Abstract Theories of learning and development provide important knowledge on which educational practices and activities are based. This document discusses the roles of teachers, factors which motivate learners and how learners acquire information as well as the factors which influence curriculum design and delivery as explained by cognitive, constructivism, social, behavioral learning as well as development theories.
Introduction Teaching and learning are important but complex activities and therefore it is essential that educators understand the factors which motivate learners to absorb things they observe, hear or read. The lack of attention to the factors underpinning the learning process certainly leads to impoverishment of education.
Learning and developmental theories provide a basis for understanding the role of the teacher as the instructional leader, factors which motivate learners to learn as well as factors which influence curriculum design and delivery process.
Several cognitive, social, constructivism, behavioral and development theories have been used to explain the importance of teachers’ and learners’ participation and role in the learning process, and the need for structured curriculum and instructions.
Skinner’s Behavioral Theory of Learning Skinner’s behavioral theory of learning focuses on how contingencies of reinforcement can shape human behavior. In other words, it explains conditions in which reinforcement for a learner can be made conditional on a desired response.
Skinner’s behavioral theory emphasizes that teaching involves “arranging contingencies of reinforcement effectively to bring about learning” (Hartley, 1998).
As such, the teacher should carefully use reinforcement and punishments, depending on the situation, to enable learners develop high level capabilities such as creativity and critical thinking (Armstrong
Enhancing Pronunciation for ELL Students Research Paper best essay help
Conceptual Framework All the things that I do and all the choices that I have made in life have entirely depended on the background and the experiences that I had while growing up.
My conceptual framework is, thus, brought into being by the academic experiences I had in Harvard University while undertaking an undergraduate degree in linguistic languages and also by the technical experiences I had as a tutor for English at a local school in my community. I have a well-built conviction that the experience I had as a tutor has put me in a good position to handle this research and answer the questions that might arise.
Getting a job as a tutor at my local school made me realize the academic perspective of coaching languages. My teaching talent was as a result of the training I underwent during my undergraduate schooling. It is important to note that when teaching, the teacher has to confirm that all the students conform to the basic requirements of the education standards.
Through teaching I was in a position to gauge the students’ capabilities. I knew when a student needed help or when the student was satisfied. It is in line with this background that I developed the interest to help the students with their pronunciation in order to enhance the maturity of languages and also the individual development of each student.
Due to the fact that many students do not receive a thorough training on language pronunciation at an early stage, they lack proper communication skills. As a teacher, I am more enthusiastic about making out how I handle this task of enhancing pronunciation among the students.
One of the things I have learned as teacher is to put the interests of the students before my personal interests. A teacher is there to serve the students but not to be served.
Teaching is like creating something out of nothing; hence, it is not an easy task to teach somebody a new thing at an advanced age. When teaching, the teacher relies a lot on the assistance he gets from the parents of the students. It is therefore imperative for the parents to work hand in hand with the teacher for the well being of the students.
The motive of my Master’s Project has been backed by my undying love for established languages. I intend to reach out to students who are widely influenced by their mother-tongue in pronouncing the established languages. Through this, my research is viewed to contribute much to the society.
I will resort to offering advice with regard to enhancing the pronunciations because it is exactly what the community needs. Actually, this research topic is expected to attract other scholars to conduct a similar research with regard to the topic. The topic on enhancing pronunciation for ELL students need to be taught widely and evaluate d.
Epistemology The epistemology of my study is based on the cognitionist suggestions. This suggestion elaborates that the desire and enthusiasm to obtain knowledge varies from one person to another.
The process of knowledge development is evident to all students and it entirely depends on cultural norms and social norms. Even though the students have varied swiftness in terms of the yearning to access knowledge, it is worthy to note that the phases through which they make that progress remain the same.
It is required that the parents and the teachers of the students should resort to other better ways of passing out knowledge to the students. This notion came to me due to my encounters as a tutor. I met students who had varied ages and came from varied backgrounds and traditions.
Both the parents and the teachers have a big role to play toward creating a good atmosphere that enables the students to realize their true potentials and their significance to the society. Spelling and pronunciation are known to be going together; thus, it is upon the teacher to find out the best way to let the students realize by themselves the harmony that exists between spelling and pronunciation by availing to them relevant materials.
Under the cognitionist notion, both the teachers and the parents should let the students to make out inaccuracies and mistakes by themselves in order to raise the speed at which the children get to know new ideas. The students undergo through a lot of experiences during the learning process.
The cognitionist idea holds that the students can find a possible way to transform these personal experiences into practical ideas in real life. These experiences have a lot of relevance in terms of creating awareness to the children.
This argument can also be based on the enhancement of pronunciations in that the students can be able to relate their personal experiences to the real world and figure out a good way to enhance their pronunciations rather than relying on the different teaching techniques that are used by their teacher.
I have a strong feeling that when the students are given the time and the opportunity to learn on their own, their pronunciations can change in many different aspects.
In line with my area of specialization, that is, applying ELL in a two-language set up with the aim of enhancing pronunciation and evaluation in the society, the main suggestions under the cognitionist framework are revealed.
My research purposes not to seek for a single response, but rather equips me with a wide range of awareness with regard to the effectiveness of a bilingual set up on enhancing pronunciation to the students especially when they are still at a tender age. My research will also seek to find out the relevant books and evaluation methods that are beneficial in terms of teaching subjects that are in line with enhancement of pronunciation.
Paradigm My research will entirely rely on the interpretivist paradigm. In line with this paradigm, the transfer of knowledge to students will vary according to the backgrounds of the students and the level of experience that they have had on the course of their learning process.
When the students are exposed to varied bilingual environments, their enthusiasm and ability to enhance their pronunciations will rely entirely with the kind of interactions that they have had.
This is due to the fact that each different environment offers a different experience to the students, hence, changing them in a relevant manner. Pronunciation plays a greater role toward enhancing the writing skills of the students. Thus students with poor or improper pronunciation skills are always lagging behind in terms of their written communication.
When the students are exposed to the same bilingual environment, it’s not guaranteed that they will all have the same knowledge of pronunciation. However, it is my strong conviction that the teacher really plays a huge role toward enhancing the pronunciation skills of the students.
When the pronunciation skills are enhanced the students will be in a better position to interact freely and easily with their counterparts who come from a totally different environment. When this happens, the ELL bilingual environment will totally be changed. It is my belief that the students will change their attitude so as to welcome the pronunciation subject and have an increased desire to learn the English language regularly.
The ELL pronunciation techniques should be inculcated into the curriculum in schools so that the learning capabilities of the students are boosted in that, it will be so much easy for the students to capture pronunciation techniques and the meanings of the new words that they encounter in the learning process.
In addition, the inclusion of pronunciation into the curriculum enables the students to improve their reading skills, communication skills and writing skills. In general, the student’s grammar will be highly boosted and their speed of acquiring knowledge will be highly promoted.
When a student’s pronunciation is improved, his/her individual self-esteem will rise, thus, he/she will not feel inferior among the other students. In my teaching practice, I will subject the students to quizzes involving spelling and pronunciation skills.
The quizzes will be conducted in the classroom during the normal lesson time. Each student will work individually and each will be given a different set of quiz that aims at testing the spelling or pronunciation skills.
My research will be so supportive to me as it will enable me to learn and observe and assess on how each student interacts with somebody from a different bilingual environment. Actually, my research will be so much interactive as the students will largely participate by providing relevant explanations to me.
The kind of atmosphere that I will create in the classroom will enable the students to interact freely and have the feeling that they are part of one large family. This will motivate them to work as a team and give their views without any reservations. Therefore, it is true to say that each student has a different perception with regard to change as they encounter change at different times of their lives.
Theoretical Framework My theoretical framework is based upon the structural-functionalist and the behaviorism assumptions of educating, studying and interpreting. Apart from the structural-functionalist theory, the theoretical framework of this study is also based on the teacher development theory, cognitive theory and second language theory.
Teaching as an activity has several aspects. These aspects include social aspects, cognitive aspects, educational aspects and pedagogical aspects. Various studies have linked the experience and capabilities of the teacher to the success of the students in acquiring the second language (Lin, 2010).
Learning institutions need to be highly developed so as to positively contribute toward enhancing pronunciation skills within a given bilingual set up. In the recent years, several learning institutions have incorporated lessons that aim at improving spelling and pronunciation skills in their syllabuses.
Even though this move is considered to consume a lot of time and difficult to put into practice, many tutors have still widely endorsed the move. This has created the need for the school managers and other educators to come up with alternative methods of incorporating spelling and pronunciation techniques in the syllabus.
When the English language listeners enhance their pronunciation skills, it will put the students in a stable position to quickly capture what they are taught by the teachers. In addition, it will be so much beneficial to their interactive environment where they meet several people from different bilingual environments.
It is imperative for the students to improve their listening and grammar skills as this will provide them with an added enthusiasm to seek for more knowledge. English language is widely used in motivation of the students and also in teaching new ideas to the students.
The ability and strive of each and every student to develop the English language will determine the level at which the teacher puts additional efforts toward training them. The teacher, therefore, has to be able to evaluate whether the students have the ability to perfect the language further once they get the required knowledge.
It is, therefore, incumbent upon the teacher to wisely select the best teaching techniques and methods to use in passing out knowledge to the students. This will improve the level of student-teacher interaction and further create a suitable atmosphere for the students to advance in the learning process. Students normally require a more interactive teaching approach that promotes individual’s participation during the teaching time.
After having a well-built knowledge with regard to the relevance of enhancing pronunciation by the English language listeners, it is required that these skills be taught to the students in the class. The teacher will find it very easy when teaching students with varied ages, capabilities or from different ethnic backgrounds when their pronunciation is enhanced.
Through the teaching of reading skills to the students, the teacher always motivates them to practice reading continuously. Continuous reading enables the students to be much familiar with the English language and in the process, enhances their pronunciation skills.
It is also the duty of the teacher to avail to the students books that are full of language lessons. These language lessons play a very important role toward the lingual development of the student. This development is really necessary, especially when the student wants to enhance his/her pronunciation skills.
Literature Review Lin (2010) looked at the wide variety of factors that influenced efficient pronunciation skills and also factors that contributed toward the enhancement of efficient pronunciation skills.
It is a common notion that the age of an individual will affect the learning and pronouncing of new languages or foreign languages due to the fact that the individual comes from a certain bilingual environment and this bilingual set up can affect his/her pronunciation ability in one way or the other.
Different studies have postulated that the ability to enhance pronunciations can be improved through relevant training methods (Yamashita, 2011). In another study, an experimental group of people was given an opportunity to listen to native speakers.
After that, their pronunciations were compared to those of the native speakers and it was duly noted that there was a small difference in their pronunciation dialects (Howard and Millar, 2009).
There were great similarities in terms of their patterns of stressing words and the change in their tone when explaining various words. The ability of a person to enhance his/her pronunciation, therefore, depends on the prosody training. Prosody is taken to mean the patterns that exist in words of different stresses and pitches and also include the intonational patterns of speech (Lin, 2010).
In many instances, technology has been used in order to assist the students with the pronunciation of the second language (Lin, 2010). This technology has been widely used in various forms with regard to the requirements of the students.
According to Howard and Millar (2009), efficient training for the English language listeners should be undertaken so as to help them remove the mother-tongue influence in their pronunciations. The mother-tongue influence is very common especially if a person is learning the second language when he/she is at an older age.
Various techniques have been employed to enhance prosody and one of the ways is through visual displays. The use of visual displays is very instrumental due to the fact that exact sounds and outlines of prosody are captured, thus the students have an added advantage in terms of getting the correct pronunciation patterns.
The students will be in a position to know when they make pronunciation mistakes because through visual displays, they will be in a good position to see and hear the correct grammatical pronunciations. In addition, the students will be able to evaluate themselves through checking the accuracies and precision of their pronunciations (Yamashita, 2011).
According to Yamashita (2011), the use of podcasts, television channels and internet are the various forms of technologies that are used to enhance pronunciations. He further states that the use of internet has been so much on the rise of late. Teachers have found a way to use internet in the classrooms with the aim of helping the students to enhance their English pronunciation.
Howard and Millar (2009) also recommend the use of podcast (downloadable internet audio files) in the learning process. Podcasts help the teachers to put the linguistic pronunciations into contexts and plan for relevant initiatives that aim at enhancing English pronunciations.
In addition, podcasts help the students to avoid the hassle of taking much time to listen and to repeat the words and sounds due to the fact that the teacher has the ability to download the audio files and distributing to each student (Yamashita, 2011). Some experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of podcasts toward enhancing pronunciations.
Some students were subjected to learning without using podcasts, while others were availed with podcasts. At the end of the experiment, the students who were subjected to learning without podcasts did not have an enhanced pronunciation as compared to their counterparts who had podcasts (Lin 2010).
Podcasts play a very important role toward the development of pronunciation skills of the students. Through listening, the students are able to improve on their communication skills and writing skills. The effect of mother-tongue dialect on the speech of the students will be highly minimized.
In addition, the students will be in a good position to interact with all kinds of people from diverse bilingual environments (Yamashita, 2011). Howard and Millar (2009) also attribute the development of pronunciation skills to the use of podcasts.
Incorporating spelling into enhancement of pronunciation Various studies have shown that both spelling and pronunciation go hand in hand (Sert, 2010). During the spelling of words, the students will entirely rely on the pronunciations of the words so as to figure out the correct spellings. As long as the pronunciations are encrypted in the students’ memories, the spelling becomes an easy task to fulfill.
The studies found out that the speed of spelling depends on familiarity with the pronunciations of the words to be spelled out. As long as the students are familiar with many English words, their abilities to learn more are boosted and enhance.
Sert (2010) explains that a group of students was given a task to work on individually, and they were given an explicit learning task that involved teaching sets of words on flashcards. The words selected were low-frequency nouns that students were expected to master, as declared by their teachers.
At the onset of the first trial, each student was given an opportunity to practice pronouncing the words. Sato and Suzuki (2010) emphasized that all successive trials tested their recall of the words and after the recall attempt, correct responses were provided to teach the significance of the words.
The practice went on until the students reached a criterion or a maximum number of tests whereby each student learned various sets of vocabulary words.
In the control experiment, the students learned spoken words without spelling that measured how quickly students learned the words as the learning trials developed, and how efficient they committed them to their memories them after a delay of 1 day. It is significant to note that when the recall of pronunciation of the words was tested, spellings were not introduced, so any benefit had to come from memory for the spellings.
According to Sato and Suzuki (2010), it is important to note that when spelling of the words were shown, no attention was drawn to their presence, and students had no need to decode them because as soon as the words were shown, the experimenter pronounced them (Hang, 2009). Thus, retention of spellings in memory happened incidentally.
The hypothesis tested indicated that students will learn the pronunciations and meaning of new words better when they see spellings of the words during study periods than when they do not learn (Hang, 2009). The explanation was that grapheme-phoneme connections would be activated by spellings and as a result would secure the pronunciations and meanings of words in memory earlier during learning (Sert, 2010).
Meanwhile, the students learn the pronunciation and the meanings of the vocabulary words better when they are exposed to spellings of the words than when they only practice speaking the words.
According to Gupta and Seyoum ( 2011), another reason is that spellings themselves become bonded to pronunciations in the memory and secure pronunciations earlier during the course of learning; thus, better pronunciations provide a stronger base for learning meanings (Hang, 2009).
Therefore, the cognitionist idea is applied here in that the teachers are required to become aware of the importance of spellings for vocabulary learning so they do not slight then in their teaching.
According to Grace (2010), when the teachers come across, speak, and put in plain words new vocabulary words to their students, they should take time to display the spellings of the words, for example when they are reading a story aloud to the entire class.
Chiang and Lin(2010) indicate that spelling of words are especially valuable for students who are learning a second language, and they help to clarify phonemes in pronunciations when students listen to spoken words while inspecting their spelling, thereby securing enhancement in pronunciation by ELL in the society.
The way to maximize chances that students will acquire full knowledge in pronunciation is to provide systematic phonics, word analysis, and spelling instruction during elementary grades (Gupta and Seyoum, 2011).
Testing ELL skills Chiang and Lin (2010) suggest that personal differences in ELL performance and acquisition ability are typically recognized and examined with respect to proficiency in a non-native language.
Although, general rhetorical abilities, involving such factors as choice of words, syntactic constructions, and appropriateness in the pragmatic context can also be seen as expressions of proficiency and enhancement of the pronunciation (Hang, 2009).
However, general abilities in speech production and perception as needed in normal communicative situations are by definition considered equal in native speakers not suffering from language of cognitive disorders. Meanwhile, all ELL should exhibit equal levels of pronunciation skills within their native language with an exception of those with speech impairments (Yamashita, 2011).
Therefore, Hang (2009) believe that teachers must know the effective use of Instructional Conversations to teach pronunciation development. To understand the nature of second language conflict from a developmental perspective, understand the elements that promote pronunciation skills.
Develop the awareness of languages issues, questioning strategies for promoting open-ended discussions and facilitating pronunciation skills, create a facilitative classroom atmosphere. This will anticipate difficulties of practice, and experience personal cognitive conflicts as the teacher tries to introduce the problem.
Howard and Millar, 2009 showed that when teachers have knowledge on ELL education and facilitate Instructional Conversations students is more likely to discuss the pronunciation skills found within the bilingual environment.
Specifically, Yamashita (2011) found that students were four times as likely to mention more subtle or problematic aspects of friendship in their written essays after the lesson than were those students who did not use Instructional Conversations.
In the process of enhancing pronunciation the change that occurs can be well figured out by bearing in mind aspects of the connection between internal, emotional or affective states and pronunciation (Grace, 2010).
The effect culture on ELL Social and cultural development comes with the ability to understand the cultural differences. It is considered to be a key element for maturity and can be used to enhance pronunciation to ELL. Souto (2009) found out that students had a nice ability to understand different cultures by reading multicultural novels.
Using cultural interaction and the idea of behaviorism we are able to conclude that the students were familiar with the fact that characters from non-dominant cultures functioned with a unique worldview that influenced their decisions, actions, and reactions (Grace, 2010).
The study shows that two-thirds of the students were able to relate to non-dominant groups when they were asked to assume the identity of a multicultural character found in one of the novels, which shows again that acceptance and understanding is taught and learned when practicing pronunciation.
Howard and Millar (2009) study show pronunciation a lesson that contains the multicultural theme helps students to better understand how people from backgrounds other than their own view the world.
In the research of the effect of behavior change on the pronunciation, indicated that pronunciation authenticity improved when subjects were administered by use of alcohol (Grace, 2010). It is believed to induce the optimal mental set with significant degree of muscle relaxation.
Gupta and Seyoum (2011) indicate that this mental set entails an enhancement of certain dimensions of the learner’s personality structure that was viewed as ego permeability that allow the learner to improve the pronunciation.
The significant key to initiate the change is to induce ego permeability that helps the ELL to overcome rigidity related to fears of appearing foolish. It also helps the ELL to deal with various kinds of stress that affect perceptible changes that are interpreted by others as change in personality (Souto, 2009).
Effect of pronunciation The act of coaching English pronunciation has been neglected by various educationists. In very many countries all over the world, much effort has been invested toward training students on effective pronunciation skills. This is due to the fact that the mother-tongue has a strong influence on pronunciation of the English words.
Listening and speaking skills are now incorporated in the school curriculum and are taught to equip the learner with adequate communicative competence. At the primary, secondary and tertiary level in many countries, an English pronunciation course or English pronunciation as a component in the languages course is totally ignored.
Various teachers suggest that language pronunciation is not essential. It is then evident that teaching ELL pronunciations has been granted minor privileges in the school curriculum, thus, the teachers should strive at improving the language pronunciation in schools.
Yamashita (2011) asserts that an absence of the pronunciation from the school’s curriculum is a good indicator of the fact that the syllabus has ignored integration of pronunciation, and materials used to teach ELL do not usually be embodied into pronunciation components and lessons.
Howard and Millar (2009) indicates that the local materials developers are either unaware of the importance of pronunciation or not capable of designing pronunciation materials or follow the wrong syllabus to teach the pronunciations.
Specifically, Hang (2009) found that syllabus material with the theme of pronunciation enhancement helps ELL with special needs gain insight on how to join groups. Whereas these types of materials helped students without special needs become more aware of their problems, and learn about their classmates’ struggles to enhance pronunciation.
Conclusion The enhancement of pronunciation is a very vital element of student learning and training skills. Pronunciation and spelling are complimentary, and thus in order to effectively spell words correctly, the students should have the ability to memorize the words. Pronunciation also varies from one bilingual environment to another and a student’s pronunciation is largely dependent on the ethnicity.
The students will have the ability to learn the pronunciations and meaning of new words effectively when they see spellings of the words during study periods than when they do not practice them.
The integration of pronunciation into the school syllabus will help to teach ELL pronunciation has shown to aid in students’ reading comprehension, aid in acceptance amongst students, provide therapy for students who are bullied, and teach students how to regulate their pronunciation.
The ELL must see how pronunciation intelligibility can be enhanced by techniques discussed under the literature review aimed at changing the pronunciation of ELL with different behaviorism traits. During the enhancement of pronunciation the change that occurs can be best understood by considering aspects of the relationship between internal, emotional or affective states of pronunciation.
In conclusion, the research assisted in finding out the reason why some teachers think that incorporating the pronunciation into the school curriculum is essential and will assist in the enhancement of pronunciation skills.
References Chiang, Y., Lin, L. (2010). Morphological and Syntactic Abilities in Taiwanese EFL Preschoolers’ Oral Narratives: The linguistic journal, Vol. 12, No.2, Pp1 – Pp21
Grace, Y., (2010). English Teacher Professionalism and Professional Development: Some Common Issues in Indonesia, Vol. 12, No.3, pp1 – Pp41
Gupta, D., Seyoum, G. W. (2011). The Influence of Motivation and Attitude on Writing Strategy Use of Undergraduate EFL Students: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, Vol. 12, No.2, pp2-6.
Hang, P. (2009). An Analysis of a Hypothesized Model of EFL Students: Motivation Based on Self Determination Theory, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp1-pp51.
Howard, J. and Millar, S. (2009). Impacts of Vietnam’s Social Context on Learners’ Attitudes towards Foreign Languages and English Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp1-pp151.
Lin, L. (2010). English Learners’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in the Video-based CALL Program: The linguistic journal, Vol. 12, No.2, Pp1 – Pp213.
Sato, T. and Suzuki, A. (2010). Literary Texts in the Language Classroom: a Study of Teachers’ and Students’ views at International schools, Vo12, No.2, Pp1 – Pp21
Sert, O. (2010). A Proposal for a CA-Integrated English Language Teacher Education: Program in Turkey, Vol. 12, No.3, Pp1 – Pp31.
Souto, M. (2009). Negotiating culturally responsive pedagogy through multicultural children’s literature: Towards critical democratic literacy practices in a first grade classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9(1), 50-74.
Yamashita, Y. (2011). Second Language and Cognition: Conceptual Categorization of Count/Mass Nouns in English with Japanese University Students, Vol. 12, No.2, pp12- 20.
Creativities and Boys Involvement Reflective Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) noted that the creativity among children has to be enhanced by supporting their curiosity, exploration and play. It is also important to provide them with opportunities for exploring and sharing their thoughts, ideas, and feelings.
This can be achieved through art, music, movement and dance activities among others. Various ways can be used in achieving this through what the children see, hear, smell, touch and feel.
Also, this can be achieved through their expansion and communication of their ideas, thoughts and feelings by using various materials, suitable tools, imaginative and role-play, movement, designing and making, and in using a variety of songs and musical instruments (Department for Education and Skills (DfES), p 9; Allen and Whalley, p, 14).
Learning for young children is a rewarding and enjoyable experience in which they explore, investigate, discover and practice among others like developing their knowledge and skills and understanding their attitudes (Brunner, p 16). During the foundation stage, many of these aspects of learning are brought together effectively through play and learning.
To me, a well-planned play, both indoors and outdoors, is a crucial way in which young children learn with enjoyment and challenge. In playing, they behave in different ways: sometimes their play can be boisterous; sometimes they describe and discuss what they are doing; and sometimes are quiet and reflective (Bilton, p 41).
Under the Personal, Social and Emotional Development, children must be provided with experience and support to help them develop positive sense of themselves and others. They need this support in order to develop their emotional well-being by knowing themselves better and to understand what they can do.
Children should be kept interested and motivated to learn. They should be encouraged to try new activities, initiatives, and be able to speak in a familiar group. The purpose of this action research is to evaluate the effectiveness of an adult –initiated play in a pre-school nursery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I came up with the idea after my attention was drawn to a group of five boys who spent most part of their days playing games on the computer. Even though a sand timer was provided in the IT corner to encourage sharing; on several occasions, I had to intervene before other children could be given a chance (Allen and Whalley, p, 26).
After reflecting on this these observations alongside discussions that I had with the room leader, it became apparent that these boys needed extra support to become engaged in more creative activities. The main emphasis in the nursery was on free play; therefore, children were in total control of the activities in which they took part.
The boys preferred using computers compared to other activity, and they did not at any time engage in creative activities. They needed to be encouraged to take advantage of the benefits gained from creative activities, and if nothing was done to build their interest at that early age, it could hinder their learning and development.
A bit of structure was needed as theorist like Vygotsky believe in which will be revealed in my literature review (Vygotsky, p, 19).
That formed the basis of my action research which was “the importance of finding the balance between child-initiated and adult-led activities.” My research was on promoting creative activities under an adult leadership in the pre-school room.
In order to discuss this, I will be looking at adult-initiated and child-initiated activities, and the balance that needs to exist between them.
The importance of learning through play will also be discussed, as well as the importance of engaging children in creative activities. I will explore how my observation was done; how I planned my action of change; how it was delivered; what the final results were; the discussions on them and the next line of action.
We will write a custom Essay on Creativities and Boys Involvement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Terminologies Action Research
Action Research is a practical approach to professional inquiry in any situation. It is a reflective process that allows for inquiry and discussion as components of research. It is often a collaborative activity among colleagues searching for solutions to everyday and real problems experienced in a setting or school. It could also be looking for ways to improve instruction and increase student or pupil achievement (Riel, p, 14).
Action research is a research needed to change practice when you realize that things are not going as planned or you need to implement a new initiative but you are unsure on how to do it effectively. It allows practitioners to address those concerns that are close to them; one in which they can exhibit some influence and make changes.
It is a way of learning from one’s practice by working through a series of reflective stages that facilitate the development of a better way of doing things. With time, action research will help unveil a deep understanding the way in which a variety of social and environmental forces interact to create complex patterns. Since these forces are dynamic, action research is a process of putting one’s theory into practice.
It runs in cycles; that is, one reflects on a practice; take action; reflect again on the result; and further action taken. The subject of an action research is the action done while the design may come from an individual. As it goes through cycles, it widens the number of stakeholders since it makes it more effective this way.
Change cannot be effective without the participation of an entire team, and is usually important to involve as much team members as possible or better still, involve everyone if possible.
Process of Action Research
The process of action research is a spiral form of research which involves different cycles. Therefore, the process goes like this: Study and Plan, Take action, Collect and Analyze evidence, Reflect on results and Study and Plan again and go through the whole process again. This is illustrated in the diagram below, and this cycle is what I will be using for my research:
(Riel, p 33)
For others, it is observe, reflect, plan and act, and observe and reflect on the results again and go through the whole cycle again. An example of this shown using the diagram below:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creativities and Boys Involvement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McNiff (p 50)
This is another terminology that will be used in this essay, and is fundamental to successful learning. Being creative enables children to make best connections between various areas of learning and thus enhance their understanding. This area of learning includes art, music, dance, role play and imaginative play. Creativity is viewed as “the minds best work” (Boden, p, 20).
Creative development is a key area within the EYFS: Children’s creativity must be extended by the provision to support for their curiosity, exploration and play. They must be provided with opportunities to explore and share their thoughts, ideas and feelings through art, music, movement, dance, imaginative and role play activities, mathematics and design and technology (DfES, p 11).
Through creative processes, children can develop concentration, problem solving, planning and persistence. Working together encourages a sense of self-respect and valuing others. Communication and language and literacy are also encouraged through speaking and listening, and creative activities like sharing resources.
Knowledge and understanding of the world is developed through investigations that occur when children are presented with unfamiliar materials.
Physical development is enhanced through creative lessons like when sculpting where fine motor skill happens, whereas gross motor skills can be enhanced through dance, poise and developing body control. In fact, all the six areas of learning can be affected by creativity. That is why creativity is critical, and every child must be encouraged to participate (Duffy, p 27).
For this to be successful, practitioners should create a stimulating environment in which creativity, originality and expressiveness are valued. There should be a wide range of activities that children can respond to so as to utilize their many senses and opportunities.
There should also be time for children to express their ideas through a wide range of representations. This would help if children work alongside other creative adults as they will help maximize results.
Play is defined as behavior that is freely chosen; personally directed; and intrinsically motivated, and not performed for an external goal or reward. Play includes a range of self-chosen activities undertaken for their own interest, enjoyment and satisfaction that results for children.
It does not meet basic physical survival needs, but it does seem to support children’s emotional well-being, as well as a wide range of learning within their whole development. It has been asserted that play reinforces development and learning among children. Children spontaneously engage in play, although some may require adult assistance (Department for Education and Skills (DfES), p 9).
Literature Review Adult-led and Child-initiated Learning
Play is a vital aspect in a child’s development both physically and emotionally. However, my opinion is that it is not in the best interest of the child to be left alone to play all time, or left to choose what they want to do and when they want to do it most of the time.
This view is supported by Vygotsky (p 31) who stresses the importance of a supportive active role of an adult in maximizing children’s intellectual development. He also contends that children succeed in performing tasks and solving problems when helped by an adult.
Brunner (p 17) believes that an adult’s presence increases the richness and length of play. To him, the adults’ role is that of “scaffolding” the child’s learning. These arguments confirm that appropriate intervention and a structured approach to teaching are components of effective pre-school practices (Brunner, p 18).
Philosophers such as Piaget, an advocate of child initiated play, made a statement which implies to me that not everything is learned through play. In this case, other factors should come into force to enhance the other areas of child development.
According to Piaget, as much as play is important, it is not through play that children learn to wash and sleep. This means everything cannot be learnt through play. I believe that as much as children are allowed to play, some structures should be put in place as well.
According to Piaget, children act out their already established behaviors or schemata in play and adapt reality to fit these (Piaget, p 52). On using his daughter Jacqueline’s pretending to sleep as an example, Piaget wrote:
It is clearly impossible to explain this symbolic practice as being pre-exercise; the child certainly does not play like this to learn to wash and sleep. All that he is trying to do is to use freely his individual powers, to reproduce his own actions for the pleasure of seeing himself do them and showing them off to others, in a word to express himself, to assimilate without being hampered by the need to accommodate at the same time (Piaget, p, 53).
For Tina Bruce, she believed in the free flow of play and draws on the chaos theory as a model for play. She asserted that play is at its peak of fruitfulness when it is flowing freely. This meant that it is at this stage that problem-solving takes place and a symbolic representation of their experience occurs in a very creative, spontaneous and intellectual order.
Children need space and provision for this opportunity for this to happen in a very safe environment. In line with Bruce’s argument, children’s should not only be engaged in child-initiated activities all the time. There should be a good balance between child-initiated and adult-led activities.
There is need for free-flow and structured learning initiated by the adult, or in this instance, the early year’s practitioner. This will avail them of the opportunity to access other activities that they otherwise would not have been engaged in, especially, creative activities which will enhance their development (Bruce, p 56).
According to EYFS, in the delineation of creativity as stated above, there are various activities which children need to indulge in to help improve their creative thinking and build upon them. Scaffolding learning can provide a valuable tool for enabling children to develop creative thinking (Brooker, p 4).
In this way, the educator supports the learner to help build on his or her previous knowledge and learn new information in order to achieve the intended outcome of the activity based on the Vygotskian concept of zone of proximal development. This refers to the gap between what the child can achieve without help, and what the child can achieve with appropriate support (Vygotsky, p 19).
It is suggested that when children are supported this way, it help them explore the potential of ideas which in turn helps develop their confidence in their own abilities, and further refine and share their ideas with children and adults as well (Blandford and Knowles, p 27).
My primary concern in this research was a group of boys in the Pre-School. There is a presupposition in the common generalizations that boys are out-performed by girls which implies that boys are not as academically inclined as girls. There was the need to verify this claim scientifically (Connolly, p 46). Smith (p, 35) on conducting some baseline testing came up with findings like:
Twice as many boys as girls fell into the bottom attainment category as failing to reach accepted standards.
That girls outnumbered boys by about 30 percent in top group.
The explanation from scientist according to Smith also came up with the findings that there is a less brain activity in boys because of their testosterone production which starts at six weeks of a male embryo. This causes the corpus callous between the brains not to interact properly compared with that of females, which co-operate efficiently with each other (Smith, p. 37).
An example given was that in language development, girls use the whole brain whilst boys use only their left brain. Bearing this scientific fact in mind, I decided to always engage boys in the pre-school room. I based my decision to carry out this research after observing a group of about five boys were always on the computer playing games in the pre-school, or were out in the garden playing.
During the early days of my placement, I had to use a sand timer to encourage sharing the use of the computer. They resisted the idea of using the timer and did not want to give up on the time they had on the computer. After much persuasion, they would reluctantly allow other children access, and then they would run out to the garden to play for a while before coming back to the computer once it was free.
The purpose of my research was to see if I could engage those boys in other creative activities like painting, music and dance and role play instead of being on the computer most of the time. Even though some creativity could be achieved through ICT, engaging in other creative activities will be more enriching and shall broaden their knowledge and experience.
A variety of experience is what is recommended under the EYFS. This was to help them acquire huge benefits that comes with creativity and to give other children the chance to share the use of the computer as well. Engaging those boys in creative activities so as not to miss out on activities that were good for their social, emotional and physical development was vital to me.
I had to plan how much time the research would take since I was only there for a short time. I chose to run the action for over a week and decided to involve the whole team of adults in the room from room leader to agency staff.
The practitioners had to explain to the children about the activities for the day, explaining that every child would have a turn. The children would choose which nursery nurse they wanted, and what time they wanted to have their activity done.
By so doing, it gave the children an opportunity to have a say in what was going to happen. I then planned with my team of four adults who were to run the first session, the second, third and fourth. Two sessions were to be done before lunch, and the other two immediately after the group readings which usually took place after lunch.
The plan was that by tea time, all children would have a go and no one would have been left out. Once a group was going through with their activity, the plan was that I will be observing the children, and the room leader or any adult who was free will then observe whilst I take my group through the activity.
This prompted me to have a few discussions with the room leader and other adults in the room about this practice. Also, I enquired about what other activities these children could undertake in building their interest and awareness in the class room like art and craft area where a lot of creative activities were going on.
Occasionally, the boys would access the role play area or the construction area, but would never get involved in painting or any form of creative activity during the period of my observation. The room leader confirmed this, but she was of the opinion that there was no point in getting the children to be involved in activities they were not interested. She believed in child-initiated and led way of learning.
This resistance made it difficult for me to get my subject of action research across initially; however, I had to explain to her that giving all the children an opportunity of experiencing, enjoying, and above all learning from all the activities that were set up in their room was vital to their development.
I advocated for the importance of adult-led way of learning even though I believed in children being given the chance to have a voice in the choice of activities. They needed to be engaged and directed, and if nothing was put in place to support these children, they could be missing out on very important aspects of their early experience such as benefits derived from creative activity.
Having reflected on my observations and the discussions with the other staff, I decided to do this action research for the reason that as a good Early Years Professional, I should have high expectations of myself and others including the children and staff in my setting.
One of the key characteristics of the social pedagogue is the ability to reflect critically on one’s own practice and on the practices within setting, with strong self-awareness (Whalley, p, 52).
Skilled reflection was an integral part of decision-making, and if based on sound judgment, it offers a crucial aspect in the preparation to meeting the Early Years Professional standards, 38 and 39 which focus on leading practice.
The way to see oneself as a reflective practitioner and how to enable others become more reflective, and in particular, and how to analyze both strengths can lead to actions of change to develop areas in the setting (Whalley, p, 54).
This is exactly what I did in coming up with this action research. Therefore, I followed one of the key characteristics of a social pedagogue, which is teaching of younger children. The action ran for a week, and before the start of each day, the creative action that was supposed to take place was explained to them.
A small discussion then took place so that adults could explain further what needed to be done and how. This was also an opportunity for children to ask question that may be on their minds.
I divided the children into four groups with a nursery nurse of their choice, and the time slot they were supposed to participate in their activity. The adults were involved in an activity as much as the children during their turn. By the end of the day, everyone was supposed to come out with a painting of their favorite pet in the first day.
For the next four days, the activities were role play (doctors and nurses and mums and babies); card making; and clay modeling. On the fifth day, focus was on music and movements; we sang songs and danced to the favorite music. An opportunity was given to children to sing any song that they had made about their favorite pets. This made children to be interested and we all knew who had what animal as a favorite pet.
Children were encouraged to share and interact nicely with each other. While these activities were being carried on, two adults were observing what was going on. The observation was on checking to see how involved the children are; their interaction with adults as well as their peers; how they are sharing resource; and above all, how engaged with each other.
Results: evidence collected and analysed
The result was significant; the children were really engaged in the activities. In fact, as the days passed, some of them would come to school in the morning asking about what the day’s activity was going to be. The interaction between the children and adults was also improved. It felt as if the whole class had become lively.
The five boys did spent less time on the computer, and got involved in other activities apart from the days’ main programme. I was pleasantly surprised at the results the other practitioners came up with, and all their report and my own observations goes to confirm Vygotsky’s theory that an adult support leads to maximization of a child intellectual development.
Reflection and conclusion
Jones and Pound (p 23) states that leaders can encourage staff to develop action research. This research has enabled me to lead, practice and develop a learning community. By the end of my research, the children were actively accessing other areas in the setting instead of just using the computer. Further research needs to be done in this area because this is the practice in other recognized settings of high quality.
It is important for practitioners to share knowledge with other high achieving settings. Due to the brevity of my stay, I was unable to further develop this action. However, I have made an action plan to discuss with the manager on how best to proceed with this. I am of the conviction that children can learn more with the help of a supportive adult.
Works Cited Allen, Shirley and Mary E. Whalley. Supporting Pedagogy and Practice in Early Years Settings. Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd, 2010, print.
Bilton, Helen. Outdoor Play in Early Years. 2nd Ed. London: David Fulton, 2003, print.
Blandford, Sonia and Catherine Knowles. Developing Professional Practice 0-7, England, Pearson Education Limited, 2009, print.
Brooker, Liz. Supporting Transition in the Early Years. Berkshire Open University Press, 2008, print.
Bruce, Tina. Early Childhood Education. Hodder Arnold Education,1997, print.
Brunner, Jerome. Child’s Talk: Learning to Use Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983, print.
Boden, A. Margaret. The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanism. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1990, print.
Connolly, Paul. Boys and Schooling in the Early Years. London: Routlegde, 2004, print.
Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Statutory Framework for the Foundation Stage: Setting the Standards for Learning Development and Care for children from birth to five (EYFS). Nottingham: DfES Publications, 2007, print
Duffy, Bernadette. Creativity and Imagination on the Early Years, Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2006, print.
Jones, Caroline and Linda Pound. Leadership and Management in the Early Years. Berkshire: Open University Press, 2008, print.
McNiff, Jean. Action Research, Principles and Practice. London: Routledge, 1988, print.
Piaget, Jean. Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. London: Heinemann, 1951, print.
Riel, Margaret. Understanding Action Research, Centre for Collaborative Action Research. Pepperdine University, 2010, print.
Smith, Alistair. Accelerated Learning in the Classroom. Stafford: Network Educational Press Ltd, 1996, print.
Vygotsky, S. Lev. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962, print.
Whalley, E. Mary. Leading Practice in the Early Years. Exeter: Learning Matters, 2008, print.
How Does Internal Public Relations Impact the Employee Productivity and Loyalty in Saudi Arabia? Proposal essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Contribution of the Study
Contribution of the Study The success of any business organization depends on various fundamental issues, which have to be put into consideration by the management and other stakeholders. These factors have significant impact in determining and setting performance pace for the organization.
They create an environment that allows high productivity among employees. One of these factors which impacts employee productivity and loyalty is the internal public relations. In understanding the performance of any business organization, it is imperative to focus on the business environment which usually encompasses a wide range of elements that allow the achievement of business goals and objectives (Perner, 2008).
This study therefore intends to synthesize the issue of internal public relations and how it impacts the productivity and loyalty of employees in Saudi Arabia. In other words, this is a significant research that aims at unraveling fascinating information and facts, which have always been ignored by a number of managers and business owners in Saudi Arabia.
As mentioned above, internal public relations affect almost every business organization, not only in Saudi Arabia but also in other parts of the world (Keeney, 2011). How these factors are handled significantly influences the productivity of employees and their loyalty.
It therefore follows that the findings from this study will provide insights on how to promote good internal public relations in Saudi Arabia organizations with special emphasis on the Mobile Telecom Company.
Furthermore, this study will help managers to make adjustments to operate within an environment which promotes effective internal public relations. This could be achieved through training of managers and other stakeholders to impart them with skills and knowledge that would be helpful in appreciating the role of sound internal public relations (Holzer
Supply Chain Game Report college application essay help: college application essay help
The main motive making business to engage in supply chain management is to enhance their efficiency. In this case, the need to reduce costs and increase efficiency is the core factor driving a group to enter into the supply chain game.
Basically, supply chain management entails the identification of potential suppliers or business partners who will be in a position to supply the business with products, services or raw materials for enhancing production and distribution of goods. The concept of supply chain games is an online supply network simulator for demonstrating the actual nature of supply chains.
The whole issue consists of the setting of production and inventory control parameters, warehouses, factories and transportation choices. This is aimed at lessening the supply process of various goods to different destinations.
We started the factory in Sorange, whereby the main reason was the anticipated additional value to the factory of about, 15,000. The processes of shipping, supplies and satisfying demand were undertaken so as to grantee quality and efficiency.
The acquisition of new supplies forms other factories like Calopeia and Entworpe was based on the need to boost efficiency and add value. Satisfying of quality was a key requirement for the company thus helping in realization of its objectives.
The main process by the team was to identify its needs in terms of products and raw materials. This is a vital and basic process in entering the supply chain games. This is followed by identification and contacting of potential suppliers. The evaluation of prices and other logistical issues of the suppliers are also put into consideration so as to enhance efficiency.
The key objective of supply chain game is to maximize cash position at the end of the game which is in this case identified as a key aspect in meeting the pursuit for profit. The concepts of supply chain management are adequately adopted in supply chain game in the sense that it seeks to illustrate the real nature of business operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the key aspects fostered in supply chain management include, logistics, forecasting, supply network design, inventory and production control. By adhering to these phenomena, business entities entailed in the practice of supply chain management are able to streamline its operations.
This enhances in the enhancement of efficiency in timely delivery as well as provision of quality services. This is so because the parties involved in the processes are put under strict supervision and evaluation to ensure high quality standards.
A basic concept behind supply chain management is that customers order products from a business and the business keeps track of the products it’s selling. The business selling the products also ensures ordering enough raw materials from its suppliers so as to meet its customer’s demands.
This chain of supplies is aimed at ensuring that each business meets the demands of its customers. It is the obligation of a business to put its supplier accountable for the quality and timely delivery of its supplies. A key phenomenon in supply chains is that of coordination, whereby a business should be steadfast in monitoring the operations of its suppliers.
It should be noted that each group has control over a certain group of supply chain. Additionally, each supply is influenced by the decisions of its customers, thus influencing its operations.
The supply chain game is guided by common principles and fundamentals. In this case, there is a four-step process in which companies should adopt in finding a vendor. Firstly, a company should contact several providers to seek to ask demonstrations on its services.
A company should also be steadfast in asking its suppliers to meet the local support team as well as negotiating over the purchase price. From another perspective, a company should select a partner and solution to its needs.
We will write a custom Report on Supply Chain Game specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By adhering to these steps, the issue of supply chain management will be perfected thus enhancing success of the company. Other key aspects to consider in supply chain management are the aspects of platform, suites and assemblies. This will help in boosting efficiency in the issues of supply chains.
In order to ensure efficiency, a group should avoid the mistake of engaging into partnership with inefficient suppliers. This may be in terms of high pricing, delays in delivery and low quality. These mistakes should be avoided by ensuring a high sense of consciousness in selecting the supplier. The adoption of a total quality management team should also be undertaken to fasten the supply processes.
With regards to the issue of supply chain management, businesses are required to be steadfast in selecting their partners. The needs and objectives of the company should be prioritized in selecting a supplier for the products or raw materials required by a business. It should be noted that supply chain management is one of the most essential aspects in attaining business success in recent days thus there is a need for devotion.
Day Parameter New Value 730 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 15,000 730 Shipping from Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. truck 730 Satisfy demand in Sorange from Calopeia warehouse. allow 730 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Calopeia warehouse. allow 730 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Calopeia warehouse. allow 730 Schedule factory capacity change in Sorange 55 730 Shipping from Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. truck 730 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 730 Order point: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 15,000 730 Schedule warehouse in Sorange . 730 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 200 730 Order point: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 15,000 730 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. block 730 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 730 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Sorange warehouse. block 730 Satisfy demand in Fardo from Sorange warehouse. block 730 Shipping from Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. truck 730 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 730 Order point: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 730 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 730 Order point: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,000 730 Schedule warehouse in Entworpe . 730 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 1,000 730 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 730 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Entworpe warehouse. block 730 Satisfy demand in Sorange from Entworpe warehouse. block 730 Satisfy demand in Fardo from Entworpe warehouse. block 730 Shipping from Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. truck 730 Shipping from Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. truck 730 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 200 730 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 1,000 730 Order point: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 730 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 730 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 730 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 730 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 200 730 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 5,000 779 Schedule factory capacity change in Sorange 65.01 782 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,400 782 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,200 787 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,000 791 Schedule factory capacity change in Sorange 97.96 792 Order priority: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 4 792 Shipping from Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. truck 792 Order priority: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 793 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,100 793 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 300 826 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Calopeia warehouse. block 826 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Calopeia warehouse. block 827 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 400 827 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 600 830 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 15,000 830 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 1,000 830 Satisfy demand in Sorange from Calopeia warehouse. block 842 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 842 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 842 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 400 843 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. allow 858 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 400 859 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 859 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 859 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 860 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. block 863 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. allow 866 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. block 870 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Entworpe warehouse. block 870 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 873 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 800 882 Change fullfilment policy. nearest 890 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 1,000 890 Order point: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 918 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 400 922 Order point: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 2,500 926 Order point: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 15,000 933 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 938 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 944 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 1,600 949 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 949 Order point: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 967 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Sorange warehouse. 400 971 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 971 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Entworpe warehouse. allow 976 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 976 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 984 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 400 984 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 500 1,008 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5,000 1,008 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 500 1,035 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 1,000 1,035 Order point: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 1,035 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,035 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,037 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 1,042 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,054 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Sorange warehouse. block 1,085 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 500 1,085 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 800 1,131 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,131 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,000 1,132 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 1,133 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,134 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5,000 1,139 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 1,139 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 1,139 Order quantity: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,139 Order point: Sorange factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,139 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 400 1,146 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 100 1,146 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 200 1,146 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 75 1,155 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,194 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 500 1,194 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,500 1,236 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,236 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5,000 1,242 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,242 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,260 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Calopeia warehouse. allow 1,260 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Sorange warehouse. block 1,265 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 4 1,265 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 400 1,265 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 75 1,266 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Entworpe warehouse. block 1,266 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,267 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,267 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 200 1,267 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5 1,300 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,300 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 400 1,300 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 200 1,344 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Entworpe warehouse. allow 1,344 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 1,350 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2 1,382 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,382 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,382 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,382 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 400 1,382 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 2,000 1,382 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 2 1,382 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,386 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,386 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 4 1,390 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 1 1,390 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,391 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,391 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,391 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,391 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 2 1,392 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. block 1,393 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 1,393 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 1,600 1,393 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 4 1,393 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,393 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,393 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,400 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,400 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,400 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,400 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 400 1,400 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 2,000 1,400 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 4 1,401 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Entworpe warehouse. allow 1,402 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 1,402 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,402 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5 1,402 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,402 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,402 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,406 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,406 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,406 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 0 1,406 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 400 1,406 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 2,000 1,406 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 5 1,406 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Entworpe warehouse. block 1,406 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Entworpe warehouse. block 1,407 Satisfy demand in Calopeia from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,407 Satisfy demand in Tyran from Sorange warehouse. allow 1,407 Satisfy demand in Entworpe from Calopeia warehouse. block 1,408 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 600 1,409 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,409 Order point: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,409 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Sorange warehouse. 0 1,409 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 400 1,409 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 1,600 1,409 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 5 1,410 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,410 Order point: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,410 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Entworpe warehouse. 0 1,410 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 200 1,410 Order point: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 2,000 1,410 Order priority: Calopeia factory to Calopeia warehouse. 5 1,419 Order quantity: Calopeia factory to 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Corn is Our Every Day Food Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
King Corn is a 2007 documentary film release directed by Aaron Woolf. The film follows two college friends Curtis Ellis and Ian Cheney (co-producers of the film) as they journey from Boston to Green Iowa in their mission to grow an acre of corn. The film explores health woes in America through the multifarious lens of corn, one of America’s humble grains, and how it affects the American society.
In the film, Woolf and his co-producers, Ellis and Cheney provide irrefutable proof that America is virtually drowning in corn. Corn starch, corn meal, hydrologized corn protein as well as high fructose corn syrup are ingredients used to fuel many cheap food products especially fast foods.
The film demonstrates that decision on what types of crops should be grown and how they should be grown in America are made on the basis of economic consideration disregarding social and environmental consequences.
After shockingly discovering (through a lab hair analysis) that corn forms the major part of their bodily composition, Chaney and Ellis decide to trace how their bodies ended up being made of corn. Woolf captures the 11- moth efforts of Ellis and Cheney, who trace their ancestry to the small town of Iowa to grow corn.
After meeting Chuck Pyatt, a farmer who willingly lends them an acre of land, the two meet historians, agronomists as well other experts for advice before the planting season (King Corn). With the help of other real farmers, government aid, and loadsof fertilizers, the two plant a whole acre of genetically modified corn seeds.
Prior to the harvesting season, Ellis and Cheney make a journey to trace where their corn goes to after leaving the grain elevator. To their amazement, they discover that their corn is destined for one of the two major American Industries.
That is corn syrup or animal feed. They travel to Colorado and compare the grass fed cattle to con-fed counterparts. They also travel to New York and explore the links that exist between corn syrup, diabetes and obesity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to the insights presented above it is clear that corn is a major contributor to obesity which is one of America’s major pandemic. As the demonstrated in the film documentary, corn is a key ingredient that quietly fuels almost every food product in the American society especially fast foods.
Almost all of these fast foods are rich in high fructose corn syrup that accounts for approximately 40% of caloric sweeteners used by industries in the United States (Liu p.1). According to a research by the Princeton University research team high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is highly responsible for the increase in the rate of obesity-especially child obesity.
Kids in America are growing in an environment full of products made of HFCS. This increases the chance of having obese children who will also drag this obesity to their adult hood. According to this release, Americans utilize 60 pounds of sweeteners annually which puts many people at the risk of obesity.
The study indicated that high and long-term consumption of HFCS leads to abnormally increased adipose body fat especially in the abdomen as well as increase in triglycerides (circulating blood fats) which are a sign of metabolic syndrome (Center for Consumer Freedom 106).
In conclusion, the film presents a behind-the-scenes picture of how Americans ignorantly put their health and lives at risk every day. The documentary prompts the audience to pay closer attention to the danger that lies in their everyday meals which are rich in corn syrup, a major contributor to obesity in America.
King Corn is a creative and effective way of driving the health awareness message home. The producers have been able to express scientific facts and studies that would otherwise be boring to viewers in a way that is both informative and entertaining. The importance of corn, which forms part of every American’s meal, is clearly and effectively highlighted.
The health implications of obesity have also been expressed clearly and the call to action is clear. The film urges Americans to consider what they eat. It also encourages them to read the fine print of food labels, insisting that the lives of their own families may be at stake. The film drives home the point that, one of America’s greatest dangers, may just lie in your next bite.
We will write a custom Essay on Corn is Our Every Day Food specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Centre for Consumer Freedom. An epidemic of obesity myths. Washington D. C: Center for Consumer Freedom, 2005.
Liu, David. High fructose corn syrup the cause of obesity epidemic, new study suggests. Web.
Woolf, Aaron (Dir). King Corn. Amherst : Balcony Releasing, October 12, 2007.
Week 6 Assignment: You Decide Census Paper scholarship essay help
Length: Fill out all cells of the Pre-Writing Map worksheet
References, with full reference entries in APA Style (minimum of 4 outside scholarly sources in addition to the textbook/lesson) for the paper
In this week’s lesson, you learned about the U.S. Census Bureau’s most recent racial and ethnic categories. For this assignment, consider the racial and ethnic categories used in the 2020 Census with the four racial, ethnic, and gender categories used in the 1790 Census: Free white males, free white females, all other free persons, slaves (Pew Research Center, 2015). Analyze the concepts of race, ethnicity, and gender as social constructs, just as sociologists do, by addressing the following:
Explain how you might have been categorized by the 1790 Census and how you would have been categorized by the 2020 Census.
Compare and contrast the two potential categorizations and explain how this exercise shows that the concepts of race, ethnicity, and even gender change over time. Most importantly, explain how this exercise shows that the concepts of race, ethnicity, and gender are social constructs.
Determine and describe what ethnic, racial, and/or gender categories, if any, would be best, in your view, for the 2030 Census, to most accurately show the diversity of the U.S. population and to promote social justice. What categories would be best to reveal the segments of the U. S. population most vulnerable to racial, ethnic, and/or gender inequalities or discrimination? What categories could be listed in the 2030 Census that might best educate the U. S. population on differences between race and ethnicity, and promote social justice? Explain your decisions
Include headings for each of the three main sections of the paper:
What the Census Might Have Called Me
Better Future Census Categories
Each of the three main sections of your paper must contain scholarly support in the form of quotes or paraphrases with respective citations from assigned reading (the textbook/lesson) and the outside scholarly source that you identify on your own.
Culture and International Business Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Various scholars have defined culture differently. Recent researchers define it as the pattern of learned behaviors and outcomes of behavior whose constituent rudiments are collective and spread by members of certain society.
Culture entails shared principles, ideologies, value assumptions and beliefs of particular people. Geert Hofstede observes that culture is the combined indoctrination of the mind, which differentiates members of one group or class of people from another.
Culture affects many things in an individual’s life including social, political and economic (Guille´n 2001, p. 236). The most important is economic because people consume goods that their culture permits. It is not surprising that Europeans would have different tastes as those of Africans and Arabs. Several theorists have explained how culture affects consumer behavior.
Through analysis, it is established that one’s culture is superior to all others meaning that an individual tends to ignore the ways of living of other people. People rarely appreciate the culture of others. Any firm has a challenge of dealing with the influence of culture. Goods are produced and consumed globally implying that the firm should understand the nature of customers both locally and globally (Chatman
Regional Trade Agreement Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Concept of Regional Integration
Regional Trade Agreement
How the EU works
NAFTA verses the EU
Concept of Regional Integration The term “regional integration” is not easy to define, but attempts to understand it have been made for years. In general terms, regional integration refers to the ‘unification of nation states into a larger whole’ (Viner 1). It has been commonly described as a process that entails a country’s will to share or unite into a whole with other states.
What determines the level of integration is what that country intends to share and the extent to which it is willing to share. Regional integration sometimes entails compromise on the nation states, but this should not be the case. It should actually enhance general eminence of existence for the citizens of the member states.
Regional integration can be also defined along the lines of geographic scope, the substantive coverage and the depth of integration. Geographic scope comprises the number of countries that are involved in the agreement. Substantive coverage means the activity that the integration entails or is involved in, for instance, trade.
Finally, the depth of integration is the extent to which a country is ready to give away its sovereignty. This means that a country can either be shallowly or deeply rooted into the integration.
Then, the question about the reasons for regional integration arises. Regional integration acts as a unity, especially in fragmented economies, like in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Integration creates larger markets to permit economies of scale wider competition and foreign investment.
It also accelerates the opening of enclosed economies to the rest of the world. Integration enhances credibility of national reform through lock-in policy mechanism. It goes ahead to strengthen unity for international negotiations. Finally and most importantly, integration helps avert inter-state conflicts (Viner 2010, p. 2).
There are other reasons for integration, especially in the Sub-Saharan Africa that brought about the integration. They are both traditional and non-traditional benefits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The traditional benefits include trade gains, increased returns and favorable competition, and finally, there was increased investment all over the continent. The non-traditional gains associated with the integration include among others mentioned earlier on, insurance and security.
Regional Trade Agreement Regional Trade Agreements have taken different forms since the 50s. It was in 1958 that the first form was established under the Rome treaty and known as the European Economic Community. It was a custom union according to GATT because it was mainly involved in the establishment of a common external tariff defined in the treaty as a common market.
The reason for this definition was because it provided for free trade in capital and labor coupled with goods and services (Lloyd 1). This had set a precedent that was followed by the others. In 1960, the EFTA was formed followed by the Latin America Free Trade Area in the same year.
Central American Common Market was founded the same year while in 1965, the Canada-US Automotive Agreement was created. The others were New Zealand – Australia Free Trade Area formed in 1965 and U.K.- Ireland Free Trade Agreement which appeared in 1965. In the 80s, other agreements came up, so their roots can be easily traced though the list is endless.
Trying to explain the differences in the RTAs in our quest, we can group them into different levels because by understanding these levels, we become aware of their functionalities (Mirus