Educational Opportunity And Social Reproduction Research Paper Cheap Essay Help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Introduction

Research Methodology and Data Collected

Results and Analysis

Discussion

References

Executive Summary Education is an element that cannot be wished away in human terms. Its inherent capacity to create opportunities for people through impartation of knowledge and creation of sustainable development opportunities is a value that makes it eccentric and viably concomitant with modern times.

It is in education that attainment of skills for work and realization of professional capabilities is acquired and this therefore makes the process of education centrally important for every facet of human development and vital for every aspect of human existence. Government systems have different education systems that they favour for their citizenry and have different structures to establish these systems and optimize their effectiveness to their students. Educational Opportunity and Social Reproduction is the topic of study taken for this paper.

Introduction Education is the single most paramount element in human development that creates opportunities through learning and imparting understanding to a learner in a manner that accords them self-empowerment and gives a real chance for exploitation of one’s potential.

It is in education that attainment of skills for work and realization of professional capabilities is acquired and this therefore makes the process of education centrally important for every facet of human development and vital for every aspect of human existence (Wootherspoon, 2009). Government systems have different education systems that they favour for their citizenry and have different structures to establish these systems and optimize their effectiveness to their students.

By no strain of imagination can it be thought that the subject of education can be discussed in entirely and have all its elements well covered within a paper of such brevity as this one and therefore a specific aspect of the topic will be taken and critically analyzed and assessed to determine its effectiveness and relevance to the whole subject at large (Hanushek

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Intangible Assets in Finances Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Intangible assets are those assets that cannot be seen, in the past it has been difficult to value them since they lacked production cost and their value was not quantifiable. Either way, these assets are ever present in the many organizations, both profit making and non profit making.

It is crucial for intangible assets to be measured since they play a major role in a firm’s aggressive sustainability. Also, some scholars believe that these assets are the backbone for a company’s growth. That being the case, there is a challenge of valuing them. Companies like CPA/ABVs have been created to specifically measure intangible assets. Examples of these assets include trademarks and copyrights (King

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Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Sociological concepts are specific ways in sociology of approaching any given phenomenon. They assist us to get insight picture of the social world that goes beyond justifications that rely on individual characters and idiosyncrasies.

They also assist us to view the general social pattern of an individual’s behavior, and they usually presume that official justifications are self-serving and partial. Social perspective involves a conscious endeavor to go past what is obvious and question what is believed to be a common sense or what is believed to be true. It entails upholding objectivity by critically examining ideas, and accepting what may appear to be awkward or astonishing based on the substantiation.

They study everything from actual elucidation to extensive generalization (Chadwick, 2001). However, the early sociologists also presented a broad perception of the essentials of society. Their perceptions form the basis for the current theoretical paradigms or points of views, which offers them an orienting outline and an idealistic position for asking particular questions regarding social perspective.

Paying closer attention to the concept of women’s social standing, gender aspects are now perceived as attributes of social structures influencing women’s roles and status in culturally and economically predetermined society. In addition, women’s status is also largely dependent on personal experience forming women’s outlook on their position in relation to men.

Social Concept: Women’s Social Standing Due to the fact that members of society depend on social structures they live in, they strive to frame everyday situations in accordance with the rules dictated by a particular community. Currently, women are rigidly distinguished from men’ perception of social rules and concepts while being involved in social interaction.

This is because they rely on different experiences creating specific frames and blocks of sociological concepts (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 127). While considering women’s statuses in society, it is necessary to make reference to several aspects influencing their position and affiliation to a particular group. Aside from stereotypes ascribed to women, there are many other settings and conditions influencing their behavioral patterns.

Depending on the status a women holds in society, she performs various roles, but when there is more than one social position assigned to a women, it can create a set of multiple roles. All these roles are closely associated with cultural and economic aspects providing shifts in social positions and roles. For instance, when it comes to developing countries, women are less bound to educational background, but are more affiliated to their family roles being an important component of social identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, high-income economies provide more opportunities for people to spend more years as students and exercise family roles less frequently (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 129). These disparities influence women’s perception in various settings and when people strive to break those stereotypes they encounter a number of challenges.

Understanding women’s social position in the contemporary society is especially vital because the social reality itself dictates what roles and statuses should be performed by female representatives in our world community. The concept of social reality shape women’s perceptions, beliefs, and outlooks affecting the nature and character of social interaction.

In particular, women’s marital and familial roles can be dictated by culture, stereotypes, identities and economic situation in a certain environment. The situation concerns the aspect of equality aspect that differs from society to society whose impact is far from positive.

According to the research provided by Das and Gupta (1995), the family structures and role set can have a huge impact on resource distribution between two sexes in the family (p. 92). Specifically “high maternal mortality…is associated with the patriarchal family structure which reduces women’s autonomy and their share of material and social resources” (Das and Gupta, 1995, p. 92). In this regard, inequality in social positions generates much more serious problems than it can be viewed at a glance.

Despite the presence of fixed stereotypes apropos of the concept of women’s social standing, women’s roles and statuses are gradually changing with the emergence of certain movements and trends among which the globalization process is the most powerful one. In this perspective, Hooks (2000) recognizes that

the possibility that feminism defined as social equality with men might easily become a movement that would primarily affect the social standing of white women in middle- and upper-class groups while affecting only in a very marginal way that social status of working-class and poor women (p. 19).

While evaluating this statement, most of female issues are closely related to the firmly established cultural overlays that prevent women from building new behavioral patterns and performing new, more acceptable roles in the globalized society. At the same time, there are specific social positions that women are reluctant to drop because it can negatively influence their social and cultural identities.

We will write a custom Essay on Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women’s social position is largely dependent on class, age, gender and ethnicity backgrounds. The construction of a particular identity is often based on personal experience, acceptance, and outlooks on the above-presented issues.

With regard to this, Chrisler and McCreary (2010) have highlight male-female disparities concerning gender aspects and have stated that “women were viewed as appropriately marrying relatively early (between ages 19 and 24), as past their period of maximal responsibility at 40, and as having accomplished most of what they would accomplish by 45” (p. 570).

The presented disposition reveals the differences in roles that women perform as compared to males who are more likely to take similar responsibilities at later stages. The influence of gender difference on social roles is also associated with behavior patterns that align with the demands and functions of the role.

Within the established framework, it is worth stating that gender is not merely an indicator of biological features; rather, gender identifies the constantly re-created changes to individual socialization and social interaction. In this regard, gender is an important attribute of social structures. According to Brinkerhorf et al. (2007), biological differences can be reinforced by social stereotypes because men and women are often imposed by conceptions concerning how males and females should look like.

Indeed, physical and biological characteristics can be considered the core aspects in assessing women in certain social practices, like sport, medicine, fashion, etc. Furthermore, “[g]ender is built into social structure when workplaces don’t provide day care; women don’t receive equal pay, fathers, don’t receive paternity leave, basket balls, executive chairs, and power drills are sized to fit the average man…” (Brinkerhorff et al., 2007, p. 203).

Interpreting this, producing changes to gender attitudes and roles can lead to social changes in case there are simultaneous changes in social structures and gender issues. At the same time, as soon social structures undergo changes, gender roles are also influenced by shifts in perception.

Discussing the Concept of Women’s Social Standing with Regard to Existing Theoretical Approaches Currently, sociologists employ three main perspectives or theories, namely: conflict, interactionist, and functionalist perspective. All these approaches can be disclosed through the concept of women’s social standing and its role in society. In order to understand this social perspective, it is necessary to consider the above-proposed theories in more detail with regard to the role of women in social interaction.

Conflict theory

Many sociologists refer to role conflict as a result of confrontation of two or more statuses hold by people. Women can experience role conflict when they are forced to take various directions while trying to respond to the statuses they currently take (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 129). In this regard, conflict theory emphasizes material, social or political differences of a social group which analyzes the extensive socio-political structure, or which undermines ideological conservatism and structural functionalism (Thompson, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This theory emanated from the sociology of crisis and social change. It is most commonly connected to Marxism as a response to functionalism. This theory focuses on conflict in the society; its discourse is on the occurrence of conflict and what causes conflict in the society. There are various modes of conflicts, one of them being that of revolution and warfare. These occur in phases because of rocky collations among different social classes.

Domination is another mode of conflict in the conflict sociological perspective. Various social divisions tend to form different principles based on promotion of the welfare of their own class. Ideas of lower classes reveal the desire in their own lives while that of higher classes have more conceptual perspectives. Strikes in the current society have become a major social partition between the management and the employees in every organization (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 131).

Even if a woman takes a single social role, which is quite rare, it can also create tensions because of imposing various demands by other members of society. Role strain, hence, is a confrontation of roles attached to a single status. For instance, a woman can work as a teacher evaluating students’ achievements objectively and fairly. At the same time, she can behave more subjectively when treating her children.

These two roles should not be confused; alternatively, it can lead to a role conflict. Fulfilling various roles connected to one status serves as a kind of balancing act. One approach to eliminating role conflict is separating dimensions of our life so that one can perform particular roles attached to one status and carry out other roles associated with another status in a completely different environment (Chrisler and McCleary, 2010, p. 571). The problem of role separations is specifically connected with separating family life from job and vice versa.

Symbolic interactionist perspective Symbolic interactionist perspective is also referred to as symbolic interactionism. This kind of sociological perspective allows sociologists to consider the details and symbols of daily life, the meaning of these symbols and the way people interact with one another. It offers a serious thought on the manners in which people act, and seeks out to establish the meanings which people attach to their own deeds and symbols, also to those of others.

There have been claims from critics that symbolic interactionist perspective does not take into account the macro levels of social understanding; in other terms, this perspective may neglect crucial issues in the society by directing more interest on the tree rather than the forest.

For instance, it focuses more on the size of the ring rather than the quality of the marriage (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 173). There are also claims that symbolic interactionism also put less consideration on the influence of social institutions and forces on individual relations.

When it comes to social interaction and women social position, symbolic interactionists refer to such concepts as ethno methodology and conversation analysis. These threefold relations are unveiled through consideration of meaning, language and social interaction, but in different ways. Hence, meaning implies the study of gestures, responses to those gestures and consequences of those interactions. Meaning can be presented beyond awareness of objective existence of particular notions.

Its objectiveness lies within a response scheme. Hence, there are certain gestures and acts that are predetermined by gender only making reference to cultural disposition, values and attitudes (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 174). Women’s social status imposes a number of such behavioral patterns and gestures indicating their roles and positions, which depend on cultural and social identities establish in a particular community.

George Mead, an American philosopher introduced symbolic interactionism to American sociology in 1925 (Chadwick, 2001). Consider application of symbolic interactionist perspective to the institution of marriage; symbols may include a wedding cake, music, flowers, church ceremony and a bridal dress (Pacific Sociological Association, 2008).

For instance, one partner may view the wedding ring as a mere expenditure while the other partner may view it as a sign of enduring love. Oral conversations, in which spoken words function as major symbols, make this personal understanding particularly apparent.

The words bear some meaning for the sender, and they optimistically bear the same meaning for the recipient (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 180). In fact, anything can act as a symbol provided it refers to something beyond itself. Therefore, symbolic interactionism offers a serious thought on the manners in which people act, and seeks out to establish the meanings which people attach to their own deeds and symbols, also to those of others.

Functionalist perspective Functionalist perspective has its center of attention on the input and output relationships and mental actions. It is based on the ideology that mental conditions are understood by effects of behavior, sensory stimulation and other inner acts.

According to functionalism, the mental condition of a human being is not restricted to the biological systems of human organism; instead, computer and other non-biological systems, display functional relations that are similar to human biological systems and are believed to have similar mental condition.

Specifically, structural functionalism is a broad theory which addresses social structure in terms of function of its basic elements including traditions, norms, institutions and customs. Additionally, it studies society as a structure with interconnected divisions (Pacific Sociological Association, 2008). This perspective has chronological resemblance with the application of scientific techniques in research and social theory.

The structural-functionalist approach considers family as a social institution that carries out specific functions in society, like producing young generation, socializing, and providing emotional and physical care for family members. Accordingly, conventional gender roles also contribute to successful family functioning where women perform the role of managing houses and providing nurturing and emotional care to family members.

However, rapid social change and breakdown of a traditional social institution of family and marriage has led high rates of divorce, which is seen as the main social problem (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht, 2010, p. 157). In its turn, shifts in women’s roles and status within a family can also contribute to the problems of poverty, crimes, and substance abuse.

Structural functionalism became very popular among the American sociologists between 1940 and 1954; it focused on ascertaining the functions of human behavior (Thompson, 2005). Robert Merton is one the American sociologist who divided human function into two kinds, namely latent functions and manifest functions. Latent functions are not apparent neither are they intentional, but, manifest functions are apparent and intentional (Ferrante, 2010, p. 29).

Considering those functions, woman’s position in society can also be dependent on a latent and manifest functions perspective. For example, manifest function that each woman performs is that of a mother, a wife, or a daughter. These roles can be explicitly revealed in certain settings and they contribute to balance and stability in society. At the same time, performing a particular role, a woman can feel stressful due to excessive imposition of responsibility.

Caring for children requires great responsibility and skills, which often lack because of experience gap and other issues. In general, women should strike the balance between the functions they perform to avoid dysfunctions and social changes these functions undergo. Apparently, feminism is the result of latent functions coming to the forth.

With regard to the sociological concepts studied, functionalisms can disclose distinctive features of women’s perceptions, reactions that contribute to building behavioral patterns in various social frameworks (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 127). Owing to the fact that mental states are not limited to a particular behavior models, they can be realized in numerous ways.

For instance, a silicon-based machine could, in principle, have the same sort of mental life like that of a human being. However, this would only be when its cognitive system realizes proper functional roles. Hence, women’s role in a particular setting is largely predetermined by earlier established patterns that have been formed on at a mental level of perception.

Conclusion The concept of women’s social standing is predetermined by women’s particular roles they perform in culturally and economically predetermined societies. Aside from traditions and stereotypical images attached to women and their place in social structures, they are often affected by gender, race, and age factors being the attributes of social structures as well.

Furthermore, women’s social position considerably depends on educational background and personal experience that forms women’s values, outlooks, and beliefs in certain settings. Therefore, the presence of certain sociological concepts assists people in understanding the social world going beyond judgments and justifications and relying on particular characters and idiosyncrasies.

Additionally, understanding social roles of women contributes to better analysis of behavioral patterns existing in society that influence the overall appraisal of social constructions. Owing to the fact that all members of society depend on those social structures, they strive to frame life situations within the rules and clichés dictated by a particular community. This issue considerably affects women because global shifts in perceptions influence specific social and cultural frames women got accustomed to.

Reference List Brinkerhoff, D. B., White, L. K., and Ortega, S. T. (2007). Essentials of Sociology. US: Cengage Learning.

Chadwick, R. (2001). Native Americans today: sociological concepts. Chicago: Harper

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Social Impact Assessment: Critical Articles’ Review Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Environmental impact assessment is a critical part of every project that is carried out in the community. This assessment looks at the impacts that the project will have on the various aspects of the human environment. This includes the impact on economic and physical environments of the community.

Social environment is such one aspect of the human environment that is affected by projects carried out in the society. Social impact assessment looks at the positive and negative effects of these projects and how to manage them. The articles critiqued below touch on the subject of environmental impact assessment, and especially on social impact assessment.

The first article is Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments for Mining Projects in Greenland. This article was written in the year 2009 by the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland. The article provides information on the guidelines that mining projects should follow when doing social impact assessment in Greenland.

The article highlights the process of carrying out this assessment plus the format of an SIA report required for mining projects in Greenland (Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland [BMP] 7). The second article is The Significance of Social and Economic Impacts in Environmental Assessment by Lawrence David. The article provides information on how to determine social and economic impacts and the importance of the same in environmental assessment in Canada (Lawrence 19).

The third article is Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent by Hill, Lillywhite and Simon. This Oxfam article provides information on how communities can engage project implementers in their society and how to negotiate for shared benefits from the project in addition to learning more about the same and giving informed consent (Hill, Lillywhite and Simon 19).

The first article can be very useful to investors that are intending to start mining projects in Greenland. However, the scope of the article is considerable narrow as compared to the other two articles. This is given that it focuses solely on Greenland and mining activities therein. As such, the information on the article cannot be confidently generalized to apply to other countries or to other projects that are carried out in Greenland outside the scope of mining.

However, the information therein may be more accurate, in-depth and analytical given the special focus on one country and one form of activity. It is similar to the other two articles, especially the second one, considering that they both touch on the subject of social impact assessment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second article by Lawrence tends to have a bigger scope than the first one. It focuses on both social and economic impacts of projects. It is also not limited to one form of project; rather, the information therein can be consumed by stakeholders in many fields who are interested in social and economic impact assessment.

However, the similarity with the first article is that it also tends to focus on one country (Canada), albeit obliquely. It is identical to the third article in the sense that both address the significance of projects on the indigenous community.

The third article deviates significantly from the first two as far as the target audience is concerned. This article targets indigenous communities and gives them information on how to engage project implementers in their society. The article is of little value to a project manager, benefitting community rights’ activists more. However, the article provides a refreshing look on the issue of the impact of projects from the perspective of the community.

In conclusion, it is important to note that all the three articles provide credible information on the topics that they are addressing. This is considering that they are authored by noteworthy individuals affiliated to noteworthy institutions.

For example, the first article is affiliated to the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland (BMP 5). The second is affiliated to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency’s Research and Development Program (Lawrence 2), while the third is affiliated to the Oxfam organization (Hill et al 4).

However, one major weakness in all the three articles is that they contain complicated and technical information that is intended for the consumption of the professionals and not for the layman. This even includes the third article that alleges to target the indigenous communities.

Works Cited Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland. 2009. Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments for Mining Projects in Greenland. BMP, November 2009.

We will write a custom Report on Social Impact Assessment: Critical Articles’ Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hill, Christina, Lillywhite, Serena and Simon, Michael. 2010. Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent. Oxfam Australia, June 2010.

Lawrence, David P. 2004. The Significance of Social and Economic Impacts in Environmental Assessment. Research and Development Program, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, March 2003.

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Change Management within Direct TV Business Essay college admission essay help

Introduction Managing change within an organization entails the integration of essential plans and effective implementation strategies. The current world has experienced rapid changes in business management as a result of the recent technological advancements as well as changes in organizational cultures.

However, change management is the responsibility of managers within an organization. Gronlund (2002) argues that the procedure involved in change management is often influenced by an interdependence of the following three magnitudes which include: technology, organizational perspective, and change model.

This paper will provide a detailed discussion on the Responsibilities of managers to implement sudden, drastic organizational changes within their scope of responsibility in Direct TV business which is a direct broadcast satellite service based in El Segundo, California, whose function is to convey digital satellite TV and audio to households in the United States.

Responsibilities of managers to implement sudden, drastic organizational changes Managers play a vital role in the implementation and management of sudden and drastic changes within the Direct TV business. Generally, the recent sudden changes that the managers have to implement within the Direct TV Company include technological transformations where the organization is found in possession of computers that are meant for record keeping, communication through the internet as well as the performance of management functions conduction.

Also, owing to the fact that technology has changed drastically, the organizational perspective experiences the same in an urge for the continuity of the business. More over, the direct TV business experiences changes in change management models; frameworks that would suitably drive the change implementation and management strategies. At the same time, the managers ensure effective utilization and maximization of available resources (Gronlund, 2002).

Implementation change within Direct TV depends on the commitment of the operational managers in its various departments. Therefore, the managers have the responsibility to make sound and informed decisions regarding change management. Additionally, the Direct TV managers are charged with the role of informing their departmental employees of their intended purposes as well as the importance of the purposes to enhance full participation.

More over, they are required to provide quality interpretations, communicate healthily and act as enablement factors for their employees to work effectively towards the achievement of the intended goals. However, the manager’s functions would fail whenever the implementation of change is imposed or directly instructed to the employees, since they would not respond appropriately to the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, change implementation requires installation of the necessary change implementation devices, thus managers have to oversee the installation processes in order to ease work for the employees. These include computers, laptops, software to function online for instance Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) as a substitute of analog signal, to aid in the conduction of online conferencing and voice calls.

Also, owing to the fact that Direct TV is quite a large organization, the managers have to be exhaustively committed to the implementation processes and ensure that they are run according to the set protocols. Thus, the main responsibility of the managers is to act as facilitation and enabling instruments for change implementation within the Direct TV Company (Gwartney, et al, 2008).

Conclusion The Direct TV success in change implementation and management is dependent upon the managers’ commitment in executing their direct responsibilities. However, change is highly valued in the current world and is also inevitable, thus the managers are charged with the main role of facilitating and enabling change implementation procedures. Thus, the level of commitment and the appropriate utilization of implementation plans define the success of Direct TV in change management.

References Gronlund, A. (2002). Electronic government design, applications, and management. PA: Idea Group Inc (IGC). Web.

Gwartney, J. D. et al. (2008). Economics. Edition 12. OH: Cengage Learning. Web.

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Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of cultural capital

Article critique

Strengths of Throsby’s analysis

Weaknesses of Throsby’s theory

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The discipline of Economics distinguishes between three forms of capital, namely Physical capital, human capital, and natural capital. In the past, attention was focused primarily on accumulation of physical assets with less emphasis being placed on human and natural capital. However, this trend has been changing in the recent past with much emphasis being placed on both human and natural capital to enhance performance of organizations.

Indeed, a fourth form of capital, cultural capital has been proposed by David Throsby to be incorporated in economic studies. Cultural capital is a sociological concept that was developed through the theoretical and empirical work of a French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in the early 1960s. In his theory, David Throsby presents cultural capital as an asset evaluated through its cultural value and proposes its incorporation in economic evaluation and investment appraisals.

Summary of cultural capital The concept of cultural capital was originally developed by Bourdieu as a partial explanation for the less tangible inequalities and is related to the class-based socialization of relevant skills, abilities, tastes, preferences and norms, which are considered valuable in the contemporary social realm (Winkle-Wagner 2010). The concept of cultural capital extends beyond an understanding of financial inequalities to explain the way that privilege and power are perpetuated in the society (Winkle-Wagner 2010).

Bourdieu observed that the economic obstacles were not sufficient to explain the differences in educational attainment among children from varying social classes and attributed school success to cultural habits and dispositions inherited from the family. On the other hand, (Throsby 1999) justifies the development of cultural capital by the common observation of the characteristics of capital assets in numerous cultural phenomena such as heritage buildings and works of art.

Cultural capital has been defined in different contexts with the most common definition being in terms of sociological and cultural studies where cultural capital is perceived in terms of competence acquisition in society’s high-status culture (Farkas 1996).

Cultural capital has been defined in terms of high-status knowledge or competence, skills and abilities that are valued in particular social settings, “otherized” cultural capital, which is applied to minority groups and as part of a larger theory of social reproduction (Winkle-Wagner 2010). According to the sociological perspective, Bourdieu classifies cultural capital into three subtypes; embodied state, objectified state and institutionalized state.

The embodied state refers to a long-lasting disposition of the individual’s mind and body, which is acquired through learning and accumulation over time (Deacon et al., 2003). In its embodied form, cultural capital cannot be bought or transferred directly to another person.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, this dimension creates an intricate relationship between the possessor of cultural capital and those who lack it but own other forms of capital. Although it is not freely transferable, its acquisition is often facilitated by the utilization of other forms of capital (Jackson 2010). For instance, economic ability of the parents enhances their children’s education since they have the financial ability to send their children in prestigious schools.

In its objectified form, cultural capital is transformed into cultural goods such as pictures, books, artefacts, among other things. In this state, the cultural capital exists in form of material possessions and is therefore easily transferable from one individual to another (Jackson 2010). However, it is worth noting that mere possession of cultural capital does not necessarily guarantee returns since the possessor may not know how to efficiently utilize them.

Consequently, meaningful possession of such capital has to be backed by individual knowledge on how to make use of the objects which, when absent results in meaningless exchange of cultural capital (Jackson 2010). In most situations, individuals with appropriate dispositions are not the possessors of cultural capital, which places those who do not possess a high volume of economic capital in an ambiguous position in the system of social relations.

Institutionalized cultural capital is acquired when embodied cultural capital is recognized in, for instance, academic credential (Throsby 1999). This form of cultural capital augments the added value of embodied cultural capital and guarantees its worth.

In addition, it serves to validate cultural capital through institutionalization, which draws the line between official recognition and mere possession of cultural capital. Establishing the qualitative difference between those who are licensed and those who are not guarantees the monetary value of the credentials. Although Bourdieu provides detailed information on the three forms of capital, he still suggests that other forms of capital may emerge from differentiation of fields into other domains (Jackson 2010).

Throsby (1999), attempts to incorporate cultural capital into a broader discourse of Economics. Culture, in the context of economic development incorporates the functional element where it is viewed as an industrial sector of the economy and the sociological view where it is expressed in terms of societal practices and beliefs.

Thus cultural value can be defined as something that positively contributes to the shared elements of human experiences (Throsby 2001). He further considers cultural values as being measured according to a unit of account where an individual assigns a cultural valuation to a given cultural artefact and the valuation differs between individuals just like in the case of economic goods and services (Throsby 1999).

We will write a custom Essay on Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cultural capital is an asset that contributes to cultural value or in simpler terms, it is the stock of cultural value embodied in an asset, which may in turn result in a flow of goods and services over time (Throsby 1999). Tangible stock of cultural capital may take the form of buildings and sites holding substantial amount of cultural significance as well as artefacts existing as private goods, which may give rise to the flow of services that may be consumed as direct private or public goods.

Intangible form of cultural capital, on the other hand, may take the from of ideas, practices, and cultural beliefs which are shared among a group of people and also gives rise to a flow of services which form part of final private consumption or contribute to the production of future cultural goods (Throsby 1999).

Article critique In his article, David Throsby, a professor of Economics at the Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, seeks to incorporate cultural capital into the economic framework by approaching cultural capital as an asset embodying cultural value.

He contrasts the sociological perspective of cultural capital, as explained by Bourdieu with his proposed usage in economics and emphasizes on the relationship between cultural and economic value to highlight the economic concept of cultural capital (Throsby, 1999). Further, he discusses the implication of cultural capital in economic analysis touching on the issues of economic growth, sustainability and investment appraisal.

Strengths of Throsby’s analysis Bruno Frays of the University of Zurich acknowledged that David Throsby is a long-standing contributor to cultural economics and his analysis of cultural capital marks a major step from a mindless application of orthodox economics to the discipline of Arts towards the consideration of special characteristics which is backed by good economic reasoning notable in his treatment of the value in cultural capital and Arts (Throsby 2001).

Throsby’s attempt to bring economic analysis to bear on cultural issues is a complex yet innovative way of looking at the modern issues. He seeks to not only provide a literature review on cultural capital but also to emphasize on the notion of cultural value in policy issues often monopolized by the analysis of economic value. According to him, cultural value analysis should be equivalent to economic value analysis hence should be heavily emphasized upon in the modern economy (Throsby 2001).

David Throsby acknowledges that the consideration of cultural capital as an economic phenomenon must begin from a clearly outlined relationship between cultural and economic value, which he attempts to define through the tangible and intangible forms of cultural capital.

Just like the founders of the theory, Throsby acknowledges the fact that cultural capital is transmitted to generations in form of cultural value and asserts that in particular cases, cultural valuation may be ranked according to collective judgment if there is sufficient consensus which leads him to the definition of cultural capital as the stock of cultural value embodied in an asset. He further recognizes that a lot of work still needs to be done to clarify the concept of cultural capital in relation to economic value.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this article, David Throsby advocates for economic valuation of cultural capital through application of frameworks for assessing the economic role of culture. He distinguishes between tangible and intangible forms of cultural capital where tangible forms of cultural assets are described as structures endowed with cultural significance while intangible cultural capital is described as comprising of ideas, beliefs and practices which bind the society together (Weininger n d).

Through this distinction, Throsby does not merely develop an academic definition of cultural value, but uses the concept of cultural capital existing in both tangible and intangible forms to highlight the economic value that it may possess.

Weaknesses of Throsby’s theory Throsby (1999) distinguishes between economic and cultural value through the assumption that cultural value can be measured in a unit of account comparable to the monetary scale. While he is correct in distinguishing between the two concepts, his definition of cultural value fails to adequately demonstrate how cultural value transcends economic value.

Indeed sociologists have argued that despite the importance of the relationship between economics and cultural values, Throsby makes a considerable number of good general observations in his attempt to incorporate cultural capital in economics, but the details of his arguments either lack in logical validity or are just plainly wrong.

For instance, his assumption on measurement of cultural value where an individual or group assigns a cultural valuation to a certain cultural artefact in the same way that economic valuation of goods and services expressed through demand price and willingness to pay is done is not necessarily correct as cultural significance is subject to differing factors.

While Throsby may have correctly recognized culture as an intellectual heritage transmitted from one generation to the next and emphasized on the importance of culture in terms of beliefs and customs for economic development, the view of beliefs, customs, and ideas as capital remains blurred.

Capital goods are produced means of production which are independent of human labour; beliefs, customs and ideas, on the other hand, cannot exist independent of human beings hence failing as independent form of capital. Throsby further uses his theory of cultural value to inform the analysis of almost all the issues he addresses on cultural capital.

Consequently, the ambiguity, inconsistency and lack of validity evident in some of the areas in his approach to cultural value follow through to other issues that he addresses in the article making it less justifiable. Consequently the implications of his study, which include the proposition to incorporate a cultural capital function in the production function and investment appraisals used in contexts such as capital budgeting and cost-benefit analysis remains invalid.

Conclusion David Throsby’s article on cultural capital is a diligent attempt to incorporate cultural issues in economic development. The efforts by an open-minded cultural economist to define cultural value in economic terms through fine survey of cultural and economic literature as well as formulation of a number of informed propositions provide readers with a rather insightful view of cultural economics.

The writer differentiates between cultural value and economic value by differentiating between tangible and intangible assets, which serve to define cultural capital as an economic asset. However, these achievements are offset by the ambiguous analysis and arbitrary assumptions used by David Throsby in his economic analysis of cultures, which calls for the need for a more accurate economic analysis of culture.

Reference List Deacon H., Mngqolo S., Proselandis S., 2003. Protecting Our Cultural Capital: A Research Plan for the Heritage Sector Issue 1. Cape Town, HSRC Press.

Farkas G., 1996. Human Capital or Cultural Capital, Ethnicity and Poverty Groups in an Urban District. New York, Transaction Publishers.

Jackson L. R., 2010. Encyclopedia of Identity. California, SAGE.

Throsby C. D., 1999. Cultural capital, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Journal and cultural economics 23: 3-12.

Throsby C. D., 2001. Economics and Culture. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Weininger, B. E., Not dated. Cultural Capital, University of Maryland. Web. Web.

Winkle-Wagner, R., 2010. Cultural Capital: The Promises and Pitfalls in Educational Research, AEHE. New Jersey, John Wiley

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Formal and Informal Groups Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents The role of teams and groups in the telecommunication industry

How to develop and maintain an effective team

Conclusion

References

In service or product industry, there are formal groups developed by the management to perform certain duties: formal groups have some set goals and objectives to attain in an organization; some examples of formal teams include human resources management team and project management teams.

Alongside formal groups, some informal group results not from deliberate management making but they exist by the virtue that human beings are beings and tend to live in groups. Mutually shared interests among members of informal groups hold the groups together; some examples of informal teams are social welfare groups, security, knowledge acquisition and groups to purporting to liberate the organization (Newstrom

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Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity Expository Essay writing essay help

Over the years, the human societies have changed dramatically; from the way they dress, talk and believe. Without a doubt, these changes have infringed the religious ways of life and norms. This leaves has left many religious people in a quagmire. Like many other religious followers, Christians and Jews have to declare their stand on issues like homosexuality, stem cell research, euthanasia, ordination and marriage.

Since religious books do not often give clear guidelines on some of these issues, debates have erupted on the level of tolerance regarding these issues. The thesis of this paper is that division among Judaism and Christianity in relation to contemporary issues, can be divided into two; conservative groups and liberal groups.

Both Judaism and Christianity consider human sexuality to be a leading cause in sinning. In general homosexual, bisexual and transgendered people are considered to have sinned, but there are differing opinions on the issue.

Some of the Christian religious groups are tolerant, for example, The Unitarian Universalist Association and United Church of Christ. Both of these denominations consider lesbians and gay people to have committed no sin, therefore, they should be treated the same as everybody else. They have demonstrated equal rights for homosexuals and bisexuals by proclaiming some as clergy.

Other conservative Christian groups like the Evangelical Christian denominations have declared that homosexuality is a sin. They have even denied lesbians and gay people membership to their denomination. Presbyterians and Methodists have not resolved on where they stand, but there seem to be some division between the young and the old. The youth are more moderate on the matter but the older members are still conventional (Eisenbaum, 630).

This attitude is also evident in the Judaism denominations. Liberal groups like Reform Judaism have commonly acknowledged homosexuals and bisexuals as part of their community. They regard them as ordinary people who have a particular rare sexual preference.

They respect their scriptures which denounce homosexuality and bisexuality but, claim that these scriptures refer to particular homosexual practices like rape and prostitution. In short, they also advocate for equal rights to all, whether Jews or not. Orthodox Jews are conformist on the matter and therefore, they consider homosexuality and bisexuality as unusual, perverted and a sin. They interpret the scriptures to mean that all forms of homosexuality are wrong (Gale, 56).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transgendered individuals are those people who have changed their gender through a medical procedure. Orthodox Judaism states that; the type of sex is inborn and it is a perpetual phenomenal. Therefore, there should be no way a human should change the gender of another human being.

The catholic worshippers hold a similar thought as demonstrated in the 2000 Doctrine of Faith. It says that even though there might be a physical change, deep down, the person will always remain the same. Therefore, medical procedures do not change the gender of someone. On the other hand, Reformed Jews have widely accepted individuals who have undergone a gender change surgery. This was made official in 2003 when the Commission on Social Action approved a pledge to add transgendered individuals in their congregation.

Some Christian branches like Unitarian Universalist Association have likewise acknowledged transgendered individuals, and have given them full membership. They have even gone to the extent of opening an office to cater for homosexuals, bisexuals and transgendered people (Eisenbaum, 678).

Stem cells are extraordinary human cells that are capable of becoming any type of cell. This means that they can be used to restore spoilt tissues as a result of a disease. Diseases like diabetes and Parkinson’s diseases can be cured using research on stem cells. These stem cells can be harvested from many places on a human body like the bone marrow and fat.

However, it has been noted that stem cells from embryos have a higher probability of curing some of these ailments. The problem with most pro-lifers is that, extraction of stem cells from embryos leads to their destruction. To them, an embryo is already a living being and destroying embryos is the same as murder. Others say that at that stage, the human life has not begun, while others say that the use of embryos from fertility clinic is okay since they are meant to be destroyed anyway (Gale, 60).

The research on stem cell has been widely condemned by many religions in general. Politicians together with philosophers have also declared their opinions publically. The Roman Catholics and conservative Protestants are especially against use of stem cell. Pope John Paul the second personally in public expressed his opposition on the use of stem cells from the embryo.

However, the United Church of Christ and Progressive Christianity do not oppose the use of stem cells from fertility clinics. They reason from the fact that these ‘waste’ embryos will be discarded, so why not make use of them. Surprisingly, according to the Jews traditions, it is acceptable to obliterate an embryo to aid another breathing person. In fact, this idea has been readily accepted by the majority of the Jews.

We will write a custom Essay on Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has been attributed to the difficulty in finding any Jewish literature that talk about this issue. Traditionally, Jews lowly regard an embryo that is less than 40 years old, it is seen as just a fluid. Some Jewish doctors consider the research on stem cell as the hope of humankind (Steinberg, 40).

Euthanasia is the procedure of aiding a person to pass away painlessly. This procedure is usually carried out on a patient who is facing an inevitable death and is in pain. By ending his life soon, he would have been relieved from his suffering. The Catholic Doctrine of Faith of 1980 forbids euthanasia claiming that it is a great offense towards a human life. Even though death is inevitable, there should be no human intervention whatsoever.

However some more liberal Christians like The Unitarian Universalist Association do not agree with the Catholics. They say that it does not make sense that it is okay to intervene and prolong a human life but not okay to end it if conditions are favorable. Their members are allowed to carry on with euthanasia as long as it is okay with the patient (Robinson, 69).

Like among the Christians, there is a division among Judaism followers regarding euthanasia. Conservative Judaism followers are against intended euthanasia but are not strict on intended passive euthanasia. On the other hand, Reformed Jews particularly support euthanasia in general, especially from the 1970s.

Ordination is the training and examination of members who wish to join any religious group. Ordination is carried out on people who wish to be the leaders of a congregation. Different religious groups and denomination have different ways of carrying out the process.

However, there are different opinions on the ordination of women. In traditional Christian society, women were never ordained, but that changed after the Protestant Reformation. They base their decision on ordaining women on the fact that Deborah was made a Judge in the ancient Israel by God.

Denominations like United Church of Canada and Evangelical Lutheran Church of America have been ordaining women since the early 1930s. Meanwhile, Catholic and Orthodox Churches have not allowed the ordination of women. In 1995 Pope John Paul the second announced that the Holy Spirit had not granted permission to ordain females. Traditional Catholics were satisfied with the answer but modern Catholics have been reluctantly protesting (Paul, 46).

Ordination of females as rabbis among the Jews is a reflection of what is in Christendom. Liberal Jews like those in Reformed Judaism have ordained women since 1950s. They consider them to equal to men when it comes to leadership in a congregation. Meanwhile, conservative Jews like those in Orthodox Judaism have never permitted women to be ordained as rabbis. They claim that; just as the man is the head of the family, he is also the head of the congregation (Robinson, 56).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the Roman Catholic tradition, marriage is regarded as ritual intended by the creator. This means that the two spouses are obliged to bear children. Also, they do not recognize divorce. The Protestants have refuted the Catholic sacramental model and they get married in order to praise God.

Protestant married couple do not have to bear children and they are allowed to divorce. Conservative Jews consider marriage to be a bond between a man, woman and God. The married couple are also expected to procreate. More tolerant denomination like the Reformed Jews have accepted couples to be living together with no intention of having children (Paul, 48).

Both Judaism and Christianity have become tolerant to technology. All of them consider technology to be neutral and what matters is how it is used. However, in the middle of 20th century, the Orthodox and the Reformed Judaism followers had a debate on whether technology was a blessing or a curse.

The Reformists were for technology and the Orthodox were against it. Later, the Orthodox followers changed their teachings to allow the use of technology. All Christians have accepted technology and embraced it since it makes their lives easier (Mendelsohn, 48).

From this paper, it is obvious there are always two differing opinions in these two religious groups. Denominations that were established early like the Orthodox Judaism and Catholic Church followers in many ways have the same opinion regarding contemporary issues. Later down the line, other denominations cropped up which also in many ways had similar opinions. So it can be concluded that these two religions can be divided into two; the traditional religion and the modern religion.

Works Cited Eisenbaum, Pamela. “Jesus, Gentiles, and Genealogy in Romans.” Journal of Biblical Literature 123 .4 (2009): 671–702. Print

Gale, Thomson. “A Modern Jew.” Judaism, the religion 34.8 (2000): 45-67. Print

Mendelsohn, Ezra. “People of the city.” Studies in contemporary Jewry 15.5 (1999): 34-90. Print

Paul, Avis. “An Introduction to the Major Traditions.” The Christian Church 15.7 (2002): 30-58. Print

Robinson, Steve. “Beliefs, Customs and Rituals.” Essential Judaism 12.4 (2004): 50-78. Print

Steinberg, Milton. “Ordination.” Basic Judaism 37.11 (1999): 37-67. Print

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Activity Based Costing Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

XU JI Electrical Company Limited

Global Electronics Inc

Conclusion

References

Introduction Activity-based costing (ABC) is a widely adopted accounting practice where the cost of making various products and services are based on the companies’ activities (Panda1999, p. 5).

The costs are specifically allocated to products and services according to the level of consumption of each category, but comprehensively, it assigns more indirect costs into direct costs (unlike other conventional accounting practices) (Armstrong 2006, p. 363).

The major benefit associated with this accounting technique (ABC) is that a company can be able to specifically know which products and services take up most costs and which are overpriced and less profitable so that a required remedy is developed.

Activity-based costing basically works by allocating the overall resource costs according to the activities commensurate with them to the final products and services that are produced by a given company (Armstrong 2006, p. 363).

In a more general sense, the technique is basically used to understand a company’s profitability in relation to the costs incurred when producing various goods and services. In this regard, it is important to note that activity-based costing has been widely adopted by many organization because it aids in decision-making processes that touch on pricing, outsourcing, identification, and the actual benchmarking of the standards of production of goods and services (Panda1999, p. 5).

However, in as much as the activity-based costing technique has been beneficial to many organizations; many are also finding it very difficult to implement it. This trend has seen a number of organizations in emerging economies face a number of challenges adopting the technique, despite evidence of incredible success of its implementation in other parts of the world existent in many literature excerpts.

Significant challenges have been recorded in areas touching on acceptability, augmentation (with other computer systems in the organization), ensuring the system is of value to the company and its environment (among other challenges) (Liu and Pan 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This study will critically analyze the experiences and challenges of such companies in implementing ABC and how many of them have been able to succeed with this process, while others have openly failed. This will be done through an analysis of two companies (XU JI Electrical Company Limited and Global Electronics Inc) operating in emerging markets.

XU JI Electrical Company Limited Though activity-based costing has been widely adopted in the Western world, there is still increased skepticism among many companies operating in developing economies of its effectiveness. Such is the situation observed in China (Liu and Pan, 2007). In fact, Hu (2001) explains that the implementation of Activity-based costing in China is still at the theoretical level.

This situation can be evidenced in the case of XU JI Electrical Company Limited which is based in China. The company is basically an electronics company that manufactures electronic goods used in the development of public infrastructures like rail.

Activity based costing technique was introduced in the company in the year 2001 when there was a strong need to devise methods on how to tackle increased competition in the industry and to employ more efficient accounting techniques for better performance. The initial system was particularly based on the labor-hour absorption rate where costs were allocated across production lines.

This system was largely inefficient because it inhibited the company from pursuing competitive pricing strategies. Activity based costing was therefore introduced in the early months of the year 2009 under the First product department where the main objective for implementing the costing technique was to establish accurate product costing information for purposes of cost control (Liu and Pan 2007).

In the implementation of the activity based costing technique, the services of an implementation team was sought, where their primary mandate was to train the existing employees on how to use the system and to build an ABC conceptual model. The latter task was effectively carried out, except for the general administrative and finance expenditures, which contributed an overwhelming expenditure of approximately 77% of the entire cost budget.

Due to the fact that there was an increased organization structure inhibition, the implementation team decided to develop the ABC conceptual model on the number of employees evidenced in each given activity (as a temporary measure) (Liu and Pan 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on Activity Based Costing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this analysis, we can see that the company’s operations in China’s fast-paced business environment posed a challenge in the overall implementation of the ABC model because it was challenging to maintain it on an up-to-date level. In fact, similar research studies point out that many more companies face the same challenges, especially in identifying a good cost driver for the application of ABC because some of these cost drivers become obsolete after a given period of time (Liu and Pan 2007).

Liu and Pan (2007) further explain that the same situation has been evidenced in a number of Western economies where many companies have had to abandon their ABC implementation processes because of the volatility of the economy.

After basing the model on the number of employees, the activity-based costing model had to be computerized where a specific Chinese software was identified for this purpose.

However, during the implementation process, the lack of experience in dealing with such software augmentation led the company into significant conceptual errors that almost grounded the activities of Activity Based Costing implementation process. The company, therefore, had to seek the guidance of the activity based costing implementation team manager to asses the situation and provide possible remedies.

The team manager did so, and after determining the company’s rationale, the project went on smoothly. The company was, therefore, able to produce monthly activity-based costing reports, but there was a significant challenge in augmenting the ABC software with other computer softwares that were in existence before it. From this analysis, we can see that there is a strong need for technical expertise in the product implementation stage of ABC implementation to tackle functionality and compatibility issues.

This fact is also supported by Baker (1998, p. 257), who affirms that the input of technical expertise is vital in the overall successful implementation of ABC. The technical expertise evidenced in the above scenario was characteristic of the team manager’s input in salvaging the situation (ABC implementation).

As regards functionality and compatibility issues, it should be understood that the incompatibility of the ABC system and other computer systems was likely to pose a problem for other staff members in the organization (like in the warehouse division or the finance department) because there normally are instances of increased workloads where the officers have to double-check data added by the front-line managers into the ABC system.

In making the employees and staff receptive to the new ABC system, XU JI Electrical Company Limited decided to adopt the formal feedback session technique (Liu and Pan 2007). This technique was successfully used to show employees the benefits of the system; a process that ultimately led to a lot of satisfaction among the company staff.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Activity Based Costing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, some sense of resentment was observed from the front-line managers who pointed out the demanding nature of inputting data into the system as their biggest cause of concern regarding the system. Nonetheless, after subsequent meetings, there was a growing level of understanding among the managers.

A link between ABC implementation and performance measures was identified to be the biggest cause for concern when analyzed in terms of future implementation considerations of the project, which was considered to be a future agenda for discussion.

From this analysis, we can see that the inclusion of the bottom-level and top-level employees in the implementation process was critical to the acceptance of the costing technique.

Though there were significant objections coming from front-line managers, there were subsequent discussions aimed at seeking employee buy-in that brought the managers onboard. This analysis shows that constant communication between all stakeholders in the organization is likely to improve the probability that changes will be accommodated in the organization.

Global Electronics Inc Global electronics Inc is a company specialized in making power semiconductors for signal processing and power control applications and many of its products are also used in braking antilock systems, airbag systems, computer keyboards, modems and the likes.

During the end of the year 1999, the company had experienced a significant dip in sales that caused a lot of tension within the company (as regards the long-term prospects of the company’s sustainability) (Juras 2003, p. 1). To remedy this situation, the company decided to employ the activity based costing system to uphold the company’s efficiency.

In a general sense, the company experienced significant success in implementing the ABC system because its new manager, Chris Richards, had a good background in ABC. This was the first step that could be learnt from the company’s experience in implementing ABC because the company’s new manager brought a lot of technical expertise that could be used in implementing the ABC model.

In a more general sense, this analysis shows that importing beneficial technical expertise is a positive move towards ensuring smooth implementation of ABC.

It is also important to note that having someone with a significant experience about the implementation of ABC, spearheading the process, is also a good move for the company. It was also observed that the education about the new model (ABC) and the task of wrapping management’s thoughts around the new model was still attributed to him (Chris Richards, the new manager). Basically, management’s buy-in could be attributed to his influence.

This analysis is essential to organizations that experience problems getting management to adopt to new changes in the organization. More essentially, it is important to note that having someone with considerable experience regarding ABC, in the managerial team is a plus towards getting the overall managerial team to accept changes in the organization.

Another reason for the smooth implementation of the model was attributed to the company’s operating capacity. The company’s director of manufacturing (cited in Juras 2003, p. 2) affirmed that:

“The number one thing we had going for us was an “urgency factor.” I truly believe people would not have given us the time of day with respect to ABC if we were making 10 percent return on sales. Having operating losses of $100 million causes people to listen”.

Moreover, in successfully implementing the ABC model, a steering committee that encompassed most members of all the company’s departments was quickly formed.

The members came from finance committees, product engineering, operations management, and other functional teams of the organization, but extra assistance was also sought from external organizations to enable the company effectively implement the ABC model (Juras 2003, p. 2). The move to include members from various departments of the organization ensured that the steering committee was holistic, in terms of member contribution because all the departmental members represented most functional areas of the organization.

It is also important to note the input of the steering committee in the implementation of the ABC model because it played a vital role in the entire process. The steering committee basically went ahead to define the tasks of each company plant department, assign the resource costs to the specific activities, and determine the activity drivers, among other technical areas of the ABC implementation model (it is important to note that all functional managers of the organization gave support to the steering committee) (Juras 2003, p. 1).

From this analysis, we can see that having a steering committee was quite vital to the successful implementation of the ABC model, considering the above tasks are key in the design stage of implementing the ABC model (Salvendy 2001, p. 2319). It is therefore vital for organizations that have a problem going past the design stage of the ABC model to have a steering committee that specializes on moderating the tasks to be covered at this stage.

It was also confirmed by Global Electronics’ manager that setting short-term goals during the implementation of the ABC model was essential in ensuring the process implementation process was smooth (Juras 2003, p. 3). The short-term goals set for the implementation of the ABC model was meant to improve the product cost accuracy and optimize the company’s product mix. A long-term objective was also established, and it was meant to transit the company into a long-term activity-based costing management criterion.

This is also another pointer that can be borrowed by organizations that have a problem implementing the ABC model because quite a number fail to understand the short-term and long-term goals of implementing ABC in the first place. Having clearly set short-term and long-term goals is therefore vital to the overall implementation of the ABC model because it steers the organization into the right direction during implementation.

Integrating the new ABC model with other existent systems was also a tricky affair for the company, but it successfully managed to undertake the ABC model in an offline manner where the system was managed separately from the previously existing labor-based standard costing system.

In the same manner, the new model was also managed separately from the financial reporting system. However, it was quite tricky for the company to maintain the offline system because there were issues of employee behavior, and other issues arising from previous negative experiences learnt from the PUC process that the company engaged in. Part of this problem was summarized by Juras (2003) that:

“The problem with a non-integrated approach, even though it is certainly a lot simpler and less risky, is how do you affect behavior?… For example, you can’t run the marketing organization based upon achieving some desired gross margin when they are relying upon bogus costs to push the stuff that you don’t want them to be pushing… But, how do you motivate these people to go after the right set of products if you’ve got a bunch of accountants sitting over here who have knowledge derived from some offline system that nobody else is aware of?” (p. 3).

This experience showed that despite the fact that the company had a remedy to solve the problem of implementing the ABC model; it still experienced significant challenges in sustaining the strategy for long.

The biggest cause for this problem can be attributed to the fact that the organization failed to include the behavioral aspect of implementing this strategy. From this analysis, therefore, we can observe that the failure to include the behavioral considerations of implementing the ABC model in the organization can eventually render the whole strategy useless.

Comprehensively, the ABC implementation process went on as planned and fell within a nine-month schedule, but this smooth transition could be attributed to including activities within the cost model that bore a strong influence to strategic product pricing and mix decisions (Juras 2003, p. 3).

The inclusion of a centralized project team also contributed a lot to the coordination of activities that were done in the implementation process. This team was quite crucial in ensuring a sense of consistency was observed within all plants. It is also identified that the top-bottom approach of implementing the ABC model was deemed appropriate because such a model was basically aimed at making lower-level employees understand the benefits of the ABC model.

Moreover, it was identified that the ABC model was essentially hatched at the company’s headquarters and it was the duty of management to push the idea down to lower-level managers and employees (regardless of their personal decisions) (Juras 2003, p. 3). Interestingly, the move by the company’s project team to educate the plant manager was criticized by the company’s manager as ineffective because of the assertion that:

“When we went to the plants to do training, it was like a whirlwind tour; we just showed them some charts and said, now sit down and we are going to ask you some questions… I don’t think we put ourselves in our internal customers’ shoes. We paid very little attention to their constructive concerns or their need to truly understand ABC”.

Conclusion This study points out the challenges and successes of implementing ABC by two companies operating in emerging markets. Comprehensively, we see that firms in emerging markets have a significant problem in accepting ABC because it is not a previously implemented model.

Having a steering committee and seeking the services of an external agency (with a significant experience in ABC implementation) is a good strategy to making existing managerial teams accept changes. We have also seen that there is a significant challenge experienced by the companies in augmenting ABC with previously existing computer applications, and comprehensively, we see that seeking technical expertise in doing so is a good move towards ensuring there is a smooth transition into ABC, without causing any operational hitches.

Also, we see that having clearly set goals is an important tool to steer the implementation of the ABC model in the right direction. This observation is critical, in the sense that, many organizations have been identified to abandon ABC implementation because they do not have a clear understanding of the importance of implementing the ABC model in the first place.

In a general sense, we can see that adopting a top-bottom implementation strategy is also important in ensuring the ABC mode is implemented effectively. Burke (2006) affirms this fact and implies that the top-bottom implementation strategy is important because the decision to implement an ABC model is normally undertaken at the company’s headquarters and many organizations expect managers to ensure employee buy-in, to make the transition a success.

Conclusively, we can say that organizations operating in emerging markets experience challenges of transitioning from old accounting models to ABC and therefore, tactical strategies need to be adopted to ensure there is a smooth transition from old accounting models into new models.

References Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook Of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive Guide To Achieving Managerial Excellence And Improved Decision Making. London, Kogan Page Publishers.

Baker, J. (1998) Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Management for Health Care. London, Jones

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Polygamy in Canada Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Conclusion

Annotated bibliography

Works Cited

Introduction Polygamy is a form of marriage whereby more than two parties are involved. Polygamy occurs in three forms. When a man marries more than one wife simultaneously, this is referred to as polygyny. If a woman is married to more than one man, this is polyandry. In other cases, a family may consist of multiple husbands and wives. This is termed as group marriage. The three forms of polygamy have been found in many communities but the most common form is polygyny.

Polygyny is allowed in many societies where it is termed as a normal activity. In many traditional societies, polygamy was highly valued because increase in the number of wives led to large numbers of children. Having many children was a mark of prestige in many societies and people with large families were regarded as a rich. However polygamy has negative effects on the society. Polygyny affects the economy of the society as well as the socialization process (Geldart 104).

In Canada, polygamy has been banned by the law. The laws of the country prohibit the practice of having more than one spouse. People who go against the law are imprisoned for five years according to the constitution of the country.

The country has not been in a position to successfully prosecute the practice of polygamy for a long period of time. In addition to this, the country has not kept records about the number of people who engage in the practice. The practice was common among the founding members of the Mormons, the church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints.

The first Mormons to visit Canada came from the United States in the year 1988. Followers of this faith allowed the devoted male members to marry more than one wives. The laws against polygamy in Canada came as a result of this and the government wanted the practice to come to an end. During this period, the prime minister in Canada was John A. MacDonald. During his reign, many religious groups were traveling to the country since accessibility was enhanced by the Pacific rail road which had been constructed in Canada.

The Prime minister had instructed Charles Card, the head of the first Mormons colony not to allow polygamists in to the country. Canada passed laws against polygamy and these laws were especially aimed at the Mormons who occupied the Prairies because they practiced polygamy. Even though the criminal code targeted the Mormon group, it is now applicable to all groups who get engage in conjugal unions involving more than one spouse at then same time (Hamilton 50).

The law Canada’s Law against polygamy should be upheld so that the society is not affected. This is because polygamy has many negative impacts on the society. If Canada’s law is overturned it means that polygamy will be allowed. People will be allowed to get more than one spouses at then same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overturning of the Canada’s law will affect the life of children and women in their economic and cultural ways. Effects of polygamy can lead to family breakages in severe cases. If polygamy is allowed in Canada, the life of children is greatly impacted. For Instance, most of the polygamy, marriages are arranged whereby a suitable husband for a girl is gotten by the parents. The two are then allowed to marry.

The rights of the girl are violated because she is not given the time to make her own choice. In many cases these marriages are forced. The girl may be forced to marry somebody who is not her own choice. Young girls are also forced to marry people who are not of their own age. In most traditional societies, young girls used to be married to old men almost the age of their parents. If Polygamy is allowed, the same will happen to young girls in Canada (Hamilton 50).

As a result of polygamy children become aware of sexual matters at an early age. In many polygamous communities children get married as early as fifteen years. These children are then exposed to sexual matters at this early age. They may not be fully developed sexually and this can lead to further complications like difficulties in child bearing later in their lives. Moreover, polygamy leads to school dropouts among many young children in schools.

Children are forced to stop their education so that they can marry. Education is very important because children get the knowledge needed in their lives and at the same time, they can get themselves employment. Many children and especially the girl child end up becoming house wives because of lack of education.

In many communities practicing polygamy, the boy child is valued as far as education is concerned because of the assumption that men are supposed to provide for the needs of the family. This leads to neglection of the girl child. In a polygamous family, where there are many wives and one husband, there are, many children because each wife is reproducing. Parental love is very important in the process of child development. Each child is supposed to get full parental love and attention from both parents.

The large number of children in a polygamous family makes it difficult for the father to attend to all children. The father is likely to visit some families much more regularly then other families bearing in mind that each of his wives has her family. This is where the issue of nepotism comes in because some children will be attended better than others (Hardy 179).

Polygamy contributes a lot to the spread of diseases and especially HIV and Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. These diseases are prevented through being faithful in a marriage or relation ship. Having one sexual partner is the recommended way of preventing sexually transmitted diseases. It is therefore difficult to prevent the spread of these diseases among children who enter in to polygamous marriages because it involves many partners who may not be faithful to each other.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Polygamy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mortality rate among the youth will go up in Canada if they allow polygamy because once one is infected with the HIV whose cure has not been invented, then the person finally dies. The death of young children is a disadvantage to the nation because the youth are the future of the nation. The young people are expected to be the leaders of tomorrow which makes it a loss to the government if they die at large numbers. Polygamy contributes to the spread of diseases which in turn leads to death of the youth (Hardy 179).

Women face hardship in polygamous marriages. This is because in polygamous communities, men believe that they have full control and authority over their wives and children. Children and women do not have a say in the major decisions of the family. Women and children are supposed to sit, listen and do as per the decision s of men.

The role of women in these societies is not valued. In many of polygamous societies, women are in the control of the domestic sphere. These societies are male dominated. Good employment opportunities are preserved for men.

Women are given minor jobs and the wages are still low. Women are therefore discriminated in many areas as a result of a male dominated society. Jealousy is unavoidable in polygamous families .Enemity comes in as a result of gossip within the members of the family. Members of the family disagree with each other as a result of gossip which can result to fights and in severe cases death can occur (Zeitzen 91).

Polygamy contributes to poverty. This is because there resources are limited. Increase in the number of children implies that more land is needed for the children to sustain themselves. In agricultural societies, land is needed to plant crops and rear animals which provide milk and meat.

In pastoral communities, land is also needed to graze their animals because they move from one place to another in search of water and pasture for their animals. If a family has a small piece of land which can not sustain the people fully, then it means that these people will be poverty stricken. In addition, lack of enough resources prevents children and getting education.

The head of the family is not able to cater for the education expenses of all the children. Bearing in mind that education is the key to good jobs, such people will end being poverty stricken. Lack of employment encourages crimes in the society (Cairncross 45) .Due to idleness and lack of money; many young people end up in bad habits like stealing as they struggle to get something for their survival.

Polygamous families face difficulties during inheritance after the death of the husband. If the husband does not leave the will of who should inherit what after the death, it becomes a problem after death. The husband may also fail to recognize some of his wives as legal wives which imply that they will not inherit anything. The properties may not be enough to all the family members (Brigham Young Card 117).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Polygamy in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the law against polygamy should not be overturned because advantages of polygamy are minimal compared to the disadvantages. Generally polygamy has negative impacts which affect the functioning of the family as a whole. Canada as well as other countries should encourage monogamy because of the advantages it has over the disadvantages.

Some of the advantages include full parental love for the children, reduced rate in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases because there hare more chances of being faithful to your partier in a monogamous family. There are no problems as fire as inheritance is concerned because of lack of competition of the women. In monogamous families the re sources are shared amongst few children and this makes it possible for children to get their necessities like education (Geldart 104; May 34).

Annotated bibliography Geldart, Anne. Islam. Vancouver: Heinemann, 1999.

The book highlights the disadvantages of having a .monogamous marriage. Some of the disadvantages include spread of sexually transmitted diseases, school dropouts and early marriages. The book stresses the important of having monogamous family.

Hardy, Carmon. Solemn covenant: the Mormon polygamous passage. Canada: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

According to this book, polygamy began with the church of Mormons. This religious group traveled to Canada and they encouraged a man to have more than one spouse. The then prime minister in Canada however did not take the idea lightly. The anti-polygamy law was mainly for the Mormon group.

Works Cited Brigham Young Card. The Mormon presence in Canada. Canada: University of Alberta, 1990.

Cairncross, John. After polygamy was made a sin: the social history of Christian polygamy. New York: Taylor

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How innovation leads to economic development Essay online essay help

Christopher (1982) explains that economic development is the improvement in the infrastructure and better living standards. Every government has the sole objective of improving the level of economic development and improving the livelihood d of its citizens.

Innovation is the modification of an existing idea or the creation of a totally unique idea to help solve ones need. The importance of innovation in any organization is best epitomized by the establishment of a research and development department. Huge sum of money has also been allocated for innovation of new ideas.

To begin with, innovation improves the modes of production. With the improved means of production, organizations get to enhance their efficiency and reduce the wastages in production (Schumpeter, 1934). Due to this there will be a large increase in the output which results to development.

Innovation also creates new employment opportunities in any given country. Employment increase makes the idle resources put into productive utilization and this leads to new output creation. The new production lines leads to the economic growth. Constant economic growth will in the long run lead to the economic development of any economy.

Moreover, innovation results into the designing of better structures that can be employed in the development of new infrastructure. When better designs are developed, new and durable structure get to be built making the economy look more admirable and sustainable. Because of the nature of the infrastructure that is developed, little public resources would be incurred on the maintenance hence reducing the costs. This will thus lead to the economic development.

In addition, innovation has led to the improvement of the standards of living. For instance, the new methods of keeping the environment clean, economizing of the megre resources and those on the preparation of consumable goods have increased the life span of the individuals in an economy. With better health, the labour force of any given economy has been enhanced and output increased making the economy to develop.

The economic development of any given region depends a lot on the political climate that exists. Poor political situations e.g. war has led to the fall of many economies. Through innovation, solutions to the conflicts arising between individuals and economies have been enhanced. This has led to the tranquil coexistence which has thus led to the economic development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another pillar for economic development of any economy is trade. Trade ensures that the economies can acquire goods or services that it can’t produce for itself. If the terms of trade are archaic not much will be realized and therefore the economic development will retard. As a result of innovation, better terms of trade have been developed which reduces the cost of transactions and hence lead to economic development.

Innovation in the technological sector impacts positively on the production of better machinery. Better machinery will result into the economies of scale production which reduces the production cost. Again technological innovation has enhanced services provision which has increased revenues to the economies.

Finally, innovation in the agricultural sectors has enabled the production of agricultural commodities even in adverse weather conditions. This has boosted the food security of the economies leading to the economic development. In conclusion, innovation becomes a major factor in the development of any economy. Individuals and governments must thus aim at coming up and investing in innovation.

References Freeman, Christopher (1982).The Economics of Industrial Innovation. London: Frances Pinter.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1934).The Theory of Economic Development. Boston: Harvard University Press.

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Critical Review of Chapter 1 and 2 of the book Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, by Manfred B. Steger Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents The Problem

Dimension of the problem

Evaluating evidence

Type of evidence

Data representation

Data interpolation

Conclusion

References

The Problem The world is undergoing massive globalisation that has been favoured by scientific inventions and inventions of efficient communication and transport networks. One of the strongest pillars of globalisation is international trade and international collaboration in making global decisions on various issues like the environment, governance and human rights. Globalisation can be categorised into economic and political globalisation; this paper discusses the differences between economic and political globalisation.

Dimension of the problem Different countries have different resources; they thus can produce some item more cheaply than their counterpart’s countries; trade among countries is facilitated by the differences in resource distribution making a certain region have the advantage of producing some commodities than other.

The advantaged country then decides to export those products that it can produce cheaply and efficiently and import those that it cannot. To have such an operation mechanism, governments of the trading countries must be involved to have policies and control mechanisms, the issue of political globalisations then comes into the picture.

Evaluating evidence Economic globalization is the term used to refer to interdependence of different countries through their trading: world countries have different potentials so when some commodities have been produced in one country (the country with comparative or absolute advantage), then they get access to international markets facilitating trade.

The uneven distribution of natural and human resources is the major source of forces of trade, some countries can produce a certain commodity that is required in another country and export the commodity: in return the exporting country get what it cannot produce effectively.

International trade supports economic globalisation and regional or international agreements to perform certain duties in a way prescribed by the abiding parties. International trade is controlled by international trade policies or through regional government policies; it generally involves the importation and exportation of goods and services. with economic globalisation, people are able to produce more commodities since there is ready market for their produce.

It can be in the form of an F.T.A. (Free Trade Agreement), whereby there is no restrictions to trade or W.T.O. (World Trade Organization) where trade is regulated by an internationally body. The main agenda by international trade regulating bodies is to ensure that there is fair trade among countries and where possible to have free trade among them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic globalisation has resulted to a number of benefits to the countries engaging in the trade, they are able to maximize their available resources since there is ready market; when there is a competitive market, people tend to look for better ways of utilizing the available resources thus they utilize the resource better. Population of a country stands to benefit since when there is trade, they can get the much needed commodities for their consumption; this increases the solvenity of consumers.

The major short coming of economic integration is that come countries will be left as net importers thus their economic growth will be hampered. International trade operated under the rule of comparative and absolute trade, some countries may not have this advantage and if it is there, then they lack the expertise to exploit them. Such countries economic situation deteriorates as more trade continues (Schulte, 2000).

Political globalisation involves itself with the integration of governing policies and ensuring that some legislation that cut across the board for member countries. The model of globalisation takes the form of regional nations or they may involve international nations. From a political point of view, globalisation is seen as an understanding among countries for their own benefit or for the benefit of the world in general. There are some incidences of political globalisation and integration.

For, instance the role played by the European Union (EU), can be interpolated t have elements of political globalisation, this is so because the integration of the nation members makes it that when one country is making a decision, it has to interpolate and consider the implication that the decision it will make will have on other countries. it will aim to make that decision that will be considered ethical.

An ethical decision is the decision that will cause no harm to the majority of the people. International agreements are other forms of political globalisation; countries are held accountable for such legislations for example the Kyoto protocol was supposed to instil discipline in member countries so that they will not pollute the environment.

Type of evidence The writer analysis the trend in the world, and how relations among countries are developing, he does not stay blind to emerging needs among societies and countries that governments and international bodies are looking and concerned. It thus has a historical, statistical and abstract touch.

Data representation The writer presented the two topics in a straightforward manner; in either the topics, he started by expounding and explaining what the terms given are meant to imply then develops the chapter in a manner that connects the current position in the world with the topics under discussion.

We will write a custom Essay on Critical Review of Chapter 1 and 2 of the book Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, by Manfred B. Steger specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data interpolation The data can be interpolated in different ways since human beings understands things from different angles, however what is coming out is a clear difference between economic and political globalisation (Manfred, 2003).

Conclusion International trade and scientific innovation are strong pillars of globalisation: economic globalisation is concerned about trade among countries while political globalisation is about binding policies to control trade and movement of factors of production across borders.

References Manfred, B.(2003).Globalization: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schulte, J. A. (2000). Globalization: a critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Was it Necessary for the US to Drop the Atomic Bomb? Essay scholarship essay help

When it comes to discussing whether it was necessary to drop atomic bombs on Japan’s cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945, it is important to take into account the specifics of geopolitical situation in the world, at the time.

Nowadays, not many people aware of the fact that, prior to Germany’s attack on Soviet Union in 1941, the only purpose for Soviet state’s existence has been officially proclaimed spreading Communism all over the Earth. Right until USSR’s collapse in 1991, Soviet Constitution openly stated that it only the matter of time, before the rest of world’s countries would become Soviet republics.

Therefore, Truman’s decision to subject Japan to atomic bombing was not as much motivated by considerations of military necessity as it was motivated by President’s determination not to allow Soviet Union to qualify for having an occupation zone in this country, after the end of war.

According to Alperovitz (1996), throughout the summer of 1945, George Marshall never ceased stressing out namely the importance of intended bombing’s political implications: “[Marshall’s] insistence to me that whether we should drop an atomic bomb on Japan was a matter for the President to decide, not the Chief of Staff since it was not a military question…” (364).

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to suggest that there were no purely military considerations behind President’s final decision to proceed with subjecting Japan to an atomic bombing.

As the battles of Guadalcanal and Ivo Jima had shown, Japanese would very unlikely lay down their arms, even while facing the most impossible odds, associated with application of conventional warfare techniques. Therefore, occupying mainland Japan, in the manner that it was being done to Guadalcanal and Ivo Jima, would cost America dearly.

This became particularly clear to America’s officials, after they heard of Japan’s reaction to Potsdam proclamation: “Japan’s first reaction to the Potsdam Proclamation came from the Domei News Agency… ‘Japan will prosecute the war of Greater East Asia to the bitter end” (Hasegawa, 168).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, at the time when Truman was making decision on whether to drop an atomic bomb on Japan, he was prompted to give the bombing go-ahead by consideration of preventing the spread of Communism into South Asia and by consideration of saving the lives of as many American soldiers as possible.

In the end, these considerations outweighed the consideration of sparing the lives of Japanese civilians, especially given the fact that, during the course of war in Pacific, Japanese had proven themselves as people who did not regard their personal lives as representing a particularly high value.

Therefore, given the qualitative essence of geopolitical realities at the time, Truman’s decision to proceed with the atomic bombing of Japan appears fully justified. If it was not up to this bombing, the war against Japan would have lasted for at least another year.

Soviet Union would have obtained a justification to partake in occupation of Japan, which would eventually lead to creation of ‘People’s Republic of Japan’ on Japanese territories, occupied by Soviets – just as it happened to Eastern European countries, in the aftermath of Germany’s capitulation. Moreover, many more Americans would have to die to bring about the victory over Japan.

It does not represent much of a challenge to criticize America’s atomic bombing of Japan because of its ‘barbarianism’. Yet, the fact that WW2 is being associated with high rate of casualties among civilians has very little to do with ‘bloodthirstiness’ of politicians and generals that played active part in it.

The explanation to this is rather banal – throughout the course of 19th and the first half of 20th century, Earth’s population tripled. And, the more people are being born, the more people will consequentially die – especially during the time of ‘total war’. Thus, let us conclude this paper by restating once again that America’s atomic bombing of Japan was indeed necessary.

References Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.

We will write a custom Essay on Was it Necessary for the US to Drop the Atomic Bomb? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chappell, John. Before the bomb: How America approached the end of the Pacific War. Louisville: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi. Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Harvard: Belknap Press, 2005.

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Benefits of uterine family Essay online essay help

The kinship system practiced in China is categorized as a Sudanese kinship system (also known as descriptive system) applied in defining families. This kind of kinship system is the most complex kinship system as there is a clear distinct title for each member of the kin depending on gender, age, generation and lineage.

According to the Chinese culture, both the male and female family members have clear distinguished roles. They tend to give priority to male members as they enjoy the position of prestige and power while the women’s positions seems much bleaker and she may only have a position in the society if she is able to bare a male child (Wolf 1994, 227).

Margery Wolf in her study found out in every about 93 women, only 4% to 5% of them would prefer staying with their daughters but only if they failed to produce male children as staying with your daughter meant loosing the ‘face’ in the society which had the perception that depending on a daughter was a shameful practice.

According to Wolf (1994, 226), “in the Chinese kinship system a woman’s real family includes her uterine family that includes the woman’s mother and her mother’s children.”

Wolf in her book tries to explain the benefits of having uterine families in Chinese kinship system stating that both the uterine family of a woman’s maternal parent and her individual uterine relations is created through delivery of children becomes crucial factors that contribute to a woman’s’ contentment in her life. Chinese culture is a male dominated kin of culture hence women have no definitive positions in the family.

Facts show that the female children in China were being deserted by their parents while others were being sold off due to the customary norms of the Chinese people who favored baby boys as opposed to girls and in addition they had been constrained to have small sized families by the government in an attempt to reduce the fast growing population.

This attempt of controlling the population had negative effects to many thousands of female babies being born. Information shows that female children were being carried away from their biological families by the city administrators at a cost of about $3,200 as their adoption charge which has motivated many city administrators who carry out the adoption processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author continues to explain that the uterine family system was not an official name in the Chinese patriarchal family but tries to explain the benefits of having the women bond with their children because through the bond formed with their children, they were able to achieve their various material and cultural goals. The configuration set by this unnamed activity created a platform for Wolf to argue that uterine family was part of the kinship system in China.

A woman is termed as a temporary member of the family and is not considered to hold any position in her father’s family. As soon as she is married, the ties between her and her father’s family are termed as severed (Michelle 1974, 33). The father of the girl does not appreciate her daughter’s presence because she cannot continue with his line of descent, unlike the men, the women do not have a continuous linage descent because the uterine family dies along with the women and it keeps on changing with time (Wolf 230).

A woman’s descent is regarded to change over time when she gets married as whom she regards as her family changes as her own children grow up and as her mother in law continues to marry more wives thus as she grows older, the woman is said to have some status especially if she bares male children.

These shows that women in the Chinese society were subordinated by the patriarchal authority, women accepted the male terms of them being economically useless, ritually insignificant and of less importance to the society. But Wolf (253) emphasizes on the importance of the uterine family as she characterizes women’s lives in the family.

Her works simply try to focus on how women were able to come up with strategies that would help them empower themselves even though they faced perceive poverty and entrenched masculine authority noting the fact that they are the same women who undermined their own contribution to the society because of the societies belief as well as being devalued by others.

Since women have very little if any influence over their husbands, especially because she is a mothers’ in law son, the women experience a rocky relationship between her and the husband’s family.

For this reason, the creation of a uterine family could be the best option for a woman to manipulate her presence and position in the family. It might be the only way a woman would earn her happiness. “The uterine family is the first place she is known to acquire permanent loyalties and have obligations which in turn give her a meaning for living” (Wolf 154).

We will write a custom Essay on Benefits of uterine family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, these women had heir own reasons as to why they become so attached to their uterine families that consisted of their children and more so, the sons. The ethnic groups in China show that sons were regarded as very important in terms of acquisition of status by the women and by having some influence over their sons, the women would find a way of increasing their bargaining position within the patrilineal household.

The Chinese culture values the family ‘face’ and everyone in the family as being obliged to ensure that the families reputation is always kept clean and of high standards. In a situation where a woman is subjected to mistreatment, she would complain and use her ties with other women as she had no other way of ensuring an effective change.

At least by complaining, word will spread quickly outside her home and this gossip of mistreatment will lessen the condition because the family does not want to loose ‘face’ out of shameful acts like mistreating a woman. Sometimes the women end up complaining amongst themselves or not complain at all because of the fear of ruining the families ‘face’ or bringing shame to the family. But when it comes to matters that are thought to embarrass a family, the women are known to take cautious measures.

According to Wolf she describes a successful woman as one who is able to depend on herself individually but she still is able to appear as if she gets support from her father and husband or son stating that a woman’s influence over her family will never be stable (Robert et al. 2004, 76).

Uterine family is significant for both genders in the society. Women benefit from it because it forms a support system for them while the men benefit from it from the fact that the uterine family forms the backdrop against which their patrilineage is recognized and raised.

Although this is the case, Wolf noticed that there was some elementary counterforce to the patriarchal domination in that mothers who depended on their sons and were aware of the strong bonds between them and their sons would use these bonds as a weapon against their husbands because the father is viewed as a friend according to the Chinese culture.

The Chinese culture suppresses the women, although the Chinese government is trying to ensure that the population of the country drops by introducing the one child family policy, this policy is believed to affect and cause negative effects upon these women whereby, a woman who is seen as not to have an authentic family until the time she delivers children hence she will always have an urge in getting off springs because she finds the essence of living once she has children.

Most of the women feel obligated to have male children during birth so that one can have status in the society while they despise the girl child because of traditions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Benefits of uterine family by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Michelle, Z. et al., 1974. Woman, culture, and society Anthropology: Women’s studies. California, CA: Stanford University Press.

Robert, P. et al., 2004. Kinship and family: an anthropological reader Blackwell anthologies in social and cultural anthropology. San Francisco, CA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Wolf, M. et al., 1994. Women and the Family in Rural Taiwan: Excerpts. Comparative Sociology of the Family. Helga Jacobson. Burnaby, BC: Open Learning Agency.

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The Bipolar Disorder and Its Management Exploratory Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Signs and symptoms

Causes of the Disorder

Diagnosis and Treatment

Conclusion

References

Introduction Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by intermittent moods and fitful energy levels thus affecting the ability of the patient to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The functions of the brain rely upon the intermittent moods of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) observes that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002).

The disorder mostly affects adults although some cases in children occur due to the inheritable nature of the disorder. Prevalence studies by the American Psychiatric Association shows that, approximately 1.5% of the American adults suffer from bipolar disorder. Given the fact that the disorder is long-term, proper handling mechanisms is paramount to both the patients and health professionals. This essay explores the nature of the bipolar disorder and its management.

Signs and symptoms The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect the physical and psychological functions of the patients causing them to have abnormal behaviors. During the depressive episode, the patient experiences low moods and loss of interests in the daily activities.

The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include anxiety, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, petulance, sleep disturbance, suicidal feelings, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier,

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Why are political parties so strong in the United Kingdom yet so weak in the United States? Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction The United States and United Kingdom are the largest democracies in the world hence they have variant political parties. A political party in any governing system is defined as an organization of people with similar political aims and opinions who seek to attain political influence in public policies through their representative being elected to the governing body (Medvic, 2009, p.120).

Political parties are either funded by the government or individual party members depending on a country’s regulations. Irrespective of the fact that both United States and Great Britain have two dominant political parties, two legislative houses and a single executive, the political parties in both nations differ in their strength. The strength of political parties is determined by the amount of influence a party has on its members and the cohesion in the party.

The political parties in the United States are much weaker than in the United Kingdom. In the US, politics are dominated by two major parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

Additionally, there are other smaller and weaker parties in the political scene. In the democracy of United Kingdom, there are three dominat political parties namely the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrat Party currently led by Nick Clegg. However, there are other smaller political parties namely Independence Party and the Green Party.

The roles of political parties include voicing the needs and concerns of their members and supporters, recruiting and training candidates for public office and socializing the citizens. This paper defines the significant difference in the strength of political parties in the United States and the United Kingdom. Moreover, it explores the factors that make political parties to be strong or weak in these countries.

Political parties in the United States Political parties in the United States were not endorsed in the founding constitutions, since the intention of the Constitution and its founders was to have a triple balanced system of executive, judicial, and congressional powers.

Factors that contributed to the establishment of the two-party system in the United States as the key type of system include historical foundations of the system, political socialization and practical considerations, the electoral system and the federal laws.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, there are no major requirements obligatory from the public in order to become a member of any political party (Schmidt, Shelley, Bardes, 2010, p.154). Scholars have noted that there is a decline in the strength of political parties compared with the past.

Two party system in the United States The two-party system has dominated the United States political scene for a very long time. This could be one of the contributors to the weakening of smaller political parties in the country. People who wish to serve as president, congressional representative, state governor or state legislators have to use the two main parties, Democratic Party and the Republican Party, to increase their chances of wining.

Electoral system The method of electing national and legislative representative promotes the dominance of two-party system. The structure of political parties in the United Kingdom is defined by the individual ideologies supported by each party, which their members endeavor to legislate; however, their counterparts in American lack ideologically cohesive and programmatic.

The available resources for these dominant parties allow them to retain their dominance. Similarly, single member system operating in a small constituency can weaken the general party by creating smaller local independent entities (Duverger, 1963, p.45).

The involvement of political parties’ leaders in the selection of candidates of their political parties is very low in the United States. On the other hand the leaders of political parties in the UK have the role of choosing which candidates should represent their parties. Moreover, the United States political parties are not involved in campaigning for their chosen candidates therefore resulting to less influence on the candidates.

The United Kingdom utilizes a system of proportional representation, where officials are elected, on the bases of the number of votes their parties receive in an election, which promotes strength of parties. In the United States, the election system is focused on the candidates compared to the United Kingdom model where election is party focused (Safran, 2003, p.34). Therefore, parties in the US are not perceived to be as important as individual candidates.

In party centered system, political parties are in charge of all resources while in candidate-centered system, the parties provide just a few resources to the candidates. Moreover, in the US, parties do not have the mandate of choosing the candidates to run under the party, rather, it is done by voters in preliminary voting.

We will write a custom Essay on Why are political parties so strong in the United Kingdom yet so weak in the United States? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, the influence of parties is limited hence leading to their weakening. In contrast, the United Kingdom political parties determine the candidates to run under their parties based on their set regulation. Since the political parties in the US contribute minimal resources to the campaigning of their candidates, the party has less or minimal influence and cannot sanction the candidate if he wins (Safran, 2003, p.34).

However, the political parties in the United Kingdom have much influence on their candidates and they can sanction them since they contribute most of the resources that the candidates require. The electoral system, through preliminary election of party leaders, favors the linking candidates with their local supporters rather than creating a bond between the candidates and the party (Safran, 2003, p.34).

Fundamentally, the electoral system is also weakening the ideologies of the political parties. Generally, direct primaries of selecting candidates have weakened political leaders as it takes away the rights and influence of the party. In the United Kingdom the parties have the obligation of selecting candidates that they wish to field for an election without external influence. Moreover, the party oversees the campaign of its candidates and in return, the party has ultimate control and influence.

Campaigning The candidate-centered approach in the US reinforces campaign-financing laws. The inclination of candidates funding most of the campaign is done at the expense of the party’s influence, as is the case in America.

On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, parties retain their influence since they fund the campaigns of their candidates. The use of political consultants by political candidates has contribution to the decline of roles of political parties in America where the candidates are more inclined to listening to their consultants than the position of their party.

However, consultants weaken the political parties through creating campaign atmosphere where they project individual candidates to the public at the expense of the party. Nevertheless, the public are more informed on candidates’ traits rather than the policies of the candidates’ parties (Best

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Wisconsin’s Labor Unions Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Labor Theory of Value

Sociological Concepts

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Many state employees including teachers and government employees are protesting against a proposed legislation that seeks to curtail the collective bargaining rights of workers unions. They are also opposed to a move spearheaded by the Republican Governor, Scott Walker of raising employee’s contribution towards the pension scheme from 0.2 percent to 6 percent and increasing the health insurance contribution from 6% to 12%.

Proponents of the proposed legislation, including Walker, support it as the best effort to solve the current economic crisis and avoid layoffs of public employees. The bill has the support of Republican lawmakers who have the numbers in both the state Assembly and the Senate to pass it. Once passed, the legislation will demand that the unions’ employees pay will be line with the guidelines of Consumer Price Index.

The efforts of the protesters to stop the legislation from becoming law through labor unions represent a clear example of Marxist theory. The protesters want to avoid exploitation by protecting their collective bargaining rights. The Marxist concept of surplus value outlines how a capitalist economy exploits state employees. According to this theory, state employees can avoid exploitation through forming workers union that gives them effective bargaining rights since labor is the generator of value.

Labor Theory of Value Karl Marx formulated the concept of surplus value to refer to the unpaid surplus labor claimed by enterprises as gross profit (Hollander 78). Marxist idea implies that capitalist states exploit state employees. He argues that the commodity value is derived from the labor value.

The surplus labor reinvestment generates more wealth resulting to huge gross profits and thus, Marx concludes, capitalist states engage in business for profits. Marx argues that the accumulation of wealth in the 19th century by capitalist economies was because of competitive efforts to get the highest surplus value from the labor. This implies that capitalists were exploiting the workers on a massive scale leading to large-scale amassment of wealth by these states.

Marxism holds that every person is justified in maintaining the fruits of his/her labor. However, he argues that the worker receives only the portion of labor that is basic for life while the remainder i.e. the surplus produce constitutes the profits accrued by capitalist enterprises. Marxist’s idea of surplus value led to the labor union programs to protect the rights of the workers from the perceived exploitation by capitalist states.

Sociological Concepts Various social concepts explain the form of modern social and economic organizations in the world (Dillon 45). Disenchantment capitalism involves private ownerships of the markets, allocation of the resources and distribution of goods. The concept arose during the industrial revolution of the 16th century and enabled countries to exploit new colonies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new system led to an increase in the level of trade both domestic and multilateral trade between a state and its colonies. This amounted to exploitation of the colonies and the accumulation of wealth by the rich countries. The non-rewarding labor in the colonies necessitated uprisings against foreign governance.

The sociological concept underscores the need of people coming together to push for common goals. For instance, workers working in a given organization might team to push for better payment. Better payment here plays as the denominator of these workers staying together for they pursue similar goals and objectives.

Workers of an organization bond together through workers union so that they are enough force to make demands pertaining to their work conditions. In mechanical solidarity, the people feel connected based on mutual interests for a certain course. The mass protest of workers in Wisconsin shows that they are united by a common goal. The workers unions act as an umbrella body, which unites these workers and provides bargaining rights for them.

Sociability involves the social interactions for different purposes not on personal purposes. People enter into any form of sociability with personal capacities, attractions, and interests with an objective purpose in mind (Dillon 47).The workers get into unions for personal and subjective gains. In sociability, the members are equal and are therefore democratic in nature.

Sociability influences major decisions in the lives of the people. The sociological concept of world life focuses on a situation in which the world is experienced or lived. World life sociological concept provides the background environment that is responsible for an individual’s practices and attitudes.

Wisconsin has had a history of passing regulations that promote the rights of workers like the collective bargaining legislation passed in 1959 that gave rise to a union that covers public employees. Therefore, the proposal to limit the effectiveness of the workers union faces opposition through mass protests.

Conclusion The workers union offers an opportunity for the workers to have bargaining rights with the state. Marx’s theory of surplus labor led to the rise of workers union. However, unions based on various sociological concepts that shape their response towards any measures that will eliminate these unions unite people as seen by the protests in Wisconsin over the proposal to limit the role of workers unions.

We will write a custom Essay on Wisconsin’s Labor Unions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Dillon, Michele. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2009.

Hollander, Paul. The many Faces of Socialism: Comparative Sociology and Politics. California: ICON group International, 2009.

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The Nature and Course of the African American Experience Between 1850 and 1915 was a Historical Change Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The period of 1850 to 1915 offered great historical experience to the African American in the United States. It was characterized by historic events that served to change the course of the African American from that of being dominated upon in economic, social, and cultural affairs to that of emancipation in these areas. This essay explains why the experience is best described as a historical change rather than an historical continuity.

During the period under examination, the African American culture changed significantly. Families did not take meals times as family time and have conversations on the table during meal times. It was very odd to find a whole family in a house having meal at the same time (Washington p.114).

Another notable change was in churches, where the emancipation of the African Americans from slavery resulted in a movement of churches that were mostly Baptist (Johnson p.135) that developed a district characteristic in worship that previously was only noticed in songs sung from generation to generations in their houses.

New freedoms allowed the African American to incorporate his tradition in their church and this attracted various people into the church ministry such that there was a notable increase in formation of new churches during this period (Du Bois p.121-123).

African Americans during this period started gathering in public, especially on Sundays when there were no work in the field. Washington writes that women spent their leisure Sunday afternoons in the towns, with the excuse of going shopping (p.115). African Americans could now be able to participate and get involved with other Americans as equals even though they still faced some prejudice (Johnson p.13).

They attended schools together with other Americans and participated in sports and other activities up to a national level. Another first for African Americans was that they now could interact with other Americans based on what they were and not what the color of their skin was. This was also characterized by newer choices of careers that previously were not known to be adopted by African Americans especially in art (Johnson p.59

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Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Poor Governance

Wars and Negative Ethnicity

Corruption

Illiteracy

Diseases

External Interferences

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The phrase Third World was initially used in the Cold War period to represent those countries that were neither on the West – NATO nations referred to as the first world countries, nor on the East-Communist bloc referred to as second world countries (World Book Inc. 2000, 212).

The term in the contemporary world is now mainly to represent countries that are economically superior and underdeveloped. These countries are mainly in the African continent, Middle East Arab world, Latin America and those in the Oceania regions.

All of these countries have more or less the same characteristics. These include extreme poverty, high birthrates, high illiteracy levels, and economic inclination and dependency on the advanced countries. Poverty has been the main menace facing third world countries. These countries have been unable to escape poverty and in fact are getting poorer by the day the main causes being poor governance, corruption, wars, poor policies, illiteracy, diseases, brain drain among others.

Poor Governance The system of government is the key to development. Government organs are in charge of many crucial key sectors of the human life. Governance directly affects social and economic sectors. Almost all over the world, it is the work of the government to provide security, health care, business permits and licensing, education, infrastructure and other crucial services.

The services under the government dossier are so important that the system of government can make or break a nation (Mittal 1995, 68). In Third World Countries, most of the systems of government are not properly functioning. Most of the Third World Governments have aspects of dictatorship.

Those, which have been democratically elected to office, refuse to leave office and abuse their powers immensely. They are like gods and idols as their decisions do not entertain any for of contradiction or challenging and those that dare are either detained or assassinated.

This is evident in many countries like Zimbabwe where the president has ruled since independence. He has been oppressing the opposition, detaining and publicly battering the leader of the opposition. In Libya, it is the same case as the president there; Muammar Gadhafi took power through a military coup and has since ruled for forty-two years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Neither, elections are held in Libya, nor any political tolerance. In Egypt, the former president Hosni Mubarak had ruled for thirty years and only left office after a revolution by the masses. In the Far East like Myanmar, military coups have been the order of the day; those that oppose the government of the day being detained without trial. In Latin America like Venezuela, the leaders are dictatorial and oppress the freedom of expression.

It is also in these Third World Countries that political monarchs still exist. There are no democratic elections rather succession of families rule for generations. The leaders in power are thus not qualified to lead nor competent and accountable. All of the politically active monarchs are in the third world countries like Swaziland, Morocco, Jordan, Oman, Brunei, Tonga and Kuwait. Some of these countries like Swaziland are the poorest in the world while the others have the highest political dissatisfaction.

In fact, most of the monarchs in the Arab world are experiencing political rebellion and mass demonstrations. This diverts attention from economic development and the many riots lead to destruction of property and scare away investors. Most of the monarchs are conservative and never embrace the change in technology, thereby making their nations lag behind in terms of development.

The dictatorial and monarchical systems in third world countries have no interest in poverty eradication or economic developments. They only care about themselves. They illegally enrich themselves through corruption, nepotism, and stealing of national resources. They take resources that meant for economic development and eradication of poverty. In these regions, power is associated with wealth.

The richest people in these regions are in political offices and their wealth not legitimately acquired. In fact, some of richest people in the world are from these third world countries. The royal families of Middle East are, listed as some of the richest people in the world. Many of the leaders are not in the list, as they hide their wealth.

However, estimates are made which put them among the richest, for example the richest man according to Forbes is Carlos Slim of Mexico with an approximate wealth of 54 billion US dollar yet the former Egyptian President’s wealth was projected to be 70 billion US dollars, which if verified would make him the richest person on earth. However, his Egyptian counterparts are very poor and unemployed.

The authenticity of the leadership of third world countries is also much contested. In countries that claim to follow democratic elections, the elections are marred with malpractices and claims of rigging. Many countries have witnessed violence due to claims of rigging; Ivory Coast in Africa has two sworn in presidents because of election rigging. Kenya and Zimbabwe in Africa have power sharing governments because of disputed elections. In Iran and Pakistan, the elections have as well attracted contest resulting in demonstration.

We will write a custom Essay on Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poor governance have hindered development projects as the leaders in power are not there on merit thus unfit to rule (Dutt 1979, 27). Politicking has thus become the major focus in these countries shifting attention from development. The leaders lack patriotism and only end up plundering the resources of the countries enriching themselves while the majorities are languishing in poverty.

The leaders are not visionary and never embrace development changes like technology as they view this as a challenge to their authority. The poor governance scare away investors especially long term investors. The investors fear that political turmoil might jeopardize their investment. With no investors, there are no job creations or revenues thus unable to free from poverty.

Wars and Negative Ethnicity Wars have also hindered the eradication of poverty in Third World Countries. When there is war no major economic activity can take place, people become displaced as refugees robbing off a country, money in form of taxes, labor and markets. War also creates anarchy and destruction of property. Existing systems that have taken ages to erect and millions of taxpayers’ money destroyed in an instance. Due to political instability and ethnicity, religious conflict and clan battles, wars in third world countries have become common phenomena.

Civil wars in countries like Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, Somalia, Burma, Uganda, East Timor and Sudan have had a major draw back in the economies of these countries. Instead of children engaging in learning activities, children are becoming child soldiers to kill fellow people.

They are psychologically disoriented and disturbed, and this creates a missing generation even after the war. Family, which is the basic social unit for all human beings, is broken down. People witness their loved ones killed, gang raped, amputated and other cruelties. This creates wounds that are hard to heal and mostly leads to more violence.

War hinder economic development and war in one region can affect the whole region and sometimes the whole world (Deger 1982, 98). This is evident in Somalia, which is located at the horn of Africa. Clan battles have turned the country into a battlefield.

his in turn has created a habitable environment for terrorist groups like Al Shabab, which have links with international terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda. The anarchy in Somalia has also seen the rise of an empire of pirates. Pirates from Somalia have invaded that part of the Indian Ocean, which has one of the busiest routes in world business (Farid 1982, 32).

This in turn has seen capturing of ships by the pirates who in turn demand very high ransom prices. This has made international vessels to avoid this route negatively influencing the poor countries of the region. Ethnicity has also been rampant in third world countries. Tribal animosity led to genocide in Rwanda, Africa in 1994 where almost eight hundred thousand people lost their lives. The effects of the genocide are, still felt up to date.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More War and ethnicity have divided the people of the third world countries. Instead of focusing on how to stamp out poverty, they have been focusing on their tribal affiliations and in the process hampering unity. Wars have seen loss of many lives, destruction of infrastructures, towns and nations. This has taken these countries many years back.

Corruption Corruption is perhaps the biggest barrier in combating poverty in these Third World Countries. At least there is a form of corruption in all of them. Corruption practices have been, experienced in all sectors and in all areas. From the low ranked officer, the highest office holder, to the person on the street. This malpractice has siphoned billions of dollars from these economies. Corruption cases have, to some extent involved international companies. They have to bribe the contracting officers for them to be awarded lucrative contracts.

Corruption is so widespread that the people no longer consider it as a vice. Almost all sensitive sectors are corruption riddled. Police officers receive bribes in public. This encourages smuggling, unroadworthy vehicles, and neglecting of security measures. Criminals buy their freedom by bribing the judges and magistrates.

Foreigners are able to acquire passports and stay in various countries illegally by bribing those in authority. Culprits who have money and power walk freely without prosecution. Impunity and disregard to the law becomes a common phenomenon. There are no medicines in hospitals as individuals in charge have already taken them. Many development projects remain unfinished due to embezzlement of funds.

Many university-qualified graduates cannot find jobs as they have been reserved or given to those with money to bribe. The level of production has thus sharply dropped or the production quality is below par for any meaningful development.

Corruption has discouraged hardworking and innovations. This is so as there is the general belief that one would not get value for money on their efforts. This has in turn led many learned, innovative, and qualified people to flee their countries heading to the developed economies for better life. This mass movement has created another problem in form of brain drain.

The best brains migrate to the western world, as these people feel not given equal, promising opportunities neither appreciated by their countries. The brain drain effect has left many Third World Countries without qualified personnel to cater and oversee development projects like in building of roads.

Illiteracy With the modern world moving towards globalization facilitated by the advancement in IT, many people in third world countries remain uneducated and illiterate. Some have never been to school and cannot even write their own names. Illiteracy limits these people to only doing manual, demanding physical work and since man is mortal, this becomes a big challenge. Many cannot use the internet. This was clear in the first FIFA world cup staged in Africa that is South Africa, 2010.

Ticket sales remained down as one was required to purchase online and many people in the region were computer illiterate. This forced FIFA to distribute tickets for sale in supermarkets and this is when massive purchasing took place in the region. Illiteracy has thus become a major barrier in the efforts to tackling poverty.

Diseases Diseases have also been affecting the population in the Third World Countries. Tropical diseases like Malaria have continued to affect and kill many Africans in large numbers. In Asia, diseases like bird flu continue to trouble the poor people. HIV/AIDS pandemic has hit the whole world with the majority of the affected in Third World Countries (Nordquist 2003, 123). The pandemic has negatively hit the economy as young, energetic, and productive members of the society are succumbing to the disease leaving a void in the economy.

External Interferences Neo colonialism has also hindered development and innovations (Cassen 1982, 45). Former colonial masters and new imperialists like the US do not let the Third World Countries to govern themselves independently without their interference. They tend to force these countries to sign contracts, for them to exploit the natural resources.

They also pressurize them to liberalize their markets so that multinational companies can continue their dominance leading to death of local companies. The profits, from multinational companies, taken back to the mother country and no major developments initiated in the countries of conducting business.

The languages of western countries dominate the educational systems of third world countries, which further complicate education for them. The Third World Countries are therefore, torn on whether to follow their systems or the western systems, cultures, and policies. Those who do not follow are alienated and reasons to impose sanctions on them fetched. Neo colonialism and new imperialism has left the countries confused and without identity, which in turn drifts them deeper into poverty.

Conclusion Third World Countries are all countries in the world that experience economic underdevelopment. They exhibit almost similar characteristics like high birth rates, poverty, poor infrastructure, poor IT facilities, and poor education backgrounds.

These countries are mainly in Africa, Middle East, Oceania, Caribbean and Latin America. Although they experience high poverty levels, they have been unable to escape the high poverty because of many reasons like those discussed above and many more like high rate of births placing the existing resources on high pressure, natural disasters, poor policies, inferiority complex mainly instigated by racism among others (Smith 2003, 29).

Reference List Cassen, R .1982. Rich Country Interests and Third World Development. New York: Taylor

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The Effectiveness of Public Relations and Relationship Marketing Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Findings

Conclusion

References

Introduction The emergence of the service industry has greatly influenced the focus of marketing in the modern economy. Unlike the firms in the industries that deal with tangible goods, the firms in the service industry highly depend on their relationships with the customers in order to survive in the market. Due to the high competition and volatility in the service industry, most firms straggle to cultivate long-term relationships with their clients in order to ensure loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

The same concept has been adopted by other industries due to its effectiveness in creating competitive advantages. The process of developing relationships with customers can only be achieved through public relation and relationship marketing (Sharma, Sheth

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Martin Luther King’s Last Speech Essay college essay help near me

Introduction “I have been to the mountain” was Martin Luther King’s last speech before he was assassinated. In this speech, King aims at maintaining action by encouraging the civil rights activists to continue fighting for racial equality. He uses biblical references to pass his message across to the people. He says that just like the biblical Jews who suffered in the wilderness, but their descendants finally reached the Promised Land, so will the descendants of the black people in the United States.

King rallies the people to keep fighting for their rights and never to give up. He refers to the many successes the movements have had so far. He realized that this was the best tactic to encourage the people to make sure that disillusionment does not overwhelm idealism. He compared past events and to make conclusions that all will be well in the future.

On most occasions he uses the bible, for instance, he compares the Jews slaves who were persecuted in Egypt, but due to their perseverance, they lived until they were released and eventually reached the Promised Land, to the black slaves in America whom he believed would also finally be free.

This was his central claim, which actually comes out clearly in this line “I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land” (King 1). This served to encourage the civil rights activists to employ righteousness in their fight for equality.

In this speech King was speaking directly to the sanitation workers who were striking in Memphis, but his intention was to reach all African Americans to encourage them to rally behind the movement so that they can achieve their civil rights. He uses many past events to support this claim.

For instance, he uses past efforts to illustrate some of the civil rights successes. Among them are the sit-ins that happened in North Carolina, the freedom rides that were witnessed in the South, the Negro activism in states like Georgia, Albany, Alabama, and Birmingham, and also the many supporters who trooped to capital in 1963 to participate in the demonstration in which King gave his “I have a dream” speech. He also used those fighting injustice in Memphis, Alabama, and Selma to support his claim (King 1).

King uses his oratory skills in this speech to create a role of activist to be played by his audience by retelling heroism stories in the past and assuring them that they will eventually succeed even without him around. He employs a superior relationship with the audience by using many personal examples in supporting his claim. This made the people realize that he was a very important person to them. The role of prophet that he gives himself makes people believe in every word that come out of his mouth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When he says “I want to thank God once more for allowing me to be here with you” (King 1), he brings out the idea that he is chosen by God to deliver his people from misery. He uses near death experiences that he has gone through to paint himself as a person who has been tested and chosen. He also emerges as a visionary when he claims that he has been on the top of the mountain and has seen the Promised Land (King 1).

King uses a well organized chronological structure that he strategically embeds in the context of the time. He travels back to refer to the early successes of the movement in the start of the 1960s and works his way systematically to the present and concludes the speech with a visionary look into the future ahead. By using this structure, King was able to rekindle enthusiasm in his audience by reminding them of their circumstances and encouraging them to always keep in mind their current troubles (King 1).

In short, King claims that the efforts of the civil rights movement will come to bear fruit. He proves this by sharing his dream with the people. Having assumed a prophetic figure, he did not need much proof to strengthen his message although he has cited a few. His message was a humble plea for equality not a demand by blacks that could create fear in the white population. This is shown by his contrasting example of the black women who attempted to kill him and that of the small white girl who admired him.

Work Cited King Martin. “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop”. American Rhetoric, 1968. Web. https://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm

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Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Consumer Patterns in the use of food products

Shopping habits

Product feature preferences

Conclusion

References

Introduction Research shows that majority of population in Japan embraces health conscious and awareness dietary habits as one of the important factors promoting healthy living. Majority of the population within the country eat healthy food for the purposes of maintaining slimmer figures.

Their concerns could be linked to most of the developed countries which include maintenance of weight balance and preventing chronic illnesses such as diabetes, obesity and heart diseases. The rate of obesity cases have increased for the last couple of years to an estimation of 3% of the population.

This has made them to be more sensible and selective to what they eat. Most Japanese living in urban centers obtain their food from restaurants and some from fast-food centers. However, older generation living in rural areas depend mostly on traditional diet, they prefer local food to foreign dishes. The young generation on the other hand is adopting the western kind of diets at a very high rate, this present rich market for fast-food restaurants like Wendy International Inc. (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Consumer Patterns in the use of food products Japanese consumers are mostly interested in sports nutrition products, these posses a challenge to food manufacturers who are required to have unique nutritional complex and thrilling profile for the purposes of attracting customers. According to research statistics an average Japanese diet is composed of 15% protein, the level of carbohydrates should be averagely 60% and 25% fat content (International Markets Bureau, 2010).

Japanese households focus on eating averagely three meals per day; they consider meal times as social occasions where each enjoys eating with others. Japanese enjoy eating fast-foods at lunch hours where they prefer eating outside home. Dinner is usually consumed back home with common foods like meat, rice and fish. Research has revealed that the influence of western culture is leading the population towards consumption of snacks.

The consumers have great sensitivity to pricing, this is evident from the level of sales experienced within the stores that indulge in selling of heavily discounted food comprising of those damaged in the process of packing and food that are out of season including those nearing expiry date.

This means that for success to be realized, Wendy has to be very reasonable with their pricing strategies. The following table from the National statistical offices shows the average consumer spending on food within the year 2006 and 2007 (International Markets Bureau, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Table 1: Consumer expenditure on food

¥ Billion 2006 2007 Bread and cereals 3,840.1 3,811.6 Meat 3,636.9 3,637.6 Fish and seafood 4,410.6 4,342.5 Milk, cheese and eggs 1,994.9 2,000.4 Oil and fats 1,877.3 1,899.0 Fruit 1,874.6 1,869.9 Vegetables 4,981.7 4,976.7 Sugar and confectionery 3,627.6 3,653.0 Other food 12,795.8 12,945.5 Total 39,039.4 39,136.2 According to recent research, the influence of western style of eating has seen the decrease on the consumption of traditional food. This includes the consumption of seafood which was known to be popular within Japanese culture. Contrary, there is notable rise in the consumption of sugar, oils, fats and confectionaries this is due to the fact that these kinds of food appear cheaper.

Popularity of ready made meals is on the rise for the purposes of convenience that addresses the high number of singles within urban centers. This may present good market to Wendy’s fast food restaurants (Euromonitor International, 2009).

There is great difference in taste within Japan due to regional differences. Japan is divided into two regions namely; Kanto and Kansai. This is one of the crucial factors that need to be considered by Wendy since the natives from Kanto region seem to like western products and have less concern for food costs.

Kansai residents seem to more conscious on food costs and prefer mostly their traditional food to Western food. This calls for adjustment in taste profile for the purposes of serving the entire population. One of the major advantages to Wendy Inc is that Japanese are cultured to fast-paced lifestyle which makes fast-food restaurants a priority most of the times (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Shopping habits The shopping habits are reflected based on several factors some of which include; importance of product information, the enjoyment that goes along with shopping, pricing, the nature of advertisement used and people’s reactions.

The Japanese does their food shopping based on its quality health- wise, tastiness and freshness. Markets in Japan offer different kinds of food depending on customer’s choice and preference. Research shows that more than half of the population likes eating out at restaurants more so when in companionship with friends.

We will write a custom Essay on Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the public meetings and social gatherings take place at social facilities creating reach market for fast food. The eating out population in Japan has increased due to some factors such as high number of single persons, society experiencing tremendous changes, for instance long working hours, fast-paced lifestyle and low food prices. Recent statistics have shown that in Japan great number of street vendors deal with food and beverage.

The frequency of those who eat out is on the increase despite the economic downturn. They consider that eating out improves one’s self identity since it presents an opportunity to meet people from diverse background. Majority of the consumers have adjusted their purchasing habits for the purposes of utilizing on the consumption of fast food and street vendors (Euromonitor International, 2009).

The statistics further shows that the majority of the population comprises young men with the elderly above sixty five years accounting for only 22%. Japan’s food related segments are divided into; traditional consumers, adventurous and uninvolved consumer segments. The research shows that the number of adventurous consumers is high as compared to the other two.

This is because most of them prefer healthy, organic food products and more sensitive to safety and taste. However, the consumers tend to be very skeptical on the nature of food safety. This is due to some recently identified food scandals such as contaminated mill from Snow Brand and contaminated Chinese vegetables including false branding of beef.

Food consumption and purchasing is high in the country and considered as one of the largest expenditure after housing. They are more focused on purchasing variety of fresh foods from the common outlets offering highest quality food products. Recent statistics shows that general and specialty stores sells averagely 39% of total food sales followed by supermarkets at 34% and lastly convenient stores at 13% of total food sales.

Within the last four years, records shows that the consumption rate of retail packed food increased by considerable percentage of 2.2% compared to that of fresh food which recorded small increase as low between 0.5-0.6%. These statistics presents Wendy Inc with good starting consumer base, which when utilized could result to good financial returns (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Product feature preferences Wendy International Inc should focus on providing consumers with reliable and high degree services. They measure the quality of the product by the impacts it has on general health and value the cleanliness that goes with it. To motivate the population towards the products, hygiene factors which might result in consumer dissatisfaction must be observed closely.

The population considers variety and inexpensiveness of the product as one of the motivating factors. The research further indicates that according to Japanese culture, if the high-level need which in their case is self identity cannot be satisfied, then they consider lower-level needs which in their case are inexpensiveness, variety and quality health (Rothbart, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To satisfy the uninvolved consumers within Japan, majority being male bachelors, the focus should be on product design. This will provide them with food products that are easily used which most of them prefer. To reach the traditional consumers Wendy Inc should put a lot of emphasis on product labels since most of those in this category have poor purchasing habits.

Conclusion More attention should be paid on individual consumer effects and the level of its impact on current and future trends. Personal interview and multiple regression approaches should be employed to test the research hypotheses and exploratory propositions. Lowering prices was found to have a positive effect on consumer buying habits and their frequency to food stores.

This clearly suggested that in order to experience increase in consumer spending and repeat visits, the restaurants should invest more in tools that promote the use of price-off. Wendy Inc image could be improved only by promotional tools that focus on consumer tastes.

References Euromonitor International. (2009). Consumer Lifestyles in Japan. Web.

International Markets Bureau. (2010). Japanese Consumer Behavior, Attitudes And Perceptions towards Food Products. Market Analysis Journal Report, (3), 1-14.

Rothbart, C. (2009). The Sky‘s The Limit: Bringing Canada

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Choosing Hotel Location Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Several factors are put into consideration before any business enterprise or entity is established. Among them is the physical location. Hotel industry, like any other business activity has to put this factor ahead of all other factors if indeed any tangible gains are to be realized out of the business. The place where a hotel is located will determine several other things including sales volume, customers, profitability and long-term survival in the industry.

It is evident that a convenient place to up a hotel should consider factors such as commercial areas, recreational grounds, airports among others .These factors can maintain good customer base as well as attracting more new customers. There has been always a controiversy on whether it’s more beneficial to put up a hotel where there are other similar hotels or away from such businesses.

One theory argues that by creating a business venture close to the competitors geographically, an entrepreneur can obtain posive externality from economic and institutional environments. In contrast, it is disputed that by locating business venture far away from its competitors, the firm will avoid localized competition and earns itself competitive advantage. Because the two theories seem to be o great importance, it’s good to consider the two in some aspects while putting up a hotel business.

In most cases, it’s rare to establish a business without competitors, in other words almost all business entities operate under perfect competition characterized by product homogeneity, many sellers and buyers and above all buyers and sellers are price takers. Therefore it is important that while opening a new hotel location, one should bear in mind that there are other existing similar businesses and one should not make decisions that to some extend will affect the operations of other investors.

One aspect which can clearly indicate he interruptions of other firms operations is the product priced in other competitors which include pricing of various goods and services including market’ local room rates offerd by the hoteliers. Therefore, one should come up with sound decisions which will not negatively influence the existing market’s room rates (Magnini

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Needs and Wants Essay college admission essay help

It is a common weakness among most people that they spend a lot of their income on things they do not really need. Materialism has led many people to forget the fundamental difference between needs and wants. It is important to consider the priorities when preparing the budgets.

Psychologically, a need is a phenomenon that arouses an action to an organism towards a particular purpose. It is important to note that one person’s need may not be necessarily another person’s need. Other documented philosophies point out that a need is a representative of an individual’s cost in a society. This follows that an individual who is unable to meet his/her needs does not live properly in a society (Plant, Lesser,

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Functions of government in an economy Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic functions of the government

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Government is defined as a particular group of people controlling a nation at a particular time and in which their manner of administration is structured while economy constitutes how government organizes labor, capital and land to produce goods and services in a country (Bennett, 1998) Government role in an economy is how the organizes factors of production to create goods and services in a country (Dollery, 2006).

Economic functions of the government The government has several economic responsibilities to achieve to enhance prosperity of a country. First, the government provides legal and social frame in controlling business activities in the country. This is achieved through enactment of laws protects private ownership of property and enforcement of contracts regarding business transactions (Hill, 1982).

In addition, the government uses the police force to maintain law and order resulting to security of workers and firms within an area. They also inspect and maintain a system of standards for measuring and weighing products thus ensuring transparency in trade (Giersch, 1988). Secondly, the government maintains competition in the market by controlling monopoly and enacting antitrust laws that prevent businesses from merging into so as to control and set market prices (Bennett, 1998)

Similarly, the government plays a major role in redistribution of income in the country, since impersonal market that tends to favor given producers or traders, the government intervenes through progressive tax system thus reducing the disposable income on citizens who might have adopted high standards living due to high level of income (Giersch, 1988).

Secondly, the government redistributes income through market intervention by modifying the prices of goods and services that would have been higher when established through market forces of demand and supply (Hill, 1982). For example, the government could provide farmers with above market-prices of farm outputs to stabilize the market price and increase their income (Bennett, 1998)

In addition, the government puts mechanisms to cover spillover costs that entail the production or consumption of goods or services that are inflicted on individuals without the proper compensation such as environmental pollution that is likely to affect the lives of residents (Bennett, 1998)Moreover, the government ensures economic stability of a country by adjusting its spending and taxation or increasing spending on public goods thus maintaining strong economic value of the currency (Zeckhauser,1983).

Stabilization of the economy reduces inflation country thus controlling unemployment and price level as the government adjusts spending and tax rates to slow down or speed up economic growth rate (Giersch, 1988). The government then formulates a policy that emphasizes on supply of money and interest rates through the budget and provides goods and services which the private individuals are not willing to venture in or those threatening national security such as production of atomic bombs Dollery, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The government takes care of the needs beyond the reach of market forces of demand and supply through provision of services and enactment of rules and regulations that encourages investments in a country (Bennett, 1998).This leads to mass-production in the industrial sector leading to high economic growth and improved standard of living since many countries adopted liberal market economy (Dollery, 2006).

Reference List Bennett.D. (1998).Multicultural states: rethinking difference and identity‎.Sidney :HarperCollins Publishers Australia

Dollery .B. (2006).Australian local government economics‎ Brian. Sidney: Macmillan Publishers

Fan. Q. (2009) “Innovation for development and the role of government” New York: St. Martin’s Publishers.

Giersch .H. (1988) “Reassessing the Role of Government in the Mixed Economy” New York: Oxford University press.

Hill.L. (1982) “Role of government in a market economy” New York: Oxford University press

Zeckhauser.A. (1983) “What Role for Government? Lessons from Policy Research” New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

We will write a custom Essay on Functions of government in an economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Human Resources Management Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What

How

Why

When

Conclusion

References

Introduction Working class people spend most of their time serving their employers; they are selling their intellectual properties, labours, time and works of their hands to their employer.

To stay in an organisation, there are some expectations that employees have upon their contract with their employer, the expectations can broadly be categorised as material, psychological, and social (Perrewé, Kalmar

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A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The principle of autonomy is explicitly revealed in the work

The work’s Agency description

The work’s Criticality description

The work’s Universality description

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction In 2006 Jean-Pierre Gauthier, a talented Canadian artist who won numerous prestigious art awards, created one of the most significant artworks of the beginning of the 21st century (Jean-Pierre Gauthier 2008). He also won one of the most significant art awards, Sobey Art Award (Juliusson 2004). He called his work Battements et Papillons (Beats and Butterflies).

This installation is a great illustration of digital art since it is created with the help of technology and at the same time bears prominent artistic value. It inspires and evokes ideas about some personal things. Every viewer perceives this work of art in his/her own way (Jean-Pierre Art Gallery of Nova Scotia 2009). Beats and Butterflies is not just another installation which includes some musical instrument creating some sort of noise.

Gauthier’s art work represents a divine device which creates beautiful melody with no human interference. In one of his interviews the artist stated: “The motion, the sound, all the dimensions and the references too – I try to bring them to another level” (Landry 2009). He manages to do so. His unique to reveal new facets of motion and sound make his installation Beats and Butterflies one of the most explicit manifestations of liberation aesthetics.

The artists does not resort to conventional rules of form, he rather tries to reveal his own emotions, what he feels “from the work” (Landry 2009). Gauthier’s installation Beats and Butterflies is liberated from any conventions and laws. There is only one person to dictate his will in his art work – Jean-Pierre Gauthier himself. The installation also illustrates the four principles of the art of Enlightenment which make the work that important and valuable.

The principle of autonomy is explicitly revealed in the work The artwork, Beats and Butterflies, is unique representative of kinetic art. Gauthier is regarded as not only an artist, but as “inventor and musician” as well (Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play 2009). He does not follow some fashionable trends or conventional rules. Gauthier’s installation Beats and Butterflies differs from the rest of artworks.

The artist is absolutely autonomous. The installation reveals individuality of the talented kinetic artist who controls motion and sound. It is also important to point out that the artist utilizes “everyday instruments” and ordinary objects “creating a hazy environment from easy pieces” (Orlov 2003, 103).

This is one of his peculiarities which made some people call him a “virtuoso of everyday reality, an artisan of contemporary art, an entomologist of sound” (Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal 2007). Gauthier’s uniqueness lies in his absolutely inexplicable ability to transform “everyday objects” (MOCCA 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this very installation also reveals the idea of autonomy. There is no human to play the piano. The sounds are created by some external invisible power. It is possible to see and feel the motion which creates the beautiful melodies: there are some cables moving and keys are also in motion. Nevertheless, there is no definite creator of the music.

The work’s Agency description The second principle of the art of Enlightenment is also explicitly revealed in the work. The installation, Beats and Butterflies, can be characterized by the relationship between the principal and his agent which is absolutely unique. Gauthier’s works of art cannot be regarded as “art that just hangs quietly on the wall” (Clair 2008).

Gauthier’s Beats and Butterflies is constantly in motion. Though the work has been created by the artist it has the life of its own. There is certain power of Providence in the installation since it seems that some divine powers play the instrument. When listening to the music it is possible to feel that it is not about physical rules of kinetics or rather that kinetics is not about Physics, it is something about magic.

Viewers can see “piano, bench, aluminum tape, motion detectors, microcontrollers, solenoids, relays, metal tension cables, motor” and other physical objects (DOCAM n.d.). Nevertheless, it is impossible to perceive this work of art as a physical object. The instrument is ordinary piano, but the artist made it look like a magic cornucopia which produces divine sounds instead of divine food.

At this point it is necessary to add that this very installation has been presented at numerous exhibitions not only in Canada, United States or Europe, it was popular in countries of the East (Garcia 2007). There is even a documentary devoted to the artist’s works (Akron Art Museum n.d.). Nowadays his works can be also viewed online (Vimeo n.d.). Thus, seemingly distant from its creator the installation reveals his vision and his feelings worldwide.

The work’s Criticality description Every art work of Gauthier bears important message. His installations can touch upon absolutely different topics. For instance, he tied motion and sport in his installations (Arena: The Art of Hockey 2008). His artwork, Beats and Butterflies, draws links between music and motion.

It goes without saying that this installation evokes curiosity and like all his works makes viewers try to figure out how it all works (Johnson 2003). Some find it easy to teach acoustics and kinetics using Gauthier’s art (Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play n.d.). Nevertheless, the idea of his works is much more important than evoking curiosity or teaching some laws of Physics. Gauthier stipulates:

We will write a custom Essay on A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More …I try to create brief moments of elation that activate the ear so it is no longer an organ waiting to be stuffed like a goose. At those moments, the ears are mouth and eye at once; they observe carefully, stealthily, and greedily imbibe the sound. (Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Official Website)

Thus, the artist creates a whole new world, the fourth dimension where sounds can be perceived in some other way. Gauthier’s Beats and Butterfly carry out his intention perfectly. The dark space and the piano creating magnificent sounds do transform the ideas of motion, sound, music and art.

The work’s Universality description It goes without saying that the work which appeals to the bottoms of viewers’ hearts, evokes various thoughts and ideas, and simply inspires, is universal. Of course, everyone perceives it in some specific way, but no one remains indifferent. For instance, people pertaining to the world of art regard Gauthier’s works “transforming an environment in a way that gives the viewer a new experience of the familiar” as unique and significant (Rudolph 2010).

Children also appreciated this installation and their astonished faces became an evidence that the work reached their hearts (Police Community Response 2010). Some say that Gauthier’s works “have a strange effect on viewers” and it is really so (Machines at Play 2010). This peculiarity of his works makes them universal.

Conclusion On balance, it is possible to state that Beats and Butterflies is the work of art which is the perfect illustration of the art of Enlightenment realizing the four principles: Universality, Criticality, Principles of Agency and Autonomy. This installation is a unique artwork which makes people see and feel new dimensions and worlds.

Reference List Akron Art Museum. Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. Western Reserve Public Media. Web.

Arena: The Art of Hockey. 2008. Canadian Art. Web.

Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Makes a Generous Gift to AGNS. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Clair, Jeff St. 2008. Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play at the Akron Art Museum. WKSU. Web.

DOCAM. Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons, 2006. Documentation and Conservation of the Media Arts Heritage. Web.

Garcia, Cathy Rose A. 2007. Listen to Beauty of Sound Art in Seoul. The Korea Times. Web.

Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. 2009. Akron Art Museum. Web.

Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. Western Reserve Public Media. Web.

Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play to Open at the Art Gallery of Hamilton. Web.

Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Official Website. Web.

Johnson, Ken. 2003. ART IN REVIEW; Jean-Pierre Gauthier – ‘Sporadic Exchange’. The New York Times. Web.

Juliusson, Svava. 2004. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Wins Sobey Art Award. E-Flux. Web.

Landry, Mike. 2009. Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Noise Control. The Coast. Web.

Machines at Play. 2009/10. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia Winter Journal, 34: 21.

MOCCA. Toronto International Art Fair. Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art. Web.

Musée d’art Contemporain de Montréal. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Exhibition: February 10 to April 22, 2007. Musée d’art Contemporain de Montréal. Web.

Orlov, Piotr. 2003. Chelsea Version. The Village Voice, July 9: 103-117.

Police Community Response. 2010. Spotlight on Public Safety, 2, no. 4: 3.

Rudolph, Ellen. 2010. What Is Kinetic Sound Installation? An Interpretive Guide to the Exhibition… The Prairie Art Gallery, January. Vimeo. Web.

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Supply Chain Management Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Suitability of push and pull management philosophies in relation to the case study and the boundaries between different stages of its supply chain

Several approaches are always made for the purposes of ensuring perfect mobilization of resources towards achievement of certain goals. The approaches may vary in details but at the end of it all share common ground of improving businesses like Sandwich Company. Push management could be designed to position resources at suitable places where there is anticipated need.

The model results into equipped line of services based on standardized processes which could assist in delivering resources and products to right venues at anticipated times. The technology employed should specify activities that need to be administered together with the resources in order to meet anticipated demands. The push models tend to work with people passively, where the decisions affecting consumers could only be solved through central decision making (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

Focus on pull management assists in the creation of foundation where people are helped in the processes of appropriate mobilization of right resources. The pull models are created as a result of increasing uncertainty within companies like the Sandwich Company. They help in improving the level of creativity applied by local participants who seeks satisfaction of immediate needs.

The pull models help employees within the company to come together with innovative ideas which would help in solving the rising demand of sandwich products, this may include resources such as installation of refrigerators for the sake of perishable products.

Pull models seeks no dictate on the nature of tools and resources required to accomplish tasks and address arising opportunities like supplying goods to the supermarket. Pull models tend to treat consumers as creative entities that could be used to solve problems and create opportunities. It is applied to reinforce capability building by all consumers and employees hence assisting them towards innovation that could help them solve their needs (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

With the maturity of supply chain within Sandwich Company, the demand chain is as well gaining importance and requires the organization’s appropriate responses. Sandwich products alongside services that goes with production, needs to be appealing to the consumers as well as the company’s stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pull model could be rightfully applied in this area so as to ensure that both customers and the firm are placed into consideration for viable outcome in production. The firm need not only to focus on the drivers within the demand change but also on their efficient management. This is what leads to the firms’ ultimate value chain (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

The efficiency of the supply chain within Sandwich Company cannot be realised until the level of demand for the products is understood. First of all the demand chain objectives requires address in line with the company’s business strategies. This will make it easier for the employees to extensively resume the relevance of the strategies for the purposes of exploring available opportunities.

Holistic approach to market opportunity analysis needs to be considered whereby; cost optimization is given priority on the side of customer expectations as well as those of stakeholders. However, the cost does not matter so much within the market since consumers are more concerned about convenience and speed. The marketers should be more involved in the process of product characteristics.

The pull approach when adopted provides flexible approach towards the management of the resources being used in the production process since the ingredients used seem to be perishable. This assists in mobilising assets and other resource capabilities like distributions outside the confines of the company. The pull system when applied in this business will ensure effective extension of services beyond production processes (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

Sandwich Company needs to pay much attention towards services and satisfaction of consumers on their products; they need to consider issues such as complain from customers and product follow up avenues. These processes help in enhancing the Company’s image amongst consumers because of their high performance level.

The Company emphasizes so much on product delivery as one of the important quality drivers. As part of pull model, Sandwich Company needs also to focus on offering good training to its employees which ultimately ensures that they are acquainted with the right knowledge enabling them to handle current consumer issues.

Sandwich Company requires market surveys to establish on efficiency of their services to consumers. Monitoring of delivery services should be done through some systems of evaluation such as on-time and same-day deliveries. Sandwich Company uses the final assembly time as the basis of making charges to its customers (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

We will write a custom Assessment on Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sandwich Company should make crucial improvement on some customer metrics such as transportation of products and timing of delivery services, this is since these metrics contributes tremendously towards customer satisfaction. The improved performance of Sandwich Company could be attributed to positive responses received from potential consumers.

The company needs to place lots of emphasis on customer views and comments towards their services. This can be done efficiently through conducting of customer surveys that makes it easier to analyze consumer tastes, preferences and expectations (Godsell et al, 2006).

Customer perspective means of evaluation is very crucial towards contributing to the Company’s improvement in performance. Customer service aspect of the BSC should be utilized by Sandwich Company through the use of important measures which include; lead times, on-time delivery services, customer index and the level of consumer satisfaction. The Company determines customer satisfaction through surveys that are conducted by random selection of customers on a monthly basis and making them fill few questionnaires.

Analysts from outside the Company are used to visit consumers on behalf of the firm and produces report on the consumer reactions and valid expectations they desire from the Company. Customer survey questions are constructed based on basic consumer concerns touching crucial areas such as quality, satisfaction on delivery time and concern on pricing methods used on the Company’s products and services (Godsell et al, 2006).

The company focused on the quality, cost, performance and issues on prices at which goods and services are offered to customers. They also focused on the level of supply of goods to consumers at different locations. These companies analyze customers in relation to their potential and pay much attention to the processes through which products and services are administered to the specific customer groups.

The company’s effort to evaluate the performance from the customer point of view contributed largely to the performance of the company. The processes through which they developed products are defined by quality measures, cost of production and time which contribute a lot towards customer satisfaction (Godsell et al, 2006).

Response management will be required on the process of evaluating range of alternatives. This is done through first of all reviewing the amount of resources available and linking them to market outcomes and possible limitations. Apart from the production process, delivery of services is equally an important factor for success to be realised.

Corporate BSC was established so as to help in organizing operations within the Company. This helped in establishing customer perspective as the key contributor towards effective performance and achievement. The company puts much emphasis on the product cycle that involves transportation and kind of services delivered as some of the important metrics used within Sandwich Company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Company focuses on supplying quality citrus products at affordable prices while still maximizing on its profit. The actions and measures taken by Sandwich Company’s are all customer-centric. The success of the Company is attributed to their market strategies on ways to deal with customers. However, the Company need to diversify its production to include other related fruit products (Godsell et al, 2006).

Cycle view of supply chain operations The customer order cycle comprises of customer arrival followed by the entry of Customer’s order then Customer Order fulfillment and finally customer receiving the order. The replenishment cycle which is the category of retail order, comprises retail order trigger followed by retail order entry then fulfilling the order request and finally receiving the products.

This is preceded by the manufacturing cycle which comprises the order arrival going through the production scheduling then manufacturing and shipping process then reception of the final products. Before the manufacturing process, there is the procurement cycle which involves making order of materials based on the manufacturer’s production schedule, suppliers’ precisions and also considering the various components of manufacturing before the materials are received by the manufacturer.

Metrics Reliability Responsiveness Flexibility Cost Assets Perfect Order Fulfilment z Order fulfilment Cycle time z Upside Supply Chain flexibility z Upside Supply Chain Adaptability z Downside Supply Chain Adaptability z SCM Cost z Cost of Goods Sold Z Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time z Return on Supply Chain Fixed Assets z Return on Working Capital z The use of business score card could be of prime use in this Company. Score card could be used in this Company as a management tool to motivate employees towards increasing the value of the organization giving it the ability to appeal to shareholders and rewarding of all employees with high performance level.

Corporate BSC should be established so as to help in organizing operations within the Company. This could help in establishing customer perspective as the key contributor towards effective performance and achievement. The company should strive to place much emphasis on the product cycle which involves transportation and kind of services delivered as some of the important metrics used (Godsell et al, 2006).

The processing time depends not only on the set up time and compatibility of other ingredients but also on the rate of flow of the raw materials. This therefore calls for implementation of faster means of transport to cater for the need. The sequence of sandwiches at the end of processing unit should be geared towards minimizing total completion time and maximum earliness. Finished products with due dates should not be supplied since this may bring about confusion on the utilization of the available resources.

Conclusion In reality the customer perspective actions and measures taken by Sandwich Company are customer-centric since all the strategies were geared towards maximizing profit per potential customer within the market. Sandwich Company ensures that customers receive their products in good shape, quality and at the right time.

This could be ensured through the reduction of assembly time that also contributes to lowering of prices. The manufacturing efficiency of Sandwich Company should be improved through the use of BSC which helps in creating crucial changes within the process and human resource management. The overall efficiency of the processes should be improved by more than 10%.

Apart from focusing on quality expectations from customers, the company should expand their concern to encompass cost of production and the nature of delivering goods. Increased income and improvement in sales are some of the indications of the level of customer satisfaction. This is since customers tend to buy more of a product when satisfied with its quality and prices.

References Godsell, J. Harrison, A. Emberson, C.

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Concepts of Supply Chain Management Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Table of Contents The pull and push strategy

The cycle view

The Supply Chain Operations

Reference List

The pull and push strategy Supply chain management is the matrix of the activities involved in the process of a seller availing goods and services to the final consumer (Haag, S., Cummings, M., McCubbrey, D., Pinsonneault, A.,

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Judging from past experience/internationalization- Should IKEA continue to internationalize? Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Global marketing is defined as the process where business companies focus and strategize on ways of investing their resources within the world market. This is often faced by certain challenges and threats which either drives or restrains the processes involved. The challenges are experienced since marketing practices vary from country to country and require marketers to think globally (Keegan and Green, 2002).

Pros of Internationalization

Internationalization brought about rise in innovative designs and improved function of goods and services at affordable prices. This assisted in ensuring that consumers benefit from improved lifestyles due to new concepts of goods and services provided by competitors seeking market superiority. Businesses companies attain big profit margins from internationalization process. According to Moon 2004, “Wal-Mart was America’s number one furniture retailer because of large foot print in the world”.

The high margins attained were as a result of product and service diversification which ensured that each product within international market ploughed back extra revenue to the business away from home. Lower priced products and services offered due to internationalization brought about sensible cost cutting, this enhanced the level of consumer satisfaction through unique combination of form, function and affordability.

Cons of Internationalization

Several disadvantages arose from internationalization, one of them being products of low quality value which find their way into international markets. This was as a result of unhealthy competition within the market which makes most companies try dubious means of enticing customers, one of the ways being selling poor quality products at lower prices. This is mostly seen to capture price sensitive consumers and creates negative impact on consumer’s standard of living.

Market fragmentation is another major problem encountered within international business, large economic discrepancy between populations within the global markets tends to affect overall margins within international business companies. As a result extensive market research has to be done to effectively locate potential markets that may look profitable for specific products.

Also within the disadvantages is the abuse of certain business ethics and loss of business culture within the international markets. This could be as a result of different tastes amongst consumers of the same business products within different market locations. This leads to increase in the cost of production due to intense market research involved for the purposes of satisfying consumer tastes from diversified backgrounds within the global market (Knight, 2005).

Successful Country in Internationalization

Sweden which is the home country of IKEA was the most successful in internationalization of IKEA’s products. IKEA moved from Sweden and penetrated other external markets starting with America. Early 2000 the company was able to double revenues in the United States. United States initially was not receptive to IKEA but through market research they penetrated the market such that by 2002 the company had fourteen stores in America servicing over twenty five million customers on an annual basis (Moon, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unsuccessful Country in Internationalization

France was the country least successful in internationalization of IKEA’s products. Statistics shows that the country accounted for only less than 10% of total sales of the products. This probably meant that France had low reception to Ikea products due to factors such as strong cultural ties within the country that resisted penetration of foreign products (Moon, 2004).

Continuation of Internationalization

Based on statistical analysis on leading purchasing countries, China accounted for over 17% of total purchases from IKEA group. This means that China is more receptive to the international business concepts and practices offered by IKEA Company. China is more diverse in their products and also bases their marketing concept on providing cheap products for international markets. IKEA should continue the sale of its products to Chinese markets (Moon, 2004).

Conclusion The low prices attract most customers especially during difficult financial times. In order to improve its performance, IKEA has established a good brand name that is recognized globally, this has helped in maintaining the strong growth it requires in order to have a strong market identity amongst the clients. IKEA despite being a home furnishing retailer supplements its income through its constituent stores which are the restaurants, cafes and food shops.

References Keegan, M.

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The inaccessible law Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The inaccessible Law

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Before the law is a short allegorical story in Franz Kafka’s novel, ‘The Trial’. He describes a society that is full of oppression, slavery, corruption, inhumanity yet the existing law is inaccessible. A man from the country tries fruitlessly to reach law but the doorkeeper tells him he cannot access the law.

Ironically, the doorkeeper claims the door belongs to the citizens and it is always open but nobody goes through it. Contemporarily, most laws are inaccessible but when one access them they are full of corruption and impunity hence at the end becoming meaningless to the people.

Although, the judicial system exists in all governing systems in the world to adhere to the rights and freedom of people, citizens of different nations are yet to feel or enjoy its role in the society. Therefore, the fact that the man wastes all his lifetime and wealth waiting for his chance to access the law reveals the dissatisfaction of the judicature as a branch of justice in the society.

The inaccessible Law The rules and regulations governing the major branches of justice make it tough for an ordinary citizen to access or realize justice in the world. Kafka comments that the, “the doorkeeper is limited to the function of an obstacle” (1). Unfortunately, only few people like the politicians, rich men and senior government officials break the obstacles. According to the story, the man is in need of justice and therefore attempts to reach it. However, on every door stands a doorkeeper with stronger and influential power than the previous.

Although the door is open, the first doorkeeper tells him he cannot go through it now but he has a potential in future (Kennedy and Gioa 6). When he tries to peep through the gate, the first doorkeeper allows him but tells him there are more doorkeepers he has to seek permission from before he reaches the law. Unfortunately, the third doorkeeper turns out to be wick, awful and fearsome that he is unable to approach.

Therefore, the law seems to be harder, tougher and inaccessible contrary to what he had thought earlier. Similarly, there is a tiring procedure for any individual to access the judicature while those who succeed in the process have to reveal identification in every office. The physical process and operational procedures involved shy away most citizens who want justice to prevail.

The lawmakers and enforcers promote inhumanity, impunity and corruption in the judicature or society. Due to greediness and selfishness lawyers, judges, police officers take bribes and rule unjustly therefore oppressing the less fortunate or poor people. At last, the doorkeeper grants the man a sit and tells him to wait for his chance. Day’s turns into weeks, months and years but his chance does not come. Everyday at least seeks permission for admission into the law but all is in vain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The doorkeeper habitually interrogates him about his origin, family but all this leads to him giving him bribes. The doorkeeper tells him “I am taking this only so that you do not think you have failed to do anything” (Kafka 15). The man sacrifices everything he has and bribes the doorkeeper who shamelessly accepts. The bribery act is similar to the present world where one has to cough out something in exchange for service.

This is common in all institutions especially work, schools, hospitals and the judiciary. In addition, people sell their property like land, houses among others in order to get services that should be on free offer. Likewise, the position of one in the society determines his/her justice that is why the doorkeeper continually inquires about the background of the man.

Many aspects hinder people from accessing the law, the powerful politicians, selfish individuals, judges, lawyers, the law enforcers and the tiring judicial systems among others. For instance, in the story the man concludes the doorkeepers as the obstacles to the law. However, the doorkeepers are respecting rules from the above or leaders.

He has grown old and unable to see clearly even his clothes infested with fleas but he still hopes the doorkeeper will let him in. Although his days on earth are numbered, he asks the doorkeeper why he is unable to pass through the get. The doorkeeper ironically tells him nobody else accesses the law and the gates belong to the man but he has to close.

Similarly, the current society gives false hopes to ordinary citizens about their rights and freedom. However, the inefficient judicial system drags cases for year even up to more than ten years leading to dissatisfaction. Unfortunately, people die while fighting for justice in the courts through either natural death or assassinations to conceal the concrete evidence.

Conclusion In summary, although many people in the world try to seek for justice, the judicial system has many obstacles like the rules/regulations, law enforcers, lawyers, judges and prominent individuals.

The robust procedure with corruption in the individuals in the judiciary turns away most people who pursue their rights. Finally, the man in the country dies without access to the law yet he had sacrificed all his time and belongings in order to access the law. Likewise, the contemporary world is full of inhumanity and impunity and hence the law is only accessible to the favorites.

We will write a custom Essay on The inaccessible law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kafka, Franz. The trial. Berlin: Berlin press, 1925.

Kennedy, Joseph, and Gioa, Dana. Before the law an introduction to fiction, Poetry, drama and writing .New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.

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Mr. Chiu: “Saboteur” by Ha Jin Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Imprisonment of Mr.Chiu

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Ha Jin is a Chinese novelist currently living in the US and the author of the book Saboteur, Saboteur is about a young man, Mr. Chiu (34 years old) living under the times when China is under Cultural Revolution. Due to unfair reasons, he is taken in as a prisoner while on his honeymoon. To secure his freedom, the bureau chief forces him to sign a fake statement. He signs the document reluctantly mainly because he is suffering from acute hepatitis and needs urgent medical attention.

The Imprisonment of Mr.Chiu Mr.Chiu is newly married and out for his honeymoon. One day while having lunch at a restaurant with his wife, a police officer accidentally splashes tea on them. Instead of being apologetic, he acts rudely and discourteously accusing Mr.Chiu of undermining him and therefore, Mr. Chiu is under arrest. Unfortunately, Mr. Chiu arrest is due to false allegations.

When he reaches the police station, none of the police officers including their chief officer listens to him; instead, they lock him up in a cell exposing a society full of injustices and oppression. This parallels the contemporary world, full of injustices and mistreatments perpetrated especially by the police force and the judicial systems that are full of corruption and impunity. Ironically, the people who are supposed to protect citizens violate the very rights they should be protecting.

While in police cell, a false evidence report is prepared accusing Mr. Chiu of being a nuisance to the public and lack of respect to police officers. The chief officer orders Mr. Chiu to admit his misdeeds and sign a confession.

However, when Mr. Chiu realizes his arrest is due to his affiliation to the communist party, he declines their order. Unfortunately, whilst in the cell, Mr. Chiu suffers hepatitis, which devolves his health for he cannot access health services. Unluckily it is during the weekend hence no medical attention to the inmates but he hopes the University will come to his rescue.

On Monday morning, the university sends Fenji to secure the release of Mr. Chiu. Unfortunately, his rescuer is cuffed to a tree killing his hopes. In addition, one of the police officers heartlessly tortures Fenji as Mr. Chiu watches. The police officers are a symbolic nature of those in power and authority in the present society (Esherick, Pickowicz, and Walder 7).

There is lack of humanity, respect, freedom of speech and expression as experienced by Fenji and Mr. Chiu. Likewise, the current leaders especially those in power are oppressive and sometimes they care less about human rights. On the other hand, there are poor health and welfare policies for citizens or those in correction centers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, Chiu surrenders to the demands of bureau chief securing his freedom and that of Fenji. However, he is full of revenge to destroy the police force. Although he knows he is suffering from hepatitis, a contagious disease, he eats in different cafeterias and touches food allover to spread hepatitis.

He succeeds in his revenge mission for the disease infects around 800 people and kills six of them. This is an irony because as a university lecturer, Mr. Chiu spreads hepatitis yet he knew it is contagious, therefore infecting innocent people. Currently In the society, there are people who are out to destroy innocent souls either knowingly or unknowingly just like Mr. Chiu.

Conclusion Mr.Chiu finds himself in prison unfairly courtesy of a disrespectful police officer. The chief officer backs up his junior officer and even goes ahead to harass Fenji who had come to secure his release. In summary, at last, Chiu acquires his freedom but his human rights are violated because he is suffers hepatitis.

The story draws parallels in the contemporary society. Mr.Chiu represents people experiencing inhuman acts by security personnel in charge of their safety. On the other hand, the bureau chief is a symbol of corrupt officers and leaders in the contemporary society.

Works Cited Esherick, Joseph, Pickowicz, Paul, and Walder, Andrew. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2006.

Jin, Ha. Saboteur: The Story and Its Writer. Ed. Ann Charters. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007.

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The inaccessible law Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The inaccessible Law

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Before the law is a short allegorical story in Franz Kafka’s novel, ‘The Trial’. He describes a society that is full of oppression, slavery, corruption, inhumanity yet the existing law is inaccessible. A man from the country tries fruitlessly to reach law but the doorkeeper tells him he cannot access the law.

Ironically, the doorkeeper claims the door belongs to the citizens and it is always open but nobody goes through it. Contemporarily, most laws are inaccessible but when one access them they are full of corruption and impunity hence at the end becoming meaningless to the people.

Although, the judicial system exists in all governing systems in the world to adhere to the rights and freedom of people, citizens of different nations are yet to feel or enjoy its role in the society. Therefore, the fact that the man wastes all his lifetime and wealth waiting for his chance to access the law reveals the dissatisfaction of the judicature as a branch of justice in the society.

The inaccessible Law The rules and regulations governing the major branches of justice make it tough for an ordinary citizen to access or realize justice in the world. Kafka comments that the, “the doorkeeper is limited to the function of an obstacle” (1). Unfortunately, only few people like the politicians, rich men and senior government officials break the obstacles. According to the story, the man is in need of justice and therefore attempts to reach it. However, on every door stands a doorkeeper with stronger and influential power than the previous.

Although the door is open, the first doorkeeper tells him he cannot go through it now but he has a potential in future (Kennedy and Gioa 6). When he tries to peep through the gate, the first doorkeeper allows him but tells him there are more doorkeepers he has to seek permission from before he reaches the law. Unfortunately, the third doorkeeper turns out to be wick, awful and fearsome that he is unable to approach.

Therefore, the law seems to be harder, tougher and inaccessible contrary to what he had thought earlier. Similarly, there is a tiring procedure for any individual to access the judicature while those who succeed in the process have to reveal identification in every office. The physical process and operational procedures involved shy away most citizens who want justice to prevail.

The lawmakers and enforcers promote inhumanity, impunity and corruption in the judicature or society. Due to greediness and selfishness lawyers, judges, police officers take bribes and rule unjustly therefore oppressing the less fortunate or poor people. At last, the doorkeeper grants the man a sit and tells him to wait for his chance. Day’s turns into weeks, months and years but his chance does not come. Everyday at least seeks permission for admission into the law but all is in vain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The doorkeeper habitually interrogates him about his origin, family but all this leads to him giving him bribes. The doorkeeper tells him “I am taking this only so that you do not think you have failed to do anything” (Kafka 15). The man sacrifices everything he has and bribes the doorkeeper who shamelessly accepts. The bribery act is similar to the present world where one has to cough out something in exchange for service.

This is common in all institutions especially work, schools, hospitals and the judiciary. In addition, people sell their property like land, houses among others in order to get services that should be on free offer. Likewise, the position of one in the society determines his/her justice that is why the doorkeeper continually inquires about the background of the man.

Many aspects hinder people from accessing the law, the powerful politicians, selfish individuals, judges, lawyers, the law enforcers and the tiring judicial systems among others. For instance, in the story the man concludes the doorkeepers as the obstacles to the law. However, the doorkeepers are respecting rules from the above or leaders.

He has grown old and unable to see clearly even his clothes infested with fleas but he still hopes the doorkeeper will let him in. Although his days on earth are numbered, he asks the doorkeeper why he is unable to pass through the get. The doorkeeper ironically tells him nobody else accesses the law and the gates belong to the man but he has to close.

Similarly, the current society gives false hopes to ordinary citizens about their rights and freedom. However, the inefficient judicial system drags cases for year even up to more than ten years leading to dissatisfaction. Unfortunately, people die while fighting for justice in the courts through either natural death or assassinations to conceal the concrete evidence.

Conclusion In summary, although many people in the world try to seek for justice, the judicial system has many obstacles like the rules/regulations, law enforcers, lawyers, judges and prominent individuals.

The robust procedure with corruption in the individuals in the judiciary turns away most people who pursue their rights. Finally, the man in the country dies without access to the law yet he had sacrificed all his time and belongings in order to access the law. Likewise, the contemporary world is full of inhumanity and impunity and hence the law is only accessible to the favorites.

We will write a custom Essay on The inaccessible law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kafka, Franz. The trial. Berlin: Berlin press, 1925.

Kennedy, Joseph, and Gioa, Dana. Before the law an introduction to fiction, Poetry, drama and writing .New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.

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Managing Cultural Diversity in International Business Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction There are significant cultural differences among people of different races, regions as well as tribe. People’s cultures often shape their attitudes and perceptions towards issues of morality and values or virtues as well as how they interact with their environments.

People’s norms as well as values are significantly different across the continents and their perceptions are greatly influenced by their cultures. The report therefore examines these cultural differences across the globe from the business perspective. The US-Polish case has been examined in relation to these cultural diversities (Canen 1999, pp. 3-10).

Background The report is a covers the effects that cultural diversity has on any business firm and how such diversity can be exploited to the advantage of the firm rather than being perceived as a problem. The firm under focus is a US-Polish corporation which is a multinational corporation with its operations in areas of different cultural backgrounds.

In Poland the company did not focus so much on the success of the firm or hard work. An individual was not perceived with great importance as in the US case. This therefore enabled the firm to change its strategies in its operations so as to appeal to the US population hence enabling it to do well.

Objectives

The main objective here was to determine the significance of cultural diversity and how it affects the success or failure of an enterprise. The report looks at how an enterprise can use cultural diversity to its advantage over its competitors both in the operations and marketing of its products and services.

With the increase in cultural interactions due to globalization, one cannot ignore the issue of cultural diversity if he/she intends to succeed in his/her ventures. The report there looks at how exploiting or ignoring such differences can affect an enterprise.

Main Body US/Polish Company

It was realized that there were significant cultural differences in the firm based in Poland and its US branch. In the US for instance, those applying for managerial posts were for instance subjected to minor tasks like sales before being considered for the position. This was not the case with Poland as those applying for the same were immediately considered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The employees were also subjected to accountability in the US as opposed to the case in Poland. The issue of trust was also significantly different in the two cases. In the US case, employees were trusted and treated with dignity unlike the Polish case where there was the superior–inferior relationship and employees were treated with suspicion.

In the case of formality, the US managers were a bit informal, communicating to each other directly and freely without being ambiguous. In the polish case however, employees were addressed with formality.

The issue of hierarchy is not significantly visible in the US case as the managers often spoke to the other employees informally so as to eliminate any arising ambiguity in the communication system. Employees were assessed at individual level so as to determine their productivity as opposed to the polish case where the assessment was collective (Parboteeah 2010, pp. 462-465).

A joint venture in the US-Polish case has proved beneficial. In the US system for instance an individual is compelled to improve his/her productivity given that the person is assessed at an individual level and this leads to the general improvement in the company’s productivity. The Polish managers have been able to borrow ideas about the management of cultural diversity and its significance in the success of the company hence leading to improvement in the company’s production, marketing and delivery.

Global Business

With globalization, interaction of people from different cultures has become common. People interact through international organizations the WHO being just an example. The reductions in the air ticket prices and improved internet connections have increased intercultural interaction.

A business person therefore needs to have some insight into a people’s culture so as to effectively do business with them. Organizational or societal cultures are often influence by regional or even national cultural groupings and these are usually persistent over a long period of time. It is therefore very important for one to put such considerations in mind so as to succeed in business.

People from different cultures may have different attitudes of perceptions about a given product. The knowledge of this might be of great benefit particularly when one is coming up with the most appropriate marketing strategy for a certain market hence penetrating the market even more.

We will write a custom Report on Managing Cultural Diversity in International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consumption patterns and individual needs are often different across cultures and this is vital knowledge for entrepreneurs. Any company or firm must embrace cultural diversity so as to be successful. This therefore demands that the company understands the cultures of different people.

This results in the employees feeling comfortable at their work place hence becoming more productive. The fact that they are comfortable makes them feel appreciated and would hence not opt to move somewhere else. This is beneficial to any firm as the costs of retaining or recruiting new workers is significantly reduced and the company will develop a positive image as well (Goldsborough 2007, pp. 200).

Whenever a firm incorporates people from different cultures speaking different languages in its operation, it always has an advantage over the other competitors given that it is able to penetrate new markets. The knowledge of different cultures enables firms to effectively navigate market complexities that are brought about by culture like social hierarchies, people’s business practices as well as their norms and values.

Obstacles

Some of the challenges encountered while trying to embrace cultural diversity include;

Problems in the political environment,

Challenges that are caused by the economic environment,

Legal issues and

The significant cultural differences.

Conclusion

Cultural diversity if perceived by a firm as advantageous rather than a shortfall can greatly influence the firms marketing strategy, its productivity as well as giving it a competitive advantage over the others. An organization needs to embrace cultural diversity for both the employees and the clients to feel appreciated and this will in the long run result in the productivity of that organization. It helps in the understanding of the behaviors of the consumer and this helps in designing the best marketing strategies.

Recommendations

Cultural diversity must be embraced by an organization for it to make it in its operations and service delivery.

Joint ventures to be done for the firms to learn about cultural diversity and how to go about it.

Skills, backgrounds as well as the employees’ cultures and traditions must be understood by the management so as to ensure that they are comfortable in their working environment hence increased productivity.

Reference List Canen, A.,

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Microsoft vs. Apple Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Differences

Similarities

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Apple incorporation is an international company that deals in electronic gadgets, computer software and hardware. Its operations began on 1ST April 1976 through the efforts of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak as the founders. Apple incorporation mainly specializes in the manufacture of iPhone, iPod, Macintosh computers and iPad which is the latest computer technology. It is currently the world’s largest technology company and the second largest in the world after Exxon Mobil.

Microsoft is a corporation based in America that deals in developing of a vast collection of computer software and licenses. Bill Gates founded it in the year 1975 together with his friend Paul Allen.

Its growth was mainly achieved from the famous windows operating systems and their tricky business licensing rights as seen in the MS-DOS. Microsoft is also well known for its most preferred office suite in the world that is commonly used for instance the Microsoft office 2003, 2007, 2010 that are common in the computer market (Coursey, 2009, p.1).

Differences Since both deal in the development of operating system a distinction is made in the release and their uses. For instance when Microsoft is producing operating systems they produce one operating system but with several versions of the same. This is seen in windows xp where we have service pack one, two and three or in windows vista home basic, business and ultimate.

They produce them in such a way that it’s the same only a few features have been improved or upgraded. Contrary Apple releases are final such that only one operating system with no upgrades. They also ensure that their operating systems give their customers maximum satisfaction.

Apple specializes in both hardware and software production in that it manufactures the computer itself and the operating system. The Apple operating systems only function on Mac computers which are produced and distributed by Apple incorporation (Coursey, 2009, p.1).

Their operating systems do not function well on other non-Apple computers. Unlike Apple, Microsoft only deals in software production and distribution. They do not produce computers and thereby the sell their software to computer manufacturers such as dell, Hewlett-Packard, Toshiba, Lenovo among others. The computer manufacturers then sell their computer brands with Microsoft operating systems installed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Microsoft operating systems are compatible with almost all computers. This implies that Microsoft operating system can run on any computer in the world today except the Mac. Unlike Microsoft that runs on many computer brands, Apple operating system and software are only meant for Mac computers only. This means that apple products are exclusively meant for Mac computers only.

Similarities Both Apple and Microsoft corporations are worldwide companies that deal in the development and distribution of computer software and operating system. The most recent Microsoft operating systems include windows seven, vista and server among others while Apple’s most recent is the Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard (Bleeker, 2010, p.1). The two companies provide software that help in the running of a computers and other electronic gadgets.

The two just like any other businesses have their goals and objectives. These include making profits and satisfying their customers’ wants and needs. They have to make sure they stay in business and it is through this that they have come up with a licensing program. The license helps to prevent imitation of their products and that is why genuine products from both companies have serial numbers or product keys.

Conclusion In a nutshell Microsoft and Apple Corporation both deal with software and hardware development and distribution. They mainly aim at providing solutions brought about by the desires and wants of their customers. Their products have become part of our lives that we cannot do without due to their application in the daily lives today.

Reference List Bleeker, E. (2010). Apple vs. Microsoft: Who Owns the Future? Retrieved from https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2010/06/04/apple-versus-microsoft-who-owns-the-future.aspx

Coursey, D. (2009). Microsoft vs. Apple: Running stupid, Not Scared. Retrieved from https://www.pcworld.com/article/168603/Microsoft_vs_Apple_Running_Stupid_Not_Scared.html

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Mc Donald’s Evaluation Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Budget Control

Market Control

Clan Control

Bureaucratic Control

References

Budget Control Mc Donald’s has many financial sources because of the diverse businesses it operates. The sources range from franchising to renting and leasing of property. While making the budget, the company puts into consideration many factors. Some of them include marketing and customer service.

This forms the basis for competing well in the market. Quality service is the hallmark of success at Mc Donald’s. The company does not buy expensive raw materials. It has a competitive tendering policy that recognizes the important aspects of its raw materials. Overall, the company has a policy to guard its budget against unnecessary spending.

Market Control Mc Donald’s is a globally recognized brand. Buzz marketing works to the company’s advantage. In its industry of operation, it is a market leader and a trailblazer. The company unveils new products frequently to appeal to its new and potential markets. This strategy is also meant to retain customers. The company believes that after using a certain product for some time, some customers get redundant. Therefore, it works hard to appeal to those customers by meeting their needs.

The company communication and advertising strategies are unbeatable. The combination of imagery and coloring in its ads makes it quite appealing to its potential customers. The company has divided its market according to needs. This includes children, youth, middle-aged and the old.

They have further subdivided the market according to disposable incomes. Therefore, it unveils products that aptly suit the market blocs. Before unveiling any products, the company conducts market research on the desired products. Then it employs market mixes that correctly suits the market. These strategies have enabled the company to maintain a lion’s market share and wade off competition.

Clan Control The mc Donald’s is not so far owned by a single person. The biggest food chain in the world is owned by a group of inheritors. These family members have squabbles that do not show in public. The company owners have also been associated with Satanism. Once, the owner Ray Kroc was rumored to have tithed in a Satan church. Though the family name gives the hotel chain some identity, it is also a source of many problems.

Management has a hard time to meet the demands of the owners. The company family members are also associated with powerful people in governments. The united sates government is accused of funding mc Donald’s to open new food chains abroad under the guise of foreign policy. The mc Donald’s are also publishers of occult materials in the UK. The company does this unabated which raises eyebrows (Love, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bureaucratic Control Because of the family background of Mac Donald’s, the company has a bureaucratic side in its operations. It is brought about by the apparent single handed decision making of the owners. Managers may make decisions, but it is always widely influenced by the owner’s wishes.

This extends to its franchises. The rules and regulations that govern the franchising business are custom made and different from any other in that field. This company employs a different business model from all the other players in the industry. It owns around a quarter of all restaurant chains directly and franchises the rest. Its method of franchising is different form all the rest. It owns properties of the locations of franchises.

The owner of mc Donald once said he is not in restaurant industry, he is real estate. The nature of agreements that govern its franchising is unique to many franchises. But, most of them have the condition of owning or leasing the property on which the franchise is located. Therefore, mc Donald’s collects rent from the franchises. Also, the company does not make direct sales to the franchise choosing to use third parties for that (Webb, 2007).

References Love, J. (2007). Big Macs, Fries, and Real Estate. Financial Executive, (4): 20–26.

Webb, H. (2007). The Association between Disclosure, Distress and Failure. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4): 301-314.

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Beyond the Boundaries of the Ordinary Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

A perfect specimen of postmodern vision of the world, the artworks by David Blackwood can be considered as a revelation in painting. Making the fantastic collide with the ordinary, the artist creates the specific vision of the world, suggesting the audience to share his ideas.

The very fact that his creation of 1980, Fire Down on the Labrador, has passed the time test and is still the object for admiration of millions of people, clearly shows that there is more to his pictures than meets the eye. The teasing irreality of the picture makes one peer deeper into the picture, trying to see the idea which led the author to creating this unusual and mysterious image.

In this “search for the pattern and meaning” (Leeuwen 35), it would be a good idea to take apart the picture into the ideas and images which come to one’s mind observing the masterpiece. Although some people tend to think that the thorough analysis can harm the perception of the picture, and, once taking it apart, one will never be able to make the pieces of the puzzle fall into their places, this is the very case when the analysis will do no harm, since the elements are as significant as the whole.

Casting a single glance at the picture is enough to understand that Blackwood dwells upon the marine theme. The troubled bluish sea and the outlines of the whale under the thick layer of water make one think of the vast ocean, wide as the entire Universe.

However, the ship that has caught fire breaks the silence of the ocean; the scarlet flames rising to the sky send the cries for help to the heavens above and shivers down the audience’s spines. Contrasted to the unruffled surface of the sea and the silent blocks of ice towering above the ocean, one can feel the trouble ringing in the air with his/her fingertips.

It seems that the whale which is floating under the dark thicket of the freezing sea embodies the suffering and the sorrow of the refugees from the ship. As well as those escaping from the ship, this ocean beast is being tortured by the fear within it; twisting and turning under the dark layers of water, it is curving in tortures.

What comes first to one’s mind when watching this picture closely is the scale of the elements in it. The shocking size of the whale, opposed to the tiny boat of the bunch of the sailors, is supposed to express the artist’s point if view. Making the survivors almost invisible compared to the whale, Blackwood creates the vision of the blind force which nature is for people, and makes it clear that, even when in pain – or is it better to say, especially when in pain? – it can toss away the feeble mankind with all its pathetic inventions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another idea which the picture raises is the eternal conflict of the incompatible. It seems that there is nothing as contrasting to each other as water and fire. Combined in a single picture and intertwined with the single plot, the two elements go wild in their fury, storming the nature into a rage as well.

However, there are two more elements in the picture which collide in a softer way. The sky and the ocean, both pitch-dark with the sparks of hope in them, both inviting and frightening, they mix into a fascinating vision. The few stars in the sky, lightening the way of the survivors, are so similar to the tiny bubbles rising from the depth of the ocean onto its surface; the former embodying hope, the latter meaning its loss, they create an incredible combination which makes one think of the frailty of human’s life and the secrets of the nature.

With help of the specific details and the thought-provoking legend of the picture, Blackwood created a masterpiece of all times. Though time passed, his work is still topical as ever. That is, perhaps, the best way to prove that real art never dies.

Works Cited Leeuwen, Theo Van and Carey Jewitt. Handbook of Visual Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2001. Print.

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Analysis of High Recovery Brackish Water Desalination Processes using Fuel Cells by Rajindar Singh Report (Assessment) custom essay help

Table of Contents Background

Rajindar Singh

Article Summary

Water Desalination Process

Reference

Background Analysis of High Recovery Brackish Water Desalination Processes using Fuel Cells (2009) was written by Rajindar Singh and details a water desalination technique using fuel cells. The author is the Technical Manager, Industrial Purified Water, Siemens Water Technologies, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Rajindar Singh Singh has authored and co-authored several articles that mainly touch on water purification systems, these articles have been published on scientific journals such as Separation Science and Technology, Desalination and Environmental Progress

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Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Following the currently competitive global business environment, business corporations are faced with new challenges of maintaining their corporate image sustainably. It has been revealed that, successful businesses have their business philosophies strongly founded on favorable social values with their clients. Since many of the contemporary businesses are founded on social settings, it is an obligatory duty for them to adhere to social ethics in order to acquire public reputation which would enhance their prosperity.

According to Althouse (73), prospective businesses should pursue productive practices in their businesses which enhance their sustainability in the future. As it has been argued, businesses find it difficulty to maintain high profits as they remain socially responsible in the society. This paper presents the ultimate business practices which enhance more success among businesses in the currently competitive business environment.

As noted by Baker (1), the issue of corporate social responsibility has for long been misinterpreted as just a money wastage practice without returns. Today, the perception of corporate responsibility has taken new forms where organizations invest to maintain a long-lasting relationship with the society. According to Althouse (75), successful businesses find it inevitable to conform to the societal ethics and expectations.

This would involve their active participation in societal development projects and practicing ethical dealings with their clients. For instance, fair pricing and provision of quality products is one of the most potential ethical practices among businesses capable of enhancing sustained business-customer relationship. By so doing, businesses would find more beneficial in the long-run, despite undergoing hardships at initial stages.

According to Baker (2), business people should be focused and determined to achieve their goals by being committed to establish cordial business-customer relationships. Despite the challenges which businesses may face, it is quite important that they persevere and get attached to their commitments. As revealed by Althouse (76), one of the most significant winning practices among businesses is commitment in addressing societal problems.

Businesses should remain hooked to their goals and determinations regardless of the hardships they face as they gear their efforts in pursuit of success for their businesses. As it has been noted, maintaining good business-client relationship is quite challenging requires a lot of commitment. On this basis, it is the social responsibility of the businesses in the contemporary society to be committed in serving their clients satisfactorily.

As noted by Althouse (74), successful business people have high degree of self discipline in their commitment to satisfy their customers. More precisely, businesses should maintain cordial relationships with their clients by being highly disciplined in playing their roles effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to ensure good business- customer relationships, both the customers and business people have to understand the specific roles entrusted to them, and work towards sustaining the mutual relationship established between the two parties. Baker (1) postulated that, business ethics is important in all aspects of a business starting from sales, customer service, and finance as well as product development.

On this basis, business ethics is a vital approach in doing business, whereby it’s potential of ensuring success and sustainability of a business, as it is part of corporate social responsibility, where it judges the perception of the business in the eyes of the surrounding community. Based on this phenomenon, a business with a good public image will definitely enjoy overwhelming performance due to public support and trust.

The public has the potential of enhancing or ruining the image of the business, thus determining its competitiveness. As stated by Baker (1), by gaining public trust the community acts as ambassadors of the business thus engaging in practices that promote the business. This will ultimately be reflected through increased business performance. In the case of customers, maintaining integrity in business practices enhances business relationships.

Customers are proud of businesses that practice integrity in all their undertaking. By so doing the branding efforts are facilitated hence leading to protection of the business goodwill that has significant impact on the success of the business. In the side of employees, business ethics is of magnificent value (Althouse 78).

The concept of business ethics is currently receiving significant attention in the corporate world. Baker (2) reports on how the cost of unethical business behavior is high and is continuing to rise, making businesses continue undergoing huge losses. This is attributed to increased human literacy, competition in business sector as well as increased government regulation. The late two to three decades have been associated with numerous scandals and unethical business practices.

Governments and the press have been interested in the issue hence leading to consumer enlightenment. This has in turn led to adverse impacts on the businesses that had engaged in unethical practices. Customers had to shift to reputable companies. Suppliers, investors and other interested parties to business have also declined their relationships with unrepeatable business. On this basis, it is only reputable businesses that had to sail through the market (Althouse 83).

The aspects of globalization and liberalizations of markets have also led to increased competition in the business world. This has in turn led to the need for ethical consideration in business practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research by Althouse (84) has shown that, business that engage in ethical practices have been able to win public trust and loyalty. This is reflected through increased sales and profitability thus enhancing the profitability and sustainability of a business in the market. The concept of trust has found its relevance in the contemporary business dealings.

Businesses should act in a way that it wins the public confidence and conviction by being trustful to their clients. The element of trust has been identified to be very powerful in building a business image as well as enhancing the business performance. This is based on the fact that business partners, investors, customers and all interested party of a business are willing to work with a trust worthy business Baker (1).

Meeting obligation is also a vital principle in the contemporary business ethics. This principle entails the responsibility and accountability of a business in performing its tasks.

As indicated by Baker (2), a business should do everything in its power so as to gain the confidence and trust of the clients and customers. The business should be steadfast in honoring commitments with business partners, employees as well as the customers. For the case of business contracts, a business should willingly adhere to its commitment so as to be able to win the confidence of the other stakeholders.

Keeping an open mind has also been found to be a very influential element of business conduct, whereby it potential of ruining or building business reputation. As depicted by Althouse (89) the business management should exercise good leadership that is appealing to all stakeholders. For instance, the case of decision and policy making should be done in appealing manner. The business should be free to ask feedback and opinions from team members and customers.

By so doing, all groups will feel to be part of the business hence boosting its reputation and trust. More so, businesses should have Clear documentary through transparency and accountability in business operations. With reference to Baker (2), the concept of integrity is also of great importance in the business operations, whereby all undertakings should be just and appealing to all.

Further, businesses should pursue corporate responsibility by actively involving the community in its operations. For a business to be regarded as practicing business ethics, it should have the surrounding community at heart. The business is liable of staying involved with community activities and issues. The business practices should ensure protection and promotion of the interest of the community.

Regardless of the business potentiality and power, it should treat others with great respect (Althouse 84). Importantly, businesses and their clients should treat each other with high degree of respect. The virtue of courtesy and respect should be the guiding principle between a business an all parties it is relating with. By so doing, the business will be able to gain trust and respect from the public thus enhancing its performance (Baker 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A point worth of consideration is that, issues of pollution of the environment among other unethical practices were conducted without negative feedback form the general public. Based on these insights, the increased pressure and attention from media, non-governmental organizations, and rapid global information sharing, there has been overwhelming demand for businesses to conduct ethical and sustainable business practices.

On the other hand, businesses have also realized the need to conduct ethical practices in their endeavors of attracting and retaining customers, employees thus leading to the realization of corporate social responsibility. This research paper will profoundly explore the concept of corporate social responsibility in the business sector.

As evidenced in Baker (2), corporate social responsibility policy is a business development measure meant to establish built-in self adaptable mechanism that facilitate the businesses to check and ensure efficient conformity with the spirit of law, international standards and ethical customs.

With the increased competition in the business sector in recent days, there has been every need for each business to comply with the expectations of its customers as well as that of the wider population. On this basis, the main aim of corporate social responsibility is to augment responsibility and accountability by the businesses for their actions and encourage positive and admirable impacts to their environs.

With this in mind, corporate businesses have developed remarkable realization regarding the welfare of the consumers, environment, and the entire community at large. With the advancement of corporate social responsibility, businesses are actively promoting the public interests through being actively involved in various community development projects. In addition, businesses have also come to realization of the need to voluntarily eliminate practices that would harm the public sphere Baker (1).

Philanthropy has also been a stupendous approach to corporate social responsibility among many corporations. This entails monetary donations and aid to the communities. In relation to this concept, large organizations, both international and local, usually give monetary donations and aid to local organizations and impecunious communities in pitiable countries. Despite the benefits accrued from this approach to the communities, Althouse (89) reveals how it has gained a lot of criticism from different groups and scholars.

This is basically based on the fact that it only breast feeds the community and fails to give the appropriate skills and knowledge to the people to assist in improving their situation. With continued adoption of philanthropy, communities will become dependent on aid and thus worsen the situation rather than help in solving their situation. Nevertheless, Philanthropy has been of great significance to the corporations in that it has helped in building its image among the public thus being able to meet its objectives.

According to Althouse (93), the concept of creating shared value is also an important and efficient approach to corporate social responsibility. This approach is based on the fact that, business triumph and societal welfare are mutually dependent.

With this in mind, businesses have been liable to developing sustainable and admirable strategies thus are able to incorporate the community into the business interests. With an aim of creating shared value, businesses get involved in rigorous development of skilled labor force, sustainable resources, and healthy relationships with the society at large (Baker 2).

Based on the ideas of Althouse (94), corporate social responsibility is an act of ethics and morality. In this regard, businesses voluntarily and deliberate undertake corporate social responsibility initiatives as an act of ethics. This is in conjunction with the national and international norms and morals whereby the companies take different charity initiatives with the primary aim of improving the welfare of the communities.

Many multinational corporations operating in poor nations have deliberately involved in charity actions thus being able to improve the welfare of the communities. Volunteering has also been an outstanding concept in the corporate world in recent days whereby businesses voluntarily prioritize the interest of the wider population. It has been noted that, many businesses set a significant fraction of their revenues to assist the less fortunate in their surrounding.

As indicated by Baker (2), corporate social responsibility is of great importance in the business and social arena. Research carried upon various groups regarding the concept of corporate social responsibility, has shown a positive attitude and perception of people towards the issue.

This is so because; it has led to order and compliance of ethics in the business sector. With adherence to the concept of corporate social responsibility, businesses have significantly changed their behaviors and engaged in more admirable practices. For instance the issue of pollution to the environment has been efficiently countered. On the other hand, misleading advertisements have also been abandoned thus leading to order in the advertisement sector.

Conclusion In the currently competitive business context, corporate social responsibility has been of great significance. In this case, businesses which practice corporate social responsibility initiatives have been able to position themselves adequately upon the consumers. This situation has significantly enhanced the businesses performance since consumer loyalty and trust is enhanced.

Research carried on different businesses has shown that businesses which adopt efficient CSR initiatives have good performance in comparison with those which ignore social responsibilities of businesses.

Based on this concept, it is worth noting that corporate social responsibility is beneficial for the sustainability of the business. The competitive advantage of businesses has also been enhanced with the practice of corporate social responsibility. Businesses have been able to out-compete their opponents by involving themselves into admirable practices.

Works Cited Althouse, Richard. et al. The Future of Business, Second Canadian Edition. St Louis: Nelson Education Ltd, 2008.

Baker, Mallen. 2011 – This is the Scale of the Challenge. Business Respect, Jan 12, 2011. Web.

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Organizational Case Studies Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organizational Design and Structure

Teams and Team working

Leadership and Management Approaches

Organizational Culture

Conclusion

References

Introduction Organizations across the globe pursue different managerial styles. Consequently organizations differ in the manner they undertake their operations and the way they handle their employees. Obviously this results in a difference in organizational performance at various functional levels.

The current business world demands a lot of shrewdness in the manner managers manage their organizations’ operations because the current business environment is very demanding, volatile and unpredictable (King 1997, p. 223).

However, a number of organizations are still known to lag behind in light of these changes and many still adopt archaic organizational practices. This study will explore organizations and managerial practices through a case study of two companies namely Watson’s Engine Components and H

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A Discussion on Net Neutrality Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

At its simplest, net neutrality is the principle that internet service providers and governments may not discriminate between diverse types of content, sites, platforms, and other kinds of applications that are accessed via online protocols. As such, the principle insinuates that no restrictions should be placed between users by either the government or internet providers, and that all internet traffic should at all times be treated equally.

First, network neutrality to a large extent benefit internet consumers because they are able to access content and sites that could otherwise be inaccessible or accessible at very low speeds in the absence of proper enforcement of the principle.

In the same vein, net neutrality guarantees internet users the right to use any gadget, content, site, application or service freely and at anytime without undue interference or obstruction from the service provider. Small companies have also benefited from the principle since it guarantees them speedy delivery of their content without necessary paying huge taxes to the service providers.

The losers are the big telephone and cable companies who want to control the information superhighway and reserve express lanes for their clients’ content, sites, and services while blocking or slowing down those of competitors. Other losers are the big companies who would go to any length, including paying steep taxes to services providers, to ensure they get speedy delivery of their content.

Network neutrality is obviously an important legislation if we are to ensure the survival of the internet. Not only does the principle preserves the free and open internet, but it also guarantees a level playing field for all web content, sites, and internet technologies.

On the sidelines, net neutrality grants internet consumers the power to choose between content, applications, and services, in the process enhancing innovation, competition, and access to information. What’s more, net neutrality ensures that governments and internet service providers do not interfere with the web content or internet traffic.

Every good thing has got its own dark spot, and net neutrality has been accused of permitting and even enhancing congestion across the networks, not mentioning that consumers have been complaining about the low quality of service as a direct consequence of net neutrality. But without net neutrality, the internet is likely to evolve into a system that will look more like a cable network in that providers will decide for the consumers which channels, sites, content and applications are currently accessible in their menu

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Net neutrality is perceived differently in other countries across the world, especially in countries that practice a conservative disposition. Indeed, many socialist and Islamic countries disapprove of an open, free and fair internet. Iran is one such country where its Islamic government is on record for censuring some sites and content popularly used by dissenting voices to organize demonstrations against an oppressive regime.

Some social networking sites such as Facebook and Tweeter, previously used by progressive citizens to hit at the government, have been censored and citizens are now depending on censorship-evasion technologies, mostly developed in China, to communicate with the outside world. Keeping people in closed societies amount to taking away one of their most basic rights – the freedom of association.

It should be remembered that these social networking sites not so long ago helped organize successful demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt, and both governments came tumbling down. The same can be done in Iran, but the repressive Iranian government is very keen on creating a cyberbarrier by blocking sites and censoring others, thus leaving citizens with no medium to share information and knowledge.

Benefits and Pitfalls of Social Networking Sites on Career Plans and Advancement Although many people log on to social networking sites to unwind or just chat with friends, reality is dawning upon us that they can be tapped and used as tools to further one’s career plans. Stories of students getting job offers via the virtual platforms after posting their academic credentials are no longer stories, but reality.

If your career path is oriented towards a business disposition, you can make massive sales and expose yourself more to your target market by simply advertising space on your friends’ or other people’s site pages. In this regard, it is of essence to take a stand that social networking sites can indeed help an individual’s career plans.

Apart from the benefits mentioned above, that is, marketing your educational credentials for potential employers and advertising your business as a career, social networking sites help people keep in touch with other like-minded people, in the process enabling an environment where knowledge and career opportunities are shared across the network.

Networking in its raw form is fundamentally critical when it comes to career plans as one cannot really advance in isolation. Still, networking with current students and alumni could add salient insights into the current status in the job market, the opportunities that exist, and the place to find them.

We will write a custom Essay on A Discussion on Net Neutrality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sites, however, can be detrimental to one’s career plans especially when individuals spend substantial amount of their time browsing the sites at the expense of other more important things that could benefit their careers such as enrolling for an upgrade course.

Other individuals network with friends who cannot in anyway add value to their career plans and projections. In as far as employers are using the social networking platforms to recruit members of staff, some graduates are inarguably being rejected by potential employers for positions or even internships due to the incriminating and often unsuitable information and pictures employers find on their social networking profiles.

Such a scenario to a large extent adversely affects one’s career goals. In addition, security worries are a major issue as stalkers may use the detailed information provided by people in such sites as Facebook and Tweeter to jeopardize ones career.

People using social networking sites need to follow a thorough set of rules. Such rules may include but not limited to:

Always network with people that add value to your life, not just social friends

Include in your list of friends people whom you share the same career ambitions, interests, goals or business acumen

Never post any incriminating or inapt information or pictures on your profile as potential employers or other people visiting your profile will most probably view the information as a reflection of your personal character and values

Take advantage of the opportunity offered by the sites to create a profile that depicts a positive self image, that puts your best qualities in the public domain

Be wary of security issues as stalkers (and even confidants) may use your private information to smear your reputation

It is a good practice for employers to check social networking sites so as to screen their applicants. The convergence of technology has enabled many things, some of which were unthinkable some few years ago. But people must agree that technology and the social networking sites are here to stay, and that these sites tells more of an individual’s character and predisposition than meets the eye.

What’s more, the platforms offer a more cost-effective way for employers to know the academic and social profiles of their applicants. Though a good practice, however, it raises fundamental ethical issues especially when one attend an interview only to be told to disclose their social networking accounts for scrutiny.

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Corporate Governance in East Asia Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Corporate governance is a topic that is multi-faceted with many aspects affecting the administration of corporations. Corporate governance essentially means the way corporations are directed through policies, laws, procedures and sets of customs that have been put in place. It is therefore a field of economics that is meant to ensure that corporations are effectively managed so as to improve on the financial performance of the enterprises (Azarmi, 2008, p.1).

Corporate governance can therefore be said to administer the manner through which the financiers of the corporations get their return on the investments made. The financiers as well as the stakeholders such as shareholders, suppliers, creditors, banks and the management are all concerned about the governance of corporations therefore calling for effective management of the corporations. The issue of corporate governance has been of concern in the modern world as a result of the rapid globalization rate.

Corporate governance has at the same time been of interest due to the collapse of many global high-profile companies. The 1997 Asian crisis is an example of the common tragedies that came as a result of poor corporate governance. This paper is therefore an analysis of the main features of the corporate governance systems in East Asia as well as a detailed look of the implications of the western firms trying to do business in East Asia.

The main features of Corporate Governance in East Asia Most nations in East Asia suffered economic fluctuations as a result of the financial crisis faced by countries such as Thailand. These disruptions included poor investments, bankruptcy, high rate of foreign debts, over capacity among others. All these were as a result of poor governance of the corporations. The Asian crisis affected five countries of East Asia namely, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Korea and Indonesia. This made East Asia have a new face of its corporate governance which has the following key features.

Participation and protection of shareholders

Due to the fact that most of the companies in East Asia are family owned it is evident that most of the shareholders will be family members. This has therefore called for the intervention of the board of directors to control the shareholders while safeguarding their interests (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Studies conducted in the countries of East Asia indicated that shareholders (especially the minority shareholders) were not allowed to effectively participate in the matters of the companies.

This was largely contributed by the lack of transparency and insufficient disclosure of information and requirements. The lack of transparency can be largely attributed to the idea of having less disclosure among family members and since the shareholders are mostly members of same families there arises lack of disclosure. Shareholders of the East Asian companies are not well protected since they do not get any incentives nor have their interests paid adequately.

Ownership

Research done on the countries of East Asia has shown that all have been concerned with corporate ownership. This means that they have dedicated the larger part of companies shareholders to family ownership or nominees of the company (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Despite this, the shareholding by foreign investors on most companies is diversified across the five countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cross-shareholding is widely practiced in the region whereby companies are allowed to buy and own shares of other companies so as to achieve strategic controls, economies of scale as well as facilitating contracts of supply. Despite the fact that corporate ownership is a key feature of the East Asia corporate governance, the corporations still lack transparency and disclosure of the requirements.

Monitoring and Protection of Creditors

Among a company’s stakeholders are the creditors who although they may not have a hand in decision making play an important role in corporate governance (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Their role in corporate governance is limited because of the mare reason that they are themselves poorly governed (Azarmi, 2008, p.1).

Research done on the East Asian countries showed that most of the money lending institutions were owned by the same families owning the companies. This therefore created a weak legal protection for the creditors of the companies. Protection of consumers was not up to date as per the studies since the government guaranteed most of the loans taken by the companies.

Corporate market control and competition of product markets

The Asian countries have had inactive corporate market control majorly because of the policies that the governments have put in place. The governments are seen to be so concentrated on the ownership of the companies making competition difficult hence poor corporate governance.

Poorly developed Capital markets

The East Asian countries have poorly developed capital markets that have been largely dominated by external financiers. Only about 30 per cent of the total finance is from the internal while the rest is dominated by bank loans. The overreliance on bank loans can be largely attributed to the underdeveloped capital markets making the companies have fewer alternatives of sources of finances.

The implications for Western firms trying to do business in East Asia East Asia has been the market place for many countries of the world because of the many resources the region is endowed with. However, for the western firms to be effective in East Asia, their mangers ought to be intuitive in making decisions as well as fast learners (Bruton, 2003, p.1). Other than that, the business entrepreneurs from the West are required to be well conversant with the cultural practices and languages of East Asia for effective running of the enterprises.

The venturing of Western firms in East Asia has both positive and negative implications on the region (Whitely, 1994, p.218). For one, the operations of the western firms in East Asia have greatly contributed to the economic growth and significant development of the region.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Governance in East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is majorly because of the foreign exchange earned which in turn raises the price share in the global market. In addition, the venture of industries in the region has been depicted to shape the industries found in the region making them meet the international standards hence upgrading them.

This can be evidenced in the subject of corporate governance whereby the East Asian countries have imitated the way firms from the west are being effectively managed. Other than that, the venturing of western firms in the East Asia region breaks the monotony of having family owned companies hence creating healthy market competition. Competition improves the market by making sure high quality products are produced as well as limiting consumer exploitation.

Nevertheless, the bureaucracy of most East Asian nations and especially Indonesia has had negative implications of the western investment firms (Whitely, 1994, p.218). Their administrative policies and regulations have proved to be grate obstacle s for the western investors.

In some instances, the policies have been exploiting the businessmen by raising the costs incurred to undertake business in the region. The venturing of western firms to do business in East Asian countries will have great impact on the distortion of the cultural settings and norms of the region (Bruton, 2003, p.1). This is because through business interactions cultural practices will be exchanged hence affecting the original culture of the region.

All in all, when the western firms invest in the East region it is good indication that the region has developed and has upgraded its corporate governance to allow foreign investors. This therefore implies a positive move in terms of economic and financial growth.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clearly seen that good corporate governance is necessary for the economic growth of a region. The corporate governance in the East Asian countries can be said to be varied with some nations doing well while others having poor systems of corporate governance (Prowse, 2009, p1).

Among the countries, Malaysia seems to have good performance in corporate governance. However, reforms have been put in place especially after the Asian crisis so as to ensure that good corporate governance prevails in the region. It is because of the ongoing reforms that the western firms are trying to do business with countries of East Asia.

These reforms on corporate governance have concentrated on developing the capital markets, encouraging competition in the markets, ensuring participation of shareholders as well as promoting corporate control. All these have however, been partly facilitated by the venturing of the western firms into the East Asian market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Governance in East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Azarmi, T., (2008). East Asian corporate governance and financial crises. Web.

Bruton, G., (2003). Understanding venture capital in East Asia: the impact of institutions On the industry today and tomorrow. Web.

OCDE., (2000). A Consolidated Report on Corporate Governance and Financing in East Asia. Web.

Prowse, S., (2009). Corporate Governance and Corporate Finance in East Asia: What Can We Learn from the Industrialized Countries? Web.

Whitely, R. Business systems in East Asia: firms, markets and societies. 1994. SAGE.

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Jean Piaget’ and Lev Vygotsky’ Views on the Learning Process Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Ideas of Piaget

Main Ideas of Vygotsky

Similarities and Differences

Opinionated Arguments and Counter Arguments

Conclusion

References

Introduction This paper seeks to explore the educational theories developed by world renowned theorists Piaget and Vygotsky to explain the process of learning. Educational theories refer to the speculative educational thoughts that are used to explain the nature of education as an important tool that guides and explains certain aspects and concepts to human beings. Educational theories were originally developed by the Greek philosophers to address the aspects of learning, educational policies and leadership.

The philosophers had the main idea of generalizing explanatory models for learning thereby creating a body of knowledge that would be used to theorize knowledge and create obversive practices that would be used in educational thought. Educational thought, which is an important component of most educational learning theories, deals with concepts of theory such as sociology, philosophy, critical thinking theories and psychology (Thomas, 2007, p.5).

The creation of educational theories was seen to be an important step by many educationists as it enabled them to determine the cognitive processes of human beings during the learning process. Jean Piaget and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky’s educational theories sought to explain the psychological processes that took place in human beings when learning took place.

According to the two theorists, cognitive development in educational theories was meant to explain how teachers used the cognitive processes of children to design learning programs that would meet their educational needs. With regards to Piaget’s educational theory, the main assumption that formed the framework for the theory was that intelligence came from actions performed by individuals as a result of interacting with their surrounding environment.

Vygotsky conversely based his educational theory on the fact that the learning process took place as a result of a series of reflexes that would be translated into educational thoughts. He founded his theory on the premise that all human behavior originated from reactions to stimuli that emanated from the external environment.

Vygotsky also viewed the use of private speech patterns as useful techniques that would allow children to internalize and understand educational information as well as the zone of proximal development which allowed teachers to determine the actual and potential learning ability of a child (Shaffer

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Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Essay

Case Study and elaboration of Battered Woman Syndrome

Battered Woman Syndrome and the Canadian Law

Canadian Bar Association Proposal

General information

Conclusion

Bibliographies

Footnotes

Introduction Criminal law refers to that branch of law charged with the responsibility of punishing crimes committed against the public where it deals with felonies, misdemeanors and treason. Misdemeanors refer to minor crimes under law while felonies are serious crimes serving harsh mandatory sentences[1].

Treason on the other hand is also a serious form of crime under criminal law as it not only violates public interest but also tends to threaten the welfare and national security of a nation[2]. Criminal law is imposed through a process known as criminal procedure where a person found guilty has the intentions of committing a criminal act or has already committed it.

Domestic violence which involves battering is perhaps one of the most common occurring criminal offenses in the world that is least reported. Battery usually comes in a number of forms incorporating all manner of harmful and threatening acts. There are those cases where battery escalates to kicking, choking, hitting with objects, sexual assault and ultimately end in death[3].

Essay One of the major mistakes majority of individuals make is to believe that battered women tend to bring the violence upon themselves and that if they really desired to leave they could do so easily. Such people do not stop and think that perhaps these battered women are being held hostage in their own homes and are psychologically being abused in an effort of breaking down their will and bring them under control[4].

However, domestic violence or battery is punishable under law where its criminalization has led to the enigma being defined legislatively and legally[5]. In other words it is currently prosecuted as a crime by attorneys even though no charges are brought against the abuser by the victim and where their assistance is not required.

Case Study and elaboration of Battered Woman Syndrome A case study is given where W has been beaten and bullied by her husband H for a number of years. One night after enduring yet another beating, W decides that she has had enough of the abuse. In the middle of the night, she soaks the bed where her husband is sleeping soundly with gasoline then drops a lighted match onto the bed. H dies a slow and painful death after two weeks in hospital.

On trial for the second degree murder of H, W pleads self defense. Looking at the case study, it is obvious to conclude that W suffered what is called the Battered Woman Syndrome. This is a form of post traumatic stress mostly suffered by women who have been victims of consistent and/or severe domestic violence[6].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Battered Woman Syndrome is an occurrence of behavioral and psychological behaviors which happen in four main phases that is denial, guilt, enlightenment and responsibility[7]. At denial, these women hold on to the belief that the abuse or violence will never happen again and that they were actually responsible for provoking such behavior. The second phase is the guilt phase where a battered woman begins to acknowledge the fact that there is a problem in her relationship and that she has been a victim of abuse where it may occur again[8].

Enlightenment is the third state of the Battered Woman Syndrome where a battered woman begins to understand that no one has a right to be abused or battered. Even though she is in this particular stage, she may decide to still stay with her abuser in an effort of keeping the relationship firm hoping that things might change in future. Lastly is the responsibility stage where the victim accepts the fact that her partner has a problem that only he can be able to fix[9].

Battered Woman Syndrome and the Canadian Law W had already reached the 4th stage of Battered Woman Syndrome but instead of taking the step of leaving H, she decided to kill him instead perhaps in the belief that he would never do that again to any other woman leave alone herself. Battered Woman Syndrome has been incorporated in criminal cases since late 1970s where in order to testify on this syndrome, experts need necessary qualifications[10].

The union of happenings in the social stream at that time resulted in a movement charged with the responsibility of catering to the equality for women[11].

It was a requirement that before a battered woman could present her case before a jury she required an advocate to present her experience. A battered woman’s self defense case required the vision of an attorney to formulate the case and a judge willing to give permission for it to be presented to the jury[12].

Under the Canadian Law Battered Woman Syndrome is recognized in the context of other defenses where presenting it in a courtroom involves the utilization of well prepared evidence[13]. Women in the past have been treated in an orthodox manner by the Canadian courts where their needs and situations were not fully considered. There was also a gendered construction of the self defense principle which evaluated woman against a male standard of reasonableness[14].

The Battered Woman Syndrome finally became recognized in Canadian courts after a decision in R v. Lavellee was passed. This was a case where the accused, Lavalee, was in a common law relationship with her husband Kevin Rust which was abusive[15]. In their course of fighting, her husband apparently threatened to harm her stating that either she kills him or he would get her.

We will write a custom Essay on Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The though of killing herself had also crossed her mind while they were fighting but when Kevin turned to leave the room she shot him in the back of his head, killing him instantly[16]. In the course of her trial, she pleaded she was acting in self defense and also had a psychiatric testify in her support[17].

Lavallee’s case is quite similar to W’s and if W goes to trial, the Canadian court would rule in her favor. After enduring a marriage of battering and violence and given her mental state at that particular point, W felt that if she did not act soon she would be killed by H. Because of repeated pattern of violence majority of battered women usually correctly foresee future violence or are aware of when to take threats seriously[18].

Even though some individuals believed that Lavallee’s case represented a step in the right direction in as far as a judicial system willing to help women’s needs was concerned, the case did not have as huge an impact as had been expected[19]. Given W’s and Lavallee’s cases it is quite clear to observed that each person’s experiences with battering is personalized and a real psychological understanding can only be achieved best with assistance from expert evidence[20].

Canadian Bar Association Proposal According to the Canadian courts Battered Woman Syndrome is not a defense on its own as it is discussed in the context of already established and existing defenses[21]. The fact that the appellant was a battered woman does not necessarily entitle her to an acquittal as it is believed that battered woman may kill their spouses for reasons other than self defense[22]. The Supreme Court of Canada has clearly established that more evidence is required to grant acquittal.

Canada has taken the initiative where the Supreme Court has made a decision to allow the Battered Woman defense throughout the nation[23]. The Canadian Bar Association upheld admission of divisive expert evidence regarding Battered Woman Syndrome[24]. As far as W-type cases are concerned there seems to exist a big gap between those that are taken through the courts and those that are not.

The Canadian Bar Association proposal for the reform of the self defense provisions would not produce a different result from what has thus far been observed as those cases brought forward such as W’s are creating concern as some of these women do not fit the stereotype of a battered woman in the eyes of juries and judges[25]. This can be attributed to failures in the criminal justice system which incorporates failure to prosecute the abusers[26].

General information Up to date, there has not been a single strategy or solution that can greatly improve the case of battered women such as W due to a huge number of social factors to consider including the never ending waiting lists at majority of shelters, lack of responsiveness and care taken by the law enforcement and prosecutors in many domestic violence situations and their general treatment in criminal cases[27].

It is also unfortunate that since the Lavallee case victims of domestic abuse have not quite understood or found comfort in the justice system. Even though convictions and guilty pleas of battered women who appear on trial seem to outweigh acquittals such women are not being treated leniently by the courts[28].

Not sure if you can write a paper on Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, failure by the law enforcement as well as prosecution to bring majority of cases forward in as far as battered women are concerned is evidence enough of the fact that the justice system does not always consider battering to be too serious a crime and that perhaps some of these women are hesitant on mentioning that they are actually victims of domestic abuse[29].

Conclusion The Battered Woman Syndrome was first introduced by a single researcher in the early 1970s where it was founded on clinical observations. Despite the fact that it became a popular manner in which behavior could be justified in some court it has not yet been fully accepted or established in the psychology arena.

It is therefore important for those advocating for battered women with a social agenda to start doubting the political value of testimony regarding Battered Woman Syndrome. Solutions should also be sought to the increased domestic battering and abuse taking place in America as well as most parts of the world.

Bibliographies Kilgore, Nancy, Every Eighteen Seconds: A Journey Through Domestic Violence (Volcano, C.A.: Volcano Press, 1992).

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002).

Footnotes Kilgore, Nancy, Every Eighteen Seconds: A Journey Through Domestic Violence (Volcano, C.A.: Volcano Press, 1992), 69.

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002), 120.

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002), 120.

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69.

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

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The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Emigration in the 1980’s

Effects of the Genocide

Migration Experiences

Transnational Cultural Identities

Economic and Cultural Contribution of the Immigrants

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Guatemala has been in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons, as many would want to think; however, this beautiful Central American country has a dark past that might pass the ordinary eye in the contemporary times. The indigenous people in Guatemala are the Mayan people. Between 1960 and 1996, Guatemala underwent civil war between the military government of Guatemala and ethnic guerilla opposing the government with various acts of violence against the civilian population.

The civil war pitted the military government and the various guerrilla groups leading to mass emigration of Guatemalans to the neighboring countries like the US, Honduras and Mexico to seek for asylum. The emigrants included political leaders and professionals evading the autocratic regime. High emigration rates were experienced during the 1980’s, when there was much fighting going on.

In 1981, the Guatemala army attacked Mayan villages causing mass genocide following a non-violent protest march by Mayan leaders. The US involvement in Guatemala civil war occurred in the 1950’s, when the US aided in the removal from power of Guatemalan leader because of his communist beliefs. Trans-nationalism involving the immigrants to the North America has contributed to economic development of their native countries.

Causes of Emigration in the 1980’s In the 1980’s following a protest march by the Mayan leaders, the Guatemalan army attacked Mayan villages and committed mass genocide in which over 200,000 people died or went missing (Stoll 48). Earlier on in the 1950’s the US assisted in the removal from power of the Guatemalan leader Arbenz Guzman and his Government because of his harboring of communist ideals, as perceived. This led to civil war between the military government and insurgencies opposed to the military rule.

One of the causes of Guatemalan civil war was the opposition to communist ideas supported by Russia. To get US support the military government alleged that the Mayan people supported communism. The US aided the military during the civil war by provision of weapons and training them at the US Army School of the Americas. People used the training skills and weapons later against the Mayan people leading to the 1980’s genocide.

The atrocities committed in the 1980’s were fuelled by anticommunist beliefs held by Marxist guerilla organizations. In the 1970’s the guerilla groups supported by the indigenous people, who represent the majority of Guatemalan people, rearranged to regain control of the government.

They demanded equality for the culture with the non-indigenous ladino. However, this led to many acts of atrocity to civilians performed by the military government against insurgents and civilians alike. The military planned an offensive to wipe out the revolutionaries opposing the government. They burned down houses and farms in regions supporting the guerillas. Many people, mostly civilians were murdered in the process or taken into internment camps called ‘modal villages’ or forced to join the military.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The military targeted civilian population where the rural inhabitants were subjected to extreme violence. Human rights violations involving the civilian population were enormous with both the military government and the guerillas being responsible. The US support involving intelligence services from the CIA and military training helped the military government to commit crimes against humanity against the civilians in the 1980s.

Effects of the Genocide Executions, abductions, and disappearances of Mayan population each day, characterizes the Guatemala’s genocide (Mainz 135). This acts of atrocity led to mass migration of the civilian population to the neighboring countries for political reasons. The immigration of people from Guatemala to other neighboring countries was fueled by many causes.

The migration can majorly be attributed to political unrest experienced during the civil war, economic hardships and natural disasters. The civil war in the 1980’s in Guatemala led to emigration of several people to Honduras. Most of the migrants from the neighboring countries shared cultural and historical background with the natives Honduran Miskitos.

In addition, the United States had an agreement with the Honduran government to stage anticommunist battles in its territory against countries supportive of communism in Central America. Honduras was thus relatively stable politically and this attracted migrants running away from violence from Guatemala. The location of Honduras centrally in Central America made it easy for migrants to access it through the borders with conflict torn countries.

Honduras also adopted the policy of eradicating insurgents or guerilla threats within its borders. This policy was supported by the United States, aiming at promoting National security within the Honduran territory. This made Honduras relatively stable and a safe haven to refugees fleeing war and violence from their countries including Guatemala.

In the 1980’s the United States used the Honduran territory with the purpose of eliminating the influence of communism following the events of the Cold War. In an attempt to stem out any elements supporting the idea of communism, the US government promoted the adoption of the National security doctrine within Honduras. The doctrine enabled security personnel to deal with external threats of communism and internal subversive influence supporting communism.

The United States government also influenced the Honduran military to establish democratic governance through constitutional amendments. Through these constitutional changes, a civilian president, Roberto Suazo Cordiva governed between 1982 and 1986.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This democratic government did not have the full control of the military but adopted policies to expand the democratic space as supported by the United States. Much of the Honduras, as controlled by the military, responsible for the internal security of Honduras, Suazo Cordoba and the successors of the democratic rule supported the national security doctrine promoted by the United States.

In 1984, the commander in chief of the Honduran military, General Gustavo Martinez was overthrown by an internal coup. This led to unprecedented human rights violations by the military. The national security doctrine resulted into torture and murder of alleged supporters of communism beliefs including students and religious figures.

Migration Experiences The Maya migrants faced many difficulties when they migrated to other peaceful neighboring countries. They encountered a hostile political environment with anti-immigrant and exclusionary policies developed in Georgia. They feared deportation to their war torn countries from the country of exile. The Maya migrants from Guatemala could not practice their culture and traditions in the foreign countries for fear of discrimination and even deportation.

Because of the suspicious treatment, the Maya people were forced to blend in with Latino communities in order to avoid identification by the authorities. Cases of discrimination and marginalization led to some Maya immigrants adopting the Latino culture. In addition, the children bore of Maya parents in the United States face difficulties in learning their native language and preserving their cultural identity. This is because of anti-immigrant conditions to the foreign country and poverty faced by the immigrants.

The Maya emigrants also underwent through traumatic experiences during their migratory process to the neighboring countries. The Guatemala Mayans first migrated to Mexico before moving north to the United States. Mexicans forced them to change their ethnic and cultural identity to avoid stereotyping experienced.

The men used Mexican style boots and cowboy hats while the women had to wear makeup to appear different from traditional Mayans. The Mayans also had to learn ladino or Mexican language to be able to communicate with the natives in Mexico and the United States Mexican migrants. To avoid discrimination and ethnic prejudice, the Mayans had to adopt anonymity and secrecy in practicing their culture and traditions.

Guatemalans migrants to the United States face difficulties in acquiring a refugee status as the laws do not recognize them. Apart from restrictive US immigration policy, the Mayan migrants face discrimination in the job market and cultural discrimination as the Latino religious institutions in the US dominate them.

Transnational Cultural Identities The international migration of the Maya led to the pan-Mayan movement that is associated with economic change. The pan-Mayan movement started in Guatemala after the civil war with an aim of promoting indigenous scholarship, Mayan traditions regarding dressing and improvement in agricultural activities in their land (Foxen 69).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The movement fights against discrimination in education, employment and in politics. The pan-Mayan movement also enhances self-awareness through promotion of linguistic groups e.g. kanjobales living in different municipalities.

The pan-Mayan movement adopts strategies that promote trans-nationalism through the establishment of connections that allow different indigenous communities to stay in touch. This allows the different indigenous groups spread across the American continent to share cultures through meetings. Through the Labor Organization convention 169, the Indigenous and Tribal peoples from different countries are able to express their demands in the global media.

This acts as an instrument for ensuring that human rights are followed and reports any violations of individual rights of the indigenous people. The Agreement of Identity and Rights of Indigenous peoples of Guatemala in 1995 further ensure proper protection of individual’s rights.

Economic and Cultural Contribution of the Immigrants The Guatemala influence on the cultural patterns on the residents of the foreign country is evident. An example is in the honoring of the patron saint that is characteristic of the Guatemala culture (Loucky and Moors 77). The occasion is accompanied with social dances found in Guatemala indigenous highlands.

There is also the re-emergence of Mayan culture in conducting of patron saint activities among the traditional Catholic Mayan immigrant community in Los Angeles. The transnational communities provide labor in the North and give remittances that help promote Guatemala’s economic development.

The Guatemalan immigrants to the US start up businesses and provide labor to the industries. The immigrants also contribute taxes increase the National budget. The Guatemala immigrants fuel the US economy provision of labor force. They work in agricultural, construction and service industries. They have invested through the transnational network in the US in various sectors helping to stimulate economic development.

Migration to the US by the Guatemalans has led to the transfer of capital and has accelerated the exposure of the traditional communities to modern knowledge and education through the trans-nationalism (Daniells 118). The immigrants invest in Guatemala in large enterprises creating opportunities to those who did not migrate.

There was a transfer of the new knowledge and innovations acquired by the immigrants to the natives. This has helped to bolster economic development in Guatemala. The Maya ethnic communities in the US facilitated the cultural exchanges and created cultural awareness.

Socio-cultural transnational activities reinforced self-image of tribes like the pokoma Mayans who could not identify themselves as Mayans. The socio-cultural activities like collective solidarities among the indigenous Mayan migrants led to the economic and social improvement of the natives in Guatemala.

The members of the Mayan community have also been assimilated into the other ethnic groups through education. In the US, the process of acculturation stands out where the Mayan children born in US embrace the norms and cultures of the native Mexicans.

Conclusion The Guatemalan genocide of 1980 led to mass migration of the Guatemalans notably the Mayans to politically stable countries including Honduras, Mexico and northward to the US. The fear of perceive communist ideals held by the Mayan people led to acts of brutality that culminated into the 1980 genocide.

The genocide led to emigration of the Guatemalans running away from war and economic hardships to seek asylum in other neighboring countries. During their migratory process, they underwent racial discrimination and political hostility from residents of the host country.

Fearing reproach and other forms of discrimination, the immigrants never disclosed their cultural identities in public. However, through trans-nationalism, the Mayan people have been able to establish social and cultural identity and regained cultural identity. The immigrants have contributed immensely to the socio-cultural and economic development to the host countries including the US and their ancestral countries too.

Works Cited Daniells, Roger. Coming to America: A history of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York: Haper Collins publishers, 1990.

Foxen, Patricia. In Search of Providence: Transnational Mayan Identities. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007.

Loucky, James, and Moors, Marilyn. The Maya Diaspora: Guatemalan Roots, New American lives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

Mainz, Beatrice. Refugees of a Hidden War: The Aftermath of Counter-Insurgency In Guatemala. New York: State University of New York press, 1988.

Stoll, David. Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

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