rational decision making. Therefore, as one would point out that it would be irrational for a company to consciously choose not to pollute the environment to save it from polluting and similarly, it would also be irrational for a company to consciously pollute the environment in order to maximize one’s profit.

The second rational may sound pragmatic to many, which foster the behavior of doing what one wants to do, and the other is considered pragmatic rationalization and gains support from consequential and utilitarian philosophies.

From an idealist perspective, one can reject a pragmatic approach. The idealist perspective condemns all actions that are pursued at the cost of ethical behavior in order to gain interest. Therefore, according to this perspective, ethical conduct is of utmost importance and no employee should behave unethically .

From this philosophy’s point of view, all those behaviors, which are unethical but have economical rationality, are irrational.

Therefore, both the pragmatic and idealist philosophies are two ends of ethical thinking and therefore in order to obtain a more rational, stable, and less obtuse philosophy. For instance, it would be pragmatic to believe that “it can be rational to choose a profitable but unethical behavior as well as to choose a costly but ethical behavior.”

Therefore, the main potent of the third approach is to combining the two i.e. the material and the ethical concerns that may lead to the belief that any behavior may “a process and a consequence” . In this way, a company has to adopt a mode that involves both ethical and profit seeking behavior, which may be called the optimal behavior.

In order to increase the probability of ethical decision making enshrined within the company culture, the company must undertake a few steps that would ensure ethical decision-making. The company must inculcate a culture of honesty. The reason for embracing honesty in the company culture, as businesses is nothing but a subset of human relationships.

The commonplace rules of morality do not uphold in everyday business dealings where at times one has to crush to competition to become the leader. Therefore, in business, like in many other games like football or boxing the common ethical rules logically do not apply.

Further, as national culture based ethical decision making research has shown countries high on individualism like the US have to incorporate ethical behavior for individuals as collective ethical norms will not be affective in such an organization .

Business ethics are obligations that the management of a business should follow in doing business activities. Reflectively, when a business fails to follow these obligations, ethical dilemmas are likely to occur and negatively affect such business. Based on the code of ethics, the management of a business should exercise integrity when preparing statements and report accurate information to all stakeholders.

Moreover, good business ethics define objectivity and motivation in maintaining trust in transactions. In the contemporary world, any business has social responsibilities which determine how it operates, how it carries out its duties and how it survives in the markets full of competition.

The social responsibility of a business is to make profits in the market through value addition, responsible production, accountability, and quality in their products. Therefore understanding the cultural norm of the company before implementing an ethical decision making structure is important.

Strategy and the Process of identifying them

Figure 1: Ethical decision-making process

In order to spot the strategies, an internal survey was conducted which helped to determine the ethical requirements of the company and these strategies were identified as the most important factors affecting ethical culture. The steps followed in identifying the steps were:

First the areas were identified which frequently required general ethical decision-making. This process helped to identify the issues that were ethics related.

The guidelines already at disposal were consulted to see the strategies that are important to set up an ethical decision making process.

Then all the sources were evaluated that might influence decision making process such as individual and group prejudices, attitudes, and needs.

The strategies that evolve from the above three processes are brainstormed and then the two strategies had been identified.

Then the consequences of adopting these strategies to the business were weighed. This step was essentially a cost-benefit evaluation. This essentially viewed the outcome of adopting the strategies.

The strategies were implemented.

The two strategies that the company must adopt to ensure ethical decision-making are – 1) promote a culture that fosters integrity and honesty, and 2) create a workplace that respects the interest of others as well as the environment. The first point is based on the belief that honesty and integrity are two pillars that must be imbibed within individuals as well as teams in the organization in order to inculcate a culture of honesty.

This strategy was derived through detailed discussion with the top management and through a survey on their perspective of the importance of ethics and moral in the organization. Figure 1 shows that in order to establish ethical decision making within the organization, the organization must foster a culture of ethical conduct within the organization.

An ethically right culture within an organization is important to help the organization make ethically correct decisions. Further, a culture that helps promote ethical behavior is important for enforced ethical conduct cannot be sustained for repeated decision-making process.

It is not a point at which a decision is to be made but organizations have to undertake chain of decision making which must be enforced through an ethical culture that all believe in. an understanding of the corporate culture among the individuals and teams is important for this will only increase the propensity of the individuals to make ethical decision a part of their regular logical thinking.

The second aspect that individuals must concentrate on is that the workplace culture must respect the stakeholders. A business has many stakeholders right from its customers to the government or the people who derive drinking water from the river where the company dumps its waste.

Therefore, the company has responsibility not only to the people directly involved with the organization but also to people who are indirectly affected by the actions of the business. Given this, one must understand that ethical decision-making will help the company not only gain good popularity among its customers but also to the community.

Therefore, the company has to adopt a strategy to enhance awareness of the environmental damage that a business may cause and trying to avoid such problems is important for the company and must therefore be incorporated in its regular decision making process. Ethical decision-making must also include the interest of the stakeholders and the environment.

Code of Ethics A code of ethics will help the company to attain a better position and a socially responsible position among its stakeholders. This can be used as a leverage to market the brand of the company.

Ethical business decision making also helps in marketing the organization and developing a socially responsible brand. A code of ethics would benefit the company to gain greater loyalty from its customers and stakeholders, which would enhance its brand image.

The code of ethics of 3M specifically points out that individual integrity and honesty are the most important part of ethical conduct within an organization . This is so because individuals are the microcosms that build an organization . Further, the company makes sure that its workplace of remains safe and all individuals respect the dignity of all individuals directly or indirectly involved with the organization.

Further, the company pledges to promote a culture of fairness, transparency, respect, and integrity within the organization. Further, the company also pledges to protect the environment and avoid conflict between professional and personal life.

The aspects of 3M’s code of ethics that could benefit the company are its culture of fairness, transparency, and integrity that would help in avoiding conflicts among the personal and professional ethics of employees.

Ethical decision making process involves stating the problem after which the underlying facts are verified. This is followed by identification of the relevant factors and developing the possible options to eliminate dilemma. The identified options are then tested for their harm, publicity, reversibility, defensibility, and professional, organization, and colleague aspects.

The testing step is followed by making a choice and then reviewing the entire process for authenticity within the 3M’s code of ethics.

The main problems with stakeholder collaboration include conflict of interest, imbalance of authority, legitimacy challenges and urgency response to business demands when aligning the 3M’s ethical code. These problems may make stakeholder collaboration difficult especially when the business environment is experiencing series of economic swings and require steadfast approach to reversing the challenges.

Through the dual pillar approach, the 3M’s ethical leadership will comprise of a combination of moral being and moral management skills. The combination of the two aspects is critical in building ethical leadership reputation since executive responsibility functions on moral codes that promote proactive leadership in making decisions that directly affect business sustainability.

This model defines expected behavior, procedural patterns, and response to every deviation. Ethical dilemmas are easy to distinguish and unravel. Thus, a comprehensive review of the situation or factors that led to such a dilemma should be analyzed with an intention of reversing the challenges currently facing this company with its Whistles product.

Conclusion Therefore, the report presents the importance of building an ethically right organizational in order to inculcate an environment of ethical decision-making. Incorporating integrity and honesty within the culture of the organization is important for this would allow an unobtrusive practice of ethical decision-making.

Individuals should be made aware of the ethically correct positions and they should be encouraged to be more honest and fair in their daily dealings. Reflectively, ethical conduct within the organization must be practiced to have a better organization.

References 3M. (2013, May 15). Ethical Business Conduct Guidlines. Retrieved from 3M: https://www.3m.com/

Graham, G. (2004). Eight Theories of Ethics. New York: Routledge.

Le Menestrel, M. (2002). Economic rationality and ethical behaviour: ethical business between venality and sacrifice. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(2), 157-166.

Vitell, S. J., Nwachukwu, S. L.,


Business Performance, Profitability and Reorganisation: Goya Food Company Report college application essay help

Introduction Achieving exemplary performance, profitability and proper re-organization of activities in institutions requires effective management and leadership skills. This is essential since effective management and leadership skills are integral elements that hold the capacity of driving or impeding business performance in various facets of operation.

This explains why institutions that are founded under visionary and performance ideals should adopt effective management techniques. This is vital in ensuring that the execution of various activities is in accordance with the best business practices to enhance profitability. They should integrate lean administration strategy to facilitate optimization of resources and enhancement of quality in the production chain.

This is critical for institutions such as Goya Food Corporation that seeks to gain competitive advantage especially in the current competitive world. Optimization of resources and reduction of wastes is paramount in facilitating production of items especially foodstuffs or services that conform to standards. This is a management concept that helps in ensuring adequate satisfaction of consumer’s needs.

Indeed, this report adopts Goya Food Company that focuses its potentials in storing and selling of food items to various calibers of consumers as the corporation under study. The company has grown from a small food outlet to a renowned supplier of foodstuffs to various destinations in the world. Its performance has been remarkable over the years due to its flexible operating policies and effective management.

However, the company is currently facing some challenges that may impede its expansion and growth plans. The challenges that range from logistical, policy and structural complications requires proper re-organization or re-strategizing. Therefore, its managers have an obligation to develop vibrant and viable operating policies to drive its performance.

The policies must be favorable and conventional in nature to motivate stakeholders to enhance their production capacity. They should also re-organize and develop viable working guidelines and effective service delivery procedures. This is vital in ensuring holistic adoption of new ways of coordinating activities, allocation of resources, control and organization of activities.

This will ensure that resource allocation is executed in a proper manner and assessment of the production process is done perfectly. It will also ensure that realistic, measurable, attainable and specific goals are set to aid the execution of the new projects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s brief overview, its core business and product portfolios Goya Foods Company founded by Prudencio Unanue in 1936 is the largest family owned company in U.S offering quality food items. The company specializes in varying products such as grocery, dairy products together with frozen goods among others.

Apart from that, the company is responsible of maintaining many manufacturing and distribution facilities in different regions including Puerto Rico and Spain (Theodore, 2003, P. 31). The supply chain in America has 6 factories and 14 distribution centers, with more than 400 vendors. The supply chain manages to distribute 1, 600 Latin products that including rice, beans, frozen foods and beverages.

Interestingly, the company has a direct delivery store which ensures that customers within metropolitan regions receive orders that match their ethnic needs. This has been successful as evident by the positive remarks that customers are able to relay pertaining to the convenient nature with which they receive services.

Furthermore, the company has more than 1000 sales representatives with the aim of collecting orders from different stores and ensuring that they deliver them on time (Theodore, 2003, P. 32).

The goal of the company is to attain 98% service level provided at the shelf, without up surging the inventory. This is imperative because the company believes that through increasing its services, it will be in a better position of increasing the organizational sales. In addition to its shorter life products, the company introduced canned products to support in selling longer life products.

The two strategies have played a vital role in the aggressive growth of the company. Furthermore, the company aimed at increasing its total sales, thus prompting its reorganization and implementation of different strategies, which included a workable demand planning and fulfillment capabilities (Theodore, 2003, P. 32). Surprisingly, the company has been able to attain its major goals of 98% service level, without enhancing its inventory.

Additionally, it has acquired efficient buyers, who supported it in increasing the number of short-life items. The significant operating units of the company include Goya Foods of South Jersey, New York, Spain, Florida and Texas among others. However, the core competitors of the company include Ruiz Food Products Inc., GrupoJumex S.A and C $ F Foods Inc..

We will write a custom Report on Business Performance, Profitability and Reorganisation: Goya Food Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors that promote performance in the company Prudencio Unanue founded Goya Foods Company in 1936 in Puerto Rico then moved it to New York, where he was playing a role of a food broker for products from Spain. Currently, Goya Foods is the biggest food company in U.S that provides Hispanic, African, British and carnelian food items (Theodore, 2003, P. 33).

The company has been able to increase its performance because of the following factors. Initially, it implemented a television campaign in English language, with the aim of increasing its market share through diverting the taste of Americans to their products.

For example, it came up with different advertisements with significant intentions of encouraging people to eat healthy. Additionally, the company ensures that it retains its customer base by encouraging sales representatives to wear suits and ties daily.

The company’s sales representatives also feed customer orders in the company’s data processing system. This is imperative because it facilitates automatic updates on information pertaining to consumer needs and preferences. This ensures accurate delivery of services and products to consumers who expect quality at all levels of operation.

Moreover, supermarkets also play a significant role in the virtuous performance of Goya Foods because they display the company’s products appropriately thus familiarizing them to many people (Theodore, 2003, P. 33). Remarkably, the fact that Goya is a direct store delivery company has enabled it to perform well.

This is because the company ensures that it delivers its products in metropolitan areas, while keeping in mind that the orders match with ethnic needs of clients. Furthermore, the company has more than 1000 sales representatives, who visit different stores to pick orders, thus delivering the needed orders in time.

The company has ensured good performance through communicating its expectations to employees and insisting on their personal accountability. This is essential because it has encouraged all Goya employees to understand their respective contribution to enhancing value addition and successfulness of the company.

In ensuring this, the company’s management ensures that it conducts regular staff meetings, to review their proceedings, and determine whether employees are meeting organizational goals. As well, the staff meetings act as follow-up to the pending projects, and this support implementation of effective solutions (Burrows, 2006, P. 111).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Performance, Profitability and Reorganisation: Goya Food Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company also monitors and evaluates job performance of employees after every 6 months, which plays a significant role in its good performance and profitability. This is a vital process in Goya Foods because it enables employees to identify areas that they need to improve, and decide whether training can enhance performance.

Employees at Goya Foods conduct self-evaluation with intentions of identifying achievements and the problems hindering them from attaining organizational goals. Apart from that, Goya Foods has a fair system that acknowledges merit. The company ensures this by noticing and appreciating the work of every employee through offering bonuses, excellence certificates, elevations and compliments among others.

Goya offers mentorship and coaching programs to employees so that they can realize the role-played by the organization in ensuring that the performance of the company improves. Notably, the company has quality management body, which ensures that its relationship with employees rely on trust, and it encompass employees in the decision making process within the organization (Burrows, 2006, P. 111).

The company also has quality employees, who believe in teamwork thus collaborating in attaining organizational goals. Finally, the company has been successful because of its continuous improvement and innovation styles that enable it to apply modern services, which increases its customer base.

The company’s SWOT analysis SWOT is an acronym that refers to organizational internal Strength and Weaknesses together with the environmental opportunities and threats affecting it. SWOT analysis is a vital process in an organization because it supports managers in implementing a faster overview of different situations affecting them.

However, it is imperative for them to focus on maximizing their strengths and opportunities while minimizing weaknesses and threats, in order to increase their performance (Burrows, 2006, P. 113). Therefore, the following is a SWOT analysis for Goya Foods Company. Initially, the strength of the company is that it has a strong brand portfolio, which enables it to maintain its current customers while attracting new ones.

The company has diversified its business in different parts of America enabling it to increase on total sales. The diversification is also imperative because it supports it in sustaining competitive strength.

Furthermore, the company has valuable business brand, applies modern technology and draws much attention on customer satisfaction enabling it to emerge successful in the highly competitive environment. The company has a driven visionary management, positive perception towards the public and meets the consumer preference on top of being convenient (Burrows, 2006, P. 114).

Notably, the company has some weaknesses, which include the fact that it operates in manufacturing plants dealing with dairies, bakeries, beverages and meat plants thus increasing the risks of food contamination. This is disadvantageous to the company because contamination is likely to damage its brand and affect its total profits negatively. Conversely, the company has the following opportunities.

The different expansions that the company has been undertaking are beneficial since they offer dependable future opportunities. The company provides convenience foods to the American population, thus being in a better position of mimicking the success of America’s food industry. There is also an increase in demand for private labeled products, thus increasing the company’s sales.

The consumer demand is also growing; it is benchmarking other companies together with the opportunity of diversity and changing consumer preferences for ethnic foods.

The company also encounters some threats including the competition of price in the market, decreased demand for canned products, unfavorable regulations and a slowing economy dominated with high inflation likely to affect the price of foods. Finally, it is possible that consumers who are cost conscious are likely to shift their buying habits to less expensive foods.

The company’s administrative system and performance strategies Indeed, Goya food Inc is a renowned corporation that has recorded tremendous growth since its inception due to its effective management. The food store has been administered under quality ideals and strategies that are performance oriented. The strategies have ensured proper policy formulation, allocation of resources and coordination of activities.

The strategies have also promoted teamwork, marketing, customer segmentation and identification of viable distribution channels (Smith, 2007, p. 59). These elements have enabled the company to satisfy the needs of its customers who range from Africans, British, Hispania’s and Caribbean’s effectively. They have also ensured timely delivery of services and products to consumers.

As noted, the company’s strengths that include teamwork, quality service delivery and proper planning has enabled it to cut a niche for itself in the competitive operating environment. In particular, teamwork has enabled the company to gain competitive advantage and record high standard of performance since the arrangement has promoted the establishment and adoption of innovative ideas of service delivery.

It has facilitated the integration of more conventional operating techniques that are set with strong performance orientation based on creativity. This has also helped in advancing the performance level of the company financially.

The company’s financial analysis and the factors that contributed to its financial stability It is imperative to note that, Goya Food Company has been recording an upward trend in terms of financial performance over the years. This is evident in all its business portfolios that have always been able to record significant improvement in sales and returns on investment.

The business portfolios that focus in providing African food items, British, Caribbean and Hispania foodstuffs have been significant contributors to its sound financial capacity (Smith, 2007, p. 59). This is factual as recorded in the company’s financial statements and reports that show its yearly performance.

The reports justify the company’s steady growth since 1981 when it reported an immense increase in asset base and cash inflows. In the year, the company’s financial income stood at $150million up from $115millio in the previous year. This showed a remarkable growth of more than $35million that can only be achieved in corporations that operate under clear policies and performance guidelines.

This indicates that the company started to inculcate a culture of proper allocation and utilization of resources with an aim to maximize on proceeds or eliminate wastage in ancient days. As established, key product portfolios contributed significantly in the realization of the figure presented.

Firstly, British food portfolio that focuses in providing foodstuffs such as rice, beans, sauces and canned meals accounted for 20% of the total growth that was realized. Variably, African and Hispanic portfolios that focus in providing African red-palm oil, Malta, mango paste, canned vegetables, meat soup, meat stew and cheese accounted for 60% of the total income.

Caribbean portfolio that provides seasoning foodstuff such as spices, canned meat, cheese and herbs also accounted for 20% of the total income (Smith, 2007, p. 62). This statistical findings show how these portfolios and business units that have over 9300 clients including 1200 salesmen were instrumental in enhancing the company’s financial performance.

Since then the company has continued to report positive performance levels where in 1993, its income capacity rose to $400million with a strong employee base of 2500 individuals. In 1995, the company’s performance rose steadily to $500millio. This was evident due to its expanded business units, product portfolios and quality of its products that attracted more customers including repeat purchasing.

During the year, the company expanded its production chain and streamlined the distribution system as a performance strategy to boost sales of food items (Smith, 2007, p. 63).The strategy adopted translated into the growth where its business units also contributed significantly.

Consequently, the company recorded a performance index of $750million in the year 2003. The performance index included $31million in profit alone after necessary deductions were done. This trend has continued up to date as the company still reports positive growth financially and in physical asset.

Currently, the company is seeking to expand its production center to enable it meet the needs of its growing customers. This has seen the company embark on developing or construction a modern manufacturing facility that holds the capacity of storing and producing large quantities of food items.

It also seeks to expand its international presence by opening branches in various locations and nations to ease distribution of items. Variably, it seeks to build strong strategic alliances with credible institutions in diverse nations to expand its market share (Smith, 2007, p. 67).

These initiatives will enable the company to grow with speed and achieve the highest level of competitiveness that will guarantee the realization of its objective of becoming a market leader. The company’s good performance and financial capacity is also depicted in its financial ratios. The ratios that include current ratio, liquidity, acid test, earnings per share and asset turnover ratios report positive growth over the years.

The upward trend in terms of profitability that the company has been recording is attributable to various factors that range from administrative to logistical aspects. Firstly, the company has been operating under lean concept of administration. The administrative style that emphasizes on waste minimization and effective utilization of resources has enabled the company to achieve optimal gains.

This is apparent since the concept has been fostering value addition by ensuring that all the requisite processing procedures of food items are adhered to effectively. This has ensured production of quality items that matches consumer needs and expectations thereby improving sales. Secondly, the company has had a strong supply and distribution chain or network.

The competitive tool has enabled it to distribute its items to consumer’s real time and in a systematic manner that guarantees products availability. The company has also been able to record exemplary profit margins since it understands the purchasing patterns of its customers effectively.

This has been enabling sales department to plan and distribute products to areas where there is demand to reduce wastage of resources especially delivery cost. Fourthly, the company’s financial department has been able to plan, allocate and distribute resources to various departments appropriately.

Its managers have been using priority based cost allocation concept that is widely recognized as a credible financial management concept (Smith, 2007, p. 69).

It has been instrumental in promoting accountability in all business portfolios by ensuring that there are no cash wastages or misappropriations. This has been a key driver of the company’s performance since financial misappropriation has been impeding performance in most corporations (Smith, 2007, p. 69).

Its current performance levels and future expansion plans Goya Foods Company has been performing well since it started. In 2010, the company’s revenue reached $810 million and 891 in 2011. However, the revenue of the company continues to increase because it has been introducing new products such as frozen bread pudding, Caribbean style rice mixes and salsas among others.

The company has also introduced other distribution facilities in different parts of the state including Webster, Massachusetts and New Jersey. Additionally, the company focuses on its expansion enabling it to transfer its Seville manufacturing facility to Gillette on a 550, 000 square foot plant.

Additionally, the company plans to set up new centers in Richmond, Virginia and Houston, Texas, which highly contributed to its successfulness. Notably, Goya Foods Company has been in a position to increase on its production and performance because of opening up dissimilar centers in varying regions within the state (Burrows, 2006, P. 112- 113).

Challenges that the company faces and how it can reorganize to counter their effects Notably, the company’s performance is under threat due to the emerging environmental and structural complications. The complications require the company to re-organize its operating systems by adopting more conventional approaches of service delivery. This is essential in ensuring that it maintains its performance levels and customer satisfaction (Smith, 2007, p. 71).

Indeed, the company faces cracks in its inventory control process for its key product lines such as the supply of beans. This may cut the supply flow of its major products in the near future if proper mitigating measures are not undertaken. The company has also failed to respond with speed to align the production of Mexican food items with its initial product portfolios it introduced in 1977.

The company also faces substantive product management challenges that threaten to impede the introduction of its new line of production of soft drinks that it seeks to roll out. This is an issue since the initiative has elicited some resistance from key stakeholders who view the incorporation of the new product line as an improper diversionary venture.

These challenges may present severe implications to the company’s performance levels if they are not addressed professionally. Therefore, the company’s management must re-organize the institutions operating strategies and plans. In particular, the management should restructure the processing system and create more processing centers to facilitate smooth manufacturing of soft drinks.

They should also facilitate personnel training on issues and procedures that appertain to fruit production to enable them adjust amicably. This is essential in making staff members to be receptive to the idea and participate in its execution with at most diligence.

Conclusion Indeed, Goya Foods Company has been performing well since it started its operations. It remains the largest family owned Hispanic Food Company in U.S, with six factories in America and fourteen distribution centers.

The company has more than 400 vendors and deals with more than 1,600 Latin products. It has been able to record high performance levels due to its exemplary management and leadership. It has also been able to attain its high profitability status due to proper utilization of resources and effective cost management.

List of References Burrows, K. 2006, “A Growing Market; After Decades of Experience in the Industry, Goya Foods Says It Relies on the Expertise and the Dedication of Its Employees to Truly Understand the Needs of Its Customers,” US Business Review, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 111-14.

Smith, F 2007, The Oxford companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, New York.

Theodore, S 2003, “Goya’s Authentic Approach; Hispanic Food Company Stays Relevant with Core Market While Enticing General Population,” Beverage Industry, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 31-34.


IKEA Analysis Evaluation Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

IKEA’s marketing

Value Chain

Intangible Products


Performance Measures

Reference List

Introduction IKEA is one of the largest and most successful furniture retailers in the world. IKEA is a privately owned company that mainly deals with the designing and selling of ready-to-assemble furniture items like home accessories, appliances, desks, and beds (Owens, 2000). The report addresses IKEA’s marketing, value chain, intangible products, customers, and performance.

IKEA’s marketing Based on the article by Edvardsson, Enquist, and Hay (2006), IKEA’s value proposition emphasizes on high-quality furniture products. These are normally provided to customers at rock-bottom prices. In other words, there is value for money in the products and services that IKEA offers.

In order to achieve the above goal, IKEA has developed a low cost supplier system which is coordinated via a network of warehouses and global logistics system. This way, the company can assemble various furniture components in a very short time. Moreover, IKEA has partnered with its customers in a bid to create value.

As the largest furniture retailer in the world, IKEA is strategically positioned to offer “a wide range of home furnishings of good design and functionality at a price low enough to be afforded by most people” (Edvardsson, Enquist,


General Electric: Strategic management Evaluation Essay essay help

GE’s framework enables it to be at the forefront of the markets in which it participates because it has a competitive advantage over other companies.

This makes the company a step ahead of the others. There has to be an effective strategy combined with sufficient resources to attain this (Porter, 2001). The company should deliver the same products or even better than their competitors while at the same time ensuring that they have minimum costs and this is what GE does to stay ahead.

The company I would like to work in is Microsoft. In order to attain a competitive advantage, it must have resources and capabilities that are better than those of its competitors.

Resources are those assets that can be used to attain a competitive advantage (Gambino, 2009). These resources should be hard for competitors to acquire. For instance, industry market share, company image, and copyrights are good for business. All these are aspects that Microsoft has.

GE’s strategies can be applied in my firm by creating superior value. This means that the company should ensure that the customer has superior benefits while using minimal costs. Defending against substitute products and also taking advantage of technology in acquiring this is of benefit.

Application of GE’s lessons could be applied in my firm by first clearly studying the market and also marking out the competition. Rather than get scared of competition, one should strive to learn not only from their competitors but also the market. After attaining a competitive advantage, the company also has to strive to maintain that advantage.

The firm also has to take advantage of business information resources and using it to out rank their competitors. The firm should also have advantageous capabilities over other companies (Saleemi, 2010). For example, bringing products to the market before other companies is helpful. These capabilities enable a distinct advantage over competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Gambino, P. (2009). Building Strong Businesses. New York: Sage Publications.

Porter, M. (2001). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. NewYork: Routledge Publishers.

Saleemi, N. (2010). Starting Businesses. London: Prentice Hall.


Project for E-cig Quantitative Research Essay essay help free

A budget showing product launch expenses and a unit forecast by quarter for 3 years

Activities Projected Costs in Million Dollars First Year Quarterlies Second Year Quarterlies Third Year Quarterlies 1st 2nd 3rd 4thst 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Fixed costs 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Variable costs 42 49 69 114 144 151 157 163 182 202 225 247 Cost of Communications


Changes and challenges: China’s environmental management in transition Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Change in environmental performance in China

Phases of development in environmental management

Enforcement of environmental policies



Introduction China is applauded for being one of the economies in the world that are growing at an accelerating pace. The size of the Chinese economy has undoubtedly swelled to match the most advanced economies in the world, like the United States. However, it is argued that economic growth in China has resulted in a high level of pollution.

This paper presents a discussion on how China is trying to change its environmental focus by reviewing the article titled: “Changes and challenges: China’s environmental management in transition”.

Change in environmental performance in China The rise in the level of environmental degradation coming from intensive industrialization has raised a considerable number of questions on whether the environmental situation in the country can be reversed. According to the paper, the Chinese government is showing a lot of commitment as far as steering programs of sustainable economic development is concerned.

Prospects of positive development in economic and environmental sustainability programs have been reported in several government funded surveys. An example is the China’s Millennium Development Goals report for the year 2010, which implies that the government of China has shown positive prospects of transforming the mode of economic growth (He, Lu, Mol


Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company Term Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Overview of Luen Thai Company

Nature of operations systems

Operations Performance Measurement System

Performance measurement variables


Reference List

Executive Summary Sustainable development is vital in a business environment. Reflectively, this concept defines the feasibility of a company and its solvency within a specified period of time. In the contemporary society, the term sustainability refers to the ability to survive within a profitablemodel.

In business environment, sustainability is affected by forces in the market, decision science, corporate structure, and real financial management, in short and long term.

Therefore, a business organization must put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules within feasible levels. This paper reviews the current issues in operations management of the Luen Thai Company and develops an operations performance measurement system.

Overview of Luen Thai Company Culture in a corporate organization is the key upon which management uses to make such an organization succeed. However, sometimes, it becomes harder to translate the theoretical perspectives into practical elements that help to strengthen the firm’s operations. The issues also extend to complexity when the entire working environment is taken into considerations.

As businesses are opting to merge up, the key factor of emphasis is how communication culture is to be maintained by such organizations. The main challenge facing the global Luen Thai business is the adoption of proper communication and operations management models that can be more flexible to change operation of this organization.

As a matter of fact, quality operations management model is the backbone of a promising company since it determines survival and productivity in terms of flow of operations and streamlining overhead costs. For instance, the coordination between the production and marketing team is wanting.

Nature of operations systems Reflectively, relaying information on the success of a production is dependent on labour and operating costs, which are often balanced for value maintenance. In the process of balancing the act, a quality operations management system should be capable of applying the scientific skills in an artistic manner through informed and perfectly framed use of soft skills to address technical aspects of production management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In every business field, the question of factors facilitating success is often posed. In order to present a comprehensive answer to this question, it is of essence to measure success as a component of the existing operation system (Lin, 2010). Generally, a quality operations management system is that which satisfies requirements within the budget and time schedule without disintegrating initial goal projections.

Thus, changes in the weights of labour cost and operating cost have substantially altered the final weighted average rating for the four locations.

Basically, a quality operations management system performs optimally via integration of appropriate scientific factors of production. To enrich artistic managerial talents, a balance in the factors of production comes in handy to not only magnifies the margins of success but also to ensure a smooth transition of an idea or an event after another, as is the case at Luen Thai.

Besides, to avoid an imminent failure, it is vital for the operations management system to focus on a defined edge in balancing the labour and operation costs.

Therefore, the company has put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules within feasible levels. This includes techniques that are in use in the company to monitor sustainability by application of scientific management of balanced factors of production matrix (Lin, 2010).

Generally, production mix strategies proposed by the company are to ensure long term operation. For implementation of the strategy, the management is to balance both the short term and long term consideration towards decision making. Management that ensures long term obligations is fulfilled.

They consider the role played by planning for resources in technology, continued innovations in the production of new products, and conducting researchers to ensure that the production process is efficient through maximization of output within the least possible costs (Bowman, 2003).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Operations Performance Measurement System Production efficiency is critical in the production line since it is characterized by optimal utilization of allocated factors of production within the least possible cost. From the above refection, it is apparent that the company will gain in the long run through the FMS proposal. Despite lower returns on investment below the projection, the overall effect of adopting this proposal will have benefits that will outweigh its limitations.

For instance, when the FMS is fully adopted as proposed, the reduction in cost of factors of production, such as labour and reduced actual production costs will result in accumulated gains as a result of controlled costs that are recurring (Lewis, 1999).

When the recurring costs such as labour, production space, and cost of machinery are curtailed within a manageable level, the company will increase its returns on investments. Besides, the excess labour may be channeled to another line of production besides the extra production space.

Even though the return on investment is lower than projected, the project is viable since it will permanently reduce the recurring cost by a margin of more than 10% of the company’s current production cost. Moreover, the aspect of efficiency as a result of FMS will push the production frontier curve towards sustainability in the long run.

Basically, the immediate adaptation of the proposed FMS will contribute towards sustainability in the aspect of cost, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility (Slack, 2012).

Specifically, the reduced production floor space will give room for expansion and production without having to expand the infrastructure of the company. More space means more products being produced within the same production bundles. Due to increased output, the market will eventually expand and the company will get more revenues.

Through improved orders throughput, the company is set to immediately and substantially gain from the reliability aspect as compared to its competitors. Since clients will be able to receive their orders within a shorter time, the company stands to gain from customer satisfaction and referrals.

Since the duration of delivery will decrease by almost a third of its present rate, the company is geared to reap maximum benefits from economies of scale due to increased capacity to produce and distribute within a short period of time (Deflorin, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the China location, the quality system is certain. Thus, when the system is quality-oriented, the entire chain coordinating these segments would result in optimal operations. Although operations management systems experience constant metamorphosis as a result of short term, midterm, and long term goal planning, no company can operate efficiently without quality system functioning.

Thus, quality will quantify optimal functional within a competitive advantage parameter for the company. Besides, high standard operations management score acts as the engine that supports implementers of business strategy in order to comprehensively verify rationale for supporting current, predicted, and actual results for every step upon introduction of a functional system (Lewis, 1999).

Therefore, the probability of success is far much better than that of failure when the system is properly designed as indicated by the high scorecard at the China location. Moreover, balancing act between having to perform optimally at minimal operation and overhead costs is a component of quality in system modelling.

Thus, the success of an operations management system is dependent on soft artful skills, which are part and parcel of efficient system management. The company should adopt the six-sigma approach in quality control and assurance in the maintenance department. Six-Sigma is an experience of operations management that is used to develop business operations that ensure efficiency through optimal and timely production.

Six-Sigma is adopted to attain significant effects of production efficiency through periodic review of the production matrix. Actually, Six-Sigma is a sequence of business events that delivers positive outputs that develop business aim of reliability in the production chain.

Six-Sigma ensures that production processes that are necessary are improved “through proactive management of the factors of production such as labour, time, and optimal production capacity” (Slack, 2012, p. 39).

In fact, Six-Sigma is aimed to reduce wastage of production resources that can be experienced in long queues and ineffective task outputs. Quality control is commonly utilized to promote quality of business products. Six-Sigma usually integrates employees to provide the highest quality of products through self-assessment and proactive approach to skills tests.

Six-sigma is done to prepare, synchronize and manage the multifarious activities of company through efficiency module. This alternative can be compared to the three balls that are juggled by the circus performers.

By implementing the six-sigma alternative, the company can visualize the future risks and hurdles in the implementation of any production plan and can take suitable remedial measures for unforeseeable risks such as machine breakdown.

The initial step towards actualization of a quality operations management system involves research and the creation of an informed and practical business plan. As a matter of fact, operations management actualizes a business plan.

Besides, the system monitors financial constrains and progress of each of these segments. The consideration of this is, however, based on the contributions they make towards ensuring that the organizations continue to gain a competitive advantage in the market.

Performance measurement variables In order to achieve quality operations management, Luen Thai’s existing forms of system monitoring should be periodically upgraded to introduce multiple operating system models such as ratio analysis in operation management that is compatible with tracking and analysis within and without the company across the three major segments.

Basically, the operations management systems at Luen Thai include an aspect of cost, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility. These variables determine success or failure in business. These variables are achievable through value delivery, value addition, and creativity. Reflectively, these concepts are techniques and tools essential in the art of operations management.

This process is inclusive of the scientific aspects such as a technical process of understanding the operations involved in operations management, their application, and evaluation criteria, which is monitored by the support department.

Despite having this efficient operations management system, the company has not fully established a mechanism of monitoring progress at micro level and majorly depends on macro auditing in decision making and still has to deal with the risk of internal redundancy (Lewis, 1999).

The second strategy for performance measurement should be aligned to communication channel in the company. For implementation of the strategy, the management balances both the short term and long term consideration towards decision making.

Management that ensures long term obligations are fulfilled and considers mostly the role played by resources invested in technology, continued innovations in the production of new products and conducting intensive researchers in the market to identify fresh market niches. Customer satisfaction is the focal point of the company in attaining a competitive advantage in the market above other players.

Specifically, operation systems are employed in the Luen Thai Company to monitor and increase productivity at minimal error margins. This is possible because this model of operations management system allows for “operations process competitiveness as it cut down unnecessary overhead costs from waste and under-utilisation” (Slack, 2012, p. 43).

In the marketing and distribution channels that are run from a central point, it is apparent that company structure, operations management, and efficiency of the advertisement department determine sustainability of its business. Besides, the ability to customize products and offer competitive but high-quality services determine success and profitability in the short and long run.

Skills required in supporting a business strategy plan are found in the integrated management model, which functions as an implementer and driver of business decisions. The company’s operations management systems incorporate planning, development, implementation, and discovery.

Reflectively, the process captures organization chart, status reports, process map, compliance requirements, review structure, activities, dates, and resources employed within a specified period of time. The system has remained efficient due to consultative decision science, which has ensured the company’s survival for more than three decades.

Basically, a quality integration management system performs optimally via integration of appropriate scientific methods and techniques. To enrich artistic managerial talents, scientific techniques come in handy to not only magnify the margins of success but also to ensure a smooth transition of an idea or an event after another.

Besides, to avoid an imminent failure, it is vital for the integrated management system to focus on a defined edge since “proper tailoring of techniques and tools assume as an essential part of the regulatory strategy” (Deflorin, 2010, p. 32).

Reflectively, the vertical integration management system in the Luen Thai Apparel has improved on the supply chain, production and distribution processes, which are centrally stationed and controlled from one building.

Conclusion The success and failure of a business entity are dependent on the effectiveness and quality of the operations management since it determines how planning, integration, implementation, and control are integrated.

In order to strike an optimal performance balance, the process of designing a quality operations management system should commence with a clear overview of budgeting, objectivity, and scheduling. In addition, this part should include control procedures and assessments.

In order to come up with a viable operating system, it is of essence to include quality control, progress measurement, and flexibility in planning to accommodate any eventuality in the Luen Thai Company. Quality in operations management determines the success of goal planning and analysis.

As a matter of fact, quality ensures smooth operation and coordination of different variables that function simultaneously in the production chain. Despite constant metamorphosis of operations management designs in the market, determinant of quality basically remains unchanged.

Irrespective of the size and nature of a business entity, quality in operations management is the major verification factor for success of a short term, middle term, and long term projections.

Reference List Bowman, S. 2003, “Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the firm”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 5–14.

Deflorin, P. 2010, Operations management: a supply chain approach. Web.

Lewis, H. 1999, Environment and operations management face the future. Web.

Lin, J. 2010, New structural economics a framework for rethinking development. Web.

Slack, N. 2012, Operations and Process Management: Principles and Practice for Strategic Impact, Pearson Education Limited, Alabama.


Market for eco-friendly hotels Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The hospitality industry is increasingly adopting green strategies as part of its corporate strategy. This need stems from the realization, among hotel owners, that they have a part to play in making the world more sustainable. Perhaps another key driver that is primarily responsible for this move is response to customer needs. Buyers, now more than ever before, are aware of man’s impact on the planet.

Therefore, most of them want to purchase products or services that are eco-friendly. Hotel owners are thus meeting a need in the market by attuning their services to the tastes of eco-conscious buyers (Weaver


Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Syria has been embroiled in a violent uprising since 2011 when the Syrian opposition began widespread demonstrations against president Bashar al-Assad and his government. The Syrian crisis was fueled by the winds of revolution that were blowing through the Arab world. This Arab uprising led to the toppling of regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya due to popular uprisings by the citizens of these countries.

The Arab Spring Revolutions have been the most significant political event in the region and they have had huge ramifications as regimes have been toppled and governments have been obligated to engage in reforms. In the case of Syria, President Assad has refused to leave power in spite of the widespread opposition against him and international pressure for him to do so.

Instead of relenting to the popular uprising against him, Assad engaged in brutal repression of the demonstrators in his country. This violent repression led to the formation of armed rebel groups that have been fighting to topple the Assad regime for almost three years without any real success.

The events in Syria have attracted the attention of the international community and the country’s regional neighbors. Turkey, which is a regional power, has been heavily involved in Syrian affairs since the crisis has some impact on Turkey due to its common border with Syria and its strategic interests in the region (Idrees 88).

Turkey has therefore emerged as the country that has played the most monumental role in trying to resolve the Syrian crisis. This paper will set out to provide an in-depth description of the efforts that Turkey has engaged in to assist mitigate the Syrian crisis and speed the process of stabilizing the nation.

The paper will begin by articulating the reasons behind Turkey’s interest in Syria and then proceed to outline the role that Ankara has played in the Syrian issue.

Turkey’s Interest in the Syrian Events Even as the Syrian Crisis gets to its third year, Turkey continues to demonstrate a great commitment to ensuring that the crisis is effectively resolved in the shortest time possible. From the onset of the Syrian crisis, Turkey demonstrated an interest in the actions carried out by the Assad regime and by the opposition. Turkey shares a 911km border with Syria making instability in Syria an issue of concern for Turkey.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Turkey has a vested interest in the outcome of the Syrian Crisis. In recognition of the critical ramifications that the events in Syria would have on Turkey, the Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan described the situation in Syria in 2011 as “an internal Turkish issue” (88).

Turkey has made a huge regional and domestic capital in overthrowing the Assad regime and the current policy supports the armed rebels and the Syrian opposition. Ankara has been the most prominent foreign actor in the Syrian affairs since the revolution against the Assad regime broke out in 2011 (Idrees 88).

The Turkish Foreign Minister asserts that Turkey is obliged to act on the Syrian issue not only because it needs to defend its own national strategies but also because it is a regional power in the region (47). Turkey’s role in Syria will contribute to its growing influence in the region.

Analysts predict that if the Syrian opposition succeeds, it will set up a government modeled after Turkey’s ruling AKP government and look up to Ankara as the mentor. Phillips suggests that by backing the Syrian opposition and promoting the SNC, Turkey is establishing a good relationship with the future successors of Assad; therefore boosting its own influence in the country (138).

Turkey’s involvement has also been prompted by concerns that the Syrian crisis might contribute to a reemergence of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) problem in Turkey. The PKK is a Kurdish nationalist movement that has been fighting for secession from Turkey. Egin declares that the anti-Assad policy adopted by Ankara has “breathed new life into the Turkish Kurds’ long struggle for independence” (66).

Because of Turkey’s denouncing of the Assad regime, the Syrian government has retaliated by covertly funding the PKK groups operating along the Turkish border.

Egin reports that the Assad regime has reversed its longstanding anti-Kurd policies and provided the Kurd fighters with a degree of logistical support and refuge from Turkish forces (66). This has reinvigorated the PKK and enabled it to resume an armed struggle against Turkey.

We will write a custom Essay on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Turkey’s Humanitarian Efforts One of the areas where Turkey has played a major role is with regard to the Syrian refugees. Since the outbreak of the Syrian conflict, the number of Syrians looking for refuge from their country’s violence has been rising. Since Turkey shares an expansive border with Syria, many Syrians have sought to cross into Turkey to escape the violence in their country (Laqueur 77).

Sly reports that while refugees have moved into the other countries surrounding Syria, Turkey has received the greatest percentage of refugees (1). Turkey is currently home to over 400,000 Syrian refugees who continue to put a strain on the resources of the Turkish government as their daily needs are met.

In addition to the refugees already living in Turkey, the country is admitting between 500 and 1,500 Syrians each day at certain border crossings. The flow of refugees into Turkey has at times been so high that the Turkish government has been forced to close key border crossings in order to regulate the flow of Syrians.

However, Turkey has demonstrated a great desire to assist the Syrians fleeing from the violence in their country.

Turkey has been deeply involved in humanitarian efforts aimed at assisting the vast number of Syrian refugees within its borders. Turkey has established numerous camps in its territory to accommodate Syrian Refugees. Jodi reports that the camps established by Turkey for the Syrian refugees are some of the best refugee camps in the world (1).

Some of the camps established for refugees include pre-fabricated houses that contain two rooms and a bathroom making the lives of the refugees in Turkey very decent. Most of the money used to sustain the refugees has been from Turkey’s own financial reserves. The country has also demonstrated great generosity by spending close to $1billion dollars on Syrian refugees in order to alleviate their conditions while in Turkey.

In spite of limited international support for the refugees fleeing Syria, Turkey has continued to offer great support to Syrian refugees. Jodi observes that the international aid to alleviate the humanitarian crisis occurring at the Turkey-Syria border has been minimal with most Western countries providing limited aid (1).

Turkey has filled this void by providing substantial support to meet the needs of the Syrians. However, analysts contend that Turkey’s ability to deal with the humanitarian crisis might be hampered if the Syrian crisis extends beyond 2013 and the influx of refugees across the Turkey-Syria border increases.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International diplomatic efforts Turkey has engaged in a lot of international diplomacy to try resolving the Syrian crisis. Turkey has exploited its good relationship with Western nations to carry out diplomatic efforts concerning the Syrian crisis. Turkey is a part of the “Friends of Syria” group, which is made up of countries that are concerned about the Syrian crisis and are engaged in diplomatic action to resolve the crisis.

Turkey hosted the major meeting by this group held on April 2012 and in this meeting, the Turkish PM called on the international community to take action against Assad’s regime. In line with its stance against the Syrian government, Turkey reiterated its opinion that Syrian rebels should be given the means with which to defend themselves from Assad’s onslaught.

Turkey has been involved in international efforts aimed at keeping Syrians safe in their own country. Turkey has engaged in advocacy for more stringent actions to be taken against Assad by the international community. The Turkish government is the strongest supporter of a no fly zone that, once enacted, would ensure that Syrians are safe in the Northern parts of the country.

Sly observes that most Syrian refugees in Turkey have been forced out of their country by the frequent aerial bombardments carried out by the Assad regime (1). Imposition of a no fly zone would stop the airstrikes and make the area safe for Syrians to live in.

The no-fly zone has also been aimed at protecting turkey from Syrian attacks. Following the shooting down of a Turkish Air Force jet by the Syrian army in June 2012, Turkey called on its NATO allies to enforce a no-fly zone in Syria. While a no fly zone is yet to be implemented in the crisis, the Turkish administration continues to advocate for it at the UN and through NATO.

Turkey has urged the international community to engage in limited military intervention against the Assad regime or increase its support to the Syrian rebels. In the recent past, the Turkish Foreign Minister has called on the international community to take action against the Assad regime.

Following a car bombing in May 12 in a Turkish border town that led to the death of 46 people, the Turkish government has called for action against Syria to ensure that the violence there does not spread into the neighboring countries (Burch 1).

However, the international community has shown great reluctance in responding to the Syrian crisis. Major powers such as the US are apprehensive and have not taken any solid step in the issue (Williams and Colleen 50).

Diplomatic Efforts with Syrian Actors In addition to the international efforts, Turkey has used its regional influence to attempt resolving the Syrian crisis domestically. At the onset of the conflict in Syria, Turkey attempted to use its close ties with the Assad regime to control the activities taking place in Syria. The Turkish government tried to persuade Assad to stop his brutality against the opposition forces.

Instead of engaging in a ‘zero problems’ strategy in the Syrian case, Turkey has adopted a ‘values-based’ foreign policy that supports democratic forces (Phillips 138). Turkey has publicly criticized the Assad regime and lobbied for greater participation by the Sunni majority in the Syrian government (Kouskouvelis 48).

Damla reveals that in August 2011, the Turkish Foreign Minister, Ahmet Davutoğlu held a lengthy meeting with Assad in which he tried to get Assad to engage in dialogue with the rebels (43).

The Turkish government representative officially impressed on Assad that it was necessary for his government to share power with the majority Sunni community and make major reforms in the country. However, these talks did not yield positive results since Assad was unwilling to resolve the problems facing his regime through dialogue and reforms.

The good relationship between Turkey and the Syrian opposition has enabled Turkey to play an influential role in the crisis. Turkey has moderated over talks between the US and the moderate opposition forces in Syria to try and come up with a strong and unified opposition coalition that can challenge Assad.

These efforts are significant since at the moment, the Syrian opposition is made up of many disparate groupings, some of which are affiliated with radical Islamic terror outfits such as Al-Qaeda. Western powers are unwilling to back a Syrian opposition that has affiliations with terrorist organizations.

Turkey has therefore played a key role in initiating dialogue between the opposition and the US and some EU countries to reach a consensus on the composition of the Syrian opposition.

Turkey and the Syrian Opposition In spite of a decade-long good relationship between the Turkish administration and the Assad regime, Turkey denounced the Syrian government following the rise of the resistance against the Assad government in March 2011. Before the Crisis, Turkey had engaged in a “zero problems” foreign policy with Syria.

This policy was aimed at eliminating all the historical issues that Turkey faced with Syria and promoting trade in the region. The Syrian crisis caused Turkey to abandon this policy of disengagement and play a more pronounced role in Syrian affairs.

Syrian rebels have received significant support from the Turkish government. Arango reveals that in addition to providing a permanent base for the umbrella resistance group, the Syrian National Council, the Turkish government has opened up some areas on its side of the border with Syria to the rebels. This opposition fighters are allowed to plan, coordinate, and launch their attacks against the Assad regime from Turkish soil (1).

Turkey has also served as a safe harbor for military defectors from the Syrian Army. As the civil conflict in Syria carries on, hundreds of military officials have defected from Assad’s brutal regime. Turkey has offered refuge to these defectors with the Turkish Army protecting the camps where these military officials are staying (Damla 43).

In the latest development in the Syrian crisis, the US and Syria’s main ally Russia have announced their intention to engage in cooperative efforts to end the conflict through diplomacy. Such action would require the participation of the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition.

Leaders from Syria’s opposition coalition are going to meet under the supervision of Turkey in Istanbul to deliberate on whether they will be involved in this international conference that might probably lead to an end in the Syrian conflict. The involvement of Turkey in this matter is of great importance since as a Muslim country, Turkey has the required legitimacy that the West lacks when dealing with Syria.

Military Force The Turkish government has publicly stated that it is not willing to engage in an all out military confrontation with Syria to help resolve the crisis. Because of this policy, Turkey has by the large avoided direct military involvement in the Syrian Conflict (Krajeski 1).

While it would be in Turkey’s best interest for the conflict to end soon, an outright military intervention by the Turkish military in Syria would not only be expensive but very unpopular. The Turkish population is not in support of military intervention by its country’s military. For this reason, Turkey has avoided engaging in unprovoked military intervention and its actions have often been in response to Syrian strikes in its territory.

In spite of the desire to avoid military action with Syria, Turkey has been forced to take some military action in retaliation to Syrian attacks on Turkish soil. The first publicly acknowledged attack by the Turkish army took place in October 2012 following a Syrian mortar strike that hit southeastern Turkey, killing 5 Turks.

This attack prompted retaliation by the Turkish army, which launched counter-battery fire into Syrian territory (Krajeski 1). In the events where Turkey has been forced to take military action to protect its borders, the situation has been quickly de-escalated by both sides.

The focus on de-escalation can be seen from the fact that even when Syrian missiles have landed in Turkey, the Turkish forces have limited their retaliation measures to counterattacking the units perceived to have opened fire across the border. The reason for this is that both Turkey and Syria are keen to avoid an armed retaliation since such action would have major negative repercussions for both sides.

While it is unlikely that Turkey will choose to invade Syria, the government has the power and support of the politicians on this issue.

Following fears that Syria was compromising the Turkish territory, the Turkish Parliament held a debate on the acceptability of a direct military response to Syria. On October 2012, the Parliament passed a resolution that authorized the government to send troops across the border if necessary (Arango 1).

Turkey has taken steps to protect itself from threats from the Syrian Army. As a member of the major military alliance NATO, Turkey has requested for military assistance from the organization.

In response to this, NATO supplied Turkey with the Patriot Missile Air Defense System in January this year to shield Ankara from its vulnerability to Syrian air attacks (Egin 65). NATO has also provided Turkey with four hundred military personnel to help fortify the Turkey-Syria border and deter any attacks from Syria.

Future Role Turkey’s involvement in Syrian affairs is in part due to the self-interest of the country. An unstable Syria poses a threat to Turkey since the violence might spill over into the country. Damla asserts that a prolonged Syrian civil war will result in regional instability with an influx of Syrian refugees into Turkey and the possibility of a revival of the PKK threat from across the Syrian border (49).

Ankara’s support for the opposition forces is in anticipation of the toppling of the Assad regime. Damla suggests that Turkey wants to establish a strong relationship with a possible new Syrian government and protect future investments in the country under a post-Assad administration (47).

Turkey’s role can be expected to extend into the next few years regardless of the outcome of the Syrian situation. Analysts indicated that Turkey will continue to play a critical role in Syrian affairs for the next many years due to its position as a regional leader (Idrees 88).

Even if the Assad regime is toppled, the Syrian opposition does not show the unity needed to pull the country from the brink and establish the pre-crisis normalcy that Syria enjoyed. Turkey will therefore have to play a critical role in stabilizing the country and ensuring that Syria gets back on its feet.

Conclusion This paper set out to provide an in-depth description of the role that Turkey has played in Syria since the development of the Syrian crisis in 2011. It began by highlighting the reasons why Turkey is playing a pronounced role in Syria. The paper then revealed that Turkey has played a prominent role in dealing with the humanitarian crisis produced by the Syrian conflict.

Turkey has also engaged in domestic diplomatic efforts to try end the conflict by talking with the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition. Turkey has also used its international influence to try to get the international community to act on the Syrian issue. In some instances, Turkey has had to engage in military action in retaliation to Syrian strikes on Turkish territory.

However, the general objective has been to avoid an all out military confrontation between the two countries. From this paper, it is clear that Turkey is a key player in Syrian affairs. The country’s position as a Muslim nation and a regional power has given it significant influence when dealing with the Syrian issue. Turkey’s role has been and will continue to be integral to the eventual resolution of the conflict.

Works Cited Arango, T. On Edge as Syria’s War Knocks Ever Harder on the Door to Turkey. 2012. Web.

Burch, J. Turkey says world must act against Syria after bombings. 2013. Web.

Damla, A. “Turkish-Syrian Relations Go Downhill.” Middle East Quarterly 19.2 (2012): 41-50. Print.

Egin, O. “The game changer Syria, Iran, and Kurdish Independence.” World Affairs, 13.3 (2013): 64-72. Print.

Idrees, M. “Turkey and Iran Rivalry on Syria.” Turkish Journal of International Relations 10.2 (2011): 87-99. Web.

Jodi, H. Is Turkey’s approach to Syrian refugees sustainable? 2013. Web.

Kouskouvelis, I. “The Problem with Turkey’s ‘Zero Problems’.” Middle East Quarterly 20.1 (2013): 47-56. Web.

Krajeski, J. Will Turkey go to War. 2012. Web.

Laqueur, W. “Reality Check: The Hazards of Optimism”. World Affairs 175.6 (2013): 75-83. Web.

Phillips, C. “Turkey’s Syria problem.” Public Policy Research 12.3 (2012): 137-140. Web.

Sly, L. “Turkey blocks Syrian refugees Turkey blocks Syrian refugees.” The Washington Post. 27. Aug. 2012. Web.

Williams, P. and Colleen P. “U. S. Foreign Policy And The Arab Spring: Ten Short-Term Lessons Learned.” Denver Journal of International Law


The Daoist Temple Report a level english language essay help

The characteristic feature of Daoist temples is the location at the mountainous territories which symbolizes the closeness to the heavens. Furthermore, the architecture of Daoist temples reflects the basic sacred concepts of the religion.

However, a lot of people regularly go to Daoist temples and believe in the significant role of worshipping there because they can worship Daoist idols or personal idols sharing the concepts of essence, immortality, energy, and spirit which are basics of their religious and philosophic visions.

Moreover, the elements of decoration in many temples reflect the features which are common for a lot of ordinary people. Coming to Daoist temples worshippers feel the closeness to their idols and they feel a kind of protection, as a result, people are inclined to believe the power of such important temples as the Daoist Temple and Thean Hou Temple.

The Daoist Temple is located in Cebu, Philippines. The temple was built in 1972, and it attracts millions of worshipers along with non-worshipers and tourists every year. The Daoist Temple is built according to Daoist architectural traditions which are based on Daoism religion and philosophy. The temple has 81 steps which are characterized by the sacred meaning for the followers of Daoism.

There are 81 chapters in Daoism scriptures, and climbing the temple’s steps, believers became closer to their gods and goddesses. Furthermore, Daoists believe that climbing these steps they can reach their immortality. Definite services held in the temple are oriented to techniques in which worshippers believe as in their paths to immortality. Inaction and immortality are two important concepts of Daoism.

The architectural style of the Daoist Temple reflects the important elements of the nature, and this feature is significant because Daoism is based on the harmony of nature and people which can be reflected in any objects. That is why, the Daoist Temple is a rather symmetric complex with the attached structures which symbolizes the natural powers.

The Thean Hou Temple The Thean Hou Temple is located in Kuala Lumpur. This temple is rather unique in its architectural style and religious meaning because it presents the unity of traditions of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. Worshippers prefer to attend the temple because it symbolizes the basic elements of the mentioned religious and philosophic movements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The followers of Daoism believe the Thean Hou Temple because it is built to reflect the main Daoist principles. Those persons who follow Daoism pay much attention to the concepts of order and equability. These concepts are reflected in the structure of the temple.

The building of the Thean Hou Temple is the unique highly-organized complex all the components of which are constructed to follow the definite religious meaning. The structure of the temple allows people worshiping their idols and gods separately.

Millions of worshipers go to the temple to celebrate their Goddess Tian Hou, Goddess Kuan Yin and Goddess of the Waterfront. These procedures are important for the spiritual growth of Daoism followers.

Furthermore, the decorations of the temple in the form of statues and wall paintings can be discussed as familiar for the majority of Daoism followers. Similar statues and paintings can be also observed in houses of worshippers.

Thus, Daoism is close people, and this principle is reflected in the temples. In addition, such temples as the Thean Hou Temple are discussed by believers as the place which contributes to the interaction of immortal idols and gods with ordinary people. The Thean Hou Temple is also the place when believers can become more virtuous because of their closeness to gods.


Decision Making college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Uniqueness of Public Sector

Importance of Decision-making for Public Service Managers

Importance of Motivation for Public Service Managers



Introduction Decision-making and motivation may arguably be the most important concepts in management. However, it is very easy for managers to get it wrong if they do not see the broader picture of decision-making and motivation. Garvin


KTG Strategic Leadership Case Study argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background challenge at KTG

Leadership concepts and theories




Team dynamics and leadership


Introduction Strategic leadership in organizations is one of the most profound models needed to accelerate positive organizational change and growth. Strategic leadership is also capable of moderating operations within an organization by boosting the morale of employees through motivation and a conducive working environment. As such, organizational behavior may not be ignored at all when exploring the aspect of strategic leadership.

It is a terminology used to describe the management of manpower within an organization and how it can also be used to facilitate the regular process of production according to the set goals and objectives.

It is also vital to note that strategic leadership entails the application of specific stream of knowledge by the appointed leadership structure and employees with the aim of generating a holistic perspective towards positive growth (Griffin


Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs Case Study writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Overview of the Case

Reasons for President Kennedy’s Failure

Lessons from this Failure



Introduction The US Administration is constantly faced with scenarios that require risky decisions to be made. Sometimes this risk taking results in positive outcomes while the results are horrible at other times. One of the cases where the risk taking led to negative results was in the case of the Bay of Pigs invasion under President J.F. Kennedy.

While the US envisioned a major success in this operation, the reality was different as the Cuban forces overwhelmed the US trained rebels. This defeat was followed by a worldwide condemnation of the Kennedy Administration for its role in the invasion.

The attack also led to a cementing of Fidel Castro’s leadership in the country and a greater deterioration in the relationship between Cuba and the US thereby making the Bay of Pigs invasion a colossal failure. This paper will set out to analyze the underlying reasons behind the failure of President Kennedy in his decision to invade Cuba and attempt to highlight some lessons that can be learnt from this failure.

Overview of the Case The Bay of Pigs invasion was an attack against the Cuban government carried out by US backed Cuban rebels. The US created this plan since it wanted to replace the Castro’s communist government with a pro-American government.

The Cuban rebels were trained and armed by the CIA and they were meant to carry out the attack and trigger a revolution that would cause the fall the Castro regime. The invasion was a catastrophic failure as the weak rebel forces were overwhelmed by Cuban troops and many of them were killed or captured.

Reasons for President Kennedy’s Failure A major cause of the failure was the great desire by the Kennedy Administration to conceal its involvement in the invasion. The US government was concerned about keen to ensure that its involvement in the situation in Cuba remained unknown to the rest of the world. The US therefore limited its military support to the rebels who were going to engage in the combat operations.

Bates and Joshua (1998) document that even before the invasion was carried out; President Kennedy’s advisers had informed him that the Cuban exiles were doomed to fail if they did not receive military assistance from the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The invasion failed since the US made a major assumption concerning the reaction of the Fidel administration and the general republic to the US backed invasion. Bates and Joshua (1998) reveal that to the planners of the invasion, the ultimate success of the attack would depend on a sizeable popular uprising to support the initial rebel force.

Top intelligence officials predicted that the invasion would be followed by massive counter-revolutionary violence that would oust Castro from his post as leader of Cuba. This assumption ignored the fact that the Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro enjoyed massive popular support.

President Kennedy ignored the analyst reports that highlighted the weaknesses of the proposed plans. Specifically, reports by the JCS giving an unfavorable evaluation of the project were muted and the optimistic reports by the CIA were followed. The Kennedy Administration was confident of the success of its plan since the CIA group responsible for planning the invasion had previously succeeded in the Guatemalan coup of 1954.

The administration intended to use the same strategy that had led to success at Guatemala. Straw and Ross (1989) elaborate that governments are willing to commit to a course of action if the same commitment has led to success in the past. The Kennedy Administration failed to consider that the conditions in Cuba were significantly different from those of Guatemala.

There were conflicts among the various departments planning the Cuban invasion. The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) had an anti-Castro plan that was made independent of the CIA project. While the JCS felt that US backing would be necessary for unseating Castro, the CIA chief was optimistic that a covert invasion would work.

Research indicates that workgroups with differing professional backgrounds will often disagree about task process and content (Jehn, Northcraft


The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance Evaluation Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Concept of IT Governance

Relevance of IT governance in the current society

Current challenges of IT governance

Possible future challenges of IT governance


List of References

Concept of IT Governance The world is increasingly getting globalized as technological inventions continue to get advanced in the society. According to Jargon (2011, p. 47), the world has been reduced into a small global village. Thanks to the advanced technologies. This scholar says that the current society highly depends on technology. Technology has been embraced in various sectors of the economy. It has helped standardize processes within firms.

It has also been very important in the management of firms. The management of firms in the current competitive market requires employment of technology. This is because there is need to ensure that in every strategy taken, the management can have a clear knowledge of all the possible results, determine if there will be any possible challenge during the implementation, and how these challenges can be countered.

This can only be possible when the scientific approach to management is introduced. This approach involves applying technology at all the managerial levels of the firm.

IT governance has gained popularity in the twenty first century. As the world gets increasingly globalized, managements have come to realize that they have to globalize their operations. The world markets have been opened up for international trade. Coca Cola, a large American beverage company, has a global coverage. Similarly, Japanese Toyota Motors has global market coverage.

According to Brooke, Lucinda and Yan (2011, p. 350), firms have come to realize that the only way to beat local competition is to go global. This scholar emphasizes the fact that most of the world markets in various industries have global players.

When a firm fails to go global, its local markets would be eaten up by other foreign firms which will enter the local market. The best strategy is always to go global and fight competition from the global perspective.

According to Leighton (2008, p. 110), globalization of various firms has made it necessary to embrace IT governance. A firm such as the Coca Cola Company has its headquarters in the United States of America. However, the firm operates in over 150 countries in the seven continents of the world. The top management cannot possibly run this firm through physical presence in all the branches of this firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management duty in various countries must be delegated to mid management employees working in these regions. These employees must work directly under the instruction of the top management. The vision and mission of the firm, the values and all strategic objectives must trickle down to the employees in all the regions around the world.

Employees must feel the presence of the chief executive in their respective offices irrespective of their location around the globe. This is where technology has always been brought in to help manage such business. IT governance has been relevant in managing large organizations which have a global perspective. Such technologies as video conferencing have become very popular in managing branches that are overseas.

Social media has also offered management strategies through which management of their firms can be improved. As Andreas (2012, p. 37) says, the management can upload a particular video showing how a given activity should be carried out. This video would then be shared in various branches of the firm as a demonstration to the employees on how they are expected to carry out their duties.

IT governance has faced a number of challenges despite the above mentioned advantages. According to Boyd and Ellison (2008, p. 210), the world embraced IT governance without the realization that it also comes with some responsibilities and challenges.

This scholar says that some firms have failed due to overreliance and implementation of inappropriate strategies. Understanding these challenges can help a firm know how to approach IT in its governance strategies. This research focuses on the current and future challenges of IT governance.

Relevance of IT governance in the current society The business world has got increasing competition. Firms are struggling to keep pace with the competition that is constantly increasing in the market. According to Bennett and Strange (2011, p. 57), firms are under pressure to improve their performance in their respective markets. Customers are currently willing to pay less because they have various alternatives in the market.

Suppliers are demanding more because they have gained monopoly in the market. Business units find themselves in the middle of these two pressures. It has to survive. It has to meet the demands of both ends. This requires a high degree of efficiency. Managements must find ways of reducing their expenditures as they struggle to increase their profitability.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three pressures from the customers, suppliers and competitors are always so massive that when a firm fails to act promptly, it may be edged out of the market. Getting into the market with appropriate technologies is the right approach to take in managing these challenges.

Use of IT in governance has proven to be very resourceful in managing the current competition. Firms are currently trying to reduce such expenses as travel costs of the top managements. This means that an alternative has to be found to enable top management monitor all the units of the firm operating in different regions around the world. The solution has been IT governance.

Managements have also been keen to have a slimmer and more efficient workforce within their facilities. The solution to this has also been IT management. IT management is coming out as a solution to many of the emerging needs of various firms around the world.

The relevance of IT governance in the current business world has been obviously witnessed in many of the international firms around the world. Given the current trends in the market, it is clear that IT governance is here to stay. This is because even smaller business units are finding it appropriate in the management of their small business units.

Current challenges of IT governance According to Coveney and Highfield (1995, p. 119), IT governance came as a magical solution to most of the problems that large multinational firms had in managing their overseas branches. It was difficult following all the activities taking place in overseas branches without having to move to those branches quite often.

This was not only time consuming, but also a detractive move as the management would be forced to suspend other important managerial duties at the head office while travelling overseas.

The need to eliminate this challenge was great, and when IT governance offered a solution, many firms embraced this solution without having the idea that this technology would be coming along with some challenges. The following are some of the challenges of IT governance in the current society.

As Coombs (2007, p. 2) observes, one of the leading challenges of IT governance is absence of properly documented strategies. In most of the current organizations that use IT government, the strategy of coming up with new approaches to managing various issues in the market has changed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Documentation is constantly growing unpopular as managements and employees embrace the casual nature of approaching the changing trends in the market. This casual trend in important in managing dynamism and ensuring that the firm remains flexible to changes. However, it is very challenging for the management to trace a strategy that was used to bring a particular success or that which brought failure within the firm.

This is because there is no documentation that can help trace this history. Managements are, therefore, forced to have a rough memory of these strategies so that those that have brought success can be maintained, and those that brought failure can be eliminated. It reaches a time where the memory cannot hold any longer.

In such incidents, the management may realize that it ends up repeating some of the mistakes it did in the past. Because they were not documented, a repeat mistake can be very common.

Communication within the firm has greatly been improved with the introduction of e-governance. However, Barthe (2010, p. 93) says that technology has also affected communication to a great deal.

This scholar says that in as much as technology has created an environment where the management can communicate with employees irrespective of their location, it has brought with it opportunity to manipulate various issues within the firm.

An officer who is interested in taking a different approach from that favored by the management can easily sabotage the communication network and implement his or her strategy without getting information from the top management only to blame the same technology later. This can be very dangerous to the management, especially when the implemented strategy goes in contrary to the set overall objectives of the firm.

IT governance also eliminates the physical presence of the two individuals who are communicating. Physical presence is always important in communication as it helps develop a cord and trust between the two communicating parties.

Daft (2009, p. 47) says that deriving of tactical plans has been a real challenge in an environment where management heavily relies on IT governance. According to this scholar, tactical plans are always developed out of the daily activities of the firm.

When the management has a direct contact with employees and all the activities taking place within the firm is properly documented, coming up with a strategy of how to manage market competition through tactical plans is easier. An employee would easily give a suggestion to the management.

Because of the physical presence of the manager, he or she is able to discuss the issue, assess its relevance given the prevailing circumstance, and determine how it can be implemented within the firm.

In IT governance, this possibility is eliminated. Managers are not physically present at operational levels of the firm. Developing tactical plans that can help define the daily running of the firm cannot be properly defined. This is worsened by the absence of documentation within the firm.

Costs of installing and maintaining IT system within the organization may be prohibitive. As shown in the discussion above, the need to embrace IT governance is unquestionable, especially given the emerging trends in the market. However, the cost of developing and maintaining some of the IT system can be very high.

According to Amrosini, Johnson and Scholes (1998, p. 59), most firms can easily afford the costs of installing and maintaining the system within the firm. However, the system can malfunction or can be sabotaged. A firm that heavily relies on IT governance can incur huge costs in case its IT system is sabotaged. The cost resulting from such sabotages and malfunctioning of the system may result in loses that may take years to recover.

This will have a massive impact on the firm. As Coulter (2009, p. 94) says, the impact can be huge that a firm may face serious litigation cases for non delivery of their products to the clients. The long legal battles will not only have further financial damage to the firm, but will also damage the image of the firm in the market. This consequence may be too devastating that a firm may be forced out of the market.

Data security within the plant has been another challenge that firms are facing in implementing IT governance in their management strategies. The Wikileaks may be popular among various quarters for its ability to hijack into one of the most secure systems, the US Intelligence System.

However, this only demonstrates how insecure the internet can be. If the US Intelligence System was hijacked and important confidential information released to the public, then no firm can claim to be safe when using IT governance. According to Cavusgil, Knight and Riesenberger (2012, p. 29), for a firm to operate successfully in the market, it should have competitive advantage over other firms in the market.

This means that it must have unique management strategies that its competitors do not have. Firms are always struggling to get the strategy that is making their competitors strong in the market, while ensuring that their strategy remains a secret.

When a firm’s secret can easily be available to the competitors, then it may not be very successful. The best approach that a firm should take is to ensure that the strategies are communicated in a manner that cannot be detected by competitors. This may involve avoidance using IT governance at some stages.

Possible future challenges of IT governance The future is very bright with the use of IT governance in various firms in the society. According to Andzulis, Panagopoulos, and Rapp (2012, p. 310), implementing IT within the firm can help it manage various issues within a very short time. It helps in eliminating the need for constant travels that is always common within organization.

However, given the current challenges that firms face in the implementation of IT governance, it may be a fact that the future of IT governance may still be clouded with some challenges. The following are some of the possible challenges that firms may face in implementing IT governance in future.

Loss of important data, or what Anderson (2011, p. 48) describes as data theft might increase with increased reliance of IT governance within firms. Competition in the current market has gotten so stiff that other firms would wish downfall of their competitors. Others do not always stop a wishful thinking. They make efforts to try and sabotage operations of their competitors in order to bring them down.

This can be very dangerous given that most firms shall be relying on e-governance to improve their operations. A competing firm would be in a position to trace important data within the data base of a firm and manipulate this data, or even steal it. This may result in serious consequences to the firm.

When important data about a firm in regard to issues such as the customers and suppliers accounts, management policies and strategic moves, transactional activities within a particular period, cannot be traced, it may be disastrous to the firm. Such cases might be common in future with the increase in the reliance of IT governance.

Having a virtual management within a given facility can be very challenging. Given the current trends in the field of technology, it is easy to predict that virtualization of the management shall be a common phenomenon. Firms will try to make their work force slimmer, and this might involve eliminating senior managerial position in their branches.

In their position will be video conferencing strategy that will help reach out for the mid managements and lower cadre employees within the firms. This strategy may seem very appropriate given the current advances that have been made in the field of information and communication technology. However, this strategy eliminates leadership in management.

It eliminates the motivation that a manager would have on employees if he or she would be physically present. It only creates the feeling among the employees, that they are some kind of robotic machines expected to operate by a simple click on the button. This is a discouraging process to the employees that will largely reduce the productivity.

Human being is an interactive creature, and with the current advances made in the field of communication, the need to interact is even becoming greater. Employees need to have a direct physical contact with the top management quite often. This will motivate them and make them feel that they are appreciated.

Conclusion IT governance is increasingly becoming relevant in the current society. From the discussion above, it is clear that firms are currently considering applying IT governance in their overseas branches.

Even smaller regional firms are finding this strategy very convenient in reducing time and improving efficiency in their operations. However, this strategy comes with a number of challenges. These challenges affect the normal operations of the firm in various ways.

Currently, firms using IT governance have faced a number of challenges when using this strategy. One of the biggest challenges that these firms face is the possibility of a criminal hacking into the management system. Given that the strategy demands that everything is automated within the system, cyber criminals can crack into the system and steal important information that is confidential to the firm.

When such documents are sold to competing firms, the firm may suffer from lack of a competitive advantage in the market. In some cases, such data would not only be stolen, but also be destroyed by hired gangs. When this happens, a firm can be brought to its knees.

In future, there is a possibility of increased challenges in using this strategy. Cyber crime attacks might continue given the current trend. Lack of physical presence may also be a further challenge in future.

List of References Amrosini, V., Johnson, G


Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management Report essay help online free

Introduction The Abu Dhabi Ports Company was started in 2006 through an Emiri Decree, to be a master developer of both ports and industrial sectors in the region of Abu Dhabi.

This company was started as a section of the reconstruction of the profit-making ports segment in the Emirates and was awarded the management and regulatory enactment authority over every commercial ports asset earlier possessed by the Abu Dhabi Seaports Authority (ADSA). The key accomplishments of Abu Dhabi Ports Company were the achievement of Khalifa Port and the advancement of Kizad.

By way of organisation and exploring novel options of industrial sectors, ADPC remains one of the key players that support the growth of economy in the country. This report seeks to address the projects covered by Abu Dhabi Ports Company, the manner in which they approve and manage projects, and the challenges that the company is facing.

Organisation Profile Irrespective of the organisation there requires having a chain of authority with definite functions defined for all who join or operate with the organisation. For Khalifa Port, the recommended structure consists of Possessions, Infrastructure, and managing of Facilities set for one department or manager.

This structure could most probably fall in the arms of the Ports Operations Department, where technological services would operate as the managing agent for constructions, which would call for the support of Marine Services, among others.

Figure 1: Organisation Profile

Divisions Structure Technical services

The formation of Technical Services Department for the staged and completely functional Port, considering the service requirements of Abu Dhabi Ports Company, will be an important concern because of the character of the advancement, its working structure, the magnitude, and intricacy of the advancement in addition to the number of policymakers, services entailed and human capital required.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise and unavoidably, there will be unique challenges associated with the building up of the technological and infrastructure management operations that will demand careful and controlled planning and execution.

Figure 1: Technical services division

Rules of the division Technical services division

From the range of services, there will be two major sections left for Technical services. One of these sections is the constructions that could encompass civil structures, which handle electricity and water system. The other section is Operating Security and Management Systems (OSMS) employed in the operations at the Port.

An arrangement segment could be necessary in the management of the planned operations, incoming upkeep, and repair demands that would originate from the Port, forming three service players in the Technical Services group. The leader of the team is the Technical Services manager. The Technical Services Manager has the following three engineering managers that report to him:

Electro-Mechanical Engineer (ME)

Infrastructure Engineer (IE)

Planning Engineer (PE)

The Planning Engineer will be accountable for external work requests, assigning duties to the suitable sections and contractors, and contriving on programmed and un-programmed operations in the Asset Management System (AMS). The Planning Engineer could as well be accountable for maintaining asset information and ensuring nouveau records are accessible for both for internal application as well as for future projects.

The Planning Group will manage the Building Management System (BMS) and examine maintenance actions. The Infrastructure Engineer will be answerable for the management of the construction and infrastructure upkeep section.

The duty of the Infrastructure Engineer will be to make sure that the programmed and the un-programmed upkeeps are carried out in a timely way and within financial requirements. In this way, the Infrastructure Engineer will be accountable for gathering management reports.

We will write a custom Report on Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The construction maintenance contractors shall carry out the daily functions and management of the upkeep. This agreement will have the responsibility of assigning of materials and some labour to programmed and un-programmed operations.

Noteworthy accountability of the function of Infrastructure Engineer will be to carry out a visual assessment of the constructions and support foundations that shall be effected according to Service Level Agreements and Key Performance indicators under the contract. The Building Services Contract group could be made up of carpenters, masons and labourers, to mention a few.

The critical tasks of this group will be to carry out most of the programmed and un-programmed upkeep of the construction material for the constructions at the Port, including both their inside and outside surfaces.

As aforementioned, operations will be assigned to the team through the Planning Engineer and contract manager that will together with the Infrastructure Engineer, scrutinise the operations being carried out and then sign the worksheet upon reasonable conclusion.

Project portfolio management Flow chart

The management policy for technical services rests in the organisation as a facilitator of Construction services and infrastructure. Hence, the structure of Technical Services is found in a team of facilitating departments that operate to ensure that the Port remains functional.

Figure 2: Flow chart

The science of planning, arranging, prompting, and administering resources to attain particular objectives underscores the aspects of project management.

A project denotes a temporary attempt having a delineated commencement and closing stages (typically time-limited, and frequently restricted by finances or deliverables), carried out to satisfy unique goals and intentions characteristically to yield valuable modification or added value.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern character of projects rests contrary to routine businesses (or functions), which are recurring, lasting, or short-term operational activities to give rise to goods and services. In fact, the management of such different systems is habitually entirely dissimilar, which necessitates the advancement of divergent technological skills and management approaches.

The major limitation of project management is to acquire the entire project’s aims and intentions while revering the predetermined boundaries. The primary barriers are scale, time, excellence, and financial plan. Another minor, and more determined, limitation is to maximise the distribution of essential inputs and incorporate them to arrive at predetermined goals.

There exist different advances in managing project operations with the inclusion of slant, reiterative incremental, and staged advances. Irrespective of the technique used, careful deliberation has to be accorded to the entire project goals, timeline, and outlay, in addition to the functions and accountabilities of every contributor and policymaker.

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) denotes the unified management of practices, techniques, and expertise employed by project managers as well as Project Management Officials (PMOs) to assess and collectively handle a group of existing or intended projects anchored in several chief attributes.

The goals of Project Portfolio Managers in ADPC are to decide the utmost resource combination for delivery and to plan undertakings to attain the functional and financial objectives of a company excellently while considering limitations posed by consumers, strategic goals, or exterior real-world aspects.

Project Portfolio Management is applicable for companies with numerous ventures and resources that necessitate a formalised structure for following, assigning, and managing them efficiently. When applied, these capacities can be used to suit two different audience sub-sections that are listed below.

Implementation-focused Project Portfolio Management users: these manage the strategic particulars of project implementation, with the coverage devices to communicate advancement and outlays back to sponsors of the operations and to the senior management.

Project portfolio-stage users: they make project-associated determining structures, choosing particular projects anchored in those structures, setting the success of those projects or ventures, pursuing those ventures at a high rank, and accounting on those activities.

Process in the project management

Abu Dhabi Ports Company manages the entire profit-making, logistics, society, and leisure ports in Abu Dhabi as well as functions like tourism, land reclamation, building roads, and sewage treatment plants, generation of electric power, building marine units and leisure activities. Abu Dhabi Ports Company has the accountability of productive tasks across commercial harbours in Abu Dhabi.

Having the most significant proportion of trade taking place by the sea, these outstanding harbours act as significant contributors in the economic achievement of Abu Dhabi to advance variegation, in favour of Economic Vision 2030.

With its roles of developing and managing these harbours, Abu Dhabi Ports Company constantly plays major roles in recognition, evaluation and execution of expertise, equipment, networks and strategies that will make sure that each factor of its harbour’s tasks and services is quick, effective and cost-efficient.

Management approach

The aim of Abu Dhabi Ports Company is to manage the harbour infrastructure, its constructions, and every one of its amenities and customers with the least difficult for utmost advantage in accordance with its shared goals and vision.

There are numerous alternatives and methods, both at the strategic and operational stage, for Abu Dhabi Ports Company to offer the necessary management services for Khalifa Port. The strategic goals of the company encompass the following:

Adhere to the legislative and governing strategy

Offer a productive and effective facility management services to satisfy the requirements of clients

Offer synergetic savings across every service procession

Line up service ranks with market

Manage modifications with the least influence on the customer

ADPC project profile Khalifa Port

This port contains an initial stage capacity of 2.5 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit containers and more than 10 million tones of general cargo every year and an anticipated aptitude of over 14 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit containers and over 30 million tones of general cargo every year by 2030.

This aspect demonstrates just semi-mechanised container workstation of the area, a number of the biggest automated ship-to-seashore cranes internationally. Also, Khalifa Port boasts of other container management tools that allow the Port to provide clients reduced working costs and quicker rotational instances for consigning and unpacking container ships, encompassing some of the biggest internationally.

The avant-garde software of the harbour and wireless expertise guarantees quick processing and incorporated transportation of containers through the port, which as well boasts of flawless connections to the Abu Dhabi and interior marketplaces through speedy infrastructure and future railway links.

Abu Dhabi Ports Company is ensuring improvements across its collection of harbours. These harbours comprise of Mina Zayed and Musaffah Port that promote local industry, tourism, fishing, and activities for leisure time.

Dredging and reclamation

The Khalifa project finished Dredging and Reclamation contract more than a year ahead of plan. This contract had been issued in late 2007 to the Khalifa Port Marine Consortium (KPMC). The KPMC comprised of Archirodon, Boskalis Westminster as well as Hyundai.

The best part of this task encompassed dredging and reclaiming more than 40 million M3 of material, constructing more than three kilometres of dock wall (22 metres high) and offering more than 300,000 M2 of rock or concrete shield revetment.

Moreover, the task involved construction of the Environmental Protection Breakwater having its more than two million M3 of rock and revetment, and offering the almost 2 kilometres long bridge linking the Emirates Aluminum (EMAL) facility their devoted berth. This endeavour created the greatest bridge in the United Arab Emirates.

Utilities and infrastructure

There are different contracts of the Khalifa project that are aimed at providing electric power. For instance, contract 207 is to offer the medium voltage (MV) electric power through 34-Kilovolt electric cable system and three 33/11 Kilovolt primary circulation substations. This will supply electric power to the whole of phase 1 of the project and power is distributed from Taweelah Power Station, neighbouring the megaproject.

The agreement on infrastructure encompasses project management, planning, procurement, building, checking and assigning of the entire civil works related to the construction of the offshore terminal section.

The Offshore Terminal Area contains a 1000 metres partly computerized container workstation as well as a 400 metres normal cargo terminal and a reserved section to cater for future development with the provided utilities encompassing sewerage, electric power, telecommunication and drainage.

Buildings, Equipment and Roads

The range of work by Habtoor Leighton Group consists of the building of the on-shore port equipments and encompasses the building of more than 50 permanent houses, the biggest being the Container Freight Station that is more than 200 metres in length. Additionally, there were infrastructural works that encompassed a range of roads and soft landscaping, to mention a few.

Highlights encompass building of more than 20 houses and allied structures. This included the harbour master building and the Terminal Operations Building, a building that has six stories and that is anticipated to turn out to be the centre of the functions of the Port.

More buildings comprise of 11-Kilovolt substations, dock wall, and a more than 5 kilometres double carriageway connecting the marine harbour to the mainland with allied roads and street lighting.

Special system

Under control, the unique systems include fire alarms, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA).

In the telecommunication sector, the unique systems include Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS), controlled cabling and Telephony, just to mention a few. Lastly, in the security sector, there exists perimeter invasion detection, closed-circuit television (CCTV), defence screening, gate safekeeping and controlled right of entry.

Kizad (Khalifa Industrial Zone Abu Dhabi)

The variegation of the financial system in addition to different other sectors form the backbone of a majority of economic milestones including the famed Economic Vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi. Kizad started with Kizad section A that had around 50 km2. By 2030, section A and B of Kizad will constitute part of the biggest industrial regions across the globe at approximately 420 square kilometres.

Kizad promotes the economic dream by providing logistics and intense capital- and energy- extensive industrialised companies a business setting that gives birth to several financial benefits. The mainstay shareholder of Kizad, viz.

Emirates Aluminium (EMAL), is intending to upgrade its status to rank among the leading companies across the world and it pioneered in 2009. Fresh logistics and intense industrialised manufacturing shareholders are anticipated to start functions from Kizad in this year.

The strategic position of Kizad connecting east and west, and its first-rate, intermodal groundwork connecting air, roads, sea, and railway offers shareholders effortless and effective contact to over 5 billion customers in four-time regions.

Vertically incorporated groups form the critical aspect of logistical competence. Also, affordable rental charges coupled with duty-free environment and some low service costs across the globe ensure that companies enjoy unique competitive benefits.

Shahama Port

The pronouncement of another project in Abu Dhabi was announced on the sidelines of the continuing international Port and business summit in the capital of the United Arab Emirates. In the pronouncement, done by Waleed (VP of project advance at ADPC), it was clear that ADPC could be working on the project at Shahama Port at the cost of around AED 35 million, situated more than 4 kilometres from the highway to Dubai.

The Shahama Port is aimed at supporting vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi. It would be developed into a trade and tourism centre. Shahama Port will house recreational facilities for both the society and undertakings at the harbour. The initial stage of Shahama Port is in progress and is anticipated to begin operations in 2014.

The initial stage of the project is expected to provide both wet and dry berths, a massive slipway for boats, refuelling stations and shops, just to mention a few. In the meantime, Abu Dhabi Ports Company declared the commencement of an auxiliary company, Abu Dhabi Ports Company Marine services.

The purpose of the auxiliary company was to offer shipping into UAE. The auxiliary company will have over 150 employees, devoted to fields like those of pilots and many others.

ERP Project

The main objective of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is to sustain ADPC’s heart operation processes and to facilitate dependable business management. The everyday business undertakings that strengthen knowledge anchored management judgements and a strong document administration network incorporated in the Enterprise Resource Planning and encompasses the following.


The Human Resource Management (HRM) offers Abu Dhabi Ports Company with personnel endowed with proficiencies required to undertake in the operations of the programmes and projects effectively. Apart from recruitment, the other tasks of the Human Resource (HR) department are to pay salaries to the staff and carry out other staff management roles like issuing leave and certificates.


The Procurement Management ensures that procurement endeavours go in line with the certified policy by the company. Other functions of the Procurement Management encompass assessing tender and requesting contracts.


Abu Dhabi Ports Company mainly deals with developing and managing ports and industrial sectors in Abu Dhabi. The company runs over ten profit-making, supplying, and societal ventures among others encompassing its chief modernised Khalifa Port.

The company is as well upgrading Kizad that is situated alongside Khalifa Port. Kizad operates different logistics and industrialised shareholders and seeks to build up to become the chief industrial sector internationally. By 2030, Kizad and Khalifa Port are anticipated to raise more than 14 per cent of the non-oil Gross Domestic Product of Abu Dhabi.

The initial-stage advancement of this project reveals an outlay of 7.2 billion dollars and it has been portrayed as the most significant project n the financial system of Abu Dhabi. The operations of the finance department include preparing budgets, invoices and salaries in addition to asset management.

Asset Management


Customer Service Training Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Use of a needs assessment in the training

Customer service training implementation plan

Training method

Employee motivation

A survey to collect feedback from employees



Introduction Customers are the most important aspect of any business, firm, or organization. Employees deal with customers on a daily basis. Therefore, it is necessary for them to know how to deal with customers appropriately. Many organizations create customer loyalty by offering quality customer service (Bonomo, 2002). Quality service increases organizational value and develops customer loyalty that increases revenue.

Customer service training refers to a process of teaching employees how to increase customer satisfaction by imparting necessary knowledge and skills (Bonomo, 2002). New employees are the main target of many organizations for customer service training. The content of a typical training course includes communication styles, listening, giving feedback, appropriate use of language, and handling different types of customers (Bonomo, 2002).

Training for employees is recommended because it improves customer loyalty, improves an organization’s efficiency, motivates employees and makes them feel valued, and improves organizational value (Bonomo, 2002).

Use of a needs assessment in the training The main objective of a needs assessment in an organization’s training program is to identify performance weaknesses and necessary knowledge and skills needed to eradicate the weaknesses (Barbazette, 2006). It identifies the gap between current levels of performance and desired levels of performance.

A needs assessment directs organizational resources to areas that have weaknesses and others that need improvement. A needs assessment should address existing weaknesses and identify resources necessary to eradicate the weakness in order to improve service delivery (Barbazette, 2006).

A needs assessment exposes performance deficiencies in several ways. First, it identifies capabilities of each employee and their ability to handle different or new tasks and responsibilities (Barbazette, 2006). Individual assessments determine which employees need training, and in which areas.

The needs assessment helps an organization evaluate the skills and knowledge of individual employees in order to determine how to improve their performance and productivity (Barbazette, 2006). Secondly, it helps determine level of organizational performance (Barbazette, 2006). Such assessment determines the skills and knowledge needed by an agency to achieve desired outcomes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Needs assessment helps solve the agency’s weaknesses and enhance its strengths. Such an assessment puts into consideration factors external to the organization such as state of economy and market forces. Thirdly, needs assessment helps expose performance deficiencies by conducting task analysis (Barbazette, 2006).

Task analysis involves evaluating knowledge and skills needed by occupational groups to achieve organizational goals. For example, it helps find out if an organization has employees with skills and knowledge required to create customer loyalty through quality customer service. Moreover, it helps identify performance gaps that might have resulted from changes in organizational policies (Barbazette, 2006).

Identification of performance gaps is followed by development of ways to eradicate the gaps. Fourthly, needs assessment helps expose performance deficiencies by evaluating customer needs and level of customer satisfaction (Barbazette, 2006). Customer satisfaction implies that employees possess necessary skills and knowledge to satisfy customers. This is evident from customers’ positive feedback.

However, if customers give negative feedback, then they are not satisfied with the organization’s service delivery. One of the causes of customer dissatisfaction is performance deficiency (Barbazette, 2006). This necessitates development of customer service training for employees to improve quality of customer service.

Customer service training implementation plan Implementation of customer service training will involve four main steps. The first step is identification of customers’ needs. Identification of customer needs and expectations is the most important aspect of implementing the customer service training (Kamin, 2012). This will be achieved by collecting information from customers using questionnaires and interviews.

In addition, customers will be requested to leave reviews of their experiences with employees on the organization’s website. Alternatively, the organization could hire a survey firm to conduct a customer satisfaction survey (Kamin, 2012). If this option is explored, the survey will include information about customer satisfaction and interaction with employees.

The second step will involve evaluation of individual employee’s knowledge and skills. This will be achieved through methods such as observation, questionnaires, interviews, documentation, and use of focus groups (Kamin, 2012). Employees will be observed to evaluate how they interact with customers, and the quality of customer service they provide.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Customer Service Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees will also participate in interviews in order to give management a chance to evaluate their customer interaction skills. The third step is design and implementation of an appropriate training method (Kamin, 2012). Available methods of training include presentation, case study, simulation, modeling, role-play, on-the-job training, and discussion. In this case, the most appropriate training method is blended training method.

The fourth step is reevaluation of employee service delivery to determine whether the training was useful or not. Employee evaluation will be administered every three to four months. Many organizations evaluate employee performance twice a year.

Evaluation will involve collecting and analyzing responses from employees on effectiveness of training. In addition, it will involve study of how customer service delivery improved due to employee training. Evaluation is necessary because it will help the organization determine employees’ level of compliance with the organization’s protocol on customer service (Kamin, 2012).

Employees are likely to work harder with the awareness that their knowledge and skills are under constant evaluation by management. This is one of the strategies employees use to increase chances of retaining their jobs by increasing their knowledge and honing their skills.

Training method The preferred method of training is blended learning method. This method is based on the fact that employees have different learning abilities and it would be limiting and ineffective to use a single training method. This approach will incorporate several methods into the training program. These methods will include role-playing, group discussions, and use of multimedia materials.

Role-playing is a very effective training method because it involves rehearsing situations that are likely to happen at the workplace between employees and customers (Kamin, 2012). This training method will help employees learn how to virtually handle different situations before they encounter them in reality at the workplace. The method will involve formation of groups comprising two employees each.

One of the employees will pretend to be a customer and the other one will play the role of an employee. They will then rehearse different situations such as how to deal with a pestering or angry customer. Group discussion is another effective training method that will be used. It is an effective method because it facilitates open sharing of information and knowledge (Sims, 2007).

This method is effective in cases where some employees possess more knowledge and skills than others. In such cases, skilled and more knowledgeable employees pass knowledge to other employees and thus improve effectiveness of the training (Kamin, 2012). This method promotes active participation of employees in the training.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Customer Service Training by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, use of discussions encourages exchange of feedback between learners and the trainer (Sims, 2007). The trainer is able to know whether learners are grasping the content of the training. This enables the trainer determine which areas need more attention and which areas need less attention. Some employees are shy or uncomfortable when working in groups.

Therefore, use of multimedia materials is necessary to cater for the learning needs of such employees. Multimedia training materials provide graphics, demonstrations, animations, and sound. Research has shown that this training method is very challenging and therefore more stimulating than other methods (Sims, 2007).

Advantages of this method include ease of customization and use, cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and efficiency (Sims, 2007). Multimedia is an example of a computer-based programme that has several benefits. In addition, it is flexible because learners learn at their own pace.

Different employees have different learning capabilities and needs. Therefore, all employees undergo training without being rushed. Moreover, the instructor can easily determine what each employee has learned at certain periods during the course of training.

This is possible because it is easy to monitor progress of employees. Finally, multimedia materials improve learning and participation (Sims, 2007). Some learners are shy and do not participate in discussions. Multimedia materials that incorporate interactive activities such as answering questions and making critical decisions eliminate fear and shyness.

Employee motivation There are many ways of motivating employees who lack interest in attending training classes. Two common ways include funding the training course and making it a requisite component for promotion and remuneration (Sims, 2007). Many employees fail to attend training programs because many organizations usually expect employees to pay for training.

However, this discourages employees from attending because they consider such training a waste of valuable time and money. Organizations should set aside enough resources for such training. Employees are more willing to undergo training when they know that the organization is responsible for costs incurred.

Secondly, the organization could motivate employees to undergo training by making such training a requisite for promotion or as basis for remuneration increase. Many organizations increase employees’ wages based on skills and knowledge possessed (Sims, 2007).

Customer service training is one source of such skills and knowledge that contribute towards promotions. With knowledge that promotion depends on such training, all employees choose to undergo training in order to increase their chances of promotion.

A survey to collect feedback from employees After implementing a training program, it is important to evaluate the training in order to determine its effectiveness in increasing employee knowledge and improving customer service.

This is achieved by conducting a survey that collects information related to employee training. A survey to collect feedback from employees on the effectiveness of training will contain 10 questions. Employees who participated in the training will be required to answer ten questions based on personal experience.

What was the most important aspect of the training?

How was the training of help to you?

Did the trainer achieve the goals of the training?

How has the training helped you serve customers better?

Has the training changed you in any way?

How could the training be improved for better results?

Did the instructor cover all parts of the training program?

Was the method used for training suitable?

Would you consider attending similar training in future?

How do you think the training benefited you and the organization?

Employees will be required to answer these questions based on personal opinion and experience. The questions are open-ended and give employees opportunity to give honest answers that will help the organization improve training in future.

Conclusion Customer service training is used by many organizations to improve service delivery in order to create customer loyalty and improve organizational value. Such training imparts knowledge on certain aspects of customer relation such as proper use of language, how to deal with different customers, use of body language, and adoption of appropriate communication skills.

Customers are the most important aspect of an organization’s operations. A training program incorporates a needs assessment in its list of activities. The main aim of a training needs assessment in an organization is to identify performance weaknesses and the knowledge and skills needed to eradicate the weaknesses. It helps direct organizational resources to areas that have many weaknesses and thus in need of improvements.

Assessment is conducted at various levels that include organizational level and individual level. Several methods are available for use during training. However, the most effective training method is the blended training method. This approach incorporates several training methods in order to serve the learning needs of all employees. Many employees fail to attend training because of lack of motivation.

Two ways to motivate such employees include funding the training and incorporating the training as part of requirements for promotion and wage increase. Many employees shun training programs because organizations expect them to cover training expenses. However, organizations should take it as their duty to improve the skills and knowledge of their employees.

References Barbazette, J. (2006). Training Needs Assessment: Methods, Tools, and Techniques. New York: John Wiley


Population Density in General Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Population density is a universal concept in determination of population with specific focus on unit area and volume. Population density usually suffices in quantification of living organisms within a specific geographical location (Nielsen, 2011). It is an integral pillar in demographic considerations because it offers clear guidelines with regard to population trends in demographic contexts.

Population density is an important aspect because it guides experts in their endeavour to enhance planning and other undertakings that manifest in social contexts. It helps in monitoring and evaluation of population and social trends within society. Through studies on population, experts deduce information and data that helps in formulation of relevant policies and development strategies (Nielsen, 2011).

Population density is a relative concept that varies depending on various contextual parameters. Its manifestation and implication depends on various factors that determine its dichotomy and interpretation. Various social, cultural, and economic factors affect population density. For instance, population density manifests in variant proportions depending on prevailing contextual circumstances (Nielsen, 2011).

Population density in affluent neighbourhoods may not qualify as population density in poor neighbourhoods. People live in poor areas because of social and economic factors. This creates a situation of overcrowding and high population density.

Similarly, areas with high levels of civility experience low population density because of various social and economic dynamics. This reality manifests through various cultural undertakings that determine its occurrence and development in social contexts (Nielsen, 2011).

In future, America will experience an upsurge in population density and other dynamic areas that relate to population growth. Population growth will manifest in various cultural and social aspects that determine existence and propagation of population trends. Population trends in America shall embody various contextual parameters that affect population density.

American population consists of diverse cultural, social, and economic considerations that create a dynamic social entity. Future trends regarding population growth in America shall depend on various factors that may influence its ability to sustain growth and propagation of population (Rae, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environments with dense populations present various challenges for people who live within them. In such environments, there is need for order and civility amongst its inhabitants. Such environments are challenging because of difficulties that emanate from people as they relate within such contexts (Rae, 2012). For instance, it is difficult for people to agree on various pertinent issues that affect their welfare within a group setting.

People tend to disagree over matters that require a high level of consensus and consultations. Such situations necessitate rules and regulations to guide people in their undertakings within such environments. Such rules govern and curb overcrowding in such environments (Rae, 2012).

However, such rules do not necessarily meet communal and societal objectives. It is difficult to control people in such environments because of diversity in views and opinions. It is important for people to uphold dignity and civility in dealing with other people within crowded environments (Rae, 2012). Wealthy people deal with congestion by instituting rules and regulations that deter admission of people into their areas of residence.

These rules ensure that people of lower economic dichotomies do not infiltrate their communities. Population density continues to elicit interest among interest groups and scholars. Population density is an important aspect because it guides experts in their endeavour to enhance planning and other undertakings that manifest in social contexts.

It helps in monitoring and evaluation of population and social trends within society (Rae, 2012). Through studies on population, experts deduce information and data that helps in formulation of relevant policies and development strategies.

References Nielsen, N. (2011). The Dynamics of Population. London: Spear Books Ltd.

Rae, T. (2012). Population Trends in Contemporary Society. London: Folens Limited.

We will write a custom Essay on Population Density in General specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Ethics in Group Counseling Analytical Essay college essay help

Abstract Ethical issues are at the heart of the counseling process and practice. This paper discusses the issue of ethics with close consideration of professional practice of counseling and therapy. The paper narrows down to the complexity of ethical issues that counselors face in group settings in comparison to individual therapy.

It further discusses the issue of leadership and leadership challenges in group therapy. The paper concludes by shedding light on the reason behind preference of group counseling to individual counseling by counselors.

Ethical issues in Counseling Ethics can be defined in various ways depending on one’s profession and context. It refers to the code of conduct that is supposed to be followed by a person or a group of persons especially in regards to their duties. Ethics demands the observance of high levels of moral values.

According to Hill (2004, p. 131), in counseling, the issue of legal principles is considered depending on the impacts of the counseling case being handled. In addition, Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) add that the cultural norms of the society from which the victim comes are also considered in the process.

Freeman et al. (2004, p. 163) also reveal that the codes of conduct in counseling are closely intertwined with the values that counselors have to follow. Ethics guides the counselor and the client on the ‘do’s and don’ts’ that they have to abide by throughout the counseling process.

It enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of therapy sessions. In addition, the ethical code of conduct in counseling enables the counselor to gain trust from the client. However, counselors differ in their levels of commitment to the ethical conduct and moral values. In fact, Freeman et al. (2004, p. 163) argue that some counselors underrate the actual intensity of the moral values in counseling.

It is not enough to abide by the set standards in the counseling process. However, the beliefs and relationships that one has gained in life should enable him or her to make a sound interpretation of the case. It is therefore important for the counselor to strike a balance in all the cases that he or she handles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Crespi (2009, p. 273), it is important for the counselor and learners to learn the legal principles that guide the process of counseling by governing the standards to be observed by the counselor and the client. Moreover, Hill (2004, p. 131) affirms that legal principles also set up the punishments to be followed by the offenders in a counseling case.

They also stipulate the consequences of violating the counseling conduct by either the client or the therapist. Legal doctrines therefore ensure that no one violates, abuses, or neglects the counseling ethics. In addition, the ideologies control and regulate the licensing process. Licenses ensure that only the vetted and recommended counselors are involved in a professional counseling.

Such a move eliminates quarks hence ensuring high professional standards in the process. The licensing bodies control the renewal of such licenses. Such guidelines also elaborate how and when a client can claim liability from a therapist who fails to meet the terms of the agreement.

Malott, Paone, Humphreys, and Martinez (2010, p. 257) argue that ethics in counseling are also regulated by the cultural norms of the society. Every profession has its norms on what is right and wrong. Professional bodies have the responsibility of setting specific standards that stakeholders have to uphold.

For example, in America, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs set the counseling standards to be adhered to by counseling stakeholders. In psychological counseling, the counselor and the client are guided by a set of psychological counseling ethics as set by their regulating bodies.

With counseling standards in place, both the counselor and the client are protected hence making the procedure professional.

In addition, the professional bodies set the academic qualification standards that the counselors must present before being admitted as professionals. The level of education, experience, and dedication that the counselor must have is also stipulated.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in Group Counseling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such vetting and professional authentication is done to ensure professionalism in dealing with clients of diverse backgrounds. Professional counselors will not rush for trial and error, but will only administer remedies after a clear analysis of the case and having gathered substantial evidence.

In every profession, ethical issues are hard to abide by, even becoming more challenging when one is dealing with several human beings. Stephens (2010, p. 509) add that a counselor must be well equipped in group skills for him or her to handle a group in counseling.

Every group has its own dynamic complexities. In fact, conflicts increase with an increase in the number of group members. It is ethically required that every counselor should therefore have the necessary skills required in handling group dynamics.

Every member of the group should get a different screening procedure besides being understood according to his or her behavior and character. Such close evaluation should also be done on potential group members. Other personal qualities like and economic background should also been factored.

For example, it would be difficult for university graduates to appreciate counseling when they are placed in groups of primary school dropouts. The counselor should have skills to interpret the mental status. Emotional stability of a client to withstand the truth should also be measured accordingly.

According to Wade (2012, p. 329), religious beliefs and spiritual foundations of every individual in a group should also be appreciated. For example, Christians have respect for Jesus Christ as the son of God and strict adherence to the Ten Commandments. On the other hand, Muslims have strict adherence to the Quran and the words of Prophet Mohammed.

In most cases, spiritual foundations of individuals dictate what their values are and or whether they observe them or not. A counselor may forever labor for years in unearthing and treating certain cases of mental and psychological sicknesses if they continue with the counseling process without initial personal screening. It is from a deep understanding of the client that guides the counselor in the therapy process.

Counselors cannot gain wisdom through the process of academic training: God gives wisdom. In fact, wisdom seems to be naturally occurring in some people. Complexity of some group cases requires the counselor to have enough wisdom on top of his or her professional training.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Group Counseling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Good judgment also enables the therapist to forecast the implications of certain cases in the future. Some effects of counseling may go far ahead to determining how individuals make decisions in the future.

Therapists must be able to withstand the morality test of the society that goes beyond what they do with their life in and outside the office. Counselors must have high ethical standards that enable them avoid compromise. For instance, a counselor ought to avoid doing wrong even when every other person says it is right to do so. Counselors should be guided by what is right in the eyes of God and the law.

When one is compromised, their moral and ethical standings are highly affected. In counseling, one faces different personalities. Therapists who are not strong in their moral standing may even fall prey of the evils that their clients commit. A counselor may easily be enjoined in drug abuse legal case, firearm handling, and sexual immorality cases amongst others.

Although, a fee is paid for therapy, counselors should not be money minded. Money is a factor in most instances of the failure of counselors to observe moral and ethical principles. It is wrong for a counselor to forfeit his or her ethical guidelines in order to gain more money. Counselors should therefore adopt ethical means of earning their livelihood to avoid compromise.

After counseling, clients assumed to have gained the necessary skills in handling life on their own. It is not enough for the counselor to give verbal and written guidelines to clients and leave them to their own devices in life. Effective counseling should bear visible fruits.

According Jen der pan (2011, p. 779), the counselor should give the clients some life skills that will enable them to live well by interacting with others comfortably in the society. At the end of the counseling session, clients should appreciate the undertaking. They should be able to move forward and forget their past unproductive lives to adopting a beneficial life.

Counseling should reduce human suffering. Therapy should eliminate or reduce mental and emotional suffering that the client suffered before counseling to minimal levels. According to Wade (2012, p. 329), clients should handle the condition that faced them before counseling without any assistance.

By extension, they should assist other victims of similar situations. The sustainability of the effects of counseling depends on experience, academic qualifications, and commitment of the counselor. The remedy to counseling cases should have a permanent or long lasting effect.

Issues Unique to Group Therapy Group counseling is different from individual counseling. Although group counseling is similar to individual counseling in some ways, there are many differences between the two. In a group counseling, the counselor must understand that each individual in the group is unique in some ways. Unlike individual counseling, various personality traits are brought together in group therapy.

The confidentiality of every individual client must be maintained even when clients are grouped together for therapy unless the clients agree on disclosure. The counselor has to understand the specific problems that each client faces. Although there may be similarities in the cases, there are unique differences in individual cases that the counselor must differentiate.

Every member of the group would want to hear his or her individual problems being addressed by the counselor. The counseling program must touch on the problems that they face. If the whole counseling process does not address the challenges that they face, they will not appreciate the need for attending the counseling sessions.

Group counseling involves dynamics such as advising members not to share information concerning the counseling sessions when they are out of class. To the counselors, it is likely to become very hard for them to control their clients once they live the counseling halls. However, it is their discretion to advise the client against it and to ensure that the rules of counseling are upheld.

When individuals are in groups, they are likely to form social alignments before, during, or after the session. Since man is a social animal, it is likely to be difficult for such individuals to refrain from sharing their experiences in the sessions. However, Der Pan et al. (20012, p. 731) argue that it is upon the counselor to train the clients on how to mark certain boundaries in their communication.

When the clients in groups understand what can be disclosed to others and or what is private, it becomes easier even for the entire counseling process. Issues that are disclosed by each individual during the groups are not to be discussed by other members outside the session.

Information that individual clients disclose to the counselor or to the group for example personal experiences should not be discussed with other people outside the conference. Crespi (2009, p. 273) affirms that the counselor is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that all group members understand the rules, regulations, and legal principles concerning counseling.

In a group counseling setting, the counselor must ensure that he or she gains trust from the clients. It is also imperative that the group members begin to trust each other with information. Conviction is important since it speeds up the rate of information disclosure. According to Piper (2007, p. 130), without personal disclosure, counseling becomes almost unfruitful.

Each client must begin by owning his or her individual situations before seeking advice on what to do about it. After owning the process, the same client should be ready to make it known to a trusted therapist. According to Yildirim (2012, p. 130), the level of disclosure determines the kind of treatment and professional counseling that the client receives. However, most of the counselors are tempted to ignore the need for confidentiality.

Such ignorance can result in dangerous impacts. For example, when counseling a woman who has been unable to get out of lesbianism, it may be very dangerous to disclose such information to the public or to her friends. It would even be worse to divulge information about a man who joins the group for counseling after a long struggle with impotence.

Such revelation can amount to soiling of personal demeanor. Other people can even begin to disregard the person. No client can unveil such information to a therapist whom he or she believes or has evidence that the therapist cannot keep confidential information. Trust and confidentiality are therefore crucial in a group counseling.

Every group should have strict adherence to ethical control. The counselor has the greatest responsibility in controlling what happens in the group. Individual clients in a group setting have little or no control of what happens during the session. The kind of communication that majorly happens in a group setting can be both beneficial and detrimental to the group.

Sharing of individual experiences and the content of learning can be valuable to the individual clients. The counselor is therefore charged with the duty to monitor and control the group members when they are on the session and when they finish the sessions. In a group setting, members are also bound to influence one another into various acts.

Every member of the group is therefore bound to learn and emulate certain traits from the other members. The danger involved in this process is that a client can join the group with a need to be counseled on a certain issue but end up being predisposed to learning other awful traits. Every member learns from one another. Luke and Hackney (2007, p. 287), argue that leaning is a continuous activity.

As members interact in the group, a lot of exchange happens. The counselor should therefore be very keen to monitor the level of communication that is entailed in the group. It is also important that professional ethos be observed when assigning counseling groups to individuals. For instance, a client may come for the counseling session due to family conflicts.

Another client may also come for the session with a similar problem. Hence, the counselor will be tempted to put them under one class. However, one client may be an alcoholic in addition to being in family wrangles. Such a person may influence the other into alcoholism within the several days that they interact in the therapy. Such dynamics are majorly out of peer pressure.

Disclosure of information in a group setting may also take a lot of time. In fact, some clients may never divulge information about their problems in a group setting. In such cases, there is a strong bond of peer influence or fear in the group. A member of the group may fear what others may say about him, or worse still what they can believe about him or her after the disclosure.

In many instances, clients are forced to lie in order to save their face from the group. The counselor should therefore be very vigilant in order to identify such dynamics and react to them before they become a major problem. In some cases, peer pressure in group counseling becomes very hard to disengage.

The group members can also agree not conceal any information to the counselor. Such actions make the counseling process very difficult.

It is against the counseling ethics to coerce members of the group to change behavior. In a group setting, members can force others to behave in a particular way against their will by making some members appear foolish in the presence of others. Such members are therefore forced to change their behavior even when they are on the right. Coercion from the therapist himself or herself is also unethical.

In fact, intimidation from the group leaders and the counselor makes the victim lie or refuse to reveal the truth. According to Banks (2005, p. 17), if the client does not disclose the correct information to the counselor, the process is likely to experience many hurdles and fail to be successful.

It is therefore imperative for the counselor to ensure that none of the clients is coerced from any corner especially in giving information and changing of behavior. The counselor should be vigilant to ensure that no one compels the other into acting in a strange way. Good behavior should be cultivated in a sensible way. The clients should be at liberty to change their bad behavior to leap the benefits of good conduct.

In a group setting, diversity cannot be underrated. It may result in stereotyping. PAN (2012, p. 139) affirms that members of a group may come from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, they may be different in the way they do things or even believe. Every member should therefore be taught to respect each other’s beliefs and diversity. No tribe or ethnic community is better relative to the other.

According to Luke and Hackney (2007, p. 287), members of the group may have variations in educational levels, economic levels, and even social status. The counselor must ensure that each member appreciates this multiplicity.

In fact, Yildirim (2012, p. 129) affirms that group members should be encouraged to learn from one another and to enquire more in confirmation of facts and biases. It is against the counseling ethics to prejudice and or stereotype others. It is the role of the counselor and the group leader to ensure that every group is properly integrated to represent the image of a wider group.

Malott, Paone, Humphreys, and Martinez (2010, p. 257) are for the opinion that the counselor should ensure that members of a similar cultural orientation are not placed in a similar group unless the prevailing circumstances dictate so. Failure of members to condone and embrace diversity is likely to indicate the weakness of the counselor.

Counseling skills, experience, and education should make the counselor an authority in the field. It should therefore be easy for him or her to make the members tolerant to other people’s beliefs and cultural stands. Cultural beliefs are deeply entrenched into people’s lives. Any contravention of it may result in conflicts.

It is ethically wrong for group members to be dishonest. Without the truth, the whole group may not benefit from the counseling process. Dishonesty is even likely to make the counselor unprofessional. The moment various clients visit the counselor and undergo the full counseling program but fail not change from their past unbecoming behavior, the counselor is compromised. He or she is seen as a quark or a non-performer.

Counseling in a group setting should be result oriented. If all members of the group are insincere in their confessions and discussions, the group cannot progress. It will reach a point where the fabrication will require sophisticated deception to cover the initial ones. Members who are misleading live in tension and cannot trust each other.

Yildirim (2012, p. 129) argues that dishonesty among members is likely to result in interpersonal conflicts among the associates of the group. No one would like to be embittered. In such circumstances, group members cannot even feel free to discuss their experiences and thoughts with the rest of the group members.

Others will immediately or slowly withdraw from active participation in the group activities the moment they realize that the rest are deceitful. Gumpert and Black (2006, p. 61) affirm that the counselor is therefore charged with the responsibility of cultivating integrity among various members of the group.

All these ethical dynamics of group counseling discussed above can result in the breaking of the group. When counselors form psychotherapy groups, they always have plans and objectives to achieve through them. When a group breaks out of the above ethical problems, the members and the counselor have to lose the mutual benefit.

According to Hong et al. (2012, p. 180), it is unethical for a group to be terminated immaturely in the presence of a trained counselor. This case is likely to indicate failure and incompetence. The counselor is blamed for not being able to exercise expertise and leadership skills.

The members are also blamed for having no sense of direction and purpose in their undertaking. The honest, truthful, and rule-abiding clients may never join such groups again hence making it unwelcoming to the therapist and the whole idea of counseling. People may begin to lose interest in counseling or even fail to value it.

Out of group break ups, the societal issues of uncouth acts will remain unsolved. The idea of counseling is underrated when clients cannot trust the therapists. The counselor is undermined, with his or her work being seen as unfruitful while the society continues experiencing difficulties in dealing with psychotherapy cases.

The result is that unqualified persons who may not have the knowhow of conducting such activities will be left to do the counseling. By the end of it all, members of the society may result into violent means of solving differences among them hence harming each other. The society may not understand those that are psychologically sick. It may even treat them badly resulting in the worsening of their situation.

Counseling is therefore imperative in the society. Hong et al. (2012, p. 179) affirm that therapists should also be keen to ensure that all members of the group respect the ethical guidelines of the counseling process. With good ethical guidelines and adherence, both the counselor and clients will benefit.

Reasons as to why Therapists choose Group over Individual Counseling Experiences in individual counseling are completely different from group counseling. In counseling, both individual and group counseling are important. However, most of the counseling therapists prefer counseling groups than an individual. There are various reasons for counselors to engage group counseling than individual counseling.

One of the reasons for preferring on group counseling is that members in groups develop a feeling of being equal to one another. A counseling group is just like a class or a school situation where all members are equal. Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 24) observe that, when members are in a group, they begin to appreciate that the problems that they experience are not unique to them only. Others also experience it.

The gap and the tension that the client experiences when he or she is alone with the counselor is eliminated. Group therapy is therefore important for the people that appreciate being with others. Such people can even divulge more information to the counselor relative to when they are alone. Therapists would therefore prefer dealing with such groups than individuals.

Group therapy is also better than individual counseling since it is more lively and encouraging than when one is faced with a single individual alone. Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) add that, when clients are in a group, they appreciate the words and directions of the counselor than when they are just alone.

Groups are also better because when one member becomes dull or decides not to share information, others remain vigorous hence encouraging the therapist to carry on with the process of counseling. In such a situation, the counselor is also encouraged to perform better in order to keep those that are keen in better positions.

In a group setting, members also discuss with others about the areas where they may not have understood during the process. It is also important to note that, in some instances, the counselor may not be able to clearly articulate a certain point in the course of counseling. In such circumstances, a group member can assist those that did not understand.

Such an opportunity to learn from each other is not present in individual counseling. Members that prefer being appreciated also benefit from group counseling since there are many people to compliment them. Compliments raise their level of self-esteem, with such members making the work of the therapist easier.

Piper (2007, p.130) affirms that the counselor in a group setting is also likely to face more questions than when he or she is counseling an individual. Questions are an indication of openness and the need to know. The counselor will therefore achieve his goals more easily when the members are active. Questions are a source of feedback for the counselor to evaluate himself.

In a group therapy, members are able to appreciate the fact they do not face the circumstance alone. According to Banks (2005, p. 17), when clients meet in a group and share information on personal experiences, they realize that problems are universal and not personal.

Such an appreciation makes the work of the counselor even easier since members will be ready for therapy. Group therapy also indicates to the counselor whether the individuals will be able to reintegrate into the society after the session.

Personal Leadership qualities in a Group Therapy Leadership is at the heart of group therapy. It is therefore important to have experienced counselors who can manage leadership in the group. Leadership is power. Power on the other hand can corrupt leaders. The feeling of pride and authority may lead to the disintegration of the counseling group. This case is especially common when group leaders devolve powers to subgroups and then appoint subgroup leaders.

Although such groups enable the group leaders to achieve efficiency and quick coordination, they may result in conflicts of interest. Other members of the group may begin to feel that they are doing better in relation to others, or that they are in charge of others. Group leaders should therefore be cautious while appointing other leaders or sub-leaders.

Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 23) observe that it is important to screen the leaders before assigning them various duties. It is imperative to evaluate whether they meet the educational standards for the position, their levels of emotional stability, and their cultural foundations. Such factors are likely to impact on their performance as leaders in the groups.

The ability to lead should also be evaluated before such appointments are made. Some people may have good humiliating traits. However, they may show no leadership abilities. Worse still, they may have the necessary skills in leadership but have no desire for it. Appointment of bad leaders in the group can be the beginning of failure or success of the group.

A good leader can cultivate a good relationship among members of the group. It is also possible for an efficient leader to control the group during disputes and even solve cases of conflicts among the group members. Ability to solve cases is important in delivering quality counseling to the group.

Leadership should avoid differences among leaders themselves and the rest of the group members. Respect between group leaders creates cohesion between members. Members cannot believe in divided leaders. In fact, the groups may disintegrate if leaders portray their conflicts openly.

Openness and admission should also be encouraged between leaders. Der Pan et al. (20012, p. 731) argue that leaders should cultivate a good and open communication within the group. Communication is power. Proper communication enables people to gain information that is necessary for them to tackle the problems that life poses. It is unethical for leaders to fail to articulate themselves properly.

Leaders should share information about group dynamics, leadership hurdles, and the best strategies that can enable the group to leap the best benefits from counseling. Leaders should ensure that every member of the group is empowered through adequate provision of information. There should also be avenues for members of the particular group to give their feedback.

Leaders should keep on updating each other with the right information during the therapy process. Sharing of information is important for uniformity and good performance. Proper communication channels should be made public for all leaders and members to know.

It is out of poor communication that leaders get into conflicts among themselves and with their members. Ethical guidelines in counseling emphasize the power of communication. Leaders should therefore ensure that they gain the necessary communication skills and put in place proper communication mechanisms.

Conflicts among leaders should be avoided at all cost. Every group leader is a role model to his or her members and to other leaders. Gumpert and Black (2006, p. 61) assert that, whenever members witness open conflicts between group leaders, they become tensed about the relationships. They may even become completely disengaged in the group affairs.

Conflicts with other leaders may result in loss of trust from the members. In fact, tension begins at the point where members experience open or hidden conflict between their leaders. Worse still, members can rebel against such leaders. Such a situation can result in complete disintegration of the group.

The group leader is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that conflicts among leaders of subgroups are eliminated or ironed out on time. Competition among members and even among groups is important. However, only healthy competition among leaders can help other members of the counseling group.

It is worth noting that unregulated competition can result in actual conflicts among the leaders and the individual members. Health competition among groups enhances learning. In the process of competing, members and group leaders can perfect their skills. Group and subgroup leaders should therefore enhance proper communication among them to ensure that their individual groups leap the benefits of communication.

Competition has rules and guidelines, which must be followed properly in the process of competition. Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) reveals that the major goal of setting up groups should not be forgotten in the process of the group and leadership competition. It is therefore important for every member of the group to realize the importance of competition and be ready to play by the rules.

With good leadership, competition among members can result in better performance of the groups. Leaders who work together are able to solve conflicts among themselves. During the moments of conflicts among members of the group, leaders have to show authority and competence. It is even better when leaders come together and work in unity when solving conflicts arising from members.

My Leadership Qualities and Approach to Group Therapy As a counselor, one of the leadership qualities that I possess is the ability to communicate well. Good communication skills are important in leadership. Proper communication involves being clear, concise, correct, and complete. Communication breakdown results in clashes among members of a group. In fact, a counselor who does not communicate well is likely to face opposition from clients.

A leader who does not communicate correctly can drive people into disagreement. It is therefore important for one to have good communication skills. I am also a good planner and time manager. These skills have enabled me to be consistent in my endeavors. Before engaging with my followers into any program, I begin by having a good arrangement. Planning is essential when dealing with groups.

Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 24) insists that one requires a pre-planning of what to cover at a certain time together with the expected results of the session. My plans also have alternatives for eventualities. I am a good time manager. Discipline in time management enables me to be organized and timely in completion of assignments and projects. It is always good to honor promises to other leaders, to the followers, or even clients.

The tight schedules that are common in a group counseling must be upheld. In order to keep abreast with such schedules, time management became a necessary skill that I have developed. I also have a wide range of skills and experience in counseling.

Training and experience enable me to be professional on how I approach various issues. Professionalism also enables me to abide by ethical guidelines and codes of conduct in counseling. When one is professional, it is hard to contravene the law or even ethics of his or her profession.

Challenges in Leadership In leadership, one must expect to face various obstacles occasionally. I have faced many challenges in leadership. Such challenges range from conflicts among members, poor cooperation by members, incitement of members, interference from external forces, and competition for leadership positions. Leadership involves dealing with a variety of people, guiding them, and directing them towards success.

However, people come from different backgrounds with different beliefs. They view things from a multiplicity of dimensions. Having the ability to communicate in a manner that creates mutual understanding enables me to quell conflicts among my students. Communication is a solution to most of the problems that people face.

In fact, Der Pan et al. (2012, p. 739) affirm that most of conflicts in the world are out of poor communication and hence misunderstanding. Incitement of learners from among themselves and from other external forces is another major hurdle that I have been able to overcome. Learners may feel over bombarded with learning and the tight schedules of counseling sessions.

Others may just want to cause havoc and render the process unsuccessful. In such situations, I apply professional counseling skills that enable me to manage people. People’s skills and human resource management skills are crucial parts of therapy.

Conclusion In conclusion, ethics is inherent in every profession. Professional ethics in a group counseling is supposed to be adhered to by both the counselor and the client. These guidelines enable the process of counseling to be professional, consistent, and to run smoothly. When therapists observe the ethical guidelines of their profession, they are less likely to contravene the laws of God, man, and their nation.

Group counseling differs from individual counseling due to various dynamics of group management. As the paper has revealed, most of the therapists prefer group counseling to individual counseling. Leadership qualities are important for group leaders for them to manage and influence the group. Good communication can enable leaders to overcome most of the challenges that are likely to emerge in a group therapy.

Reference List Banks, R. (2005). Solution-Focused Group Therapy. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 16(1), 17-21.

Crespi, D. (2009). Group counseling in the schools: Legal, ethical, and treatment issues in school practice. Psychology in the Schools, 46(3), 273-280.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, C., Johnson, J.,


Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

The modern political relations between the USA and Iran are characterised by the constant increase of tensions. The current prejudice of the US politicians in relation to the Iranian diplomats and representatives of the power is based on the years of the military and political conflicts. As a result, the US authorities are inclined to develop political relations and work out diplomatic contacts with the Iranian politicians cautiously.

The conflicts and tensions are associated with a lot of differences in the political regimes, ideologies, and approaches to the social development. In his film Argo (2012), Ben Affleck depicts one of the most controversial episodes in the relations between the USA and Iran.

In 1979, the Iranians attacked the American embassy in Tehran as a response to the Americans’ actions in relation to protecting Shah at the territories of the USA. Six persons escaped from the embassy, and the story of their escape is presented in Argo (Argo 2012).

The audience’s attention is drawn to the fact that not all the aspects of the historical event are represented properly because the film is based on the true story, but it does not represent the aspects of the situation in detail. Thus, the story is discussed from the perspective of the Americans, and it is possible to speak about the elements of Orientalism in depicting the characters and events.

Although there are decades between the present day and events of 1979, it is possible to observe the definite developed stereotypes in discussing the Iranians and the Iranian regime in relation to the previous and modern historical periods.

Orientalism is traditionally discussed as the method to depict the Middle Eastern culture by the representatives of the Western culture while imitating and reflecting the most remarkable features (Sardar 1999). From this point, Argo can be discussed as the vivid example to represent the cultural and social peculiarities of the Iranians through the eyes of the Americans.

In spite of the fact Affleck used the notes and documents provided by the participants of the discussed events and focused on the complete depiction of the specific details, the Westerners’ approach to discussing the Iranian hostage crisis was affected significantly by the developed stereotypes and prejudice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, in the context of Affleck’s work, Orientalism is the way to depict the Iranians through the eyes of the Americans, but not according to the aspects of their real cultural and historical heritage. That is why, the majority of the Americans agree with the historical and emotional background of the film when the Iranians state that Argo abuses them because of the faults in depicting the nation (Rezaian 2013).

The representatives of the Iranian community state that according to the film, the Iranians can be perceived as violent and irrational people who are oriented to developing cruel wars and to the mass destruction.

It is necessary to note that Orientalism depends on focusing on the specific details characteristic for the Middle Eastern environments (Sardar 1999). Nevertheless, the settings and atmosphere of the film do not provide the necessary effect to speak about the feeling of the definite Iranian atmosphere.

It is possible to concentrate only on the detailed depictions of the political discussions and tensions. The main focus of the film is on depicting the heroic actions of the Central Intelligence Agency and Tony Mendez rather than on reflecting of the atmosphere of Iran.

Nevertheless, the characters of the Iranians depicted in the film are actively discussed within the Iranian community because the producers focused on all the negative stereotypes associated with the Middle Eastern people.

The problem is in the fact that the suspense of the attacks from the Iranians in the form of terroristic or open military actions remains the characteristic feature of the relations between the USA and Iran (Mullen 2013).

The trigger for the actions of the Iranians regarding the attack of the embassy is presented in the film as the element of the documentary without the significant appealing to the audience in comparison with the emotionally vivid representation of the politically, legally, and morally wrong actions of the Iranians in 1979 (Argo 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this point, it is rather tricky for the Westerners to understand why the Iranians attacked the embassy, why they insisted on presenting the figure of Shah and what goals were followed with references to the Iranian Revolution.

Argo can be discussed as the film which stimulates the Americans’ vision of the Iranians as the aggressive and even ‘wild’ people focused only on the military actions and their specific military ideology. According to Ghomeshi, “Argo provides the uninitiated Westerner with a crash course in the nature of the Iranian people as if out of some kind of hawkish fairy tale. Not just the regime, the people” (Ghomeshi 2012).

Thus, the Iranians are treated in the film as “hordes of hysterical, screaming, untrustworthy, irrational, bearded and lethal antagonists” (Ghomeshi 2012). The particular features of these depictions are based on the necessity to portray the Americans diplomats as the victims in the story when the Iranians are presented in the role of aggressors.

Much attention is paid to the fact that the behaviors of the Iranians are not only rather violent but also meaningless. The Iranian officials are presented as lacking the necessary organization of actions. Thus, the Iranians act because of their violent nature (Rezaian 2013).

In fact, the actions of the military Iranians were the reaction to the activities of the US Administration protecting Shah. That is why it is possible to speak about the biases in depicting the Iranians and about the lack of the important historical context and focus on details to make the story really true and historically accurate.

The ‘aggressive’ and ‘irrational’ Iranians are presented as the extremists. From this perspective, extremism can be discussed, along with terrorism. In its turn, terrorism is the main evil which can be promoted by the representatives of the Middle East. This vision is one of the most developed stereotypes.

Thus, the film contributes to creating the opinion that the Iranians can be the real threat for the peaceful life of the Americans because of their violent regimes, aggressive military intentions and actions, and because of the ability to abuse the human rights of people in spite of their nation or religion (Argo 2012).

As a result, the Iranian society of 1979 is presented as the immoral community of military men ready to express their aggression in relation to anyone who is the representative of the other nation or religion. That is why many critics discuss the film as the American propaganda oriented against Iran (Bedard 2013). Nevertheless, it is important to refer to the opinion discussed by Ghomeshi again.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the idea of the film is to present the aspects of the definite historical event from the Americans’ point of view, the producers fail to focus on the principles of the unjust regime, but they concentrate on the portrayal of the unjust Iranians. That is why the Iranian critics of the film pay attention to the fact that the scene in the market in Tehran depicting the aggressive Iranians is far from the real situation (Rezaian 2013).

Focusing on the message of the film, it is possible to assume that the producers of Argo intended not only to depict the brave and intelligent Americans realised the operation ‘Argo’ but also to present the Iranians as the developing nation of the aggressive and not clever people who can break the global peace because of their extremist ideas.

The idea of the Iranian Revolution is lost in relation to the historical context of the film. In his article, Ghomeshi asks important questions the answers to which could be provided in the film, but they were not. The discussion of the definite issues could reduce the effect of the negative depiction of the Iranians culture, social and political life, and moral norms.

Thus, Ghomeshi asks, “Might it be helpful to explain that not all Iranians were Islamic formalists who supported Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?” (Ghomeshi 2012).

It is also important to note that “the revolution was a popular one that originally included liberal democrats, feminists, nationalists, socialists and workers – a revolution that was co-opted by the mullahs and extremists to lead to the Islamic Republic that we know today” (Ghomeshi 2012).

Those people who do not know the history of the Iranian hostage crisis and political relations of the USA and Iran can conclude about these factors with references to the images and discussions presented in the film. Nevertheless, this approach cannot be analysed as effective because the situation is represented only from the Americans’ perspective, and the vision is based on a lot of biases.

Thus, the audience cannot consider the film as the representation of the true and complex picture of the events. However, Argo provides the necessary support to the statement that the tensions between two nations continue to increase today.

It is important to pay attention to the fact that Argo is the political thriller that is why political issues and politicians are the film’s focuses. The operation ‘Argo’ realised by the Central Intelligence Agency in cooperation with the Canadian centres is discussed today as one of the most successful operations of the USA in Iran.

The producers of the film concentrate on the most vivid and significant aspects of the operation, which could be interpreted according to the Americans’ visions and interests. Thus, the figures of the successful Americans are opposed to the figures of the unintelligent Iranians who can not prevent the escape of six people from the country (Mullen 2013).

Argo is the film which can provoke the worsening of the political relations between the USA and Iran because much attention is paid to the political superiority of the USA as well as to the development of prejudice visions against the Iranians. The film is one more proclamation of the just ideals of democracy in contrast to the military regimes of such states as Iran.

The problem is in the fact that the tension of the political thriller can be discussed by the audience from the point of the political tensions between the nations. The opposition of the political regimes and the opposition of ideologies can be discussed as the influential factor for presenting the nations from the lens of the political conflicts. The focus on suspicion against the Iranians remains unchanged because of the extremist ideology.

As a result, negative stereotypes and misconceptions can rule the minds not only of the Americans but also the representatives of the other Western cultures who perceive Middle East as the source of the military threat for the globe.

The film does not provide the vision of the contemporary life in Iran, but viewers can rely significantly on the false analogies because of the accentuated moments of the film when the Iranians are presented as showing their disrespect in relation to the American flag and American people (Argo 2012).

The film by Ben Affleck affected the development of the great discussion among the politicians, historians, sociologists, and ordinary people because of the controversies in interpretation the hostage crisis in Iran in 1979.

It is the expected effect that the film is not accepted by the Iranian audience because the historical events are discussed from the point of the Americans who focus on their superiority and intend to increase the national consciousness with references to the film’s message.

Many Iranians are abused by the film because of depicting the nation according to the developed stereotypes and with focusing on the most negative features and qualities of the Iranian people.

As a result, it is possible to speak about the usage of Orientalism methods in the film when the events in Middle East are depicted through the lens of the Westerner’s vision.

It is rather difficult to produce the film and avoid the focus on stereotypes. Argo cannot be considered as the film the authors of which intended to represent the true picture of the Iranian society or political life in 1979. On the contrary, the Americans were in the focus of the film.

References Argo, 2012. Web.

Bedard, D. 2013, Argo: Iran hostage crisis film fiddles with the facts. Web.

Ghomeshi, J. 2012, Argo is crowd-pleasing, entertaining – and unfair to Iranians. Web

Mullen, J. 2013, Coming soon: Iran’s response to ‘Argo’. Web.

Rezaian, J. 2013, Iranian media criticize Oscar win for ‘Argo’. Web.

Sardar, Z. 1999, Orientalism, Open University Press, USA.


KMC and market attractiveness Report best college essay help

Introduction Kids Market Consulting (KMC) was established in 2002 by Natalie Berezovskaya. The company has similar characteristics described by Tsoy (2005) for medium and small companies. Tsoy (2005) discusses that these companies rely on the top manager’s skills for their strategy and success. They hire employees with technical skills to perform other duties.

KMC has relied on Berezovskaya’s expertise in children, and experience in the media industry for its success (Taylor


E-government in Saudi Arabia Analytical Essay essay help site:edu

Governments are increasingly becoming aggressive in pursuing complicated data management systems to conduct their business. In fact, some governments in the developed world are the largest users of ICT services.

However, the application of ICTs is still underdeveloped in different nations (Hamner, Taha and Brahmini 367). Governments in the Gulf region are making considerable efforts capitalize on ICTs with the goal of enhancing public service (Culbertson 85).

This has been witnessed in the 20-year plan on ICT implementation that will include the creation of alliances with global ICT leaders. This also concluded the Home PC approach that was aimed at giving its citizens personal computers and internet connection. The convergence of media and telecommunication has been on the rise in the recent past (Al-Khalifa 239).

This has increased the access its people have on information on a global scale. The regulatory measures have improved, and more internet accessibility has been granted with minimal censorship. To make this a success, the IT market saw a large expenditure of an estimated 2.3 billion dollars in the year 2005, and it is estimated that the industry will reach budgets of 3.8 billion dollars by the year 2010 (Al-Khalifa 244).

Of late, the country has created more contact with the world trade organization. This has enabled more avenues to access funds that guarantee the success of the industry. The regulations and liberalizations in the market have engaged many agencies to venture into private –public partnerships that have boosted ICT development and utilization.

This has been made possible through many promotional events that have seen the adoption of ICT services and products hence improving the productivity in all sectors. Computer sales have seen a rise where an estimated 1.5 billion sale was achieved in the year 2006. ICT has found an application in the creation of managed services and channel development.

E- Commerce, for example G2B and B2B, has risen in recent times thus enabling the simplification of information acquisition and exchange (Al-Fakhri 178). The country has many national projects that include smart cards, e-trade, e-Umrah and e-sadad among many others (Kostopoulos 7). It has dominated the oil industry in Middle East and North Africa.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has not only seen growth internally but also investments from other rich economies such as the USA. The Saudi ICT market has potential growth since the kingdom got the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership (Al-Khalifa 246).

In the Gulf Region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leads in the implementation and utilization of ICTs. According to Business Monitor International (38), Saudi Arabia has the highest demand for information technologies in the Gulf region. It is estimated that the country used more than $3.5 billion in 2011 alone, which has now increased significantly.

In addition, a study by Al-Khalifa (241) has shown that the country’s telecommunication and information technology represents more than 50% of the right ICT market in the gulf region as well as the Middle East. Further studies suggest that this is due to the government’s focus on implementation of ICTs in the public and private sector.

Despite the improved development, readiness for ICT infrastructures in Saudi Arabia has been met with mixed feelings. The country has no code of practice. For a long time, it has depended on the US’s code of practice in ICT management in the private sector whereas the public sector has none.

One of this code concerns privacy issues, where the Saudi government implemented the IT criminal law in the year 2007.This has made it uncertain on legal issues to be taken on organizations or individuals who break it. In terms of compatibility, language has been a constraint in the adoption process. Most applications and user interfaces are developed using the English language making them less popular in Arab-speaking countries

Works Cited Al-Fakhri, Maher, Robert Cropf, Gary Higgs and Patrick Kelly. “E-Government in Saudi Arabia: Between Promise and Reality”. IGI Global (2010): 169-183. Print

Al-Khalifa, Hend. “Heuristic Evaluation of the Usability of E-Government Websites: A Case from Saudi Arabia”. ICEGO (2010): 238-251. Print

We will write a custom Essay on E-government in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Culbertson, Stuart. E-Government and Organizational Change. Hershey, PA: IDE company publishing, 2005. Print

Hamner, Marvine, Doaa Taha, Salah Brahimi and Grey Matter. “Potential Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries”. IGI Global (2010): 363-354. Print

Kostopoulos, George. E-Government in the Arabian Gulf: A Vision toward Reality. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah, 2010. Print.


Competitive Advantage and Globalization Report essay help online free: essay help online free

When a company is oriented to globalization strategies, it focuses on overcoming the national barriers in market and industry with references to coping with financial and cultural issues. Today, it is possible to speak about the company’s competitive advantage when the company can operate successfully globally and according to the trends associated with the globalization processes.

Fortune 500 firms develop their globalization strategies basing on the local success which once was achieved with the help of the effective use of the firm’s resources. That is why, it is possible to state that the resource-based competitive advantage is the necessary factor for promoting the Fortune 500 firms’ globalization strategies.

Competitive advantage is the ability of the company to implement unique and effective strategies which provide the significant advantage over competitors within the industry (Barney, 1991; Barney, 2001). Basing on the modern globalization trends, it is necessary to note that competitive advantage should be supported with references to following the principles of sustainability.

Moreover, the company’s capacities are assessed referring to the customers’ interests in the brand. As a result, the Fortune 500 firms create their competitive advantage with the help of the internal resources used. Barney distinguishes between the physical capital resources, human capital resources, and organizational capital resources (Barney, 1991).

To succeed within the market, such companies as Google, Toyota Motor, Microsoft, and Wal-Mart focus on using the valuable and rare human capital and organizational capital resources as the main forces. Less attention is paid to physical capital resources because they are more imitable. The success of the company is in developing the unique strategy or approach in order to win the advantage (Barney, 1991).

That is why, the Fortune 500 firms work out globalization strategies basing on the resources which are difficult to imitate or substitute. The strong and effective organizations as well as quality employees are perceived as the internal strengths of the Fortune 500 firms.

Operational Barriers to Success To operate successfully within the highly competitive environment, companies should concentrate on improving their strategies in order to propose new opportunities, services, and products for their customers. As a result, successful companies should orient to the further movement and be progressive in comparison with their competitors (Gopalakrishnan, Kessler,


Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector Report essay help online free

Many financial institutions have realized the importance of sustainable development. Several banks are currently involved in approaches, which help other business firms understand the importance of sustainable business practices. Banking institutions need to review their lending policies to ensure borrowers use credit obtained in a sustainable manner.

Financial regulators need to establish strong codes of conduct to ensure banks comply with social and environmental regulations. Banks need to assess if their borrowers have complied with crucial environmental requirements before offering them credit (Stephens and Skinner 175).

This will make them transact with customers who are willing to fulfill their social and environmental responsibilities. Some investments which banks finance impact greatly on climate change. They have been criticized for giving less attention to environmental and social issues.

The banking sector needs to reclaim public trust and confidence to clean up its reputation. Many banks were heavily involved in the recent global financial crisis, whose effects continue to be felt in many economies. Many financial sectors are not well regulated, which makes it possible for some banks to engage in unethical practices.

Banks need to include environmental and social compliance in the loan application criteria, before giving out credit to business owners. This will make them vet corporate loan applicants to determine their level of compliance to social and environmental goals. Banks award their top executives a lot of incentives and this contributes to income inequalities in many societies.

These incentives encourage banks to pursue profitability more aggressively, at the expense of environmental and social issues (Stephens and Skinner 176). Many banks are only interested in good financial results, which do not have a positive impact on the society.

SWIFT, an association of more than 10,000 banks operating in over 200 countries, has proposed radical measures to enable banks contribute positively to sustainable development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This association has introduced various proposals which advise banks to make a positive impact on social and environmental issues The initiative aims to encourage banks to develop products, which support socially sustainable businesses because they make a bigger impact on the lives of poor people.

Small and medium enterprises, whose operations conform to social and environmental goals, need financial support to make a bigger impact in their industries. It is necessary for banks to provide them with adequate financing to make their operations more innovative.

Banks need to implement effective processes, which enable them achieve sustainable development goals. They need to change their practices to make more people aware of the importance of sustainable development (Stephens and Skinner 178).

Financial institutions need to change their attitudes towards social and environmental issues. They need to create effective systems to monitor if their borrowers are complying with crucial social and environmental standards.

This will make it possible for them to assess if borrowers use loans for sustainable development. Banks need to provide low interest credit to lower income segments of the market, to enable them sustain positive relationships with their customers. Several European banks have been subjected to a lot of pressure by NGO’s and other watchdog bodies, to stop financing companies, which produce and sell arms (Struyk 330).

Weapon manufacturers have been accused of fueling conflicts in war torn countries, which cause death, suffering and destruction. Therefore, financial institutions need to be vigilant on business ethics to ensure they finance ventures which give people hope for the future.

Works Cited Stephens, Carolyn, and Chris Skinner. “Banks for a Better Planet? The Challenge of Sustainable Social and Environmental Development and The Emerging Response of The Banking Sector.” Environmental Development 5 (2013): 175-179. Print.

We will write a custom Report on Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Struyk, Zach. “Book Reviews.” Resources Conservation and Recycling 37 (2003): 329-333. Print.


Value of Leadership Conversations Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Natural Leaders

Nurtured Leaders



Introduction The debate whether great leaders are made or born will never escape the media and academic discussions due to the reasons presented for and against this topic. There is a significant difference between managers and leaders and this should be the starting point of unraveling the mysteries behind this discussion (Knights 2010). This essay explains how great leadership is developed and achieved by individuals.

Natural Leaders Many scholars and psychologists have argued that great leaders like Winston Churchill are born with these qualities. These people have leadership qualities in them even if other people try to influence or undermine their abilities they will always achieve great things in life (Martins 2012).

A research conducted by the United States Military Academy showed that the brain plays an important role in determining the leadership skills of an individual. In addition, the grey matter located in the brain plays a significant role in memory and decision making.

Therefore, an individual with a large grey matter will have more leadership skills than the one with a small one. These are important elements that determine how an individual manages various situations (Hamm 2011).

Great leaders are able to make decisions that will lead to achievements in the future. In addition, they have always risen from scratch to grace even if they are born in poor families. This means that it does not matter how an individual attains his or her education or wealth but one day the person will prove to the society that he has the power to transform their lives.

Nurtured Leaders On the other hand, all leaders have been nurtured to achieve greatness since, without this, they cannot be leaders. The society trains people how to communicate and understand one another to ensure they interact without conflicts.

This means that a great leader must have good communication and interaction skills to enable the person to fit in the society (Hamm 2011). People are born without specific characters, but they achieve them by learning various issues from people around them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the family, society and friends play significant roles in shaping people to be great leaders. This explains why it is always common that most leaders come from one family like the Bush presidencies. Secondly, education gives people opportunities to nurture their talents, skills and abilities and this becomes a good way of mentoring leadership (Martins 2012).

This means that even though a person may be intelligent there is the need to attain education to ensure the person has relevant knowledge to solve and manage issues in the society. Therefore, without good education a person cannot become a good leader.

Lastly, experience plays a significant role in widening people’s knowledge and skills that are required for them to become great leaders (Eikenberry 2009). A person must have relevant experience in specific fields before he can influence others to follow a certain way of thinking.

For instance, when a worker wants to influence others to strike because of poor salaries the individual must understand different regulations that govern the rights of employees and responsibilities associated with demonstrations (Eikenberry 2009). He must understand the salary scales before demanding an increase in their salaries.

Conclusion Great leaders must have leadership qualities in them before they achieve greatness. However, these skills must be nurtured before they are put into good use. Therefore, great leaders are nurtured and not born leaders since without proper education, experience and knowledge they cannot use their skills to benefit their societies.

References Eikenberry, K. (2009). Remarkable Leadership: Unleashing Your Leadership Potential One Skill at a Time. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hamm, J. (2011). Unusually Excellent: The Necessary Nine Skills Required for the Practice of Great Leadership. New York: Jossey-Bass.

We will write a custom Essay on Value of Leadership Conversations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Knights, B. (2010). Management and Leadership Skills: Inspire, Motivate, and Gain the Respect of Your Peers. California: Cengage Learning.

Martins, W. (2012). Leadership Conversations: Challenging High Potential Managers to Become Great Leaders. New York: McGraw-Hill.


The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Studies on completed projects indicate that most of the projects fail to meet their intentional outlay and duration. The failures of the projects are attributed to the cultural diversity of the organization within which the organization originates. Most of the project managers as well as the management scholars agree that cultural diversity has an impact on the projects performance.

The major goal of this report is to identify the extent to which cultural diversity affects the projects execution. The paper will be focusing on the attitudes and some of the factors connected to the project top and line managers’ attitudes in connection to the internal set of laws as well as with respect to the project managers’ prescribed influence.

In essence, the paper will seek to answer the question of whether cultural diversity has an impact on the project management and how cultural diversity can become a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.

The paper will focus on the advantages of multi-cultural teams within the project and how such multiculturalism can be applied to provide solutions to the challenges of working within the dynamic environment where uncertainties are ever increasing. Secondly, the paper will examine how cultural diversity becomes a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.

The advantages of multicultural teams on the project management Managers of international projects are capable of applying innovations to move away from the normal forms of projects management and obtain competitive advantage as well as improve the chances for accomplishing the projects goals. The current concept in managing cross-cultural teams is the crossvergence.

Crossvergence is a concept that combines management practices of several cultures in such a way that performances applicable to the varied culture can be attained.

Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) assert that global teams are capable of providing a wide array of essentials required for successful combination of dissimilar project management practices. People originating from various companies and country cultures have enhanced diverse experiences and management skills that can be applied by the project managers for the attainment of the project goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another concept that can be applied in the cross-cultural management within a project is the hybridization. Hybridization is the application of the common cultural knowledge augmented with successful practices from the countries where the project is supposed to be carried out or may be drawn from the original culture of a team member.

Project managers should also expect diverse behaviors even when working with team members from the same country (Poon et al., 2005). The fact is that cultural norms and values are determined by many factors and not only by the team members’ nationality.

The experiences, gender age, education levels and job functions shape the individual beliefs and practices that can be displayed during the project implementation process. All these beliefs and practices can be combined together to form a coalesced part that enhances the project performance.

All these factors should be taken into consideration when undertaking a global project for the first time. In circumstances where a team member have a cultural origin that is unique, Hofstede cultural dimension can be applied to understand the general mind set as well as cultural patterns that are likely to be practiced in their home country.

In addition, more information about the country where the project is implemented need to be gathered to understand the common practices as well as the main sources of economic and cultural affluence that can be applied to enhance the project performance (Lee et al., 2000). The most important step for the project managers is to be much more concerned with the team members’ behaviors.

In addition, the project managers should understand and respect the values of team members particularly those that are practiced during their informal conversations. While understanding and respecting the team members cultural values are critical, the project managers should also allow their opinion be known by the team members.

Jolly (2008) argue that team members should also be able to understand the project communication standards as well as the important project norms that must be adhered to attain the project goals. These common understandings are critical in merging cultural diversity during the project implementation. The consequence is the enhanced project performance.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While developing cross-cultural management skills may be difficult, project managers are expected to have effective skills cross-cultural project management. These skills can be attained through understanding the presence of cultural diversity across countries and how individual values are shaped by traits such as age and gender (Poon et al., 2005).

The project managers should also apply some of the practices that indicate respect of cultural diversity particularly during the decision-making process. Finally, the project managers should take advantage of multiculturalism within the team. The project manager should built on the cultural diversity among the team members to identify and mitigate risks as well as look for the best option to attain the goals of the project.

The impact of cross culture in the project management Communication within a project is critical for the attainment of the cross-cultural managerial skills. According to Jolly (2008), individuals within the project are encouraged to meet face to face to enhance cross cultural relationship and communication as well as common understanding among the team members.

While cultural diversity among the team members can be great, the timing and procedures of project communication would play a critical role in bringing together the diverse team members to work towards a particular goal. Cultural differences always have a greater impact on the favored approaches applied in project management communication.

However, communication is not the only aspect of project management that is being impacted by culture. Studies by Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) indicate that there are major elements of culture that directly affect the project management strategy as well as the processes in the project team development.

These elements includes material culture, which are the physical objects that results from technological advancement, language that is critical in enhancing common understanding among the project team members, aesthetics that promotes both open and casual communication , and education that enhances problem solving techniques.

The other aspects of culture that influence project communication process, team development and management strategy includes values, mind-set and religion. According to Rausch, Halfhill, Sherman and Washbush (2001), beliefs, attitudes affect the broad-spectrum of work moral principles.

The social organization is also another aspect of culture, which is critical in networking within an organization. The political life is the final element of culture, which includes the set of rules and regulations that govern the management process and all the operations of the project.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Project management have moved away from face to face environment where all major stakeholders were assembled jointly in one room (Shore


Comparison between Hong Kong standard of living and that of home country base Sydney Case Study essay help site:edu

The real value of international relocation proves difficult to fancy due to different economical set-ups within different regions. One of the main issues affecting international relocation is currency conversion, for example, Australian dollar is usually considered to be high hence could at times give deceptive results to immigrants.

Financial benefits still becomes one of the most considered challenges leading to high cost of living within Australia. This shows clearly that any movement within overseas jurisdiction converts into greater disposable income owing to existing vast differences.

The real financial benefits involved in the process of international move can be valued based on comparing daily living costs, rate of taxes levied within various jurisdictions as well as salaries (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).

Cost of living within Australian cities such as Sydney has tremendously increased within the last ten years. This is attributed to rising inflation and high value of Aussie dollar.

Cost of living in Sydney is considered most of the times in the process of weighing destination offers since the situation in the city provides more realistic measures on spending. In such cases, cost of living indexes is considered useful since it provides accurate overview of general differences between cities (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).

In Sydney, the cost of transport is considered more expensive than in Hong Kong, therefore demanding that the company reduces Alice’s travelling allowances. At the same time, public transport is more regular and efficient in Hong Kong compared to Sydney hence use of private cars not necessary. Consequently, the cost of owning and maintaining a car is lower in Sydney than in Hong Kong.

However, cost of entertainment and leisure proves difficult to quantify since it is mostly depends on an individual’s lifestyle. In the area of entertainment Hong Kong is considered leading in best arts with Sydney trailing in areas concerning night life and art.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are numerous and credible options for those finding it easier to pay premium prices in Sydney contrary to Hong Kong where they provide wide range of choices within each price bracket of products.

The use of straightforward currency conversion will grant the company advantage in the process of calculating financial benefits granted to Alice. At the same time, several considerations have to be made on different factors for the purposes of understanding ultimate financial advantage.

Such factors include; structure of payment used for international firms, nature of value attached to tittles and promotions, differences in tax rates, discounting approaches in firms within different regions and approaches to rewards granted to employees amongst other factors.

There is high cost of housing in Hong Kong hence the company will have to provide assistance in making rent tax deductible based on reimbursement schemes. Such provisions makes individuals’ eligible to tax regulation which asserts that all costs associated with employer can be subjected to deduction.

The employers will be forced to set proper rent expense for Alice within Hong Kong since the city is recognized as highly lucrative environment suitable for such professionals. Additionally, Hong Kong city does not impose a number of tax schemes such as VAT, tax on dividends, withholding tax amongst others.

Expatriate reward approach to be used for Alice’s transfer and its advantages and disadvantages Hong Kong is known to have favorable tax systems with charges of approximately 17% taxation on income. This is considered favorable in comparison to between 30% and 40% rates charged by APAC cities. Various reward systems could be used in this case as the basic foundation on which research done on such endeavors is based.

Rewards systems play an essential role in employees’ participation since it shapes the approach towards theory and method (Marsh


The Process of Information System in Amazon Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Business Process

Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com


Works Cited

Introduction An information system refers to a combined assemblage of parts for acquiring, storing and processing information for use by various stakeholders in a particular setting. Organizations depend on information systems to undertake daily activities interact with clients, suppliers, and achieve a competitive edge in their particular industry.

For instance, organizations use their websites to inform potential and actual clients about goods and services offered by the company. They also use information systems to carry out accounting processes and compensations among other things.

State corporations and ministries have adopted information systems to disseminate necessary information to citizens. Most companies sell their goods through information systems. Such goods include books, softwares, and electronic goods among others. This essay seeks to explore the use of information systems at Amazon.com

Background Information Amazon.com, Inc. came into being on 28 May 1996. The company serves customers through its retail websites with a deep concentration on fair prices and convenience. The company grants programs to traders to sell their goods on its websites and programs that facilitate authors, music artists, and software developers to design and sell their products. The company has two units: North America and the International units.

The company comes up with websites through which millions of products reach the intended clients. Amazon.com offers Kindle devices through which writers publish their contents and attends to developers and all types of businesses through Amazon Web Services (AWS), Amazon Web Services affords entry to technology programs that works with every kind of enterprise.

Amazon.com offers lowest possible prices to its customers through daily product pricing and freight bids through their premium membership program, Amazon Prime. It accomplishes low price bids through improvement of its operating efficiencies.

The company has put in place user-friendly programs, which enhance quick and reliable services and prompt attendance to customers’ needs. The programs offered by Amazon.com enable traders sell their goods and services through its websites accessible through cellular phones and computers as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North America unit consists of proceeds gained from retail selling of customer goods and services as well as membership subscriptions through websites localized in North America. The unit gains from sales realized from exports from www.amazon.com and www.amazon.ca.

International unit comprises of proceeds from selling retail client goods and membership fees through the company’s international websites plus sales realized from export sales to customers in the United States of America and Canada.

Business Process Business process refers to activities aimed at realizing business goals. These activities fall into three distinct groups including decision-making, operations and competitive strategies.

The most basic type of function is operations support, At Amazon.com, information systems enhance business processes relating to operations through recording and preserving inventory information, information on continuing jobs, information relating to hardware repair and service, supply chain information, and other operations information.

Information systems process information into production timetables, production controllers, and systems for monitoring production. In addition, information systems gather information on human resources, compensation packages, work histories and other people-related information. Information systems convert such information into expenses information per employee and output per employee.

Information systems gather information on market, clients and their profiles, relationship with the company histories as well as information related to advertising. From this data, information systems process it to such items as elasticity reports, marketing schedules and sales activity information.

Information systems facilitate decision-making by management. They allow management to manipulate data and compare best scenario possible for implementation.

We will write a custom Essay on The Process of Information System in Amazon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information systems used for decision-making range from spreadsheets to sensitivity analysis tools like Monte Carlo analysis, logit analysis, multi dimensional scaling among others. The management uses such tools to make decisions touching on new products, risk and sensitivity of the market.

Lastly, information systems offer strategic support function to increase their competitive advantage through a three- tier analysis. The first level relates to piloting programs set by the company to test their viability. The second level involves adopting one or two functions of the information systems while the third level involves building up a distinct competitive advantage.

Figure 1: Information systems at Amazon.com .

Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com Amazon.com should avoid cluttering of pages especially the product page. Too much cluttering distracts potential customer from the product displayed because of various advertisements on a single product page. Amazon.com’s homepage lacks contact information and forces a customer to search for such information.

The company should improve its homepage to include essential information relating to the company including contacts, profile and background information. In addition, the company should come up with alerts to inform customers when new products come up.

Conclusion Amazon.com is doing some great work but there is room for more improvements to gain more customers and increase profitability. Information systems are dynamic and as such, Amazon.com must keep on upgrading them.

Works Cited Econsultancy. ‘Ten things Amazon can do better online’. 2013. Web.

Fact-index.com. ‘Management Information Systems‘. 2013. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Information System in Amazon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Make Assignment. ‘Amazon.com Operational Strategy‘. 2013. Web.

Reuters. ‘Amazon.com Inc (AMZN.O)‘. 2013. Web.

Zwass, Vladimir. ‘Information systems‘. 2013. Web.


Kelly’s cognitive theory Analytical Essay online essay help

Human personality has been a complex issue for long and has inspired theorists to create ideas to enhance the understanding of the subject. The theorists have made several attempts to understand and explain how the personalities are developed, their variations, how they affect human interactions with the world and their relationships with different psychologically-related disorders.

George Kelly is one of the proponents of the cognitive theory which is the focus of this study. The center of Kelly’s cognitive theory is the manner in which individuals think because their thoughts affect their feelings and actions.The thoughts and feelings of individuals determine their personalities. Kelly identifies the major role in which the human cognition element plays in determining personality.

This aspect forms the foundation of the terminology of personal constructs which refers to the different ways in which individuals collect information and with the support of their understanding, use it to predict events (Kelly, 2006). The individual interacts with the world based on the outcome of his prediction and this interaction becomes his personality.

Kelly’s incisive evaluation on individuality is informed by the need to equate individuals to scientists. He postulates that the objectives of scientists can be linked to those of other beings. He suggests that in the same way that scientists build hypotheses and conduct experiments to establish their validity, people also develop theories based on their personal constructs and consequently employ various theories to predict events.

However, the constructs may at times be influenced by the individuals’ past experiences that may not be relevant to their present societal circumstances hence rendering the constructs invalid. The distorted constructs cannot be used to predict events because they cannot hold new data entry due to their unchangeable nature.

Given that constructs are limited in nature and cannot therefore be employed in all situations, individuals may at times be required to revise their constructs to accommodate data that is created by new experiences. The choice that an individual makes in order to change his construct is what Kelly calls “constructive alternativism”.

The premise of his theory is based on the fact that “a person’s processes are psychologically determined by the ways in which he anticipates events” (Van der Kolk,


Partnership Analysis college essay help near me

The collaboration between Microsoft and Intel is one of the most lucrative business partnerships in the last twenty years. The relationship between the two companies was very convenient because of the type of products that the companies produce (Ungson, 2008). Microsoft is the largest producer of computer software while Intel is one of the largest manufacturers of computer CPUs and electronic chips (Rainer, 2010).

The operating system from Microsoft has been instrumental in enhancing a low cost of computation. Microsoft had to find a business partner that would help in realizing its vision of providing people with a low cost of computation. Intel is widely known for producing affordable computer hardware and therefore the company became an ideal partner for Microsoft (Ungson, 2008).

The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been very successful because of the products that the two companies produce. The products produced by the two companies complement each other because they are sold as single package. Intel produces CPUs and other computer hardware while Microsoft produces the software that is needed to run the hardware (Schooley, 2007).

Computer hardware can not work without software and vice versa. This paper will discuss the rationale behind inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems and how the systems are used to define and support partnerships.

Microsoft has the highest stake in its partnership with Intel and it is estimated that the partnership has a market capitalization of $400 billion (Ungson, 2008). It is this successful partnership that attracted IBM to choose the two companies when it launched its first personal computer. This is not to mean that there were no other companies that would have provided the much needed software and CPUs.

Microsoft has been facing a lot of competition from the Digital Research Company for a very long time. Microsoft and Intel have continued to dominate their respective industries as a result of their association with IBM (Ungson, 2008). The need to dominate the computer industry was the rationale behind the partnership between Microsoft and Intel.

The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been experiencing some challenges in recent years because customers have been reluctant in accepting Microsoft products (Ungson, 2008). The two companies started with some weak technologies but got stronger after the partnerships. Microsoft has for many years been criticized for its offensive business tactics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are accusations from different quarters that Microsoft has been abusing its monopoly power (Waters, 2007). The partnership between Microsoft and Intel was commonly referred to as Wintel since Windows could only run Intel CPUs. It is this kind of monopoly that enabled the two companies to enjoy a lot of profits (Waters, 2007). The users had no option but to purchase computer products produced by the two companies.

It is this kind of benefits that made this partnership to be successful. The two companies collaborate in terms of sales, services and engineering systems which make it necessary for the companies to have an inter-organizational partnership in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).

Microsoft and Intel collaborate to provide IT solutions to their customers. The companies have joint roadmaps and other integrated features that justify their need to partner in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).

Microsoft and Intel have an objective of providing the most relevant and effective IT infrastructure for users (Truman, 2000). This can not be achieved without having a partnership in industry information systems. The need to provide fast and efficient software to customers is the reason behind Microsoft’s decision to partner with Intel especially when it comes to industry information systems (Schooley, 2007).

Inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems have become very essential in modern business. Microsoft operates in a very competitive environment that requires companies to have reliable, flexible and efficient information systems (Ungson, 2008).

Organizations that are in a business partnership need to relate in a way that benefits customers and the companies involved (Murphy, 2008). This can only be achieved through an inter-organizational system. The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been defined and supported in a great way by the inter-organizational system.

Microsoft and Intel are linked in the market because they depend on each other to sell their products (Truman, 2000). Microsoft and Intel have benefited in a great way through the inter-organizational system because the partnership improved communication between the two companies.

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Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Resources are important since they help a company in its production process. Resources are the source of input and major determinants of output (Henry, 2007). A company that has more resources may have an advantage over its competitors. However, it is important to note that resources have to be utilized effectively for them to give the company an advantage.

On their own, resources do not have any benefit to the organization. Resources, therefore, need to be transformed to benefits. As resources are transformed to benefits, they usually become overstretched or they get used up. Resources are categorized into two classes: tangible resources and intangible resources. This essay evaluates the resources of Kraft Foods Group and how they help the company gain a competitive advantage.

Tangible Resources These are resources that can be touched, seen and can be felt. There are different categories of tangible resources. At Kraft Foods Group, the following are the available the tangible resources.

Physical resources

These are resources that have been made by human beings and they help in execution of daily activities. In an organization, physical resources include fixed capital assets such as buildings, equipment, machinery, land, as well as any other item that helps the business in its activities and can be considered as a fixed asset (Henry, 2007).

Kraft Foods Group is rich in capital assets and it utilizes them to gain an advantage over its competitors. The company’s plants and equipment are recorded in their historical costs, and their depreciation is calculated using the straight line method. The period over which equipment is depreciated is highly dependent on its use and the type of equipment.

For instance, in the case of machinery depreciation period ranges between 3 years to 20 years after which its economical life is over and can be disposed. Apart from the plant and machinery, the company also has sufficient land that is used for productive purposes.

Financial resources

These are resources that refer to money flow within the organization. Kraft Group is a company that is strong in terms of finance (Henry, 2007). Financial resources are very important to any company since they enable the day-to-day running of the organization’s operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At Kraft Foods Group, financial reports are prepared in accordance with the GAAP principles. They are reported in income statement, cash flow statement, statement of comprehensive income, as well as the statement of financial position, liabilities and shareholders’ equity. Over the last couple of years, the company has recorded financial increase. This indicates profitability in the company.

Human resource

This is the most valuable resource in any organization. Kraft Foods Group recognizes that human resources are vital for the development of the organization. As a result, the company highly values its human resources. They are the ones who shape the company’s decisions and helps its employees develop in terms of skills and expertise. The company has sufficient human resources.

Intangible Resources Technical resources

Technical resources of a company depend on the human resources that are available, as well as the technological resources (Zahorsky, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has human resources who are highly experienced and skilled adequately. Their technical ability is, therefore, high.

They have the ability to utilize the available technological resources to improve the performance of the organization. Technological resources include software and design, among others. They help the company gather relevant information that is in turn used for production purposes.

Intellectual resources

This refers to knowledge that is held by members of the organization. Kraft Foods Group has people who have sufficient knowledge that can be utilized in production methods. It has a diverse team of employees who have the right skills to move the organization forward (Bramha, 2011).

The company makes use of “patents, copyrights, as well as trademarks” to safeguard its intellectual resources. It is due to its intellectual property that the company has been among the top in the world.


This is an intangible resource and a very important asset for a company. It is the difference between the company’s assets and the actual value of the company as a whole (Bramha, 2011). Goodwill is important since it influences the reputation of an organization.

We will write a custom Essay on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kraft Foods Group has a rich goodwill and a good reputation to its customers. For instance, in the year 2010 the company had goodwill worth $63,819. In the year 2012 goodwill was worth $62,482. In the first quarter of the year 2013, goodwill was $11, 319.

Cultural, reputational and strategic alliances The company has a culture that allows innovation, diversity and economical growth. Its culture is dynamic (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). It has a good reputation owing to its high quality services. It is as a result of its reputation that it has been able to develop a strong goodwill. Customers are loyal to its services and products. The company has a number of strategic alliances in order to be competitive.

This helps it expand its market and operation. For instance, the company announced an alliance with Schawk Inc., an imaging company. This would help Kraft Foods Group to expand its services to imaging and gain more customers for its food products.

Distinctive capabilities Architecture

This is the ability of a company to come up with strategies that helps it gain a competitive advantage over its rivals (Zahorsky, 2009). A company that has Architecture ability can come with strategies that other companies are yet to develop, making it competitive. Kraft Foods Group has employees who have the ability to architect competitive strategies. Creativity is vital in Architecture.


This is simply the image that the company has to its customers. A good reputation is built but not acquired. To build a good reputation, the company has to offer distinguished products and services that have the ability to win the trust and loyalty of employees. Kraft Foods Group is cautious of its customer’s health, a strategy that has been crucial in building its good reputation.


Innovation is the ability to improve on the current products and services to make them better and more satisfactory to customers (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has employees who are highly creative, thus influencing the organization’s innovation.

The company gives its employees the chance to develop their innovative skills. The company also gives employees chances to contribute in decision-making. This facilitates innovation in the company and becomes a competitive advantage.

Conclusion A company can be rich in terms of resources, but may not have a competitive advantage. Having resources is, therefore, not enough. A company has to come up with ways to use its resources properly to gain a competitive advantage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is possible to have an organization that has few resources, but with a better competitive advantage compared to another company that has many resources. The difference is in the utilization of these resources. A company that is rich in resources and uses them well is usually very competitive and successful.

References Bramha, D. (2011). Internal analysis in strategic management. Web.

Henry, A. (2007). The internal environment: A resource based view of strategy. Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford University Press.

SWOT analysis: Lesson. (2009). Web.

Zahorsky, D. (2009). A business owner’s secret weapon: SWOT analysis. Web.


Project Management: The Case of Buxton Hall Case Study college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case

Objectives and aims

Application of best skills in project management


Introduction The success of a project relies heavily on how well a manager ensures that best practices in management are applied in handling issues as well as the involved persons (teams). In the case of Buxton Hall, the individuals involved needed to work as a team because the work was laborious, while time and monetary resources were limited.

This analysis seeks to address the degree of success of Buxton Hall project and the factors that contributed to the project’s success. In addition, it will identify the best practices that contributed to the project’s success and how they contributed to the objectives of the project.

Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case For a project to succeed within the constraints of time and resources, project managers must recognize and understand the concept of a project management in relation to the project they are undertaking. First, there is need for a proper understanding of the project, including the problem to be solved, the tasks involved, resources needed, schedule and risks involved.

In the case of Buxton Hall project, it is evident that the project was well managed from the beginning. For instance, a proper development of a functional team was initiated prior to planning for the tasks. In fact, it is clear that there was a team building exercise based on open communication and consultation.

Although they had different professions, Chad, Crawford and Legacy West initiated a functional team by allowing the members to recognize some possible problems, risks and other issues that they would not like to encounter during their work on the project.

They opened a negotiation and discussion session in order to ensure that the members learn and understand each other. Moreover, they made sure that members were free with each other. For instance, the inclusion of a picnic and a softball game for the members prior to starting the job served to reduce tension between the members in future.

Objectives and aims Secondly, team members were involved in identification of project objectives. In this case, the members agreed that the primary objective was to improve the Hall. The team leaders recognised the need to work as a team, the importance of open communication and consultations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By asking the members to recognise the kind of difficulties they would not like to experience, the team mangers were setting out an objective of developing the best possible working environment for the members.

Application of best skills in project management Thirdly, problem solving and conflict management skills were applied during the tasks. For instance, there were regular consultations between the team leaders (Chad, Crawford and Legacy West Consultants). For instance, when a problem was identified when Nick was dissatisfied with Dat’s men, there was no confrontation.

Instead, Chad and Dat consulted with each other and agreed to check on the work. Secondly, members of the team were involved and consulted in decision-making as well as in conflict resolution. For instance, when a Web survey indicated some discrepancies in the manner in which Dat’s and Crawford’s foremen were acting, each leader sought to solve the issue with his juniors after consulting with the other leaders.

Conclusion Clearly, by handling members liable for their work, creating a good working environment for them, frequent consultations, creating an open environment for communication and involving the members in identification of problems and solutions provide an indication of application of best practices in the project.

In turn, these practices contributed to a timely completion of the project because they allowed the team leaders to solve problems and conflicts on time and lead their subjects by example.


Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Executive summery This formal report presents the result of a study on Kraft Foods Group used to recommend strategic decisions. The study focuses more on thorough analysis of the internal environment.

The body of the report includes how both PERT and SWORT analysis were used to analyze the company’s external and internal environment. The information discovered from the assessment lead to recommendations and conclusions which forms the last part of the report.

Introduction The demand in the food industry has created competition because consumers continually need and want to feed. The main purpose of this study is to analyze this life preserving habit of human beings and how it has made Kraft Foods recession-proof. The study focuses on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that helps the company go through the economic downturns making it resilient and profitable.

The wide range of opportunities brought about by different products in the market together with improved technology has created more channels of marketing. This report clearly shows the analysis of the internal environment at Kraft foods. Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the company using SWOT analysis also formed part of the collective assessment.

The external environment It is the external environment that creates problems within the organization proving that without the external environment, it is hard to know how strengths and weaknesses affect the organization. Strategic analysis involves assessing both the general and internal environment (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). It also deals with the internal environment and the factors that affect the internal environment.

Political factors such as government policies and systems influences tax and tariffs and as a result affect food industries. Such includes regulations and importing policies and procedures. These government interventions also affect the demand and supply of foods.

Kraft Foods is among the companies affected by political decisions and instability because it takes its products all across the world even to the Middle East. Egypt for instance has experienced war for a very long time due to transitional groups. The same happened in Libya and Syria.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stability, purchasing powers, economic recession and inflation rate certainly affect the internal environment though they originate from the external environment. All the decisions and actions taken by the managers of the company in all the areas of the organization are affected by the economic factors.

The technology used at Kraft affects the environment and ecological aspects of the business. The technological changes affect quality standards of a product and affect the price of the product. The ingredients at Kraft Foods are developed through bio technology. Genetically modification of food products have received mixed reaction from scholars who believe that nanotechnology can be used to replace such products.

Religious beliefs, nationality and culture also affect consumption hence influencing demand of food products. The demographics clearly state that brand awareness differs depending on factors such as income distribution. Kraft Foods sells pork free products to the Middle East and Arab countries.

Internal environment PERT analysis is helpful in preparing for a SWOT analysis which involves the internal assessment of the weaknesses, strength, opportunities and threats within the internal environment of a business (Pahl, Richter and University of Applied Science Berlin, 2007). We can now see how SWOT analysis was is used analyze the internal environment of the company.


When analyzing the strength, the study showed that Kraft Foods is currently at the top of all the companies in the food industry. It is the best company in the United States that deals with food products however, it is challenged globally by Nestle making it second best in the world.

This improved revenue gives the company a competitive advantage over the other closer companies who belong to the same industry. The position that the company enjoys also helps it maintain its customer base because human beings like associating with successful entities

A financial report in 2009 shows that Kraft Foods’ revenue grew by 4.30 % room the previous year. Another strength that this organization has is that it has various leading brands of food and beverages. It produces snacks, beverages, cheese and dairy milk. It also provides grocery and convenient meals loved by most consumers.

We will write a custom Essay on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strong research and development centre has contributed to the high reign of the company in the food industry. The company has established 11 research and development centers where experienced food scientists all over the world connect through the internet as they track each other’s activities and progress.


Despite all these strengths, the company has limited variety of products as compared to its competitors. It also lacks a marketing strategy that can help it compete with Nestle and CognAgra Foods. Kraft food has tried so many times to launch new products but they have not come up with new products not just enough for competition.

For purposes of expansion, the company can dwell more on the new products but still gives its consumer the previous products with a view of changing their consuming habit. The company creates opportunities when it the products available in the market

In Europe, the company experiences low demand because it is busy expanding new markets. It generates most of its profit in North America. The leading food manufacturer, Nestle, is stiff because Europeans do not use Kraft. Such stiff competition causes customers to try other brands because they do not see any difference in their preferred choice.

Other multinational companies that produce chocolate also create a stiff competition to this company especially in the United Kingdom. The varieties of products give the companies an added advantage in the market.


Apart from reducing the risk of concentrating on few products, creating various category of food enables Kraft’s Food to survive in the competitive environment. It provides the company with an opportunity to compete in various categories. International markets also provide opportunities for Kraft Food to increase its customer base. The company operates in oevr 150 states but has its main target in the United States of America.

Recently, Cadbury Shareholders allowed Kraft foods to acquire it in a $19 billion deal giving the company an opportunity to take control of food industry in the United Kingdom (Great Britain, 2011).

By formulating “better-for-you” options, the company shows that they are concerned with people’s health. Consumers need products with less sodium, fat and calories giving Kraft Food an opportunity to impress the consumers and give them what they want. Kraft currently markets world’s most trusted brands.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats

Competition in the food industry is itself a threat to Kraft Foods. Sara Lee North American Retail, CognAgra Foods and Nestle provide stiff competition to the organization. Currently, there is a struggle for market penetration in China and India in the food industries. Kraft feels under pressure because of industry consolidation that happens across the globe.

Companies that consolidate have a large customer base and higher market share creating a challenge to Kraft Foods. Once the market share has been hindered from expanding, the purpose of a business looses meaning. This is the main reason why the managers are unable to outdo Nescafe which is the currently best food products.

The weakening of US dollars also contributes to the slow growth of the company. When the dollar weakens against a country’s currency, importing raw materials becomes difficult and expensive. All These results to the increased cost of goods and revenue shrink. The volatile cost of goods and services resist the company’s efforts to implement marketing strategies.

Recommendation It is crucial for the company’s management team to implement strategies that help survive in a business environment. The company needs to adopt a Competitive price strategy to outdo competitors such as Nestle.

The competitive strategy gives the company a chance to penetrate its competition. In order to improve the public relations of the company, managers can sponsor music shows and event as they have already done with Kraft Music Revenue.

The recommendations were mostly done by considering the weakness and threats this organization faces. The study therefore leads to discovery of missing key elements in implementation process of the organization. Through a differential strategy, the company can catch up with the emerging markets.

Natural products free from chemicals can be produced more by adopting nanotechnology instead of producing genetically modified products. This differential strategy enhances customer loyalty to their brand hence the company will increase its customer base. The company should also provide quality standard products that are attract more consumers in order to manage its competitors especially in Europe.

The company should implement focus strategy where most of its activities are based on food products. The structure of the organization should be market specific to allow the consumers recognize with the trade mark (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). The business should focus on corporate level strategy where all its roles are linked to the goals and objectives.

The company should also have full control of the activities within the supply chain in order to track whate happens at every step of operation. This move can help the company have a large market share in countries such as China, Russia and Brazil.

The company should consider participating in global collaboration of its food products. Apart from sustainability strategy, the company needs to collaborate with the consumers, distributers and partners In order to know the sectors that need improvement.

Conclusion Kraft vision works on becoming the best in the whole world. Their brands are present everywhere giving them a chance to reign in the market in the United States of America (Warren, 2008). By creating a consistent growth, the company has an exploitable consistence growth. Wise decisions made by the management team such as sponsoring music concerts have improved the public relations.

The company has more strengths and weaknesses which can be combined with all the opportunities in order to fight the emerging threats such as stiff competition. Kraft foods can do better than they are currently once the recommended strategies are implemented.

References Great Britain. (2011). Is Kraft working for Cadbury?: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. London: Stationery Office.

Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E.,


Advantages and Disadvantages of Project Management Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Project management is a unique process of doing things in the most appropriate manner. It is a special process that is used to plan, operate, and monitor projects. Its major objectives are achieving project goals effectively and solving specific problems. It is the way of managing changes to meet some specific obligations through the introduction of new ideas or improving the existing ones.

It focuses on controlling the introduction of desired change by planning what need to be done, when, by whom, and at what standard.

The managers are responsible of overseeing the project through team building, coordinate the work of different people, and monitoring how the work is done until the final results are attained. Project management has both advantages and disadvantages thus the managers need to maximize on advantages as they minimize on the disadvantages.

The first advantage of employing project management is that it yields to efficiency in service delivery. This is because it provides a direction to be followed to get to completion easily. Project management helps in forecasting the areas that can cause delays and plan on how they can be avoided before the commencement of the project.

They help in estimating the scenarios that are likely to occur and therefore, the managers can decide on the appropriate cause of action to take to ensure there is efficiency and effectiveness in operations. This facilitates customer satisfaction, which ensures that the business create a wider market share that in turn increases profitability.

Project management tools facilitate the development and maintenance of artifacts such as project schedule. This helps in analyzing complex situation that would take long to analysis without the aid of these tools. They ease the process of recording, linking and analyzing data thus ensuring smooth flow of the project within designated project stages.

Another advantage is that management projects facilitate objective comparison of alternative actions by providing repeatable results. Managers can apply the same strategies that contributed to successful completion of one project to other projects in the future without rigidity because they leave room for flexibility. The managers can opt to take another direction if they discover a better method of improving the project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This increases the chances of the quality and quantity of production since implementing the basic project management strategies helps in narrowing focus. When the focus is directed to some specific and achievable goals, they can be attained at a reasonable time span and within the budgeted costs.

The main disadvantages associable with project management are of overheads, obsession, and lack of creativity. Overheads that relate to Project management include cost, time, and communication overheads. Cost overheads are financial obligations that need to be met to ensure that the project is carried out effectively.

Organization need to hire more managers who ensure that the project is carried out appropriately, and the required outcome is achieved. There are direct costs that are involved in training the project managers, developing programs, and changing the organization to align with the project demands.

Communication overheads increase due to the introduction of another level in the management team that breaks the flow of information. The information ceases to move from functional manager to team manager, but a third department of project manager is involved. Time overheads come as a result of delayed communication and other protocols that need to be followed.

Obsession is in the mind of the project managers. It can be methodology, process, or stakeholder obsession. In most cases, obsession is triggered by the fear of loss of control and other insecurities from the managers. Lack of creativity can be procedural or administrative.

Procedural non-creativity results from rigid procedures and fixed time span being set to perform tasks. Administrative non-creativity comes as a result of following the set procedures without improving.

In conclusion, project management can be both advantageous and disadvantageous to the company. Managers responsible in running project management should be keen to ensure that the project work for the best of the company. this is achieved by ensuring that they maximize on advantages and develop ways to minimize on disadvantages.

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Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism Research Paper cheap essay help

Overview of realism and liberalism Liberalism and realism are among the theories that are commonly used in political science in explaining the relations between players in the international political scene. The assumptions of the two theories contradict each other.

While realism is taken to portray pessimism in the relations between states in the international system, liberalism depicts optimism and positivism in as far as the relations and goals of states in the international system are concerned. Realism depicts competition in the relations between states.

According to the proponents of realism, every action in the relation between states is guided by the urge to pursue and promote the interests of a given nation state. Nation states act to safeguard their interest, which implies that the action of any state is geared towards safeguarding the interest of that state.

They care less about the interests of other nation states. On the other hand, liberalism depicts a change in the international scene that aims to enhance interaction between nation states in various aspects of development. Liberalism depicts optimism in the domestic and international affairs.

Liberalism as a philosophy in political economics focuses on the change in policies and legislation in order to promote the development of nation states. Liberalism concerns the search for a means of embracing freedom and openness in the participation of nations in political, social and economic affairs.

Liberalism, realism and the concept of power There exist a substantial number of theories that seek to explore the concept of power in domestic and international relations. Power is one of the key concepts that dictate the relation between states on the international system.

Liberalism and realism are two key theories that depict two pictures that coexist, yet they are different in theory. Realism and liberalism differ in the manner in which they depict power in the relation between actors on the domestic and international scene.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One critical thing about realism and liberalism is that they confide and believe in the need for power by actors Lukes (2005). However, there is a difference in the manner in which the two theories expresses the channels of pursuing power by the actors.

Realism and the comprehension of power

According to Wechsler (2010), realism is a theory that is two dimensional. The theory was advanced in the mid of the 20th century by Hans Morgenthau. The development period of this theory is critical to understanding the dimension of the theory in explaining the concept of power. The theory was developed at a time when the world was witnessing a vacuum in the balance of power, which was created by the Second World War.

Realism can be comprehended from the 19th century European politics where power was one of the main issues that brought about conflict between European nations. The 19th century Europe was characterized by numerous wars and territorial conquests.

These developments entered the 20th century and developed through the mid of the 20th century. The balance of power was the key center of friction between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war. The current political developments in international relations, therefore, cannot be separated from the concept of power (Lukes, 2005).

Realism, which is confounded on the antecedents of power by the states, is quite pessimistic when it comes to the issue of power modalities by states. This is backed by the contemporary developments in the international political economy, where each actor uses various tools to consolidate power. Realism believes that power is strongly founded in military dominance of a given state over other states.

The acquisition, exercise and consolidation of military power is the main goal of states, thus most of the actions in relations between states justify the search for power and the need to increase power of states.

According to realism, the recent wars that have been waged by the United States on other states, for example the US war on Iraq and the US war in Afghanistan are forms of actions that portray power through military dominance (Lukes, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The struggle for power and subsequently war are brought about by the search for power, which is the core dilemma of realism. There are a number of developments that have emerged in international politics, which seem to draw away the linear view about the interest of states. Global politics can no longer be solely explained by basing on a single attribute of power as opined by the proponents of realism (Williams, 2006).

Realistic schools of thought that seek to broaden the attributes of power in international politics include neo-realism, which tries to depict the international system as an interactive system where power is not solely based on military dominance as opined by the realism school of thinkers.

However, the status of anarchy as opined by realists cannot be completely wished away in as far as sovereignty continues to be one of the main pillars that define a state. It is argued that a substantial number of realists have already ascended to the assumption that the status of anarchy is a factor that cannot be ignored in the relations between states (Jackson


Scientific and technical education for ESL students Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

Course Introduction This is an Intermediate ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course for ESP learners in their 1st term in their 1st Year at the Industrial Secondary School in Najran, Saudi Arabia. This course is designed to introduce students to the more “technical” aspects of the English language in order for them to acquire a level of proficiency in both verbal and nonverbal communication utilizing technical jargon and concepts.

The inherent necessity of such an endeavor is based on the subject matter of the Industrial Secondary School which consists of electronics, computer science, electrical engineering and general automotive design. This mixed curriculum requires students to familiarize themselves with a wide assortment of technical terminologies and processes which are written in the English language (Carrió-Pastor, 2009).

Familiarity with such concepts is essential in order to properly apply the lessons that are to be taught to them. To ensure that students will have ample time to develop technical English proficiency, the course duration will encompass 15 weeks with an average of 60 hours of teaching. Each class will be composed of 25 to 35 students with ages ranging from 16 to 18 years old.

Students have been classified as possessing a lower intermediate level of English and, as such, transitory periods will be necessary in order to ease students into the different topics that will be covered in this course. Overall, this course is designed to increase technical English competency and proficiency to prepare the students of the Industrial Secondary School to understand and apply the lessons that they will be taught.

Overview of Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of this course focus primarily on the framework advocated by (Robinson (2011) when it comes to teaching the technical aspects of the English language to ESL students.

This involves aspects related to understanding the context of the verbage, internalizing the use of technical terminologies, applying practical use of the terminologies being taught and lastly an evaluation of core competencies through writing, listening, grammar and speaking to determine the current level of understanding of the learner (Robinson, 2011).

Through such methods of learning and evaluation, both the student and the teacher will be able to understand the current level of progress the student has in internalizing the lessons on technical English and where improvements need to be made (Bokor, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the end of this course, it is expected that the students will be able to perform the following:

be able to read and understand text in technical English and respond verbally or orally to the prompts of the text

Write extensive responses to a set of given technical text to the extent that the response shows a level of insight and clarity into how particular types of technical jargon are meant to be utilized

is able to respond both verbally and non-verbally in a grammatically correct manner with technical terms and jargon

lastly, the student should be able to converse with another student utilizing technical jargon in a means that makes sense, shows proficiency and the ability to contextualize what the jargon means based on the situation that the conversation took place in.

Context and Needs Analysis The definition of the context for this course is based on the following factors: people, classroom settings, teaching resources, time, and the nature of the course. In total, the overall duration is set at 15 weeks and will held every Tuesday and Thursday from 9am in the morning till 10am. The course will be held at the Najran Secondary Institute in Saudi Arabia with all the necessary fees and expenses being paid by the students.

A traditional teaching method will be utilized over the duration of the course involving a classroom setting which is teacher-fronted. It is expected that each individual class will consist of 25 to 35 students all of which have a low to mid intermediate level of understanding involving the English language.

This course is considered mandatory for all students that which to progress to their second term at the Najran Secondary Institute due to the necessity of being able to learn and apply, both verbally and nonverbally, the various technical elements of the subjects that they will learn.

Before proceeding, it should be noted that since this course is being taught to students who do not utilize English as their primary language then it can be considered as a type of Target Language development course under the context of teaching students how to properly learn, understand and apply technical jargon and phrases in the English language.



What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it Dissertation a level english language essay help

Introduction Francois Mitterrand was born in France at a place called Jarnac in the year 1916. He rose to become the 21st president of France and the longest serving president that France has ever had. During his formative years, he was a student at the Paris University where he studied political science and law. During the Second World War, Mitterrand served in the French army as a soldier.

He was discharged after he was injured during the war. Francoise Mitterrand was known to be a very controversial figure in France politics. However, regardless of this fact, he was able to be elected as the first left wing president of France leading through his Socialist party. Before his election as the French president, Mitterrand had held different ministerial positions for a long time.

He had thus established himself as a political heavy weight in France. Mitterrand’s presidency was full of controversies, which were mostly unearthed after his retirement. It was revealed that, during his time as the president, he formed an anti-terror unit to monitor and obtain information from journalists as a way of keeping his family life secretive.

This group was later found to have engaged in an illegal tapping and eavesdropping exercise as part of their duty to hide the president’s secrets. The paper presents the implications of Germany’s reunification for France showing how Francois Mitterrand responded to it. However, it will first offer the challenges that France encountered at the dawn of the reunification.

The Challenges that France Faced in the Wake of German Reunification While under Charles De Gaul and Francois Mitterrand, France had developed into one of the strongest European economies. However, under the Gaullist policies, it was meant to be the strongest European power. Francois Mitterrand was working towards a European integration, which eventually became the European Union.

The French people were opposed to German reunification because they felt that a fast unification, as it was happening in the year 1989-1990, would complicate matters for the French agenda in Europe (Sarotte 2011, p. 257). Eastern Germany was an impoverished nation under the communist policies that had held back its development for so many years. The Soviet Union was the main benefactor for East Germany.

For some time, it had withdrawn its support to the nation. Even with the support that it was supposed to offer, its efforts in Germany were very poor thus making East Germany suffer the fate of many communist states (Larrabee 1989, p. 38). The economic and monetary unification that France was vouching for would therefore be jeopardised if Germany would be unified.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eastern Germany was so left behind in terms of development that even its housing structures were those of 1949. It would therefore require massive injection of capital to raise its status for the country to be integrated in the envisaged European Union.

This matter was a great challenge to France because it would be more expensive to undertake the integration with East and West Germany as one nation. According to Blitz(2009), those fears were confirmed after the integration because, to date, the Western part of Germany that was previously the more prosperous of the two has always had to transfer funds for the development of the eastern part of Germany (p. 2).

Such were the fears of the French people that an early integration would destabilise their plans for a unified European community. France’s opposition to Germany reunification was informed by the fact that the Soviet Union’s president Mikhail Gorbachev had informed it (France) that it would lead to a security risk (Tiersky 1995, p. 8).

Gorbachev had indicated that the unification of Germany would lead to a coup de tat in the Soviet Union. It would lead to disintegration of the member states. According to Tiersky (1995), this case would pose a very challenging problem to the whole Eastern European block of countries as well as to France (p. 9). Therefore, France had to be very careful in its approach towards German unification.

The prospect of security risks led to the French government opting for a distant approach towards German reunification, which was later on interpreted as being opposed to Germany’s reunification. The stability of the region and France’s domination of the regions both economically and politically gave France a good reason to have fear on the reunification (Newman 2010, p. 155).

Although it cannot be rightly concluded that France was opposed to German reunification, it can be rightly proved that France had great reservations on this issue. The prospect of the Eastern Europe collapsing posed a very great challenge to Frances’ economy as well as its security as Meirs (2002, p. 211) reveals. French leadership was seen to be divided on whether to support the reunification or not.

The then French President Francois Mitterrand observed this move through the sent out mixed signals. President Mitterrand would verbally support the reunification. Nevertheless, his actions would relay a different message.

We will write a custom Dissertation on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy was played out when Mitterrand would visit East Germany as a way of supporting its existence as well as visit President Gorbachev whose country (the Soviet Union) controlled East Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258). Although France was hesitant towards German unification, it was just a matter of time before the two countries were reunified.

Mitterrand recognised that this would take place eventually, and was anxious for this reason that a unified Germany should be well integrated into the European Community before it was unified. The most challenging bit for France to cope with was the timing for the unification because France rather preferred a delayed reunification of the two countries though it did not have a plan for the same.

The delayed reunification was based on France’s need to keep Germany in a certain control so that Germany does not have total control of its affairs and those of the region. The French people insisted that Germany joins the Euro currency when it is formed.

The Bundesbank was an independent entity that had succeeded for a long time in controlling inflation by giving short-term interest rates thus making it a strong bank of influence within Europe. It was very independent of the government, a fact that made it a target of politicians who felt its interest rates were not appropriate (Morys 2003, p. 3).

Thus, the main challenge that this condition faced was whether Germany would abide by it and thus the uncertainties (Jabko 2010, p. 324). France had for a long time resisted American influence in Europe. Mitterrand started leaning towards forming a strong relationship with Germany thus seeking to have control of the unification so that it happens according to his terms (Fitchett 1996).

Belikins (2011) posits that the Americans supported the reunification. As France did, they opted for a slow process whose conclusion did not have timelines (p. 664). This issue was a challenge to France because it (France) hinged Germany’s reunification to some of its programs. Any uncertainties would mean uncertainties on its ambitious programs.

According to Sarrote (2011), France did not have any underlying problems with German reunification. All it did was just to follow in the path of the other leader’s opinion. France did not need to have its own opinion on the issue. (p. 258). Another challenge that France faced was during the negotiations for a unified Germany.

The then German Chancellor Helmut Kohl surprised everyone when he came out with a ten-point road map that was outside the negotiations being carried out. This case definitely threw France and other countries into a spin because that move was much unexpected and hence a challenge to France because it strived to have control of the situation. Being caught off guard was the least it expected (Ver Net 1992, p. 658).

Not sure if you can write a paper on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The devaluation of the mark would surely affect the franc (outflows of capital towards Germany plus increase of German exports towards France). France rushed to create the monetary union. Jacques Delors planned it in 1988. Apart from sharing economic power with Germany, France took the move with the hope that further political integration would ensue.

Was German Reunification a Threat to Francois Mitterrand? Francois Mitterrand had modelled France along the Gaullist policies in that he wanted to make France the superpower of Europe. In doing so, he aligned France to America and therefore became America’s ally in Europe. Francois-led France was still living in the after World War II fear. One of the biggest fears was the emergence of Germany to its pre-war capabilities.

The abilities of Germany were seen in the way the West Germany economy had been developed based on its strength that was equal to countries such as Britain and France. Mitterrand’s fears were that, if Germany was allowed to reunite, it would become even more powerful than before. Mitterrand had an ally to this case in Britain’s Margaret Thatcher who was also totally and openly opposed to the reunification of Germany.

According to Blitz(2009), Mitterrand was fearful of Germany reunification where he was quoted in lately unclassified documents as having told Thatcher that a unified Germany would be much worse that the Hitler’s Germany.(p. 9).Its enemies had not forgotten Germany’s military prowess during the war. This knowledge did not escape Mitterrand who himself fought in the war as a prisoner of it at some point.

Therefore, Mitterrand had genuine fears that Germany’s reunification was a threat that had to be controlled before it got out of control. To this fact, history was on his side. Thus, he had all the reasons to fear. Going back to the period after the First World War, European nations adopted an appeasement policy towards Germany, which had suffered war reparations disbursement as the then main aggressor.

Germany took advantage of this situation to reorganise its military for further war thus leading to the Second World War. Therefore, Mitterrand worked against chances that could lead to the same mistake that led to the Second World War. Francois Mitterrand had come up with a grand scheme of how he envisioned the construction of Europe (Sarrote 2011, p. 258).

The vision that Mitterrand had was the backbone of France’s foreign policy. France, being the major power then, did not want to cede that control to another power, or have it diluted. According to the New York Times of 7th December 1989, Mitterrand is quoted after a meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev as saying that the reunification of Germany would pose a danger to the delicate balance in Europe (Neith 1989, p. 22).

This balance simply meant it would interfere with the already set power structures in Europe. France had cut a niche for itself as a powerhouse in Europe. Mitterrand felt that this balance was going to be disturbed by the entry of Germany, which would equally be a powerhouse.

In his address after meeting Gorbachev in Kremlin, Mitterrand stated that the unification of Germany was a danger to the European stability and that European stability was a priority (Neith, 1989, p. 22). Being the president of France, Mitterrand was individually threatened by the situation because it would water down his powers on the European stage. He therefore had to work hard to either stop or slow down the reunification.

One of Mitterrand’s goals for Europe was the integration of European countries in to a single block. This deliverable was Mitterrand’s dream as he was determined to see it materialise. This integration would be slowed down if Germany were to reunite because of the economic conditions of East Germany.

How was the French Foreign Policy Affected by the Reunification? The reunification of Germany as it happened in the period 1989-1990 had so many ramifications to Europe because it led to the tipping of power balances in Europe. The French government was one of the most affected entities in the whole power play because of the central role it had given itself in the European affairs.

Under Francois Mitterrand, France as the biggest power in Europe then bestowed on itself the onus of setting the agenda for Europe thus entrenching it in its foreign affairs policy (Meirs 2002, p. 196).

The change in the situation led to a change in the French foreign policy, which was the backbone of Mitterrand’s approach towards the leadership of Europe. Moisi (1981) finds that French foreign policy was to be at the forefront of Europe to provide leadership as much as possible (p. 349).

This strategy had to change with the entry of a united Germany, which was going to hold sway in many matters that the French had monopolised long before. The French foreign policy had therefore to change and accommodate a unified Germany and the changes that it would come as a result.

French foreign policy up to that point was that Germany should not be reunited because it would pose a threat to the European bloc of countries. This stance however had to change because Germany became reunited and had therefore to be accorded all the full respect.

The French foreign policy on the integration of the European countries therefore had to change, with the process being done with the inclusion of a united Germany as Tiersky(1992, p. 136) reveals. German integration within Europe was the outmost priority of France prior to the reunification.

Only after releasing East Germany would the reunification happen, which would later on accommodate Germany when it becomes reunified. This policy had to change in that the reunification of Germany and the integration of Europe had to happen at the same time. France had to start viewing Germany as an equal partner with equal influence (Irondell 2008, p. 156).

This view had to happen with a change of policy about foreign matters. Before the reunification of Germany, France had a lot of say in matters to do with Germany by virtue of it being one of the four powers that controlled Germany’s sovereignty. Germany’s reunification therefore changed matters when it came to interaction between the two countries because, from then onwards, they became equals.

America too added a new dimension to the reunification equation when it started considering Germany ahead of France after a while because Germany had great financial muscles because of a strong mark. This perception however had to change after the integration of European countries into using one currency (Euro).

The reunification of Germany was just part of a domino effect taking place in Europe especially with the collapse of the Soviet Union and other communist states because it would lead to freeing up of many other states that would join an integrated Europe (Sarrote 2012).

At the same time, the European countries were moving into integration, which meant a new approach to the way things were to be handled at the foreign desk. The French foreign affairs policy was Gaullist in nature in that it put France at the centre of all European matters in terms of diplomacy as well as security.

France therefore moved its focus away from Europe and started strengthening its tie with its allies outside Europe (Belkin 2011, p. 670). It moved its influence where it could be better felt by bringing its former colonies closer to it. This influence can be seen when France moved to strengthen regimes it supported such as the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda and others in North Africa.

This movement should be noted as a search for places where it could influence without so much competition (Vernet 1992, p. 657). The French foreign policy moved from being the leader to being the member but only after integrating the European countries to form a European commission.

France changed the way it viewed other countries because it realised with time that it had lost its position as America’s most preferred ally due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, which led to the collapse of the cold war too. With this crumple, France usefulness had been diminished. Its importance on some crucial matters no longer counted. Thus, it had to reinvent itself.

According to Belkin, France moved from its approach of pushing agenda on its own to adopt a policy that would allow it to influence the European Union in driving its agenda for Europe and the world at large. The change of approach here is the hand in glove approach whereby the European Union is used to drive France’s agenda on the big stage (p.672).

How did this Development Fit in with France’s Plan to have an Integrated and Independent Europe? France powers, though partially diminished with the entry of Germany as an alternative power, remained a force to reckon with within Europe (Irondell 2008, p. 157). To consolidate its position within Europe, it spearheaded the formation of a monetary and economic union between countries in Europe.

France led other countries to the formation of the European Commission, which brought European countries’ membership as an economic zone and an exclusive club. This strategy enabled France to retain some of its influence that was lost during the unification of Germany and the breakdown of the Soviet Union.

France was still able to instil order in Europe by waving the admission carrot to non-member countries that wished to join the union or commission. According to Schaefer (2012, p. 175), France remained one of the leading countries in Europe politically because it was still strong economically and politically.

The change in foreign policy did not therefore change much in France’s operations on the European stage because they were not drastic. The entry of Germany on to the European stage as a unified country can be viewed as having cut France’s powers to some extent. Previously, France had a so much say when it came to European matters. However, with the entry of Germany, this say became limited.

It has to do with a shared platform of power because Germany was equally powerful. France’s plan to have an integrated Europe remained on course as planned because it was able to bring many European countries under the economic commission as well as under the European Union.

This plan remained as it had been set before. It was therefore achieved. France’s change in diplomacy did not change its vision for Europe so much although it is known to have caused a change to its approach towards matters to do with Europe. Whereas it controlled everything previously, the entry of Germany led it to use its influence on other forums such as the European Union.

According to Pyeongeok (2006),France took the earliest opportunity to commit Germany to a monetary union as a way of controlling the Germans (p. 113). The German mark had become one of the strongest currencies in Europe if not on the world stage. Therefore, if allowed to continue, it would greatly undermine the French people’s efforts to call shots on matters integration.

In their smart way through their president Francois Mitterrand, the French citizens committed the Germans into entering the monetary union that would see all countries use the same currency. This strategy was in tandem with the French foreign policy of spearheading the European integration, which it was able to achieve. Although France remained economically strong, it could no longer call all the shots in Europe.

It therefore had to work with Germany in putting the European house in order. France had to start working with Germany as a partner and more so an equal collaborate (Belkin 2010, p. 178). It had to pull the Germans on its side for it to achieve anything on the European stage because Germany was very strong politically and economically and that it was able to pull strings here and there even without the input of the French.

Therefore, for France to achieve its European dream, it started working together with Germany. The Breakdown of the Soviet Union and subsequent disintegration of the communist regimes led to a shift in power from France. The entry of Eastern Europe states into the European Union further weakened France’s hold on to power because it simply empowered other nations from Eastern Europe at the expense of France.

Although France had envisioned an integrated Europe, its vision was based on the opinion that it would be at the helm and control of other countries as it used before but now in an organised manner. This issue though did not happen entirely as France had planned, but still achieved the intended result.

According to Belkin (2011), there was a shift in power when other Eastern European countries became independent to join the European Union (p. 672). The U.S, which was France’s greatest ally, also shifted its position in Europe by making new allies for strategic reasons. Previously, France was America’s best ally after the world war and during the cold war era because of France’s strategic placement on the European stage.

This link had to change because the collapse of the cold war saw a great shift in alliances with former communist countries opening up to western ideologies by moving away from communism to capitalism way of governance (Belikin 2010, p. 202). This move affected France so much because it could not be viewed anymore as the focal point in the European matters.

This perception however did not change France’s resolutions. It remained influential on the European stage. To date, France’s influence still looms large because many changes are dependent on France’s backing for them to happen. France remains one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It therefore has veto powers to pull.

This strategy has worked well for its foreign policy because many countries in Europe would always want it to be on its side when it comes to matters on the world stage. France’s seat at the United Nations has given it enormous powers to wield on the world stage. It has thus used its powers to influence the decisions of bodies such as the United Nations as well as NATO.

This move has remained in tandem with its foreign policy of influencing the happenings on the European stage as well as on the world stage (Belkin 2010, p. 202). Although France had planned to have an independent and integrated Europe, it could not achieve all because of the power changes that happened later.

For instance, Americans started moving away from France thus acquiring new allies from the former communist regimes for strategic purposes. This strategy can be viewed as a move to undermine France resolution for a unified Europe. Brown (1983) finds that, to the Americans, a unified Europe could be too powerful as it could have a lot of influence on world matters at the expense of America (p. 6).

Therefore, America’s move to get new allies greatly undermined France’s wish for a unified Europe. France had viewed Germany’s reunification as a threat to Europe’s integration. The threat that was later to be discarded.

Germany’s reunification later played a big role in the integration of Europe and the allayed fears that it could derail it. Although Germany was to be integrated in Europe, this union was to happen later on and not immediately. However as Sarrote (2012) puts it, the success of Europe’s integration depended on Germany reunification. Europe’s integration could not work out without Germany’s involvement.

However, according to Francois Mitterrand, he had hoped to rope in Germany later (p. 76). However, as things turned out, Germany’s reunification happened together with the supposed integration of the European Union.

German’s reunification can also be seen as a blessing to France’s efforts to build a strong European community because, since Germany reunified, it has been able to take a big role on the European stage in matters to do with the integration of other European countries into the Euro zone.

Germany’s entry into the big stage came with advantages of its partnership with France in ensuring a strong and integrated Europe. Germany eased some burden off France because France was initially taking care of so many things that were a bit strenuous to it. Germany’s cooperation with France simply enabled it(France) to move forward its ideas on integration.

Once the idea was sold to Germany, it became a common purpose now for the two countries to take care (Jabko 2010, p. 321). Germany has been a partner with France on matters to do with Europe.

This collaboration should therefore be positively upheld from its reunification position. In the recent times, Germany has been at the forefront of leading the European world in terms of taking care of the financial crisis faced by other countries. Germany has been at the head during Greece financial meltdown where was looked upon to provide leadership as well as financial aid to the Greek economy.

Francois Mitterrand’s Decisions His Opposition to German Reunification

Francois Mitterrand was opposed to German reunification because of many reasons that he only knew about because he was never explicit in his opposition to the situation. In the many times he spoke in public, he was in favour of Germany’s reunification. However, in private, he voiced his views in total opposition of the same.

Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification can be attributed to two factors: personal pride as a French leader and outside pressure. Mitterrand as the French president had his pride in being the leader of the strongest western allied European power from where a lot of supremacy came in deciding the course of Europe (Tiersky 1992, p. 322).

Therefore, his opposition to German reunification can be attributed to his own desire for self-preservation of powers that came with being a French president. Mitterrand pursued the Gaullist policy that sought to influence the course of Europe’s progress on the world stage. He therefore took it personally to fulfil that dream, which on the other hand was being threatened by the reunification of Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258).

Germany’s reunification would definitely tilt the balance of power to topple France from the top, which would be hurtful to the French leadership especially to Mitterrand. The second decision that made Francois Mitterrand oppose the Germany reunification was the post world war fear that almost everyone had about Germany.

Both leaders and citizens feared that a united Germany would go back to reclaim its lost territory and assume its pre-war status. The fear of Germany falling back to its Hitler days could not be ignored (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 114). This revelation explains the mortal fear that not only he had on a unified Germany but also the fear that was shared by many other European citizens.

The ability of Germany to cause chaos and destabilise the world peace was known. No world leader was ready for another world war if it was to come by Germany reunification. This position informed his decision to oppose reunification of Germany because of the threats it posed in case it was reunified.

Although the thought of Germany going back into another war can be described as alarmist to some extent and a veil for Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification, Mitterrand nevertheless used it successfully to woo Margaret Thatcher, the British prime minister, to his side of the viewpoint.

His pursuit for Integration

Mitterrand’s pursuit for integration was meant to place France at the top of the European table to enable France to dictate the pace of Europe’s development. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe’s construction. He could only implement it if he was in a position to influence the political and economic arena of Europe. He designed a plan for integration so that he would tie countries in Europe to a single economic block.

From this point, he could therefore influence economic and political decisions made concerning Europe. This power led him to pursue policy of integration to the extent that he felt Germany should not be reunited then so that his policy is not derailed. America had come out as a strong country after the war. It was seen to be influencing so many matters that were then happening in Europe.

This over reliance on America for directions seemed to upset Mitterrand who prided himself of being French. He therefore mooted the idea of integration to come up with a strong European block that would control the affairs of Europe from within it. Although integration was seen to be threatened by the German reunification, it eventually happened without a hitch.

So much was Mitterrand’s pursuit of integration that he made sure it happened even after the reunification of Germany. This strategy according to the writer was more of a personal ambition than pressure from outside.

Mitterrand’s Support for Reunification

Mitterrand’s support for reunification was based on pressure from outside. Were it within his powers, Germany would not have reunified (Pyeongeok 2006, p.116). The reunification of Germany was based on so many factors held by the four powers that held Germans’ fate in their hands. The four major powers, which had a say in Germany’s sovereignty were America, Soviet Republic, Britain, and Russia.

These four countries had divided Germany between them. The three capitalist nations controlled West Germany while the Soviet Republic controlled the East Germany. Therefore, any decision on the reunification of Germany would be decided by the four countries and that any opposition to the same would be required to have a majority support of the four countries.

At the same time, he had the support of Gorbachev who was not so committed to the continued separation of Germany against the will of its people. Therefore, Mitterrand had to accept the fact and move with the tide. It can therefore be stated that Mitterrand’s decision to support the reunification of Germany was due to external pressures from what other countries were doing.

The main person who had the key to the reunification was Gorbachev because he held the reigns of East Germany. Therefore, the moment he let go East Germany, nothing could stop the reunification. Thus, it was a matter beyond Mitterrand. Although it can be concluded that it was beyond Mitterrand to accept Germany’s unification, he also had a role that he should be credited with playing (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 116).

He made sure that Germans dropped their Mark to join the use of the euro. This strategy was one of the conditions he set and agreed with Helmut Kohl who was the then Chancellor for West Germany. The initiative by Mitterrand to force Germans to drop the Mark was informed by the fact that the Mark had been used for a long time to determine the value of the Franc thus coming out as punishment on the French people.

Therefore, it can be said that the decision to support Germany’s reunification was also based on its dropping of its currency and entering the currency union that used the euro. Therefore, it was not so much support as it was further integration and control of Germany’s economic power since France had suffered from a strong deutschemark, which seemed to control the Franc.

Conclusion In conclusion, Francois Mitterrand can be described as a smart leader who not only led his party and country for a long time but also one who left a very big impact on the politics and economy of Europe. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe that he hoped would make the European block the strongest political and economic block in the world.

Although he did not make it to block the reunification of Germany, he took it within his strides by accepting the inevitable and using it to achieve his dreams of having a European union. The structures for the European Union as envisaged by Mitterrand are still at work. The union has taken in with an ongoing plan of admitting new members.

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Jabko, N 2010, ‘The Hidden Face of the Euro’, Journal of European Public Policy, vol. 17 no. 3, pp. 318-334.

Irondell, B 2008, ‘European Foreign Policy: The End of French Europe?’, Journal of European Integration, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 153-168.

Larrabee, S 1989, ‘Soviet Policy Toward Germany: New Thinking and old Times’ Washington Quarterly, vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 35-51.

Meir, J 2002, ‘A Change of Course? Germany Foreign and Security Policy After Unification’, German Politics, vol. 11 no. 3, pp. 195-216.

Moisi, D 1981, ‘Mitterrand’s Foreign Policy: The Limits of Continuity’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 60 no. 2, pp. 347-357.

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LVMH in China’s Domestic Market Qualitative Research Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Methodology

PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape

Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH

Strategy Recommendations for LVMH

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Advantages and Disadvantages of Domestic Firms in the Sector

Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Firms in the Sector


Reference List

China is emerging as a very attractive international business destination. This situation arises from the growing middle class in the country. In the last two decades, economic growth in the country has spurred it into the limelight as a serious investment destination. Many companies manufacture their products in China because of the competitive labor costs in the country.

The manufacturing boom has contributed to the emergence of an economically empowered middle class. In the recent years, the portfolio of businesses setting up their operations in the country has expanded. The portfolio now includes businesses seeking to take advantage of the Chinese market in addition to its competitively priced labor.

This explains the interest of LVMH in the Chinese market. LVMH is the holding company of several French luxury brands. The company is interested in establishing businesses in China to take advantage of its emerging luxury market.

Any company that tries to enter into the Chinese market must take time to understand the operating environment in the country. The business culture in China is different from the business culture in the West. The Chinese people are historically frugal. Therefore, it is important to take time to understand their needs and expectations.

However, the country’s emerging middle class has a lot in common with any middle class in the world. Therefore, the main issue that a company needs to explore before getting into China is the correct market entry strategy. This report examines the business environment for luxury products in China. It also looks at the internal characteristics of LVMH in order to prepare a strong market entry strategy for the company.

Methodology The method used to meet the two broad objectives of the project was a literature review. Literature review is an acceptable form of research that makes it possible for researchers to evaluate a broad range of issues. The range of issues that required consideration in this case exceeded the number of issues that could be covered using empirical research. This reasoning informed the choice of the research method.

In addition, the resources needed for an empirical research were not available. The second reason for choosing a literature review as the main research method was that a lot of research already existed in relation to the main issues defined in the research objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was unnecessary to carry out research into these issues from the scratch. The primary tools employed in the analysis of the data were the analytical instruments available to strategic planners. These tools include PESTLE Analysis, SWOT Analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.

PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape Strategic thinkers use a PESTLE Analysis to conduct environmental analysis as the basis for determining whether an organization has the capacity to interact favorably with its operating environment.

A PESTLE Analysis involves an examination of the political, economic, social, and technological issues in a given location. In addition, strategic planners study the legal framework governing a business environment, coupled with the condition of the physical environment of the area being analyzed.

Two issues characterize the political environment of China. First, the communist government is very keen on controlling the key sectors of the Chinese economy. For instance, the country does not have an exchange rate that rises and fall according to the forces of a free currency market alongside other international currencies.

Instead, the government determines the exchange rate. This issue at times puts foreign companies at a disadvantage. The second issue affecting the Chinese political environment is that the country uses a communist system of government.

In the recent years, the country has started conducting democratic elections at the local level. However, the communist superstructure still allows the central government to control all the political activities in the country. In this regard, regional party officials tend to exert a lot of influence in the conduct of business.

On the economic front, China has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades. The country’s economy grew at almost ten percent per annum in the last ten years. This is the leading cause of the emergence of China as a significant market. Prior to the economic boom characterized by unprecedented growth in the manufacturing sector, China’s main attraction was its low cost labor.

We will write a custom Essay on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International manufacturers set up shop in China to take advantage of its low labor costs. As more companies started manufacturing in China, the disposable income of the Chinese people grew. This turned the country into one of the largest markets in the world. Business is now shifting from manufacturing only, towards taking advantage of the growing market resulting from the emergence of the new middle class in China.

The social situation in China varies depending on the parameters in use. One of the best-known Chinese policies is the one child policy, which prohibits couples from getting more than one child. This policy is also an illustration of the tight control the communist government exerts on the Chinese people. In the recent years, a lot of Western influence has crept into the Chinese social scene.

For instance, China has become the one of the locations that directors from Hollywood plan to launch new blockbusters. The Western pop culture characterized by the idolization of media personalities is also taking root in China.

From a business angle, it means that the Chinese consumers are developing a taste for the Western cultural experience. This is fuelling demand for Western products. This explains the popularity of Western brands such as Apple, and in the recent years, the proliferation of Western style eateries such as MacDonald’s fast food stores.

The technological environment in China is very competitive. The Chinese have invested resources in manufacturing technologies turning it into what a commentator called, “the world’s workshop” .

The dual investment by the Chinese government on high tech production facilities, and the Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) from international investors trying to take advantage of the low labor costs in China, have made China a manufacturing and technology hub.

However, Chinese manufacturers tend to pay little attention to quality control. Unlike Japanese manufacturers who have a strong interest in efficiency through programs like Kaizen, the Chinese tend to compete on cost by making cheaper knock off items to sell them to the poorer masses.

The economy of China is difficult to analyze. The reason for this is that the Chinese government is the only body that releases economic data on China. The data at times seem unrealistic based on estimates made by other economists. In addition, much of the Chinese economy is state controlled.

Not sure if you can write a paper on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, it is better to develop a business strategy that takes into account these factors. In spite of this, there is consensus that the Chinese economy, together with Brazil, Russia, India, and South Africa (BRICS), is growing very rapidly.

The physical environment in China is a major concern to international environmental agencies. Chinese cities such as Beijing are becoming polluted and have artificial fog brought about by industrial emissions. The state pays some attention to environmental issues, but it prioritizes economic the well-being of the country over environmental conservation.

Rivers and other natural features located in places with high population are becoming polluted. In the rural areas with smaller population densities, the environment is in good condition. In fact, China has some of the most spectacular sceneries such as rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and world life.

These areas can serve as the inspiration for including environmental protection measures as part of the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) strategy when establishing a business in China.

Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH In order to discuss the hurdles and obstacles that LVMH will need to deal with before making a proper entry into the Chinese market, it is important to review the application of a SWOT Analysis because it is the most suitable tool for this purpose. Hurdles and obstacles to a business constitute the weaknesses and the threats a business must deal with in order to operate successfully in a specific market.

Weakness and threats are two measures within SWOT that examine the difficulties associated with a business situation. Weaknesses are internal issues that bar the company from growing optimally. On the other hand, threats are external issues that the company does not control that can hamper its business objectives.

LVMH, alongside other international brands trading in China have two main weaknesses. The first weakness is that the company has a wide portfolio in a very narrow segment of the Chinese market. Secondly, China is relatively new to luxury spending. Unlike Europe and America, many of the Chinese luxury spenders are people who have recently made money from the changing fortunes of the country.

While the short-term outlook is impressive, the long-term performance of the Chinese luxury market is difficult to predict. If the country runs into any economic problem, the Chinese luxury spenders will revert to their old spending habits. In other words, the new middle class of China is still skilled in frugal living. Those skills will come into play as soon as there is an economic bump.

The situation in the West is different because many luxury spenders grew up in affluent families. They do not know how else to live. If they cannot afford to drive an expensive car, they will look for one that is easier to maintain. In China, the luxury spenders can discard the car all together because they have lived most of their lives without it.

The threats that accost LVMH in China are as follows. First, the brands produced by the company will suffer from threats associated with the counterfeiting of products . The results of counterfeiting include loss of revenue and loss of brand reputation. The counterfeit system in China is one of the most organized counterfeiting operations in the world. Chinese manufacturing capacity does not match its R


Promotional Strategy For The New Water Based Theme Park In Darling Harbor Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction and description of the enterprise Darling harbour is one of the recreational sites in Sydney, Australia. There are numerous entertainment and recreations sites at the centre. The main attractions of the harbour are Chinese’s Friendship Garden, Cockle Bay Wharf, IMAX Theatre, aquariums, exhibition centre, shopping centres and museum. The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority (SHFA) has established an ultra modern water based theme park.

The park will offer entertainment for adults, teenagers and children. The main attraction for the theme parks will be water rides, travelling shows, great sceneries, food services, roll coasters; train rides fireworks, acrobatics, casinos and other forms of amusements.

The theme park is about to open and there is need to carry out a successful promotional campaign so as to attract tourists in Austria as well as from other parts of the world. This paper outlines the promotional strategies for the theme park.

Theme park mission statement The mission statement for this theme park is “to provide high quality amusement, fun and entertainment to all our esteemed customers in Australia and the world in general”

Theme park core values The main core values of the water world theme park are;

Customer focus: all products and services will focus on customers and satisfy their need. The theme park will provide High quality services and products.

Good corporate culture: the theme park promotes teamwork among all stakeholders and employees satisfaction

Safety and enthusiasm: the employees will ensure that the rides and other activities are safe. The ground will also be secured to ensure that there are no loss of property

Compassion and honesty

Theme park objectives To provide high quality services and amusement to the local and international tourists

To be a major tourist attraction in Australia

To earn profits and gain at least 20% of the target market

The promotional campaigns will promote the values, objectives and mission of the theme park (Aaker, 1998). All the promotional messages will be formulated so as to transmit the core values and mission of the park.

Target market analysis and segmentation The main customers for the theme park will be from the local and the international community. In order to identify the target market, the main customers were identified and segmented appropriately (Cateora, Gilly


Promotional report campaign for DMO Report custom essay help

Introduction The report was about a tourism promotion campaign that involved the reopening of the Africa Lion Safari performed by the Greater Western Sydney (GWS) tourism in Warragamba, Sydney in Australia achieved between 2008 and 2012.

The GWS consisted of 14 local government areas (LGA) that comprised of Auburn council, Wallondilly Share, Camden Council, City of Pernith, City of Campbell town, City of Parramatta, City of Bankslown, City of Liverpool, City of Blue mountains, City of Holroyd, City of Fairfield and City of Hawkesbury. The GWS was estimated to have a population of1.9 million according to the 2006 census.

The population covered a locality of over 9000km squared including residential, rural and industrial zones. As the marketing manager of the GWS tourism promotion team, I sent the campaign report to the management team for its consent on the campaign ideas and expenditure.

The marketing strategy comprised of the following subunits; brief discussion of the DMO campaign in terms of size, turnover, visitation, number and occupancy rates and data information, promotion in campaign strategy, target marked profile, competition and channels of distribution (Haney


Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why continue Education in the Medical Field


Reference List

Introduction Continuing education has become a crucial endeavor in every academic field as the need for knowledge and expertise continues to be the foundation of professionalism and competitiveness in various business fields.

Continuing education refers to the pursuit of post-secondary programs and activities that are involved therein or registering for non-degree trainings, credit courses for degrees, training of workforce, self-enrichment study courses, self-directed learning, and learning through experience amongst others. Many professions have specific curriculums designed for further studies.

Continuing education therefore falls under a certain classification due to its specificity and the fact that a certificate is issued at the end of it. According to Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179), during the course of continuing education, marks are awarded to the scholar in the form of continuing education units. Further studies enable specialists in a certain field to update their knowledge in that field with current information.

For instance, in the law and information technology fields, new knowledge develops each day. Such education is important especially in some fields where information develops very fast due to the dynamics of the profession.

The medical field, which is the basis of the paper, provides a working illustration where new treatment and diagnostic methods are developed every day with the changing characteristics of disease-causing pathogens such as those of malaria and HIV/AIDS.

This paper will therefore focus on continuing education in this area (the medical health field) by specifically expounding on the importance of taking such a move with regard to ones education and professional development in the field.

Why continue Education in the Medical Field The field of medicine stands out as the most sensitive and marketable based on the central role it plays in terms of securing the lives of people. Therefore, it suffices to declare it the best choice for all who wish to continue their education and professionalism. After completion of their formal training, medical professionals enroll for further training.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further education in medicine aims at maintaining, developing and increasing knowledge, improving the ability to solve problems, acquisition of new technical skills, and improvement of professionalism in performance of duties not only pertaining to medical/health issues but also issues to do with life in general. In some countries such as Canada, further education is a mandatory requirement by the regulatory authorities.

With further education, a physician is trained on how to offer better quality services in his or her field. Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179) affirm that continuing education involves various formal education activities such as lecture courses, attending conferences and workshops, distance learning, and directed reading.

Continuing education in the medical/health field enables the physician to keep up-to-date with changes and development in the field that is characterized by dynamism, with various diagnostic and treatment methods changing with time. Medicine and pharmaceuticals administered to patients suffering from various diseases also keep on changing.

Some disease causing pathogens, HIV/AIDS virus for instance, keep on mutating with time. The same shifting process applies to many other diseases and their causative agents. It is therefore important for medical health practitioners to enroll for continuous education and keep themselves updated and thus in touch with the newest health handling procedures.

According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277), new information on the changing nature of diagnosis and treatment is posted on medical journals, newsfeeds, magazines, and medical books.

For example, if a strain of plasmodium develops resistance to certain malaria medicine, the information is circulated across the region followed by the development of the respective new medicine. Doctors and health professionals who may not be in contact with the new information may end up using any out of date medicine to treat such a disease.

While continuing education, medical professionals also attend seminars and workshops for training on new technological developments and their impact on the field of medicine. Each day, sophisticated tools for medical treatment are developed. Medical engineers keep on mounting modern medical devices in a bid to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the field. Such devices come with a certain operational manual.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is therefore important that medical practitioners learn how to use such devices. Short refresher courses for medical care practitioners are also used to make medical practitioners keep up-to-date with the profession. According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 279), new physicians are taken through various units in clinical medicine, administration, and psychology among other areas.

It is also through seminars and workshops that medical practitioners are reintroduced to professional ethics. Medical professionals in the continuing education program are therefore able to keep abreast with professional ethics in their field. It is also easier for such professionals to observe the regulations put in place by authorities.

When physicians work together in the further studies, they are likely to discover new knowledge in the course of their learning. Such discoveries are realized in the process of research as learners work on projects that are meant to fulfill the required units. For example, a physician who takes on a project in parasitology may end up discovering specific characteristics of a certain parasite in his or her field of study.

Such characteristics may end up making it easier to develop chemicals to kill it or keep it away from human life. Research is the foundation for better medical care. Many discoveries in medicine have been made in the course of further studies in medicine.

Continuing education in the medical field also enables the learner to remain competitive in the field of health care. Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277) posit that, although there is a shortage of qualified medical practitioners in the world, competition is also high in this field. The field of health is crucial to the wellbeing of humankind.

People would therefore not want to play games with human life. Medical practitioners who have the current knowledge on diagnostic and treatment of various diseases and conditions are therefore better placed for treatment.

Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012,22) concur with the above argument by asserting that, since the field of medicine is very dynamic, medical practitioners who keep themselves informed about the changes taking place in the field are therefore able to remain competitive.

Competition in the field may be in the ability to access modern methods of treatment such as closed-heart surgery instead of open-heart surgery, ability of the practitioner to use modern treatment equipments such as high tech cancer treatment machines, and the ability to access and administer the most effective modern medicine to the patients.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is out of completion that some hospitals have more customers relative to others. Patients know the health practitioners who have access to information or who are sure about their work. In fact, according to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 278), most of the people would prefer fresh graduates to old medical practitioners who never attend refresher courses.

Career promotions are also done through merits in most of the health centers and hospitals. It is therefore necessary for the health practitioners to keep abreast with modern knowledge by enrolling for further education courses.

Medical health care professionals who undergo further education are also able to offer better customer care services. In their further education programs, learners are also taught how to handle their clients: the patients. In many public health centers, medical health care providers treat customers in a rude way. Such behavior becomes irritating especially to the already sick customer.

The worst scenario happens in private hospitals that employ such a medical practitioner. Poor customer handling skills make customers seek better care in other hospitals. Hence, the hospital may suffer loss and decreased trust by patients. The image of the health care providers and that of the hospital itself are tainted.

Further education in the medical field enables the medical professionals to achieve promotions. According to Schrader (2010, p. 41), in further studies, one is trained on various professional courses that are crucial for better performance of certain duties.

For example, based on Barzdins’ (2012, p. 129) words, learners are trained on administration skills, customer management skills, human resource skills, and accounts management skills that are crucial in administrative positions. After such trainings, a medical health professional is allowed to obtain promotions to certain positions.

In some cases, further studies become a requirement for one to be allowed to perform certain duties in the medical field. For example, a clinical officer may not be allowed to perform a major surgery unless he or she obtains specialization in that field through continuing education. Medical doctors especially those in surgery also require to acquire continuing education through seminars and workshops.

Continuing education enables them to be granted work permits and licenses of practice. In many countries such as the United States, doctors need to attend various seminars and workshops in order to be allowed to continue carrying out surgery. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 22), it is therefore important for the medical care practitioners to obtain further education in order to continue rising up the medical career ladder.

Medical care practitioners who are able to attend continuing education are likely to obtain promotions to the next level in their careers. Medical care practitioners, for example nurses, can also undergo further training through enlisting for graduate courses or degree courses to obtain a degree in medicine.

When a nurse attains a medical degree, he or she is likely to be promoted to the next job group in the medical field career. Consequently, he or she becomes entitled to a better pay and benefits. Schrader (2010, p. 41) affirms that a better remuneration and better benefits mean a better lifestyle for the employee.

When medical practitioners complete their further studies, and are promoted to better job groups, their living standard is improved. Medical health care practitioners and their families are also able to live a better life. A medical health care practitioner who undergoes a further education program is likely to be more relied upon by customers and employers.

People are more likely to trust very educated medical practitioners than those with only the basic level of education. The level of trust by both the patients and employers is also raised. Continuing education is therefore necessary for those in the lower levels in the medical care profession. Furthering education increases the salary of the learners in the workplace.

One is also able to obtain a better job when he or she completes further studies in the medical/healthcare field. Many private and public medical institutions hire qualified and competent medical care practitioners.

Completion of further studies makes the medical care practitioner have a more bargaining power in the job market. Medical professionals who have undergone medical care training are also able to negotiate for better salaries with their employers. For instance, they can appeal for a better salary after completing their studies.

Further education is important for job satisfaction. Employees in the medical care profession must achieve job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an endeavor that every employee aims to achieve. When medical practitioners enjoy their daily activities on their jobs, they are likely to be contented. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 21), job satisfaction may be developed through a good pay that in turn comes with better qualification.

For a medical care practitioner to have a better pay compared to his or her workmate, he or she must have gone through further education. A medical practitioner should realize that his or her life depends on his or her career choice. It is from the medical fields that they earn their living and are able to live a descent life. This argument means that all medical practitioners should respect their career and work hard to succeed in it.

Continuing ones medical education in the medical field becomes a continuous activity. Medical field is extremely dynamic. Those with passion in the field and those who would want to achieve job satisfaction in this career must love the job itself together with the information that is developed each day. Continuous education in the medical field (and in many other fields) is a basic requirement.

Job security is also guaranteed with continuous education. With job security, one is likely to experience job satisfaction. It is also worth noting that people are likely to experience job satisfaction when they are sure of the security of their jobs. If medical practitioners realize that they will lose their job, they are less likely to be comfortable working for those respective hospitals or health centers.

Continuing education enables health practitioners to have confidence that they are not likely to lose their jobs to someone else. According to Barzdins (2012, p. 129), employers and other human resource practitioners would want more educated employees for better services in their hospitals.

Therefore, if there is any retrenchment of medical workers, the employer is likely to begin with those that have lower education and qualifications. Continuing education therefore gives job security to the medical care practitioners.

In fact, a medical care practitioner who has completed various post-training courses in the medical field is able to obtain another job soon after leaving the other one. Proper practical qualifications and social certificates and trainings in the medical health field are therefore important. Some employers kick out employees who stagnate in a certain field for many years without any further training.

Such medical health practitioners are redundant in their field of work. Grantors are willing to put their money in the medical field more than any other field. These people have a soft spot for medicine and the medical profession as a whole.

This revelation means that medical professions cannot hide under the guise of lack of school fees. Grants are given to assist medical practitioners’ specialization in their field and to offer better services. Employees are also accorded the opportunity to attend seminars and workshops.

Conclusion In conclusion, furthering education is a field that has become very important in the society today. Further education in the medical field is crucial because it enables learners to become competent in the job market. It enables medical practitioners to keep themselves up to date with the current knowledge. It secures job satisfaction and confidence for learners.

It is important because of the many grants available to sponsor students in the medical field. One is also able to keep up-to-date with the current information. Continuing education can be taken in the form of classroom lectures, distance learning, workshops, and seminars. Learning can therefore be supervised directly in the lecture halls or else be self-supervised.

A student must complete a number of units through learning and or self-direction. In the medical healthcare field, the continuous education is an obligation for all the medical practitioners. Further education is therefore a key requirement in the field of medical health care and that graduates in this field should be encouraged to take such a move to keep abreast with the changes in this dynamic field of study.

Reference List Bhatnagar, K,


Research Brand Performance Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Abstract This research paper seeks to investigate the relationship between customers’ perception of public relation and customers’ loyalty. The research will also investigate the role played by the brand image in shaping customer perception towards the organization.

Research Design/methodology- The research will use both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data will be collected from a sample of customers of City Bank with the help of a questionnaire. The research will use two hypotheses.

Findings- The results of the study evidently demonstrate that the sensitivity of clients towards organization’s public relation practice is an indication of their devotion. From the research, it is clear that when there is a favorable brand image among customers, public relation perception will always have a heavy impact on customer loyalty.

Research limitations/implication- This research seeks to expound on the existing research as regards to customer loyalty. The researcher faced the problem of unwillingness since some respondents were unwilling to answer questions.

Originality- The researcher was concerned with coming up with an original piece of research that could be applied in a real life scenario.

Keywords- Brand image, Public relation, Customer loyalty, Customer relations, Finance industry, financial services, the United States

Introduction According to Hsieh and Li (2008), there is a direct relationship between customer perception of public relation and customer loyalty. These scholars hold that when a customer has a positive perception of public relations of a firm, he or she will tend to be loyal to that firm. This loyalty will further enhance a positive perception of the public relation of the firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brand image plays a moderating role in this relationship. When a firm has a strong brand image in the market, the perception of the public would always be influenced positively towards the firm, and this will increase loyalty of the customers towards the firm (Hsieh


Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication Exploratory Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents The inception of the Frankfurt school

The four development stages of the Frankfurt school

Critics of Frankfurt School

Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School

Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions


Works Cited

The inception of the Frankfurt school The failure of communism in throughout Europe, led the foundation of Frankfurt school in Germany in 1923 to present the Marxist views. The Frankfurt school was founded by Felix Weil, a young orthodox Marxist He looked at the scientific aspect of Marxism and put emphasis on the need of research in the field of history and social system through this institute.

The initial period of the institute was devoted mainly to the conventional historical research. Georg Lukacs wrote a book called ‘History of Class Consciousness’, which was published in 1923. This book provided a great inspiration for the work of Frankfurt school (Lassus, 2001).

His work, suggests that it is necessary to be free from the Communist Party to promote authentic theoretical work. It was directed by a firm believer in Marxism, Carl Grunberg from 1923 to 1930 (Lassus, 2001).

The four development stages of the Frankfurt school Ever since the classical theory of Marx came into existence, there were many changes seen in the Western society that promoted theories related to capitalism. The great theorists like T. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, etc. were actively participating in making crucial accounts to ensure and establish the impact of mass culture and communication in their critical social theory.

This was the first phase of the development of the Frankfurt school during which it “generated one of the first models of a critical cultural studies that analyzes the process of cultural production and political economy, the politics of cultural texts, and audience reception and use of cultural artifacts”( (Kellner 1989 and 1995as cited in Kellner, n. d. Para 1).

Friedrich Pollock took over as the director of the institute after the death of Carl Grunberg. He was associated with the institute right from the initial period. Max Horkheimer, who became the director of the institute in the later years, was the leading representative of the Frankfurt school. Due to his efforts, the institute could initiate the study of the cultural facets of the growth of capitalism.

The era of 1930s is marked with the development of a new critical, trans disciplinary approach to the studies of culture and communications by the Frankfurt School (Kellner,n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1931 and 1932 many psychoanalysts including Franz Borkenau, Erich Fromm, Karl Landauer, William Reich and Heinrich Meng started working systematically with the institute and led the Marxist theory in an utterly new trend that is still persistent in the social theory.

Erich Fromm was one of the initiators of socialist humanism. Wilhelm Reich built up his own set of principles related to sexual liberalism to deal with the issue of conformism, with respect to politics, present in the society and to confront social psychosis.

Kurt Lewin and Adolph Lowe were the two prominent communist intellectuals who were associated with the Frankfurt school and played important roles in the development of social theory. Kurt Lewin introduced the group- dynamics and social action theory and Adolph Lowe involvement to the development of political economy is of great significance.

Leo Lowenthal was mainly involved in the sociology of literature along with the Hegelian philosopher Herbert Mercuse who became the most renowned personality in the 1960s among political activists (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”,n.d.).

The Frankfurt school was closed down in Germany moved to the United States when Hitler came into power. Here, they found the media culture predominantly controlled by the big companies in the U.S. (Kellner, n. d.).

The participants of the institute continued their work in New York and kept on publishing in German. In the post war era the Institute came back to Frankfurt. The two of the leading theorists of the Frankfurt school in this era were Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin. They were distinguished for their studies in literature and mass culture.

In the post war era Jurgen Habermas became one of the prominent figures in developing critical theory as per the Hegelian convention like Adorno and Marcuse. The development of the theory of networks is the contribution of this phase. However, after some time, Habermas separated from the Marxist convention and the Hegelian tradition and laid emphasis on the expansive principles following the tradition of Immanuel Kant.

We will write a custom Essay on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third generation of the Frankfurt school is following the convention of Jurgan Habermas and to some extent that of Hegel. The proponent of this generation is Axel Honneth. Nancy Fraser, Agnes Heller and Seyla Benhabib are the prominent women who represent the present-day generation of the Frankfurt school.

Frankfurt school was established with an aim to develop Marxist Theory within the institute and in the political scenario as well. In the process of its development, it assimilated with the bourgeois ideology and Freudian ideology during the post second world war period.

Despite all the amalgamation, the Frankfurt school stands for the tradition of orthodox Marxism in the history of social theory (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”, n. d.).

Critics of Frankfurt School The critiques of the Frankfurt school represented by Adorno and Horkheimer suggest that they believed in the notion that the modern society is captivated in an iron system influenced by capitalism and Enlightenment ideas. They were quite pessimistic about any liberation from this control and thought that there was no hope for any social transformation.

They believed that it was impossible to get out of the iron cage created by the powerful Enlightenment in the modern society as it prevailed in every part of our lives. They also suggested that the culture industry is engaged in enslaving the individual and restraining the society and the people themselves back up this system. Their pessimism is also obvious in their criticism of traditional Marxism (Yaman, 2011).

The prime feature of the Frankfurt school was the culture and social analysis. However, its weakness lies in the “dichotomy between high culture and low culture (it) is problematical and should be superseded for a more unified model that takes culture as a spectrum and applies similar critical methods to all cultural artifacts” (Kellner as cited in Becerra, 2012,Para 8).

‎Habermas of the third generation of Frankfurt school faces the criticism because he idealizes the bourgeois community subject by presenting it as a medium of lucid debate and argument. The exclusion of various social groups and women is also a point of criticism.

However, many classes emerged in opposition to the bourgeois public sphere simultaneously, raised their voices, and stood for their interests (Kellner, n. d.). The notion of public sphere remained simply Utopian. It remained “an inclusive and egalitarian vision of society worthy of pursuit, but never fully realized” (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d. p.12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the concept was restrained to the interests of a limited group of men who were highly educated in spite of its claims to attain common good or common interest through shared culture (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d).

The “media culture was never as massified and homogeneous as in the Frankfurt school model” (Kellner,n.d., Para 10).There is an argument that there were weaknesses in the model even at the time of its origin and it had less influence than the other models such as the models developed by Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Ernst Bloch etc.(Kellner, n.d.).

Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School The conventional Marxists considered the Frankfurt School somewhat as pragmatic since according to them, this theory condemned economism and unpolished materialism and partly they criticized it because of its heterogeneity. According to Curran et al. (1982), there was no scope for the study of real media (Chandler, 2000).

Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions “The means of…communication…, the irresistible output of the entertainment and information industry carry with them prescribed attitudes and habits, certain intellectual and emotional reactions which bind the consumers…to the producers and, through the latter to the whole (social system).

The products indoctrinate and manipulate; they promote a false consciousness which is immune against its falsehood…thus emerges a pattern of one-dimensional thought and behavior” (p.43).

In the last hundred years most of the philosophical, social and economic traditions were focused in Germany. These traditions were in-built throughout modern life. During 1920s and 1930s the Frankfurt School had a great impact and its theorists and philosophers escaped from Nazism and spread their rebellious thoughts everywhere around the world and mainly in the United States (Brace, 2002).

The rise of Frankfurt School in Germany was in particular a response to the modern life. Marxism believes in crisis and according to them everything is in crisis, whether it’s a family, class or race but instead of this Frankfurt School do not accept this theory of crisis as a social concept as they believe it is an anthropological concept and it is not reducible to economic materialism.

They also believe that it exists in the mind of reactionaries (Bowden, 2012).

The important thing about Marxism is its complete break with the past and religious ideas. No supernatural element is there. They are just human theories and are mingled with other language. Everything is based on present and contains materialistic principles to define every aspect of life (Bowden, 2012).

So the initiative taken by the Frankfurt School was to first criticize Marxism and then to renew more refined form of dialectic, which was usable in modern era (Bowden, 2012).

Adorno’s several psychological theories got developed once the Frankfurt School was closed down by a disreputable government of that time. He developed some interesting theories specially related to the present audience. He developed the theory of ‘F’ scale where ‘F’ stands for Fascism. It’s a kind of personality test, which is used even today under a different name (Bowden, 2012).

The theorists of Frankfurt School believed that Marxism has some good elements in it, which could be used to develop an advanced social theory. “But even beyond that they were committed to developing and formulating an entire theory of life, human history and social ethics which would eventually need no recourse to European Christian civilization in any area of life” (Brace, 2002, Para 6).

The Frankfurt School openly challenged the entire societies to make its theories influential. Many supporters of ‘gay rights’ have been attracted towards the teachings of the Frankfurt School (Brace, 2002).

Key Pillars of the Frankfurt School:

Essentially, Frankfurt School believed that if a person is full of beliefs, he can solve any social issue.. The recommendations of the school were following (Matthews, 2009):

Emptying the churches

Big colonization to abolish identity

The advertising of excessive drinking

Dependency on the state or state benefits

The creation of racism offences

Control and dumbing down of media

Continual change to create confusion

Encouraging the breakdown of the family

The deflation of the authority of the schools and teachers

According to school, there were two types of revolution: political and cultural. The theorists observed it to be a long-term project and openly they focused on the education, media, family and popular culture (Matthews, 2009).

“One of the main ideas of the Frankfurt School was to abuse Freud’s idea of ‘pansexualism’- which was the misuse of the differences between sexes, the search for desire, to tell about the traditional relationships between men and women” (Matthews, 2009, Para 5). Matthews (2009) mentions that their aim was to:

Challenge the authority of father and define the particular roles of father and mother and seize the rights from the family the role of educators of their children.

Remove differences in the education of girls and boys

Remove all types of male dominance

Proclaim men as oppressors and women as oppressed class (Matthews, 2009).

Conclusion The Frankfurt School seems to be a bit complicated as it has some element of pessimism which cannot be found in Marxism. The other unusual thing in this school was the Germanic forms of Marxism which were extended by Adorno, Neumann and some others who were prominent in the school. They linked those forms to the forms of Anglo-saxon, American and imperialist thoughts (Bowden, 2012).

According to Munzenberg (as cited in Matthews, 2009) who abridged the idea of Frankfurt School’s long term operation, “We will make the West so corrupt that it sinks” (Para 5).

Works Cited Becerra, Maria Jose Juarez 2012. The Frankfurt School. Retos Internacionales. Web.

Bowden, Jonathan 2012. Marxism and the Frankfurt School. Web.

Brace, Robin, A 2002. The Influence of the Frankfurt School on Modern Liberal Thought. Web.

Chandler, Daniel 2000. Marxist Media Theory. Web.

Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory. Web.

Kellner, Douglas. The Frankfurt School. Web.

Lassus Arnaud de 2001. The Frankfurt School: Cultural Revolution. Web.

Matthews, Timothy 2009. The Frankfurt School: Conspiracy to corrupt. Free Republic. Web.

The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory. Web.

Yaman, Burcu 2011. Critics of Adorno and Horkheimer on Modern Society: A Pessimistic Approach. Tojsat. Web.


Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies Dissertation essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Oil and gas companies face a variety of risks in the process of their operations. Many occurrences that happen outside a company may have an effect on the firm and the financial decisions that it makes. Changes in interest rates, prices of oil, and exchange rates among others are likely to alter the financial decisions of a firm. It is therefore imperative for firms to ensure that no potential economic changes pose a threat to their business.

According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 80), corporate financial managers are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that any past, current, and future fluctuations will not affect the economic standing of the firm. McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that companies use various risk management tools known as derivatives to manage risks.

The tool used should caution the firm from negative impacts of various risks that may happen in its environment. According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), in western Canada, oil companies apply future derivatives to buy certain goods or services at a price that is agreed upon today.

Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) argue that some companies make use of options where a firm gains the right to sell or buy certain goods or services at a certain price in the future. McShane and Anil (2011, 641) confirm that risk information is crucial to investors and the entrepreneurs themselves.

The oil and gas industry is likely to face various risks. For example, political risks, geological risks, price risks, supply and demand risks, and cost risks amongst others. This paper will discuss risk management in various gas and oil companies presenting a detailed literature review of risks in general followed by a detailed discussion of the in the oil and gas firms.

Risks The subject of risks is quite pivotal when it comes to the running of various organisations. Companies need to be aware of the possible or rather potential risks that they are likely to encounter in a bid to develop mechanisms of mitigating them in real time once they occur to ensure continued operation rather than untimely closure of such firms due to their failure to take the necessary precautionary measures.

Various risks are likely to affect different investments. Such risks include political risks, price fluctuations, and changes in supply and demand, natural calamities, geological risks, economic recessions, and government control risks amongst others. Entrepreneurship is a risky undertaking and every entrepreneur has to risk some of these factors and get into business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 83), in the world of business, general risks affect literary every company in business though at varying intensities. Risks have various implications on business depending on the level of their impacts and predisposition of a particular business on them. In some instances, risks may lead to complete loss of business.

For example, if a business is exposed to fire and explosives risks, it can be completely wiped out in case of an accident. However, McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that some of the risks affect all businesses in their every day affairs, for example supply and demand risk, price risks, and government regulations.

Businesses have little or no control on some risks such as natural calamity risks, for instance earthquakes and floods. Nevertheless, it is important for a business to devise ways and methods of detecting, assessing, and mitigating the risks.

Oil and Gas Companies Oil and gas companies provide a working illustration of the subject of risks that is under scrutiny based on the various risks they encounter in their everyday business affairs. From the point of extracting oil and gas, processing it into finished products to transportation, warehousing, and retailing, the whole business is a risk.

These companies encounter various types of risks in their line of business. Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) assert that risks affect almost every firm in business and are likely to affect the oil and gas industry more than any other firm. According to Helman (2013, p. 62), the oil and gas industry faces tight regulations on how to conduct its business.

Such regulations include rules on how oil and gas are extracted from the source, regulations on where they can be extracted and where extraction cannot be done, and regulations of the period in which extraction of oil and gas can be done. The government has the upper hand in such regulations since oil business is lucrative.

In fact, the political wrangles that affect most countries that have oil and gas resources revolve around the control of oil wells by the government. Countries such as Sudan and Southern Sudan have been in conflict due to control of oil wells.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such political wrangles have also been witnessed in Kuwait and Nigeria. Whenever there are political wrangles in the control of oil and gas, the companies that invest in such nations face higher economic and political risks. Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1) argue that politics of regionalism, equitable distribution of national resources, and resource distribution also affect oil and gas regulation.

In some cases, the laws governing extraction, processing, and distribution of oil and gases in different states may vary. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, 2001) reveal that it is more risky to carryout oil and gas business in dependence on foreign deposits without standardisation.

In the oil and gas industry, some companies that show interest are likely to invest in any part of the world where the oil and gas field has a sheer disregard of the political climate of the country. According to Helman (2013, p. 63), if the host country nationalises the industry, foreign investors are likely to suffer loss.

Politics of that kind of nation may also change to favour certain investors or category of investors where the foreign investor may not be considered. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, p. 2001) argue that some economies will attract investors to begin the process of extraction.

Nevertheless, once the process of extraction is complete and the oil and business industry becomes lucrative, politicians, activists, and government officials enact laws to enable the government to leap more from the industry. An investor who puts his or her resources in such an industry is therefore likely to suffer loss. Political risk in oil industry is a major threat to the stability of the sector.

It is even more risky to invest in the oil and gas industry in some developing countries. In some of the developing countries with plenty of oil and gas such as Libya and Sudan in Africa, the countries are under poor political leadership thus posing a great risk to investors in the industry. Whenever there is a political turmoil in various nations, oil tankers are targeted due to the high flammability of oil.

In addition, Dumaine (2013, p. 102) affirms that oil and gas industries demand tight security and surveillance even in small quantities such as in China. It would therefore mean that, when there is political instability in a county, the rate of insecurity goes down. Consequently, the risk on the industry goes up.

Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) assert that the process of gas and oil exploitation has also become very risky especially with the current dynamics. For instance, drilling of oil is happening in very dangerous environments such as oceans. Extraction in such areas increases the risks that oil and gas industries have to incur in the process of extraction, refining, distribution, and marketing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91) affirm that there has also been an increase in the level of unconventional methods of oil and gas extraction. Out of such unconventional methods of mining, some potential oil and gas mines have been poorly exploited or destroyed. In fact, some of these procedures have been used to extract oil and gas in places where it would have proved impracticable.

According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), gas and oil extraction companies involve themselves in great risks by investing a lot of finances and other resources in extraction. Some companies have incurred much cost in the process of extracting gas and oil only to find minimal deposits than they had estimated.

It is therefore risky ventures for a company to be sure that geologists and rock experts have enough evidence of the presence of oil or gas in a certain area. According to Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91), it is also risky for the extraction company to hire specialists such as geologists in oil in the process of investigating the presence oil or gas in a certain field and then fail to realise the targeted amount of oil or gas.

Oil and gas extraction, processing, marketing, and distribution constitute a business that aims at obtaining profits. The prices in the oil and gas markets must therefore be able to sustain the industry in a profitable way. Fluctuation in oil and market prices is a risk factor to the industry. No one can predict what the prices of oil or gas will be when the process of extraction will be completed.

Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong (2012, p. 201) argue that companies in this industry therefore undertake a risk in extracting and purifying the gas without clear future market prices for their products. In several instances, oil and gas extraction companies have undergone the whole process of geological tests and drilling despite their ending up without the projected product.

In such cases, unless the gas and oil extraction company is insured, it suffers a big loss. The nature of oil and gas market has been fluctuating over the years. According to Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667), fluctuation of oil and gas prices poses a great risk to the stakeholders in the industry.

Supply and demand issue is a limitation to the oil and gas industry. Venturing into oil and gas industry involves investing huge capital. The operations involved in extracting oil and gas are very expensive and extraction companies have to invest in the process. However, such companies may not be aware of the trend that prices of gas and oil will take in the future. Wood (2011, p. 113) affirms that demand and supply keep on changing.

When the supply of gas in the world market goes high, the prices go down thus increasing the risk of incurring heavy losses. Oil and gas industry also experiences imbalances when prices of oil go up. In most cases, when the prices of oil and gases hike, large warehouses hoard the commodities.

O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that hoarding increases the risk of loss of customers on retailers and local wholesalers since the commodity does not reach the target consumer. Such suppliers are also at the risk of being compromised of inconsistency by their customers.

Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that it is also very hard to predict the production rates of gas and oil in various states especially with a nation with many states such as the U.S. Kendrick (2012, p. 61) affirms that unpredictability of productivity increases the risk of price fluctuation in the oil and gas industry.

In addition, Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440) reveal that, whenever there is a financial crisis in a country or a region, for example, the American crisis or the European crisis of 2007, supply and demand of oil and gas also change. Financial crisis increases the risk of reduced purchasing power. Hence, the affected country experiences low demand for oil and gases.

Wood (2011, p. 113) point out that the economic crisis increases the risk of low supply and demand due to its ability to reduce the capital base of a nation. When a country has a low capital base, it is limited in its operations. Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24) argue that the macroeconomic position of the industry can also increase the risk of demand and supply.

Macroeconomic power of every industry dictates the success of business under it. The oil and gas industry experiences huge operational costs. O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that all the other risk factors involved in the oil and gas industry drain into operational costs.

Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that, when the regulations set by political leaders and governments of a particular nation are very tight, the operation cost goes up.

Tight regulations make the process of extracting, processing, and distributing gas and oil more extensive and hence expensive. Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) posit that the operations that are involved in the process of oil mining and gas harvesting determine the level of operations risks that a firm is likely to incur.

The operations involved in drilling are also extensive and expensive. Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong, (2012, p. 201) establish that the process of drilling is coupled with many limitations, for instance, bad weather, poor soils and other geological factors, inaccessibility, and technological problems. Such problems increase the operations cost. When the operations cost hikes, the industry becomes disfranchised.

Different producers set their own market prices to overcome their cost of production. According to Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24), variation in the cost of production makes it difficult for nations of the world to set standard oil and gas prices.

In fact, some industries incur a double or triple cost of production compared to others. It is out of such variations that oil and gas prices have become very competitive in the market. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), industries that have been in the line of production for many years incur lesser risks than new industries.

Managing Risks- Risk Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control The oil and gas industry is a risk-prone industry. Various uncertainties go along these risks such as the risk of exploration, demand and supply risk, crude price uncertainty, and product line risk. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), the oil and gas industry is one of the risky ventures. Hence, to prevent the danger that the industry poses, there should be the need to manage it.

Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that management of risks also ensures that the small industries and the upcoming ones become commercially viable. In addition, there are technological risks such as “cyber threats of Stuxnet virus, which also target lucrative oil and gas industry” (Sudhir, and Zafar 2009, p. 440).

These and many other risks in oil and gas industry necessitate the need for risk management. Consequently, various methods of risk management have been put in place to mitigate risks in this industry.

Risk Identification Oil and gas companies have invested in information access control and management. Such risk management strategies involve identifying and accessing the right information at all time when it is very necessary. Information management has been a great source of risk in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to harvest policy information, process it, and use it gainfully.

According to Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440), information harvesting, processing, and management reduce the risk of operations. When companies access the right information before investment, they are able to reduce compliance risks. The company can use future derivative to organise how it will acquire various goods and services in the future at a certain price.

Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that speedy exchange of information across the industry enables investors to make the right information. Classified information and access to the information systems of oil and gas companies has also been highly controlled.

Risk Assessment Modern technology aids in the reduction of variation in governance-risk-compliance. Technology is also an efficient tool in the reduction of operational risk.

According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), the use of real time monitoring technology enables the oil and gas companies to improve the availability of the commodity to customers, reduce operational costs, avoid conflicts with the society and the regulatory authorities, and reduce the risk of demand and supply.

Dumaine (2013, p. 102), affirms that oil and gas companies are adopting condition-based monitoring in risk management, which involves positioning various sensors to measure and record the prevailing environmental conditions such as vibration and temperatures (Pinheiro 2011, p. 34). Such sensors enable the oil and gas companies to detect equipment failure in real time.

In fact, Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) assert that the devices are sophisticated to ensure that alert devices either sound the alarm or give work orders to the operations department. Wimalasiri et al. (2010, p. 49) affirm that sensors have enabled many oil companies to avoid the risk of losing billions of money in spillage and leakages.

Some oil and gas companies have set up strategic teams to manage any eventuality such as equipment failure and fire outbreaks. Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) point out that fire departments are also connected to sensors in order to enable quick response to eventualities and occurrences.

Wimalasiri et al. (2010, 49) argue that predictive maintenance enables the industry to realise when there is the need to purchase certain equipments before the actual damage is done. Various modern technology devices are put in place to detect wear-and-tear and obsoleteness of equipments in the oil industry.

Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) observe that, whenever the devices sense that a gas tank or an oil tank is not up to the set standards, the necessary alert message is sent to the maintenance department for replacement.

Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) affirm that the sensor is also able to compare and analyse the level of functionality of every device in the firm and or give the right report on each. Pinheiro (2011, p. 34) observes that such quick reactions enable the firm to avoid health risks.

Risks Control Oil and gas companies have to deal with the increased compliance and regulations facing the industry today. For example, according to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), in South Africa, tight requirements of reporting on all operations and events of minor accidents and incidents have been an expensive venture for the industry. There are also tight regulations on drilling operations.

Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to ensure that the checklist for all regulations is complied with as the government of the area dictates (Chan 2011, p. 341).

Such compliance includes registration of the company, authorisation for drilling, construction of the industry, reliability in maintenance of structures such as oil wells, and the ability to remain in the market as a competitive industry (Khan 2010, p. 157). According to Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1), politics in a certain nation or state can play a role in the oil and gas industry.

The major role that political forces play in the oil and gas industry is to regulate prices. Politicians are opinion leaders who largely become policy makers. Oil and gas industries have therefore put in place mechanisms to work with government in price regulations and policy control.

The gas and oil companies have to deal with various environmental and health risk compliance processes. The oil and gas industry also faces the risk of geological inadequacy. In most of the nations and states, the reserve of oil and gas is already tapped out. The risk has also spread in nations that have been exploiting their reserves since they are also in the process of being fully exploited.

According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), companies have therefore put in place methods of ensuring that they comply with the health regulations in their area of investment. Oil is a pollutant to the environment in a double way especially when not well handled.

According to Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130), the risk of oil spillage in water, for example, during mining or transportation in the sea has been greatly reduced through modern technology. Sophisticated mining methods have been employed to ensure no oil spillage during mining.

In fact, Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130) affirm that modern water vessels have also been adopted in transporting oil through the sea. Khan (2010, p. 157) posits that employees’ health and safety have also been a risk issue in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas prices are another risk that investors in this industry face.

Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667) argue that prices dictate whether a venture into extracting oil or gas is to be feasible or not. When geological limitations are high, the price risk of extracting oil or gas goes high. Oil and gas companies have therefore ensured high safety standards to employees through education and trainings.

According to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), employees are taught how to protect themselves, how to behave while in the extraction site or in the storage and distribution site, and even how to manage eventualities such as fire outbreaks.

Chan (2011, p. 341) reveal that oil and gas companies have also ensured that the community living near the mines and storage areas are also informed on management of fire and spillage.

According to Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145), oil and gas companies have also made use of resource centres that are set within the industries. Various minds gather in the resource centres to exchange ideas on the problems facing the industry.

Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) affirm that, unlike in the past when orders came from managers, engineers in today’s industry meet and exchange knowledge on various problems that their firms face.

Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145) assert that, with the meeting of engineering experts from various departments, the right solutions are likely to be realised to eliminate various risks facing oil and gas industries for example the geological and price fluctuation risks.

The experts will come up with recommendations on the right measures that the industry should take to avoid risks. Such decisions and recommendations majorly include modification, technological adaptations, planning, and maintenance.

With the modern advancement in information technology, cyber crime and information system hacking has posed another risk to the oil and gas industry. According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), in Nigeria, oil and gas companies have therefore put in place cyber security designs and technologies to mitigate the risk.

In oil and gas industries, information system security has been highly integrated with people, processes, data, and systems. Such ventures secure the system to ensure accountability on the side of the operators.

Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) argue that information security also ensures continuous surveillance of the internet protocol openings and filtration of information before it gains access to the main information system of the company.

Importance of Managing Risks specifically in Oil and Gas Companies Based on the information already presented concerning risks and their repercussions if not mitigated, it becomes clear on the need to manage risks by all organisations, leave alone the oil and gas companies. Such risks reduce the ability of the firm to predict the course of business. The oil and gas industry faces various difficulties and tight monitoring by many authorities.

Investing in the oil industry is also a very risky venture. In this light of probability of loss in the oil and gas industries, this paper highlights various importance of risk mitigation. Every derivative that oil and gas industries put in place should aim at risk mitigation. The derivatives that a firm takes should be aimed at cautioning the industry from the past, current, and future risks.

Kendrick (2012, p. 61) asserts that risk management in oil and gas industries ensures that there is proper compliance with the regulations of the authorities in their place of business. Insuring the business against various risks also enables the company to have confidence and security in trade. Such regulations should also be adhered to avoid the risk of regulations and compliance.

According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), managing risks in the oil and gas industry enables the companies to have clear visibility of the current position and the future of the firm. Such a goal can be attained by venturing into future derivatives. The industry should sign for future trading ventures at certain prices with certain companies.

Conclusion In conclusion, every business venture is exposed to various risks. Consequently, every business has to put in place various mechanisms to identify, monitor, assess, and control risks. Private enterprise is generally a risky venture. However, as discussed, the oil and gas company is bound to face more risks than any other business.

The major risks that affect oil and gas companies include geological risks, political risks, government regulations, and compliance risks, price fluctuation, demand and supply, and natural calamities risk. Oil and gas companies have therefore invested heavily in various risk mitigation measures.

Such measures include risk identification, risk assessment, and risk monitoring and control. It is important to manage risks in every business venture. Risks can result in complete loss of business.

They can lead to conflicts with the authorities and the communities in the business environment. It is therefore important to comply with the regulatory measures put in place by the regulatory authorities. Insuring the business against various risks is also an important step in risk mitigation.

References Akhibi, O 2012, ‘Risk Management – An Essential Ingredient in Nigerian Oil and Gas Construction Projects Delivery’, PM World Today, vol. 14 no. 3, p. 6.

Andersen, S


Dismissal Meeting Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Outline




Outline One of the most challenging roles of a manager is terminating an employee. Once the decision to terminate an employee has been made, managers find themselves in a rather awkward situation of having to break the bad news to the employee. Terminating an employee is not always a pleasurable activity because it comes with several challenges.

First, it can be traumatizing to the laid off employee and the other employees who have remained behind. Second, layoffs have emotional effects on the managers who have to plan and conduct the whole process.

Finally, termination always comes with issues of compensation and potential threats of lawsuits if it is mishandled. Thus, simply put, terminating an employee is one of the worst things a manager ever has to do. However, if the dismissal meeting is conducted in a professional manner, it can help maintain the employee’s dignity and help minimize any potential eventualities.

Introduction One of the most difficult decisions for managers is that of dismissing an employee (Molinsky


Addressing Aggression in Children Research Paper writing essay help

The reasons for Carla’s aggression towards her peers and a fast and efficient strategy developed to address Carla’s issues were learned quickly. This can be considered the greatest and the most important achievements of the therapy. The use of the MOAS was clearly crucial to the research results. The test allowed for assessing the scale of the problem that the healthcare specialist had to deal with. In addition, it also provided the measurement of Carla’s progress and the efficiency of the intervention.

The study has proven the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The therapy is crucial for dealing with the issues that have been triggered by early childhood memories. Carla had very painful memories about her father’s death. As a result, she was unable to build relationships with her peers. Thus, Carla had to recognize the possibilities of communicating with people. In addition, she had to learn that social interactions were not going to hurt her. Therefore, the intervention was designed to help the patient learn to socialize.

The fact that the patient underwent the therapy sessions together with the family is clearly a major positive aspect of the suggested treatment. According to the facts listed in the patient’s medical record, Carla was initially isolated from the rest of the people surrounding her, mostly from children.

As the research has shown, the restriction in the number of social contacts was obviously a mistake. Indeed, the instances of aggression only multiplied and became more intense after the aunt of the patient isolated the girl from her friends. Carla clearly needed communication with her friends.

It should be noted, though, that the progress made by Carla is rather uncertain. Therefore, an instance of recidivism may occur. Thus, Carla should be under her teacher’s and nursing specialist’s observation for a couple of weeks more. After she is supervised, one can make sure that she has completed her therapy sessions successfully.

Thus, such activities as creative writing, drawing, linking objects, and other tasks included into creative counseling sessions allowed Carla to express her deepest fears. Still, a sudden shock may reverse the progress, and, therefore, the need for Carla to undergo an intervention will rise again.

Speaking about the external validity of the given research, the provided scenario has a number of elements that make it unique. For example, the patient was under the influence of such factors as the overprotection of her aunt. As a result, the patient was nearly isolated from her social contacts. The given fact alone is enough to single Carla’s case out. In addition, the article mentions the childhood trauma that Carla acquired, thus, making her case even more specific.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That being said, the problem of aggression among children who have suffered parent’ death, abuse or other traumatizing experiences is still a major issue in the modern society. The case of Carla’s problem, in its turn, can be used as a means to understand the mechanics of aggression that such children develop towards the rest of the world.

Hence, this study can be used in order to help these children. The internal validity of the research in question is also quite high, since it helps analyze the relationship between MOAS and the reduction of aggression in children. Again, seeing how the case is quite specific, it would be wrong to claim that it offers universal results. Nevertheless, the links between the interventions the improvement of Carla’s communication skills is evident.


Motivation, Work Performance, Job Satisfaction Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Most of the successful companies have unique strategies to motivate and empower their employees. According to Caulton (2012), a company should establish the best relationship with its stakeholders and employees. Every motivated employee is an asset in an organization.

Some of the factors affecting employees’ satisfaction and performance include “the leadership style, workplace, and availability of resources and remunerations” (Caulton, 2012, p. 5). Organizational leaders should also promote their employees’ motivations. This approach will ensure the company is successful. Every motivated employee tackles every challenge in order to achieve the targeted goals. This discussion explains the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on work performance.

Motivation, Work Performance, and Job Satisfaction The terms motivation, job satisfaction, and performance are critical in every business organization. Business organizations should increase the level of motivation in order to mentor their employees. Motivation also results in job satisfaction and fulfillment. A satisfied employee will improve his or her work performance.

Motivation in an organization determines the level of job satisfaction (Baack, 1999). This will help the business realize its goals and objectives. I have worked in different companies. My experience explains why the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is a priority in every business organization. The leadership style, work environment, job design, motivational strategies, and resources affect the level of performance. This determines the employees’ job satisfaction and performance.

I have experienced various motivational problems in my life as an employee. The first motivational problem began when a new chief executive officer (CEO) took office. The CEO did not communicate effectively to the employees. The manager introduced sudden changes without discussing with the employees. The CEO changed the existing organizational culture by creating new departments and work practices.

The HR department was no longer willing to address the issues affecting the employees. The new leader also slashed the employees’ salaries without giving explanations. The CEO fired every employee who presented their complaints about the issues affecting them. The situation worsened because the performance began to dwindle. This behavior explains why the rate of employee turnover will always increase before (Vries, Bakker-Pieper


Presidential and Congressional Decision Making Evaluation Essay college essay help online

Introduction Democracy gives individuals and institutions the power to make decisions for the public. There is no way the views of all citizens can be addressed in national forums unless they have representatives. Most nations have three powerful arms of government that include the executive, congress and judiciary (Shulman 2006). This essay presents an evaluation of the presidential and congressional decision making processes and addresses their differences, effectiveness and current and future plans to make them work properly.

Similarities and Differences Characteristics

The presidential form of decision making is characterized by various factors that include the following. First, this decision is made by an individual and the views presented to the public are perceived to be from the president. This makes it easy for people to evaluate the attitude, perception and reaction of their presidents towards issues of national importance (Spillane 2014). Therefore, it is necessary to explain that people will perceive their presidents to be good or bad depending on how they make decisions.

The source of their decisions is deemed to be their personality or stand on various issues. This means that if a president makes a wrong decision the public will judge him or her and not any other person or body. The congressional decision making process is made by a group of elected and nominated political leaders (Tan 2011). These members may be parliamentarians or senators and both groups have the right of making decisions for the public.

No individual is responsible for making decisions because there is the need for most members to be present to pass a resolution (Pomeranz 1998). Therefore, when a bad decision is passed in parliament the public will not blame one person for making it. The responsibility of blame will be on all the members of parliament that were present or absent during the passing of a bill. The decisions of this house are perceived to be the positions taken by most members of parliament and senators.

Secondly, the congress is a representation of various political parties and thus the decision and votes of every member is deemed to be the standpoint of a political party or constituency. There is the need to understand that congress members are elected by their people and others nominated by political parties. Therefore, they represent their constituents or political parties and this means that their decisions must reflect the needs of these two entities (Subhash 2009).

The congress constitutes members from different regions and political parties and the decisions made are usually in favor of the needs of a political party or constituents of a member of parliament. It is necessary to explain that sometimes members of parliament may be forced to support decisions that do not reflect the interests of their constituents or political parties. These situations may lead to reprimands or protests from political parties and the public respectively.

A president is a leader of a country and thus the decisions this individual makes must be for the benefit of all citizens irrespective of their political affiliations (Shulman 2006). The president should make decisions that do not reflect political inclinations and instead address the needs of the whole population to ensure the interests of all groups are given reasonable attention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that presidents must shed off their political inclinations once they assume office and this is reflected in how they make key decisions. Most presidents do not participate in the activities of political parties that propelled them to power to avoid being subjective when making national decisions. It is necessary to explain that the decisions made by a president should portray neutrality to enable the public to distinguish between the political and national aspects of the presidency.

Moreover, presidents have advisory teams that ensure they do not make decisions that may be misinterpreted by the public and political parties.

Presidential advisory teams are important in guiding presidents when making key decisions. These teams are made of professionals from different fields to ensure presidents make informed decisions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents are usually as a result of long consultation and guidance from advisors that have practical experience, academic and research knowledge on various issues (Tan 2011).

The president is in charge of hiring members of these bodies and thus nobody can influence their decisions pony this matter. These teams are responsible for advising presidents, but the final decision lies on the office holder. This means that the teams do not play crucial roles in determining what decisions presidents make during their terms in office.

However, they ensure they give proper guidance to presidents and advise them on the best ways to manage issues of national importance. Therefore, presidents have the right of making decisions they deem appropriate in their countries and nobody can stop them from doing this. Congressional decision making is determined by the positions taken by political parties or constituents.

Congressmen cannot make their own independent decisions because they are supposed to represent their political parties and constituents (Norburn 2007). This means that even if they have personal preferences and opinions regarding issues of national importance they cannot make decisions that do not tally with what their constituents or political parties expect from them.

Therefore, their hands are usually tied to other people who think that they their interests should be properly represented by congressmen. The need for congressmen to consult constituents and political parties before making decisions shows they do not have powers to determine the choices of their actions (Tan 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, a presidential decision making is determined by national issues that affect people from different political backgrounds. Presidents are obliged to listen to their citizens, regardless of their political affiliations and make sure their decisions reflect the needs of all citizens.

The positions taken by presidents in international forums represent the stands of their citizens. Therefore, presidents are mandated to address issues that affect the lives of all citizens in all corners of their countries and not just a handful of those that belong to their political parties (Tan 2011).

Presidents are elected by political parties, but this does not give them the power to address issues that affect their members only. A president is a national figure and thus must look at things from a non political perspective to ensure the needs of their citizens are addressed. There is the need for presidential advisory teams to ensure their presidents avoid issues that portray political interests.

This will help presidents to make non-partisan decisions that will improve the lives of all citizens. Congressional decision making is to the needs of their members. There is no independency in congressional decision making. In addition, members of the congress make decisions that are limited to their areas of jurisdiction and this includes constituencies and political parties (Tan 2011).

Members of parliament represent individuals of specific regions and thus they may not have the power to make decisions that do not affect their people. This means that the power of a member of parliament is limited to the areas an individual represents. This explains why not all members of parliament are usually present when making some decisions.

They do not see the need to attend sessions that are of insignificant value to their constituents. In addition, the decision made by a congress may not affect all regions. However, presidential decisions affect the lives of all citizens irrespective of their locations. Therefore, congressional decisions are limited in scope and do not affect the entire country like how the presidential one does.


Presidential decision making faces serious challenges due to the nature of this position. First, most people perceive the decisions of this office to represent the interest of political parties that won presidential elections (Norburn 2007).

Therefore, there are criticisms that face this office because people do not understand that presidents are national figures and do not represent their political parties while in office. Political parties that win presidential elections face criticism when their presidents make decisions that may be perceived to have vested interests (Tan 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, congressional decisions do not face a lot of criticisms because people understand that they represent the interests of different groups like political parties and constituencies. Members of parliament do not make independent decisions and this means that there are no chances of criticisms from their political parties or constituents. Therefore, they do not expect negative responses from those they represent.

In addition, presidential decision making is influenced by opinion polls and interest groups. This means that presidents may make decisions that do not reflect their thoughts, but address the needs of the public.

Opinion polls and interest groups are very influential in determining the decisions that presidents make and thus they rely on the mind of their citizens to make resolutions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents cannot be said to be totally independent from any external forces; in fact the public determines and shapes the thoughts of its presidents (Tan 2011). A president who makes unpopular decisions may face demonstrators supported by interest groups.

Presidential and congressional decision making determines the future of office bearers in different positions. People judge the performance of presidents and members of parliament, depending on the importance and nature of the decisions they make. Those willing to retain their seats in future elections must make decisions that make their constituents happy even if they do not have any economic or social value.

It is necessary to explain that political decision makers have an uncertain future because they are judged depending on their contributions in formulating policies (Stone 2013). Therefore, they are sometimes forced to make decisions that make no sense provided their constituents and political parties are happy.

It is necessary to explain that the electorate has the power of influencing both presidential and congressional decisions. However, presidents serving their second terms and congressmen that do not wish to be reelected ignore the demands of their people because they are of no value to them. Therefore, they do not mind what their people will think about them and this motivates these members to make decisions that they think are suitable or represent their interests (Stone 2013).

Presidents face serious challenges when they make decisions that may affect their political parties. Political parties that produce presidents expect them to favor their members or interests regardless of their consequences on the public. Therefore, they think that presidents will listen and follow their advice even if they are wrong; however, this is usually not the case as most presidents ignore the political aspects when making decisions (Tan 2011).

Most congressmen and presidents are usually accused of dictatorship and betrayal when they fail to obey the orders issued by their political parties. Some issues presented by political parties aim at frustrating opponents and promoting their interests and presidents usually ignore such moves and this makes them to be perceived to be dictators.

Lastly, both the presidential and congressional decision making processes face the risk of rejection due to political interference (Reuer 2011). Politics play significant roles in determining the fate of bills and other policies. The concept and application of democratic rights of political parties and individuals have been misused to interfere with the processes of making decisions by institutions or people. People think that their opinions should be given preference to those of others because democracy dictates so.

Political parties misuse their constitutional right and force ruling parties to experience serious challenges that interfere with the implementation of their manifestos (Spillane 2014). Presidents face serious challenges from opposition parties that rarely approve of their decisions.

They think that they must oppose all decisions and actions of the ruling party and this slows down the process of decision making. There are chances that nations that think they are democratic rarely make decisions on time due to interference from political parties and individuals aligned to the opposition.


The effectiveness of the presidential decision making process is determined by various factors. First, presidents or heads of states have constitutional rights of making some decisions including appointment of public office bearers and commanding key military bodies to undertake operations. The congress has no power over this issue and this makes the president to have control over other decision making organs in a country.

Presidents have the right to ensure that there is security in their countries and that people enjoy their lives (Reuer 2011). Therefore, he can make decisions that affect the lives of citizens in all regions regardless of what congressmen think about them. However, some decisions cannot be made by presidents without consultation or approval from other bodies like the houses of representatives.

For instance, the American president cannot command the military to attack other nations or conduct their operations there if he does not have the approval from the upper and lower houses of representatives (Shulman 2006). This means that in this case the president has no power of making independent decisions. Therefore, there are some decisions that the president cannot make without the approval of these houses while others do not require their consent.

The congress has a constitutional right of discussing important issues that affect a country and making decisions that ensure citizens live secure, healthy and affordable life. This body has the responsibility of passing bills and making sure that necessary amendments are made to make laws appropriate for the promotion of human life and development (Reuer 2011).

The congress does not need the support of a president when making laws and this means that it is independent from his or her influence. However, the president must approve all bills passed by members of parliament before they become laws. The bills will be returned to the house for further debate and amendments if the president refuses to approve it.

The above discussions show that the presidential and congressional decision making processes are not independent and each body relies on the support of the other to function properly. However, it is necessary to understand that not all issues require the approval of the other department to survive (Tan 2011).

The congress may have more power over the president when it comes to issues of impeachment when a president makes repeated mistakes. Therefore, there are instances where these parties have equal influence over others, but sometimes they function independently.


Presidential and congressional decision making produces both bad and good outcomes. The presidential decision making process aims at establishing appropriate ways of ensuring citizens get access to quality public service. This includes unrestricted access to justice, security, education and proper medical services.

There is the need to explain that presidents are in charge of their countries and thus anything that happens to their citizens (regardless of their political inclinations) falls on their shoulders (Subhash 2009). Therefore, they make decisions that do not portray political inclinations because they are supposed to be national representatives.

Presidential advisors help presidents to make decisions that will attract approval from members of public and civil groups. This means that they ensure presidents are not influenced by personal or political interests when making national decisions. This makes their decisions to be effective in ensuring people have access to quality services from civil servants and public offices (Reuer 2011). Therefore, the presidential decision making process is effective if it addresses national issues without political interference.

On the other hand, it is likely that a presidential decision making process may not be effective. First, this process centers power to an individual and thus there are possibilities that the person may not make appropriate decisions due to lack of consultation and debates (Subhash 2009).

The process may be influenced by limited knowledge and experience on various issues and this may make a president to make decisions that lack professional understanding. In addition, some presidents do not like following advises from other people or institutions because they think that they know better than others. Therefore, they make irrational decisions that expose their countries to ridicule and lower the ratings of their performance.

Congressional decision making is a complicated process because it requires consultation and debates. There are higher chances that congressional decision making processes can produce good outcomes because they involve debates and consultations.

Therefore, appropriate measures are taken before decisions are made and this helps the public to get quality services (Reuer 2011). In addition, this process takes a lot of time before decisions are made. This gives decision makers the time to revise their presentation and evaluate the effectiveness of their policies.

However, this process may not be suitable in producing good outcomes because members present the interests of their political parties and constituents. The interests of any of these may not be appropriate in promoting national development.

Congress men have used this process to express their political interests and frustrate their opponents. In addition, the success of any decisions determined by the support it gets from the members of various bodies; therefore, it is not a democratic way of making decisions and its outcomes may have negative impacts on citizens (Stone 2013).

The congressional decision making process is more effective than the presidential one since it has higher chances of producing the expected outcomes. In addition, it represents the views of ordinary citizens and political parties and not individuals.

Current Measures The congressional decision making process is expected to improve due to the introduction of civil and social awareness in parliaments. It is necessary to explain that traditionally most parliamentarians did not know their roles and how to execute various policies to ensure the interests of their people are addressed (Pomeranz 1998).

The need to ensure congressmen pass appropriate bills and make good decisions will improve because of the introduction of training programs that will help these members to understand the impacts of their actions on ordinary citizens. This has helped them to differentiate political and national issues and minimized irrelevant debate and bills in parliament. Nations are struggling to equip their parliaments with modern technology to ensure communication between the public and congressmen is improved.

The presidential decision making process is undergoing tremendous changes to ensure the president makes rational decisions. Most presidents listen to their advisory bodies and consult relevant departments before making decisions (Shulman 2006).

This ensures the interest of the public is given the first priority over that of an individual or political party. In addition, presidents have realized that their positions as public figures means that they must ensure their citizens live better lives and have access to what they need. This means that they have ignored their personal and political party’s influences when making decisions.

Recommendations There is the need for a congressional decision making process to take a shorter time than what is happening in most parliaments. Bills should be discussed and approved within a short and reasonable time to avoid piling pressure on members of parliament.

In addition, congressional decision making processes should be independent of any political interests to ensure there is objectivity in discussions. Moreover, the veto power of the president should be minimized to ensure the congress is not arm-twisted to make irrational decisions. Lastly, there should be guidelines to guide the contribution of members in the congress to ensure all members are allowed to present their views.

There is the need for the presidential decision making process to involve other stakeholders before making conclusions. Presidents should not be allowed to make independent decisions without consulting stakeholders. The time for issuing presidential decrees and resolutions should be increased to ensure there is proper consolation and evaluation of the decisions made before the public is informed about them.

Conclusion Presidential decision refers to the decrees, actions, orders, suggestions and recommendations made by a head of state. Presidents are allowed to make independent decisions that affect the lives of their citizens provided they abide by the regulations of their constitutions. A congressional decision refers to the resolutions passed in either the lower or upper house of representatives.

These decisions are made after members of these houses conduct debates to evaluate the impacts and importance of issues that affect the lives of ordinary citizens. The presidential and congressional decisions affect the lives of ordinary citizens and thus the people responsible for them must ensure they put the interests of the public before self.

References Norburn, D 2007, ‘A Four Nation of the Relationship between Presidential and Congressional decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 21(4), pp. 451-468.

Pomeranz, F 1998, ‘Corporate Governance: Opportunity for Institutions and individuals’, The Journal of Political Management, 7(3), pp. 25-29.

Reuer, J 2011, ‘Managing in the Turbulent Political World: Presidential and Congressional decision making’, Journal of International Politics, 30, pp. 219-222.

Shulman, R 2006, ‘Corporate Treatment of Political Decisions, Journal of International Politics, 14(2), pp. 83-88.

Spillane, C 2014, ‘The challenges of political decision making processes in America’, Businessweek, 6(12), pp. 5-13.

Stone, B 2013, ‘An introduction to decision making in modern political governance’, Journal of International Politics, 11(21), pp. 11-12.

Subhash, K 2009, ‘Political economy and decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 12(2), pp. 113-129.

Tan, W 2011, ‘Politics and Corporate Governance, Investment and Firm Valuation in Asian Emerging Markets’, Journal of International Management and Accounting, 22 (3), pp. 246-273.


Causes of Noise-induced Hearing Loss Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Hearing loss may be classified differently. The most common classification is based on the pathology where the disease may be conductive or sensorineural. Another classification is based on the cause of the hearing loss, which may be age-related (presbycusis) or in noise-induced cases as discussed below. In conductive hearing loss, the transmission of sound to the cochlea is ineffective, despite the nervous system being intact.

The ear is divided into the external, middle, and inner ear. Obstruction to the transmission of sound along the pathway results in conductive hearing loss. The causes of conductive hearing loss may be congenital such as the meatal atresia, or acquired such as the case of accumulation of wax (Gradwell,


Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman Report essay help free: essay help free

Silverman (2013) is critical of entry level workers describing them as “entitled, unprofessional bunch.” The author notes that entry level workers lack professionalism and commitment to their employers which makes them incompetent at work. They do not take their work responsibilities seriously which makes them incompetent and unprofessional. This harsh assertion reveals organizations need to readjust their expectations when hiring college graduates to fill up vacant positions.

The article shows that business organizations need to adopt stringent measures to ensure new and inexperienced employees perform their duties well. It is notable that this decline in performance has been going on for the last five years. It is disappointing to see that many entry level employees have a poor work ethic due to their negative attitudes to work (Silverman, 2013). The article confirms that the current crop of entry level employees in many firms do not have desired qualities to perform assigned duties effectively.

Employees need to have respect for authority for them to perform their duties well. Therefore, managers of different firms need to use discipline and respect for authority as some of the criteria used to assess employee performance. Silverman (2013) notes that some new candidates even show their arrogance while still being interviewed.

This portrays poor social etiquette on the part of the interviewee which shows that he or she does not value being associated with the interviewing firm. Managers should not tolerate any negative behavior by new employees as this sends a wrong signal to other employees in the firm. Cases of poor performance and insubordination by employees must be dealt with firmly. This will make workers more diligent to achieve organizational objectives.

This article confirms that performance based appraisals are effective in evaluating the contribution of each individual employee to the organization. Entry level workers must be taken through a firm’s organizational culture and practices to make them understand their roles and responsibilities. This will make them understand that any form of incompetence and insubordination at the work place will not be tolerated.

Performance appraisals can be used as benchmarks to reward employees who perform well in their duties. Likewise, appraisals can also be used to encourage employees who do not perform well to improve their performance in the future. Organizations need to put in place strict measures to ensure each individual worker produces quality output (Schrage, 2011). Employees who are not able to achieve positive productivity levels due to their incompetence should be replaced.

Effective time management is a good way to assess if an employee is committed to an organization. All employees must be made aware of the need to keep time to enable the organization achieve positive output. Employees should not be allowed to report to work late as this slows down internal operations and other crucial work processes. Organizations should put in place disciplinary measures to reduce lateness by employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will ensure all employees take their duties at work more seriously. Technology is a useful tool at the work place though it has some disadvantages. Some workers waste a lot of time chatting on various social media platforms. This behavior affects their productivity because their attention is diverted from crucial work duties to other unnecessary activities (Schrage, 2011).

It is necessary to supervise employees more to ensure that they perform their duties as expected. Time should be treated as a valuable resource which needs to be managed properly to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.

Entry level employees should be given mentors to make them adapt quickly to the transition between college and work. Effective mentors help young employees to understand the culture and practices observed by all stakeholders in a firm. Employees should be given mentors who are more experienced and knowledgeable in different work procedures.

Young employees need to be encouraged to enable them improve their attitudes and commitment at work (Baldoni, 2011). A good mentor helps a young and inexperienced novice learn the importance of setting goals and the way they are to be achieved. Mentors make it possible for an organization to get the best results out of talented employees who do not have a strong motivation to work. This helps a firm to nurture inexperienced employees who are talented.

Business organizations must have clear communication protocols which all employees must follow whenever they communicate with each other. This should be made part of the organization’s culture to make all employees appreciate its importance. Verbal communication, e-mails, letters and telephone calls should be the main forms of communication used by employees to send and receive messages.

Entry-level employees need to be discouraged from using smart phones and computers inappropriately. This will ensure they follow laid down communication policies and other rules (Baldoni, 2011). Therefore, they will be able to focus more on their duties at work. It is important for Business organizations to change the manner in which they treat their entry level employees. This will enable them achieve positive results in their operations.

References Baldoni, J. (2011, Feb. 17). Help employees listen when they don’t want to hear. Harvard Business Review. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schrage, M. (2011, May 26). The new trust vs. due diligence dilemma. Harvard Business Review. Web.

Silverman, R.E. (2013, March 12). Professionalism at work: The kids are not alright. Wall Street Journal. Web.


Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act scholarship essay help

Introduction Known as one of the world’s greatest bloodbath, the World War II is also notorious for the first use of an atomic bomb as a weapon of mass destruction. As a matter of fact, restricting the amount of choices concerning the reasons that made the United States government attack Japan would be an insult to the history of the world in general and the history of the relationships between Japan and the United States in particular.

Therefore, to evaluate the reasons that guided the American government in their successful attempt at mass genocide of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one must consider not only the political implications behind the actions of the U.S. government, but also the specifics of the relationships between the two states, the influence of the U.S. and Japan in the WWII, the peculiarities of the American and especially the Japanese culture, as well as the numerous details concerning the outbreak of the Cold War.1

Despite the ace that every single piece of the existing evidence points at the fact that the United States were either intending to stress their participation I the WWII or to display their military power to the USSR, it can be assumed that the reasons behind the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack was an attempt to eliminate the slightest possibility of having the WWII going any longer, which would have necessarily appeared in Japan due to the peculiarities of the Japanese culture unless a sudden attack would have distracted them.

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Sign of the Cold War Considering the arguments “pro”: the plausibility

There is no secret that there always was an element of competition in the relationships between the USSR and the USA2. According to what Crockatt says, the fact that the U.S. dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prove their economic and political world dominance is clear-cut. As Crockatt explains, the means that the U.S. chose to prove their point were predetermined by the differences in which the two states fought for their dominance.

According to Crockatt, the differences in the way that the two states envisioned their concept of power defined the specifics of the approaches that the two states undertook in order to seize the power over the economic space. While the USSR preferred to adopt a more localized approach, the USA tended to encompass the opportunities provided by the entire world, and the situation with Japan was one of these opportunities.

Because of the differences in the attitudes towards Japan, the bellicose one of the United States and the peaceful one of the Soviet Union, the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki triggered the start of the Cold War between the USA and the USSR, as Crockatt explains: “The Soviet Union remained neutral towards Japan and declared war only after the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945.”3

Indeed, there are a number of facts that indicate the willingness of the USA to demonstrate its power to the USSR. There could not be a better moment for showing the military strength of the United States, since the Soviet union was clearly in the process of healing its wounds after taking part in one of the greatest bloodsheds in the world history; America, meanwhile, was not harmed in the twists and turns of war, since, first, the USA only entered the war in 1945, as the war ended, and, second, was separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean and, therefore, could not become another battlefield.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With that being said, the USA clearly had an opportunity to defeat the Soviet Union in their chase for the world economic dominance. The fact that the USA possessed the weapon of such power of destruction meant that the U.S. became the superior state whom the USSR would not be able to compete with: “The Soviets did not have the atom bomb, but the Americans did, and that caused insecurity.”4

According to the given point of view, the mere fact that the USA showed its martial potential was enough to start the Cold War5.

The above-mentioned viewpoint has all rights to exist; moreover, seeing how the tension in the relationships between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated after the given incident,6 the version of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the pretext for starting the Cold war becomes especially plausible.7

It can be assumed that the USA failed to show their entire military strength in the course of the WWII, as they managed to enter the process only as the WWII was getting to an end – in contrast to the Soviet Union, which displayed its military potential to the full, and, needless to say, made a great impression on the rest of the world.

Therefore, by dropping the atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, the United States technically showed that their military power was just as huge and threatening as the one of the USSR: “Sherwin demonstrates how the US decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan frew out of the Anglo-American thinking about its use as a diplomatic tool in peacetime as well as a winning weapon in wartime.”8

Concerning the arguments “counter”: the doubt

To address the hypothesis concerning the assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to introduce the dominance of the USA into the USA–USSR relationships., it is necessary to consider the latter in detail. According to Boyle, the fight for the title of the superior nation has been lasting since both empires became powerful enough9.

With all due respect to Boyle’s research, however, it must be admitted that his account of the specifics of the USSR policies leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy. It seem that Boyle makes a typical mistake by considering each action of the U.S. government as the response towards the ones of the USSR.

We will write a custom Essay on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Boyle’s interpretation can be easily questioned, which picks the question whether the Little Boy and the Fat Man were a response to the USSR policies. Nogee’s work, on the contrary, offers much more introspective into the way in which the Soviet Union operated. Even though Nogee’s focus is on the USSR instead of its relationships with the USA, and, moreover, on the USSR of the post-WWII period, Nogee manages to capture the specifics of the state’s policy quite well.

According to Nogee, the USSR leader of the WWII era, Stalin never actually considered the United States’ demonstration of what an atomic explosion was capable of as an actual threat to the safety of Russia and the allied states.10 Moreover. Nogee makes it clear that starting a direct confrontation was more than undesirable for both states, since both the UA and the USSR were devastated after the WWII.

When considering the numerous signals that showed the start of the Cold War, one has to mention that the attack of the Japanese cities as another attempt to re-state the obvious would have been rather useless.11 According to what the existing sources say, by the end of the WWII, it was clear that the Cold War was brewing and that the U.S. and the USSR were going to divide the world into their spheres of influence.12

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Signal of the End of the WWII

The idea that the USA used atomic bomb as the means to bring the WWII to an end is another common interpretation of the incident.

What speaks in favor of the hypothesis: Truman’s policy

Despite the fact that at present, the interpretations of the USA assassination of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gears towards the idea that the given action can be interpreted as the attempt of the United States to declare the end of the World War II.

When talking about the reasons for the United States to attack Japan, one must specify that on the given time slot, the reins of power were quickly passed over from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman, who had no other choice but to follow the track blazed by his predecessor. Meanwhile, in accordance with to the score of the Yalta Conference, the U.S. was waiting for the USSR to enter the Pacific War.

In addition, a number of German cities were incinerated prior to the attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in a vengeful attempt to make Germany feel the power of the Allies.

To make the matters worse, the testing of the A-bombs in the USA has just ended by that point, which must have brought Truman to the conclusion that threatening Japan by wiping Hiroshima and Nagasaki off the face of the earth would be a logical ending to the WWII. Dukes states in a very straightforward manner that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped bring the victory day closer:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dropping of A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August brought VJ Day more quickly than had been previously hoped and feared. There was just time for the Soviet Union to fulfil its promise of declaring war against Japan three months after VE Day.13

What speaks against it: the end of the War

However, there is also enough evidence that shows the opposite to the aforementioned ideas. Indeed, the link between the fact of genocide in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the end of the WWII can seem somewhat farfetched.

Another interpretation of the hypothesis The traditional idea of seeing the USA assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to draw the line in the WWII can also be viewed in a different light. While it can be considered that the act of dropping atomic bombs on the cities can be interpreted as the way of showing the power and influence of the USA as the state that ended the World War II, there is also a different way of interpreting the given step.

The latter, however, requires an introspective into the peculiarities of the Japanese culture. According to the existing sources, even as the outcome of a battle becomes clearly unfavorable for the Japanese, the bushido code of conduct does not allow the Japanese warriors to cease the fire and give up; on the contrary, according to the bushido principles, fighting until the last soldier falls dead is the most appropriate tactics.

Therefore, it is logical to suppose that even after Hitler’s suicide, the war would have been going on as the code of bushido dictates. While the rest of the states that the Tripartite Alliance consisted of surrendered with the leader of the Alliance having been killed, the Japanese soldiers would have been fighting until the very last of them would have fallen breathless. Therefore, the World War would have been even longer and bloodier than it was, which the rest of the world, including the USSR and the Allies, would have hardly take14n.

As history shows, culture plays great role in developing and solving international conflicts. For instance, as Kegley and Wittkopf show, cultural specifics predetermine largely the economic relationships between such states as, say, USA and China.15 The same can be applied to the conflicts between the states.

In the given case, the fact that the Japanese government would have not ceased their attempts at fighting the enemy so easily is brought to people’s attention. Indeed, according to bushido, the Japanese code of a warrior’s conduct, a soldier is supposed to fight till the end even when the opponent seems to be superior.

Therefore, it can be assumed that, unless the USA had demoralized the Japanese, the WWII would have been continuing for quite long after the surrender of Germany. As a result, the consequences of the WWII would have been even more deplorable for the Allies, as well as for Germany, Japan and Italy. While Japan would have suffered most, the rest of the states would have also driven their economical and financial resources to an absolute zero.

The U.S. and the Soviet Union: Sworn Friends or Sworn Enemies? While the two states have been maintaining moderately friendly relationship, there has always been some kind of tension between them, as if the two were constantly trying to win over the other one. Indeed, if considering the way in which the specifics of one culture is portrayed in the other state, it becomes obvious that each of the two countries have always been trying to take over the opponent. For instance, according to English, even in mass media of each of the states, the portrayal of the other one was rather negative.16

For instance, in Russian media, the portrayal of the Capitalist USA world was far from being positive.17 The given attitude, however, had not grown into anything spectacular until the Cold War; it seemed that the two states realized that, once they clash, they might get harmed greatly; in the process.

Therefore, it can hardly be considered that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a deliberate attempt at starting the Cold War; the U.S. should have known that, even after the WWII, the USSR would have still be able to rebuff the attack efficiently enough18.

In fact, at certain point, the development of the notorious atomic bomb was planned as a joint attempt of the USA and the USSR to enhance their influence in the world, as McCauley explains.19 The given supposition can be supported by the fact that, according to some sources, the Soviet Union was the first to come up with an idea of a hydrogen bomb.20

Conclusion: In Search for the Truth Truly, it would be wrong to believe that nowadays, more than sixty years after the WWII was ended, it is possible to reconstruct the implications behind the actions of each of the states that took part in the WWII.

However, by analyzing the factors that influenced these actions, as well as learning about the position that the U.S. took in the World War, one can possibly figure out if the action of dropping atomic bombs on Japan was the sign of the triumph of the Allies or the beginning of the Cold War. While some of the sources contradict each other, it is possible to learn the truth about the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack.

Even though the connection between Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Cold War might seem rather loose, it is necessary to admit that by dropping the bomb on these Japanese cities, the United States have shown their military strength, which was very timely in the light of the beginning of the Cold War.

Even though there is little to no evidence showing the effect that the given action had on the U.S. reputation in the Eastern Europe, one has to admit that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki incident was rather well-timed. Indeed, considering the consequences, one has to acknowledge the fact that the U.S. has shown its military potential, therefore, making it clear to the Soviet Union that the United States were able to fend for themselves.

Meanwhile, the act of brushing millions of the Japanese off the face of the Earth could be viewed as the attempt of the American government to draw the line in the WWII and make it clear that the Allies won.21 Indeed, the given action can be translated as a manifestation of the end of the WWII and the fact that fascism was finally defeated.

The reasons for the American government to undertake the given measure, on the other hand, are rather obscure; since it was not Japan, but Germany who was at the helm of the Tripartite Alliance, it would have been much more logical to use Germany as the venue of their vengeful act.

The role of Japan in the WWII could not be described as the definitive one; Italy had practically similar share of influence in the Axis Pact. The choice of the location for the Little Boy and the Fat Man was sporadic, which meant that the United States was going to draw the final line in the WWII.

With that being said, it is reasonable to suggest that, even though the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with an atomic bomb triggered an increase in the U.S. authority, the given effect was sporadic rather than planned; by attacking Japan, the U.S. clearly intended to show that it also had its share of the triumph that the victory triggered.

Considering the policy of the American government at the time, one must admit that the idea of bombing Japan as the means to threaten the government of the Soviet Union seems much like a last-minute choice, which would have been rather untypical of the U.S. government.

As the existing evidence says, making Japan surrender was crucial to the outcome of the WWII mostly because of the specifics of the Japanese culture; with its specific code of honor, the residents of the latter would have not seized their actions until they had lost each of their soldier. Demoralization seemed a viable strategy to adopt, which the USA did by using an atomic bomb.

Bibliography Bell, PMH, The world since 1945, London, Hodder Arnold, 2001.

Boyle, PG, American-Soviet relations, London, Routledge, 1993.

Carlton, D and HM Levine, The Cold War debated, New York, McGraw Hill, 1988.

Crockatt, R The fifty years war: the United States and the Soviet Union in world politics, 1941-1991, London, Routledge, 2002.

Dobson, AP and S Marsh, US foreign policy since 1945, 2nd edn, London, Routledge, 2006.

Dockrill, S Advances in Cold War history (ed.), London, Palgrave, 2006.

Dockrill, S and G Hughes, Advances in Cold War history, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Dukes, P, The superpowers. A short history, London, Routledge, 2000.

English R D, Russia and the idea of the West, New York, Columbia University Press, 2000.

Gaddis, JL, The Cold War, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2007.

Kegley, C and ER Wittkopf, World politics: trend and transformation, 9th edn, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 2003.

Kennedy-Pipe, C, Russia and the world, 1917-1991, London: Arnold, 1998.

Leffler, MP and DS Painter, The origins of the Cold War (ed.), London, Routledge, 2002.

Light, M, The Soviet theory of international relations, Brighton, Wheatsheaf Books, 1988.

Lightbody, B, The Cold War, London, Routledge, 1999.

McCauley, M, The origins of the Cold War, London, Longman, 1995.

McCauley, M, Russia, America


Cause of crime Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

Man and crime have coexisted throughout history. Nonetheless, traditional patterns guiding the transition from childhood to adulthood have changed. Moreover, there are limited opportunities for young people to explore. For instance, unemployment rates have skyrocketed.

As a result, many youths are unable to cater for their basic needs. Poverty is, thus, one of the major causes of violent crimes. The proliferation of criminal gangs in my area of jurisdiction, as director of the county juvenile court, represents a nationwide problem. Therefore, all parties involved must redouble their efforts in dealing with juvenile deliquesces and other gang-related problems. This paper provides background information on the gang problem.

In the 1990s, the rate of crime rose in most parts of the world (World Youth Report, 2003). Most of these crimes were related to youths. In Western Europe alone, the rate of juvenile delinquency increased by 50%. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) (n.d.), about 33,000 gangs operate across the US today.

In addition, 48% of violent crimes are committed by gangs (FBI, n.d.). In some areas, the percentage is as high as 90%. It is also estimated that these gangs have 1.4 million members. Most of the groupings are well organized and use sophisticated strategies to run their illegal activities and control neighborhoods. Some of their ways of generating money include gun and drug trafficking, kidnapping and robbery.

Before preventive programs are designed, reasons behind involvement of juveniles in crime must be understood (World Youth Report, 2003). One cannot effectively deal with a problem without knowing its root causes. According to the World Youth Report (2003), sociologists believe that juvenile delinquents commit minor to serious offences. Therefore, criminal gangs differ in their modes of operation.

Consequently, gang problems must be solved by more than one strategy. For instance, some gangs commit status crimes. A status crime is a criminal offenses related to the age of a person (World Youth Report, 2003). Peer pressure is the main driver of status crime. Sociologists use such issues to connect youth behaviors with their surroundings in an attempt to explain their actions.

African American neighborhoods have the highest number of criminal gangs. This trend is associated with institutional discrimination. For instance, about one third of African Americans are born in poor neighborhoods. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are faced with innumerable social-economic hardships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The number of African Americans who can be categorized as middle class by either income levels or education is low compared to other ethnic groups. Although their social-economic status is improving, African Americans sit at the bottom of the ethnic hierarchy (pear, 2013). Structural discrimination and lack of opportunities lead to disruptive internal behavioral patterns among African Americans. Some of these behaviors include prostitution and crime. On top, these behaviors have negative impacts on their socio-economic mobility.

Proliferation of criminal gangs is brought about by socio-economic problems. According to pear (2013), in the last two years, ethnic groups with low incomes experienced a steeper drop in their incomes than those with high incomes. Undoubtedly, African Americans were the most affected.

Accordingly, most gang members are African Americans. Nonetheless, criminal gangs traverse across ethnic barriers and their activities are diverse and complicated. Dismantling these gangs requires joint efforts from the community, law enforcers, courts and other stakeholders. In fact, everybody has a role to play if this problem is to be eradicated.

References Federal Bureau of Investigations (n.d.). Gangs: They poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Web.

Pear, R. (2013, August 21). Median income rises, but is still 6% below level at start of recession in ’07. The New York Times. Web.

World Youth Report (2003). Juvenile delinquency. Web.


Examining Acceptable Use Policies Report (Assessment) essay help online free

It does not matter whether a company has the access to the new technologies and services or not, if the stuff does not follow the proper procedures, this access can be ineffective. In order to have steady development the companies should take into consideration the security of information (Easttom, p.281).

Thought, examining and developing the security policies should be the major step in companies success. Four different acceptable use policies have been examined: Level3 acceptable use policy, Earthlink acceptable use policy, Sans Institute policies, and Information Security World Policy.

Level 3 use policy is applied to all users of the mentioned service. After accepting the rules of the policy, the user is acknowledged about the responsibility for compliance with them. The main aim of the policy is to protect the User, the Level 3 Network, and the Service from illegal manipulations over the Internet.

Among the Level 3 rights are: the right to terminate or suspend the service, the right to cooperate with investigators, the right to modify the policy, the right to filter the information. Level 3 policy prohibits illegal activities, unauthorized access, spamming and mobile bombing, fraud and spoofing.

In order to control the rules enforcement, Level 3 use policy anticipates the possibility to complaint. Thus, every User, or some other party can complaint about the above mentioned amusements (Level 3, 2012). Another important thing is that “Level 3 has no obligation to forward the complaint to the User or to identify the complaining parties.”(Level 3, 2012, line 126-127).

In addition, Level 3 use policy forbids transmitting the files which include corrupted data or viruses; altering or circumventing the procedures or processes to bandwidth utilization, measure time and other similar methods; using those activities, which (Level 3, 2012).

EarthLink acceptable use policy is quite similar to Level 3 acceptable use policy. As well as Level 3 policy, EarthLink policy is oriented on stopping the violations. This policy forbids any kind of illegal use: uploading, transmitting, receiving, storing, posting, data or material. It includes the information about illegal terrorism, drugs or weapon, services, goods or substances, and many others. EarthLink acceptable use policy includes fraudulent activities connected to finances: different suspicious financial schemes and pyramids.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, EarthLink acceptable use policy does not allow gambling, spamming, and phishing. Much attention is devoted to the copyright and trademark infringement. According to it, uploading, transmitting, receiving, and posting any material that infringes any copyright is forbidden.

One of differences to Level 3 policy is the rule about network probing, which was not mentioned in the first policy. According to EarthLink acceptable use policy, any kind of detective network activity is prohibited. EarthLink policy requests everyone who considers some actions to be violation can inform about it. EarthLink in its turn can give the verbal or written warning, suspend the person or service for some period of time, block the internet access to the service, terminate the service, or bring some legal actions (EarthLink, 2012).

Sans Institutes Policy is divided into several sub policies. Thus, Sans Institutes Policy includes such security policies as Computer, Desktop, Email. HIPAA, Internet, Mobile, Audit, Network, Physical, Server, Wireless, and Whitepapers Policy. There is no similar to Audit Security Policy in Level 3 and EarthLink acceptable policies.

This policy defines different requirements, provides the authority information to the team which conducts the audits and deals with the information security and risk assessments in order to ensure the resources and information integrity and investigate incidents. Another unique security policy is HIPPA policy. This policy was creates especially to protect confidential information, which is connected to the health issues.

The policy includes 18 standards, which are summarized in the three major themes: Physical, Technical, and Administrative Safeguards. Furthermore, different to other use acceptable policies is Visitor or Physic policy, which demands penalties for information disclosure and the camera usage. The mentioned policy requires check-in system. Thus, each visitor should go through the special check-in entrance, present his or her photo identification card, and only after will have the opportunity to visit their employee sponsor (SANS, 2012).

Another researched policy is Information Security Policy. This policy addresses such issues as integrity, disclosure, availability concerns and others which concerns the information security.

The policy is intended to influence the actions or decisions and create general way of behavior, as it sets the rules, the laws, and to prevent their violations. This policy is very similar to the previous policies. However, in this one the major focus is made on the technical aspect. The main point of the policy is connected to the risk analysis (The Information Security Policies, 2012).

We will write a custom Assessment on Examining Acceptable Use Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eastons book is devoted to the examining of the acceptable policies. The main focus of the examined chapter is devoted to researching the most effective user, access, system administration, and developmental policies. As well as the previous policies, those that are described in the book are focused on the technologies.

However, according to the author, the good technologies should be supported with people factor, to be precise, with professionals, who can use the technologies in order to provide the best service. The author gives many tips how to be sure in the security of the information in the internet. First of all, Easttom advices never have a copy of the password in the accessible places. Secondly, the author advices never share the password.

Finally, in any case of suspension the violation, the person should inform about it the IT department. The book gives the overview of those activities that are appropriate in the network of the company, and those that are not. Among not appropriate are: the search for the job, the photographic use, the violations of the laws.

This list may include online shopping, reading news, or watching funny videos. In addition, the author gives the recommendations how to use the e-mail service. One of those recommendations is not to open the emails from unknown author or, which is even worth, not to answer that suspicious emails (Easttom, 2006).

Many different types of policies have been examined. However, each of them claims that nevertheless the powerful software and technological equipment, the person should be very careful him or herself. To my mind, the best recommendation how to be safe was written in the Easttoms book: “Passwords must never be shared with any person for any reasons”(Easttom, 2006, p.283).

The reason is that the person near you can be your worst enemy. When we are talking about the security of the important things, you are yourself the only person you can trust. The scheme is very simple: the responsibility equals the security.

References EarthLink Policies