Table of Contents Introduction
Pre Japanese Colonization Taiwan
Japanese Colonization of Taiwan
Development of Education in Taiwan under the Japanese
Influence of Educational system
Post Japanese Rule Taiwan
Introduction In 1895, Taiwan changed from being a Chinese province to a Japanese colony following the Japanese victory in the Sino-Japanese War. The Taiwanese society experienced notable influence from Japanese culture following this colonization which lasted up to 1945 when Taiwan was once again restored to its original Chinese owned status.
During this colonization period, Japanese domination in Taiwan was very evident and the cultural as well as the political system of Taiwan showed major Japanese influences. Chun-rong (2005) suggests that the Japanese regime’s aggressive campaign for assimilation of the colony was responsible for these changes.
The education system in Taiwan was one of the institutes that were heavily influenced by the Japanese colonizers. This was because education was such a key element in the colonial era and as one East-Asian scholar articulates, “the Japanese educational model and language constituted the foundations of ruling strategies” (Heylen 2004, p.5).
Bearing in mind the significance that Japanese Education held in the Taiwan colony, this paper shall set out to analyze the development of the education system in Taiwan under Japanese rule. The paper shall begin by giving a brief description of Taiwan before Japanese colonization and the Japanese colonization era.
Further on, this paper shall highlight the development of education under Japanese rule and the influence of the education system in Taiwan in this era both to the colonizers and to the colonized. This shall enable us to have a better understanding of how the Taiwanese educational model has evolved to its current form.
Pre Japanese Colonization Taiwan Prior to Japanese occupation, Taiwan was ruled by the mainland Qing dynasty as a province of China. Early Chinese settlement began in the 15th century and continued until the late 18th century leading to an overrepresentation of Chinese migrants in Taiwan. Even then, Taiwan remained isolated from the mainland and it was not until 1983 that The Qing emperor conqueror Taiwan and proceeded to rule it as a district of Fujian Province (Philips 2003).
To avoid costly administration of Taiwan, the Imperial government in mainland China preferred to maintain a loose control of Taiwan which was cheap since it did not require any huge military involvement. However, this loose control left Taiwan weakened and by the late nineteenth century, Taiwan had a reputation of instability, civil unrest and rebellion directed against the Mainland administrators.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Abramson and Walton (2005) observe that Taiwan also remained fragmented and restive making it difficult for the Chinese administrators to govern it. Despite this resistance to Chinese rule, Taiwan lacked a single cohesive national identity. This was advantageous to the Japanese colonizers since a more cohesive nation with a single identity would have been harder to colonize.
Japanese Colonization of Taiwan In the late 19th century Japan took Taiwan as one of her colonies owing to Japan’s significant military and economic might. Japan had greater technological and military strength compared to the previous Qing administration and as a result of this many of the islanders resigned themselves to Japanese control with little resistance. It would be worthwhile to note that Taiwan was one of the most important subject territories seized by Japan and its success was therefore a state priority.
During this imperialistic era, it was widely held to be true that “the measure of a nation’s strength was dependent on the reality of its political control over territories outside of the metropole” (Abramson and Walton 2005, p.1). Japan adopted the Western justification for colonialism which stated that the more advanced peoples reserved the right to control the lesser ones.
Since Japan and Taiwan shared multiple racial and cultural similarities, the assimilation policy which Japan undertook was less hectic than it would have been had there being racial and cultural differences as was the case between most colonies and their colonizers in that era.
The doctrine of gradual assimilation was adopted by the Japanese since past experiences had shown that a colonial government pursuing too fast a policy of assimilating its subject was ineffective. The end product that Japan hoped to achieve was the “assimilation of the natives into normative Japanese” (Abramson
Analysis of What Affects Work Behavior Coursework best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors that moderate work behavior
Work behavior analysis of project managers
Introduction Work behavior is a concept that describes how people carry out their employment activities. The business environment in which organizations operate today is always changing, and work behavior is becoming more and more complex. Making decisions inline with work behavior may require considerable amount of relevant data, information, and knowledge.
Processing these, in the framework of the needed decisions, must be done quickly, frequently in real-time, and usually requires some proper application of management functions, such as planning, staffing, controlling, organizing, and directing. In this regard, there are factors both personal and organizational which affect work behavior. The following paragraphs analyze these factors and consider project management as a work setting that is mostly affected.
Factors that moderate work behavior Work behavior analysis encompasses the methodical assessment of the nature and components of a well defined job. Factors that affect work behavior can be categorized as personal or organizational; Personal factors include individual differences, personality, perception, values, and attitudes, while organizational factors include people, goals, culture, and communication style.
Personal Factors This section looks at the individual factors that affect work behavior. To begin with, individual differences such as gender, marital status, and tenure affect work behavior in various ways.
The obvious differences between men and women affect job performance. There exist no systematic male and female differences in analytical abilities, competitive focus, problem-solving skills, and decision making skills. It is believed that women are more willing to abide by the rule of work and men are insistent and more likely to have expectations of achievement.
Another issue that seems to differ between male and female employees is the preference for job schedules. Married women are likely to request for part time work, flexible schedule, and telecommuting in order to put up with family duties.
On the issue of marital status, research indicates that married workers are more likely to maintain a stable job through satisfaction as compared to unmarried employees (Mullins, 2004). Work experience through tenure also affects work behavior. It is believed that if person stays long in a job, chances are few that he or she will quit. Thus, tenure and satisfaction are concurrently related.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, personality tends to predict behavior and happiness related to work. These behaviors include absenteeism, performance, and team effectiveness. Personality matters when we combine different personality, thus achieving a stronger relationship between work performance and personality.
Third, what people perceive determine how they perform their work-related activities. For instance, workers are more likely to engage in tasks that they see as rewarding in terms of money and satisfaction. Fourth, values help individuals to determine what is good, right, or desirable. Values help in the analysis of organizational behavior and hence managers can be able to accommodate individuals from different cultures.
Since values differ across cultures, understanding such differences is helpful in predicting employee behavior from various cultures. Finally, attitudes affect work behavior because they reflect how employees feel about the work. Attitude can be explained through cognition, affect and behavior.
Cognitive facet of an attitude is a belief in something; for instance, grapevine is wrong. Affective facet of attitude is the emotional or feeling part of attitude, while behavioral facet of an attitude is an intention to act in a particular way towards somebody or something (Landy
Training Teachers for Using Adaptive Technology on Students Who Have Behavioral Disorder Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Links to Professional Goals
Proposed Budget (p.a)
Introduction Behavioral disorders occur in diverse settings and among different individuals. They interfere with social relationships and academic growth. Moreover, behavioral disorders among students in a school setting entails a unique learning need that requires strategic interventions just as any other learning need on students.
Failure to apply interventional teaching programs may result into a continuous poor performance among students. This condition can further frustrate the students leading to uncontrollable and unpredictable behaviors. To overcome this problem in a learning institution, it is important to incorporate an adaptive or assistive technology into the teaching and learning process (Hughes, 2010, para. 1-3).
Adaptive technologies for students with behavioral disorders refer to software packages and equipments that allow students with special needs to meet the expected standards and complete their tasks as requested by their teachers. Adaption refers to the ability of an individual to adjust from one condition to another. Technology on the other hand refers to the use of scientific applications to attain certain goals (Parret, Crowley
The Freudian Theory and the Adlerian Theory Coursework best essay help
Human beings are so unique and special because of their diversity both in looks and character. This diversity is experienced in all avenues of our lives as we interact with others. An understanding of the various psychological differences that exist can help us relate better with others and at the same time, understand ourselves.
While these classifications do not explain the intrinsic details of one’s psyche, they do offer an understanding of psychological types thereby leading to better perceptive of human beings (Butt, 2005).
Over the years, many scholars have developed different theories in order to explain and explore how the human psychology works. This paper shall review in detail the Freudian Theory and the Adlerian Theory. A comparison of the same shall be given citing their key concepts. In addition, the applicability of these theories to therapists shall also be discussed.
Alfred Adler was born in 1870. After receiving his medical degree in 1895, he concentrated his attention and acquired knowledge in exploring social issues. He worked with Sigmund Freud for years until they had to separate due to their different opinions on human personality. Consequently, Adler started his own individual school of psychology.
Freud theory on sexuality emphasized that neurosis is based on sex (Geyskens, 2005). However, Adler begged to differ stating that neurotic behavior was not dependent on the sex but was rather an overcompensation of inferiority complex (Schultz, 2005). According to Adler, feelings of inferiority are developed when an individual feels helpless and irrelevant during the childhood stages. He attested to this citing that he was suffering from inferiority complex during his childhood.
To this end, Adler’s theory paid more attention on relevant social forces that could be used to overcome this affliction. He stated that therapists should focus their practice on tools that help neurotic patients overcome those feelings of inferiority through social interaction. In addition, Adler had a different opinion on Freud’s theory on libido.
According to Adler, each human being is complete. He further asserted that an individual’s present social goals are designed during his/her infancy irrespective of the level of inferiority experienced. In case of a child suffering from inferiority complex, the individual will therefore strive hard to compensate through the search of power and supremacy as well as a sense of belonging. As such, these are the present goals of such a candidate.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through his work experiences, Freud realized that there were symptoms which had no bodily basis but imitated those showcased by people having neurological disorders. As such, he dedicated his efforts in finding psychological explanations and treatments for these symptoms.
His analyses were thereafter based on the ID, the ego and the super ego. However, Adler felt that Freud’s theories were more inclined towards the instinctive and biological aspects of the human personality and failed to consider the societal impact on the same.
Adler theorized that the people, society and culture surrounding an individual play a pivotal role in developing their personalities and behaviors more than the biological aspects. He insisted that human beings are more rational in their decision making process than Freud thinks. As such, his theories concentrated more on the social aspects than on the biological issues.
Adler’s theories recognized intuitive development as a core factor to the formation of a lifestyle and that it begins at childhood. On the other hand, Freud assumed that sexuality was a core determinant to the behaviors and responses of all individuals. Freud commented that;
“For, whether a man is a homosexual or a necrophiliac, an obsessional neurotic cut off from society, or a raving lunatic, the ‘Individual Psychologist ‘ of the Adlerian school will declare that the impelling motive of his condition is that he wishes to assert himself, to overcompensate for his inferiority, to remain ‘on top, to pass from the feminine to the masculine line “(Freud
Emergency Preparedness in Nuclear Installations Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help
“Emergency planning and preparedness is concerned with that sequence of events, where the well-established standards, rules, regulations and procedures governing the use of radioactive materials and the normal maintenance of a facility are no longer being satisfied” (Collins and Emmerson, 2005).
Different types of nuclear and radiological emergencies have occurred in the past years because of various causes. Experience gained from responding to these emergencies has underlined the need and importance for developing an efficient response system. The proposed response system must take incorporate “infrastructural and functional components, emergency plans, procedures, and internally consistent operational criteria” (IAEA, 1998).
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is of the opinion that many countries are not prepared adequately at present to meet such emergencies. The agency is of the opinion that absence of standard procedures may lead to inefficiency in recovery operations, which eventually would result in severe socioeconomic and political consequences. In this context, this chapter presents a review of the available literature to enhance the knowledge on the emergency preparedness to meet nuclear and radioactive accidents.
Introduction Two major events led to the reconsideration of emergency preparedness programs in the nuclear installations. The impact of these events compelled policymakers in different nations to reassess their plans intended to protect the public as well as the environment (Dodd, 1994).
The first major incident accident is the one that occurred in Three Mile Island in 1979. The conclusions drawn from the first accident analysis report of this accident reveals that the failure of the U.S. safety organizational system is the main cause of the accident in Three Mile Island (Dien et al., 2004).
The Chernobyl accident occurred in 1986 highlighted the need to understand organizational issues and stressed the necessity to inculcate safety culture in nuclear installations (Manna, 2007). The importance of organizational safety culture was recognized by the global nuclear power industry after the Chernobyl accident (IAEA, 1986). For example, in Japan, the nuclear emergency preparedness has been augmented from the experience of these accidents.
More particularly the lessons learnt from the criticality accident at the uranium-processing plant in Tokai-Mura, was a turning point in the matter of nuclear emergency preparedness in the country. It led to the enactment of “Special Act of Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Disaster”. This Act was dedicated exclusively for nuclear emergencies in the area of Basic Act on Emergency Preparedness (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organizational Factors and Nuclear Safety Efficient plant staff and the system of management present in a nuclear establishment is an important line of defense against nuclear accidents. Although management and organizational factors have a significant role in the safety of nuclear installations this fact has been recognized by the nuclear organizations and policymakers only recently (Dien et al., 2004).
Generally, accidents happening in any nuclear organization will have an “incubation time.” During this time, the organizational context weakens giving room for accident to take place and during this time the efficiency of available barriers degrade emanating warning signals.
There will be weak signals, which will act as indicators for the likelihood of some catastrophic event. However, it is difficult to detect these weak signals and therefore the nuclear organization cannot interpret these signals and act based on them. In most of the cases, such signals are detected after the accident had taken place.
On the other hand, the precursor events are the strongest warning signals. These signals normally do not have any catastrophic consequences, as the likely incidents and accidents are controlled in time and the available barriers prevent the happening of such incidents. There are some organizational factors, which are instrumental in causing an incident or accident in a nuclear installation. They are:
“Weakness of the organizational safety culture;
Complexity and inappropriateness of the organization
Limits of operational feedback
We will write a custom Assessment on Emergency Preparedness in Nuclear Installations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Production pressures
Failure of the control mechanisms” (Manna, 2007).
It is important that these factors be considered while devising an emergency preparedness plan for a nuclear installation.
Feedback from Experience The present development in the knowledge about emergency response is based mainly on experience gained from past accidents. Such experience has triggered the evolution of new techniques and procedures for emergency preparedness for mitigating the challenges of nuclear accidents. Past accidents that contributed to influential experiences relate to accidents happened at “Windscale (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (Harrisburg, Pa., USA, 1979), Chernobyl (USSR, now Ukraine, 1986) and Tokai Mura (Japan, 2000).”
From the accident at Windscale, it was possible to gain knowledge on the aspects of iodine-exposure and its impact on people affected by the accident. Nuclear scientists were able to establish “emergency reference levels” during the emergency phase. The objective of establishing the reference levels was to avoid acute health effects, providing for a large safety margin.
From the accident, it was possible to acquire knowledge on “the variability of disposition patterns and the importance of atmospheric dispersion” covering large areas extending to more than several hundreds of kilometers. The Windscale accident led to the elaboration of emergency plans and definition of reference levels on a national scale for the most important pathways.
From the Three Mile Island accident, considerable experience and knowledge on pre-release decision making and methods of providing information to the public were obtained. “Since this accident did not lead to catastrophic releases, lessons were mainly learnt on reactor safety, man-machine interface and accident monitoring” (Sohier, 2002).
Investigations that followed the accident revealed the involvement of human factors in nuclear safety, which gave a new focus to the emergency preparedness procedures (World Nuclear Association, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Emergency Preparedness in Nuclear Installations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The accident at the Chernobyl site was the worst and it provided knowledge on the likely global impact of severe nuclear accidents. Immediately after this accident, there were global conventions were undertaken to exchange information on emergency preparedness based on experience gained from the accident.
The conventions also provided for international mutual assistance and agreements on global trade of food products. The accident was responsible to the development of a global focus on the principles of different interventions. It also led to the consideration of late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in such interventions.
There were new experiences gained on the long-term relocation of large contingent of people and the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. Another area, where knowledge could be gained was the importance of socio-economic aspects covering the decision making process. Chernobyl accident provided in-depth knowledge on the importance of long-range dispersion of people for several thousands of kilometers.
From the after effects of the accident, several new information on health- effects on people like, “synergism between burns, skin contamination and external exposure and the risk of thyroid cancer to exposed children,” (Sohier, 2002), were found to be grossly underexplored.
The accident at Tokai Mura reminded the nuclear world of a typical scenario in the area of criticality exposure. It educated the concerned authorities and organizations about the need for specific monitoring requirements. The accident evidenced that despite the developments in emergency preparedness after the Chernobyl accident, there were gap in the emergency communication and preparedness procedures (World Nuclear Association, 2007).
The Defence-in-depth Approach The defence-in-depth approach is the foundation on which the safety of a nuclear installation depends. This approach implies that a significant accident can take place in a nuclear installation only because of the coincident failure of the multiple protection systems in place. There are three independent levels, which offer the protection to the nuclear facility.
First is the design of the nuclear installation. “This is based on the compliance between the as built installation and the independently reviewed safety analysis, the operation by well trained operators, a preventive maintenance programmes, independent inspections etc…” (Sohier, 2002).
Second is the “Design Basis Accidents,” in which the design anticipates some accident scenarios, which lead to a breakdown of the abovementioned safety conditions. Normally safety-engineering features are installed within the facility to take care of these unexpected scenarios.
Thirdly, some on-site and off-site emergency plans are instituted as the third level of barrier, to protect against the coincident failure of the operational control system and the independent safety system. The objective of these emergency plans is to mitigate the consequences to human beings ad environment. “The efficiency of the emergency response will depend on the quality of the preparedness: the emergency plan” (Sohier, 2002).
It is important that the off-site emergency plan take into account
“releases that are accepted by the safety analysis of Design Basis Accidents, due to their low probability;
releases due to the “beyond-design-basis-accidents” that were not considered by the safety analysis because of their very low likelihood;
potential releases that were overlooked by the safety analysis” (Sohier, 2002).
While preparing a nuclear emergency plan, one has to assume that there is a possibility for the occurrence of “each scenario that is physically possible.”
Phases of Off-site Emergency Response The processes of “assessment, decision and intervention” have to be taken up as consecutive steps in any emergency response planning. The first phase is the “pre-release” phase, during which the emergency response actions take place in the form of preventive measures. Actions in subsequent phases depend on the condition of the environment and the speed with which the conditions change during an emergency.
The phases can be distinguished between the early phase, which can be described as contamination atmosphere and the second phase is the intermediate phase during which the contamination may decrease. The last stage is the “late phase” which may involve long-lasting contamination of the environment. The following table exhibits the phases and the countermeasures to be taken in each phase.
Source: Sohier, (2002)
Emergency Planning- Organization and Requirements Until the Chernobyl incident in 1986, most of the countries have been preparing emergency preparedness plans only in respect of isolated nuclear installations. There were only few countries, which prepared emergency plans to protect against events happening outside their borders (NEA/OECD, 1988).
Lessons learnt from Chernobyl and from international emergency exercises, have forced a rethinking and revision of the emergency planning concepts (Thorne, 2009; Swiss Federal Commission for Nuclear and Chemical Protection, 1998). Emergency management involves decision-making to arrive at an optimal response by applying the available information at the right time (NEA/OECD, 1995).
The emergency preparedness planning is undertaken for achieving some definite objectives. First objective is to avoid or to reduce activity release and to mitigate the exposure and its consequences. The emergency planning has the objective of protecting the public, emergency personnel and the environment. The ultimate goal of an emergency planning is to integrate regional radiological emergency preparedness into an overall emergency response system. The emergency planning facilitates recovery from the consequences of exposure.
It is important to develop generic intervention planning and criteria in advance. Although the planning is done in advance, there must be enough flexibility in the plans to incorporate any modification and deviation, when the actual situation is different from what was anticipated at the time of planning.
Emergency preparedness planning involves analysis of potential threats in the form of reference accidents, design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents. For nuclear installations, it is necessary that ‘Emergency Planning Zones’ are appropriately defined.
“a central area where prompt protective actions against direct radiation from a release plume may be necessary (typically a few km), and for which a detailed implementation plan exists;
an outer area (typically up to a few tens of km), often divided into sectors of 30° to 120°, where preparations for effective implementation of protective actions to reduce the long term dose from deposition and ingestion should be developed in advance; decisions should be made based on extensive monitoring and sampling campaigns” (Sohier, 2002).
The tasks connected with emergency planning have to be assigned to suitable institutions and organizations. While assigning the tasks clear distinction must be made about, the responsibilities and tasks assigned to each institution and organization. The assignments of tasks among institutions and organizations may vary depending on the circumstances prevailing in different settings.
During an emergency, the main tasks expected from the organizations include detection and recognition of an event and monitoring of the radiological situation. The tasks include implementation of the countermeasures and they have to gather intelligence and monitor on reactions and the success of countermeasures.
Decision-making and Countermeasures “In the pre-release, release and early post-release phases the decision will be made mainly by the emergency organization, while in the later phases government and the normal decision makers will become more and more involved” (Sohier, 2002). Normal decision makers decide the planned operations in the recovery phase, when the emergency gradually ends.
It is essential that the roles of experts and decision makers be defined clearly, so that there is no lacking in deciding on the countermeasures. Any proposal on countermeasures must define the aspects that need to be taken into consideration. For instance, radiological experts should confine their decisions to radiological aspects only and allow the relevant experts to take decisions on economic aspects and the responsible political authority to take other decisions (NEA/OECD, 1998).
It is essential that a catalogue of practical countermeasures be prepared in advance, and the catalogue should also indicate the advantages and disadvantages, costs involved and time required for implementation. The catalogue must also indicate other factors relevant for decision-making. These factors include (i) preventive actions like evacuation, sheltering and administration of stable iodine, (ii) mitigation of exposures and consequences, and (iii) facilitation and initiation of recovery.
Practical aspects of Information Management There are two different ways of providing information to the public – operational information and official information. Official information is filtered out of operational information. “Operational information is any information prepared for and given to emergency partners and intended to guide or orient them in the analysis, evaluation and decision-making process; it may also contain confidential matter or speculation about possible further developments, forecasts, alternative plans etc and will use scientific and special terminology.”
Any information designated as operational may be passed to the media or to the public only after editing and with the permission of the original author. “Official information is prepared for and given to media and public and must be edited to suit both the different media and the expected audience. The language must be clear and easy to understand for the general public,” (NEA/OECD, 2001).
In addition, it is imperative that the information responsibilities of each member of the emergency organizations are defined and coordinated properly.
The following are some of the guidelines in this respect. (i) each member of the emergency organization must provide information on its own area of responsibility only, (ii) the members should provide information to the public based on verified facts only and there can be no speculation and (iii) all partners in the emergency organization must get the same information as that is provided to the media and public (NEA/OECD, 2001).
Evacuation as a Measure of Safety in Nuclear Emergencies There has been a growing interest in making evacuations as an efficient precautionary measure in nuclear emergencies. Evacuation under circumstances of nuclear emergency has different expectations that other emergencies for example like a hurricane. People lack a comprehensive understanding of nuclear emergencies.
Researchers like Chiu et al. (2007) focused on specific modeling of evacuation situations. In addition to modeling, factors like behavior of people and performance of infrastructure appear to have assumed importance. For instance, Moriarty et al. (2006) studied traffic flow and capacity during evacuation exercises.
There are other studies, which focused on the timing of evacuation. Urbanik II (2000) observed the time estimates for executing evacuation plans during nuclear emergencies. Han et al (2007) prescribes the attributes of an effective evacuation. The behavior of the people in evacuation is an important topic of research. Stallings (1984) researched the behavior of the people during evacuation in the accident occurred in Three Mile Island.
“In his research, he uses filed studies to see how the public surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generators responded to a potential emergency, although Stalling states that an official evacuation order was not issued. In this research he brings to light many of the social issues that emerged from the disaster and presents a view of the information available to the public at the time of the incident” (Mitchell, 2008).
Whirlpool Corp Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Whirlpool Corporation is one of the leading global Companies with annual sales that are in excess of $19 billion (WhirlpoolCorp.com, 2010). Whirlpool Corporation areas of business operations are focused on marketing and manufacturing of home appliances worldwide and is currently the largest home appliance manufacturing Company in the world today (WhirlpoolCorp.com, 2010).
With business operations and distribution centers located all over the world facilitated by a workforce of more than 70,000 employees, Whirlpool Corporation is certainly a formidable Company to reckon with in the home appliances industry.
What factors emerged at Whirlpool that impacted its talent needs Whirlpool Corporation rapid expansion of its business operations has taken place over the past 40 years; in early 1970s, Whirlpool Corporation business strategic objectives shifted towards capturing the world market (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010). The result was rapid globalization of the Company’s business operations that saw it presence expand to all major continents such as Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.
This meant that the Company had to also increase their human resource to match their personnel needs which was the driving force of the Company. Over the last twenty years and after the acquisition of Maytag Corporation, Whirlpool Corporation urgency for top notch personnel become even more pressing given that it was now a leader in the industry (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
In order to remain competitive Whirlpool Corporation needed to be innovative, besides it had now became a global leader in manufacture of home appliances products and therefore needed to set the trend or face being overtaken.
With it series of acquisitions during this period and it numerous business subsidiaries at every major continent, the Company was constantly under pressure to source and equip itself with human resource at every level of it operations in order to be effective (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
In addition the Company faced the challenge of acquiring experienced and innovative personnel if it was to remain relevant; this was because of the nature of the home appliance industry that meant the Company had to keep pace with consumers needs. The fact that the quality of human resource was a significant factor that greatly influenced the success of an Organization only fueled the scramble for talented personnel that were largely scarce to find at the time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the human resource industry had gradually shifted over time to a situation where talented personnel were more in demand than the industry could supply; this meant that employees could afford changing employers in search of better packages thereby promoting a culture of job-hopping that further complicated the situation.
How expanding globally changed the talent requirements at Whirlpool These unique combinations of factors and the changing global environment in the business industry ensured that talented human resource became a priority to most of the leading Corporations in the world. Faced with a constant need of talented employees that were increasingly becoming hard to secure, Whirlpool Corporation had to think outside the box in order to benefit from an efficient human resource.
The result was an in house leadership model; a talent management model that would serve to nurture good talent through trainings and job experience exposure in order to address the human resource challenges caused by their global expansion (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
The leadership model developed by Whirlpool would drastically change the Company’s approach to personnel recruitment and human resource management because of several reasons. Foremost, the globalization of the Company meant that the Organization needed leaders rather than ordinary employees in order to continue being competitive, this model enabled them to achieve that.
The Company also needed to utilize the available human resource that it had by effectively grooming all employees that had the potential to become efficient leaders. Finally, the Company needed to develop a set of desirable characteristics among its employees that would ensure they were equipped to work at any branch of the Organizations global network.
How Whirlpool used its Leadership Model to manage its talent Whirlpool leadership model was developed to address three key objectives: one, to specifically address and strengthen the organizations human resource weaknesses that prevailed at the time. Two, the leadership model was developed as part of a broader framework of the Company’s business strategic objective that was meant to facilitate the Organizational growth.
Finally, the leadership model was designed in order to raise the benchmark of nurturing and defining talent within the organization henceforth (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010). The Organizations leadership model is a complex framework that incorporates a total of twelve desirable attributes in employees referred as competencies that requires high level of efficient coordination (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Whirlpool Corp specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the major strengths of the leadership model is it integration within the Organizations culture and work processes, this means that the concept of the model is contained at every aspect of employee work procedures. In addition, the Company customized it performance review processes and promotions assessment in line with the concept behind the leadership model, thereby creating an efficient and well linked system of leadership grooming method.
The ideas of the leadership model were introduced to employees and the Company leaders through guides and trainings. It is this leadership model that was most effective in human resource management within the organization; the idea behind the leadership model also led to determination of the four Top Talent Indicators (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
How Whirlpool used metrics to improve the quality of talent hired Quality of hire metrics in Whirlpool Corporation is a form of a benchmark that determines the overall capability of a candidate based on the outcome of a Master Assessor Program (MAP) that is used to measure variables of interest (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010). The metric determines the quality of hired employee by measuring their work output at two key stages, after six months and after one year based on four criteria; promotability, satisfaction, leadership and overall performance.
Each of these criteria is assessed independently and is further segmented by individual and function. Since the quality of hire metric is based on the reliability of the Company’s MAP process, its output results therefore indicate the success of MAP process in identifying and retaining top talent.
As such the Organizational metric assessment is a tool that has validated the efficiency of the MAP process in hiring talented employees. Indeed, the quality of hire metrics assessment for most new employees indicates that more than half of them are ranked on level 4 and 5 on a maximum of 5 point scale (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010).
Future consideration at Whirlpool related to managing and sustaining talent Whirlpool Corporation is currently in the process of developing MAP Level II training that would further promote the capacity and capability of the Company to identify and hire top talent (Goldsmith and Carter, 2010). In order for the Company to continue obtaining quality talent and benefit from the strengths of a competent workforce there is no doubt that the organization must retain its core programs of human recruitment programs namely current MAP process including the upcoming MAP Level II.
This is because acquisition of skilled employees is the first step to having efficient, productive and talented employees (Silzer and Dowell, 2010). In addition the Company must continue to improve the existing human resource management strategies that are already in place such as performance appraisals, leadership models and succession planning.
References Goldsmith, M.
The Contextual Environment Report essay help online free
Type of Organization Paediatric well being is an important public health concern. The Children’s Medical Research Institute, (CMRI) is an example of an institution that deals with paediatric health. With its location in Westmead, CMRI is a committed paediatric research centre (CMRI, 2009).
The agency conducts basic investigations on diverse areas. These include cancer; cell signalling, and gene therapy. The centre also focuses on research on embryonic development. The institution receives remarkable support from the federal government.
There is a notable indulgence of community support groups. The “jeans for Genes fundraising campaign” is a newly launched support unit. It is one of the fundamental programs for the institution.
Philosophy of organization The CMRI practices strategic fundamental approaches. These help to assist the organization accomplish its strategic objectives. There is a widely held conviction that comprehending the most critical inner operations of human cells is important.
As indicated within the strategic objectives, this may lead to more innovative and better methodologies. Particularly, these relate to the paediatric diseases (Frank
International Dentists Insurance Company Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction To maneuver a company to success the past, present and the future environment of the business must be reviewed regularly to avoid risks. The management should therefore create a risk management utility to handle possible risks that might affect the operations of the entity.
The case study company, The International Dentists Insurance Company (IDIC failed to do so and now it has to face the consequences since it is being faced with problems that it could have been solved if they were detected early. The Mega Insurance Company (MIC) has however offered to buy the company so as to save it from the eminent solvency.
This is a dangerous move for MIC and therefore there is need for risk analysis to determine what risks face MIC if it buys IDIC. To begin with, if MIC buys IDIC half of its employees will have to be laid off this is because MIC will be introducing a new system which is not familiar to the IDIC staff, IDIC filling system will also be changed and computer illiteracy is very high hence the IDIC staff will need a lot of training.
Risk Management Process The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) management process will be used for this report; it can be defined as the “process of aligning strategy, processes, people, technology and knowledge with a purpose of evaluating and managing the uncertainties the enterprise faces as it creates value” (Dempster, et, al, 2008).
There are processes involved with this such as: risk identification, analysis, evaluation, risk treatment, monitoring and review, communication and content analysis. The approach has been chosen for this report, because it is a structured and comprehensive move towards risk management, instead of the traditional individual or “silo” approach to risk management (Bennett, ET, al, 2000).
ERM also endeavors to establish risk management in all important decisions all over the organization including understanding behavioral risks that can be conducted through a human resource (HR) audit.
Risk Analysis of threats The first step in risk management is to identify the threats facing the normal operations of a company in order to identify how they will affect efficiency in the routine operations. The above issues create a threat for MIC as the laid-off employees will need compensation while those will stay behind will need new training on the new system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will definitely cost MIC a large amount of capital, time and labour. Another threat is handling IDIC clients, MIC has to facilitate the change, and not all stakeholders will be willing to co-operate, IDIC records are kept in files hence MIC will need to access the clients information by reading through the files which is tedious, they will also need to change the data so as to incorporate it into their system and finally they have to contact the clients and explain to them the new policies of the company.
In addition, MIC will need to change their system so as to accommodate the new employees, clients and information; and this therefore requires it to expand and upgrade their system. Integrating the employees into their system will also cause a security threat to MIC hence they will require proper management to prevent this from happening.
IDIC had a broker insurance system therefore clients information could be accessed by other companies hence this posses a threat to MIC security system. All of the above threats make MIC vulnerable since these are complicated issues that require immediate solutions and resources too (Hubbard, 2009).
Impact Analysis Laying 50% of IDIC employees will create a problem for MIC and the staff union; in previous occasions this usually created a depressing image for a company due to the negative publicity which reduced the clients trust in it. Training the staff about the EPR system and the computer technology will be very tedious and as indicated above, it will need both human and capital resources.
This will reduce productivity for a while since the employees will obviously be slow and also it will create a financial problem for the company.
The outdated filing systems will be difficult to extract information from; such systems are characterized of missing some data, wrong data entry, and misplaced data among others: MIC will therefore need experts to get the information and arrange for it to be applicable. MLC will therefore have to solve the above issues with much care so that they will not adversely affect its operation which can be bad for business (Frenkel, ET, al, 2002).
Risk Determination Operational risks
Threats Impacts of threats Vulnerability Risk Level of risks and recommendations IT systems malfunction There could be system failures if changes are not well implemented. Impact on normal operations. Low production High-hire experts to install the new system Breach of security systems. Medium. Sharing databases with IDIC will be very risky because the systems are completely different. Impact on normal operations Corruption of databases Medium-enhance the security system Lack of cooperation from the MIC employees They highly determine the success of the operation. Impact normal operations Low productivity High-communicate to employees Union unrest and dispute resolution. The union will raise disputes and argue with MIC leading to legal issues. Impact MIC Bad publicity High Failure to introduce new procedures that fit in with the changes. The old procedures might work under the new system but not effectively. Impact normal operations It will lead to inefficiency Medium-introduce new procedures Loss of clients to competitors The bad publicity will cost MIC some clients. Impact normal operations Loss of revenues Medium-ensure that the system doesn’t affect the clients Changes in legislation There will be slight changes in employment and insurance laws. Impact on MIC Not significant Low-educate stakeholders about the new laws Loss of key personnel and their expertise IDIC might lose valuable employees to competitors due to the changes. Impact on operations. Loss of skilled labor Medium-give them enticing incentives Financial risks
Threats Impact of threats Vulnerability Risk due to threats Risk level and recommendations Funds management and liquidity issues. .MIC will need a lot of financial resources to implement the changes. Impact on operations. Financial problems Medium-borrow loan from banks Change in revenues Due to loss of some clients revenues will fall. Business continuity Encourage clients to stay and acquire others too Medium-advertise their services and stability Impact of changes in the economy Low. The changes might affect the general economy but very remotely. Impact on ability to meet general obligations. Not significant Low-acquire more clients Risk Management Plan
Communism in the 20th Century China Essay essay help online
When imperialist powers gained rule over the people of China, most Chinese became landless peasants and labourers. The people of China became desperate due to starvation, diseases and poverty. The situation was so severe that some families sold their children in response to the lack of food.
A large number of Chinese had to work as salves both within and outside China. The struggle towards a communist China involved both the peasants and intellectuals.
Around 1918, Li Dazhao established a Marxist study group at Beijing University. Furthermore, Li engaged in the publication of articles analyzing Marxist concepts, which gained a national wide audience. The successful revolution in Russia served to increase confidence among Chinese reformists concerning a Marxist model of revolution.
However, unlike in the Russian case, the largest percentage of China’s population composed of peasants (Eberhard 1977, p.333). In this regard, Dazhao modified the Marxist model employed by Russian communists by presenting claims that China’s exploitation by foreigners placed all the Chinese under the category of an exploited mass.
Furthermore, Dazhao claimed that the liberation of peasants was the only way through which China could attain emancipation. The movement of young Marxists into China’s countryside resulted largely from Dazhao’s influence.
Qu Qiubai, a member of the Marxist group, played a central role in organizing China’s peasants in accordance to the aspects of communism.
Although the Nationalist regime considered communism as a threat and imposed censors on materials that related to Marxism, intellectuals devised means of writing about Marxist ideologies to escape the censors. The publication of these materials helped to prepare the people of China for communism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More China’s intellectuals participated in protests such as the Movement of 1919 to express their dissatisfaction concerning the privileges attached to foreigners, and to demand reforms in China’s social and political system.
This movement largely involved students, professors and workers. Marxism gained favour among intellectuals who perceived socialism as the solution to the numerous problems caused by capitalistic ideologies.
The changing attitude among Chinese towards the leadership served as an opportunity for Zedong to rise into power. Historians consider Mao to have played a central role concerning the rise of a communism in China.
Mao attached considerable importance to the philosophies of Marxism and integrated them into his leadership policies (Dirlik 2005, p.76). Karl Max’s ideologies described a society in which no one individual owned property, but instead all property belonged to the state.
To liberate themselves from oppressive and exploitative leadership, most of the Chinese embarked on active participation in radical groups and political activism. In addition, China was facing invasion from the Japanese and the Chinese people needed a vehicle to facilitate resistance.
Communists put up resistance against the Japanese forces unlike the Nationalist forces that allowed the Japanese took control of all ports in China. This led to the shortage of crucial supplies to various parts of the country.
The Nationalists created the notion that a Western-backed invasion was the only solution concerning the conquest of Japan. On the other hand, the communists employed the guerrilla tactics, which gave them control over the countryside.
We will write a custom Essay on Communism in the 20th Century China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the Japanese remained in control of the cities, the people of China started to view the communists as the probable force behind China’s liberation. Although after the war the Nationalist government took over administrative roles, it was unpopular in the areas liberated from the Japanese forces by the communists.
While the Nationalists introduced exploitative and corrupt leadership, communists promoted productivity and minimized labour agitation. In this regard, communism became popular in the cities controlled by communists, and among urban groups whose view concerning socialism was changing.
Furthermore, Nationalists proved incapable of controlling inflation, but communists demonstrated the ability to eliminate corruption and stabilizing the country (Lawrance 1998, p.8).
The policies adopted by communists promoted their success in the quest for a communist China. The communists’ objective to minimize rents and interests gained widespread acceptance as it addressed the plights of the poor who were the majority.
Land belonged to a few landowners who controlled the larger part of the population comprising of peasants. According to the communists, the landowners were an obstacle to the modernization of China. The communists’ land reform policies led to the transfer of land from landowners to peasants.
Land reform policies facilitated the mobilization of guerrilla forces as they addressed issues affecting a large percentage of China’s population. For example, the 1947 Land Law brought about the transfer of land ownership to village associations that oversaw the redistribution of land to peasants.
However, the peasants were afraid that the Nationalist government policies would allow former landowners to regain control of the land currently under the ownership of peasants (Zarrow 2005, p.325).
After the war, the people of China wanted a new regime that would rebuild the country. They attributed China’s desolate state to the Nationalist government. The Nationalist government faced a weakening military force as most of its soldiers withdrew from the force to avoid fighting fellow Chinese in the civil war that was underway.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Communism in the 20th Century China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The communists, on the other hand, had better military organization and equipments because of the weapons surrendered by the Japanese. In addition, they bought arms form KMT soldiers (Brandt et al. 2008, p.73). The KMT had become considerably weak in terms of arms and manpower.
Thus, the communist armies encountered minimal resistance from the KMT during the civil war. Towards the end of 1948, communists had taken over most of the mainland China.
In the attempt to improve China’s economy, Mao undertook various projects such as the Great Leap Forward. Mao considered that China’s development depended primarily on the growth of two sectors (Draguhn 2002, p.124). These were the industrial sector and agricultural sector.
Mao believed that both sectors had to grow in tandem to achieve optimal economic growth in China. In this regard, he introduced policies that led to the grouping of the Chinese into communes. Communes not only promoted improved production, but also created a correlation between agriculture, labour and industrial needs.
The main objective of setting up communes was to create a system that could function independently from any form government interference. Individuals in any particular commune were supposed to give up the ownership of property such as tools and animals and transfer it to the commune.
A commune controlled the lives of its members in various aspects. Schools operated in a manner that ensured all adults could work. The provision of healthcare in communes ensured that families continued to work instead of having to spend time looking after sick members.
The establishment of communes led to the development of various production plants such as steel furnaces. In addition, it helped to narrow the gap between the city dwellers and rural folks, workers and peasants, and men and women.
Despite the prospects of revolutionizing China, communes face immense political interference, which disrupted their normal functioning. In addition, most production processes focused on the volume of output rather than the quality of products.
Considering the large nature of communes, the management of various tasks was considerably difficult. Towards the end of 1959, Mao admitted that the Great Leap Forward was a failure and resigned from the post of the head of state (Schurmann 1968, p.195).
After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao withdrew from active rule and left the day-to-day running of China under fellow party members Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping. Mao’s vision of a communist China entailed discarding the previously held concepts regarding economic and social growth.
Running China on a communism platform would facilitate the realization of a society that is free from classes and any form of oppression or exploitation.
CPP face challenges in promoting communism due to disagreements among party leaders. Some leaders, in their endeavour to liberate China, adopted policies that promoted capitalism. The realization that capitalism posed a significant threat to China’s prospects of communism encourages Mao to launch the Proletarian Culture revolution.
This was one of the most extensive revolutions in China’s history (Saich
Vegetarian Lifestyle Essay essay help free
Every year a great number of people make a conscious decision to transit from omnivore to vegetarian lifestyle. Their motivation for making the transition ranges from extreme dissatisfaction with killing and eating animals to beliefs that meat is an unhealthy product that is detrimental to their health. The relationship between the vegetarian diet and person’s health- conscious lifestyle has been established.
For this reason, a transition to a vegetarian lifestyle may be considered an indicator of the individual’s awareness of the general principles of the main behavioral nutrition principles. Appropriate measures need to be imposed for raising the public awareness concerning the benefits of vegetarianism and providing people with an opportunity to make a conscious decision between omnivore and vegetarian lifestyles.
Though the direct relationship between the vegetarian dietary and the vegetarians’ lower prevalence of chronic diseases and lower BMI is questionable, the link between the transition to vegetarianism and other healthy lifestyle behaviors is obvious. Bedford
Problem of Obesity in Modern Society Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Obesity and its importance
Biomedical approach to obesity
Sociological concepts linked to obesity
Application of sociological knowledge by health workers
Obesity and its importance Obesity refers to a health condition that is characterized by the accumulation of excessive fat in the body due to an imbalance between the intake and spending of energy (Murphy, 2011, p.15). The availability of food laden with high calorie levels and lack of enough physical activity are major factors that predispose people to obesity.
Childhood obesity is often associated with obesity in adulthood. In addition, obesity is associated with health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary artery diseases (Murphy, 2011, p.18). A proper study and research into obesity can help avoid these conditions.
Other repercussions include stigmatization, social exclusion, depression and low self-esteem. Extensive comprehension of the sociological and medical aspects of obesity would help in the enactment of policies and programs to curb its occurrence and prevalence.
Biomedical approach to obesity A biomedical approach to obesity considers the potential effects of obesity on the general health of victims. The excess fat associated with obesity presents several complications to many body organs, thus affecting their functionality (Gard, 2005, p.41).
Such complications include chest or joint pain, anemia and early menstruation cases (Gard, 2005, p.41). Research studies have established that childhood obesity is associated with the establishment of predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.
It readily causes certain cancers such as breast and endometrial cancers, osteoarthritis, different complications during pregnancy, psychological disorders and high cholesterol levels in the blood (Gard, 2005, p.43). These conditions have the effect of causing disability or death in extreme cases.
A medical approach to obesity would recommend drugs or a diet low in calories for treatment (Gard, 2005, p.46). This happens under the supervision of an experienced medical professional. Dieting is accompanied by a considerable amount of physical activity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Surgery is also a medical remedy for obesity. Gastric bypass is a surgical treatment for obesity (Gard, 2005, p.50). However, it is very expensive hence unaffordable by low-income earners. This approach does not consider the socio-economic or the cultural background of a victim.
Sociological concepts linked to obesity Gender, socio-cultural and psychosocial factors have been shown to play a major role in propagating the occurrence of obesity. They do so by propagating the varying perceptions on obesity held by different cultures and what is acceptable and unacceptable by the society.
In addition to health problems, obesity may present social, emotional and psychological problems to victims. Sociological concepts such as gender, class, the media, stigma, ethnicity and norms influence the occurrence and prevalence of obesity (Monaghan, 2008, p.38).
Social stigmatization is one of the sociological consequences of obesity. Obese individuals experience social stigmatization in the form of ridicule and exclusion by their peers mainly in places of work and academic institutions (Monaghan, 2008, p.41).
Studies reveal that obesity can lead to discrimination of individuals in three main fields namely education, employment and health care. The degree of discrimination is so high that researchers have developed the term weight-based discrimination to mean that an individual is discriminated because of his body weight (Monaghan, 2008, p.43).
In the three fields, obese individuals experience decreased life chances and diminished psychological and physical well being because of the discrimination (Monaghan, 2008, p.44). Obese women experience societal stigmatization because they fail to fulfill the society’s requirements of the ideal female body size and weight.
Gender is an important factor in obesity. The degree of stigmatization is higher in women than in men. Research has shown that women are more prone to stigma than men are. This stigma is perpetuated by the cultural emphasis on bodily appearance, especially for women.
We will write a custom Essay on Problem of Obesity in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Culturally, women are expected to be thin and graceful, and not fat. The media has further aggravated the problem for obese women because it presents thinness as a potential source of happiness and prosperity in the social and career life (Monaghan, 2008, p.48).
Obese women have to deal with the society’s norm of judging their suitability as potential partners or friends based on their body size. This leads to feelings of shame and guilt. Most women try to develop body sizes that are acceptable by the society through dieting.
To most women, dieting is motivated by beauty and not by healthy living. This results in depression and low self-esteem because of the difficulty in achieving these standards (Monaghan, 2008, p.49).
The media plays a great role in perpetuating the discrimination of obese individuals. It perpetuates the notion that obese people are unappealing, and their condition resulted from such vices as indolence and gluttony (Monaghan, 2008, p.55). This has resulted in negative criticism of obese people.
The media also depicts obese people as different from others because they possess body types and weights that are unacceptable by the society. Most obese people view food as a source of solace in times of stress and frustrations. The widespread advertisement of junk food in the media has contributed greatly to higher cases of obesity.
These advertisements do not warn of the dangers of consuming foods rich in high calorie levels but focus on marketing the products to unsuspecting consumers (Brewis, 2010, p.84). Most advertisements focus on unhealthy eating that is mainly directed towards low-income earners.
The foods advertised are the less expensive and high in calorie levels that are affordable to the middle and low class people. This largely contributes to the occurrence of obesity through unhealthy eating habits, motivated y lack of knowledge on healthy living (Brewis, 2010, p.86).
Application of sociological knowledge by health workers Sociological knowledge is important for health care workers because it helps them relate the knowledge to the various social, economic and political realities affecting the society (Monaghan, 2008, p.62). Concisely, understanding the relationship between health care and sociology is vital for effective and efficient clinical and community-based practice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem of Obesity in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Data and information linked to social health assists health care workers in identifying the needs of the people in the community in which they offer their services (Monaghan, 2008, p.64).
Sociological insights enable health care workers understand the experiences of people with disabilities, chronic illnesses and other conditions that predispose victims to societal discrimination and other forms of unfair treatment (Monaghan, 2008, p.65).
Therefore, for effective treatment and management of illnesses affecting the society, acquisition of sociological knowledge is imperative.
Conclusion Obesity refers to a health condition that is characterized by the accumulation of excessive fat in the body due to an imbalance between the intake and spending of energy. It is associated with health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. A proper study and research into obesity can help avoid these conditions.
A biomedical approach to obesity studies or looks at the effects of obesity on the physical health of victims. The excess fat associated with obesity presents several complications to many body organs, thus affecting their functionality.
Such problems include chest or joint pain, anemia and early menstruation cases. Factors such as social class, the media, stigma and gender play an important role in determining the occurrence and prevalence of obesity.
References Brewis, A. (2010). Obesity: Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. New York: Rutgers University Press.
Gard, M. (2005). The Obesity Epidemic: Science, Morality and Ideology. London: Routledge.
Monaghan, L. (2008). Men and the War on Obesity: A Sociological Study. New York: Taylor
The Major Factors of Teenage Pregnancy Research Paper writing essay help
An Inside Look at Abused Children and Teen Pregnancy Child Development Abstract It is accepted by many that abused children are more likely to experience teen pregnancy than non-abused teenagers. Researchers single out several major reasons for that trend. The present paper dwells upon these reasons in detail. Thus, low self-esteem of abused children is regarded as the major factor contributing to the development of the existing trend.
Other factors include poverty, alcohol/drug use, sexual abuse, ineffectiveness of programs and incentives aimed at reducing the rate of teen pregnancy. Clearly, these factors are interrelated, so it is important to address all of these issues to solve the problem.
Teenage Pregnancy Many people still think that teen pregnancy is simply an educational concern which should be touched upon in terms of sexual education of US children and teenagers. However, many researchers, scholars, educators, and officials agree that teen pregnancy is a social and economic issue which should be addressed.
Thus, it is estimated that teen pregnancy, i.e. pregnancy before 18, costs the United States about nine billion dollars each year (Brace, Hall,
Al Tazaj Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The name Al Tazaj is an Arabic one which means ‘fresh’. Al Tazaj opened its first restaurant in 1989. The restaurant was started by the owner of a poultry farm. The most common meal served in these restaurants is a meal prepared out of traditional recipes that Shaikh Abdul Rahman’s wife used to prepare for him.
The restaurant has over 100 outlets making it the largest fast food chains in the entire region. This shows a positive trend in the efforts to expand the restaurants. Al Tazaj has managed to not only open restaurants in the Middle East but also in other countries such as the United States.
The chain of restaurants has a branch in Chicago, which is doing very well. Apart from focusing on expanding his chain of restaurants, the owner of Al Tazaj has also ventured into other entrepreneurial activities such as opening of a scientific research center.
The demand for healthy fast food in Saudi Arabia has given the owner of Al Tazaj a competitive advantage over the rest of competitors in the fast food market. This is because the restaurant prepares roasted chicken, fresh from his poultry farm.
It is expected that the sale of fast food is going to increase due to the rising demand for ready meals as more people, including women, are now working away from their homes. This paper shall discuss Al Tazaj restaurant.
Tags: Grilled Chicken, Saudi Arabia, barbeque, fast food.
Background The first Al Tazaj restaurant came into existence in 1989. The first branch of this restaurant was opened in the holy city of Makkah. The idea of starting this restaurant was conceived by Sheik Abdulrahman Fakieh. Sheik Abdulrahman Fakieh is a poultry farmer in Saudi Arabia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He has practiced poultry farming for over 50 years. The idea to open the restaurant was motivated by his love for chicken prepared using traditional Arabian recipe. The chicken prepared by Al Tazaj is very delicious and is prepared using traditional Saudi Arabian recipe.
Since its launch, Al Tajaz has continued to satisfy its customers through excellent customer service and preparation of fresh chicken. The poultry prepared in this restaurant is got from Fakieh poultry farm.
With the constant supply of chicken from this farm, Al Tazaj is able to sell its barbequed chicken over 100 destinations. This makes it the leading fast food chain stores nationally and also in the entire Middle East.
Unlike fast the fast food sold in other stores, the chicken served in Al Tazaj is healthy and fresh. The restaurant gets fresh chicken direct from the farm which is barbequed using healthy recipes. Chicken is slaughtered and barbequed on the same day while still fresh.
The chicken is marinated using a sauce that is commonly referred to as the ‘secret sauce’. It is then grilled using charcoal as the source of heat. Most of the times, the meal is served with a garden salad. It is also possible for the meal to be served together with French fries or Taza rice.
The two are greasy and are some of the best accompaniments to be served together with the barbequed chicken. Some of the sauces that go well with this chicken include garlic and Tahina sauces. For desserts, Basbousa is used. This has placed the restaurant ahead of its competitors since many restaurants are not able to get chicken and cook it while fresh.
The barbequed chicken from Al Tazaj tastes very natural. This is because the chicken is marinated using only natural ingredients. This ensures that the final product tastes natural and there are no artificial additives which may be harmful to people’s health.
We will write a custom Report on Al Tazaj specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Al Tazaj has invested a lot of resources in promotion of its products. One of the methods of advertising that it has invested in is television advertisement. There are numerous television adverts that promote Al Tazaj’s products hence making them popular among the people who love to eat out but in a healthy manner.
This mode of advertisement has been very effective and has given the restaurant a competitive advantage over its rivals in the fast food market in the Middle East.
Meals and services The restaurant does not serve a lot of meals. Some of the meals served in Al Tazaj include Barbequed chicken combo meal, Al Tazaj kabsa, maglouba, Al Tazaj braost meal, barbequed chicken mandi, chicken nuggets meal, kebab with rice meal and barbequed chicken, among others.
Locations Since the restaurant was started, it has opened other branches in many countries. Most of the restaurants are located in Saudi Arabia. However, there are other Al Tazaj restaurants in other parts of the world such as in Kuwait, Egypt and Malaysia. Other branches include Qatar, Bahrain, Jordan as well as Lebanon.
Apart from these branches in the Middle East, Al Tazaj has branches in Chicago. The restaurant there is simply called Taza. Like in the rest of Al Tazaj restaurants, this restaurant in the United States prepares Al Tazaj barbequed chicken. Chicken is the most common meal in these restaurants. It is prepared as per the Islamic standards so that it is halal.
Products and market share The restaurant has expended swiftly to other Middle East countries since its inception. The restaurant competes against renowned fast food restaurants globally such as the McDonalds, Burger King and Pizza Hut in the Saudi Arabian fast food market which is estimated to be worth over $220 million.
The restaurant has branches in most of the Middle East countries. However, its first non-Arab owned restaurant was opened in Chicago, United States in August 1997. The name ‘Tazer’ was adopted for the Chicago based restaurant for easier pronunciation by the local residents since Al Tazaj would be hard for them.
Business for Al Tazaj restaurants is boosted by Muslim pilgrims whenever they visit the holy city of Mecca. During this period, the fast food chain increases its sales drastically due the presence of the vast number of pilgrims in the region. Moreover, they attract customers because they are known to sell halal products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Al Tazaj by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Arabian cuisine is characterized by strong spices which give the food a strong flavor. Restaurants in Saudi Arabia offer a rich combination of deliciously prepared food. Spices are a major component of their dishes. Eating in Saudi Arabian restaurants is a bit different from eating in Western restaurants.
In Saudi Arabia, there are some restrictions such as prohibition in eating raw meats. Therefore, it is not possible to find meals such as sushi or steak tartar, which are common in the western restaurants. However, the restaurants do not only prepare Arabic dishes but also have others such as Italian, Indian and Pakistani cuisines.
Price competition The cost of food in Saudi Arabia depends with the restaurant that one visits. A typical meal costs around $5.00 USD in an average restaurant. However, fancy restaurants charge an average of $13.00 USD for the cheapest meal. Most of the foods served in fast food restaurants cost between 6 and 20 SAR.
Another difference between Saudi Arabian restaurants and other restaurants is that most of the Saudi Arabian restaurants are divided into compartments that do not allow free mixing of men and women.
However, there are restaurants that have a family section, or restaurants that are entirely family restaurants. This means that members of a family can freely sit together and share a meal without any restrictions.
Sales and region coverage The fast food market in Saudi Arabia is expected to hit the $4.5 billion mark by the year 2015. Some of the factors that are likely to contribute to the rising demand of fast food market in Saudi Arabia include high demand for these foods among the young people as well as the rich in the country.
Most of the young people have been influenced by the western way of life, including their tendencies to indulge in fast foods. Moreover, there are more people with higher disposable incomes who are able to afford foods sold in the fast food outlets.
Additionally, trend out eating out is becoming very popular among the Saudi Arabians from all age groups. This creates an opportunity for sales, particularly for restaurants such as Al Tazaj, which prepare delicious local cuisines.
Restaurants, such as Al Tazaj, which serve fast foods, are expected to experience massive sales of their products in the coming three years or less. Sales from fast food restaurants are expected to account for 20 percent of the total food service transactions in Saudi Arabia.
Outlets that major in fast foods have become a major attraction for the young people in Saudi Arabia. Restaurants, such as Al Tazaj, which offer delicious meals and comfort to their clients are likely to experience high volumes of sales in the near future.
Saudi Arabia has witnessed the mushrooming of fast food outlets in the recent past. This has increased the competition for such foods locally and some restaurants, such as Al Tazaj have even opted to go beyond the regional barriers and open branches in other countries abroad.
Skills that make teachers effective Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Skills that make teachers effective
Teaching is a task that can be entrusted to any determinant person. Teachers should be passionate about their job. This can motivate them and hence make them achieve success in their teaching profession. Most developed countries have many educated persons because most teachers in these countries use effective teaching strategies to their students. Some of the effective teaching skills that one can bring to the 21st Century classroom include good communication skills, student-teacher engagement, and giving room for individualized learning among others. In this case, a teacher becomes successful if he or she is capable of creating a rapport with his or her students. This can help him or her connect easily with the learners and feel their needs on an individual level.
Good communication plays a significant role in ensuring that students and teachers understand each other well, both inside and outside classrooms. Through good communication, students can comprehend everything that teachers present to them. A teacher too can tell whether his or her students get what he or she puts across, and hence make rectifications where necessary.
It is also critical for educators to get their students engaged. This may include involving students in social but educative activities such as games and humour among others. Nevertheless, teaching should be student-centred. Teachers should try as much as possible to relate their teachings to the immediate real environment. Effective teachers also need to incorporate relevant doses of humour in their teaching, which can help students gain confidence in their work. To be an effective teacher within the current century, one needs to act and not to react. This can create good relations with students; hence improve their performance in studies. An effective teacher has to be precise and clear when giving out instructions.
To make things different from the obvious routine, a teacher needs to give room for individualized learning. Students have different learning abilities, particularly with regard to the speed of grasping various contents taught in class. Putting all these into consideration, a teacher can do his or her best to attend to each learner in their class. A teacher has to give a positive feedback to his or her students whenever they do a good job. This encourages them to do even better. Moreover, a teacher has to involve students in making decisions. They should love their job because this can make them very determined in educating students.
Reasons to educate in Virginia
One would teach in Virginia because of the desire to join the best quality and diverse teachers that will enable him or her to add to his experiences and qualities. The institution emphasizes on the need to make students capable, self-reliant and responsible. Any teacher would love to be part of this mission increasing students’ academic achievements and learning. Having a teaching license in Virginia gives one the credit to teach in other high institutions, due to the high quality associated with the teaching careers.
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Impact of the DREAM Act on Immigration in America Essay college essay help online
The DREAM Act was a legislative proposal in 2001 that intended to give more social benefits to immigrants who had proved to be of good moral standing. The Act drew criticism and praise in equal measures among the citizens of the United States. The DREAM Act would be a significant step towards achieving the American Dream of social equity.
Indeed, it was the desire of the founding fathers of the United States that the country would have the most tolerable society in the world. Though written centuries ago, some of the ideals regarding social equity have never been taken seriously.
By implementing the issues contained in the DREAM Act, Americans would be passing a strong message to the world that the equality of God’s creation still holds (Zerk, 24).
The immigrants, if given adequate education, will develop the requisite skills that would enable them to work in the United States industries. In return, they will earn high incomes that will enable them to invest and therefore contribute to the economic development of the country.
It has previously been noted that certain careers like health and engineering would not have developed in America were it not for immigrants, most of who came as foreign students. Thus, trying to thwart the human development of immigrants effectively hinders economic development of the United States.
According to a study conducted by the “North American Integration and Development Center”, the implementation of the DREAM Act would imply a return to the American ideals of social. In addition, it will ensure a brighter future for America because some of the immigrants facing deportation are polished intellectuals with great potentials in business and science.
In this competitive era when China seems to be closing in on the United States, it is important that the US retains every human power within its reach. The country needs innovative minds of youthful Americans and the immigrants in order to put its acts in order and mount a strong economic challenge against China and its allies. This fact underscores why American cannot ignore their immigrant youths (Porter, page 90).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The legislation will encourage young people to take up positions in the Army and eventually help to create a strong military command. According to the available literature, the Act allows immigrants who have served in the army to be given residential permit.
Most youths would readily serve in the army if that is all it takes to stay and work in the United States. Essentially, the Defense Department views the legislation as a significant boost to their pool of potential recruits into the Army. In addition, the law will allow immigration officials to focus on the real threat at the border points instead of harassing young people who are peacefully pursuing their education.
Currently, the officials spend better part of their time looking for young aliens who really pose no security threat to the county. Instead, they lose focus of the hardcore terrorists who are always waiting to strike. According to Secretary Napolitano, such a step will introduce a fair and firm system for innocent aliens in the United States.
Nonetheless, it should not be a blanket amnesty because terrorists can use the same students to strike on America at a time when everything thinks that they are harmful. This is why the law should only apply to those who do not have criminal records (Streeten, 235).
It is a social responsibility of the American citizens to take care of their people. It would be unduly harsh to turn around at some point and talk ill about some people because they do not belong to your country.
Indeed, it will smack of an era that Americans have long escaped, at which people were given respect based on their families or the colors on their skins. It was a painful era that no one thinks of ever going back to.
Thus, passing such a law would not only cast a positive image about the country, but will also show the world that America has always been committed to the ideals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although opponents have always argued that the legislation will give aliens a chance to grab lucrative jobs from the American people, this has never been true.
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of the DREAM Act on Immigration in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, there is currently a deficit in potential employees while unemployment rates have significantly increased in America during the Obama administration. This is because the opportunities that exist require professional skills that the country can only solicit from outside the country.
However, they would not have to incur the higher cost of hiring foreign experts if they allowed aliens with proficient knowledge in these areas to learn and work in the United States. It is the reason why America has no option, but to give young immigrants all the social benefits that it accords to its citizens (Davies and Quinlivan, 868).
In conclusion, the decision to implement some ideas that were contained in the DREAM Act will have far reaching impacts on the US. For example, it would enable the country to hire foreign experts at a low rate by choosing to retain young immigrants in the county. In addition, it will give young people a good reason to join the Army and help in protecting the territorial integrity of the country.
Works Cited Davies, A.; Quinlivan, G. “A Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Trade on Human Development”. Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006. Print.
Porter, M. E. Clusters. The New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 1998. Print.
Streeten, Paul. “Human Development: Means and Ends”. Human Development, 1994. Print.
Zerk, Jennifer A. Multinationals and Corporate Social Responsibility: Limitations and Opportunities in International Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.
Authoritative Leadership Style Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Leadership is the process through which an individual gathers and earns support of others through social enlistment so that they can work together to achieve set goals and objectives. An organization can adopt different forms of leadership styles depending on its needs and requirements.
To have a clear understanding of my leadership style, I used several online assessment tools. The assessment tool provided by OSP (2008) revealed by leadership style to be authoritative.
According to this tool, my leadership style was characterized by giving tight direction to my subordinates, encouraging communication to flow in one direction and exercising minimal delegations.
However, the assessment tool provided by Galford and Maruca (2012) clearly explained my leadership style. The results that were arrived at after the assessment stated that I was an ambassador, an advocate, a people’s mover and a creative builder.
These descriptions are in line with the supporting leadership style; I usually implement in all the activities and projects that I lead. According to this leadership style, a leader is friendly to the team members and employees of lower levels. He/she offers support to his subordinates and provides minimal directions in a working environment.
This in turn makes the employees to feel comfortable at a work hence perform their roles and duties to the best of their abilities to achieve the goals and objectives of the project as well as their own personal goals and objectives.
Additionally, this form of leadership style encourages teamwork and provides the best environment for starts to flourish in their respective careers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication Communication is an essential aspect in the running and management of an organization. Therefore, the HR department needs to ensure that efficient communication mechanisms have been put in place to ensure that precise information flows at all levels of management (Khan, 2011).
To determine my style of communication, I used a number of online assessment tools. The assessment tool provided by Russo (2012) revealed my communication style to be assertive but its description of vague. On the other hand, the assessment tool provided by CEDA (2012) clearly explained my communication style.
Although the tool revealed my communication style to be assertive, it also stated that am an individual who stands up for my rights and the rights of my subordinates, respect all my team members and treasure the respect that they give me. From all this, the tool concluded that I possessed relater communication skills.
Team Management For an organization to achieve its goals and objectives, it needs to understand and take advantage of the strengths of its employees. Additionally, an organization also needs to work and improve on the weaknesses of its workforce. Thus, it is essential for the management of an organization to understand the personality of every team member.
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is an effective personality assessment tool that can be used to gauge the personality, strengths, and weaknesses of team members within an organization (MBTI, n.d.). This assessment tool has sixteen indicators that are used to gauge the personality of an individual.
For the management to determine the strengths and weaknesses of an individual, it can use the results. Furthermore, the results can be used to enhance the team spirit of an organization hence making it easier to achieve the goals and objectives of the project. On the other hand, the temperament method can be used to assess the personality of team members.
This method focuses on specific characteristics of an individual such as the actions of an individual, styles of communication, the talent that they posses and their values (Keirsey.com, n.d.).
We will write a custom Essay on Authoritative Leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the analysis of these traits, the personality of an individual can be interpreted as idealistic, rational, artisan or guardian. This however depends on the impacts that an individual has on the project and the specific role that he/she plays and his/her strengths and weaknesses.
References CEDA (2012). Communication Styles. Web.
Galford, R. and Maruca, F. (2012). Your Leadership Legacy. Web.
Keirsey. Overview of the Four Temperments. Web.
Khan, A. (2011). Informal Communication Styles Benefit Mcdonald’s and Ford: The Way Ahead In an Era Of Social Networking. Web.
MBTI. MBTI Basics. Web.
OSP (2008). Leadership Style Self Assessment. Web.
Russo, E. (2012). Whats My Communication Style. Web.
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Millennials Say Marriage is Ideal but Parenthood is the Priority Essay essay help online
Article Summary The topic of marriage has recently stirred debates amongst the millennial population. Interestingly, the millennial generation seems to be more inclined to the priority of parenting rather than the actual marriage. Most studies have indicated that few millennials prefer and value the essence of marriage.
Close to half or average of the surveyed Gen-xers population admitted that they appreciated good parenting. On the other hand, a closer percentage of the same population placed marriage to the similar capacity as parenting.
An analytical view and relation of these responses did not depict any significant association. This was, particularly, with their parents. Most parents were married and regarded marriage to be crucial to ones life. However, this was unlike the Gen-xers whose parents highly esteemed marriage, just like their children.
Recent studies have also depicted that adult Americans are increasingly regarding marriage to be obsolete. Fascinatingly, the Millennials largely supporting marriage are not keen to tie the knot. Most of the single Millennials long for marriage and love upbringing children in marriage.
The increasingly sporadic society seems to be changing marriage patterns, with the presence of several unmarried relationships. Transforming job conditions and social liberalizations have played a great role in making millennials to cherish parenting relative to marriage. The younger adults have lost the economic sense marriage.
The fact is, economic crisis has also played a critical role in these patterns. Seemingly, the Millennials lack confidence in the fact that a happily brought up child must have both parents. Perhaps, this is the reason why most millennial mothers are single relative to the Generation X mothers.
According to Pew, cohabitation plays a critical role in this variance. The Millennials are also more reluctant to risk parenthood as compared to their counterpart Gen-Xers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essay Generally, the present generation largely varies from the one that existed before. Particularly, an analysis of the marriage as well as relationship patterns would clearly depict this notable variance between the two generations. The previous generation seemed more conservative concerning many issues.
For instance, it is observable that a greater percentage valued marriage and kinship ties within their society. There was an evident urge to get married and bring up a decent family, with a considerate number of children.
Considerably, a narrow percentage of this ancient generation also appreciated and practiced the divergent sexual and relationship behaviors that are presently notable. In the present generation, there are instances of cohabitation.
People engage in non-committed relationships and prefer being childless. The importance of family upbringing I s never important and people prefer single life. Unlike the previous generation, people oppose marriage and there is a particular observable old marriage age in the few who appreciate the incident.
Presently, the few who get married do this at a relatively advanced age relative to the practice observable in the previous generations.
The current population has increasingly appreciated childless relationships, with a desire to adopt and bring up children out of wedlock. Surrogate motherhood and fatherhood have cropped up with the advancement of biological technology.
Several reasons can be attributed to these notable disparities between the two generations. To begin with, the increasing globalization has highly influenced social networks, making liberalization more prominent with global societies.
We will write a custom Essay on Millennials Say Marriage is Ideal but Parenthood is the Priority specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People increasingly appreciate the publicly available pornographic material widely available in the media. The hard economic times has immensely impacted negatively in almost all sectors within the present society. Issues of unemployment are particularly contributive in the general society.
Due to these, people have increasingly diagnosed the economic sense of marriage and parenting. They have appreciated single lifestyle with sporadic sexual partners and cohabitation.
Increased globality has also enhanced the rates of international travels within populations. As a result there have been instances of intercultural diffusion and interchanges. Therefore, native or traditional practices pertinent to particular societies and communities have undergone significant erosion.
People are urged to adopt more globalized and urbanized lifestyles. Technology has availed pornographic materials within the increasingly adaptable social networks. Hard economic times have led to the development of unique social habits and economic practices.
For instance, the sex commercialization has immensely influenced people’s perceptions on the issues concerning marriage as well as sexual relationships. Additionally, there is an observably high rate of homosexuality notable within the present generation.
Perhaps, this would elucidate why most people are more confined to practice single life parenting or adopting surrogate babies. Increasing job demands within competitive global organizations minimize the time individuals have for their families.
Additionally, this also manipulates people’s attitudes towards creating time for the relationships and marriage. Employees are expected to work for longer hours and deliver extensive targets within longer durations. Because of increasing competiveness in the employment, workers are dedicated to meet inhumane job demands.
This is coupled with the urge to afford a fair lifestyle in a highly expensive economy. Thus, the present generation is more determined to sacrifice their relationship and marriage life for the purposes of meeting job and economic demands. Thus, it is important to note the present dynamics that have influenced the lifestyle in the present generation.
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Tata Company SWOT and PEST Analysis Report essay help
Tata Motors is an automotive manufacturing company based in India. The company specializes in the design, development, assembly, financing, manufacture, and sale of Tata vehicles. In addition, it sells accessories, and spare parts. The company has its primary operations in India, South Africa, Thailand, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and Bangladesh.
Tata has its headquarters in Mumbai India with approximately 52,244 employees. For the fiscal year ended march 2011, Tata recorded revenue of $26860 million representing a 33 % increase over the 2010 period. Its operating profit over the same period stood at $1,068.2 million in 2011 compared to $156.4 million in 2010.
Current Strategies Pursued by Tata The companys main strategy is to expand its global presence. The company is moving quickly in acquiring other companies in different countries to expand its business globally. According to Goldman (2), Tata has successfully built a sound business in South Africa, which is a key element in its current global expansion strategy.
Tata is not new in acquisitions; in 2000 the company bought Tetley Tea a company based in the UK that was suffering from losses. This was the companys first major acquisition.
According to Krishnan (4), the companys acquisition of two premium vehicle brands Jaguar and Land Rover may boost the companys image as an international company; in addition, it will help the company in its up scaling efforts similar to the way the acquisition of Tetley Tea Ltd boosted Tata Tea Ltd and Corus Group Plc (Carty 2).
Aims and Objectives The objective of this report is to carry out a detailed strategic analysis for Tata Company. The analysis will be based upon secondary from the Internet including the companys financial statements, case studies, and other online sources.
The aim of this report is to provide a useful strategic analysis that can be used not only as point of reference for Tata motors but also as a theoretical framework for undertaking the companys valuation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The report may be used as a primary guide for researchers who seek to appreciate and understand Tata company strategies and also get a practical perspective about Tata as a public listed company.
Methodology An in-depth analysis of the companys strategy will be undertaken. In analyzing the companys strategy, the report will make use of both qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the data and information gathered from various online sources, published reports about Tata company, and the companys website. The conclusion arrived at shall be a mix of the students own belief as well as factual presentation.
Scope of the Report The scope of this report is academic and will be based on academic data in addition to past academic and professional analysis of Tata motors. We will present the entire report as a practical framework based on research findings about the company and apply the findings of the research to Tata Motors.
There are two major areas that will be covered that include SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats), and PEST Analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological).
Limitations The report and the analysis will be done based upon data and published reports sources from recognized business databases on the Internet. It will be done from the students point of view for academic purposes; as a result the output may not qualify as a complete analysis of Tata company.
Even though maximum efforts will be applied to ensure that both the analysis and the conclusion arrived at will be as comprehensive as possible and can be adopted in professional scenarios.
PEST Analysis Political
Given that Tata Motors operates in several countries across Asia, Europe, Australia, Middle East, and Africa, it has to consider the political environment, including regulations and laws in the specific countries in which it operates. Regulations that govern trade, commerce, investment, and growth are largely influenced by the political climate.
We will write a custom Report on Tata Company SWOT and PEST Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A good example is in 2008 when Tata reached an agreement with a UK based Ford to purchase Land Rover and Jaguar. To do this, it had to fully comprehend the laws that regulate commerce in its home country in addition to the countries where Jaguar and Land Rover operate in.
As Tata advances in its global expansion strategy, it is important that it keeps an eye on political changes. The Tata head office reports that India has very strict regulations that govern the regulations of the company in all its dealings and its subsidiary operations (Tata Motors Limited 1).
Given its presence in several continents, Tata focus its marketing strategy on the individual markets while keeping a close watch on the global economic developments. From 2004, the company has expanded its global presence through joint ventures.
For this reason, it must understand the global economic perspective, to learn, and adapt to the different regions which it operates. Given its wide presence, the company has a competitive edge in gathering of resources and information.
For instance, if aluminum prices go up in Africa, Tata has the choice of sourcing them from other suppliers in Europe or Asia at an affordable cost (David 5). The exchange rates equally affect the companys business. Fluctuations in the exchange rate can significantly affect the companys profitability it can also imply that costs increase or reduce in return.
For this reason, the company has to pay a closer attention not only to the Indian currency (rupee) but also other currencies, including the pound, dollar, euro among others (Krishnamoorthy 4).
How well Tata performs is determined by the opinions, general attitude, and beliefs of all the stakeholders in the organization. The stakeholders include the companys management, employees, and suppliers. The attitudes and culture possessed by the stakeholders ultimately influences Tatas future in terms of profitability.
It is because of this that Tata tend to use an integration strategy for the new companies it acquires in various continents. Demographic characteristics equally affect the company. For example the demand for cars in India significantly differs from the demand for cars in Italy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tata Company SWOT and PEST Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Indian market is significantly large than that of Italy in addition, the company has to take into account the individual purchasing power in each market. In Italy for example, individuals have higher incomes as such they can afford to drive big luxury vehicles.
Cheap vehicles like Tata Nano can do well in India than in Italy. The social factors significantly affect the companys marketing and product design strategies.
In terms of technology, Tata motors in one of the leading companies in the industry. Given its global presence, the company has a significant pool of resources and experience that it can use to undertake research and development initiatives.
The company translates the needs of the customers into products desired by the customers through innovative research and development (Tata 4). The company employs approximately 1400 engineers and scientists. In addition, it has a Research and Development team that meets the international standards and leads in the Indian market.
With the automotive industry, individual manufacturers must keep pace with technology given the emerging problems of high fuel prices and global warming. The company must invest sufficient resources in Research and Development to come up with new innovative solutions that can address these problems and keep the company viable.
SWOT Analysis Strengths
Tata has an upper hand in innovation because it is fully committed to Research and development. It ability to design the Nano, the least expensive and fuel efficient vehicle that retails at only $2500 represents a better deal than what the other companies have developed.
This gives the company a competitive edge over its competition. In addition, the company has diversified its production because it production ranges from the most expensive tractor trailers to the cheapest Nano cars. Because of this the company can satisfy customer demands in various market segments.
Similarly the company enjoys a good public image because of its corporate responsibility initiatives, especially charity donations and its environmentally friendly initiatives. In 2000, the company produced the first compressed natural airbus OneCat that neither has gas costs nor carbon emissions (Corporate Governance 7).
This has made the car quite attractive for the developed markets. The way the company manages its acquisitions is a strength. As part of its global expansion strategy, whenever it acquires a foreign company, it keeps intact not only the companys structure but also the existing management team.
A major weakness that the company faces is its inability to satisfy the safety standards. Even though the company has succeeded in making one of the cheapest cars in the market, the company has not met the legal factors that form part of the safety measures.
Some quotas have questioned Tata Nano; they argue that as a car manufacturer, Tata should ensure the safety of its consumers at all costs. They doubt if Tatas cheapest car is safe to drive. For the last one decade, the company specialized in passenger cars.
From the customers’ point of view, the period is not long enough and because of this, the company is not fully experienced in car manufacturing.
In 2011 December, the company had to recall approximately 1.4 million Nano cars to replace their faulty starter units. The replacement affected all cars that had been produced from 2009 when the new car brand was launched. This cost the company approximately $21.8 million.
Such recalls have a negative impact o the companys profitability because the replacement costs adverse effect on the operating results. In addition, product recalls affect public perception of the company because the products are viewed as possessing less quality and this could strain the sale of Tata Motors Company.
The creation of new products by Tata will most likely enhance consumer confidence and interest in the company. The company launched a number of new products in the 2011 financial year, including Tata Prima Construck in India, Tata Indica eV2 in India, XKR-S at the Geneva motor show Tata Venture in Rajasthan, Tata Magic IRIS, and Tata Ace Zip.
In august 2011, the company launched a modified version of its premium hatchback. Its new products development in various markets across the world will significantly improve the companys product portfolio resulting in increased sales and growth. This will also help in growing the companys brand image.
Second, the company is better positioned to benefit from the high-demand for diesel cars in India. In the last one year, India has seen a significant increase in the demand for diesel cars. The increase in demand is highly attributed to petrol prices deregulation in June 2010 that saw petrol prices rice by a margin of 30 %.
Compared to petrol, in India, diesel fuel is mostly used by manufacturers, and farmers. These groups enjoy subsidized rates. The increase in the prices of petrol in the previous two years has encouraged consumers to shift toward more fuel efficient cars. For the fiscal year 2011, diesel cars had a total market share of 40 % of all the cars sold in India.
The Indias Automobile Manufactures reports that from 2011 the sale of diesel cars increased by more than 24 % whereas the sales for petrol cars declined by 16 %. Currently in India the demand for diesel car models account for approximately 80 % of the total market. Tata has positioned itself t benefit from the increased demand for diesel cars in India.
Hybrid vehicles are equally another opportunity for Tata Company. As consumers become more environmentally conscious, they demand for eco-friendly cars. In addition, increasing oil prices and government regulations aimed at reducing global warming and pollution, are pushing people toward hybrid electric vehicles.
The main markets for electric vehicles are majorly the United States, Japan, and Western Europe. However, the rapid economic growth that China is experiencing, it is expected that the demand for hybrid electric vehicles will increase in the country.
In 2010, the world hybrid electric vehicle market recorded a sales turnover of $33 billion, and the market is expected to register yearly growth rate of 18 % between 2010 and 2015.
As a company, Tata has positioned itself to capture a significant share of the market for hybrid electric vehicles. In the UK Tata Motors is one of the leading green-technology automotive companies. In 2011, the company launched a land rover with an advanced plug-in hybrid diesel technology.
The launch was done at the Geneva motor show. The company’s focus toward hybrid vehicles will enable it to benefit from the positive market growth in this sector.
The India’s automotive industry is equally expected to deliver positive growth. The industry is growing at a faster rate and currently India takes the second position as the fastest growing car market.
Future growth of Indias automobile sector will benefit from increased economic growth, high disposable incomes, high population, and change in peoples lifestyles.
In the passenger cars segment, it is projected that growth will average 13 % annually from 2011 to 2015. By 2015, it is projected that India will be the seventh largest car market in the globe. By 2020, India will be the worlds third largest market after the United States and China.
Stiff competition is a threat the company faces. The world automotive industry is highly competitive and with increasing global consolidation and globalization the competition will increase even further. Competition will be more stiff in the in the premium vehicle categories as all market participants tighten their strategies to maintain their market share in established markets.
A number of factors affect competition and these include: product features and quality, development time, innovation, a companys ability to manage its costs, pricing strategy, safety, reliability, fuel economy, and customer service. With the Indian market Tata faces stiff competition from Hyundai, Suzuki, General Motors, Ford, Fiat, Honda Motors, Mitsubishi Motors, and Mahindra
Blackberry Smartphone Consumer Behavior Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
This report elaborates consumer purchase behavior issue related to Blackberry Smartphone. The report seeks to ascertain the best marketing strategy that can fit the consumer behavior in the Smartphone industry.
Blackberry Smartphone store
The market for Smartphone should be segmented based upon the individuals’ purchasing power and the age bracket. The products should be designed to match the needs of the respective market segment. For example, the phones designed for the youth population should include interactive applications that facilitate sharing, message sending, reading of documents, access to internet and sending photos.
On the other hand, the designs for professionals should have email functionalities, QWERTY keyboard and additional business features. Users must be provided with innovative technology in addition to style. These features will provide memorable experience and promote the demand for the products.
The Blackberry Smartphone devices are positioned on grounds of quality, as a company, RIM offers high quality products that are not only user friendly but also offer competitive prices to both business and personal users. The company enjoys significant competitive advantages given the global presence of its stores.
Variables under Study
A number of internal and external variables that affect Blackberry consumer behavior will be analyzed. External factors include demographic characteristics, reference groups, social status, and family. Internal variables on the other hand include personality, learning, self-concept, learning, memory, and motives.
Analysis of the Consumer Decision Process
Description of the External Variables
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Demographics
The demographics of its current market indicates that it targets majorly the middle to upper income individuals aged from 30 to 35 and working in business and managerial sectors. The mainstream consumer market presents significant opportunities that the company can tap into.
The company can join this market segment through bringing in and integrating changes from the consumers’ point of view. The additional features that the company has introduced in its smart devices that include applications like Twitter and Facebook in addition to multimedia functionalities will attract the youth segment of the population including students and appeal to their interactive lifestyles.
The company should focus its marketing attention on the young generation who are well acquainted with social media, technology and can influence the consumption patterns of their parents.
The demographics for this population are individuals who belong to the lower to the upper middle class. To this segment, ownership of a blackberry device is a symbol of status. They make use of these devices not only to communicate, but also to send emails, receive email notifications, and chat with friends.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Blackberry Smartphone Consumer Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The product targets all cultures because unlike other products, the use of smart devices is not strongly affected by culture. The product is used by individuals across all cultures.
Many of the individuals falling within the 30-35 age brackets are workers in the middle of the careers. Their purchase decisions are mainly influenced by the opinions of the family members, friends, and peers.
They are equally influenced by the purchase decisions made by their closest friends and peers, who refer them to the specific stores where they bought their blackberry devices. The group also seeks information from the internet and social media before making purchase decisions.
Description of Internal Variables
Consumer Personality: the personality of the consumer especially that of the middle class has a significant influence on the purchase decisions.
Individual perceptions: a personal view of thins is very important as it dictates how this population segment interpret the appearance and feel of the products.
Learning: this population segment can be best explained by cognitive theory of learning. They learn through observation by seeing the purchase decisions made by their closest friends, family members, co-workers, and peers. This in turn influences how they behave.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Blackberry Smartphone Consumer Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Motives: consumer motives for purchasing a Smartphone (blackberry) arise mainly due to the need for self-actualization. Other motives include the type of customer service extended and the availability of after sales services.
Memory: past experience on the exemplary quality of the device influences the customer purchase decision. The attractiveness of the stores in addition to ease of navigating through the stores are equally important determinants of purchase decisions.
Statement of the Consumer Behavior Issue
Consumers are often confronted with the need to make purchase decisions on products and services almost on a daily basis. Some of these decisions are of utmost importance to consumers and involve great effort, while others are made based on impulse.
The view points on decision making vary from focus on habits that an individual develops to a focus on fresh events that involve a high degree of risk where buyers have to carefully gather and assess information before making choices (Papaoikonomou, Ryan
Solar Energy Consultancy Report essay help online free
Introduction In the contemporary world, human beings have identified solar power as one of the most essential sources of electricity power. Therefore, they have harnessed the radiant heat, in addition to, light from the sun in a process that uses a wide scope of technologies, which are ever evolving.
According to the findings of the research conducted by Schaper
Management theories Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Henri Fayol is believed to be the founder of contemporary management theory which is drawn from his extensive experience in the management field. In other words, he is acknowledged for his contribution in the field of management, having established a foundation for modern management theory.
Despite the fact that the Fayol management theories were developed in the 1900s, they continue to play an integral role in modern society. For instance, Pryor and Taneja (2010, p. 490) note that the 14 principles of management developed by Fayol are considered the basis for management as witnessed in modern organizations.
The purpose of the essay is to show that in spite of the criticisms levelled on Fayol’s management theories, they still form a foundation of management in modern society.
Body Modern organizations develop strategies, goals, and plans which act as guidance to an organization in achieving its objectives. This observation has been supported by Wren (2001, p.482) who note that Fayol acted as a strategist in making strategic decisions when he was head of management at Comambault.
In addition, he had set long term organizational goals which were: profitability, restoring confidence to shareholders, ensuring that the organization remained competitive, and maintaining the welfare of employees (Wren 2001, p.482). All these activities which are based on the administrative aspect of management theory as applied by Fayol are part of modern management where organizations plan, set goals, and strategize.
Furthermore, organizational managers act as representatives of shareholders, set goals and plan how to execute the goals. As a result, most organizations have adopted these three activities to ensure the welfare of different stakeholders is achieved.
Profit maximization and gaining a competitive advantage over competitors are also major drivers of modern organizations which are pioneered by organizational managers. Although these examples are drawn from the mining sector where Fayol was the managing director and CEO, the perspective is still applicable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, critics have been quick to note that Fayol used authoritarian form of leadership to execute his administrative abilities which may not be applicable in modern organizations (Brunson 2008, p.32).
Nevertheless, the author adds that if a manager is asked the kind of responsibilities that he/she is entitled, the ultimate response would be planning, organizing, controlling, and controlling.
Management in an organization leads to effectiveness and efficiency in the running of an organization. As noted by McLean (2011, p.32), as the managing director Fayol emphasised a lot on what management entails, how it could be executed and how it could be applied to achieve effectiveness and efficiency.
In addition, he concluded by noting that the role of management was forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. This led to the development of different roles of management in an organization in order to achieve success and financial breakthrough or survive economic and financial crises.
As regards the element of forecasting and planning, a manager should be in a position to forecast and undertake an analysis of the environment in which an organization operates (McLean 2011, p. 33).
These managerial activities have continued to be practiced in contemporary management especially in the global markets characterized by high levels of change, increased competition, and increase in demand from customers.
As noted by Pryor and Taneja (2010, p.491), Fayol gave organizations the managerial role of planning upon his engagement in managerial post.
We will write a custom Essay on Management theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Planning and forecasting have since been adopted by organization in ensuring that they play an integral role in safeguarding the interests of different stakeholders.
He also held on the belief that it was the role of the management structure to organize different parts of an organization such as resources, organizational systems, infrastructure, services, processes, and procedures which ensures that an organization fully achieve its ultimate end goals.
Organizations are made of different players who have different skills such as managerial and technical skills. These two elements are part of the six activities which Fayol believed were crucial to organizational success. In this context, Pryor and Taneja (2010, p.491) keenly observe that Fayol emerged as the first theorist to make a distinction between managerial and technical skills.
The distinction made was that employees at various levels within an organization required technical skills. This is because such skills would assist in the completion of different tasks in organizational levels. He added that even employees in management levels required a bit of technical skills which would be applied in the management of the production process.
On the other hand, Fayol’s theory holds that managerial skills are important to employees who assume more responsibilities in managerial positions of an organization. The argument made here is that managerial skills are only necessary to employees who hold managerial positions while technical skills are important to all employees in an organization.
What emerges in this point is that despite the need for proficient skills to all employees, some skills are for all people in an organization while others are to be found in a particular group. This can be illustrated fully in the turnaround of Comambault where Fayol exhibited both his technical abilities as an engineer as well as a manager (Wren 2001, p. 484).
The advantage of having technical skills is that a manager is able to use his expertise combined with managerial capabilities to effectively and efficiently run an organization.
Fayol has been credited for his role in developing the 14 principles of management (Pryor and Taneja (2010, p.491). The 14 principles of management were designed solely with the objective of guiding a manager to undertake his/her daily managerial activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Parker and Ritson (2005, p.176), these principles have been designed in such a way as to assist managers in running successful organizations. One of the major principles applied in modern organizations is division of labour. Division of labour is used in reference to the distribution of work to different employees or groups so as to reduce the time taken by an individual or a group (Rodrigues 2001, p. 881).
Based on this explanation, division of labour encourages specialization which reduces efforts for a group or an individual. In addition, division of labour develops familiarity and better work practices. The success of this concept can be drawn from Fayol application where he divided workers into different groups depending on their skills and expertise.
This improved the overall performance and reduced the time taken in carrying out tasks. The argument can be supported by Pryor and Taneja (2010, p.491) who note that division of labour in organizations encourages specialization which increases speed and level of performance.
Speed and high level of performance improves efficiency in the workplace by encouraging employees to perform more efficiently thus saving time (Rodrigues 2001, p. 881).
In addition, employees are divided into small groups and the group elements are allocated job depending on their specialization and skills. The only limitation is that it leads to group identification which may have a negative effect.
Managers execute their obligation as custodians of the shareholders because of the responsibility and authority endowed in them. As noted by Pryor and Taneja (2010, p.491), Fayol acknowledged the need for managers to have authority over others and show responsibility so that an organization can achieve its organizational objectives.
The implication made is that for an organization to achieve its ultimate goals, managers have to exercise authority which comes with responsibility. Fayol gave the distinction between authority and responsibility and warned that authority should never be confused with responsibility.
As noted by Parker and Ritson (2005, p.176), authority is considered as the power of an individual to give orders to a group of people. In addition, authority is used to exact obedience in the workplace which creates harmony and a better working environment.
Responsibility arises from exercising of authority over others in the workplace. Whenever a manager exercises authority to employees, different parties play their part in an organization. Managers have the responsibility to ensure that an organization operates smoothly. This can be achieved by exercising
authority over subordinate members of the organization. McLean (2011, p.33) and Rodrigues (2001, p. 882) note that managers play the role or coordinating activities in the workplace which is carried through the exercise of authority and responsibility.
Some of the activities in modern management which require authority include harmonizing and unifying organizational efforts and activities. Despite the many benefits of the concepts of responsibility and authority, there are also disadvantages such as the abuse of authority and power by managers.
In order for employees to execute their roles without any hindrance such as strikes and stoppages, remuneration is deemed important. Remuneration emerges as one of Fayol’s management principles, and according to Parker and Ritson (2005, p.176), the management of an organization should offer a fair remuneration to its employees.
In addition, Fayol has described remuneration as the price an organization pays for the services rendered by its employees. In the modern organization, remuneration is paid in the form of salaries and wages. Furthermore, employees in any organization are paid based on performance or their level of value to such an organization.
Fayol goes to the extent of explaining that there are different types of numeration which organizations offer to its employees (Pryor
City of Sadness Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction City of sadness is a film that was released in 1989 and was directed by Hou Hsiao Hsien. The film represents historical and political situation that Taiwanese faced after end of the Second World War. The film is accredited for its unique approach of engaging public in comprehension of 228 Incident, which impacted negatively on Taiwanese.
After Japan relinquished its control over China, Kuomintang government was left in charge of administration and authority. People living in Taiwan were treated brutally by Kuomintang, a situation that the film sought to represent. The essay will focus on analyzing city of sadness film and interpreting ways in which Taiwanese identity is represented. Further, themes of memory, violence, witnessing and silence will be highlighted.
Discussion Hou Hsiao Hsien successfully connects history of Taiwanese with modernity, thereby enhancing identity. Witnessing is one of the rich aspects that are incorporated in the film. Characters in the film assume different emotions after witnessing occurrences, hence communicating different themes.
In this regard, the audience is able to identify with history of Taiwanese in a modern way. Style of witnessing is effective and the film is likely to enjoy wide audience. Furthermore, audience witnesses real occurrences of historical period that are associated with violence in Taiwan Island.
Emotion has been used effectively in highlighting attitude of different situations witnessed in the film. In this regard, Hou gets audience to witness real events in aftermath of Second World War, thereby contributing significantly to history of Taiwanese. Instances of memory are brought forth especially after immediate cases of violence. The three themes are interlocked in approach of silence that Hou chooses to use.
Despite the fact that the film has been accredited for optimal representation of Taiwanese people, there are those who critique the film for underrepresentation of 228 Incident. Just like Kuomintang engaged in deceit, Hou Hsiao Hsien chose to use aspect of irony in the film. Irony intensifies on theme of witnessing.
For instance, the film highlights consecutive radio announcements claiming that Chen Yi is acting in favor of civilians and that the government will compensate those who are injured. The ironic aspect highlights decadence of political sector that caused a lot of harm to Taiwanese. It should be noted that, the ironic radio announcements were followed by highlights of real violence that led to massive deaths of Taiwanese in Taipei. Witnessing of real situation seems to stimulate emotion of sadness among viewers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film uses varied styles, including short shots that are meant to invoke more sensation. Prisoners who are being taken to trial are shot mercilessly by soldiers, an act that is meant to manifest intensity of Kuomintang’s brutality and violence. Despite the fact that there are scholars who attempt to critique ironic approach, director achieves goal of manipulating emotions of audience as it witnesses events (Brown 14).
There are two different degrees of witnessing that Hou Hsiao Hsien applies in the film. General witnessing refers to feelings that every human being is likely to develop when exposed to similar situation. Specific witnessing refers to feelings that are influenced by environment.
Wen-Ching and Hinome are used to reduce anxiety that is likely to rise, because theme of violence forms basis of the film. The two characters develop theme of romance and style of story within a story. Stories told by Wen-Ching and Hinome reveal their experiences and those of Taiwanese.
One of the memorable scenes of the film is when Wen-ching takes Hinome to the hospital. The film depicts beautiful scenery of hilly landscape that is enriched by dazzling sun. The scenery seems to contribute to theme development of the film. Wen-Ching is deaf and his role is played by popular artist. It should be noted that, Tony Leung Chiu-wei cannot speak Taiwanese, which could be one of the reasons why he assumes role of a deaf photographer.
Hinome assumes a weak and sensitive role to represent Taiwanese women at the beginning and seems to become strong towards end of the film. She carries a diary that is very symbolic in the film. For instance, occurrences learnt concerning incident of 228 are recorded. In this regard, we learn that Taiwanese write their history for future use.
Further, Hou Hsiao Hsien, cited other forms of history preservation like archives and official documents. He successfully identifies the gap in history of Taiwanese when he highlights that some of information released could be deceitful. Extent of violence is hidden by the government through release of untrue information. Despite the fact that the film cannot effectively ensure justice, it chooses to expose existing hypocrisy.
The film attempts to give a modern approach to the historical event of 228 that left entire Taiwan in pain. Sceneries used in the film represent those of Taiwan. Focus is on Kim-Kuei-Chiu village, which embraces traditional cultures and norms of Taiwanese. In this regard, the film seems to promote identity of Taiwanese.
We will write a custom Essay on City of Sadness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cities are hardly featured in the film and are only shown when mentioned. Hou Hsiao Hsien uses contrast and intensifies on harmony of themes. The title of the film is controversial and seeks to interpret events that influenced history of Taiwanese. Hou used private and public approaches to outline influence of history on identity.
Hou distinguishes between individual lives from public aspect. He notes that individuals who attempt to represent history are carefully scrutinized, while public approach that is less screened disseminates deceitful information to civilians. In this regard, information from public sector is preferred to that from witnesses. Despite the fact that public and private approaches are separate, Hou attempts to show how they could complement each other to yield better results.
Wen-Heung is significant in the film, since he represents private approach that resists public one. He is the first born in family of Lin. Moreover he assumes a responsible role of managing business of his family. His role represents strength of identity among Taiwanese. Chen Sown-yung has appropriate physique and structure that is required by this character. He is bossy and very confident that he can overcome all challenges.
Wen-Heung controls all affairs of the family and does not like the fact that he will be absent at Little Shanghai’s opening ceremony. He however assures his Grandpa that he will still be in control of photography, in spite of his absence. Wen-Heung highlights the contrast of public and private approaches in Taiwan society. For instance, he interacts with public domain at the time when he has to avoid being arrested for betrayal.
It should however be noted that, he was innocent and had not betrayed his society. As a matter of fact, he was trying to save his brother from drug smuggling scandal. In this regard, Wen-Heung who represents private realm resists being destroyed by public realm. The film later takes an eminent turn that triggers tension among viewers.
The powerful Wen-Heung is seen powerless and in the hands of Shanghai bandits. Wen-Heung is unable to defend himself and is shot by one of the gangsters. He experiences seizure before he dies and shocks entire audience at how public realm destroys the private one.
City of Sadness plays a crucial role in highlighting the 228 Incident. The film manifests history of Taiwanese and challenges they went through in process of securing their identity. The film is interesting and captivating, due to use of contrasting styles that enhance harmony.
Despite the fact that Hou may have been reluctant to narrate real occurrences of 228 Incident directly, choice of cast and role setting are enough to convey experiences of Taiwanese and represent their identity (Hallam and Marshment 54). Since the film is pioneer move to create awareness of 228 incident in the public, it plays role of pace setting effectively thus encouraging emergence of other styles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on City of Sadness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More City of Sadness assumes an inactive and silent approach in relaying historical events that contribute to identity formation process of Taiwanese. Hou uses a deaf character to portray silence of Taiwanese in regard to oppression that they faced. Women are portrayed as sensitive and silent individuals in society of Taiwanese.
Women seem to be resistant to public interference. Hou highlights role of women directly and indirectly. Women in the film choose to suffer silently and represent family institution that is crucial to identity of Taiwanese. For instance, despite the fact that Wen-Sun is missing, his wife acts normally by cleaning his clinic in hope that he will one day return home.
It should be noted that, the clinic is used to manifest devastating effects like loss that Japanese government had on Taiwanese. The endurance of Wen-Sun’s wife demonstrates how people in Taiwan are expected to move on and triumph over oppression. She chooses to resist emotion and trauma of losing her husband.
Women keep themselves occupied with chores, as a way of dealing with violence in the city. They play a crucial role in maintaining identity of Taiwanese. For instance, Ah-Shue attempts to stop Wen-Leung from eating ancestors’ offerings with no success. Wen-Leung continues with this habit until it becomes normal way of life. After murder of Wen-Heung, many people go to witness the funeral and remain silent due to trauma of his death.
Hou uses silence to highlight sadness and noise to highlight normal life of the city. For instance, there are loud sounds at the wedding of Wen-Ching and Hinome (Brown 19). It should be noted that, women in Chinese families are expected to be enduring and supportive, just like women’s role depicted in the film. Hou further, highlights Taiwanese cultures that feature many rituals. For instance, there is a scene that shows men eating while women are standing beside them.
Hinome assumes role of observation in the film and directly narrates happenings of 228 Incident to audience. As a matter of fact, the occurrences are given a feminine touch that intensifies on emotion. Stories told by Hinome and Wen-Ching create awareness on events prior and post 228 incident.
Hinome’s written diary highlights memories, thoughts and emotions in a unique way (Brown 27). She trends on barriers or challenges that people in Taiwan are likely to face, like that of language. For instance, she effectively communicates with Wen-Ching, despite the fact that he is deaf.
Hou however, shows her silence whenever men are around. In this regard, silence of Hinome represents exclusion of women from formation process of Taiwanese society. Silence could also represent reluctance of Taiwanese in redeeming themselves from suppression.
On the other hand, Hinome represents strong identity of Taiwanese. For instance, she engages in writing of events that play a crucial role in defining history of Taiwanese. She also demonstrates quality of courageousness, especially in instances of violence. She takes her brother home after he is injured in the 228 Incident.
Despite the fact that Hinome’s parents warn her against leaving the house due to political tension, she courageously goes to see Wen-Ching after she learns that he is out of jail (Burns 126). In this regard, Hinome represents determination of Taiwanese in preserving their identity. Further, Wen-Ching marries Hinome as a way of respecting his brother’s advice.
Hou chooses to intensify on silence towards of end of the film. Series of images are shown in utter silence and occasionally combined with sorrowful music. Despite the fact that there is terror and tension, Taiwanese remain united and determined to defeat Kuomintang’s oppressive rule. They try to comfort themselves in the warmth of their identity. For instance, Hinome says that she is okay because her family is with her.
Further, help is accorded to those in need as a way of maintaining Taiwanese identity. For instance, Hinoe received financial support at the time when he hid in the mountains. Upon Hinoe’s arrest Wen-Ching and Hinome are devastated, since they feel that one of them will be exposed to torture. Hou’s film make audience witness violence especially in scenes that show police arrests. There is a shift to theme of memory, as Hinome reminisces about a family photograph that had been taken before arrest of Wen-Ching.
Hinome’s letter to Ah-Shue relays news about Wen-Ching’s arrest in a very calm way (Burns 129). In this regard, the film depicts women’s silence in Taiwan and their role of ensuring order when there is violence. It should be noted that, Hou contrasts role of Hinome at the beginning with the one towards the end of the film.
Towards the end, Hinomi seems courageous and composed. In this regard, style of contrast could be used to represent transformation of Taiwanese from end of Second World War to white terror period. The film attempts to represent history and identity of Taiwanese in snobbish yet strong manner.
Conclusion City of Sadness is a dramatic approach that highlights events after end of Second World War. Taiwan Island witnessed violence that was based on political, economic and social situations. The film is unique and has been acknowledged for its attempt to shed light on 228 Incident that claimed lives of many people in Taiwan. Despite the devastating effects that aftermath of the war had on Taiwan, Taiwanese tried to remain calm and preserve their identity.
Characters used in the film represent Taiwanese in different ways. Hou succeeds in engaging audience, since they witness atrocities that took place during this time and their effects on Taiwanese. He connects past with present, thereby promoting identity and history of Taiwanese.
Works Cited Brown, Melissa. Is Taiwan Chinese? The Impact of Culture, Power, and Migration on Changing Identities, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Print.
Burns, Rob. Turkish-German Cinema: From Cultural Resistance to Transnational Cinema, London: Continuum, 2006. Print.
Hallam, Julia and Margaret, Marshment. Realism and Popular Cinema, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000. Print.
The Training Program for the Personnel Report (Assessment) custom essay help
Introduction Description of the Program Content
The training program is designed for employees of a computer company in the UAE whose subsidiaries are located in different cities. The program involves 4 classes where the trainees will study specific techniques and methods enhancing their competitiveness in advertizing the new product (Astrocompt ZT).
The problem of location will also be addressed to introduce specific methods of teaching. With regard to the techniques, the program is to be implemented in 4 weeks where 1 week will be given for studying one technique.
Objectives The objectives of the training are as follows:
To increase the capacity of the new staff. Not-well trained employee could change the relation of the employees towards their fellow workers;
To improve the overall performance of the company;
To develop the higher advanced skills in the new workers. To develop the skills of the new employees so as to speed up the educational process.
These training techniques are aimed at improving the efficiency of the computer company. Hence, the identified techniques include strategies for enhancing greetings, the implementation of open-ended questions, emphasis on better understanding of the product, and effective listening techniques.
The client has to be greeted so as to create a healthy environment for business and ensure that the client is at the right place. The greetings could also make a customer feel comfortable to ask questions about the products.
The importance of open-ended questions is to allow the sales clerk to know the nature of the goods the buyer would wish to purchase. This ensures that a sales representative could explain the buyer the technical characteristics of the product, the peculiarities of its working process and consult the buyer about the prize.
These questions ensure that the salesperson does not get “Yes” or “No” answers. It also gives an opportunity to create an effective dialogue between the salesperson and the buyer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Understanding the Product
The seller benefits from full understanding of the product after one enables him/her to read a description report of the product and then to discuss the specifics of the goods.
Effective listening will help the seller identify the customers’ needs. It enables the seller to cope with all types of customers: arrogant, moody, polite or abusive persons.
Methods of Teaching for Each Class
Each class will be dedicated to mastering the above-enumerated techniques. In order to understand the main aspects of successful relations between the customer and provider, it is necessary to introduce a number of theories on managing customer relations.
Specifically, a plan of lectures should be developed to investigate such points as the basics of customer service and support, development of customer attention, and identification of potential buyers. Similar concerns are connected to structuring open-ended questions, understanding the product, and analyzing effective listening techniques.
Due to the fact that employees participating in the program work in different cities, using online conferences and e-mails for accomplishing assignments will suit the best the teaching methods. In this respect, each subsidiary should have a class equipped with computers for conducting online lessons.
All the tasks accomplished in the form of questions, essays, and case studies will be submitted to the main office of the company.
In addition, it will be more effective for the program supervisors to create official online site revealing the main aspects of the training program to attract more employees into the course and encourage those to learn more information about successful customer relation management.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Training Program for the Personnel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is more important, the employees registered to the site should be provided with personal login and password to their page where they can receive theoretical and practical information.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Program
The distribution of questionnaires helps to give a comprehensive report of the training techniques learnt by the trainees after they fill them. Informal comments are one more mean of training. These comments facilitate an employer or a human resource manager to learn the effectiveness of the training of the new employees.
Job assessments. The trainees will go back to the company so as to know whether they have acquired the new techniques or not.
Pre- and Post-test scores. The company analyzes its performance before and after the new employees’ training. This helps the company to learn if its scores are improving or not.
Supervisor’s report. The supervisors should come up with a report that shows the new performance of the trainees after the training. This determines the new performance of the company.
Financial report. This is a report that shows the new difference of finance status before and after training. This may show some improvement shifts in the employees’ performance.
Inspecting the trainees. This will help to know if the trainees are using the newly acquired techniques. This evaluation technique is aimed at underscoring the results of the training implementation.
Considering clients’ comments let the company know if there is an improvement after the training. Consideration of the clients’ comments enables to know the demand on the product. In addition, job observation helps to determine whether the sales are increasing after selling or not.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Training Program for the Personnel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Requirements for the Staff
Prior to the course introduction, the employees should review carefully the main problems and objectives presented in the program. They should have full awareness of the main techniques and methods that will be applied to enhancing their competitiveness and performance.
Due to the fact that the majority of employees are located in different cities, they should still be equally informed about the main scope of the course.
Certain behavioral patterns should be worked out as well for effective implementation of the program. In particular, the supervisor should make sure that trainees have equal level of comprehending information, as well as equal skills for knowledge acquisition.
It is also advisable to define if all employees should understand the general developmental and behavioral needs. In addition, they should be ready to re-evaluate and re-conceptualize previous mistakes.
Providing Solutions to the Problem
Due to the fact that the employees were directed by the general guidelines stating duties and obligations of the employees, no information was given on the product itself. Specifically, the supervisor failed to give the major advertising characteristics of the newly introduced product.
Judging from the customer’s complaints, the trainer never introduced total description of the product, as well as failed to initiate the employees into the warrantee questions. In addition, lack of effective communication and listening skills also contributed to failure of the selling process.
In many companies, the communication between the client and the salesperson is usually wanting. This is because the sales representatives are sometimes rude to their clients if they do not come to an agreement. Therefore, the salespeople should improve their communication strategy in order to attract more customers.
They need to greet the customers warmly in order to start a healthy business communication. The buyers now start feeling comfortable asking questions about any products.
Once a customer calls or visits the business premises, the salesperson is required to listen to the client attentively to understand what exactly the customer needs, and come into an agreement with him/her. This ensures that the salesperson will try to provide the client with an adequate report about the product.
The number of customer’s increases because there are no customers that leave the company without complete information about products of the company.
The company should ensure that advertisements are properly introduced. The advertisement should contain a comprehensive report about the product. Additionally, it should be genuine and well presented to help the customers get more information about the launched product. The increase in sales volume will be noted immediately.
The successful work of a company requires the punctuality of every employee in the company. This will help the company to deal with more customers within a short period of time. In addition, it should ensure that the product is ordered and delivered to the client on time.
Computers are highly delicate electronics. Therefore, they should be handled carefully in order to keep them in a good state. If computers must be delivered, they should be carried carefully so as not to break those down.
Therefore, the company should have the qualified personnel to handle its goods to ensure the quality. The already trained employees can teach their clients how to handle the computers.
The company must use its finances wisely, for example, in training its employees for the purpose of increasing its productivity. It all depends on
the finance policy and the management of the enterprise. The company has to introduce new advertising methods in order to attract more customers. Since the introduction of “Astrodome ZT” by the company, its purchase rates have been too low due to new sales representatives who could not find the answers to questions asked by clients.
Results are shown by the difference in productivity. If the training is effective, it will be indicated by the behavior of the newly trained staff. In most cases, there must be an improvement in the behavior of the trainees to indicate the well performed training.
With regard to this computer company, improvement will lead to an improvement in every department of the company. For example, customers’ number will increase and the sales volumes should be augmented as well.
Reactions of customers enable the company to measure the efficiency of training. The first reactions of customers are particularly valuable because they clearly indicate the clients’ positive or negative attitude to the offered product.
Duration (in days) Content Methods of Training Date 5 Greeting (basics of customer relations management) Evaluation of practical information; organization of power point presentation 11/28/2011 5 Structuring open-ended questions Analysis of cases studies on management 12/05/2011 5 Product Analysis Analysis of cases studies related to the product defects for the employees to understand the main benefits and shortcomings of the product 12/12/2011 5 Effective Listening Analysis of reasons for customer complaints with regard to communication theories 12/19/2011
Relationship with a Potential Vendor Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive summary This report discusses the elements to be considered when developing a contract with a potential vendor. The aim is to protect the company and ensure that there is fairness in the contract. The report is based on the analysis of available data on outsourcing in the information technology topic.
When developing a contract, the parties should consider analyze the management, structure, vision and goals of the parties, transitional issues, measurement, sustainability, security, termination of contract and quality of services. The impacts on employees and their qualification can be discussed.
Careful consideration of the elements and appropriate policies will lead to the success of the outsourced function. It is recommended that the parties should make an effort to have a win-win situation.
The parties can negotiate to have a common goal and vision which will be used throughout the contract. Good communication skills and an agreement on the measurement of the goals will lead to success.
Introduction Competition in businesses leads to innovativeness of ideas and change of strategy. Companies have engaged in outsourcing to save on cost and to deliver quality at a subsidized cost. Outsourcing has been effective in improving services and increasing efficiency in some businesses (Vitasek 2011, p. 11).
Malarvannan (2008, p. 1) argues that outsourcing has economic benefits for all since services are given at condensed prices. Consequently, some employees have been displaced. Outsourcing is the process that involves handing over a particular business function to another company.
The two companies involved enter into a contract where the services are offered at a particular cost. The terms of agreement are discussed and signed before outsourcing. In this report, the information technology operations and management will be considered for outsourcing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aim of the research report is to ensure that the companies involved get a win-win situation while protecting the business. The company will have headquarters overseers and a local presence.
Issues that emanate from employee displacement, their consequences and possible solutions will be discussed. This report will discuss the elements to be considered when developing a contract with a potential vendor while ensuring that the business is protected.
Elements considered when developing a contract Business representation
Vitasek (2011, p. 11) notes that the goals of both parties can be shared. This will enable them to collaborate with common interest and form a sustainable relationship.
The outsource buyer and provider can work hand in hand after stating the desirable outcomes. They also state how the companies will team up to achieve the coveted outcomes. Different cultures in different companies can be addressed.
According to Platz and Temponi (2007, p. 1661), the goals should enable the company to effectively compete with others in the external environment and secure revenues. The contract should make note of the expectations and be sensitive to what is happening in the external market.
According to Malarvannan (2008, p. 1), outsourcing buyers should consider management issues when planning to negotiate. The contract that is guided by the cost may end up causing management challenges. After agreeing on the cost, the service provider may engage on activities that will lead to reduced costs and compromise on the quality.
Poor performance and inefficiency may be realized and affect the image of the company. What is more is that the outsource provider will perform to satisfy the outsourcing buyer.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Relationship with a Potential Vendor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the challenges of outsourcing is that the outsourcing buyer may eventually lack opportunities for innovation. The negotiations should emphasize quality, efficiency, innovativeness and adequate costs from both the provider and the buyer.
Ngwenyama and Sullivan (2007, p. 618) state that the management should take note of the geographical distance which may be an implication of outsourcing.
When developing a contract, the outsourcing buyer and provider may consider adopting new communication techniques. The overseers company may be disadvantaged by the distance between them and the local information technology department.
Vitasek (2011, p. 18) argues that communication should be a consideration in the making of the contract. Unlike traditional communication characterized by hierarchy, functional communication is direct and suitable for outsourced business function.
In direct communication, information is widely shared and utilized by the employees. When adopted in the initial stages, managers have the advantage of obtaining information from the employees and making necessary changes.
A long term relationship is necessary for the success of the contract. The structure should have management controls. The goals should be clear to both the outsourcing buyer and provider. Policies and rules should be known to enable the two parties agree as well as reduce disagreements (Chen 2006, p. 7).
General goals make it possible to make changes during the project without affecting the main objective of the outsourced project (Platz and Temponi 2007, p. 1661).
When developing a contract, the framework should be enabling and provide assistance in management as Vitasek (2011, p. 17) points out. The framework is intended to be used throughout the period the companies will be in contract. It should facilitate employee’s cooperation, good working relations and positive attitude in their work.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship with a Potential Vendor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The companies developing a contract should recognize that the environment is changing. Policies developed should allow the companies pursue their goals in a dynamic environment. The companies should be accountable and can choose to adopt a culture of continuous improvement.
Declaration and vision
Vitasek (2011, p. 12) states that the vision provides guidance and leads to declaration of intent of service. A shared vision enable outsourcing partners have trust, honor, support and integrity. As a result, the companies enjoy communication, feedback, shared perspective and flexibility.
A common vision facilitates policy making and decision making throughout the contract. The contact becomes effective after both parties have signed the agreement.
Employees form an important part of an organization. Rivard and Aubert (2008, p. 302) note that the employee’s ability to work may be affected due to transitional related dilemmas. The Information Technology managers and junior employees may be required to become loyal to a different boss.
The outsourcing buyer and the provider should make arrangements for a smooth transition and ensure that the responsibilities are without a doubt known. Vitasek (2011, p. 12) suggests that the buyer of the contract can plan to address the transitional issues before they arise. The employee’s corporation is necessary for the success of the outsourced function.
The companies can agree on the management of work at the initial stages to avoid conflicts, and then schedule how the overall goals will be approached. The management can suggest innovative ideas that will enable them solve daily challenges and experience growth. The management can adopt a culture of regular assessment and make changes where necessary.
Termination of contract
It is crucial to discuss unknown future in case of change that may lead to termination as Vitasek (2011, p. 32) discusses. The contract should address termination notice, plan and transition. This will enable the companies to separate without harming the two companies.
The terms concerning exit should be clear. Termination of the contract may occur due to poor performance. It can also emanate from inability to continue providing the services. There can be several options from which the parties choose from when separating or eliminating the contract.
Platz and Temponi (2007, p. 1661) indicate that data transfer and equipment should be discussed. Depending on the size of information technology outsources business; the period of transitional exit should be discussed.
The outsourced buyer should have a measurement plan to assess the success of the outsourced function. They should determine the minimal performance outcomes of the individuals and the entire Information Technology team. Their performance should be better than that of the internal employees of the company.
The measurement should be specific and make note of cost and quality provided. The measurement plan can also follow information technology standards. The outsource buyer should specify the period of time they will allow the outsource provider before evaluating their progress.
Vitasek (2011, p. 12) adds that the measurements of success can be the desired outcomes. The outsource provider can recommend the outcome. The measurements should be attainable and understood by all parties.
When developing a contract, governance mechanisms should be adopted to make the outsourcing sustainable. The structure and reporting mechanisms should be clear and known to all. The decision making process should be enabling and facilitate efficiency. Further instructions can be communicated to the employees (Ngwenyama and Sullivan 2007, p. 618).
Chen (2006, p. 7) suggests that the contract should have monitoring provisions. Monitoring can be done regularly as both parties agree. Auditing reports and reviews are good examples of monitoring. The aim is to ensure that the standards are followed. Recovery plans after failure can be arranged at this stage of developing the contract.
Quality of services
The quality of services should be considered when developing a contract. The end user of a product is the best determinant of the quality of services offered. To get unbiased opinion, the outsource buyer can conduct a research using questionnaires.
The questionnaires would provide information on the level of customer satisfaction. Surveys can also be useful in finding out the quality of service.
Pricing can be discussed when developing a contract. The companies may have to compromise on the price so that they agree. Flexibility, cooperation and creativity are the most effective way of attaining a pricing arrangement (Vitasek 2011, p. 17).
Qualification of employees
The outsourcers may choose to replace experienced and highly paid employees with less qualified and low wage employees. They may choose people with diverse qualifications. Depending on the geographical location, information technology engineers may be rewarded differently.
Those from the developed countries may be given high reward. Those from developing world with same qualification may be paid very little compared to those in the developed world. Outsourcing may involve training of employees to perform the specified function.
The responsibility of the employees changes after outsourcing. Ngwenyama and Sullivan (2007, p. 618) argue that the legal status changes as their employer changes. The employee’s security and other issues are discussed when developing the contract.
The outsourcing buyer and provider may have to consult a human resource or legal person to make appropriate policies.
Every outsourcing project is unique and different approaches are given in legal matters concerning employees. Measures to deal with irregularities and issues such as fraud should be considered when developing the contract.
It is necessary to state mechanisms and procedures in dispute resolution. The statement clearly outlines which conditions are considered arbitration and the course of action, depending on the nature of dispute (Chen 2006, p. 8).
In information technology, a lot of information and knowledge is shared. Confidentiality is essential and both parties are required to respect each other’s rights (Vitasek 2011, p. 17).
Chen (2006, p. 8) notes that intellectual property can be discussed when developing the contract and state the copyright owner. Licensing and rights to modify the products developed is also discussed in the making of the contract.
Employees and labor
When considering adopting a contract to outsource, it may be necessary to consider the insecurity that emanates from outsourcing. The company faces the displacement challenges. The displaced employees have skills and training in a specialized area and may also face a threat in future if they obtain a job and it is outsourced.
The talented and skilled information technologist experts in the headquarters overseer remain underutilized. On the other hand, the employees in the local area in the developing country have an opportunity to work and utilize their knowledge as they gain skills.
Consequently, the effect of globalization is felt as prices of services are lowered, hence economic advantage to many people (Vitasek 2011, p. 12).
When developing the contract, the outsource buyer should consider legislations pertaining outsourcing. Different states approach the issue differently.
Some emphasize that the company should compensate employees affected by outsourcing or trade agreements with other states (Ngwenyama and Sullivan 2007, p. 618).
Outcomes of outsourcing
When developing a contract, one should consider the benefits for each party. The company outsourcing may realize reduce costs from low wages in the developing countries. Outsourcing in information technology enables the company to have specialized information technology services.
The company provides services to the local community at affordable rates. Outsourcing is an effective way of obtaining quality. Rivard and Aubert (2008, p. 304) mention that the contract can make agreements with better services.
Companies can consider tax benefits in developing countries. Some of the countries can reduce or eliminate taxation for some time to allow growth of business in foreign states.
Ngwenyama and Sullivan (2007, p. 618) reveals that information technology companies that outsource may want to utilize the talent, knowledge and skills of employees without an opportunity to deliver. Outsourcing avails services that were missing to potential market.
The employee may have experience needed to bring innovativeness in the company. A contact has a legal binding and employees are required to perform, receive rewards for work done and receive penalties for poor performance. Outsourced information technology experts may take minimal time to solve a problem.
The company utilizes the knowledge and skills that are absent in the company. The company can also outsource if their tasks are beyond their capacity. The employees will therefore be spared from overworking and fatigue. A company can outsource when preparing for major changes in the structure and management in the company.
Conclusion When developing a contract, the business can be protected. When negotiating, the parties can share and agree to have common goals, vision and objectives for the outsourced function. The management can adopt new communication techniques to coordinate functions in the different geographical areas.
The structure should facilitate the transition and management. Changes in environment can occur. The contract should cover the process of terminating a contract and legal issue. Quality of services and employee’s qualification can be discussed. The contact should have policies to sustain the project and enable decision making.
Information exchange, data storage and copy right ownership terms are discussed in the development of the contract. The outcomes expected include quality services and reduced costs. There should be a mechanism to measure and asses the progress of the contract.
Recommendations The negotiations should be conducted in such a way that the outsourcing buyer and provider have a win-win situation. Those signing the contract must be aware of the goals and the policies involved. Understanding of the goals minimizes disagreements and facilitates management efforts.
The outsourcing buyer and provider should make plans together and engage in good communication. The concerns that arise should be jointly addressed for a win-win situation (Vitasek 2011, p. 12).
The main emphasis should be laid on the outcome of the outsourcing. The common goals should be the guiding factor. The objectives should be clear and shared. The measurements should be known and quantifiable to both parties.
Reference List Chen, Y., 2006. An Empirical Analysis of Contract Structures in IT Outsourcing. Web.
Malarvannan, M., 2008. Top five elements to include in a BPO contract. Web.
Ngwenyama, O. K.
Musui’s Story: Katsu Kokichi Essay essay help
Introduction The purpose of this study is to draw a relationship between economic and social dimensions, on the one hand, and their effects on an individual in the modern Japanese society, on the other hand. The subject of the study focuses on Katsu Kokichi who was the third son of a low-ranking Samurai named Otani Heizo.
Otani lived from 1802 to 1850 and was adopted when he was seven years old by the Katsu family with the intention to marry their only daughter Nobuko. Otani lived on a monthly stipend of 100 koku. Kokichi had briefly attended school until he was expelled because he did not develop an interest in formal education. However, he was good at martial arts and riding. He married Nobuko and they got four children. By the time of getting married, Kokichi’s stipend had declined to only 41 kokus.
Background of the Samurai
The Samurai were considered the most senior class in the top hierarchy of the Japanese society. Two of their classes were eta and hinin. Eta means “filthy” and hinin means “non-human”. The hinin were people who were engaged in actions which were breaking the traditions of Buddhism.
Examples of these professions included tanners, butchers and undertakers. In 1871, these classes were abolished. The Samurai were mainly identified by the two swords which they carried regularly. An individual who was not a Samurai had to bow when having met a Samurai. If he failed to bow, the Samurai had the right to chop off the head of the person who was not equal in rank and status to him.
If a Samurai married a woman who was not of the Samurai clan, the woman was absorbed into the Samurai class and also became a member of the clan. The Samurai customs demanded every Samurai to be respectful and honest and uphold other ideals.
Social and economic dimensions
The Kobushin Samurai was a lower-ranking Samurai who earned a meager pay of 41koku. Life for the Kobushin Samurai was very difficult. It was this class that Mutsui belonged to. In order to supplement his income, he had to sell swords and lend money to people at exorbitant rates of interest. Mutsui would also be employed as a guard to protect the merchant shops. In order to survive, Kokichi abused his status as a Samurai.
For instance, he performed the secret samurai customs in public in order for him to be paid for the show. He revealed the secret traditions without feeling any remorse for his wrongdoing. Kokichi visited brothels, drank, gambled places and proudly informed his friends about the visits as though those were heroic deeds (Deal, 44). Kokichi also lied about his identity when he visited a part of the country which he was not allowed to visit (William, 63).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kokichi hated studying, as shown in the following quotation, “I hated studying, and everyday slipped out through the fence and into the Sakura riding ground, where I spent hours riding. At most I learned to read five or six pages of the Greater Learning” (William, 19). Kokichi was involved in many fights ever since he was a child. He was proud of narrating his fighting experiences to his peers. He was once locked in a cage by his father as a disciplinary action.
His father hoped of reforming him. He encouraged him to read some books while at the cage (Ravina, 68). His transformation began while he was locked in that cage. Kokichi’s greatest change occurred when he heard a comment from one old man, as shown in the following quote, “People are wont to repay a good deed with ingratitude. Well, why don’t you be different and try returning a good deed for every act of ill will” (Turnbull, 73).
When his father retired, Kokichi’s step brother, Otani Hikoshiro, took over as head of their family, providing for the family’s needs. Kokichi’s lifestyle would not have allowed him to become the head of the family as he would not have afforded to maintain the family due to the lack of financial resources.
At the age of 15 years, Kokichi’s son, Rintaro, took over as the family head to care for the family. Kokichi took the name Musui, meaning “drunk on dreams”. It was surprising that Musui wrote his autobiography in a book entitled Musui dokigen which means Musui was talking to himself notwithstanding the fact that he was illiterate for most of his life (Friday , 12). Katsu’s story reveals the following about the urban life in late Tokugawa, Japan. When Tokugawa Leyasu took over the reins of power in Japan; he brought peace to the country.
This fact meant that the role of the Samurai, which was mainly fighting and protecting the country, was rendered obsolete. Due to the feudal system, the fighting Samurai emerged as a strong force in the Japanese society. The Shogun was the leader of the Samurai. In terms of rank, the Shogun was at the apex of the Samurai society. All the Samurai were to respect the Shogun and follow a set of rules laid down for them.
Travelling was made easier in late Tokugawa, Japan. Such a progress led to an increase in businesses, manufactures and trade. Roads became safe, as evidenced by the fact that Musui was not usually armed whenever he travelled on road. Document verification centers checking the papers of travelers were instituted along the roads. This measure led to improved security which made Japan more conducive for businesses to thrive.
The commoners had the finances to enjoy arts and engage in leisurely activities. However, the Kobushin Samurai experienced economic challenges. They were given little pay, which was not enough to sustain themselves and their families. They were not offered any official appointments.
We will write a custom Essay on Musui’s Story: Katsu Kokichi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This fact meant that they were in a dilemma as to what kind of activities they could have engaged in. In spite of the challenges experienced by the Samurai, there was economic growth in the country. The foreign policy at that time could not allow influx of Europeans. There were only a few Dutch who lived in a nearby island and were allowed to settle in Japan. The Kobushin Samurai suffered social challenge. Kokichi gave up his class and intermingled with the lower-class.
Due to increased military reforms, the Samurai’s activities of protecting the society through fighting enemies were not welcomed by the higher Japanese authorities. The Kobushin Samurai faced a serious social challenge. They could not live in a way befitting a Samurai since they had to mingle with the lower class people that offered them jobs and paid them money.
The social order was significantly affected. Although the prices of goods sold by the merchants continued to increase, the monthly stipend of the Samurai remained the same. This fact led to many members of the Samurai clan becoming heavily indebted to the merchants, thereby disrupting the social order.
In the rural areas, peasants were able to produce surplus food for sale due to improved technology. This improvement meant that they were able to support activities outside the peasant life. The debts caused increased resentment towards neighbors and an eventual uprising. Violence towards landlords and other elites was also experienced.
Conclusion In spite of the challenges faced by the Kobushin Samurai, there were strict social orders during the Tokugama era. People enjoyed arts and culture. However, the issues experienced by the lower ranking Samurai helped undermine the political order of the Tokugawa era. Due to the new lifestyle of the Kobushin Samurai, the lower classes stopped respecting the higher classes. The lower classes of people did not like the way the higher classes spent their money.
This case is exemplified by Kokichi’s frequent visits to the brothels and his purchase of expensive swords. As a result of this, he accumulated huge debts. In order for him to settle his huge debts, he resorted to acts as stealing and lying. He blamed his debts on his peasants.
He even made them pay more money to the Samurai. However, since the peasants were unwilling to pay more to maintain the living of the Samurai, they realized that they needed to create a new government to rule Japan. The Samurai completely ignored the lower strata of society, peasants in particular. They were involved in corruption and other ills in the society. They were of loose morals contributing to moral decay of the society.
The Samurai lost popularity among members of lower classes. The merchants and artisans progressed to form a new class called the Chonin. These events led to an overthrow of the Tokugawa, as the head of the government. The Tokugawa was replaced with the Emperor who was seen to possess good morals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Musui’s Story: Katsu Kokichi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new government known as Meiji Restoration was seen to be beneficial to all the people in the Japanese society. The classes were abolished, and the Samurai lost their earnings since they became like everyone else. Most Samurai also lost their land ownership and had to become either peasants or go to the towns and earn from doing manual jobs.
The Japanese economy improved during the Tokugawa period. There was an increase in agricultural production, which included the growing of cash crops as well as subsistence crops. There was also a great progress in manufacture which led to the rise in the number of various businesses and shops and wealthy merchants as a result.
Subsequently, there was a significant growth of Japanese cities, which resulted in increase of urbanization and migration of people to cities like Osaka (Coleridge 23). The Samurai did not perform well as a merchant class. This fact was evidenced by an uprising by the peasant class during a time of famine.
The opposition of the Samurai led to another government which was equally weak. In 1867, the Shogunate Government was toppled down by the Choshu and Satsuma clans. In 1868 an “imperial restoration” was declared in the name of 14 year old Emperor Meiji. During the Meiji Period, the country was stable due to the peace in the country.
Such conditions contributed to creating a good environment for modernization. The feudal system was abolished and a new system involving policy making by a cabinet was formed. The Western Trade was allowed in the country which led to increased military strength of Japan.
Works Cited Coleridge, Henry James. The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier, Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Deal, William, Handbook to life in medieval and early modern Japan. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Friday, Karl. Samurai, Warfare and the State in early Medieval Japan, London, United Kingdom: Psychology Press, 2004. Print.
Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai — The Life and Battles of Saigō Takamori, New York, USA: John Wiley
Role and Importance of Personal Ethics in Psychology Essay college essay help online
Introduction Ethics is the behavior of people and how people relate to each other through taking responsibility for the decisions they make. Ethics determines how they are viewed by the community at large. (APA) stands for American psychological association.
Ethics here is a code of conduct that guides psychologists to act on the highest ideas of psychology. It can also be referred to as the standard to which all members affiliate students under psychology agree to comply. Ethics in a profession regulates how people conduct themselves when in the field.
Role and importance of personal ethics in psychology being in (APA) code of conduct The role of personal ethics in psychology in relation to the (APA) American psychological association is intended to guide psychologists and standard professionals to guide them in their decision making and conduct at work. Personal ethics is required when one is serving their clients.
Matters such as privacy and integrity always arise in the line of duty. The client’s mental status should be secretly kept. Also, personal ethics in psychology guides ethics that is applicable to psychologist activities.
Such activities may include scientific activities, educational and other roles as psychologists. Other areas include clinical psychology, counseling and practice in school.
Personal ethics in psychology guides decisions on matters of being on the wrong side or the right side in relation to individuals morals in the society. It also determines the basic standards to which social behavior conforms.
Importance of personal ethics in psychology Ethics is the code of conduct that should be followed at when practicing work. Issues such as privacy and having the capacity to continue treating mental illness are some of the challenges experienced today in this field. Therefore, personal ethics ensures that the psychologists conduct themselves in a manner that protects the patient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Patients are accorded the respect they deserve. Personal ethics of psychologists should comply with the APA code of conduct which is the American Psychologist Association. It recommends that psychologists have such principles of competence, integrity, professionalism and above all responsibility (Knapp, 2005).
The science of psychology is greatly influenced by the everyday changes in life. This calls for the modification and the adaptation of the methods so that integrity of the patient is not on the line. Personal ethics also require a psychologist to undergo proper education, training and supervision.
Personal ethics in psychology prevents the professionals from involving personal matters which may interfere with work related issues. As a result, appropriate measures are followed when carrying out their duties (Knapp, 2005).
Effects of ethics in the application of psychological principles to personal, spiritual, social and organizational issues Ethics has different effects on psychological principles in relation to aspects such as personal, spiritual, social and organizational issues. Therefore, ethics in psychology requires that standards need to be set in relation to these issues. Ethics protects the integrity of one in this field (Brey, 2009).
In personal issues, i.e. personal behavior, the ethics provides a guide and some recommendations particular issues. The ethics prevents you from mixing up your personal and professional life. Just like everyone else, psychologists experience normal hardships such as illness, losses and changes in life.
The ethics guides professions by setting the boundaries from the personal behavior. Involving personal matters in work related issues is a breach of professional code of conduct (Knapp, 2005).
In the spiritual aspect, people have different beliefs and different styles of worship. Christians have different beliefs from other religions such as Muslim, Hindu and other religions. Therefore, the ethics in psychology helps the psychologists to handle the patients in accordance with beliefs.
We will write a custom Essay on Role and Importance of Personal Ethics in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ethics guides one by enabling them to understand different emerging spiritual issues. When it comes to the social and organizational matters, the ethics of conduct will determine how one judges different sexes and the factors that relate to them (Knapp, 2005).
On social matters, the psychologist will classify the various people according to their social class and behaviors. Issues such as age, economy class and gender will be raised. The ethics here will guide one in determining how they will relate to the various groups.
For example, a psychologist cannot treat an adolescent the same way as a fully mature adult. They will have to determine their issues according to their age and gender. Hence, the ethics will guide on how he/she will handle their cases.
Effects of ethics on psychological knowledge and principles related to personal growth, health and development Ethics has influenced psychological knowledge in relation to how the information is gathered. Ethics here guides the way the information is researched. Thus, the ethics has enabled the acquisition of right information in relation to personal growth, health and development.
The people conducting research should adopt policies like privacy and safety in their work. Code of ethics, has enabled people to research within the scope of their work so as to come up with the correct answers rather than assumptions.
Advantages of psychology as a degree choice and how ethics plays a role in decision to pursue the degree Psychology is one of the most renowned courses in the universities worldwide. When one pursues a career in psychology, he/she experiences great growth opportunities. These may include acquiring great in-depth knowledge on human behavior.
A psychology degree enables one to access various careers such as sports, health, industrial, organization and human related factors, since one can practice psychology in all these fields. Also, as a degree, it is a great way to study human behavior. One is able to learn about themselves on issues involving the mind and emotions and the answers as to reactions.
Psychology as a degree has been on the rise. Their services are needed in schools, hospitals and other mental related institutions. When one becomes a psychologist, they are proud of themselves for helping people solve their problems. Through the various studies and researches on the human behaviors, they have come up with many conclusions and answers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Role and Importance of Personal Ethics in Psychology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The code of ethics in pursuing a degree has influenced the career choice of various people. Those who want to pursue psychology as a degree, understand that it is a career of high integrity and competence. It requires total honesty and non biasness. Hence, the effect of ethics in pursuing a degree in psychology portrays it as a highly qualified career.
Reference List Brey, J. (2009) A summit on the future of psychology practice. New York: Plum press.
Knapp, S. (2003). A guide to the 2002 revision of the American psychological association’s ethics code. Sarasota, Flo: Professional Resource Press.
Post September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks Essay essay help: essay help
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the twin towers in the United States of America really grieved the Muslim community in America with the effects being felt up to date.
Despite the fact that there were several Muslims in America who were victims of the attacks, Muslims in America are still being discriminated as a result of that incidence. To start with, Muslims in the United States of America comprise of over seven million people.
However, the September 11, 2001 incidence led to their great discriminated by the U.S. discriminative policies as well as laws that were enacted following the post September 11, 2001 incidence. As a matter of fact, it has been observed that many Americans have become less friendly to Muslims to the degree of displacing the previous leading discriminated groups of Hispanic, Afro-American as well as Native Americans.
Several American Muslims experience various forms of discriminations that range from physical attacks, casual comments, burning of Quran and Mosques as well as employment discriminations. From the outcomes of a study carried out on August 30, 2011, approximately 43 percent of Muslims in the United States of America had experienced harassment in 2010.
Over 52 percent of American Muslims lamented that the Muslim community in America were being subjected to government surveillance. It is clear that the September 11, 2001terrorist greatly destroyed the mutual relationship that existed between the American Muslims and other Americans in the United States of America.
Consequently, this has influenced the American Muslims who are living in the United States of America as they experience negative remarks as well as stereotypes. The greatest pain for American Muslims is associated to their special method of dressing and their unique names that easily disclose their religious affiliations for of stereotyping.
Furthermore, Arab Muslims are currently being gravely discriminated upon by the media through negative portrayal (Robert, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After over ten years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the discrimination of American Muslims still persists with the extent of their discrimination continuing to rise and particularly in year 2010 and 2011 with the introduction of the Anti-Sharia bills in approximately 20 States.
The bills were introduced by a 56 years old Jew referred to as David Yerushalmi with an objective of banishing Islam from the U.S. The Anti-Sharia bill introduced in about 20 States proposed a law that would make adherence to Islam a felony that should be punishable by 20 years imprisonment.
To support this bill, two aimed at making it unlawful the Islamic moral code that included religious practices such as prayers and feet-washing. The Anti-Sharia bill passed with a mass vote of 70-30 percent win.
However, the bill was considered as being very discriminative to American Muslims and it was blocked by an injunction that was issued a few weeks later by the federal judge who felt that the banning of Sharia was undemocratic as it was prejudiced against the Muslims.
Consequently, the Anti-Sharia campaigns are biased as they regard Muslims as second-class citizens in America. This is very harmful to the status of the American Muslims as these debates hasten the suitability of stereotyping of Muslims and expression of unconstructive analysis by public as well as government agencies such as the police.
The results released by Gallop polls in January 2010 showed that 53 percent of Americans had negative perceptions towards Islam while 43 percent felt prejudice towards Muslims.
Similarly, the results were in line with another poll results released by the same organization that indicated that 4 out of 10 leaders in every major religion in the United States of America supported the claim that Americans were prejudiced towards Muslim Americans with 66 percent of the Jews supporting this claim.
We will write a custom Essay on Post September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Islamic law is regarded as being a debatable topic amongst the presidential contenders. Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, there has been a steady increase in the Islamophobia (Robert, 2005). On the other hand, during the mid-term election crusade, there was an increase of anti-Muslim discrimination and Anti-Islam.
Many Religious Right leaders and speculator politicians argued that Islam was not a religion but a political sect. They claimed that Muslims cannot be royal Americans and mosques are fronts for extremist jihads. This was noted by an increased number of politicians who advocated for Islamophobia in order to lure Americans to vote for them.
Consequently, many Muslims did not vote for the Republic Party during the 2008 and 2010 polls. It was only 2.2 percent of the American Muslims that voted for the Republic Party according to the poll results released by American Muslim Taskforce on Civil Rights Elections (Marable, 2009).
Nowadays, Muslims are more worried about losing their security clearances as the one witnessed by Jewish scientist in 1950s. During 1940s and 1950s, Jewish scientists were stripped their security clearances that made them lose their jobs or be downgraded to lower security projects.
Thus, the scenario presented in America is not different. For instance, a nuclear physicist named Moniem El- Ganayni who is an Egyptian immigrant was naturalized as an American citizen and his security clearance canceled in 2007 by the energy department.
This was unfair ruling because judges are never fair in such hearings as it is the government that decides who to give clearances and those to deny. In addition, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has noted an increased discrimination of Muslim employment since 2001 terrorist attacks. It was noted that complaints alleging anti-Muslims in the United States of America were over 800 in 2010.
This was a 60% increase since 2005. It is startlingly that in spite of Muslims comprising for less than 1% of the American populace, Muslims experience more than 21 percent of religious discriminations in the workplace. This is despite the burning of discrimination of people on basis of their religion inclination as early as 1964 by the Civil Rights Act.
A study conducted by non-profit Discrimination Research Center indicated that Muslims names have turned to become liabilities for Muslim job seekers. The study indicated that it is very difficult for a Muslim to get a white color job in the United States of America.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has resulted in too many Muslims changing their names to adopt Christian sounding names in order to enable them get employment opportunities in America (Kidd, 2008).
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, America changed a lot. The Americans were enjoying a cordial relationship with Muslim American before the attack, but the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that happened resulted in great hatred between Americans and Muslim Americans.
The terrorist attacks that occurred escalated hate crimes that were committed against American Muslim who were considered to be Muslims. Those people who were highly targeted were those who were believed to Muslims from South Asia as well as Middle East.
Notably, the consequent anti-Muslim attacks in America rose from 355 to 1,501. The Arab American Institute protested of a high increase in the number of anti-Muslim abhorrence crimes that consisted of cruel threats, demolition of properties as well as attacks that some translated to deaths.
The extent of discrimination continued to increase and in 2007, 53% of American Muslims complained that it was very difficult for them to be Muslim. Most of American Muslims 19% complained that discrimination was the major problem that they were facing because of their Islamic religious affiliations.
Being perceived as terrorist was another problem that was cited to affect American Muslims after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks with about 15% of American Muslims complaining about it. 13% of American Muslim complained that ignorance was also a problem that they were experiencing while stereotyping accounted for 12%.
54% of American Muslim complained that the United States of America government was biased to them and the anti-terrorism activities that were implemented to prevent further terrorists attacks in America were mainly directed towards American Muslims.
It was observed that some Muslim women in the United States of America who were distinctive hijab were occasionally harassed which resulted in them opting to stay at home or abandoning the practice. In 2009, a Muslim woman who was practicing hijab was her hijab pulled down following an argument with an American citizen.
Another incidence of harassment of Muslim women is the shooting of a Californian woman when she was taking her child to school because she was wearing a headscarf (Gomez, 1994).
Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, there was worry about potential radicalization of American Muslims. A poll that was conducted in 2007 revealed that approximately 16% of American Muslims aged 30 years and below support suicidal bombings against the locals such as those executed in 9/11. 11% of American Muslims claimed that such an attack was justified while those American Muslims who were over 30 years old is only 6% who supported such attacks.
9% over 30 and 5% under 30 years old opted to keep silent. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks contributed to the current high number of American Muslims who are playing high-level operations in al-Qaeda as well as other affiliate terrorism organizations.
Similarly, there has been noted a high number of American Muslims who are collaborating with terrorism organizations as a way of resentment because of their discriminations by their counterparts Americans because of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
It has been observed that more than 80% of all convictions who have were tied to global terrorist as well as local bombing after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks encompassed of defendants aggravated by fundamental Islamist agenda.
By 2009, the department of Justice revealed that about 47 episodes of local radicalizations and enrollment to jihadist terrorism consisted of approximately 125 individuals. Before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, there were less than 6 such incidences, but such cases increased to 13 after the terrorists attacks (Curtis, 2009).
Despite the high number of American Muslims who have been radicalized and recruited into jihadist terrorism, there has been noted a decline in the number of total indictments of terrorists from 47 in 2009,26 in 2010 and 20 in 2011. Similarly, the number of American Muslims who were indicted for supporting terrorism also decreased from 27 persons in 2010 to 8 in 2011.
Moreover, the number of terrorists’ incidents has also declined considerably. For instance, out of the 20 suspected cases of terrorism, it is only one person who has been charged with terrorism. There has been a great decrease in the number of individuals who have been charged with carrying out terrorist acts because in 2010, it is only 6 people who were charged with terrorism.
This decrease is contrary to believe of many people because it was universally anticipated that the number of terrorists attacks would escalate after the September 11, 2001 attacks.
The perception of an increase in the number of domestic terrorist attacks could have been resulted from the high increase of American Muslims who were radicalized as well as recruited to jihadists following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
The American Muslims constitutes of approximately 50% of all the terrorists defendants in the United States of America. Despite American Muslims accounting for only about 1% of the total U.S. population, it has been noted that American Muslims represent the majority of those Americans who tip authorities to alleged terrorist plots.
It is noted that American Muslim have been accused of tipping the authorities on 52 accounts for the 140 tipping incidents that have been documented after the September 11, 2001 terrorists attacks (Williamson, 2005).
In summary, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States of America had greatly damaged the good relationship that previously existed between Americans and their counterparts American Muslims.
Nowadays, American Muslims are highly discriminated in all the spheres of their lives ranging from employment as well as been suspected as potential terrorists.
Reference List Curtis, E. (2009). Muslims in America: A Short History. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gomez, M. (1994). Muslims in Early America. The Journal of Southern History, 60 (4): 682-683.
Kidd, T. (2008). American Christians and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University press
Marable, D. (2009). Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Patricia, S. (2007). Islam in America. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robert, J. (2005). The Crescent Obscured: The United States and the Muslim World. New York: Prentice Hall.
Williamson, J. (2005). The effects of Terrorist Attacks on American Muslims. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres.
Financial Management Principles Report (Assessment) essay help online free
Introduction A financial ratio refers to the relationship that shows the performance of a firm’s activities. Various ratios are used in the financial analysis to examine the current performance of the company as well as comparing the past with the present.
This is very important in the sense that it helps in identifying problems which need to be fixed. Besides, ratio analysis helps management to pay particular attention to those problems that pose a lot of danger to the company’s performance and to reach at strategic decision to avoid such potential problems.
Moreover, the management of the company can use financial ratios for comparison purposes, that is, comparing the firm’s performance against that of the competitors, as well as the entire industry (Jan, Haka, Bettner and Carcello 265).
The main aim of calculating financial ratios is to analyze and show broad business trends, which are very crucial in sound decision making processes. Therefore, accuracy in ratio calculation and analysis is important because they help in avoiding errors, financial misrepresentation, and false findings that lead to inaccurate decisions.
Types of Financial Ratios used in Managerial Decision making Some of the ratios that can be used in this analysis to make managerial decisions include, but not limited to current ratio, liquidity ratio, stock financing ratio, and solvency ratio (Kane, Zane and Marcus 458). Broad analysis of these financial ratios and their use in making managerial decisions are presented in the following discussion.
This is calculated as follows:
Current ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current ratio shows the situation of the company’s working capital, that is, it reflects the firm’s ability to settle payments for the short term creditors using the proceeds realized from the company’s current assets without necessarily selling the fixed assets to settle the credit payments (Houston and Brigham 89).
A figure that is greater than 1 informs the management that there are sufficient assets to settle the company’s liabilities once there is some urgent need. However, the management should be very cautious in cases whereby the figure is less than 1, and in such a situation managerial decisions should be made promptly to acquire more current assets.
The formula for calculating is shown below.
Liquidity ratio = (Current Assets – Stock)/Current Liabilities
This ratio shows that the company is capable of paying debts as soon as they are due for payment. This can be regarded as the most accurate measure of a firm’s financial health that managers can rely on when making crucial decisions because the ratio excludes the element of stock thus it reduces risks associated with redundant and slow moving stocks (Houston and Brigham 89).
In comparison to the current ratio, the figures of the liquidity ratio are much lower. For example, supermarkets can survive with liquidity ratios that are as low as 40% or 0.4 because goods are actually received and solved before payments are settled on them.
But, the management should recommend for a figure that is higher than 1 in order to have sufficient cash for settling credit payments. However, a figure that is extremely low would prompt the management to review financial health of the business.
We will write a custom Assessment on Financial Management Principles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the key managerial decisions that the company’s management team can undertake is to reduce the level of stock so as to realize a higher liquidity ratio. Non-performing and redundant stocks can be transferred to other fast moving branches of the company.
In sum, financial ratios such current ratios and liquidity ratios, among others are very crucial in managerial decision making. Therefore, managers should base their decision on the calculated ratios. However, it is important to show ratios that are accurately calculated so as to avoid errors in decision making.
Works Cited Houston, Joel and Brigham, Eugene. Fundamental of Financial Management. Cincinnati, Ohio: South Western College Publication, 2009. Print.
Jan, Williams, Haka, Susan, Bettner, Mark and Carcello, Joseph. Financial and Managerial Accounting. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2008.Print.
Kane, Alex, Zane, Bodie and Marcus, Alan. Essentials of Investments. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2004. Print.
Writing Back and Giving Agency to Suppressed Voices Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of Waters’ works and Other Works
Introduction In literature, writing back is a style where authors use their experiences and historical time lines to bring into light some of the cross cutting social issues within the context of the society of the time. Usually, the authors have the ability to point out various issues that they believe were not well addressed by the social, political and economic institutions.
This is specifically so when the issues relates directly to their lives. Typical of this style of writing is the portrayal of social groups whose voices were not considered in the mainstream society. Queer voices have been oppressed in the past and as such, most writers who have experienced this oppression have found it necessary to write back.
The oppression of social groups along the lines of gender, race, class and sexuality has been common. This paper seeks to make a comparison of Sarah Waters’ story, Tipping the Velvet and other British Literature texts used in this course.
Comparison of Waters’ works and Other Works The story, Tipping the Velvet centers its themes on the queer voices of lesbians during the Victorian era. This period was typical discrimination of young women based on their sexual orientation. In fact, it was a criminal offense for the lesbians to come out openly due to the fear of victimization and punishment from the authorities (Waters 45).
However, this did not imply that the lesbians were non-existent. In fact, they lived within the society and could not raise their voices to appraise the social system. It is apparent therefore that the author writes back to recall the unheard voices of the lesbians in the 19th century.
She appraises the social structures that allowed women to be victimized. Her literary work is similar to many works that authors have written to give a voice to the voiceless in the society.
In many ways, Tipping the Velvet can compare with the book, “A Room of One’s Own” that was written by Virginia Woolf. The latter book focuses on gender issues where women are oppressed and gives an impression of queer voices that were pertinent during the past of the British society (Wood 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her book, Woolf emphasizes on the plight of women who were not allowed to participate in creative literature. Like in Tipping the Velvet, women’s access to education was the main theme around which the story revolves.
Wood says that the two authors have also experienced similar woes owing to their respective sources of discrimination (26). While Woolf was never allowed an education opportunity despite her father being well able to provide for her, Waters has an experience of facing discrimination due to her sexual orientation.
In medieval British society, Woolf explicates that entry to the field of fiction writing was a challenge for women living in the Britain. The rationale was that the access to the field of writing where women could be able to own property and have sources of income was mainly a men’s specialty (Kendler 36).
As an author, Woolf was a critic and she felt that her understanding of literature as a woman was not well acknowledged as compared to literature written by male authors.
For this reason, she wrote the book “A Room of One’s Own” where she takes the reader through her research and getting the reader to know the woman behind the many literature works she had written earlier.
Woolf, in her work, appraises the patriarchal system that only allowed men to acquire property while women’s roles were to act as custodians instead of having a voice in the choice of their livelihoods (Kendler 33).
The theme that parallels both works is sexuality and lesbianism. The society condemned homosexuality and the consequent punitive measures were dire. Hence, homosexuals during this era lived in disguise. Against the existing norms, Woolf invokes lesbianism by depicting Mary Charmicheal’s works in her literature (Kendler 39).
We will write a custom Essay on Writing Back and Giving Agency to Suppressed Voices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She explains that the lesbians during that period lived in secrecy and their voices were suppressed. In particular, she admits that there are instances that a woman loves other women and it happened in the context of medieval British society.
Her help of other women authors to portray lesbianism as a characteristic of any society was apparent. She appraises the power structures and affirms her support for the prevalent literature works like ‘Chloe liked Olivia’ that focused on the plight of the lesbians.
Similarly, Tipping the Velvet portrays Nan as a lesbian whose sexuality was in contravention of prevalent norms and values of the society. Indeed, Nan’s relationship with Kitty was a secret that they could not allow the society to know.
This is amplified further by Florence. Although she is a social activist, it was safe for her to remain within the society’s obligation of getting married and fulfilling her gender roles (Kendler 67). As such, Florence is married and has children notwithstanding her real sexual orientation.
Nonetheless, they begin a relationship secretly with Nan. Waters highlights this theme in a more explicit manner than Woolf does. The rationale is in the different eras that the two authors were writing back.
While the former was addressing the contemporary society, the latter was targeting the early 1930s’ society and hence, she opted to maintain a low profile of the theme in her works.
Another literature work that depict writing back similar to Waters’ work is the novel, “Decolonizing the mind”, by Ngugi wa Thiong’o. The novel give agencies and voice to community languages that have slowly become extinct as a result of the community members opting to speak English instead of their native languages.
Himself is a native African but his mastery in English has received applaud in many Western societies although he seems not proud of the achievement. Consequently, he uses this platform to appraise the power structures amongst the African societies that have imposed foreign languages on their citizens at the expense of the native languages like Gikuyu and Dholuo (Kendler 11).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Writing Back and Giving Agency to Suppressed Voices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children enter into education systems where the languages of instructions have been borrowed from the colonial masters. These communities have no control of the content of what their children learn in school since the state agencies have rigid structures that remain unchanged for years.
In this sense, Ngugi compares with Waters in the manner they represent the power structures of their respective societies as ignorant of/and as a challenge to the voices of specific social groups.
However, the themes are dissimilar considering in the contexts they were addressing. Although they both utilize the style of writing back, Ngugi focus more on the effects of neo-colonialism in the African societies (Wesley 34). Wesley asserts that the novel is more of an appraising tool in which he uses subjectivity to derive the conclusion and highlight the themes (35).
Conversely, it is apparent that Waters is not appraising the power structures in the Victorian period to get back at external forces. Unlike Ngugi, she addresses a persistent problem that is embedded in the social structure of the British society.
Ngugi’s novel is only comparable to Tipping the Velvet in the lieu of the fact that the two writers are advocating for increased attention to the persistent queer voices of social groups. Against Ngugi’s notion, not all Africans wish to see a purely native approach to the longstanding social issues.
Other works by British authors are comparable to Waters work. Particularly, Waters’ work drew immense influence from Chris Hunt’s novel “Street Lavender”. Her intentions were to make her novel look like a female version of Street Lavender.
At the oustet, the two novels are set in the Victorian era when the Criminal Law was being amended in London. Hunt says that the major theme that comes out clearly is in the depiction of sexuality (4). As noted, Waters’ novel is set in the Victorian era in the late 19th century and it focuses on sexuality.
Her novel has persistent lesbian themes, which revolve on self-discovery. In Tipping the Velvet, the characters with queer voices and sexuality differences interact with the surrounding rather than isolating themselves (Waters 87).
Besides, both writers chose to write on the Victorian era because they felt that the power structure in this era oppressed the gay and lesbian members of the community.
According to Waters, most of the things people know about this era are stereotypical and misconceptions. Waters considers herself as part of the gay and lesbian heritage since she portrays her support to homosexuality (Waters 14).
The two novels are against the infamous Section 11 of the law that re-criminalized gay behavior in London. They voice the homosexual minority in the society (Hunt 68). They speak for the queer voice of sexuality, which authorities ignore and assume at most times as though it does not exist within the social frameworks.
The novels display unapologetic celebration and open support for the gay and lesbian diversity. Gay and lesbian literatures are portrayed in the two books in a positive way. The two novels give agency to a sexuality voice that Victorian era oppressed and ignored.
It is notable that the similarity between Waters and Mary Prince’s work is overwhelming. Prince wished that the good people of England would hear and understand what she felt and suffered from as a slave. She felt that she and her mother were treated unfairly and hoped that one day people will understand what she went through (Prince 23).
Throughout England, it was normal for corporal punishment to be inflicted on slaves, slave owners believed that it was necessary to punish slaves because they (slaves) had a refractory nature that necessitate their punishment.
Throughout her life, she was sold to and by slave owners and spent her life serving them. Mary explains in her novel how she suffered as she was passed from one slave owner to another (Prince 44-56). Similar to Waters’ work, they both experienced this kind of antagonistic relationship with the members of the society.
Waters had experienced discrimination and used her voice in the book from her perspective of the broader society. It becomes apparent therefore that the two authors are hugely alike in their encounters with instances of social and political suppression.
The oppression of slaves was because of slave owner continued insistence to be superior to the oppressed. Oppression emanated from powerful men wielding power, which is inherent from their families. Hence, these people remained in power because they feel they must as it was a given right (Kendler 54).
The people holding this power are unyielding and exercise their power in oppressing others. In her work, Mary Prince sheds light on the issue of oppression that affected slaves in the Victorian era. Slaves were not allowed to own property or possess money, which made it difficult for slaves to make a living.
Mary Prince decided to voice the mistreatment that slaves experienced and felt that people of England should hear about the suffering she and other slaves underwent in a similar way like Waters.
Finally, a poem by Louis Bennett titled, “Colonization in reverse” is an example of a perfect writing back style. As the poet ponders, the issue of colonization comes to mind owing to the ways in which Jamaicans are shipped to go and work in England (Wood 73).
Indeed, the author points out that the roles the Jamaicans go to perform in the foreign land are demeaning yet they tend to think that ‘good time jobs’ are only found in England (Kendler 12). She appraises this notion and criticizes the West of using the power structures to simplify the transport systems that are used to ferry the Jamaicans to foreign countries to work as ‘slaves’.
Indeed, she sees no difference between this kind of colonization and the conventional colonization. As a former worker in England, she uses her experience to write back and advocate for change within the power structures. The poem replicates Waters’ work in the manner in which the two systems are used.
Conclusion Throughout history, power structures have acted to suppress the queer voice of the minority. Writing back has become a stylistic device to appraise the pre-existing social and power structures. In their books and literary works, authors such as Waters, Bennett, Ngugi, Prince, Woolf and Hunt are seen to support the voice of social groups.
Tipping the Velvet by Waters assesses sexuality that was criminalized in the Victorian era. In her themes, Waters explores sexuality and openly gives agency to oppressed sexuality voices. Ngugi, Prince, and Woolf have portrayed their concern of suppressed communities, slaves and women respectively.
Ngugi highlights on the effects of colonization on the communities who have adopted foreign languages as their modes of instructions in the context of an education system. After being born as a slave, Mary Prince spent most of her life serving different slave owners.
She feels that people of London should be given an opportunity to hear what she and other slaves went through and the experiences they had, thus voicing people who have been oppressed as a result of slavery.
Woolf explains the issues that affected women at the time including gender discrimination in rather skewed educational and professional systems. As such, the authors write back on the issues and experiences that have influenced their lives and assert that the stylistic device is an effective tool of addressing social disparities.
Works Cited Hunt, Chris. Street Lavender, Austin, TX: Bookpeople, 1988. Print.
Kendler, Hyslop. Anthology of British Literature, New York: McGraw Publishers, 2001. Print.
Prince, Mary. The History of Mary Prince, Teddington, UK: The Echo Library, 2006. Print.
Waters, Sarah. Tipping the Velvet. Kendal Street, London: Virago Press Ltd, 1998. Print.
Wesley, Fannon. Collection and analysis of books by Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Nairobi: McMillan Publishers, 2007. Print.
Wood, Marcus. Blind memory: visual representations of slavery in England and America in 1780-1865, Sandton City: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Professional Communication with General Practitioner GP Report essay help: essay help
Effective communication is necessary if efficiency in the provision of healthcare services is to be attained. Nevertheless, effective communication is hampered by the fact that healthcare professionals work autonomously.
To address this and other communication barriers, demonstration of certain communication skills is required for every healthcare professional. The acquisition of these skills is necessitated by the nature of work done by healthcare professionals; dealing with distressed patients.
By upholding the virtues of effective communication, physicians do more than provide efficient healthcare; they help patients deal with distress. Thus effective communication not only conveys the message but is also part of effective healthcare provision.
The purpose of this interview is to link theoretical assumptions on effective communication, with real life communication scenario within the healthcare industry. Crucial data for this assignment is derived from interviewing a senior healthcare professional.
As explained by Wilmot (2008), in order to derive credible and quality information from an interviewee, relevant questions are necessary. Thus, five broad based questions covering major elements of effective communication within the healthcare industry have been developed for this interview.
According to VanDeVen (2007), selecting a credible and authoritative interviewee is necessary if quality interview outcomes are to be achieved. Based on VanDeVen (2007) assertions, a highly regarded psychologist serving in a major hospital in Melbourne, Australia, has been chosen for this assignment.
His enormous professional responsibility and authority makes the him a preferable candidate as well as a source of credible and valid information. As Ritchie, Lewis and Elam (2003) explain, setting up an interview must follow due process. This involves explaining to the interviewee the purpose, goals and the reason for the interview.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it is important for the interviewee to gain the assurance of the interviewer on the genuineness of the interview process and confidentially with which information is to be treated. This further helps to gain interviewee’s confidence and trust. Therefore, to gain the confidence and trust of the psychologist, the DSO letter issued by the University seemed relevant.
According to Rosenstein (2006), there are two levels of communication within the healthcare industry: physician to physician and physician to patient. Regardless of the level of communication, there are numerous skills necessary if effective communication is to be achieved.
Grogan et al. (2004) argue that whether communication takes place within a group or between two individuals, active listening not only enhances understanding but also eliminates ambiguities. For healthcare professionals, the ability to demonstrate good listening skills seems relevant.
As such, the ability to differentiate between what is said and what is meant, seek clarification where there are ambiguities and misunderstandings, as well as maintain direct eye contact with other communicants are crucial skills that enhance effective communication (See appendix 1).
Communicants ought to demonstrate these skills regardless of whether communication takes place between professionals or between a physician and a patient (Rosenstein 2006).
Communication is a multi directional process; it involves both active listening and effective speaking. Effective communication involves both effective speaking and active listening.
According to Leonard, Graham and Bonucom (2004), effective speaking skills enable a speaker to do more than pass the message across; at times, persuasion, negotiation and mediation are vital communication needs.
We will write a custom Report on Professional Communication with General Practitioner GP specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, professionals within the healthcare industry ought to have the ability to choose words well, exhibit emotional control, be courteous and polite, learn how to persuade others and demonstrate turn taking skills. These skills are necessary for person to person communication as well as communication within a group (Leonard, Graham and Bonucom 2004; Appendix 1).
Yet, the attainment of effective communication within the healthcare industry is hampered by various challenges. Other than the fact that “healthcare professionals work autonomously”, other major barriers to effective communication include: ambiguities and loose meaning, personality and professional differences, inability to use medical jargon, work based hierarchies as well as negative criticism (Grogan et al. 2004; See Appendix 1).
Nevertheless, senior management officials within the healthcare industry have a role to play in minimizing communication barriers.
They ought to develop a recognized formal communication channel, encourage communicants to seek clarification when ambiguities and misunderstandings occur, as well as follow up on conflict resolution.
This is besides conducting continuous training on effective communication for physicians (Rosenstein 2006; Appendix 1).
The skills identified above promote effective face to face communication. According to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, other modes of communication within the healthcare industry include email, internet, fax and telephone (JCAHO 2005).
While the skills highlighted above are crucial in facilitating effective communication using the media identified above, there are other skills through which effective communication is further enhanced. Brevity allows communicants to stay within the message, while etiquette and politeness allows recognized communication protocol to be maintained via telephone and email.
Additionally, the use of positive language enhances the message. For instance, ‘we can complete the procedure when the money is paid’ is more effective as opposed to ‘we cannot complete the procedure unless the money is paid’ (JCAHO 2005; See Appendix 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Professional Communication with General Practitioner GP by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is assumed that one of the biggest shortcomings for job seekers is lack of job experience. However, new employees in the healthcare industry require a set of communication skills, other than those mentioned above. Verbal and written communication skills as well as learning to use technical jargon allow newly employed physicians to enhance communication with other physicians (Grogan et al. 2004).
Additionally, other than the ability to demonstrate empathy, newly employed physicians ought to demonstrate turn taking skills, brevity and precision as well as politeness and courtesy (Grogan et al. 2004; See appendix 1). This enhances communication with patients, which leads to improved healthcare delivery.
Effective communication is required in order to maintain professionalism and efficient service delivery within the healthcare industry. Effective communication is a basic requirement for every physician; its attainment depends on the ability to demonstrate certain skills.
Other than active listening and effective speaking, writing skills, brevity and precision enhance effective communication. It is imperative to note that provision of effective healthcare services requires masterly of all these skills as well as the having the knowledge on when to employ each of them. Masterly of these skills leads to enhanced healthcare services.
Reference List Grogan E, et al. 2004. The impact of aviation-based teamwork training on the attitudes of health-care professionals. Journal of American College of Surgery. 199(6)
JCAHO. 2005. The Joint Commission guide to improving staff communication. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources
Leonard M, Graham S and Bonucom, D. 2004.The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care. Quality Health Care;13(1)
Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., and Elam, G. 2003. Designing and selecting samples. London: Sage
Rosenstein, A. 2006 Impact and implications of disruptive behavior in the perioperative arena. Journal of American College of Surgery. 203(1):96-105.
VanDeVen, A. H. 2007. Engaged scholarship. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wilmot, A. 2008. Designing sampling strategies for qualitative social research. Newport, UK: Office for National Statistics.
Appendix 1: Interview data Effective communication skills for professionals (individual and group skills) Communication barriers and solutions Individual skills Active listening: seeking clarifications, avoid distractions, awareness of what is said and meant Non verbal skills: direct eye contact Speaking skills: good word choice, avoidance of negative criticism ability to negotiate, persuade and mediate Courtesy and politeness Emotional control Use of positive words and phrases such as can, able to, will etc instead of will not, do not, cannot. Group skills Turn taking skills Mediatory, persuasive and negotiation skills Challenges Being too judgmental Using ambiguous word and phrases Hierarchies Personal differences Personal values Personal behavior Unawareness/differences in word choice and technical jargon Solutions Seek clarification Use of recognized communication channels in addressing an issue Train physicians on effective communication Design an active participation platform for employee to voice their concerns Follow up on conflict resolution mechanisms Skills for new job entrants Demonstrate empathy Active listening Oral and written communication skills Learn technical jargon Daily communication modes and relevant skills Daily communication modes Telephones Email Internet Medical charts and reports Fax Face to face dialogues Relevant skills Turn taking Courtesy and politeness Brevity Use of positive words and phrases such as can, able to, will etc instead of will not, do not, cannot.
Impact of 2012 Olympics on London and UK Proposal essay help free
Introduction Olympics forms part of the world’s major sporting events. The event is enormous and complex, making it a rather difficult project to put together. While arranging to host such a mega event, it is critical for the host nation to assess with accuracy the potential impact that the event will have on the nation and its population.
The aim of this research shall be to establish the economic, social-cultural, and environmental impacts of the 2012 Olympics on London at its environs, with the objective of contrasting the pre-Olympics estimates of the impacts and the actual effects as determined after the event.
Background of the Study Over the years, it has become important for the International Olympics Committee (IOC) to assess the impacts of the games on the host countries (Lee 2001). This move by the IOC came after the realization that the impact of the games on the host countries’ communities was long-term.
There was thus need to carefully determine the positive and negative effects that this sporting event held for the hosting nation before the games were held in order to maximize the positive gains and minimize the adverse effects. In other words, the assessment helps to enhance the intended impacts while reducing the unintended ones.
By so doing, IOC figured out that Olympic Games would become more sustainable which is important if the sporting event is to achieve its goal of bringing the world together through games (Houck 2009).
There are three key dimensions to the attainment of sustainability namely economic, social-cultural, and environmental aspects. A mega sporting project like the Olympics harbors substantial long-term effects to the host community on each of these dimensions (Houck 2009).
The aim of these games is not only to unite the world, but also to promote the economic, social and cultural welfare of the host communities and, at the same time, ensure that the environment does not suffer negatively due to the event.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 2012 Olympics Games The 2012 Olympics games will be staged in London. The major reason the city bid for these games was the need to create a long-term sustainable legacy for both London and the United Kingdom (Porter 2011). Part of this bequest involves economic development of some of the underdeveloped regions in London such as East London, and the UK in general.
Another legacy that the nation hopes to achieve through the Olympic Games is the creation of an urban park that will be the greatest in Europe. Other objectives relating to the games include promoting the development of road infrastructure and residential buildings, as well as encouraging locals to participate in games and similar activities in order to enhance their lives (Null
Balanced Scorecard Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Business environments (internal and external) have been changing constantly especially in the 21st century. The effects of these changes are being felt across various business sectors regardless of their size, location, and market or maturity level.
Apparently, the 21st century has brought forth many challenges and opportunities and industries are starting to examine new strategies to enable them overcome these challenges as they embrace new opportunities (Nørreklit 2000, p. 65).
The management team at Rainbow Lighting Ltd is in a quagmire because the company seems to be attracting numerous challenges amidst the changing business environment.
The company is experiencing numerous problems across the various departments, which are threatening the business performance. To begin with, the production department is operating under capacity owing to the short production hours.
In addition, the department lacks the necessary mechanism to ensure that their products adhere to quality and safety standards before they are released into the market as evidenced by the latest incident with Everlasting Halogen Spotlight (EHS) bulb.
The marketing and sales department is a lagging behind in its mandate and even the rare promotional activities are executed without proper market information.
For instance, an attempt by the marketers to position domestic market bulbs through packaging modification and subsequent price increment lead to a huge sales decline.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, customer satisfaction survey indicated that domestic bulb consumers were unsatisfied with the product quality and pricing, while industrial consumers were not confident about product quality though prices were reasonable.
Moreover, wholesalers are complaining of late deliveries and most of them opt for supplies from competitors. Employee satisfaction survey revealed that employee motivation was at its lowest leading to high staff turnover and poor product quality.
Consequently, the above problems have impacted negatively on the company’s financial performance leading to a reduction in operating profits and negative Return on Capital Employed.
Theory, aims and structure of the Balanced Scorecard Following Rainbow Lighting Ltd poor performance, Eindnacht GmbH senior management has issued the management an ultimatum to turn around the company in the next two years or face dire consequences. During the management meeting, the managing director revealed that senior management advisor had recommended that they consider implementing the Balanced Scorecard concept into the company.
According to Figgie et al. (2002, p. 262), performance measurement has become a necessity because it enable managers to understand how a business is performing, and it also enables business to improve their performance.
Against this background, Robert Kaplan and David Norton developed the Balanced Scorecard in 1992 aimed at facilitating the performance measurement surveys within organizations (Nørreklit 2000, p. 67).
The theory behind the development of BSC was based on the fact that, following the implementation of a performance measurement system, an organization would be able to serve its customers, owners, employees, and stakeholders in a better way, thus leading to a promising financial performance (Figgie et al. 2002, p. 265).
We will write a custom Case Study on Balanced Scorecard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Atkinson (2002, p. 1445) perceives BSC as a report card that provides business manages with information on the positive and negative aspects of their business. Moreover, Chia and Hoon (2000, p. 5) explain that a BSC aim is to enable organizations to plan, measure and control their performance based on a pre-defined strategy in order to achieve the desired results.
Traditionally, performance measurements have often focused on financial measures while ignoring the contribution of non-financial measures to the organizations performance.
On this note, the BSC model measures performance based on four different perspectives – a financial perspective (return on capital employed, economic value-added, operating income, etc) , an internal business process perspective (employee satisfaction, new product development ), a customer perspective (customer satisfaction, new customer acquisition, customer loyalty, customer profitability etc.), and a learning and growth perspective (skills improvement, IT system overhaul ) (Chia
North American Hotel and Motel Industry Analysis Essay best college essay help
According to Eyster and DeRoos (11), the American hospitality industry is one of its kind that has maintained a steady growth despite of the recent World economic recession. Some analysts attribute this steady growth to the friendly rules and regulations governing its operations.
However, a considerable number of other analysts claim that the growth in this industry could be better than it is currently if it were not restricted by the “retrogressive’ policies and requirements created by the American politicians (legislators).
In this paper, we are going to examine the political and legal activities that impact or are likely to influence the activities in the hospitality industry, especially the hotel and motel sectors.
To start a hotel or motel business in America, it is mandatory to comply with the incorporation rules and regulations. The first legal requirement is the acquisition of the certificate of registration and hotel keeper’s/ hotel owner’s license.
The certificate of registration gives the business entrepreneur the right to use the premises as a hotel, while hotel keeper’s license gives the hotel owner the powers to manage the hotel. Before the acquisition of these two fundamental certificates, the hotel entrepreneur must have acquired all other relevant certificates and complied with all other legal requirements for a normal business.
Incorporation of the business to the registrar as a partnership, sole proprietorship, or limited liability company is one of the prior requirements. Registration is done so that the business is to be allowed to trade in its own name. Another prior requirement is obtaining written approval from the American Urban Redevelopment Authority on the use of premises as a hotel or motel.
The government, through its machineries, also requires a Hotel Keeper, who is to manage the hotel or motel, to be appointed. In addition, it is necessary for the application for the certificate of registration to be advertised in the national newspaper fourteen days before the submission date.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before acquiring the certificate of registration, the business is to get clearance from the national Environment agency (certificate of statutory completion, and approval from the Fire Safety department).
Finally, the owner of the hotel/motel seeks approval from the building construction authority, and if successful, a temporally “occupation permit” is issued and therefore, the business entity is ready to apply for the certificate of registration and operate as a hotel (Barth and Hayes 16).
Today, the American hotel and motel industry is affected with a long line of political policies and legal requirements. It is mandatory for all the hotel operators to comply with these rules and regulations. The first requirement is the public entertainment/ arts entertainment license which is issued under the Public Entertainments
Global Advertising Services Limited Essay college essay help
Executive Summary For a very long time, companies having managing marketing and promotion functions separately. This is, however, becoming a thing of the past as many are now realizing that an integrated marketing strategy offers greater returns.
This new approach to the art of marketing and promotion is what now referred to as the integrated marketing communications (IMC) campaign. The idea behind the use of IMC is to create synergy among the different marketing functions in order to reduce operational costs and realize better results.
This paper presents an IMC campaign plan for Safaricom Limited, a mobile services provider with its operational base in Kenya.
It starts by giving an introduction of Global Advertising Services (GAS), an advertising firm with branches in different countries across the world, which has been contracted to device an IMC campaign plan for Safaricom.
A brief background of Safaricom and the problem to be addressed is then given. A discussion of the prevailing market situation is presented and then an IMC campaign strategy tailored for Safaricom Limited is explained.
The paper concludes with an advice on how the IMC campaign plan may be tested to see whether it yielded the expected results.
Introduction Recently, GAS Limited was approached by Safaricom Limited to the company with its restricting exercise geared towards ensuring that the company does not lose its market share in the Kenyan mobile phone sector. For a very long time, Safaricom has the dominant and preferred mobile phone service provider in Kenya.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was so until recently when Bharti Airtel, another telecommunications industry player, stormed the market in a way that created fear for Safaricom. In an attempt to attract more customers, Bharti Airtel decided to offer mobile phone calling and messaging services at nearly half the price that was being charged by Safaricom Limited.
Shortly later, Essar Telecom (Yu Mobile) and Telkom Orange, who are also mobile service operators in Kenya followed suit. This left Safaricom with no option but to drastically cut down the charges for its services especially calling rates by half in an attempt to stop its customers from making a switch to other networks.
In the process, the company was made to lose massive profits. Even though the company still made profits, these were far much less then what it managed in the previous years.
It is on this background that GAS Limited has assigned me the task of coming up with an IMC campaign plan for Safaricom Limited to see to it that the company continues to reign as the most preferred mobile phone services provider in Kenya.
The move is also meant to ensure that in spite of this recent development that has changed the market terrain, customers will not be lost to competitors. I will therefore work closely with the company to devise an integrated marketing campaign (IMC) that will strengthen Safaricom’s position in the face of the existing competition.
The Mobile Phone Industry in Kenya The competitive nature of the mobile phone industry in Kenya has pushed mobile phone providers to turn to almost any available marketing option to survive. Unfortunately, some providers have gone to the extent of increasing the number of free services to customers at their expense leading to a huge loss of income.
These providers are, however, confident that the approach will allow them to attract more clients to their network and in turn benefit from an expanded market share.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Advertising Services Limited specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The population of Kenya is approximately 38 million, and according to a report by the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK), the total number of mobile phone subscribers by the end of the year 2011 was estimated to be roughly 28 million (CCK, 2011 p.8).
By all standards, this presents a good market base for the mobile phone providers in Kenya. As can be seen from table 1, the number of mobile phone subscribers rose from 24,968,891 in the year 2010, to 26,493,940 in September, 2011 and finally, to 28,080,771 in December 2011.
Clearly, there is a big indication that the number of subscribers will continue to grow with time. As a result, the mobile phone industry in Kenya presents a very lucrative business opportunity for service providers.
Subscription Type December 2010 September 2011 December 2011 Prepaid Subscriptions 24,756,190 27,844,335 26,260,564 Post-paid Subscriptions 212,701 236,436 233,376 Total Subscriptions 24,968,891 28,080,771 26,493,940 Table 1: Mobile Phone Subscribers (CCK, 2011 p. 8)
As noted earlier, Safaricom Limited has the biggest market share. Table 2 shows the mobile subscription per operator.
The figure is the table indicate that by December 2011, Safaricom enjoyed the biggest market share of 18,687,923 subscribers followed by Airtel with 4,272,964, Essar Telecom (Yu Mobile) with 2,229,974, and finally, Telkom Orange with 2,889,910.
Based on the results in the table, it turns out that the market share for the different operators has continued to grow steadily although at a small scale for some providers.
Name of Operator December 2010 September 2011 December 2011 Safaricom 17,451,325 17,946,363 18,687,923 Airtel 3,792,404 4,172,186 4,272,964 Essar Telecom (Yu Mobile) 1,591,700 1,629,689 2,229,974 Telkom Orange 2,133,462 2,745,702 2,889,910 Table 2: Mobile Subscriptions per Operator (CCK, 2011 p. 9)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Advertising Services Limited by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current Market Situation Although Safaricom Limited controls a larger market share, its services are very highly priced in comparison to those of the other providers. In a bid to attract customers from Safaricom, Bharti Airtel, Essar Telecom (Yu Mobile) and Telkom Orange chose to offer lower prices for their products.
It all started when Airtel announced very low charges for its calling services and later Yu and Orange followed suit. Disgruntled customers almost instantaneously started migrating to Airtel with most people opting to acquire mobile phones with the capability of supporting two Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards to allow them to keep their Safaricom line and still enjoy the services offered by Airtel and the other providers.
In response to this development, Safaricom was forced to quickly cut down its calling rates. This move immediately led to a drastic fall in the profits realized by Safaricom during that financial year.
Assets and Liabilities A condition that has greatly favored Safaricom Limited is its expansive market share. Although the company lost a huge chunk of revenue as a result of the competitor’s activities, the effect was neutralized by the company’s huge market share.
With a big number of customers on its side, a reduction in the cost of its services was definitely not going to affect the company adversely. In addition, Safaricom has invested a lot in newer technologies and unlike the other operators, the company’s network runs on a very powerful infrastructure.
While competitors are still struggling with 3G and 3.75G services, Safaricom is already looking ahead and thinking about 4G services. This stands out as a distinct disadvantage for other operators who are unable to match the quality of services offered by Safaricom Limited.
With its network, Safaricom is also able to offer great voice as well as data services to its customers. The mobile money transfer service, MPESA, offered by Safaricom has also greatly contributed to helping the company retain its clients.
Part of the reason why Safaricom’s customer base has been growing over the years can be attributed to the fact that MPESA is a reliable mobile transfer service that has created a need for people to widely adopt the use of mobile phone services. It is not just about owning a handset but having a tool that is useful.
Most people are also afraid of making a complete migration from Safaricom to other mobile service networks mainly because most of their friends are on the Safaricom network. Being a locally established company Safaricom also enjoys government support and good will from the locals.
Despite the wide support that Safaricom receives across the country, there are challenges to deal with. First of all, the company’s services are priced very highly in spite of the existing competition. This is, however, countered by the fact that most of the company’s services are more superior to those of other operators.
Safaricom’s coverage is also has limited in some parts of the Kenya and customers in such areas are forced to depend on other providers to survive. While the services are very reliable around cities and major towns, subscribers in some remote areas suffer poor a great deal due to poor connectivity.
To ensure that Safaricom survives the tough battle of market control, the following Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) campaign plan is proposed.
Proposed IMC Campaign Plan for Safaricom Until recently, most firms planned and managed their marketing and promotion functions separately. Increasingly, however, companies are moving towards integrated marketing communications (Mueller, 2008 p. 49). A major benefit associated with IMC is synergism.
This implies that individual efforts are mutually reinforced with the resulting effect being greater than if each functional area had selected its own targets, chosen its own message strategy, and set its own media scheduling and timing (Shimp, 2008 p. 214).
The American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) views integrated marketing communications (IMC) as a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communications disciplines such as general advertising, direct response, sales promotion and public relations and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications’ impact through the seamless integration of discrete messages (Applegate
Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Economic Status of Families and Domestic abuse
Link between Childhood and Domestic Violence
Role of Poverty in Domestic Violence
Introduction Domestic abuse, otherwise known as spousal abuse, battering, or even domestic violence, includes expressions of certain patterns of behaviors that are abusive towards one’s partner in a relationship involving marriage, cohabitation, dating, or a familial affair.
Domestic violence is acerbated in a number of ways including assaults, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, economic deprivation, domineering, and intimidation among other forms of personal oppression. However, it is also crucial to note that domestic violence is not constrained to actions entailing physical and emotional abuse.
It also implies criminal coercion, unlawful imprisonment, and kidnapping. The main reason why domestic violence is acerbated towards a person is principally to acquire a total control of the person. To achieve this goal, abusers deploy tactics of instilling fear, shame, and guilt coupled with intimidation to wear down their targets physically and emotionally.
One of the fundamental characteristics of domestic violence is that it does not discriminate various people in the society. It occurs among heterosexual partners, homosexual partners, and among people of varying ages, economic status, and even across all ethnic backgrounds.
While women in majority of the situations are found to be the major victims of domestic violence, men also are abused domestically especially emotionally and verbally while not negating physically in some instances.
Nevertheless, whatever the source of domestic violence, be it from a woman, a teenager, or a man, the behavior is very unacceptable within a society. Unfortunately, domestic violence is still prevalent among various societies.
From this perspective, from a broad approach, the paper finds out if the economical status of families may be connected to domestic violence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also seeks to investigate why, and if one’s, childhood may be linked to domestic violence. On the other hand, from an operational approach, the paper scrutinizes how, and if, poverty plays a role in domestic abuse.
Economic Status of Families and Domestic abuse Among the many forms of domestic abuse, economic abuse is one of the ways of enabling one person to domineer against another person. It takes place whenever intimate persons take control over other persons to limit their accessibility to economic resources.
Essentially, the abusing partners deploy strategies for making sure that their partners have limited accessibility to economic resources. By doing this, the abused partner is incapacitated from having the ability to support him/herself financially.
The aftermath is to ensure that the victim is fully dependent on the perpetrator economically in terms of “obtaining education, finding employment, maintaining or advancing their careers, and acquiring assets” (Williams 161).
Alternatively, the abused partner may be given some tolerances by the perpetrator who closely supervises how he or she expends the finances “and or may also use the victim’s financial resources without being accorded consent with the chief intent of creating financial debts on the part of the victim” (Krishnan 137).
The perpetrator may also make sure that all the savings belonging to the victims are used in totality so that the victim has limited accessibility to financial resources.
From the dimension of economic domestic abuse, risks for domestic violence may result from a change of economic status of either spouse. The argument here is that there exists a relationship between economic status of family and domestic violence.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, Krishnan et al. argue that changes in spousal economic status “are associated with subsequent changes in violence risks” (139). Basing their study on the Indian context, the authors claim that women increase their risks of being subjected to domestic violence by 80 percent when their economic status changes from unemployment to employment.
On the other hand, when men lose their jobs, they are 1.7 times likely to encounter domestic violence perpetrated by their wives (Krishnan et al. 141). In a study conducted in Malaysia by Awang and Hariharan, it is found out that the income status of survivors of domestic violence is a key determinant of domestic violence (459).
Therefore, economic factors are critical in examining the factors that may create prevalence of domestic violence among families in various societies. Arguably, the central concern of this argument is that domestic violence may be attributed to economic factors.
However, it is also arguable that domestic violence may lead to deterioration of the parties involved in the violence economically. Precisely, “until recently, it was unclear whether victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking were eligible for unemployment insurance if they were fired or forced to quit their jobs because of the violence” (Runge 16).
Consequently, in the states where the law has not been amended to give people opportunities to benefit from unemployment benefits when such people are laid off because of reasons related to domestic violence, battering acts as a means of worsening the economic status of the victims.
Research on the impacts of domestic violence on the ability of women to work such as the one conducted by Audra and Shannon shows that women who are abused have lesser probabilities of choosing to work than women who have not experienced domestic violence (1119).
This implies that battering influences the capacity of women to look for means of bettering their economic status. This has the impacts of making them even more dependent on the perpetrators of domestic violence. In this context, economic independency is a subtle mechanism of reducing the risk of exposure to domestic violence among women.
On the other hand, women who suffer divorce due to domestic violence “exhibit an unemployment rate of 20% below that of non abused divorced women” (Audra and Shannon 1120). From these findings, it sounds subtle to argue that working women have lesser probabilities of experiencing domestic violence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the hiked economic status for women resulting from the state of being employed is a key determiner of their exposure to domestic violence.
This argument is amplified by Audra and Shannon’s findings, “…out of the sample of women that were abused in the past, 9.4% of women who are currently not working are abused whereas only 8.9% (3.48% out of 39.2% married women abused in the past) of women who are currently working are abused” (1120).
The findings indicate that unemployment among women may result to a cycle of exposure to domestic violence. This follows because, the more women are exposed to domestic violence and the more likely they refrain from looking for employment, the higher the probability of being abused.
Since employment is directly correlated with the economic status of individual, the argument provides substantive grounds to infer that a relationship exists between domestic violence and economic status of families.
Link between Childhood and Domestic Violence Numerous scholars have investigated the impacts of people’s exposure on domestic violence on childhood based on the capacity of such people to result into abusing their partners in adulthood.
For instance, Audra and Shannon argue that men who have experienced domestic abuse during their childhood have higher chances of abusing their wives (1119). This experience comes from seeing their fathers abuse their mothers. Nevertheless, employment status also plays central roles in making men abuse their wives.
For instance, Audra and Shannon argue, “abusive husbands are also more likely to have experienced unemployment in the past 12 months and are much less likely to have a university education than non abusive spouse” (1119).
Education is one of the ways of ensuring that societies are fully aware of the rights of all individuals including the right for not being abused domestically. However, based on the findings of Audra and Shannon, childhood experiences in battering seems like a force that is so strong that it out powers educational knowledge on battering.
The contribution of the experiences of children rendering them resolve to intimate partner violence is also noted by Mbilinyi et al. who claim that cognition of domestic violence in childhood has the ability to make people normalize domestic violence in adulthood (171).
Amid the above claim, it is also important to consider other counterarguments for the link between childhood exposure to domestic violence and their likelihoods of resulting to engaging in violence activities themselves in adulthood.
In this dimension, several scholars encounter mixed findings on the link particularly on incorporation of dimensions such as utilization of contextual barriers in their studies. Such barriers include social economic status and community violence.
Nevertheless, Mbilinyi et al. maintain that childhood domestic violence is an indicator and a factor that may help in predicting indulgence in adulthood domestic violence (183).
During perpetration of domestic violence acts, children are always caught in between the warring parties. Consequently, they develop certain psychological and behavioral attitudes towards either party. Sometimes, in this interaction process, children end up being physically abused once they intervene in defense of the weaker party.
Murrell et al. support this line of argument by further informing, “Many women are abused by intimate partners, millions of children witness such acts, and many of these children are physically abused” (523). Many of such children possess higher chances of portraying violent behaviors during their adulthood.
Hence, exposures to domestic violence in the family of origin may act as a subsequent factor that may result to the victimization of one’s partner. Kerley et al. reinforce this argument by claiming, “this relationship holds not only for direct exposure (experiencing violence), but also for indirect exposure (witnessing violence against a parent or sibling)” (337).
Arguably, people’s indulgence in domestic violence following exposure to environments dominated by perpetration of battering may be seen as being caused by intergenerational transmission of battering behavior.
However, it is critical to note that there is scholarly evidence that the issue of children witnessing or experiencing violent acts being perpetrated to one of their parents by the other parent has probabilities of making such children practice similar behaviors towards their partners later in adulthood.
However, the extent to which their violent acts measures up to the threshold of their experiences remains unclear. Therefore, it remains questionable whether other factors such as social economic status serve to increase the abusive behaviors experienced during childhood or these factors act as independent factors that lead to the portrayal of the abusive behaviors.
Role of Poverty in Domestic Violence Poverty and battering are essentially interwoven. This implies that any endeavor to run away from an abusive relationship may expose the victim to some economic challenges, which are often too hard to accept as the status quo.
Precisely, any attempt to vacate from one place to another in the quest to escape domestic violence would imply losing housing, jobs, accessibility to one’s partner income, and childcare while also not negating quality health care.
This argument is amplified Evans who argues that, in Australia, “there continues to be a higher prevalence of domestic violence, and more severe physical injury sustained as a result of domestic violence among population groups living with poverty” (36).
In this perspective, where one partner is not economically endowed, chances are that, for her or him to continue with normal life economically, he or she needs to endure domestic violence. The severity of poverty in resulting to exaggeration of acerbating violent acts is exemplified by legislation and other state policies.
This follows because the policies and the legislation on domestic violence only provide mechanisms of isolation of the victim from the perpetrator without providing for or guaranteeing long-term financial security to the victim.
On the other hand, anti-poverty schemes primarily focus on hiking the accessibility to economic resources without paying attention to and inculcating measures to ensure that an abusive partner does not harm the job of the victim.
Poverty exposes women who are battered to minimal options. For those women who have low incomes, they have a high probability of being subjected to discrimination, which has the overall results of reducing their financial security and their safety.
For example, some property owners may shun away from renting their houses to women whose rents have been subsidized by their governments. Consequently, it sounds plausible to argue that women who live in low-income neighborhoods are likely to have low economic opportunities and accessibility to employment.
Hence, they are more likely to experience battering without escaping away from it. Directly congruent with this argument, Williams further argues that women with low incomes may be compelled to “seek emergency housing whether they reside in domestic violence or homeless shelters” (143).
Thus, poverty is critical in making victims of domestic violence to continue persevering maltreatments acerbated by their partners. Mogford supports this argument by further arguing, “The effects of a woman’s status on her likelihood of experiencing abuse depend on the social realm within which status operates” (835).
Additionally, the author confirms the prior arguments that poverty and domestic violence are intertwined especially in the context of rural areas. Arguably, poverty results to battering due to increased relationship and familial stresses, which have the utmost consequences of posing a limitation to the victims’ capacity to depart from an abusive partner.
For many demographic social groups, nonmetropolitan poverty is normally higher than metropolitan poverty. This truncates into making the survivors of domestic violence living in rural areas have limited means of transportation.
Consequently, this makes them unable to free from abusive partners to seek refuge in their friends and or families’ homes located far away from their rural dwellings. The argument here is that poverty leads to making the victims of domestic abuse persevere domestic violence acts perpetrated to them by their partners.
Annotated Bibliography Audra, Bowlus, and Shannon Seitz. “Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce.” International Economic Review, vol. 47, no. 4, 2006, pp. 1113-1149.
The article argues that women are normally caught in between a cycle of domestic violence akin to factors related to the likelihoods of seeking employment having priory experienced domestic violence acerbated to them by their husbands.
Additionally, a model for domestic violence is approximated with the objective of determining which party in marriage abuses the other one coupled with determining the manner in which women respond to abuses via divorce and unemployment.
It is asserted, “Employment before the occurrence of abuse is a significant deterrent” (Audra, and Shannon 1113). Additionally, the articles claim that men’s indulgence in domestic abuse may be predicted by their encounters of domestic abuse in childhood.
Awang, Halimah, and Sharon Hariharan. “Determinants of Domestic Violence: Evidence from Malaysia.” Journal of Family Violence, vol. 26, no. 6, 2011, pp. 459-464.
This article scrutinizes the factors that may determine the occurrence of domestic violence in Malaysian context. Its analysis restricts itself to impacts of marital capital and demographic factors on households and the manner in which these factors relate with domestic violence.
In making its inferences, the study utilized empirical evidence garnered from case files of Malaysian women’s aid organization. The results indicate that three factors determine domestic violence. These are income status, number of children, and age of the perpetrator.
Evans, Susan. “Beyond Gender: Class, Poverty and Domestic Violence.” Australian Social Work, vol. 58, no. 1, 2005, pp. 36-43.
Evans argues that it is crucial to understand clearly the relationship that exists between poverty as a form of marginalization and domestic violence. In the Australasian context, the author further suggests that poverty is a central contributor for continued perseverance for people to live with abusive partners.
Therefore, the article proposes that necessary efforts for preventing domestic violence needs to encompass the manner in which poverty interlocks with class (economic class) and other factors such as social identities that define the experiences of people in domestic abuses.
Kerley, Kent, et al. “Exposure to Family Violence in Childhood and Intimate Partner Perpetration or Victimization in Adulthood: Exploring Intergenerational Transmission in Urban Thailand.” Journal of Family Violence, vol. 25, no. 3, 2010, pp. 337-347.
The article uses a sample size of 816 Bangkok women who are married to carry out an analysis of the impacts of their exposure on domestic violence on their capacity to perpetrate victimization and domestic violence on their partners in adulthood.
In the words of the authors, their results indicated, “there are indeed long-term and significant effects of childhood exposure to family violence on the likelihood of Thai women’s psychological and physical intimate partner perpetration” (Kerley et al. 337). More importantly, the article claims that there is a direct correlation between childhood exposures to domestic violence and adult battering.
Krishnan, Suneeta, et al. “Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.” Social Science
Finding a suitable consultant for BBB Report college admissions essay help
BBB relies on supply chain management (SCM) software for inventory tracking across the UK. The SCM worked well until the company decided to expand and run two entities independently. Consequently, the SCM failed to meet BBB growing needs.
Clearly, there were inefficiencies of the system as it could not control the current inventory of the company. This system frustrated internal control processes.
Therefore, the company needs an IT consultant to conduct an audit and improve the system. These are the step the company must consider when choosing IT consultant.
BBB must ensure that the consultant is a professional and certified from a recognised institution. This shall ensure that the company achieves the right remedy for the problem.
The consultant should be able to provide IT support to BBB whenever a need arises. This shall ensure that the company gets the necessary support in time. The consultant must work with the IT department of BBB.
The consultant must provide a roadmap for monitoring changes and events. The roadmap must show the company how to monitor various changes and resolve them. The roadmap must also align IT strategy with the business objectives.
Bespoke IT solution for BBB
The IT consultant must adapt the SCM system to business requirements of the BBB and Twilight. This shall meet unique needs of the two entities in terms of inventory management across the UK and Eastern Europe.
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BBB must ensure that the consultant has a wide experience in order to get the right support needed to fix the SCM system to handle inventory across various departments, fix unofficial network that managers have created, and handle the floor stock.
BBB should not engage expensive consultant amidst the recession. The company should look for an affordable consultant who can deliver solutions that can serve needs of the business.
The company must avoid excessive fees through requesting for offers from various consultants. The company must focus on getting efficiency that can drive performance.
The company must look for a consultant that shall make a commitment to BBB IT system. This is to ensure that the consultant aligns the IT strategy with the business strategy. This factor is necessary to ensure that the consultant is pragmatic and willing to make the system succeed.
The consultant must also be ready to listen to needs of the company. This shall ensure a long-lasting partnership and better working relationships.
Provisions of other services
The company must ensure that the consultant can provide a back-up support and facility whenever unforeseen events occur. At the same time, the consultant must be willing to provide “system integration, process optimization, infrastructure management, software engineering, IT service management and IT governance” (Kress, 2010).
The company should request for bids or conduct Internet searches in order to identify a consultant that can meet its IT needs. This must also involve conducting a proper background of the company.
We will write a custom Report on Finding a suitable consultant for BBB specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More BBB must also consult other firms who have used services of its preferred consultant and determine strengths and weaknesses of the consultant. BBB must also consider the consultant’s infrastructure and technological skills and knowledge so as to determine the consultant’s capacity to handle the project.
Once BBB chooses a suitable consultant to fix its SCM problem, the company can be sure that the consultant can fix and provide a suitable IT solution to meet needs of both BBB and Twilight through integration.
Internal and external business environment for BBB
An internal analysis of BBB focuses on both strengths and weaknesses of the company by analysing its internal environment. This is the only way to determine advantages and disadvantages that BBB can focus on to meet needs of its customers. Analysis of BBB internal environment involves resources and capabilities (Kaplan and Norton, 2000).
We focus on both tangible and intangible assets and human resources of BBB when looking at the internal environment.
Financial resources: BBB has over eight million pounds in reserve, and its credit is good. However, profit margins have dropped, and the financial crisis will soon affect the company’s revenue.
Physical assets: the company has six manufacturing sites across the UK. BBB later moved its manufacturing base to Eastern Europe due to low costs of labour. The company also invested in computers and SCM software in order to enhance its operation. There are also floor stocks and warehouses.
Technology: currently, the company relies on the SCM system that cannot serve its expanding operation. Therefore, it needs to update its IT system so as to serve its customers effectively.
Brand/Image: BBB is an old and well-established brand in the UK. This brand has promoted the company’s image and reputation across the UK and Eastern Europe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Finding a suitable consultant for BBB by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human resources: the company has managers who can adapt to situations and invent their systems to handle the current situation. BBB has knowledgeable, reasoning, adaptive, and skilled managers with quick decision-making abilities. These employees also show commitment to the company.
BBB can only realise productive activities through engaging its resources. Therefore, the company should focus on the following aspects.
Corporate processes: the company is an old one that has survived and exploited market opportunities for many years. The management is responsive to changes in the market. This is evident through the formation of its Twilight entity.
However, the current system of cost management is not effective due to increasing costs of shipping. Coordination of different branches is also poor as managers have to call up to 12 other managers to establish availability of a coffin for an urgent purchase.
The company also has capabilities of meeting customers demand within 48 hours. This is a quick turnaround time for BBB.
Information management: at the moment, company has a poor system of controlling the flow of information to facilitate business. For instance, managers have to call up to 12 other managers in case of emergency purchases. This slows down business and increases costs of shipping.
Innovation of new products: the company has innovation capacities. It formed Twilight to serve the prepaid market of the old customers. It also grew through providing other products like cremation urns and ornamental masonry, and headstones and services related to funeral arrangements.
Marketing: BBB uses a product catalogue delivered twice a year to funeral directors of the UK to market its products and services. This approach may not be effective with the dwindling profits and recession. The company needs to involve other approaches such as using traditional media and promotional strategies to enhance its marketing efforts.
Sales growth: BBB has experienced success over the past years. However, acquisitions of other chains of funeral directors and expensive processes of shipping have affected its sales and profit margins.
An external analysis of BBB focuses on opportunities and threats that BBB and Twilight need to consider in their strategies.
Customer analysis: BBB has segmented its customers into two categories distinguished by age. Twilight serves the older segment of the market through prepaid arrangements. The company also strives to serve unmet needs of its customers through provisions of related services.
BBB must also analyse its competitors and their strategies. In addition, it must also determine market needs and overall size of the market. The company must identify significant future trends, areas of uncertainty like recession and its effects on the business strategy.
Large market share and distribution channels
Suitability of location across the UK and Eastern Europe
Quick turnaround of 48 hours
Meeting diverse needs of customers and involving customers in funeral arrangements
Weaknesses Poor management of operating costs (shipping)
Inability to adapt with technological trends
Poor management of communication processes
Poor marketing strategies
Poor management of operation costs
Opportunities Product innovation
Acquiring new SCM system
Favourable distribution channels
Skilled and adaptive workforce
Increasing capacity for raw materials
Untapped marketing strategies
Proper management of inventory and shipping costs
Threats Failure of the SCM system and poor inventory management
Increasing shipping costs
Economic issues such as recession, inflation, exchange rates
Short notices in making funeral arrangements
Increase in time demand among staff
Political: BBB operates in a politically stable country. Currently, there are no foreseen regulations that may affect the operation of the company.
Economic: the Global Financial Crisis is likely to affect the company’s revenue. It will lead to inflation, unemployment, and high interest rates. Consequently, customers may resort to their own funeral planning. The company’s disposable profits are dwindling. It still has a good credit record and eight million pounds in reserve.
Social: this is a socially sensitive industry. BBB formed Twilight to focus on older clients. The company has to deal with grieving relatives, observe religious reasons for early burials, and contend with relatives inputs in funeral arrangements. At the moment, BBB has been able to handle social factors well.
Technology: BBB invested in computers and SCM system. However, the SCM system cannot support the growing operation any more. Consequently, BBB may record loses unless it updates its inventory every quarter. The company has difficulty adapting to technological changes.
Environmental: there are no adverse environmental factors that can affect activities of the company.
Legal: the company has no legal issues to deal with at the moment.
IT strategic vision and areas of priority for BBB
The drops in profits and challenges with the SCM system have created a clear mandate for aligning business strategy with the IT strategy.
The company must focus on cost-cutting and innovation in order to maximise revenues using the new inventory management system. The company can create competitive advantage through leveraging IT systems to improve business processes (Reynolds, 2010).
The company must involve top management in formulating IT and business strategies. BBB must involve all its managers and the IT department. This is to ensure that new strategies and changes receive support from all departments and managers.
This is the only way BBB shall create synergy across its various stores. BBB can achieve strategic advantage by relying on supports of the management team.
BBB must identify the need for a new SCM system to manage its inventory. In this context, the company must focus on the following areas.
Holistic analysis of processes and IT solutions: the company should focus on aligning business and IT strategies, improving SCM software, implementing effective IT governance, and improving management operations.
The company must also define target portfolios, IT infrastructure, staff training, and management systems. This should address business needs for IT systems.
BBB must also focus on cost benefit-analysis in order to realise value propositions for aligning business and IT strategies. This should also provide a long-term roadmap that can address future changes so that the current situation does not recur.
The consultant must assist BBB improve IT performance and business productivity. The consultant must also focus on reducing the cost of providing IT services to BBB. In this case, the consultant must review, restructure, initiate, and implement effective IT system and governance.
The consultant must get active with the daily operation and management of the business and help in setting priorities of the business.
The consultant must ensure realignment of business strategy with the IT strategy. This process must also include all business units. It must also consider strategic plan of every BBB business unit and form a strategic approach in executing business plan.
In this regard, the consultant must understand BBB business needs and implement innovative system that can facilitate business processes. The consultant must also be consistent in addressing different challenges BBB faces currently.
The need for enterprise-wide solution
BBB needs an enterprise-wide solution for its management of operation. This is a better chance for the company to establish business performance on investments in the IT system. This system can also link BBB and Twilight business processes.
Areas of focus
BBB IT strategy must emphasise strategic alignment. This shall help the company improve tracking processes, reduce costs of keeping records, and long chain of communication among managers.
BBB must also involve consultant in order to ensure that BBB and Twilight achieve value from technology. In this area, the consultant must concentrate on processes that lead to wastage such as contacting other managers, shipping costs, and reduce floor stock that tie up money in the inventory.
The company has experienced wastage and now facing the Global Financial Crisis. Consequently, it must ensure that IT systems help in effective management of resources. It must also manage employees’ time and improve turnaround time for its customers. Management should also focus on reducing risks that BBB experiences.
Strategic business strategy and IT strategy must ensure that BBB improves its sales performance and growths in profits. This calls for effective management of the company’s operation.
BBB must also ensure effective IT governance when implementing its strategies. However, this depends on the commitment of senior managers. Effective communication is also necessary in implementing business and IT strategies.
The consultant must provide innovative solutions through a thorough assessment of how to improve the existing situation of BBB, and help the company leverage on a modern technology so as to improve business initiatives and processes.
BBB has suffered losses due to lack of prior planning. Therefore, the company should insist on IT system that focuses on future needs on the business by linking organisational strategy and IT strategies. This is the only way to ensure that BBB achieves new capabilities and concentrates on strategic initiatives. This shall ensure the business growth and increase in sales.
BBB also has many opportunities to exploit through improving marketing strategies, relying on skilled and adaptive managers, and enhancing inventory management.
References Kaplan, R. and Norton, D. (2000). The Strategy-Focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
Kress, R. (2010). It Governance to Drive High Performance: Lessons from Accenture. Boise, ID: IT Governance.
Reynolds, G. (2010). Information Technology For Managers. Australia: Cengage.
Halal Meat’s Specific Regulations Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Muslims make up 25% of the world population and according to their religion, Islam; their diet is restricted. The Quran outlines specific regulations regarding halal meat. Muslims follow strictly the requirement that all meat meant for their consumption must be halal. The market trends in the world need to understand halal meat in order to increase sales in areas occupied by Muslims.
Muslims are not allowed to buy meat which is not halal as this also contravenes the teachings of the Quran. Whenever a consumer who is a Muslim visits a supermarket, the first thing he or she checks in the meat products is whether the products have the halal mark or not. This paper describes the methods used to verify halal products and the process followed to ensure meat is halal. The paper also seeks to establish why the Muslim religion and culture insists on the consumption of halal meat by its members.
Introduction The religion of Muslims guides them through rules known as Shariah laws. Islamic law is outlined in the Holy Quran and Hadith which is the practice recommended by Prophet Muhammad. Eating for Muslims is considered as part of worship and every Muslim is required by the Shariah law to eat halal meat.
The general guidelines for halal were adopted by a subsidiary body of Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization known as Codex Alimentarius Commission. Its purpose was to protect consumers’ health and ensure global food trade was done fairly especially in reference to the requirements for halal.All halal meat has to be labeled as so.
The economic worth of the Halal food market Muslims and non-Muslims consider halal food to be an important part of their diet. There exists a great business opportunity for non-Muslims to supply halal meat in order for them to familiarize themselves with demand and supply chains of halal meat.
Globally, Muslims are estimated to be over 1.5 billion. Their population is expected to grow at a rate of 3% annually. Halal meat is also consumed by Non-Muslims. For example, Mieder
Strategic Planning Process and Models Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free
Just like planning to go for a trip on an unfamiliar journey, strategic planning is used in business organizations as a map to help establish ways to achieve the set goals. The process of strategic planning involves examining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the organizations.
After examining, a strategic plan for future operations is developed. For an organization to get to its desired destination in growth there has to be a strategic plan to help carve a path to follow.
Strategic planning helps an organization to know where it intends to go over a specific period. This also maps-out how the organization intends to get there and helps to establish whether the organization achieves its goal in the end. Strategic planning is very different from a business planning.
A strategic plan focuses on the whole business unlike a business plan that focuses on a precise agenda (Bradford and Duncan). A strategic plan is a living and dynamic process (Bradford and Duncan).
Strategic planning models include the Michael Porter’s Five Forces, the Adrian Slywotzky’s Value Migration, and the W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy. Michael E. Porter from Harvard business school formed the porter’s five forces analysis in the late 1970s (Bradford and Duncan).
Based on industrial organization economics, the five forces analysis focuses on the competitiveness and attractiveness of a market (Tracy). An attractive market therefore is one, which has high-level profitability while the opposite is true for an unattractive market.
Of the five forces analysis, the first three are influenced by external competition while the remaining two are influenced by internal threats (Porter). Porter referred to his theory as the Porter’s Five Forces, ‘micro environment’ (Porter).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These include factors that closely influence an organization’s ability to make profit and effectively serve its customers (Porter). Nonetheless, industry attractiveness does not really mean that all organizations in that market niche make an equal profit margin. Companies apply individual business models to enable them compete with the rest in the industry.
Core competencies allow companies to achieve greater profit margins than the normal industrial average. The airline industry is a low profitability industry but individual organizations apply unique business strategies that enable them go above the industry average (Porter).
The porter’s five forces entail three forces that are influenced by the horizontal competition (Porter). They include the threat of substitute products, the threat from already established rivals, and the threat of new entrants (Porter).
The remaining two forces on the hand are vertical completion. These are the bargaining power of the suppliers and the bargaining power of the customers (Porter). Below is a graphical representation of the porter’s five forces (Porter).
Adrian Slywotzky’s Value Migration is shifting of value-creating forces (Slywotzky). The organization shifts to designs that satisfy the clients better. Concisely, it entails creating as much value as possible for the customer.
This is achieved only by providing products and services that effectively satisfy the needs of the consumers. Value migration as described by Slywotzky is in three categories. They are, value flows between companies, value flows between companies, and value flows between business models within a company (Slywotzky).
Value flows between industries may be shown by flows from hospitality to transport industry. Between companies, a good example is from Corel word perfect for Microsoft (Slywotzky).
We will write a custom Assessment on Strategic Planning Process and Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A good example of value flows between business designs would be from IBM mainframe computers to IBM PC’S with system integration (Slywotzky). With value migration, there are three stages involved and they are, value inflow stage, value stability stage, and value outflow stage.
Value inflow is the value borrowed from other organizations or different industries. Value stability on the other hand is a situation where there is a competitive equilibrium. This means that the market share and the profit margins are at equilibrium.
Lastly, the value outflow shows that the organization has lost its value in the industry through factors such as the outflow of talent and other vital resources (Slywotzky).
The value chain is represented by all actions that add utility to the consumer and may be internal or external (Slywotzky). Monitoring the linkage between the value chain activities assures the organization of a harmonious chain.
However, calculating or determining value is quite difficult considering that the consumers can only determine the value. This makes a value subjective (Slywotzky). To work around it, the relative market value of a firm is considered as the level of success of an organization in value creation.
Blue Ocean Strategy is yet another widely used strategic planning model. A blue ocean is created when an organization comes up with value innovation that enhances the values of both the consumers and the company at the same time (Kim).
In blue ocean strategy, competition is less imperative since it involves innovation of unexploited markets. Here the demand is created as opposed to the earlier described strategies where demand is sought after. This provides for unlimited opportunities for rapid growth and profitability (Kim).
In view of the blue ocean strategic planning, competition based strategies are not sufficient for high performance sustenance (Kim). W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne acknowledge that while competition based strategies are imperative, they are not sufficient (Kim).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Planning Process and Models by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They argue that organizations have to go beyond competing to create their own market. This will help enhance growth and enable firms to realize new profits and opportunities for rapid growth. Their model is based in contrast with the environmental determinism view/ structural view.
The determinism view assumes that industrial conditions are inevitable and that firms must find ways to compete with these conditions (Kim). They argue that with such strategies, one organization’s gain is the other loss since in competition each firm tries to outdo the other. The blue ocean strategy is opposed to the normal capture and distribution of wealth. Rather, it supports the creation of wealth.
This strategy focuses on restructuring the industrial structures and market boundaries to enhance value. This view is popularly referred to as the Reconstructionist view (Kim).
Organizations in W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne’s view must think outside the box and surpass the limitations of the industrial structures. This strategy assumes that out there is a large untapped demand. The only challenge is how to create the demand focusing on value innovation rather than competing (Kim).
In this model therefore, competition is irrelevant (Kim). Through the expansion of the demand, there is a great deal of wealth creation, which creates a possibility for increased profits.
The later model of strategic planning is of an innovative nature while the earlier discussed models are competitive in nature. That is the greatest difference between the blue ocean strategy and the other two.
Works Cited Bradford and Duncan. Simplified Strategic Planning. Washington, DC: Chandler House, 2000. Print.
Kim, Chan. Blue Ocean Strategy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2005. Print.
Porter, Michael. The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy. Boston, MA: Harvard business, 2008. Print.
Slywotzky, Adrian. Value Migration: How to Think Several Moves Ahead of the Competition Hardcover. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. Print.
Tracy, Brian. The 100 Absolutely Unbreakable Laws of Business Success. San Franscisco, CA: Berrett, Koehler Publishers, 2000. Print.
Concept of Science Fiction Genre in Books “Dark They Were, and Golden-Eyed” by Ray Bradbury, and “Nightfall” by Isaac Asimov Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Purpose of Science fiction and its use in Colleges
Introduction In literature, science fiction is one of the few genres that have managed to retain their relevance even with the advent of new and perceivably better genres. A common definition is that science fiction is “a genre of fiction where the stories are about futuristic science and technologies” (Scholes 6).
It falls under fiction because most of the contents such as aliens, futuristic space travel, and paranormal events are imaginary (Scholes 6). Science fiction has found its place among the ‘great’ literatures of the word and hence a contribution in the field of literature.
Some of the most sales in literature are in the genre of science fiction with fans all over the world (Scholes 6). This essay looks at the genre by using two examples of texts to portray some of its characteristics.
Purpose of Science fiction and its use in Colleges Traditionally, science fiction has mainly been read for leisure due to its enjoyable nature by a particular age group of people (Roberts 11). The use of science fiction has therefore been to provide entertainment for the readers. In colleges, science fiction has an application in the teaching of literature and English classes (Roberts 13).
The value in teaching is as a result of its enjoyable nature where unmotivated learners and reluctant readers find this method of learning easy to use (Roberts 9).Colleges also use this genre of literature to sharpen the literary skills of the students.
This genre of literature was successful in the past with some of the works receiving major awards. The authors who write in mainstream literature have also ventured in this genre thus symbolizing its importance and position alongside the other great genres of literature (Scholes 6).
The texts The two texts to be discussed in relation to science fiction are Dark They Were, and Golden-Eyed by Ray Bradbury, and Nightfall by Isaac Asimov. The two fit in the genre because of their utilization of scientific theories and fictional ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Ray Bradbury’s story, the earth is engaged in an atomic war. One of the families sets off for mars where other humans are said to be living (179). The main character is said to be attempting to build a rocket with human beings easily traveling to and from mars (190).
In the second story, a fictional planet with light throughout is described (Asimov 11). These and other scientific theories in the stories are some of the reasons why they fit into the genre.
The stories add to the body of knowledge in science fiction, as they propose some new theories. In Ray Bradbury’s story, it is the existence of a virus on planet mars (186) while it is the new planet and stars in Asimov’s story with a planet that never experiences night (13).
Science and technology are a significant component of Bradbury’s story. It is through it that the planet earth and all its inhabitants are partially destroyed with just few survivors (185). The technology in the setting of the story is so advance that a common man like the character and the friends are able to build their own rocket (189).
The persona of the scientist is engaged in both of the stories as it is characteristic of fictional stories. In Asimov’s Nightfall, the character, Mr. Bittering explores the building of a rocket to take him and his family back to planet earth even though a mention of his scientific capabilities is not made (179).
Some of the scientists in the Nightfall include Sheerin 501 and Siferra 89 both of whom make great discoveries in their respective fields about their fictional planet (33).
Gender and sexual roles in the context of science fiction are well represented. In Bradbury’s story of the family members, Mr. Bittering is the only one concerned with the changes in events in their new planet (Roberts 15). The male sex is therefore depicted as being stronger and wiser as it is in most of the fiction stories (Margot 153).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Science Fiction Genre in Books “Dark They Were, and Golden-Eyed” by Ray Bradbury, and “Nightfall” by Isaac Asimov specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Race is presented in the same story as constituting the Martians and the earth people. The Martians are depicted as being evil to the humans’ coming after Mr. Bittering’s family (194)
Technology and religion are combined in the Nightfall with a cult said to confirm the likely events in the planet Lagash (40). According to them, the planet would experience darkness after a predicted period of years. The scientists came up with the same theory, which was later confirmed (40).
The concept of humanness is well explored in the story by Bradbury. In fact, human beings are portrayed as a superior race (187). They view other beings as a threat to them even when they happen to be friendly. The view is consistent with most of the works in science fiction (Roberts 17).
The existing and actual scientific theories of the existence of life forms on mars and some form of harsh conditions here, which would not favor human survival, are alluded to in the story (189). Scientists believe in a form of life that is not known to the planet earth within the atmosphere and environment of mars, which may affect human beings (Margot 157).
The two stories are part of larger themes with Bradbury’s story alluding to the end of the planet earth and global atomic war. The notion of utopia is presented in the story by Bradbury where the character believes that planet earth is their rightful home without some of the changes that his family was going through (186).
Dystopia is presented in Asimov’s story where the planet in which the characters were living would experience darkness and virtually turn into a dystopia (32).
The two stories also present an interaction between science and society with science contributing significantly to behaviors, events, and decision-making in the societies in the stories. In Bradbury’s fictional story, it is because of science that man has been able to destroy his world while at the same time colonizing a different one (185).
Asimov’s story on the other hand presents a positive interaction of science and society where scientific knowledge helps in the prediction of a major event in the fictional planet (Roberts 24). The negative and positive interactions of science and society as depicted in most science fiction works (Roberts 26) are therefore highlighted in the texts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Science Fiction Genre in Books “Dark They Were, and Golden-Eyed” by Ray Bradbury, and “Nightfall” by Isaac Asimov by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, science fiction is an important genre in literature that has found its place among the other great genres. Its main use is leisure as utilized in learning institutions where students can learn literature and English besides having fun at the same time. Two examples of texts in this genre have been discussed alongside their contribution to the genre.
Works Cited Asimov, Isaac. Nightfall: and other stories. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969. Print.
Bradbury, Ray. S is for space. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. Print.
Margot, Jean-Michel. “Jules Verne, Playwright.” Science Fiction Studies 32.1(2005): 150-62. Print.
Roberts, Adam. Science fiction. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Scholes, Robert, and Eric Rabkin. Science fiction: history, science, vision. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Print.
Mi’kmaq in Culture and Religion Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Before colonization, Mi’kmaq territory included all of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and parts of Quebec, New Brunswick and Maine. The Mi’kmaq practiced a religion based on Mother Nature, and deeply tied to the land. Mythology also played an important part in spiritual life. According to Orkin (2009), the Mi’kmaq people live in conical birch bark wigwams. The birch bark was also used to make canoes in which to travel the water ways. The Mi’kmaq was also at home on the sea, traveling in ocean going versions of their light canoes.
Mi’kmaq in Historical Perspective
For centuries, the Mi’kmaq lived along the shore line in summer, fishing, gathering shell fish, and hunting seals and whales. In the winter, most moved inland setting up settlements in sheltered forested areas. Moose, bear, caribou, and smaller game provided food and clothing, supplemented by wild berries.
In addition, plants and herbs were used for teas and medical purposes. They respected their environment and only killed, took, or used what they needed. When the Europeans first settled in Nova Scotia, the natural resources were virtually untouched. They befriended the first French settlers, acting as guides, teaching them to live off the land and showing them how to make fish weirs and eel traps, how to ice-fish, which wild berries were safe to eat, and how to prepare them, how to cure and prevent scurvy, and more.
The Mi’kmaq began to convert to Christianity in 1610, and their way of life underwent other major changes as they abandoned many traditional customs and focused on gathering furs and hides for trade purposes. The French gave these people weapons, and both French and English passed on diseases such as small pox which killed many.
Distrustful and fearful, the English and New Englanders saw the Mi’kmaq not as allies but hostile savages, and decided that forceful subjugation and assimilation would be the best course of action. In 1749, Governor Cornwallis put a bounty on the head of every Mi’kmaq whether man, woman, or child.
The amount of the bounty was increased the following year. Although a proclamation by King George III in 1763 promised protection for the Mi’kmaq and their hunting grounds, they suffered a similar fate to that of Native Americans across the continent. Often caught between the French and English/British power struggle for North America, they were robbed off their land, persecuted, forced to live with virtually no rights, and herded on to reserves.
For decades, the federal government actively suppressed Mi’kmaq traditions. For example, in 1885, religious ceremonies were prohibited. In 1927, Canadian government legislation forbade aboriginals in Canada from forming political organizations, as well as practicing their traditional culture and language.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 19th century, the Mi’kmaq were confined to about 60 locations, both on and off reserve, dotted about the province. In the 1940s, the Canadians implemented a centralization policy, which mandated that they be moved against their will to just two reserves. Young Mi’kmaq children were taken away from their families and taught the white man’s ways in order to integrate them into mainstream society and rapidly lose the culture and heritage of their ancient way of life.
Mi’kmaq in Cultural Perspective
According to Harvey (2000), Mi’kmaq is the most easterly extension of Algonquian speaking people in North America. The primary historical identify in Newfoundland, as a hunting and trapping people, contrasts with that of Newfoundland’s white Europe people in shore and offshore commercial fisheries.
In this century, the decline of the fur trade, industrialization, and non native competition have reduced Mi’kmaq dependency upon the land, and they have encountered occupations like forestry, construction, mining, and even commercial fishing.
By way of historical context, it is believed that in the early sixteenth century the French appeared from nowhere (Morrison, 2002). They traded with the Mi’kmaq people and raised large crosses on prominent seashores sites. However, they departed as first as they had appeared.
With the coming of the French, epidemic illnesses overwhelmed the Mi’kmaq people to the extent that some of them began to dream of a person who could offer help via across he revealed to them. This intervention helped the Mi’kmaq to counter the illnesses that beset them. The Mi’kmaq also began to use the healing cross to affirm and extend relationships between their geographically dispersed social groups.
These Mi’kmaq placed a special value on the dream person’s gift of the cross, and their descendants remembered this religious history in the second half of the seventeenth century. Although some historians have noted these facts variously, they have not explained them. Understanding these facts in Algonquian terms is possible, however, when one focuses the Algonquian religious sociality upon them. Such a focus demonstrates the value of integrating religious studies with the interdisciplinary work of ethno history.
The Mi’kmaq and the French reasoned about the cross in distinct and yet complimentary ways. French explorers and fishermen used crosses for pragmatic, political, and religious purposes. Practically, the large coastal crosses the French erected served as navigational devices. They were used as traffic signs leading French ships through the Gulf of St. Lawrence and toward the dangerous mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Mi’kmaq in Culture and Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The crosses were also more than just signs. The French consciously erected crosses as a political symbol of God given power. In this sense, the cross embodied the religious legitimacy of French civilization, and the right or even the responsibility of the French to colonize. In addition, the cross expressed for the French, the world emergence of Christian civilization and a French national certainty about their religious and political place in the developing new order.
Finally, in its most basic sense, the cross projected cosmic religious meaning operating in the world such as the divine human incarnation of Jesus Christ, a hierophant that shattered the categorical distinction between divinity and humanity, and a self sacrifice that offered salvation of an otherwise sinful world.
For the French, these overlapping and sometimes conflicting meanings of the cross made the colonization of Acadia and New France a religious history. For the sixteenth century Mi’kmaq of the Miramichi River, the cross had pragmatic, political, and religious meanings as well. As with the French, it is difficult to distinguish between the religious character of Algonquian life and its social, economic, and political expressions.
The appearance of the French set the stage for the Mi’kmaqs’ appropriation of an alien symbol that also indicates religious holism of their sociality. The French struck the Mi’kmaq as a sudden revelation of a new intentionality now expressing itself in the world. While language differences kept the French and the Mi’kmaq from communicating verbally, the economic behavior of the newcomers spoke eloquently in a non verbal manner.
The new beings were not the bearers of gift, and so were not altruistic. The French were, however, interested in nothing else but exchange. In this give and take, the religious history of the Algonquian-French encounter began, particularly because the crosses the French erected soon came to play a religious role in the Mi’kmaq life.
The French also brought disease, and there is some evidence that the Mi’kmaq understood that line of transmission. The Mi’kmaq also had their approach of reasoning about disease. Because the new illnesses were devastating and, since the Mi’kmaq had no impersonal theory to explain them, they had to be understood in other ways. For the Mi’kmaq, widespread and unprecedented illness could only be understood relationally.
Either the diseases were caused by their own ethical irresponsibility against some offended human beings, or a new and terrifying anti social intentionality had entered the Mi’kmaq world. Studies indicate that the Mi’kmaq came to link disease both with alien malevolence and with the need to revitalize their religious relations with cosmic beings, just as later Algonquians reasoned. As had always been true, dreaming showed the Mi’kmaq that another being offered protection in return for a new relationship between himself and the people.
As a sign of that solidarity, the beings offered across to express his care and to extend his powerful purposefulness. The Mi’kmaq, in turn, created new religious expressions of sociality to give witness to the new identity the relationship created. It has been recorded that the Mi’kmaq countered disease with the cross, re-centered social identity upon the cross, and used the cross to express their confidence in their relations with other Mi’kmaq people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mi’kmaq in Culture and Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Monseigneur Saint-Vallier, the bishop of Quebec, wrote another account of the Mi’kmaq’s oral tradition about the cross. Saint-Vallier adds compelling details about how the cross came to reverberate symbolically throughout Mi’kmaq life. In Saint-Vallier’s text, the Mi’kmaq testified that they had received not one cross, but three.
In this version, famine beset the Maramichi Mi’kmaq, and the people resorted to ritual means to seek an explanation from the various beings of their world. As noted by Le Clercq, however, the explanation came in a dream in which a being offered assistance.
One of the oldest of them saw in a dream a young man who, in assuring him of their approaching deliverance through the virtue of the Cross, showed him three of these, of which he declared that one should serve them in public calamities, the other in deliberations and councils, and the third in voyages and perils.
Thus, in this instance the cross dominates the three most important social domains of Mi’kmaq life before and after French contact. They include disease and other threatening events, domestic affairs, and diplomatic and military relations. Although Le Clercq and Saint-Vallier differ in their descriptions of the dream gift, they agree that the cross came to suffuse Miramichi Mi’kmaq life.
The cross had totemic significance in expressing the compelling relationship that gave these Mi’kmaq their protected identity. Le Clercq and Saint-Vallier agree that the Mi’kmaq painted the cross on their bodies and clothing and used it as a form of protection.
According to Griffiths (2005), the question of religion was a less thorny problem for Mi’kmaq and settlers in Acadia than it was either in New England or in New France, where there is no doubt that religion occupied center stage, and missionary activity among the Amerindians and religious observances among the settlers were constant issues of concern for the elites in this societies.
The Mi’kmaq neither burnt nor tortured those who came among them. There were no saints, by martyrdom or through the practice of heroic virtue, among the seventeenth century settlers in the colony. The indigenous religious beliefs of the Mi’kmaq reflected the importance to them of the environment in which they lived.
Such an orientation would not have been alien to the many Franciscans who worked among them, whose lives were governed by a discipline established by a man who talked to the birds and called the moon his sister, and the sun his brother. Furthermore, the Jesuit missionaries who did work among the Mi’kmaq seem to have been more closely connected to the colonists than they were in New France and much less likely to emphasize the necessity of cultural change for their converts.
It was noted in the late nineteenth century that the Mi’kmaq divided their lands into seven sub districts (Magocsi, 1999). Presently, the Mi’kmaq people exist in a setup with a defined structure organized around district heads. The district heads are in turn answerable to a higher chief with an established office.
Despite the fact that these positions are not very active politically, any choice of heads must be done in accordance to well stipulated procedures governing the community’s operations. Typically, new appointments were made in well organized celebrations and in full view of the public.
In most cases these celebrations were planned with permission from the Grand Council which comprised the grand chief and selected district chiefs. In general, men were required to prove their abilities and earn the respect of the members in the society by displaying various acts of bravery including expertise in war and hunting.
Ability to skillfully hunt game animals, for example, automatically elevated a young man’s status to that of manhood in the society. On the other hand, women gained recognition by demonstrating prowess in medicine and child bearing activities. On the other extreme, war captives and slaves constituted the lowest social echelon (Hornborg, 2008).
Mi’kmaq in Culture and Religion
As noted by Harvey (2000), a number of traditional matters related to Mi’kmaq, were often left un-discussed and unquestioned, partly from fear created by church teachings that demonized and suppressed Mi’kmaq language, spiritual beliefs, and practices. St Croix, for example, strictly reinforced the use of English in schools. He had children strapped if they spoke Mi’kmaq and he banned its use in church, just as he ridiculed and objected to Mi’kmaq spiritual beliefs and religious rituals as superstition and hence, the devil’s work. It, therefore, seems fair to say that the Christian Church fractured Mi’kmaq ethnic identity and accelerated cultural deterioration.
All Eastern Woodland Algonquian peoples subscribed to a cycle of legend, and myth regarding tricksters and transformers which could be recounted only during the winter months, when formidable spiritual agencies were considered to be underground or asleep (McKegney, 2007).
Differences in this respect were slight. Some people decided to combine the responsibilities of swindlers as well as the transformers. The Mi’kmaq chose to award Gluscap, highly respected in their midst, with characteristics of a transformer. This of course left the potentials of the tricksters out of the equation.
To prove his worth, Gluscap made use of his incredible abilities to serve his people whenever they were in need. For example, he was faced with a tough challenge of ensuring that his people always received the resources they needed to survive.
Beliefs held by inhabitants and various myths about the community held by its people created an environment that was full of figure as well as symbols that represented what the people strongly held as true and reasonable. Ordinarily, people would go to the extent of trusting spirits to protect and guide them in daily undertakings and as a result, they approached with reverence and so much caution lest they get affected negatively by the same spirits (Feldt, 2012).
Various practices were carried out in the land for different purposes such as cleansing, healing, and anointing. Throughout the land, stories were told but only with the intention of seizing power. Among other things, the stories would enlighten people, mostly the young, on the subject of power.
They will be used to clarify issues such as the need for power and how power was generally acquired in the community. Birth was one of the avenue by which power was obtained. By being born in a family considered o be important, a child immediately acquired a respectable status in the society.
In addition, special meanings were given to certain objects. While some objects were connected with bad omen, others were associated with growth and progress. People were, therefore, forced to make carefully choices regarding the type of objects to keep as no one desired to end up with bad luck.
In some instances, any person who possessed an object deemed to bear bad omen was often looked down upon by the rest in the community. Dealing with such a person required extra caution. In some instances, children were categorized based on birth information, splitting up the society into different groups (Fuller, 2004).
Conclusion Despite attempts to ignore the Mi’kmaq, the British could not help but notice that the extension of civilization had contributed to the physical declension of the native population. Throughout the process of colonization, dispossessed Mi’kmaq constituted a presence that could not be entirely avoided, and this appears to have encumbered many British with a threating sense of guilt (Reid, 1995).
In some cases, the British were able to creatively confront this sense of transgression by attributing what they perceived to be the immanent disappearance of aboriginal people’s to the Mi’kmaq themselves, or to the ultimate process of the extension of civilization of which the British were agents and not initiators. At this level the Mi’kmaq were regarded as a vestige of a community whose significance had waned in the working out of human progress.
The language employed to speak of them was laden with images of an eclipsed meaning, with words like remnant and remains pointing to their significance as lying firmly in the past.
There were times when the British were not so inclined to afford full responsibility for the demise of the native community to the Mi’kmaq themselves, but were also reluctant to attribute it to their own community, and at these moments they identified the ultimate causes of civilization and progress as though these had subjective existence apart from their imagination.
References Feldt, L. (2012). Wilderness in Mythology and Religion: Approaching Religious Spatialities, Cosmologies, and Ideas of Wild Nature. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.
Fuller, D. (2004). Writing the Everyday: Women’s Textual Communities in Atlantic Canada. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s Press.
Griffiths, N. E. S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s Press.
Harvey, G. (2000). Indigenous Religions: A Companion. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Hornborg, A. (2008). Mi’Kmaq Landscapes: From Animism to Sacred Ecology. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Magocsi, P. R. (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada’s Peoples. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
McKegney, S. (2007). Magic Weapons: Aboriginal Writers Remaking Community after Residential School. Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press.
Morrison, K. M. (2002). The Solidarity of Kin: Ethnohistory, Religious Studies, and the Algonkian-French Religious Encounter. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Orkin, D. (2009). Nova Scotia: The Bradt Travel Guide. Guilford, Connecticut: Bradt Travel Guides.
Reid, J. (1995). Myth, Symbol and Colonial Encounter: British and Miʹkmaq in Acadia, 1700-1867. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Folklore Genres And Analysis Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Concept Of Folklore
Introduction The study of folklore plays a significant role in comprehending the nature of humanity. This can be attributed to the creation of stories, festivals and other artistic genres by members of the community in a bid to celebrate the humankind over the years. Most scholars have attempted to define the term ‘folklore’. It is without doubt that the precise definition of the term has not been established. However, the definition has been simplified by expounding on the two compounds of ‘folk’ and ‘lore’.
The phrase ‘folk’ entails a cluster of people in a community who seem to share a common interest such as religion, language or any other linking factor. The linking factor is said to generate a collective identity which is premised upon prominent social factors. The word ‘lore’ therefore describes the creative expressions derived from the linking factors. However, it has been argued that the approach to define folklore as a human populace with shared collective identity can only be applied theoretically and not practically.
This is because it is not an easy task to recognize a common linking factor. In addition to creating a further understanding of folklore, it is noteworthy that the American folklorists concentrated more on the notion of ‘lore’ and less on ‘folk’. They inclined towards the study of relations of the societal members more than the members themselves.
The term folklore therefore poses certain challenges in coming up with a specific definition. However, it is arguable that the term folklore has unanimously been accepted as including ‘humanity’ and ‘common identity’. This essay will therefore expound on the concept of folklore and the various genres that govern the concept.
The Concept Of Folklore The inception of ‘folklore’ is traced back to the 18th century whereby the Germans undertook a serious study of forms. The study was greatly influenced by the huge presence of romance and the spirit of patriotism at the time. The romantics were not happy with the high rate of civilization leading to man being cut off from his sensations of enjoying arts and poetry.
This led to the romantics collecting a number of folksongs in a bid of restoring their natural sensations. This means that the inception of folklore was therefore traced back to the primitive nature. It has however been debated over the years that the identity that helps to create a correlation between the structure of folklore and the past cannot be ascertained as a matter of fact but by its definition.
It is essential to note that though there seem not to be a specific common definition of the term ‘folklore’, it is apparent that all definitions encompass four fundamental concepts. The first concept is the agreement that folklore is tradition-based. It is not disputable that folklore engages in tradition-based conceptions of a cultural group with an interest of reflecting a common identity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other concept is the fact that folklore relates to culture. The wide variety of definitions given identifies the correlation between folklore and culture. The other notable concept identifies folklore as being trans-generational which introduces the last concept of acknowledging the fact that folklore is actually shared by a group of individuals in a community. It is therefore not in doubt that there is a certain scale of understanding that revolves around the generation definition and comprehension of the term ‘folklore’.
However, the applicability of the fundamental concepts has been sensitized.
Certain arguments have been raised on the usage of the term ‘folklore’ as bearing a pessimistic implication of association. This is due to the fact that the term seems to encourage the formation of the less advanced population in reference to terms such as ‘common people’. This has led to such groups shying away from using the term ‘folklore’.
A good example is the adoption of the term ‘intangible cultural heritage’ by UNESCO in reference to ‘folklore’. The expression adopted by UNESCO was as a result of its involvement in learning the cultures of other people. The new term ‘intangible cultural heritage’ was meant to include and safeguard the culture of people living in the third world countries and other traditions.
The intangible cultural heritage upholds the importance of safeguarding the traditions, performing arts, rituals and other cultural practices. It also recognizes the facts and abilities that the society distinguish as being part of its own cultural legacy. It is vital to note that in defining the term ‘intangible cultural heritage’, UNESCO has been keen on using the key term ‘safeguarding’ instead of ‘preserving’.
This, they argue, is to promote continuous evolvement of traditions over time rather than centering on static traditions that were practiced ages ago as it is the norm with folklorists.
Folklore Genres The genres of folklore have been divided into two categories; verbal folklore and musical folklore. The verbal folklore is a genre that entails narrative stories that have been passed from one generation to another. The musical folklore narrates a story in a musical form.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Folklore Genres And Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Oring, narration entails the process of transforming experience into an oral account (1986). He further contends that folk narratives can be distinguished due to their predominant nature. First, he argues that folk narratives tend to subsist in manifold versions.
This mean that no single narration can be said to be an authoritative version over the others as each is recreated with each narration. Secondly, a folk narrative can only exist if it creates a correlation between the past and the future. Lastly, a folk narrative includes the reflection of both character and the society. A folk narrative is therefore premised on the circumstances surrounding the character narrating the story.
Folk narratives are also said to fall into three major categories. The first narrative category is the myth. The folklorists argue that most communities consider myths to be not only sacred but also truthful (Christ, 2002). They are premised on traditions and cultures that hold strong symbolic meanings.
The narrator and the listeners believe in myths and hold them to be both truthful and sacred. They involve a story of an event that happened in the past although some folklorists argue that some of the myths are as a result of occurrence of actual events. The Mi’kmag creation story is a good example of a myth.
This myth gives a clear description of how all things in life came to be created. It should be noted that this particular myth exists in various versions though each narration retain the essential element of the story. The story has been passed from one generation to another. This is evident as the current version is narrated by one of Mi’kmag’s elders, Stephen Augustine, who learnt the story from his grandmother. This myth has ensured the survival of culture and spiritualism of the Mi’kmag people over the years.
The legends also fall under the category of folk narratives. Legends are centered on distinct episodes which are relayed as astounding, mysterious or even embarrassing. Folklorists have been faced with a burden of distinguishing between myths and legends (Bennett and Smith, 1993).
Both genres include some elements of truth. Legends are usually semi-true narrations of either epic characters or implausible places that are symbolic to sacred beliefs of the culture in which they come from. Legends are distinct from myths in one way or another. While myths narrate events that occurred a long time ago, legends give narrations that have occurred either in the present or historical past.
Also, myths are religiously based while most legends are not naturally religious. Though legends are based on stories about real characters or places, they twist the truth in one way or another. The legends of the Micmacs are good examples.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Folklore Genres And Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As opposed to myths, tales are not perceived as sacred or truthful but rather as fictions or fantasies (O’Loughlin and Kennett, 1991). A folktale attempts to give an explanation of events that have been said to happen over the years. Such stories are passed down from generations and possess a significant lesson.
Folktale stories ensure that the protagonists succeed over the antagonists and live happily ever after. In folktales, the good characters are always rewarded while the mean characters are reasonably punished. It is also arguable that although folktales story line changes over time, the core substance of the tale remain. For example, the Cinderella story is a good example of a folktale. Cinderella, who was placed under custody of her mean stepmother and stepsisters, overcame the meanness of her stepmother by marrying the prince.
The personal experience genres are narratives given in the first person by characters as recall to events that happened to them. An example of a personal experience is by the author of this paper recalling how he was born. It was raining heavily and the mother had to be helped to deliver the author by the author’s aunts hence the inception of his name which means ‘blessing’.
The jokes on the other hand deal with serious issue in the society and are relayed in a comical nature. They are told as a means to diffuse the complexity of the matter at hand. A good example is the ‘Challenger jokes’ that came into being immediately after the shuttle Challenger explosion.
Vernacular songs, folksongs and music are some of the musical genres of folklores. The musical genres express the stories in a musical manner and are important to explain certain events. They are also used for motivational purposes. Good examples are the work songs that were sung by the African-American prisoners while toiling under the sun.
The work songs, which have become important in the present culture, give a detailed narration of what the prisoners were going through while in the prisons. ‘Hound dog’ by Elvis Presley is another good example of a musical folklore that has received a wide reception.
Material Culture The folklore has adopted to study the human behavior that concern itself with ‘craft’. This gives a general aspect of defining the traditional art, and how some of the cultural objects have come into existence. The material culture is therefore a very important study as it tends to fill in the gaps that had prior been neglected by the folklorists.
The study, which has been undertaken by the American folklorists, focus on the designs, usage and meaning of the cultural objects and also how they came into existence. Both the folklorists and the art galleries owners have attempted to come up with a clear definition of ‘folk’ to suit its applicability on material culture. It is not without doubt that the gallery owners have shown reluctance on using the term ‘folk’ to explain their works.
They tend to rely on certain words such as ‘naïve’ or ‘individualistic’ to describe any cultural material. Though material culture is viewed as another field of folklore study, it becomes of importance as it gives clear explanations as to the reason of making the objects as they are. Some arguments have been posed regarding the difference between folk art and crafts (Bronner, 2004).
One of the most outstanding arguments is the fact that crafts seek to answer the daily requirements of the society while the folk art focuses on the emotions and beliefs. However, material culture has been integrated to the folklore study and the same has formed a significant aspect of giving an explanation of how objects came to be and their purposes.
Conclusion It is evident that folklore is a very important study. This is because it brings to view the important cultural aspects of the society. It is through the study of folklore that individuals get to learn important aspects of their traditions that seem to create a meaning and purpose of their present lives.
An individual is able to get grip of his history hence having a clear sense of the happenings around him. This is very important as set out in the UNESCO’s terminology whereby the cultural practices are safeguarded. More so, the introduction of material culture shows an evolving cultural practices.
Reference List Bennett, G., and Smith, P. (1993). Contemporary legend: a folklore bibliography. New York: Garland Publishers.
Bronner, S. (2004). Grasping Things: Folk Material Culture and Mass Society in America. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
Christ, H. (2002). Myths and Folklore. London: Amso School Publications Incorporated.
O’Loughlin, J., and Kennett, D. (1991). Folk Tales: A Short Anthropology. Australia: Era Publications.
Oring, E. (1986). Folk Groups and Folklore Genres: an introduction. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Economic Sanctions against Iran in Regard To Its Nuclear Weapons Program Essay college application essay help
Iran’s mass destruction weapon capabilities cannot be overestimated, considering the events of yesteryears which had attracted an international interest on the country, and its nuclear program activities.
This issue has fuelled a serious conflict between the Arabic nation and other countries in the world. Iran’s nuclear weapon program heightened a decade ago, following the revelation of two nuclear sites in the country by an Iranian resistance group.
Following this revelation, Iran stood its ground by arguing that their nuclear program was legal, and that it was intended for no other reason, but to generate nuclear energy for its citizens.
According to Hunt (2009), Iranian leadership has always argued that the main goal behind the program was to establish a nuclear project that would supply electricity and fuel for medical reactors.
This was against the perception of some Western powers who believed that Iran’s nuclear program was associated with the production of nuclear weapons, and it therefore posed serious security threats to other countries. This was arguably one of the major reasons that would facilitate the odds that do exist between Iran and the Western world.
The Iranian government has been in prolonged differences with the United States and other major Western powers, owing to their suspected interest of acquiring nuclear weapons.
These differences and misunderstandings are likely to throw Iran in one of the most challenging times of its economic history, following heightening economic sanctions by the Western countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is beyond doubts that these sanctions will be effective in helping Iran change its behavior in regard with the polarized nuclear program.
Economic sanctions simply refer to the act of restricting a particular country from participating in free trade with other countries, owing to their political differences or misunderstandings.
Economic sanctions are believed to have serious effects on the receiving countries, and this has increased the faith of many people on the various forms of disciplinary actions that are applied in the contemporary world to discipline those countries that have failed to comply with the international regulations.
Possession of nuclear weapons is a serious issue which could have far-reaching repercussions on a country’s economical power. In most cases, this is likely to attract a progressive economic isolation of the suspected country, thus resulting to ruined international trading relations and stalled progress of the economy.
Iran’s nuclear program has always been unclear over the years, thus raising a greater security concern across the world. The fact that their nuclear plan is likely to generate a new arms race in the whole world has led to successive rounds of debates and negotiations between the Iranian government and the international community.
There have been military threats by the U.S. and Israel against Iran, as one way of forcing the Iranian government to submit critical information regarding their nuclear facilities. This, however, has never been President Obama’s best idea of action towards the Middle East country.
As it would be observed, the President has continuously rejected the plan by citing peaceful talks as the most appropriate course of action here, since there was still room for negotiations with the Iranian government (Dobbins, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Economic Sanctions against Iran in Regard To Its Nuclear Weapons Program specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main agenda behind these talks is to convince the Iranian government to come out clearly on the main intention of its nuclear program and facilities. However, these peaceful talks have failed to bear positive results within the expected time period of time, thus leaving economic sanctions against Iran as the only option that can be used to address the issue.
The last few decades have seen a number of sanctions against Iran by other countries, as a result of their adamant stand on the nuclear program issue. The United States, for instance, has over the years imposed a number of sanctions against Iran in regard to their nuclear activities.
These rounds of sanctions have been executed through various avenues which include trade, military, scientific and economic-related affairs.
According to Torbat (2005) these sanctions would incorporate prohibition of weapon sales to Iran by the United States, sanctions on the country’s financial institutions, and a ban on all things which the U.S. government could intend to import from Iran.
An Executive Order was once issued by President Reagan in the year 1988, prohibiting any trade relations between the U.S. and the Iranian government. Even though the Executive Order is no longer effective nowadays, most American sanctions against Iran do apply even today.
It is clear that the safety of civil aviation of Iran has been endangered as a result of the U.S. sanctions against the country, where Iranians are barred from acquiring key parts which are essential for aviation safety.
The European Union has also imposed crippling sanctions against the Iranian government in a number of approaches, as a way of coercing them to get rid of their suspicious nuclear facilities.
Some of the key areas where the European Union has established restriction boundaries with the Iranian government include the energy sector, foreign trade, insurance, and financial services, among other key areas (Tridimas
Saudi Traditional Clothing Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Cultural Significance of the Saudi Traditional Clothing
Introduction Saudis have a distinct traditional clothing that differentiates them from the rest of the world. The traditional clothing consists of special attires for men and women. Saudis prefer to wear their traditional clothes rather than western styles of attire. Over the years, the age-old designs of the traditional attires have been modified to reflect the changing tastes and preference in the contemporary society. The dressing code in Saudi Arabia is mainly influenced by culture, Islamic teachings, and the weather in the country.
Generally, Islamic teachings, as well as, the customs and traditions of Saudi Arabia require men and women to dress conservatively. Clothes that reveal much of a person’s body are considered inappropriate; thus, they are avoided. This paper will focus on Saudi Arabia’s traditional clothing by discussing its role or place in the country’s culture.
Men’s Attire Saudi men have a special attire that reflects their religious beliefs and cultural practices. The main clothe worn by all Saudi men is referred to as the thawb. This dress is usually designed as a loose garment with long sleeves. A typical thawb is a full-length clothe that covers a man’s body from the neck to the ankle.
The conventional color of the thawb is white. However, the color is changed occasionally to reflect the prevailing season. For instance, darker colors are preferred during the winter season. Consequently, the thawb worn during this season can be brown, black, or dark blue in color. The material used to make the dress also depends on the prevailing season. Cotton and polyester are the preferred materials for making the thawb for the summer season.
This is because they retain little heat, thereby enabling men to withstand the hot summer weather. During winter, the clothes are made using wool in order to keep the wearer warm. Thawb’s collar is often designed in a variety of styles in order to accommodate different tastes and preferences.
The most common styles are the rounded and the triangular shapes. The design of the sleeves is also not standard. Some have “loose cuffs, whereas others have tight ones”. It is a common practice to fit the tight cuffs with buttons in order to accommodate different arm sizes. The cuff buttons are also used to embellish the thawb because they are usually designed in different shapes and decorated with special items such as diamond. In most cases, the shape and color of the button matches that of the collar.
A traditional cloak referred to as the “mishlah is usually worn by men on top of the thawb”. Cotton and wool are the main materials used to make mishlah. This garment normally comes in different colors such as black, cream, and brown. The mishlah is worn during special functions such as weddings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Men also wear an under garment that is referred to as the sirwal. Men’s headgear consists of the taqiyah, ghutra, shumagh, igal, and imam. Taqiyah is a white hat that is usually made from cotton and is worn directly on the head. Ghutra can be worn on top of taqiyah or directly on the head. It is usually square in shape and made from cotton. Shumagh closely resembles the ghutra. However, it differs from ghutra due to its white and red decorations.
Igal refers to a double black cord that is used to hold the ghutra or the shumagh on the head. Imma is a long fabric that is worn or folded around a man’s head. Most men wear traditional sandals, which are known as madas. Nonetheless, western shoes are also gaining popularity among male Saudis.
Women’s Attire The main dress for the women is known as abaya. It is a full-length dress with long sleeves. Thus, it covers the woman’s body from the head to the ankle. The conventional abaya is usually black in color. In the contemporary Saudi, trendy abaya have been introduced to satisfy the fashion needs of modern women. The modern abaya is colorful and is made from different materials. These include silver threads, jeans, lace, silk, and crystals.
Abaya is usually worn on top of other clothes such as skirts and blouses. Most women wear the abaya when they are going outside their homes. This is because they are likely to meet foreign men who are not supposed to see their bodies. According to the traditions of Saudis, women are expected to cover their faces in the presence of foreign men. Thus, they use a veil, which is referred to as a burga to cover their faces.
Apart from abaya, women from different parts of the country have special gowns, which they wear on specific occasions. In Najd region, married women normally wear purple gowns, which are made from silk and decorated with golden threads. This dress is worn during important social events such as weddings. Women from the southern part of the country wear dresses, which are decorated with floral patterns.
They wear pantalets to protect themselves from cold weather. Similarly, they wear a multihued scarf and a straw hat to avoid the heat from the sun. Women from the Al-Madinah region wear embroidered dresses with quilted hems. This helps them to avoid any injury when walking in thorny bushes.
In Hijaz region, women wear gowns, as well as, decorated under blouses and long pants. They also wear a headgear, which consists of three items namely, the “triangular shambar, the rectangular mihramah, and the square mudawwarah”.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Saudi Traditional Clothing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The headgear is normally embellished with diamond-studded brooches during important social events. Women from Laith and Taif wear gowns, which are decorated with muslin. In some cases, the gowns are lined with materials obtained from flour sacks. The gowns are usually worn with the headgears that match them.
Cultural Significance of the Saudi Traditional Clothing The traditional Saudi clothing reflects the social and cultural beliefs of Saudis, which are based on Islamic teachings. Saudis’ dressing code is based on the principles of hijab that encourage modesty rather than indecency. This principle was derived from the Koran and Prophet Mohammad’s traditions that discourage offensive dressing.
The Koran urges women to be modest in their dressing by refraining from showing their beauty and adornments to people who are not their close relatives. Thus, women are expected to reveal their beauty only to men who are their husbands, sons, and fathers. In order to observe the Islamic tradition on clothing, women design their clothes in the following ways.
To begin with, their clothes must cover all parts of their bodies except their hands and faces. Women cover their bodies as a sign of respect to their male counterparts. The fabric used to manufacture women’s clothes must be thick so that a person cannot see through it. In order to avoid revealing the shape of their bodies, women wear loosely fitting clothes. Women are not expected to wear clothes that are similar to those of men such as trousers.
In addition, the main objective of dressing should be to cover one’s nakedness rather than gaining reputation or social status in the community. The traditional clothing not only enables Saudi women to obey their religious beliefs, but also to maintain high standards of morality. Concisely, the clothes enable women to avoid attracting attention, thereby helping men to avoid lustful thoughts.
In order to promote high standards of morality, men wear clothes that cover at least the area between their navel and knees. In Saudi, this area is referred to as the awrah and its exposure to the public is considered immoral. In this regard, men wear clothes that do not reveal their thighs or the shape of their buttocks.
Men also cover their awrah in order to conform to Islamic teachings. In particular, men must cover their awrah during prayer. Failure to observe this requirement can attract a severe punishment. Most Saudi men believe that it is inappropriate to use urinals to answer calls of nature. According to the traditions of Saudis, the correct action to take when nature calls is to sit or squat. In this regard, men wear boxers and pants with no opening in the front.
These under garments encourage men to squat rather than to stand at a urinal. Saudis believe that an individual should not see the nakedness of another person. Consequently, men are encouraged to wear a T-shirt beneath their thawb, especially, when the thawb is semi-transparent. The T-shirt is usually made of a thick fabric such as cotton in order to prevent others from seeing a man’s body.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Traditional Clothing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The traditional clothing also helps Saudis to express their tests and preferences regarding fashion. Unlike the European or American women, Saudi females are proud of wearing the traditional plain black abaya. In order to keep up with fashion trends in the country, Saudi women usually buy customized abaya rather than the standard ones.
The customized abaya is expensive because it is made from the best material and is designed according to the specifications of the buyer. They also differ in terms of their flow, design, embroidery and the gemstones that are used to decorate them. Some women use materials such as jeans to make their abaya in order to conform to the latest fashion trends. Similarly, some women wear abaya with decorative accessories such as ribbons, embroidery, lace, and tassels in order to demonstrate their fashion consciousness.
Finally, Saudis wear the traditional clothes as a way of expressing their cultural identity. Saudis identify themselves as Muslims whose culture and traditions follow the Islamic teachings. Saudis avoid western style of clothes because they hold their Islamic traditions in high esteem.
In this regard, the main principle that guides fashion trends in the country is to conceal rather than to reveal. This explains their preference for the traditional clothes, which promote modesty. Concisely, Saudis believe that wearing tight fitting or inappropriate clothes will make them lose their Muslim identity.
For instance, ladies are encouraged to strengthen their faith in Islam by avoiding clothes that mimic those of non-Muslim women. Similarly, they avoid clothes with bold designs in order to maintain their identity as people who have high regards for morality. This is because clothes with bold designs lead to unnecessary attraction, especially, to women and girls. This can lead to lustful thoughts, which are considered to be sinful and immoral.
Conclusion Saudis wear their traditional attire because they believe it is better than the western style of clothing. The dressing code in Saudi Arabia focuses on modesty as required by the Islamic principle of hijab. Consequently, men and women wear traditional clothes that cover most parts of their bodies.
Male Saudis wear a full-length garment that is known as the thawb, whereas women wear the abaya. Both men and women have headgears, which accompany their traditional clothes. Over the years, the traditional clothes have been modified to accommodate new fashion trends.
Saudis value their traditional attire because it enables them to conform to their Islamic faith. The attire enables Saudis to maintain their identity as Muslims because its design is based on Islamic traditions. The traditional attire also enables Saudis to express their tastes and preferences regarding fashion trends.
References Bullock, K. (2002). Rethinking Muslim women and the veil. London: Palgrave.
Zara business strategy Case Study argumentative essay help
Table of Contents How Zara used corporate business and functional strategies
McKinsey’s 7 model
Zara’s approach to market selection
How Zara used corporate business and functional strategies Zara is a strong player in the fashion industry because of its value chain, internationalisation, and operational strategies. When a company is selecting a supply chain strategy, Porter’s value chain theory indicates that one can be a cost-strategy leader, a focus-strategy leader or a differentiation-strategy leader.
In the fashion industry, choosing a sweeping cost leadership strategy would hamper a firm’s ability to meet client needs. Zara realised this and chose a focus differentiation strategy.
It hires a team of designers who analyse market trends from the internet, campuses, discotheques as well as cat walks and then translate them into wearable garments. This clear emphasis on providing value rather than low prices is what makes the company stand out.
The organisation’s approach to internationalisation is highly strategic. According to the Uppsala model, a company internationalises by opening up a small branch in the target nation and then studies market trends in that market through the small branch.
Thereafter, the firm can continue to expand its business portfolio using the first branch as a prototype. Zara uses this approach when getting into new markets. A case in point was the firm’s entry into Paris, which anchored growth into other parts of the region.
Zara’s operational strategies are customer-driven and stem from the just-in-time model. The organisation works to ensure that it has short cycle times by selecting suppliers who are close to their consumers.
The company produces highly specialised products in-house then outsources the standardised ones. Therefore, its vertically integrated supply chain, in certain respects, has helped in meeting customer needs more efficiently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Two competitors One of Zara’s chief competitors is The Gap. The main advantage of choosing casual wear as its core product, at the beginning, was its identification with the masses. Most of the general American public would quickly identify with this choice of products rather than high fashion.
To some consumers, Zara might not be as unpretentiousness as The Gap. Outsourcing a large part of the supply chain caused The Gap to dwell on retail, which is the part that directly deals with consumers. It could analyse new trends, know about consumer preferences and study buying patterns more easily than Zara.
On the other hand, the internationalisation strategy adopted by The Gap was not as smart as Zara’s. The company downplayed the importance of price pressures in select markets and thus ended up struggling. Furthermore, although the company had outsourced its supply chains, it did not consider the location and coordination needs of target firms.
Therefore, cycle times became too long, and the firm lost a large portion of its market share in those international markets. Lastly, if a company started out in the low-end of the market, changing its strategy to become more fashion-driven may confound the company’s image and thus cause buyers to look elsewhere; this is what happened to the Gap within the US market.
The second competitor in this market is H
St. Patrick’s Day Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The world today has so many dates that have been set for celebration for one thing or the other to the extent that almost all the dates of the year have been allocated for a certain cause.
All days that are celebrated in the world are celebrated on a specific date of the year. They follow specific date cycles on which certain events happened thus setting precedence for people to remember and celebrate the date. The remembrances of these days are meant to honor specific acts that happened then because of the significance that the people celebrating the days attach to those acts.
Some people or countries celebrate and or remember some days to appease supernatural forces. In fact, some communities who believe that failure to do so would lead to calamities befalling them due to the anger of the supernatural for not being honored in a certain way (Brady, 2001, p. 157).
Most of the days that are celebrated have their have their origins in the ancient days when religion was pagan, or in early days when religions like Christianity were not widespread as it is today. In the present world, most of these days are mostly remembered as a way of celebrating the heritage of these communities’ tradition and not as a prerequisite for the original reason for celebrating these days.
This paper intends to find out the celebration of St. Patrick’s Day, which is being celebrated to date in remembrance of St. Patrick of Ireland. Besides, it presents the cultural significance of celebrating it. However, one would ask, ‘who is St. Patrick?’
St. Patrick? Saint Patrick was a Romano-British religious Christian missionary whom people believe was born around the end of the 4th century B.C in Britain and died on March 17 460 AD. The time that has been used in this case is termed as “believed” because there are no specific records to indicate that it is exact.
Therefore, it should be construed to mean that it was around that time because literacy levels in society were very low in the ancient times. Therefore, records to such events were scarce. It takes so much research to add up some of the dates that may come up for coherence purposes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Saint Patrick doubled up as a missionary and bishop of Ireland who is believed to be the patron saint of Ireland. Although he was born a British, Irish raiders invaded and attacked his family’s estate capturing him and taking him away as a captive at the age of 16 years (Hyndman, 2013, p. 5). During his captivity, he became a shepherd who spent most of his time praying because he was shy and afraid of people.
This effort made him a very religious person devoted to his Christian religion after which he started having dreams of converting the Irish people into Christianity. Therefore, he is believed to be the father of Christianity in Ireland because he afterwards became the bishop of Ireland.
Saint Patrick broke off on foot after six years of being in captivity and walked for over 200 miles from county Mayo to the Irish Coast after hearing the voice of God telling him that it was time to leave Ireland. He boarded a ship and ended up in a Monastery in France. Afterwards he wrote that he dreamed of an angel telling him to go back to Ireland to spread Christianity to those who had not been converted and or preach to those who had already been converted to Christianity already.
From this point, he came back as a bishop and as a missionary. His role as a bishop was to lead the already converted Christians and as a missionary to convert new members of the Irish community into Christianity who were practicing pagans.
Therefore, Saint Patrick has been credited as the person responsible for the widespread of Christianity as a religion in Ireland. Thus, many Christians annually remember and celebrate him as the Patron Saint of Ireland, which has been a dominantly Christian state for many years (Allen, 2011, p. 375).
Saint Patrick was known to have performed many miracles, which gave rise to his fame and legendary status within the Irish community. One of the miracles he is believed to have performed was that he rid Ireland of all snakes and that, one time during a night, his fingers turned into flashlights.
It is also believed that he turned an evil ruler into a fox among other miracles. All these as brought down from the past led to the Irish community celebrating him and dedicating the day he was believed to have died to him and hence the Saint Patrick day. Originally, the day is supposed to be celebrated by mostly Irish Christians who would be celebrating their patron saint.
We will write a custom Research Paper on St. Patrick’s Day specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More St. Patrick’s Day Saint Patrick day is one of the most renowned public holidays. It celebrated all over the world on 17 March of every year in remembrance of Saint Patrick. It is originally a Christian celebration because Saint Patrick was a missionary and saint in Ireland. Since the event is a very old tradition, it has attained its own identity and recognition by the Irish government.
It is a public holiday in Ireland. Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated all over the world today due to the spread of the Irish heritage around the globe. It is mostly celebrated in countries with many Irish residents living in those countries though it may not be accorded the status it has acquired in Ireland. Saint Patrick’s Day, as it is celebrated in the world over, is due to the Irish immigrants who have carried their culture and heritage with them, and that they tend to celebrate it even in their foreign stations.
It is also celebrated by people who trace their origins and roots to Ireland though they may have never stepped in Ireland in their entire life. Saint Patrick’s like many holidays has a theme that defines the activities that happen on that day, which are identifiable as symbols for that day. Saint Patrick’s Day has been observed from around the ninth or tenth century. People have always viewed and celebrated it as a Roman Catholic feast day.
Though it has always been celebrated for so many years, these previous celebrations have always been a sort of low-key celebrations compared to what happens today. It was previously mostly confined to households. Saint Patrick’s Day gained its pomp and color on 17 March 1762 by Irish soldiers in America who were serving in the English military who marched through New York to celebrate the day thus setting precedence in the way the day is marked or should be marked (Kenneth, 1995, p. 128).
The most interesting aspect of this day is that the very first-most March, which defines the day up to date, did not happen in Ireland but in a foreign land. Since then, every year, that day is marked with marching bands. The essence of the Irish soldiers performing a parade with marching bands as a way of celebrating this day was because they wanted to reconnect with their roots and keep touch with their traditions as observed by Lynch (2008, p. 115).
The day is celebrated all over the world with numerous parades displaying the Irish culture in terms of dress codes with marching bands playing bag pipes, which are believed to be Irish traditional music instruments. Saint Patrick day is celebrated as a way of marking the true Irish spirit for Irish people whenever they are. The day is a great attraction for both performers and spectators who line up the streets to watch the procession as it marches through the streets of towns and villages.
America and Ireland are some of the countries that see the biggest processions or the most active celebration of Saint Patrick’s Day. The United States of America has one of the biggest populations in terms of Irish immigrants as well as citizens who trace their roots to Ireland as a way of keeping in touch with their identity, roots, and heritage. They tend to organize the Saint Patrick’s Day celebrations (Coleman, 2009, p. 724). Boston and New York have been known to hold the best parades in the United States of America while Dublin has been known to host the grandest parade.
How the Day is celebrated The celebration is marked with an array of different activities that are meant to reflect the Irish culture. The day is mostly amplified by the color green, which is the theme color of that day. The color green symbolizes the color of the Irish clover plant leaves known as the shamrock with which the Saint is believed to have used to explain the Holy Trinity, which means, “the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit” (Brady, 2001, p. 158).
Not sure if you can write a paper on St. Patrick’s Day by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States of America where there are more Irish citizens than their original country has become the only country in the world to rival Ireland in the magnitude of the celebrations to be organized. At any one time of the year during the celebration or marking of Saint Patrick’s Day, many activities happen as well as millions of spectators that come out to view them.
This turn out has therefore made Saint Patrick’s Day an attraction to many people who are not Irish or of Irish descendants thus making it a global attraction due to the interest it elicits among different people from different communities of the world (Allen, 2011, p. 378). Though marching processions have become the defining feature of this celebration, they come with an array of performances and shows that aim to entertain people who have come out to watch the procession.
In Chicago, for instance, many people usually gather along the Chicago River to see it painted with the color of Irish as an act of dying the Chicago River with a green dye to give it a unique luminous green color that is referred on this day as the Irish color. Along the marching bands, there are arrays of singers performing Irish songs as well as acrobats who perform as part of the procession.
Generally, most of the performers in the march are usually dressed in traditional Irish clothes and other colorful costumes that can complement the green color. Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated with many activities with the marching being one of them. In general, it has simply become a celebration of the Irish traditional culture in general involving the preparation of Irish foods as well as well as beer.
Food prepared during Saint Patrick’s Day The traditional foods prepared by a given community form part of their tradition and culture because communities in the world over have different kinds of foods that they prepare. Any culture has a remarkable difference based on communities in terms of the recipe for the foods they eat. Similarly, the Irish community and culture has its own recipes that it uses in preparing foods and drinks that are identified as Irish (Allen, 2013, p. 8).
To this case, Irish food, which is traditionally produced, is part of the hallmark of celebrating Saint Patrick’s Day. Therefore, on this day, what is identified as Irish recipes are prepared and sampled by all who come to celebrate the day. The Irish believe that their food is the best in the world because Ireland is one of the places that receive abundant rainfall in the world and that the Irish people believe their grass is the greenest in the world leading to the production of the best milk and beef.
Therefore, food becomes part of celebrating St Patrick’s Day with boiled bacon or corned beef served with cabbage and parsley sauce being the main dish for the day. Gaelic bread known as Barmbrack, otherwise known as “bairin breac” in Gaelic, which is sweet to taste, is also prepared on this day (Allen, 2010, p. 36: MacCon
The Relationship between Emotion and Cognition: Imposed Emotions and Brain Imaging Investigation Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis and Results
Introduction The direct interdependence between emotion and cognition is discussed by researchers as the stated phenomenon. Emotion affects attention, memory, and reasoning (Dolan, 2002).
The researchers study the effects of emotion on the person’s cognitive processes with the help of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and there is the supported argument that emotion can affect cognition significantly because of stimulating the activities of the definite cognitive control and executive brain regions (Denkova et al., 2010). Furthermore, the changes in the cognitive performance depend on a variety of the personal psychological characteristics (Dolcos, Iordan,
John Rawl’s Philosophy of Liberalism Essay essay help site:edu
John Rawl’s ideas about liberalism are influenced by the concept of social rules. These rules are formulated by different people or groups to come up with agreements. Rawl argues that these parties regard wealth and income creation as opportunities which encourage progressive social collaboration.
The participants involved help one another meet their mutual interests and goals. Rawl’s arguments are correct because social rules apply differently to different societies depending on their ways of lives.
Rawl argues that liberalism brings about social justice. He further stresses that people follow rules they form for their own benefit.
Rules of justice guide people on how ownership and distribution of social goods happen within a society. These rules are not meant to protect natural rights or rights given to humanity by God. The rules only look at how resources that exist in the society are to be shared based on people’s agreements.
The rules of justice as propounded by Rawl present a true picture of complex attitudes that influence people’s views. His argument is correct because most rules are formed by humans.
Only humans can decide how fair or unfair the rules are depending on their experiences. Rawl’s ideas advance the ideals of democracy which help societies progress.
Rawl’s philosophy on social and economic equalities is credible. The philosophy talks about formal equality before the law without discrimination. However, the theory does not adequately address the issue of historical discrimination that denies people equal access to social and economic opportunities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rawl proposes good ideas but does not offer solutions that can eliminate economic and social inequalities. Rawl also fails to show the method that can effectively distribute economic and social resources equitably.
Rawl’s philosophy is idealistic and cannot be a solution for all issues that relate to social and economic inequality. Most societies in the world do not have economic or social equality because of different reasons.
There is a small section of people within a given society who influence how rules are made. Rawl assumes that rules of ownership and distribution of resources are made by people living within a particular society.
This assumption is incorrect because the people that have power within a society have a big influence on how social and economic rules are enforced. Rawl further assumes that making people acquire skills and knowledge through education eliminates inequality.
Some societies have high literacy rates in their adult populations yet they still experience social and economic inequalities. The increase in the number of skilled and educated people does not always eliminate economic and social inequalities.
In conclusion, Rawl’s philosophy has weight. The contribution that members of a given society have in forming rules that decide how social and economic resources are distributed improves living standards for all. Rawl however does not fully address modern problems that arise out of unequal distribution of wealth and resources.
Discrimination in the modern world has reduced substantially yet social and economic inequalities still persist. Liberalism does not offer practical solutions that can eliminate problems caused by economic and social inequalities in many societies.
We will write a custom Essay on John Rawl’s Philosophy of Liberalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some societies have their economies controlled by a few people who are not always willing to allow the majority to get access to resources. Modern societies have not yet found solutions to the problems of inequality that many people face.
Political Liberalism Expository Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Weaknesses
Liberalism is a social or political philosophy that promotes and advocates the freedom of an individual. In his work, John Rawls, a famous philosopher, presents justice as equality among individuals. Rawls insists that the right is above over the good.
However, even if the right has higher priority, it does not exactly mean that the good should always be ignored. Rawls developed a concept that citizens need some basic rights, such as income wealth and liberties. According to Rawls, some of the good things are exceptions as the society remains neutral and retains the values of justice.
Tolerance and mutual trust are among the measures that retain harmony among the citizens. However, in his study, John Rawls states that good and right are complementary as they both rely on each other in some way.
Weaknesses Sometimes, political concepts that are adapted may not be in line with a culture that certain societies practice. Here, political liberalism fails to incorporate religious beliefs that the members of a society may hold.
Liberalism suffers another drawback as it is hard to have a just society of free and equal citizens, profoundly divided by reasonable religious, philosophical and moral doctrines (Rawls 15).
Also, liberalism relies on an abstract conception of the person and uses individualist criteria, not the social ones (Rawls 15).
Strengths According to Rawls, one of the major strengths is that a political conception of justice will generate its own support under favorable circumstances, and the institution, to which it leads, will be self-enforcing. In such a case, a stable social cooperation rests on the fact that most citizens accept the political order as legitimate (Davion and Wolf 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such circumstances, they can freely and willingly support a liberal democratic regime governed by a public conception of justice and fairness (Davion and Wolf 8).
Rawls states that political culture of a democratic society that has been working reasonably well during a considerable period normally contains, at least implicitly, certain fundamental intuitive ideas from which it is possible to work out a political conception of justice suitable for a constitutional regime (Davion and Wolf 5).
According to Armbrüster, liberalism is concerned with securing a fair distribution of freedom. It endorses redistribution of wealth and, as an institutional system, secures the freedom to live a life which individuals should value (Armbrüster 6).
Liberalism signifies confidence in the ability of a government to provide the means not only for procedural justice but also for wealth distribution to secure (Armbrüster 7).
Conclusion Critics of political liberalism have represented the changes in Rawls’ view as a kind of a philosophical loss (Davion and Wolf 10). Others have charged Rawls’ work on a kind of “justfactory schizophrenia” because various citizens justifiably accept a liberal conception of justice for quite different reasons thus they are expected to apply for different normative standards in their personal and public lives (Davion and Wolf 8).
Work Cited Armbrüster, Thomas. Management and Organization in Germany. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2005. Print.
Davion, Victoria, and Clark Wolf. The Idea of a Political Liberalism: Essays on Rawls. Lanham, MD: Rowman
Connections Between Students’ Prior Experiences, Interests, and Thought Processes Essay college admission essay help
Explain how students’ prior experiences, interests, and thought processes can influence the learning of current content area concepts.
Establish the link between past experiences, student interest, and present learning.
Students’ prior experience, interest, and process of thinking can influence learning due to the fact that learning is the dynamic process of shaping and reshaping thoughts based on new knowledge. These experiences influence the understanding of content area with intent consideration of information about the physical and social world. Furthermore, students’ prior experience uses the process of inquiry to define educational context and this can be achieved by retrieving prior knowledge available in the memory by cueing.
In establishing the link between past experiences, interest, and present learning, it will be noted that students with increased prior knowledge are faster in understanding taught courses since prior knowledge is easily retrievable and thus the present learning of the new contents are quickly linked.
This can be connected to the ongoing questioning of students’ understandings about the world around them. These components of inquiry relate to the very heart of naturalistic knowledge.
Additionally, from students prior experience of the environment (by asking theoretical and operational questions, making observations, developing hypotheses, engaging in experimentation and investigation, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, making inferences, and formulating new questions), the link between past experiences, student interest, and present learning will be established.
According to the research, students learn from their experience with both past and current event, knowledge, and behavior linked to gathered information (Caine
Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism Essay cheap essay help
Introduction: Locke and Burke, Together at Last Even though much time has passed since the XVII century, putting the names of Locke and Burke in one sentence already seems quite provoking, as if two rivals have been seated at the same table.
Despite not being as known by the modern population as his opponent, Burke was also quite influential with his ideas at the time, and these ideas were quite conflicting with the concepts offered by Locke.
Taking a closer look at the ideas which the two philosophers expressed, one can possibly find a golden mean in their arguments.
Foundations of Political Authority: Where Power Rests Every state needs certain regulations to be based upon, and these regulations are to be provided by the people standing at the helm of the state. Without a decent political authority, a state cannot exist, which Locke and Burke both understood well.
Offering their interpretations of what an ideal political authority must be like, they provide the ideas which, of collided, appear to be the exact opposite of each other.
Locke’s equality ideas, revisited
A true Liberalist at heart, Locke focused his idea of state power on the concept of freedom and equality, which tossed the philosopher into extreme liberal ideas. As Mack explains, Locke positioned personal freedom as the primary goal of every citizen, as a specific the law of nature.
Therefore, according to Locke, political authority should emerge only when there is an urge to use its power: “The motivating idea of state of nature theorizing is that we can determine what the purpose and proper extent of political authority is by seeing what sort of problems would beset us in the absence of all political authority” (Mark, 2009, 23).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Burke: the power of the opposition
In a sharp contrast to Locke’s free-spirited and somewhat anarchist moods, Burke displayed the desire to establish strong and down-to-earth set of laws and regulations based on monarchist ideas.
It is quite peculiar that Burke not only exercises the principle of natural right – he takes it to another extreme: “it became an exclusive criterion for the legitimacy of any political power whatsoever” (Parkin, 2011, 9).
However, in Burke’s reality, even the law of nature is supposed to support the idea of monarchy as the only possible political system.
Looking for Utopia: the golden mean
It seems that the ideal solution is the golden mean between Locke and Burke’s ideas. It is not quite reasonable to offer complete freedom to people, for they need to be guided by certain regulations to live in a state.
However, the idea of natural right seems even less appealing – while people have to relate to nature, these are the basic moral standpoints that define their humanity. Hence, Locke’s ideas seem more applicable.
Glorious Revolution in the Eyes of Burke and Locke Unlike wars, which are usually planned in the most cool-blooded manner several months and even years before starting the actual attack on the enemy’s state, revolutions, which are headed against the government of the native country, are usually considered a sign of a rapidly approaching change.
There are many ways to consider revolutions from a historical perspective; and the example of Locke and Burke is a perfect way to show that revolutions cannot be taken for granted. Clashing in an argument, both philosophers offer a legitimate interpretation of the Glorious Revolution and its purpose.
We will write a custom Essay on Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More National tradition instead of abstract commonplaces: Burke
Weirdly enough, Burke, the man who considered order and compliance with rules the basis for the society to ground on, seemed to approve of certain types of revolutions.
While interpreting the French Revolution as “another manifestation of the regicidal, destabilizing forces unleashed during the English Civil War” (Rooney, 2012, 26), Burke seemed to approve of the Glorious Revolution.
However, he explained his opinion on the significance of the latter in his own manner of a logical yet unexpected argumentation, describing the Glorious revolution as a “culmination of historical processes” (Rooney, 2012, 26).
While the French Revolution was destructive for the society, the Glorious Revolution spurred the state development and heralded the return to the ancient laws of England (Rooney, 2012, 26).
Treatises to defend the revolution: Locke’s passion
Unlike one might have expected, Locke shared Burke’s vision of the Glorious Revolution as the force which is bound to change the society for the better. However, Locke believed in the success of the Glorious Revolution for different reasons than his opponent, which defined the key difference between the two.
While Burke believed that the Glorious Revolution will help England return back to its traditions, unlike the French Revolution, which made the French society even less integrated, Locke supposed that the Glorious Revolution because he “saw the Glorious Revolution as an opportunity to change the political situation” (Suckow, 2007, 8). Therein lies the difference between the two philosophers.
In the midst of a bloodbath: Glorious Revolution, unveiled
While the effects which the Glorious Revolution has had on England and its political situation, it is necessary to admit that it was, first of all, a huge bloodbath.
Hence, no matter what their political ideas could be, people felt that they have achieved something with a huge effort. Therefore, it seems that the Glorious Revolution was more of a revelation for the people of their power to choose and to change.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the Elephant Meets the Unicorn: Liberals vs. Conservatives As it follows from the example of two great philosophers mentioned above, there is no way to choose the right ideology – both Liberalism and Conservatism seem quite legitimate when their basic ideas are applied to a specific situation in a specific context.
Therefore, it is highly unlikely that one of the given theories can be proven completely wrong; it is the time context and the political situation which predetermines the reasonability to resort to either Liberal or Conservative ideas.
However, if comparing and contrasting some of the basic Liberal and Conservative ideas, one can possibly decide which of the theories works for a certain person in a specific timeslot.
Le sage Locke has its say: liberals attack
The concept offered by Locke, or “le Sage”, as his followers called him, seem quite in tune with the general idea of people’s rights and freedoms. Indeed, according to the key postulates of Liberals, the main idea behind their political theory lies in offering people their freedoms and leaving them to choose the path which they are going to take. As Kelly puts it,
It derives from a recognition of the equal moral worth and standing of all individuals, but it also claims that this view places limits on the scope of moral claims given the fact of reasonable pluralism of moral views in modern democratic societies. (Kelly, 2005, 3)
Hence, liberalism allows for the freedom of choice, yet this freedom is restricted by the moral standards governing in a certain state.
The father of Anglo-conservatism rises
However, the theory of Conservatism seems rather legitimate as well. As Aughey, Jones, Terence and Riches explain, “the nature of conservatism at any one time in any one place is the distinctive (perhaps incoherent) discourse of its philosophical, dogmatic and policy expressions” (Aughey, Jones, Terence
Gender and power Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Dobash, Margo and Daly have given a comprehensive insight into the myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence (71). There has been a general belief in the United States and many other countries around the world violence against women is just as prevalent as violence against men.
These scholars set forth to dispel this myth and to give more insight into the issue of violence against women, and how power and gender play off in the current society. The world has experienced massive changes in the social structure. Various countries have seen the position of women in the society in terms of power and related facets.
Women empowerments, gender equality, empowering the girl child are terms that are common, and reflect the shift of power, from an all-powerful man, to a society where both genders are empowered. Power in relation to gender is something that has been there since time in memorial. Gender in this context refers to the state of being a male or a female and their social roles as determined by their mental, physical, and behavioral character.
For a long time, power was based on the physical strength of an individual, and for that matter, men were considered more powerful (Connell 21). This has changed a great deal. This paper seeks to define gender and power given the current societal context based on the analysis given by the above mentioned scholars.
Dobash, Margo and Daly hold that women are yet to gain power in the modern day society (79). Power in the past years was associated with men in the society. In various fields, from politics, religion, and culture or family, men would dictate how things would be done, while women were viewed as being weak, and their opinions were less valued. In those past years, women were strictly given no audience in any social gathering.
Their role was restricted to taking care of the domestic chores and most importantly, taking care of the interests of their husbands. All along men have been viewed as having the potential and ability to be dominant in all aspects of life while a woman’s role was to respond to men’s decision (Morris and Tahira 29).
This has for a long time undermined women and lowered their esteem in the society. In many societies around the world, women would never be given any position considered powerful. They have for a long time been sidelined and placed at the receiving end. There was a massive distinction between the two genders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Men were would always have their way in most of the events, and the society felt this was normal. Power and authority was generally believed to be a preserve for men. Dobash, Margo and Daly demonstrate this is their analysis (79).
Connell (56) argues that an analysis into gender and power demonstrates that symmetry of power between the two genders is yet to be achieved.
The scholar brings out the fact that women in the modern days should bring out their best in all they do; and that women have as much power just as men (Connell 56). In the past, women would never be allowed to hold any serious position in the society. This has changed with time. It is coming out clearly from this show, that women are acquiring power, and that they are becoming conscious of their capabilities.
Women today can openly hold social gatherings to discuss their issues. In addition, in politics, women are taking part and the position of women and power has completely taken another course in the society. Women like Hillary Clinton and Michelle Obama of the United States have been mentioned frequently in this show as women who have demonstrated that power is not a preserve for men. The show has used Condoleezza Rice as women who have inspired others to gain power irrespective of their gender.
Women have realized that there is an inner power in them that can make them achieve the best of the resultsThis has given them the desire to know more, learn, and earn respect in the society. It has also raised the women esteem in the society, as they now feel free to meet and share about how their husbands are treating them and the progress of their family as a whole (Morris and Tahira 113).
For this reason, women have derived so many ideas from her and have now become more confident that they can do even much more. The place of women is now not just in the kitchen. Their eyes are now open and many are now determined to advance their career and to have power just as much as men.
Kimmel and Holler (221) women have potential that when natured, can deliver good results in the society. The notion that women are weak is not true. Yes, they may not be as masculine as men are, but this should not make them be viewed as weaker parties in various respects within the society. Women can make key decisions, they can take care of families, they can make good political leaders, and this demonstrates that power is not a preserve of any of the genders.
We will write a custom Report on Gender and power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Connell, Raewyn. Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007. Print.
Dobash, Emerson, Margo Wilson and Daly Martin. “The Myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence,” In Gender Relations in Global Perspective: Essential Readings, ed. Nancy Cook, 173-184. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc, 2007. Internet Source. Web.
Kimmel, Michael and Holler Joseph. Separate and unequal: The Gendered world of work In the Gendered Society, 213-240. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2008. Internet Source.
Morris, Marika, and Tahira Gonsalves. Women and poverty. Toronto: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, 2005. Print.
Human Resource Management Essay writing essay help
The Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the section of an organization associated with a set of unique, best practices that aim to recruit, develop, reward and manage people in ways that create high performance systems (Bratton, and Gold 2012). Others view HRM as a simple repackaging of good personnel management practices (Som 2008).
The two definitions show that development in human resource depends on the changes in the markets, social movements, and public policies that are the products of economic and political changes within the society (Nienhueser 2011).
HRM started during the industrial revolution in England (Bratton and Gold 2012). According to Nienhüser and Warhurst (2012), HRM serves to ensure that the organization can achieve success through the proper utilization of employees. More specifically, it aims at increasing organizational effectiveness and capability by use of the available resources.
The human resource is concerned with the rights and needs of people through social responsibility (Nienhüser and Warhurst 2012). The social responsibilities are the responsibilities that the organization has to the society, consumers, suppliers and employees (Nienhüser and Warhurst 2012). The human resource goals include strategic integration, high commitment, high quality and flexibility (Armstrong 2009, p. 32).
The HRM has a number of theories. This includes the strategic HRM theory which is the principal HRM theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory interlinks the employee power and resources to the targeted strategic organizational goals. The theory’s implicit assumption is that a good fit between human resource and the internal and external context can be linked to high performance (Huselid, 1995).
However, organizational performance and achievement of goals is attributed to significant factors that are employee related. These are skills, dedication, commitment and productivity. The second theory is knowledge management theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory lists that the organizational outcomes is based on the knowledge of its employees. It adopts a systematic approach that motivates information sharing amongst the employees in order to achieve greater productivity.
Another HRM theory is the organizational culture development theory (Huselid, 1995). It takes into account the employees behavioral responses. In general, organizational culture refers to the values and practices upon which an organization is based. Additionally, it plays a major role in determining employees effectiveness and efficiency (Armstrong 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The HRM is characterized by its ability to respond accurately and effectively to the organization’s environment. It also complements other organizational system and delivers added value through the strategic development of the organizations. The HRM covers a vast environment of activities with a range of variation across occupations, organizational levels, business units, firms, industries, and societies (Som 2008).
There are two versions of HRM: the hard and soft versions of human resource. Hard HRM is a practical approach where people are viewed as passive resources purposed to be used, deployed as well as dispose where necessary. On the other hand, soft HRM is based on humanism. Thus, it is devoted to human interest that views people as responsible and progressive being (Nienhueser 2011).
There are the four main roles of human resource professional. They include managing strategic human resources, managing employee contribution, managing transformation and change, and lastly, is managing human infrastructure to support line managers (Kelly and Kelly 1991).
Managers need to understand how ethical dimensions of human resource policy and practice fit into the present and future picture. Lastly, they should be able to make a powerful business case for any proposals regarding the development of human resource strategy (Armstrong 2009, p. 104-135).
There are factors that influence the level of individual performance in an organization. These factors are motivation, ability, and opportunity to participate in the organization activities. The impacts of motivation on performance depend on the capability of the employee. On the other hand, the capacity to perform depends on the employee. The effects of motivation on performance are additive but interactive (Balnave, Brown, Maconachie and Stone 2007; Huselid 1995).
The three factors need to be observed by the concerned organization for it to make progress. As mentioned earlier, people are the most important resources in an organization. Thus, there are ways that have been developed to ensure that an organization obtains and keeps the people it requires. This is vital since it ensures continuity of good personnel in the organization thus facilitating succession. This important function is usually performed by the department of HRM (Thompson and McHugh 2009).
The human resource uses different strategies to ensure that it has the best personnel/staff in their organization. The first one is human resource planning. Here, the business assesses the present and future human resource needs of the organization. The second strategy is creating an employer brand.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is done by developing the existing workforce in the organization. This is whereby the organization plans on increasing the flexibility of the available human resource. The other strategy is talent management, recruitment and selection, and absent management strategies. Here, the organization decides on whether it needs employees from within the organization or outside, recruits, selects, orients and then trains (Armstrong, 2009).
Overall, HRM deals mainly with workforce management and regulation within an organization aimed at enhancing its performance. This is well explained using the various principal theories, versions, roles and strategies of HRM.
Reference List Armstrong, M 2009, Armstrong’s handbook of performance management: An evidence-based guide to delivering high performance, Kogan Page, London.
Balnave, N, Brown, J, Maconachie, G and Stone, R 2007, Employment Relations in Australia, Wiley
Industrial Relations Theories Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Industrial relations refer to the ways in which employees and employers relate within an organization. The relations include interactions covering human resource management, employee relations, and union relations. The relations arise from interactions between individual workers, between workers and their employers, and the interactions that employers and employees have with bodies formed to protect their various interests (Hall, 13).
The relationships are articulated in various ways involving the workers. Industrial relations have been regarded as a study of the rules governing employment, and they give directions on how the rules are changed, interpreted, and administered. There are different theories that explain the different inclinations of the industrial relations (Jackson 12).
Theories of the workplace relations Unitary theory
It views the organization as having one source of legitimate authority, having a unified authority, and a loyalty structure. The relations are placed on common values, interests, and objectives. All organizational participants are viewed as a team who share a common destiny. In unitary theory, conflict is seen as evil and destructive.
Therefore, it should be avoided at all costs. Conflict is believed to be caused by mismanagement and poor communications. Trade unions are outlawed and viewed as an illegitimate source of authority. They are seen as an intrusion competing for employees’ loyalty. In this theory, organizations exist in perfect harmony and all conflict is unnecessary (Jackson 16).
Conflict / Pluralist Theory
The theory recognizes that employees and managers have different objectives, which create a conflict of interest in the workplace. The theory argues that conflict is inevitable, rational, functional, and a normal situation at the workplace, which is then resolved through compromise, agreement and collective bargain.
Trade unions are viewed as legitimate and are not causes of conflict, but emphasizes on competition and collaboration in the workplace. This theory is the most efficient means of institutionalizing employment rules as it creates a balance in employee and management power (Jackson 18; Hall, 39).
The theory reflects a wider class of conflict between capital and labor. It shows that workplace relations are a reflection of the incidence of societal inequalities and the inevitable expressions about them in the workplace. Conflict is inevitable, and capital seeks to reduce costs while employees seek fairer price for labor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflict will only cease by revolutionary changes in the distribution of property and wealth. According to the theory, trade unions should raise revolutionary consciousness of workers and union leaders who accommodate managers betray the workers. Bargaining power gives little solutions and gives leaves important managerial powers intact (Jackson, 20).
This is a general theory of industrial relations. It states that industrial relations is a sub-system of a wider society that has four elements. These elements include the following:
a) Actors: they include the employers, employees, their representatives, and government agencies
b) Environmental contexts: this includes technologies, markets, budgets and distribution of power.
c) Procedural and substantive rules governing the actors.
d) Binding ideologies and common beliefs that encourage the actors to compromise.
The systems approach holds that behavior is as a result of the structure and processes of the system (Jackson 22).
We will write a custom Essay on Industrial Relations Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social action theory
The theory views the relation from the individual point of view and motivation. Each member of the organization has his/her own goals and views conflict as normal and a part of an organization’s life. Social actions arise out of the expectations, norms, attitudes, values, experiences, situations and goals of an individual.
The social action approach is important in weakening the fatalism of the structural determinations and stresses. In this case, the individual retains some power and freedom.
Industrial relations have been shaped and benefited largely from the theories by the major theorists. The industrial relations all over the world have been improved for the common good of all the stakeholders in the organizations (Hall, 17). They are also important for the achievement of organizational and individual goals.
A sound industrial relations systems represent harmonious relations more cooperative than conflicting. They also create better environments for economic growth. They require policies that govern them (Jackson 25).
This is the process through which the employees come together with the aim of championing for their rights. This is achieved through a system of shared responsibility and decision making between the labor force and the management. Collective bargaining involves the Union as the workers’ representatives, and management as the employers’ representatives. Collective bargaining has four elements that make it a complete, which include the following:
a) Legality: the contract being negotiated must be a legal agreement.
b) Economic perspective: the contents of the bargain must specify the terms and conditions of employment regarding salary, wage increment, and other benefits.
c) Must be between two parties: the agreement is between labor and management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrial Relations Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More d) It is a system involving shared responsibility and decision making.
Collective bargaining ensures the improvement of workers’ standards of living through fair remuneration and good working conditions, guarantees security of tenure, and employee promotion on the basis of merit.
It allows for participation of the labor force in running an enterprise through the decision making and control management. It also allows for ease and fair dispute management and other employment issues settlement.
Trade unions were initially established in the United States in the 1700s. They were meant to safeguard the welfare of the workers. Many other unions were formed in other countries in the world thereafter.
In the past, many employees came together to form unions. They were brought together by their areas of expertise. Thus two categories of labor unions emerged. These included: Crafts union and industrial unions.
Crafts union was formed by workers specialized in a certain trade while the industrial unions were formed by workers in the various industries. Some of the major unions at the time included the National Labor Union organized in 1866 and the Nobel Order of the Knight of Labor in 1869.
In the 19th century, courts were antagonistic to unions as they were seen as restraining trade by violating the laissez-faire capitalism core principle that states should not support interferences in business. The conflict that existed for there to be antagonism was between freedom of association, which gave people a right to form associations, and freedom of voluntary exchange in markets, which objected any form of market contracting opposing unions.
There was a change when the Wagners Act passed in 1935. Some of the elements of this Act included the establishment of clear rights of workers to form unions, protection in organizing activities for preventing employers from unfair practices and unfair bargains. The Act led to the establishment of a National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).
This changed the attitude of the federal governments about the legitimacy of the collective organizations by workers. During the 1950s, there was a dramatic expansion of unions.
With the rules in place, unionization reached its peak in 1953 with regard to the private sector. In the 1970s, there was the uneasy truce between unions and employers, which showed new competitive pressures. The only group served by the unions is employees and they have not accomplished their aspirations as the employer is set against giving workers a voice and power in the various organizations (Jackson 13).
Unions have been of better help, and workers under unionized institutions wish to retain their unions. In addition, those who are not unionized would wish to register in unions given a chance. There are numerous benefits that came through the unions.
The Union membership has been on the downward trend since the last two decades of the 20th century. This can be attributed to the fact that the unions have accomplished their missions and made working condition better. In addition, there has been a fall in the number of blue-collar jobs.
This can also be attributed to increase in the labor laws that aim at enhancing the workers’ plight. There are other factors that have led to this trend. The number of unionized workers is still high all the same (Hall, 49).
Stages of Union development
Labor unions are usually organized on several different levels. Local Unions are formed to champion for the welfare of employees in a given region. This may include a city, state, or regional block. The national union is known to be the umbrella union of all other small unions within a country.
There is also the international level. However, it is not all the unions that have this element. It is made up several national unions whose bases are the local unions just like the national unions. The top level labor union organization is the federation, which is made up of many national and international labor unions.
The federation level is an umbrella union that synchronizes and facilitates the functioning of other small unions. It also champions for political representation of the unionized workers (Hall, 19).
Roles of the Unions
Labor unions have power that emanates from the collective power of its members. Therefore, they articulate issues that are facing their members and are mandated to perform certain responsibilities (Khan, 79). Their roles range from national development, environmental issues. Unions play a big part in national development as they are the catalyst of social change and justice. They are responsible for harmonious industrial relations and contribute greatly to human resource development (Hall, 22).
Catalyst of social change and justice: Well organized union yields tremendous power. When the powers are properly used, they convert into agents of social change and justice. They have successfully uplifted the economic status of workers consequently changing the social positions of the masses.
Harmonious Industrial relations: with the influence they have, they are in a position to dictate the nature industrial relations. Without the strong influence of these unions, it is at times hard to harmonize the relations between employers, employees, and the government agencies (Khan, 80).
Existence of harmonious industrial relations is manifested by lack of strikes, disputes, and lockouts. Harmonious industrial relations, attracts political stability, incentives in business, and natural resources are made available attracting investors to do business where these unions exists.
Development of human resources: In developing human resource, unions have been very instrumental in effecting changes and improvements in developing nations that are in the transition period from agriculture to industrial economies. It accelerates the change in attitudes of the labor force (Khan, 91).
Consequently, this has effects on the workforce quality and the quality of its work. New attitudes include safety awareness, time keeping, teamwork and open mindedness. The union also facilitates and accelerates the pace of adapting for workers from their initial orientations to the current orientation, creating a productive, and competitive workforce. They play a big role in training, education and skill building to empower the workforce (Hall, 23).
Poverty alleviation: Khan noted that the struggle against poverty is one of the missions that unions focuses to eradicate all over the world (79). In addition, they have always involved the strategies of poverty alleviation. Unions make representations to governments and international agencies.
They campaign for policies that can assist in poverty eradication. They organize workers and assist them in creating smooth employee employer relations through providing channels for employees to voice their grievances enforcing mutual agreements (Khan, 81). These platforms ensure that workers get fair terms and conditions of work, as well as fair remunerations for their labor services.
The alternative poverty alleviation policies include organizing unemployed youths into the informal sector of the economy, funding women, and establishing groups and associations for the peasant farmers and other small scale workers in the society (Khan, 82).
Role for Public Health and Sustainable Development: Interest in the overall state of the environment has been manifested by both employers and employees. They have ways in which to treat those infected with HIV/AIDs and other diseases for the common good of everyone at work and for productivity purposes of the workforce.
Arguments in favor and against unions Arguments in favor of unions
a) Public workers get a good pay such that strikes are less, and there is continuity of work.
b) They protect workers from various company abuses, creating for them favorable working conditions.
c) The unions establish long-standing employment relationships. The relationship is among the employers and employees. The relationship has positive implication for both parties.
d) Unions provide a platform for workers to advocate for benefit remuneration, benefits, and acceptable working environments (Hall, 52).
Arguments against Unions
a) They can escalate prices for consumers. In this case, employers may be compelled to increase remunerations in which case the burden is to be shouldered by clients.
b) Unions constrain skilled employees from being recruited. In this case, the unions tend to hold workers in their positions in the name of securing their jobs, even those that are not fit for the jobs.
Non fit employees are often protected from layoffs and being fired. Thus, new positions are hard to open up in the labor market.
Conclusion With the many changes that have occurred over the years in the society, unions need to change their structure in order to accommodate the dynamic changes that are occurring in the world today. Historically, the unions were viewed as bodies for workers’ welfare and rights.
They have now become major instruments of national development. As years pass by, the roles of unions will continue to evolve, change, and increase to accommodate the changes in the world. Unions have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of their mother nations and their citizens.
Works Cited Hall, Richard. Industrial Relations: A Current Review. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006. Print.
Jackson, Michael P. Industrial Relations. London: Croom Helm, 1982. Print.
Khan, Muhammad Tariq. “Role Of Labor Unions Beyond Collective Bargaining”. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, 1.1 (2010): 78-90. Print.
Risk Management and Insurance Case Study essay help: essay help
Introduction Risk management refers to the concept of identifying, assessing, evaluating, prioritizing, of possible risks that a firm or an individual faces in a bid to minimize, control, or monitor impact of identified risks through applications of resources. One of the ways of controlling or minimizing impact of risks is the risk transfer (Dorfman, 2007).
Risk transfer, also known as insurance, involves engagement of a third party through a contract to pay a given sum of money in the event that such a suspected loss occurs. Insurance contracts involve premium and principles of insurance.
One of the principles is subrogation and indemnity requiring insurer to pay insured sum assured in the event that a loss is caused by insured risks.
The following scenarios confirm how the principle of indemnity and contribution affects insurance practices.
You have purchased a homeowner’s insurance policy for your home that you live in with your spouse and 2 children of 19 and 17. You live in a single family residence built in 1996 that is 1 story with 3 bedrooms and 2 ½ bathrooms. The coverages for your policy are as follows:
Coverage A: $190,000
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coverage B: $19,000
Coverage C: $75,000
AOP Deductible: $1,000
Coverage D: $38,000
Coverage E: $300,000
Coverage F: $5,000
Hurricane Deductible: 2%
We will write a custom Case Study on Risk Management and Insurance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More You also purchase for your insurance an auto policy covering all 4 drivers in your household and the 3 vehicles you own. The coverage in your auto policy is as follows:
Personal Injury Protection: $10,000 ded: $0
Liability: Bodily Injury $50,000 / $100,000
Liability: Property Damage $50,000
Uninsured Motorist: $50,000 / $100,000
Medical Payments: $5,000
Collision Deductible: $500
Comprehensive Deductible: $500
Both policies were purchased on March 1st, 2012 and are for 1 year. During the year your household had the following claims. Please indicate how much the insurance company is required to pay for the claims and under which coverage are they paying:
April 12th,2012: a water pipe burst in your kitchen while the dinner was being cooked and it produced $69,000 to your home and $5,500 to some small appliances and kitchen items.Water pipe is part of the constructed house hence any losses associated with physical damages caused to any part of the property is compensated on the basis of coverage A (Dorfman, 2007). Therefore, the amount of $74,500 will be compensated from the $190,000 Coverage A taken by the policy holder.
May 21st, 2012: you son driving back from school while raining loses control of the vehicle and hits a traffic signal knocking it down. The city sues you to repair the damage and is awarded by the court a judgment for $83,525. Your son did not suffer any injuries but the vehicle required $8,600 in repairs. The insurance will pay a sum of $50,000, which was the principal sum insured for property damages under the auto policy. The owner will have to meet the cost of the remainder, which is $89,525 – $50,000 = 39,525. This is because the insurance firm only promised to indemnify the policy holder up to $50,000 in case of any property damages under the auto policy. However, the owner will not have to pay the remainder as the insurance policy will under Coverage E (Vaughan
Charter and public schools in the United States of America Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Charter and public schools in the United States of America are facing a myriad of challenges stemming from external and internal pressure. Externally, both public and charter schools are required to perform well during examinations. Anderson and Holder (2012) carried out a longitudinal study to investigate the ten years annual reports of the two local charter schools in the United States of America.
The study utilized information from various sources, such as document analyses, site visits along with various and numerous interviews. The findings of this study revealed that the two schools under study received a lot of feedback regarding its administration, curriculum and evaluation.
CER (Center for education reform) describes a charter school as an innovative public school that is accountable to pupils/students outcomes as well as developed into offer programs that are modified to meet the desires or needs of the community they serve. In the year 1992, a first charter school was opened in the city of Saint Paul within the state of Minnesota.
Presently, there are at least 4,100 charter schools in the United States of America, which accommodate more than 1.2 million students (Bailey, 2009).
The District of Columbia and 42 states in the U.S. have laws, which are associated with the charter school. In every charter school, there is a board of governors that are responsible for making critical decision in regards to the school. Besides, there are also sponsors in charter schools who play an integral role in monitoring as well as approving application to ensure that there is success in this school.
Statement of the Problem The core reason why charter schools were initiated was to increase the academic option in the public school system. Peebles (2004) defines curriculum as the entire issues that take place within the school. They include interpersonal link, guidance, extracurricular activities as well as academic work.
Peebles further points out that curriculum entails cultural dissonance, academic expectation of the parents, teachers’ support as well as experience in addition to instructional leadership. Peebles carried out a case study to examine four issues associated with curriculum in the Marblehead charter school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issues explored included cultural dissonance, academic expectation, teacher training and experience as well as instructional leadership. Peebles also asserts that, in order for the charter schools to develop, they must move via various critical stages. These stages encompass pre-operational phase, operational phase as well as institutional operational stage.
As pointed out by Anderson and Holder (2012), operational and pre-operational activities have the capacity to impede the opening of charter schools and as such, great focus should be directed to them in the course of the beginning phases of the charter schools development. The director of Marblehead charter school placed more focus on the survival of the school, such as curriculum development, development as well as staff and instruction supervision.
Background of the Problem The desire to perform well is putting a lot of pressure on both, charter and public schools to constantly review their curriculum in an effort to compete effectively.
Skilton-Sylvester(2011) opine that present day principles and managers of public and charter schools are required to constantly monitor and evaluate efficacy of their curriculum, review and implement new strategies and tactics in order to improve the performance of students in schools.
Autonomy as well as teachers leadership are critical tenets in the development of a school’s curriculum. Several studies have demonstrated that inexperienced teachers do not contribute enough to the development of a school curriculum.
Purpose of the Study Charter and public schools in the United States of America have to combat a number of challenges because of external and internal pressure.
Externally, both public and charter schools need to show good results during examinations. Internally, some schools have inexperienced teachers and poor curriculum that does not enhance performance of students. Developing a comprehensive and effective curriculum in both charter and public schools will provide a platform for these schools to perform well in examinations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Charter and public schools in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As noted by Peebles (2004), an inexperienced and poor teacher has the potential to unconstructively affect the outcome of students even after the students have left the class. In the process of defining a curriculum, it is critical that teachers possess a detailed apprehension of approaches for assessing the outcome of students, techniques for assessing curricula as well as instructional delivery and the content of the curriculum.
Besides, when developing a curriculum, teachers should be given sufficient time to plan, to create, to adopt and to assess the curriculum. Numerous studies have revealed that one of the reasons why students migrate from one school to another is attributed mainly to students’ poor academic performance. Most parents who are not contented with grades of their children received during the process of studying at school are more than wiling to transfer their children to another school.
The significance of the Problem Students have different abilities in a given or particular classroom. We can hardly have a one-size lesson package which can fit all students in the class. Learning procedures and abilities differ across the classroom. As a result, there is a need for a lesson tailored to fit a specific group of students with a common liability or problem.
The lesson must address these needs for effectiveness and benefits of the students. At the same time, the needs of students are divers. This means that teachers should tailor their teaching profession in a specific way in order to meet specific needs of the students. The teacher in this case faces a challenging task of ensuring that he or she has the needed and required skills for some particular needs. Differentiated instruction is an area in the teaching profession which is harnessed for providing specific needs to students.
Given that students have specific needs that must be catered for by differentiated instructions, there is the need for developing an area for students’ professional development for the differentiated instruction. In this paper, differentiated instruction for students with difficulties in learning the English language in a mathematics class will be addressed and looked at.
Mathematics Learning in English Language Mathematics is a core subject in all disciplines. The subject is a must-learn for students in various disciplines. Mathematics is majorly taught in English. This is because of the ease with which the language is used in relation to mathematical expressions. The United States of America, the United Kingdom, and some countries in Africa use English in mathematics classes.
At the same time, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have non-English speaking population who are schooling in the same. As a result, mathematical textbooks used in this setting are written in the English language. The same text books are used in African countries in the mathematical curriculum.
Teachers in training colleges are taught in English and as a result, they infer the same to students in English. At the same time, there is no discrimination in education settings. Consequently, students are huddled together in the same learning environment irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds (Bender, 2002).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Charter and public schools in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Students who have English as their second language find it hard to cope with in a mathematics class as they are faced with two tasks that ought to be accomplished simultaneously. The first task entails learning the English language, whereas the second task involves learning mathematics itself.
Due to this, the students who have the English language as their second language struggle to grasp concepts in mathematics class. This happens due to the fact that when the lessons are delivered, teachers do not discriminate students but deliver the lesson with an assumption that they are grasping the concept irrespective of the language deficiency.
Given that teachers cannot speak and learn the first language for every student in class, there is a need for them to offer differentiated instruction to students in this area. Differentiated instruction is vital to students with learning disabilities as teachers are trained to give instructions with a generalized idea on the same (American Institutes for Research, 2010).
Differentiating Mathematical Instruction for English Language Learners Mathematics classes have normally diverse students. The common diversity is seen in terms of ethnic backgrounds. In a mathematics class, about 30% of the students are normally the English language learners. As a result, they differ in the learning abilities, facilities, and styles.
The English language learners find it hard to cope with the material in this class. The purpose of differentiation in a mathematics class is to teach the victimized students with the aid of myriads of techniques and strategies that address their deficiencies. This implies that the main focus is on the teacher.
The teacher is supposed to come up with strategies in order to implement the differentiation instruction. In this case, the teacher is supposed to be equipped with professional techniques needed to address this issues (Tomlinson, 1999). In this project, the professionalism involved in differentiation mathematical instructions for the English language learners are going to be discussed and highlighted.
The Objectives The purpose of differentiating the mathematical instructions for the English language learners is to make the lesson of mathematics comprehensible for all students in the class. Through this concept, the students are supposed to achieve the needed mathematical concept despite their language barriers.
As a result, the teacher is supposed to ensure that the students express the numbers or concept used to solve a certain mathematical expression in writing or orally. This involves ensuring that the lesson is not given as it is written in the books but rather is made for the students (Glencoe, 2005).
Assessment Methods Before implementing as well as also during and after implementing the strategies involved in the learning process, the teacher is supposed to make an assessment of the class and students in order to identify the needs of the students. There are several methods that can be used.
The first method is examination of the records. In this case, the teacher is supposed to carefully examine or review the test score of the students in previous mathematical tests. He or she is also supposed to check the daily assignments and the wording used in the students’ books.
Assessment should be done at the beginning of the term or the period the teacher has taken over. Assessments can also be done through a one-on-one talk with the student in case the class is small. In addition, assessment can also be done through testing a learning style inventory that can work best to the students. This is possible through ascertaining the topic that best suits the students (American Institutes for Research, 2010). For this case, the students should be given topics, such as algebra and statistics.
Assessment should also be assessed for their progress. This should be done through the skills levels, learning style and thinking skills among many other issues. At the end of every period, the teacher should give the students some projects and evaluate the same to see the extent to which they have grasped the concept (Baker, Gersten,
Assessment of the firm’s performance management system Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
In today’s fast paced, complex and dynamic business environment, organizations have turned their focus on how to deliver with much flexibility and quickly new high quality products and services in response to the ever changing and greater demands from clients. As such, the need to create new high-performance work systems to deliver on these premises has heightened fundamental transformations in the working structures.
With this, a renewed emphasis that views people as a source of competitive advantage rather than a cost to be minimized has emerged. Indeed, the old era where employees were viewed as replaceable elements in an organization has already proved to be very ineffective in the current dynamic and complex context.
Human resource management systems must continuously seek to create a high performance workplace system that rightly embraces a team-based structure and focuses more on increasing employees influence and contribution on business direction as well as organizational functioning.
This is especially so in the work environment, the processes involved and work tools to be used to manage the workforce. An effective performance management system is one of the tools that can turn a dull and an unproductive workforce to a highly innovative and productive workforce for any company.
It is upon this background that the performance evaluation system by Maple Leaf Shoes is to say without prejudice, a casually taken affair and which if it were to be taken more keenly could yield significant benefits to the company. To start with, the system is baseless with no guiding principles and connection to the overall firm strategy and goals.
In addition, no guiding performance targets have been developed to guide assessment of actual performance against desired outcome. As it stands, the firm’s performance management system is a blind tool incapable of yielding any change and value for the organization. The current system used by the organization consists only of a template of questions with no ownership. Neither the management nor the employees can claim involvement and therefore attachment to the developed system.
All these issues just indicate the presence of an important step being overlooked in developing the system—which is failure to carry out performance planning. Failure to plan as is universally known is a plan to fail. Without clearly defined goals to point out the exactly desired results to be accomplished as well as the linkages all these would have to the organizational success factors makes it a blunt tool.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second crucial weakness of the current system is that it lacks effective feedback mechanism. Owing to the fact that appraisal is done annually at a predetermined interval but overlooks performance goal setting, makes it a baseless system incapable of yielding any meaningful feedback. It does not define what every employee contribution should be and what is the level or acceptable achievements. Employees cannot be motivated to work without targets and as such this forms a key weakness of the system.
Recommendations for improvement Maple Leaf Shoes requires a performance management system that can work for it. To start with, the organization needs to clearly define its overall strategy and goals upon which the basis for a performance management system can be established. Upon having a basis, the organization needs to determine for each employee or group of employees what needs to be done or achieved in order to satisfy the organizational strategy and goals.
This is off course after carrying out an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the organizations human resources and the needs and resource requirements. Thirdly, the organization needs to set up a feedback mechanism upon which actual performance can be gauged against set performance at pre-determined intervals before the main evaluation and review is done at the end of the performance appraisal period.
Influence of Japanese culture in Hawaii Research Paper essay help online
The sugar sector in Hawaii had a boom in the 1870s but this was not the case with Japan because the change that led to the modern economy in Japan was not an easy process. These resulted to massive unemployment in Japan and cases of civil disorders and bankruptcies were high. The situation in Japan led to emigrants settling in Hawaii.
Majority of the emigrants were single men who were farmers. Japanese first settled in Hawaii in 1868 as casual labourers in sugar plantations. The first hospitality they received was bad and their settlement at Hawaii was therefore regarded as failure (Takagi 1987). In 1989, an agreement was arrived at demanding all Japanese immigrants to leave Hawaii but about 40 Japanese still remained there.
The problem of poor hospitality and poor terms of service were resolved in 1885 and more Japanese were therefore willing to migrate to Hawaii. The number of the immigrants in Hawaii by 1902 had reached 30,000. When Hawaii became a territory of the United States of America, contract labour was banned and many Japanese based in Hawaii migrated to U.S because of the increased wages.
An executive order and a gentlemen’s agreement placed restriction on migration of Japanese to Hawaii in 1907 and 1908 respectively. In 1909 and 1920, there were several strikes geared towards increment of wages but they were not successful. However, they agreed to work for the common good. At least 200,000 Japanese had settled in Hawaii by 1924 to work in sugar plantations when the United States banned further migration (Takagi 1987).
How Japanese culture affected the western culture From the census, it is clear that the culture and the cuisine Hawaii, which are known today, were created by the history of the migration of Japanese to Hawaii when they settled there to work in plantations. There are several proofs in Sushi where there is continuous evolution of the influence of Japanese.
The Japanese who settled in Hawaii continued to make dishes using ingredients and authentic flavours. The dishes are the favourites for tourist as well as natives in Sushi, which have become popular as they are simple, have variety and are delicious. The dishes are liked by Vegans, those who eat meat and also vegetarians (Pratt 2005).
Today, there is a Japanese cultural centre based at Hawaii, which has the objective of bridging the history and culture of the Japanese-American experience that is evolving in Hawaii. This organization is non-profit making and has historical and community gallery, Kenshikan martial arts and gift shops.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The centre has many programs for the exhibitions and festivals that are held every year. These activities are meant to honour the heritage of the Japanese and embrace diversity from other cultures in order to share a common future (Pratt 2005).
The vision of the centre is to have a society that connects with all people through educating of diverse heritage and understanding of oneself. This is a vibrant resource that strengthens the community of Hawaii though linking knowledge from the past to the current and future generation (Takagi 1987).
The centre has blended cultural background for the Japanese-American experience in Hawaii that has continuously evolved through community service and relevant programs as well as creating partnership (Daniel 2003). These programs promote understanding and enable the community to celebrate its heritage, identity of the land as well as its culture.
There are values embedded in Japanese-American traditions and Aloha’s spirit. Looking into the history, the idea and planning of Japanese cultural centre of Hawaii originated from the migration of Japanese to Hawaii.
This was initiated by the first and second generations that were determined to the task of national heroism, survival as well as restoring their cultural pride in the community (Daniel 2003). 125 years ago, there were celebrations by Imin that led to major Japanese set-ups getting devoted in the community to implement the concept of the cultural centre in Hawaii (Daniel 2003).
The project of the cultural centre was initiated in 1986 by the Chamber of commerce. It was aimed to consolidate related organizations in Hawaii to join effort in preserving the legacy of the immigrants from Japan in order to honour their contributions for the young generation to successfully integrate in the American culture (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008).
The aim of the project was to create identity for the Japanese immigrants and trace roots for future generations. The centre also promoted relations by creating harmony and understanding among the future generations of the Japanese immigrants and the Americans in Hawaii (Takagi 1987).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Influence of Japanese culture in Hawaii specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The creation of the cultural centre was the effort of many communities where ad Hoc committees were created to implement the courses for the action plans from various related organizations from Japan. Other organizations involved in fundraising also came up from other communities in Hawaii.
The works of various committees were set up to establish historical research programs, planning and steering, property management and membership. These committees followed a prepared schedule because the task ahead in forming the cultural centre was tremendous (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008).
In 1987, the new idea of forming the cultural centre took its first step and was incorporated in the laws of the state in Hawaii. The centre was expected to be independent and play an important task in perpetuating cultural values inherited from the forefathers into the current and future generations (Daniel 2003).
The Modern Cuisine is a blend from Japan who settled in the island. Some animals and breed plants are grown locally to supplement the Cuisine. Most of the dishes in Hawaiian restaurants contain Asian staple such as macaroni salad, fried eggs and Japanese style Tonkatsu. Hawaii locally grows a lot of fruits such as pineapple papaya as well as bananas, which are served with most dishes (Daniel 2003).
In the 1890s, the Japanese in Hawaii started setting up their schools with fear that their children would become Americanized. By 1920, only 20% of the Japanese children attended American schools while the rest attended Japanese schools (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008). However, the school system has now gone through integration because the current Japanese schools are only used for supplementary education especially on weekends.
This is part of the compulsory education in the United States of America (Columbus 1987). Today, Japanese language is spoken and learned by many residents across ethnicities. Most private schools ensure that pupils start learning Japanese language in grade two. Tourists are given concern by having most public facilities bear texts written in Japanese language.
These also include some local newspapers written in the language. Some newspapers and magazines in Hawaii are also produced in Japanese language. However, there is little interest for this by the local Japanese who were born in Hawaii and therefore production of the newspapers and magazines in Japanese language is in the process of dying out (Columbus 1987).
References Bentley-Ziegler-Streets. “The Traditions
Introduction to marketing Research Paper online essay help
Positioning Positioning presents one of the most important aspects within the service sector. This is since it contributes towards exposing intangible services on appropriate point of reference. Positioning can be referred to as a method of differentiation used in the process of identifying, developing and communicating organization’s products and services. Positioning tend to expose perceived superior and distinctive qualities of intended products and services to target consumers.
The concept provides good grounds on which services can be differentiated. Normally, service companies create some positioning of their goods and services in such a way that they are able to influence purchase decisions amongst consumers. There is possibility of positioning to be incorporated as part of marketing strategy.
Such planned positioning enables clear distinction between services from different companies within same competitive market. Generally, consumers within the same market, have different needs hence attracted to distinctive offers within the market. Efficient services should satisfy selected distinctive characteristics based on certain criteria such as; importance, distinctiveness, communicability, superiority, affordability as well as profitability (Kotler and Keller, 2007).
Certain characteristics should be evaluated for effective positioning. Such include; intangibility, degree of variability in the nature of service provided as well as inseparability which justifies connection between customer and available services (Fill, 2005).
Segmentation profile of the target market showing customers of the selected local service organization and various influences on consumer buying behaviour
Accor Hotel Marketing
Accor Hotel Group comprises of group of hotels spread all over various regions of the world and using one brand name. In marketing their services, Accor Hotel involves deep scrutiny of all their services for the purposes of promoting their business. Such process entails formulation of valid marketing mix including application of 4P’s.
Market Segmentation for Accor Hotel
Accor comprises of group of small hotels with each hotel operating based on centralized revenue management system. The hotel operates within the international market managing, owning and franchising nearly over four thousand hotels most of them being Small microenterprises.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Accor Group of hotels segments the market based on the needs which require satisfaction. The changing needs and requirements within the market segments are identified through concrete and effective marketing strategies and decisions. The hotel market segments are divided based on main components such as geographic, psychographic and socio-economic.
Accor hotel group segmentation based on geographic bases comprises of hotel companies found within different regions of the world such as; Ibis, Formulae 1, Etap hotel names used within Europe and other regions. While in the United States the names used include Motel 6 and Red Roof Inns. While psychographic bases incorporates hotel’s life cycle, various buying patterns, motives of customers and attitude regarding intended services.
Such services comprise of economy to upscale luxury class hotels within business and leisure sectors. Additionally, Accor’s social-economic bases comprises of women segment, weak-end segment as well as instant market segment. Despite, feeding many segments, the life-style segment proves to be the most lucrative in terms of services demanded (Rajan, 2006).
Marketing Mix for Hotel Industry
Marketing mix comprises of various offers from the market in which the hotel operates. The mix involves application of the 4P’s (Promotion, place, price and people) in the process of identifying potential market segments for the intended services. Appropriate implementation of marketing mix determines the level of acceptability of the products and services and at the same time assists in the process of stirring demand for hotel’s services.
Various decision making areas requires attention since they determine to a larger extent positioning of hotel’s services. Such areas comprises of distinctive peripheral services, involvement of creative promotional services, application of affordable pricing strategies capable of assisting Accor Hotel command significant market share. Working with trustworthy and diligent personnel is recommended for the purposes of maintain considerable competitive advantage within the market.
Product mix for Accor hotel services comprises of services rendered within catering sector, management on various small hotel branches such as restaurant and cafeterias spread all over the regions as previously mentioned. This also includes management and provision of executive rooming services and efficient management of convention halls.
However, boarding services within hotel industry are considered important component of the product mix. There is well developed and established information technology which Accor utilizes to attract customers such as online technology (Ramboll management, 2002, pp.2-3). Besides, there should be adequate services in terms of sufficient ventilation, entertainment, lighting system and water supply within the hotel’s premises.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Introduction to marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important that organizations should integrate distinctive service operations allowing for efficiency in coordination between customers and individual hotels. Efficient positioning is considered capable of revealing needs of intended market segment and various methods on how to satisfy such needs.
At the same time payment systems should be modified with the changing technology. Such changes reinforces positioning of services based on efficient internet payment systems, such improvement would enable more online bookings hence decreasing transaction costs.
Improvement done in the whole chain of pricing enables easier adjustments; this is especially whenever any individual hotel alters prices within revenue management system. Such movements allows for individual reaction of the hotel towards fulfilment of local customer needs (Ramboll management, 2002, pp.2-3).
Promotion mix for such hotel involves various awareness campaigns through various means such as social media. Potential customers become aware of such facilities based on the nature of advertisement used in describing the quality of services and products offered. Such distinctive qualities are promoted through business advertisement, extensive publicity, and sales promotion, personal selling amongst other potential promotion tools.
Consumer buying behaviours are usually determined by nature of services based on the marketing mix. Most of the hotels utilize print media with the most current one being use of computerized technology. Hotels have found it easier to reach customers through social sites such as face book and e-mails.
Application of CRS system within hotels enables e-booking which ultimately contributes towards an increase in the number of bookings within particular segments. At the same time development of third-party websites assists hotels in the process of making reservation for their consumers or travel agents. Such wide range of technological installations, assist in the process of optimizing available hotel capacity within the world scale. This provides opportunities for individual hotels in terms of international bookings (Rajan, 2006).
The nature of publicity will determine to a larger extent, consumer response towards hotel services. Such business ventures require publicity of a number of events taking place within the hotel. Provisions for menus, entertainment events, conferences and exhibitions should be publicized through media. Pictures of dignitaries staying within the hotel premises contribute towards consumer attraction. At the same time, the kind of pricing mechanism used of which tactical pricing is found appropriate in the promotion of hotel businesses.
Explanation on positioning strategies used by the selected local service organization
Unlike other major competitors within the market, Accor focuses on building its current credentials and reputation based on high quality service provision amongst high-end consumers. Most hotels focus on diversifying their services especially within saturated markets such as United Kingdom.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Introduction to marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Establishing a chain of hotel services within densely populated areas would ensure that the business attracts higher demand. However, as indicated, management of Accor engages in segmentation, notably through the introduction technologically proven essential service lines.
Accor hotels utilize choice of location as one of the most essential positioning strategy. This is applicable in their owned restaurants, guest houses and small tourist attractions centres. At the same time, their distribution system utilizes modern computerized technology for purposes of increasing user of information. This ensures that the distribution and advertisement of service materials reach large population of media users.
The hotel also uses their travel agents as middlemen who happen to buying hotel rooms in bulk and ultimately sell to intended retailers. Such tour operators found within the hotel industry are referred to as producers of services. Such dimensions of business deals enables travel agents to purchase sufficient services at the request of specified clients hence providing convenient network of sales outlets capable of catering for the needs of intended market segment.
Positioning map is used within hotel industry for the purposes of identifying various positioning of competitors’ services with respect to identified distinctive characteristics. In this case, the analysis is done by drawing positioning map for particular market segment. However, customers from different market segments may have different opinion and perception on the nature of services provided and intended benefits. (Kaplan and Norton, 1996b).
References Fill, C 2005, Marketing Communications – Engagement, strategies and practice, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh Gate
Reading Disability Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A reading disability is a type of learning disability caused by neurological factors that affect the ability of a child to read normally (Safford, 2006). Reading disabilities impair the ability of a person to read according to the expected level.
A reading disability is also referred to as dyslexia and can affect any child including those with normal levels of intelligence. Children with reading disabilities are faced with a lot of challenges when it comes to learning (Safford, 2006).
Children with reading disabilities have persistent difficulties when it comes to using their decoding strategies and therefore completely rely on their whole memory for reading. This affects their fluency in reading and consequently their understanding of text becomes very difficult.
Children with reading disabilities read slowly due to their difficulties with spelling and phonological processing. The visual and verbal response of children with reading disability is also very poor and in the process affects their manipulation of sounds (Hatcher, 1999).
The reading accuracy and comprehension of children is normally impaired by the reading disability and therefore affecting their academic life. Students with reading disabilities should be given extra time to complete assignments and examinations.
Reading disabilities can be partially inherited or can be caused by physical damage to the brain (Hatcher, 1999). According to research findings, reading disabilities can be caused by gene mutations that lead to writing and reading deficits.
Children with visual problems tend to experience reading disorders in many occasions compared to those without visual problems (Hatcher, 1999). The nervous system of a person is very important in coordinating the brain and visual processes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In case any of the brain and visual processes is interfered with, children are bound to have difficulties with their reading abilities. Children with language deficits may also experience difficulties when reading (Konza, 2006).
Neurological difficulties and the impairment of sensory nerves are among the physiological factors that cause reading impairments (Konza, 2006). The reading success of parents is a fundamental hereditary factor that can cause reading disabilities.
The intellectual environment created by parents plays a significant role in determining whether their children experience reading disabilities or not (Konza, 2006). Phonological processing and word recognition are in most cases influenced by genetics.
Racial identification and other socioeconomic factors can influence the reading abilities of a child. The learning strategies used by learning institutions can also affect the ability of children to read and comprehend information (Torgesen, 2002). Regular practice is needed for students to sharpen and perfect their reading skills.
Children with reading disabilities have certain characteristics that distinguish them from normal children (Torgesen, 2002). Identification of single words is the first difficulty that children with reading difficulties experience. Children with reading disabilities also find it difficult to understand rhymes and other sounds in words.
This group of students also experience difficulties with spelling and comprehension of reading materials (Torgesen, 2002). Children with reading disabilities are always unable to read at a faster rate whether silently or orally. Children with reading disabilities may omit or substitute words when reading.
The spoken language of children with reading disabilities is normally delayed and their written expression is also very poor. Reading disabilities makes children to be mixed up when it comes to directions and opposites. Decoding syllables is among the major challenges of children with reading disabilities (Konza, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on Reading Disability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reversal of words is a common characteristic of children with reading disabilities. Associating syllables with specific sounds is another problem for children with reading disabilities. The functioning of brain hemispheres affects the reading speed of children.
It is important to evaluate the reading abilities of children on a regular basis in order to diagnose any kind of reading disabilities as early as possible (Malmquist, 1958). It is important to consider the fact that reading disabilities are not related to low intelligence.
The languages spoken at school and the child’s home are among the things considered when evaluating a child’s reading abilities. Cultural factors and educational opportunities also influence the reading abilities of children. It is possible for a child to compensate for a reading disorder through early intervention (Malmquist, 1958).
The severity of a reading disability and the kind of help they receive determine whether the case can be improved or not. The self-esteem of children with reading disabilities is normally very low and the situation can become worse if teachers and the immediate family do not offer their support towards improving the child’s condition.
It is possible to overcome a reading disorder if the condition is detected before the child reaches grade three (Konza, 2006). Children with reading disabilities may lack interest in learning activities which leads to poor academic performance. One of the best interventions for children with reading disabilities is to improve their word recognition skills (Konza, 2006).
It is important for students with reading disabilities to learn how to recognize real words as the first step towards improving their reading abilities (Hatcher, 1999). Teachers should help this group of students to improve their word recognition skills to supplement their sound recognition skills.
Phonemic awareness, word attack skills, phonics and decoding are some of the areas that this type of intervention aims at improving (Hatcher, 1999). Teachers and other professionals use direct instructions as the best method of teaching children with reading disabilities word recognition skills.
Direct instructions involve repetition practices that ensure that the children completely perfect their word recognition skills. Regular practice is the key to improving word recognition skills for children with reading disabilities (Safford, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reading Disability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The instructional components of improving word recognition skills include sequencing, segmentation and advanced organizers. The sequencing component involves breaking down reading tasks. This helps in matching students with the level of their reading disability.
The teachers arrange for short sessions where students are able to read, review and underline new words in a passage. The second instructional component under this intervention is segmentation where the various skills being taught to students are broken down into segments for quick understanding of the reading tasks.
Advanced organizers enable students to get familiar with the learning instructions in advance before the actual lessons (Safford, 2006). It is essential to improve the comprehension skills of students as they learn how to recognize words.
The reading program of children with reading disabilities should be constantly evaluated to ensure the programs deliver the expected results.
Children with reading disabilities encounter a lot of challenges and should therefore be given some special attention when it comes to school assignments and examinations (Safford, 2006). It is important to accommodate this group of students for them to feel loved and appreciated.
Students with reading disabilities can not compete at the same level with normal students. Their reading speed is slow and this should be compensated by allowing them some extra time to complete their assignments and examinations (Konza, 2006).
The level of reading disability should be used to determine the amount of extra time that children with reading disabilities should be added. It would be very unfair and inhuman to expect children with reading disabilities to compete at the same level with normal children.
According to research findings, children with visual problems have high chances of encountering problems in their reading. The extra time enables children with reading disabilities to understand questions at their speed and be able to answerer them according to their level (Konza, 2006).
Children with reading disabilities end up not completing their assignments and examinations in a case where they are not given some extra time. Their reading and writing speed is very slow and therefore can not allow them to finish their assignments and examinations within the normal time (Konza, 2006).
In conclusion, reading disabilities are a reality and parents in collaboration with teachers should look for ways of ensuring that children with this kind of disability are given enough support (Torgesen, 2002). Genetic and physiological factors are among the major causes of reading disabilities among children.
It is important for parents and teachers to detect any kind of reading disabilities as early as possible so that proper measures can be taken to prevent the situation from getting worse. Helping students with reading disabilities to perfect their word recognition skills is among the basic interventions for children with reading disabilities (Torgesen, 2002).
Children with reading disabilities should be given extra time in order to complete assignments and examinations because they can not compete at the same level with normal children (Hatcher, 1999). Accommodating children with reading disabilities helps in improving their self-esteem and academic performance.
References Hatcher, P. (1999). Phonemes, rhymes, and intelligence as predictors of children’s responsiveness to remedial reading instruction: Evidence from a longitudinal intervention study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72(2), 130-153.
Konza, D. (2006). Teaching students with reading difficulties. New York, NY: Cengage Learning Australia.
Malmquist, E. (1958). Factors related to reading disabilities in the first grade of elementary school. New York, NY: Almqvsit
Conflicting Policies toward Minorities Essay essay help online
At the end of the nineteenth century, the American government pursued different policies toward various minority groups, even though the representatives of these groups were considered to be distinct from the Anglo-Saxon population.
Some of them were forced to assimilate into the mainstream culture, while others were excluded or segregated from the community. To a great extent, these conflicting policies can be explained by the fact that at that time, racial ideology played an important role and profoundly influenced the views of many individuals.
Some minorities, especially African-Americans were denied the right to integrate into the society only because they had a different color of the skin.
In contrast, white people had more opportunity to participate in social activities because they were not considered to be different from a racial point of view. On the whole, the former history of slavery and racism also affected the attitudes of the officials and public.
In order to illustrate these arguments, one should first look at the policies of the state toward African-Americans. In particular, one can speak about the legal doctrine Separate but equal that emerged in the late nineteenth century.
According to it, black people allegedly had the civic rights guaranteed by the Constitution. However, they were not able to attend many educational institutions or occupy positions in the government.
Thus, they were excluded from the mainstream culture only because it was unacceptable to many individuals that black people could have the same opportunities in American society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To a great extent, these attitudes of the state can be explained by the long history of slavery and unwillingness of people to see former slaves as full-right citizens. The effects of this doctrine are palpable even nowadays, when many black people are economically-disadvantaged.
In their turn, the immigrants, who came from India and China, were frequently prevented from integrating into the society. For instance, in many cases, it was extremely difficult for them to find employment.
This is one of the reasons why they settled in separate communities. Nevertheless, they soon acquired the label of whiteness. This is one of the reasons why they successfully integrated into the mainstream culture.
Finally, one can speak about Native Americans because the state had a very peculiar attitude toward them. Unlike African-Americans, this minority group was not associated with slavery and inferior position within a society.
However, they were also deemed to be distinct from the majority of American population. They could interact with the mainstream America in different ways. For instance, they could either completely assimilate into the society without retaining their cultural distinctions.
The second option available to them was to live in segregation. However, they were viewed as an inferior race by the state. Thus, one can say that one can say that the rhetoric of race profoundly affected the life of many minority groups.
On the whole, these examples indicate that that at the end of the nineteenth century, minority groups faced different challenges. Some of them were deprived of the opportunity to integrate into the community. Other people were enabled to become a part of the mainstream culture, but in some cases, they had to abandon their cultural heritage.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflicting Policies toward Minorities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, the legacies of slavery and racial view of the world had a strong influence on the state. This is one of the main issues that one can identify.
Campus Crimes Types and Causes Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Types of crimes and their causes
Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the number of crimes associated with college students. By comparing the current crime rates in all our college campuses, experts have indicated that campus crime rates have risen exponentially over the last century (Flowers 23).
Psychologists have blamed this unprecedented increase on stress, romantic obsession, relationship anguish, and drug abuse. Notably, relationship anguish, romantic obsession, and drug abuse have been cited as the leading causes of campus crimes in the U.S.
Currently, law enforcers, researchers and college administrators are struggling to find ways of controlling violence, crimes, and unusual behaviors within our colleges. On the other hand, students, staff, faculty, and external communities are being called upon to advocate for nonviolent behaviors and acts (Wessler
The Methods to Improve Communication in the Supply Chain Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
To guarantee the adequate and even higher profits for all the members of the supply chain, it is necessary to reduce the possible negative consequences of the ineffective communication within the definite supply chain. Moreover, the reduction of the overall costs also depends on the effective changes in approaches to producing, delivering, and storing goods and products.
The problem is in the fact that if the parties of the supply chain are competitors, they are inclined to concentrate only on appropriating value from the chain (Shah 228). In this situation, the necessity to create the definite value for the chain is not discussed as the priority for the members of the supply chain because of not seeing the potential benefits for them.
As a result, the party which is stronger and has the greater potential for the development and success within the chain and market intends to use the possibilities of the weaker party in order to increase its own profits.
The absence of the balance within the supply chain can lead to the significant increase of the overall costs because of the absence of the effective communication between the parties. To improve the work of the supply chain, it is necessary to focus on the methods for developing the communication between the parties and on the ways to reduce overall costs. It is possible to state that these goals are correlated because they are oriented to the development of the supply chain’s economic potential, involving all the parties.
The supply chain can develop more effectively if there is the focus on the reliability and speed of interactions between the chain’s members. Moreover, it is important to create the sustainable environment for the parties of the supply chain in relation to the improvement of the information flow and communication between these parties (Wisner 26).
There are a lot of technologies which are developed to improve the information flow and exchange of the data. The usage of the certain software and programs to realize the exchange of the information is important to make the communication between the parties more effective and immediate (Wisner 27-29).
The next step is the focus on the direct connection with the consumer. When a lot of members of the supply chain have no direct connections with consumers there are few possibilities to meet all the parties’ needs and expectations fully. That is why, the needs of the customers should be discussed as important not only by retailers but also by the other members of the supply chain.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reduction of the overall costs is possible when all the parties are interested in the results of the realized transactions. If the parties are competitors, it is necessary to insist on the reduction of the excess inventories which can lead to the reduction of the overall costs because of decreasing the extra usage of resources (Wisner 26). It is also important to prevent the exploitation of the weakest parties which can be downstream according to their position in the supply chain in order to satisfy the economic needs of the stronger members.
The complex supply chains cannot work effectively because of a lot of parties involved in the process. The focus on the direct cooperation can also lead to the reduction of the overall costs.
Works Cited Shah, Janat. Supply Chain Management: Text and Cases. India: Pearson Education India, 2009. Print.
Wisner, Joel. Principles of Supply Chain Management: A Balanced Approach. USA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
History of Management Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of studying history of management
Introduction Management is a profession as well as an art that has developed for a long period. Management has a long history that can be traced back to over a hundred years ago. It is important for any manager to understand the history of management to be able to steer an organization forward.
Managers need to understand where management started and how it has developed to reach where it is today. It is said that a country should have a memory; otherwise such a country is better referred to as ‘a nation of mad people’. Applying this to the management profession, it can be said that management that does not have memories is a management for ‘mad people’ (Smith, 2007).
Not many scholars are interested in history. Most students are just interested in knowing how to manage, with only a few being interested in knowing where management came from and how it developed. This creates managers who do not have deep knowledge in management (Daft
NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Problem statement Given their entrepreneurial skills, Harvey Nickerson and Lewis Cobb, founders of NCA Microelectronics, identified a market opportunity with regard to controlling illegal usage of airwaves. This opportunity motivated them to design the Interact/R1000 technology, which aimed at monitoring airwave usage.
After conducting a thorough environmental scan, NCA Microelectronics identified government agencies as its target customers. Despite the successful idea conceptualization, NCA Microelectronics faced a challenge in an effort to introduce the new product to the market. The problem came up during the new product development and market introduction phase.
Entrepreneurs should have sufficient funds to develop a new product successfully. The funds are necessary to undertake market research and product development conclusively. During the development of the R1000, NCA and the Department of Communication (DOC) were required to fund the product partly.
Each of the two parties contributed $100,000. Additionally, the Department of Communication in collaboration with governments of other developing countries provided NCA with the necessary technical support to ensure successful completion of the project. The project commenced successfully and the involved parties estimated the project to take 12 months.
NCA management team outsourced the services of an expert marketing firm, Fundy Cable, to introduce the new product in the market. However, during the market introduction phase, the new project experienced a hitch due to a difference that arose between NCA and the Department of Communication.
The subject of contention was with regard to the final features that R1000 would have. According to NCA, it was not possible to incorporate the features that the Department of Communication needed within the forecasted budget. Additionally, incorporation of such features would make the new product expensive.
Considering the price-conscious nature of customers, the new product would not gain sufficient market acceptability. NCA and the Department of Communication came agreed to develop the R900 version instead of the R1000 to prevent the project from failing completely.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem with changing the version is that it would experience a challenge during marketing because a German company had already ventured in designing and developing the R900. Therefore, R900 would face intense competition from the German company whose products had already gained market acceptance.
Despite this scenario, the firm went ahead and produced R900 which were purchased by the Department of Communication. During the spring of 1990, the Department of Communication experienced a financial constraint, which made it difficult to continue purchasing the product.
Considering the fact that the Department of Communication was the principal customer for R900, its inability to purchase the R900 presented a problem to NCA with regard to generating sales.
The problem heightened given the fact that other government agencies did not consider using R900 in monitoring and controlling illegal usage of airwaves.
Situation Analysis Strengths of the business
One of the major sources of NCA Microelectronics strengths arose from its founder’s risk taking characteristics. The two entrepreneurs managed to conduct a comprehensive environmental scan to identify feasible business opportunity.
After comprehensive analysis with regard to viability of the identified business opportunity, the founders of NCA Microelectronics were ready to risk their resources in implementing idea generated by the business. Additionally, the entrepreneurial characteristic of the two entrepreneurs made it possible to identify new market niche.
Therefore, the firm managed to design new products for the identified market niche; for instance, the firm’s plan to venture into the Cable Television industry illustrates this aspect. However, the idea did not succeed because the industry was more cost conscious compared to being technology conscious.
We will write a custom Report on NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The firm’s development of the new product, Chameleon, underscores its success in studying the environment and identifying feasible business opportunities. The designers intended to use the new product at solving theft of Pay-TV signals.
Another strength that NCA Microelectronics had developed is associated with its ability to establish a strong bond with its clients. This aspect increased NCA Microelectronics’ ability to source for funds externally.
For example, during the development of the R1000, NCA collaborated with the Department of Communication, which partly funded the project in addition to providing technical support.
Due to its innovativeness, the firm developed new technologies that revolutionized government’s efforts in monitoring and controlling illegal use of airwaves. The fact that the two entrepreneurs were technology experts enhanced the firm’s innovativeness with regard to technological products.
The new product developed would enable the government to monitor airwaves remotely. Initially, airwaves transmission towers were situated on hilltops, which made it expensive and inconvenient for the government to control airwaves. The new technology was remarkably effective according to the Department of Communication.
In its operation, NCA Microelectronics faced a severe budgetary constraint; for instance, it could not undertake the new product development project on its own. The budgetary constraints experienced forced the firm to join forces with potential clients such as the Department of Communication, who partly supplied finance for the project.
Despite the firm’s commitment in revolutionizing the airwaves control through innovation, it experienced a weakness with regard to ensuring that the new products successfully penetrated the target market.
The two entrepreneurs did not have sufficient market expertise hence the products could not penetrate the market easily due to lack of proper market entry strategies. The firm could not formulate an effective marketing strategy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to its marketing weakness, NCA considered outsourcing the services of expert marketing firms such as Fundy Cable.
Services of expert marketing firms were outsourced to analyze the prospects of the new product succeeding upon its introduction in the market. However, this move further compounded the firm’s financial challenge.
From the case, it is evident that the technology industry is characterized by a relatively high market potential. Therefore, NCA Microelectronics should consider ways of exploiting the market opportunities presented. The firm should conduct a comprehensive market research to exploit the potential in the technology industry.
The research should focus on two main market variables, which include the consumer and the competitor. Consumer market research will enable the firm to review its competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.
Findings of the competitor market research will enable the firm establish the competitors weak points and thus capitalize on the identified weaknesses. On the other hand, consumer market research will enable the firm to understand the consumers’ needs and wants.
This aspect will increase the probability of the firm developing a product that is in line with market demand and thus increase the probability of generating high sales. However, the firm will incur a substantial cost in undertaking market research. One of the areas that the firm should focus on during its research is the TV cable industry.
In its quest to increase profitability, the firm should not only focus on one client, but also identify other potential clients to prevent abrupt decline in sales in the event of one customer experiencing budgetary constraint, which would affect their purchasing power.
In addition, the firm should consider manufacturing the new product rather than outsourcing manufacturing services to ensure that the project is implemented successfully. This move will enable the firm to produce new products cost effectively considering the price conscious characteristic of firms in the TV industry.
Consequently, the firm will manage to influence television companies to purchase the new product because it will be priced more optimally. Additionally, NCA will also control the quality of the products. However, the problem of establishing a manufacturing plant is that the firm will incur high financial costs.
Course of action recommended
For the firm to deal with the challenges it is experiencing effectively, the management team should consider the following:
The firm should first consider developing a strong long-term capital base to succeed in its product development. One of the external sources of finance that it should consider is issuing shares to the public.
The firm should also nurture other core competencies and capabilities. One of the core competencies and capabilities that the firm should take into account is marketing.
Implications of the recommended course of actions
By issuing shares to the public, the firm will develop long-term capital, which will improve its effectiveness in undertaking the necessary research and development to undertake product development.
Improving its core competencies and capabilities with regard to marketing will increase the probability of the new product succeeding upon introduction in the market considering the fact that this area was one of the main challenges of product market entry after the establishment of NCA Microelectronics.
Wireless Technology in IKEA Case Study a level english language essay help
Phase I Proposing a New Idea
In the twentieth-fist century, wire technology has winded round the Earth, leaving no space for creative ideas and alternative solutions. However, spatial characteristics are becoming more crucial while planning interior or constructing buildings. Imagine a future in which power transfer is carried out without physical conduct.
Due to the fact that portable devices and mobility gain momentum among contemporary people, particularly among Generation Z, use of household robots, laptops, cell phones that can be charged without being plugged in, can provide people with freedom of operating those devices everywhere (Hadley n. p.). Hence, people do not have to be afraid of leaving the charger at home because their batteries could be recharged by means of power transmittance via radio waves. There is also a possibility of operating such devices even without batteries.
In fact, wireless technology implies transmission of energy from a power source to the object, which needs to be charged. This process is beneficial in case of impossibility to transmit the power via cables. Wireless power transmission differs from wireless communication. As such, the challenges of such technology are also different.
Because wireless technology premises on the principle of radio, the efficiency of transmittance depends on the signal (Hadley n. p.). So, in case the signal is low, the radio waves could fail to reach the destination. In case with wireless power, the focus is made on efficiency because it influences the extent by which the energy is sent to the receivers of the power. At this point, the problem of economic use has become urgent.
Despite the challenges of introducing wireless power technology, this system could still be used with other technological novelties, such as IKEA furniture that encourages innovative and creative ideas. It can solve a number of problems in terms of interior planning and use of small space.
As an example, IKEA introduce new furniture with built-in wireless technology that is controlled by a remote panel. Establishing wireless television boxes is beneficial because it contributes to convenience, mobility, and practicability of the interior space. IKEA UPPLEVA is among the exemplary devices that combine furniture and a new device, as well as embrace many other important functions than watching TV (IKEASWE n. p.). Moreover, the new idea also implies turning on the light without cable connection.
While evaluating the feasibility of the proposed technology, the emphasis should be placed to such aspects as electricity, magnetism, magnetic induction, power coupling, resonance, and electromagnetism. At this point, the wireless principle of conveying power embraces the electrical charged received through atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this type of transmittance could be dangerous. Therefore, the pulp light should be turned on by means of other devices, such as electromagnetism.
Specifically, due to the fact that magnetism is regarded as the main driving force in nature, causing attraction of materials, installing permanent magnets can lead to the creation of the necessary magnet field, which could provide constant charges of specific objects. The phenomenon of energy coupling is another important feature that occurs when magnetic field of an object is able to create an electric current to supply other devices with energy.
To support the feasibility of the proposed idea, it is necessary to present numerical data supporting the benefits of wireless technology. At the poin t the table below demonstrate the efficiency percentage of wireless devices transmitting energy to the objects, including cell phones, laptops, and MP3 players.
Type of Wireless Technology Sources Operating Frequency (GHz) Conversion Efficiency (%) Circular Patch 2.40 81 Square Patch 8.50 65 Printed dipole 2.40 85 Printed Dual Rhombic 5.60 78 To make the technology more efficient, additional costs should be spent on constructing these antennas to make the signal available to all devices on the established area.
Evaluating Competitive Advantage
The above-presented statistics proves that efficiency is higher than average and, therefore, it can compete with other cable technologies. Besides, it has many advantages in terms of convenience and efficiency. To begin with, the high-tech product will be in high demand among customers for whom practical use of space, mobility, and convenience are prioritized.
Further, the products will also be convenient for those who travel much. For instance, it is possible to create a specialized bag with built-in small table that could be used for laptop, in case a person needs to work while being on business trip.
Steps Needed to Patient Such Idea
First of all, it is necessary to provide a description of the idea that should be original, genuine, and unique. Second, the authors of the patent should provide detailed list of applications of this device and explain why it differs from previously established idea. The name of the inventors, the design title, and intended use of the technology should be presented as well.
We will write a custom Case Study on Wireless Technology in IKEA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phase II Achieving Operational Excellence of a Product Line
The first phase of achieving operational excellence consists in gaining visibility through automation of data collection. Such a process can provide improvements and centralize the controlling process. Introducing a visualization system is beneficial because it highlights the vendor systems, capability of the industry to produce the technology, as well as pricing strategy.
Additionally, supervisory control is another flexible scheme that should be used to work out baseline metrics that could be a starting point for estimating reductions and providing superior visualization of data acquisition.
Identifying Supply Management Solution
Producing wireless technology implies construction of specialized station and antenna transmitting power to various mobile devices, including laptops, cell phones, and TV sets. Therefore, it is highly necessary to establish relationships with the construction company to ensure sufficient covering and radio wave transmission.
In addition, because electricity is received through solar batter, local solar power stations could also be established to supply the devices with power. At this point, the producers should negotiate with solar stations for the feasibility of this project and define the schedule and condition for the construction. Establishing relations with IKEA is another important step that can contribute to the creation of a commercially beneficial product.
Develop an E-Commerce Strategy
The analysis of the product line is possible through establishing the concept of ubiquitous power that is available to all people. The new wireless technology does not only expand human possibilities, but also allows to plan their time more efficiently. Maximizing the use of space and increasing the functionality and usability of the devices will be the premise of the new commerce strategy.
Because the devices are means of telecommunication, it is possible to carry out mass-mails and send message via cell phone to inform the users about the new function. Creation of website is also obligatory because it can provide detailed information on technology.
The idea of cell phones and other appliances charging themselves might seem at first a figment of one’s wild imagination. However, according to the recent case study, IKEA offers an innovation that can possibly make the concept of self-charging appliances a part and parcel of everyday reality.
According to the case study conducted on the IKEA innovative suggestion, the self-charging appliance concept stems from the researches on wireless energy transfer. Based on wireless communication technologies, the new means of charging appliances is a revolutionary innovation that deserves a better look at. Combining the given idea with the IKEA furniture will help market some of the recent IKEA products, as well as trigger more customers to the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wireless Technology in IKEA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is essential to keep in mind that the given case study analysis presupposes answering not one, but two questions. To be more exact, it is necessary to figure out in what ways the promising, yet clearly disruptive new technology can promote the new IKEA products. The second issue that needs to be resolved concerns the means to market certain goods with the help of the new yet disruptive technologies if the company is less famous than IKEA. Once choosing the strategy that will help an even smaller business grow more influential will definitely show that the idea described above is worth implementation.
Even though the idea of wireless self-charging devices is still a concept and requires some time to be tested and approved, there can still be no doubt that the wireless self-charging devices production will break new grounds in the realm of technology, reinventing people’s perception of what technologies have to offer nowadays. Therefore, it can be expected that the given technologies can help promote the new IKEA goods more efficiently.
With such an incredible new brand to back the new IKEA products, the company can rest assured that the given technological advances would help make the IKEA brand popular worldwide once again. Even though the suggested wireless transmission of the information is generally considered not as efficient as other means, mostly because of the problems concerning the background noise in the process of signal transmission, it is still clear that the new technologies will help get people’s attention on the IKEA’s recently developed products.
Though combining the aforementioned technology and the whimsical, yet functional IKEA furniture hardly seems possible, it can still be suggested that the specific functions of the wireless battery charging can be combined with the specifics of a certain furniture type. It is worth mentioning that the IKEA furniture design can be described as extremely functional and at the same time minimalistic and contributing to creation of a specific atmosphere.
Therefore, the emphasis with the use of the new technology can be on the aesthetics and the originality of the interior. For instance, introducing a set of minimalistic furniture, which can create a specific atmosphere by masking the obvious elements of high tech, IKEA might mention that cords and wires, which are often mentioned as the most troublesome elements of any device, are no longer a problem, since there is a wireless power transfer.
With specific elements that allow to locate the devices in such a way as to obtain the maximal signal, the new IKEA furniture sets will be promoted as “the furniture for the house of tomorrow.”
As for the application of the given idea to any other company, it can be assumed that the use of wireless charge technologies will be a highly profitable idea. Still, it is necessary to keep in mind that a specific plan must be developed to create and promote the new product. Speaking of the SCM, one must mention that the raw material can be supplied by a trustworthy company that provides only high-quality non-toxic materials.
To cut the costs, it will be necessary to refuse from having the raw materials delivered. To promote the goods, which will combine convenience and functionality, the advertisement campaign must put the emphasis on the latest technologies offered by the company.
Granted that very few other furniture-producing companies incorporate the elements of information technology in the design of their products, it can be assumed that the IKEA will not have to face high competition rates. Though it will be wrong to consider the IKEA the beholder of monopoly on the given idea, it is still clear that the company will be the pioneer in the given market. Hence, competition does not seem to be the issue in the given case.
Hence, the competitive advantage of the idea is rather high. To patent the given idea, it will be required to receive an application for the patent and check whether the given innovations meet all the requirements that are listed in the paper.
If the idea of using the wireless power charge devices as a feature of their furniture and adopting the latter from the use of the appliances, which can be charged with the help of the given innovation has not been used by anyone else, the IKEA Company will be able to patent the given concept and, thus, make it the company’s current trademark.
Works Cited Hadley, Franklin. “Goodbye Wires! MIT team experimentally demonstrates wireless power transfer potentially useful for powering laptops, cell phones without cords”. MIT NEWS. 2007. Web. http://news.mit.edu/2007/wireless-0607
IKEASWE. “IKEA UPPLEVA”. Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube. 16 Appl. 2012. Web. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded
New Technological Advances within the Police Department Essay essay help
Mytown Police Department is one of the beneficiaries of a federal grant. The grant aims at upgrading the equipment and technology used in the organization. According to the parameters used in the grant process, it is obligatory that the organization should use novel equipment in promoting decision making and operations in the organization.
As the Deputy Chief, I am tasked with the responsibility of identifying novel technological advances, which are in agreement with the grant criteria. Moreover, the technologies should enable the organization to develop and grow.
This paper aims at identifying three novel technological advances, which are linked to criminal justice. Moreover, there will be a detailed explanation of the use of these technologies, as well as their benefits. More specifically, there will be a keen focus on how the technologies will enhance and inform strategic and operational decisions.
Technology possesses a huge transformational power within the criminal justice sector. Evidently, the revolution of technology, which is being noted in every sector, is not an exception in the criminal justice department. The criminal justice system cannot avoid technology. The technology is taking place at a relatively fast pace (Pattavina, 2004).
For instance, police officers put on bullet proof vests routinely. Community groups possess the capability of establishing crime incidences via the utilization of complex computerized crime diagrams. This paper will discuss three technologies; DNA technology, information technology, and drug testing technology.
Detailed Explanation on How the Technologies will be used DNA technology
DNA technology has become increasingly significant in the criminal justice system. It has greatly led to escalated levels of fairness and accuracy within the system. DNA is increasingly being utilized in criminal identification. This is achieved with unbelievable accuracy. This is in cases where there is existence of biological evidence, and DNA is the selected option for clearing suspects and exonerating individuals, who were convicted or accused mistakenly for particular criminal activities (Lazer, 2004).
DNA technology has a major role in post- conviction review (the court’s science) and assisting investigators. The biologic centrality involved in DNA ensures that potential and actual forensic applications are exceptionally relevant and powerful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For effective use of DNA technology, it is necessary that there is adequate backing, training, and funding. Support should be given to judges, defense lawyers, prosecutors, victim service providers, medical professionals, police, and local, state, and federal forensic labs.
Creating knowledge to these groups of people will ensure that the technology is used maximally in missing persons’ identification, protecting innocent individuals, and solving crimes. There are numerous cases involving missing people and unidentified human remains, which can be solved effectively through the use of DNA technology.
There are several measures which can ensure a convincing and secure environment for DNA. Majority of the specialists who deal with criminal justice need sufficient support and training, in regard to the utilization and acquisition of DNA evidence. Moreover, there is a need for stimulating research and coming up with novel DNA advances and technologies in the area. Hrechak and McHugh (1990) argue that crime laboratories need improvement for effective analysis of samples.
Information technology advances have contributed significantly in crime deterrence and detection, in regard to criminal activities. There is a need for decision makers within the system to learn the various mechanism involved in information technology. These involve the implementation, evaluation, and acquisition of novel information solutions.
This is an extremely vital aspect in a system, where the public funds’ accountability and effectiveness in IT solutions’ implementation cannot be underrated. Therefore, comprehensive awareness creation is essential so as to avoid unrealistic expectations, as far as equipment performance is concerned.
Information technology is directly connected to cybercrime and its impacts on the society. Policing agencies use fake websites and honeypots to track and catch sexual predators. Moreover, information technology is used to improve retailers’ websites, which hinders hacking.
This is usually achieved without interfering with how effectively customers use it. In addition, there is the aspect of design and utilization of technologically advanced products, for instance Clipper Chip, which can enable the government unscramble encrypted files. It is worth emphasizing that there is need for the balance between privacy and information accessibility.
We will write a custom Essay on New Technological Advances within the Police Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drug Testing Technology
Urinalysis is the key testing methodology in the entire system. Drug testing is carried out in the entire criminal justice system stages. These stages include parole, probation, incarceration, arrest, and pretrial phase. Drug testing is carried out for a number of reasons (Cole, Smith
Theories of Situational and Participative Leadership Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Participative Leadership Theory
The situational leadership theory
Application of Situational Leadership Theory
Introduction From the early twentieth century, there has been a surge of interest in leadership theory. The leadership models, which were been in existence before, paid attention to the character traits that distinguished leaders from followers. On the contrary, subsequent schools of leadership have focused on the other points, such as the level of participation, skills and situational factors. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the participatory and situational theories of leadership.
Participative Leadership Theory This leadership model is grounded on the concept that when the thoughts of different people are combined, the decision arrived is better than a single individual’s opinion.
The leader welcomes the participation of the persons responsible for performing various assignments, given that such an approach is more collaborative and less competitive, and as a result, an organization achieves more commitment from participants. Participants may include managers, patrons, juniors and seniors.
Participatory leadership is all about discussions, independent decision making, sharing of power and coming up with decisions jointly, and empowerment. A participative leader makes all the employees involved in the affairs of an organization or corporation unite their efforts to achieve the set goals (Komives, Wagner
Southwest Airlines Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Grand strategy Analysis
Introduction The success of firms and companies depends on long term objectives rather than the short term ones. Therefore, firms plan with an aim of developing presently as well as in the future. A projection into the future enables the firms to determine their expenditures and income. The United States of America is focused on making long term goals and objectives. The emphasis on the long term objective has constributed to the development of their economy.
As a result, the country has remained economically stable by maintaining economic solvency. The Southwest airlines is one of the main corporations of the USA contributing to the development of the country’s economy. It facilitates local and international trade in the country. Consequently, they apply grand strategies in regards to their long term objectives to realize prosperity. This paper aims at analyzing the grand strategies used by the airlines and determine their efficiency (Banfe, 1992).
Grand strategy Analysis The Southwest Airlines has adopted various grand strategies aiming at fulfilling their long term objectives. Firstly, the Southwest airlines makes partnerships with other airlines. The partnerships allow the Southwest Airlines to expand their market. In addition, partnerships enable them to work more efficiently than when they operate individually (Brown, 2010). For example, the Southwest Airlines partnered with ATA Airlines, which helped them open flights to Hawaii.
However, the ATA Airlines experienced bankruptcy in 2008. As a result, the partnership was abolished and terminated. Also, the Southwest Airlines partnered with Volaris from Mexico in 2008. The partnership enabled them to make low cost flights to Mexico. However, the partnership was terminated in February, 2013. The grand strategy selection shows that the Southwest Airlines enhances market development through partnering and collaboration.
The selection shows that the Southwest Airlines uses the ability and strengths of their partners to market their products. However, the matrix selection shows that the Airlines should make stable and lasting partnerships. It suggests that temporary partnerships impair implementation of long term objectives and goals. Therefore, the Airlines should evaluate companies and access their future solvency before making partnership.
Secondly, the Southwest Airlines has adopted a strategy that ensures employees’ commitment. It aims at recruiting competent staff. This strategy ensures that the quality of the services is high and satisfactory (Luecke
Industrial Engineer Problems Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
A learning curve demonstrates the realistic correlation between the used time for the production of units and the real number of units which can be produced during this time. Learning curves are also necessary to plan the effective corporate strategy in relation to the adequate prices set, capitals and investments used, and costs determined.
Three assumptions are necessary to develop the learning curve. These assumptions are the time which is necessary to produce the definite unit or complete the task. This amount of time should decrease as a result of progressing in completing the task. Thus, the next condition is the obvious decreeing rate of time in production. It is also important to note that this reduction in time can be predicted according to the definite formula used to develop the most appropriate strategy.
The main formula to determine the necessary effort per unit (y) is based on the constant, which is the effort to product the first unit (a), the definite unit discussed (x), and on the slope constant for the unit discussed which determines the decreasing rate.
Thus, the number of labor hours necessary to produce the 50th unit in relation to the learning curve of 90% and standard time for a job of 90 minutes is approximately 49.7 minutes. According to the principle of the decreasing rate the 100th unit can be produced during the time which is approximately 44.78 minutes.
To develop the plan in relation to the manpower loading for the production of 3000 units during the first four weeks, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that all the workers are experienced, all the equipment is available, and workers can work during 7 hours and 5 days.
Thus, the working week for one worker is 35 hours. The 90% learning curve is used to complete the task. It is important to remember that to produce the 50th unit, it is necessary to orient to the time of approximately 50 minutes. Moreover, to produce the 100th unit, it is necessary to pay attention to the 45-minute work.
In order to produce the 3000th unit, it is necessary to have 27 minutes. This time can be discussed as the final possible measure. From this point, during the first week, a person who works 35 hours a week can provide the maximum of 23 units.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the next two weeks, the maximum can be 42 units, if the staff is experienced and all the equipment is available for the work. That is why, the most appropriate plan should be developed with references to the number of employers used to produce units because an experienced worker can produce 46 units to the end of the final week of the work. From this point, the effective plan should be oriented to the definite number of workers involved in the process.
The discussed numbers are the maximum, it is necessary to pay attention to the daily schedule of the workers. Thus, it is possible to state that during the first two weeks the workers should perform intensively, and 40-45 workers should produce units according to the plan. During the next two weeks, the number of the workers involved in the process of production can be decreased without decreasing the rate of the production.
Modern Algeria Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Algeria
Culture and Tourism
Introduction Algeria is a country located in the northwestern part of Africa. It borders Mediterranean Sea to the north. Algeria is officially referred to as the democratic republic of Algeria. It is also the second largest country in Africa. The country is covered by 90% desert. Most of its population lives in the northern region.
The capital city of Algeria is Algiers, which is also the largest city in the country. The name Algeria means “the desert” in the Arabic language. Most of the population is of Arabs and Berbers ancestry. The Arabs who also introduced the Arabic language introduced the Islamic religion.
Today Arabic and Berber languages are official in Algeria. Islamic religion is also the largest comprising of 99% of the population. French is used as a language of instruction in schools and in media although it is not an official language. The population of Algeria in 2010 was 34.9 million.
The main people in Algeria are the Arab Berbers. This paper will cover Algeria as a country from a variety of perspectives. The paper will discuss the geography, history, political systems, economics, and culture of Algeria.
Geography Algeria is a country that is located in the northwest part of Africa. It lies at 28o north of Equator and 3o east of the Prime Meridian. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Tunisia, and Libya to the east, Niger, Mali, and Mauritania to the south, and Morocco to the west (Africa: Algeria Para. 1).
Algeria is the second largest country in size after Sudan in Africa. It has an area of 2,381,741 square kilometers (919,595 sq miles). It has a coastline of 998 kilometers (620 miles). Its highest point is at Mount Tahat, which has a height of 3,003 meters (9,852 feet) while its lowest point is at Chott Melrhir, which is 40 meters (131 feet) below the sea level.
More than 90% of Algeria’s total area is part of the Sahara desert. It comprises of bare rocks and gravel. About a quarter of this area comprises of sand dunes referred as ergs, for example, Grand Erg oriental and Grand Erg occidental are the largest sand dunes in Algeria.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Algeria has one main river called Chelif River. This river rises from Tell Atlas Mountains and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It should also be noted that the southern part of Tell bears no permanent stream that flows. There are also some basins in the south of Tell, which collect water especially during the rainy seasons.
The rainfall is fair on the coast especially on the Tell Atlas coast. This may range between 400 and 670mm in a year. There is also precipitation that increases from the western side towards the north. This may go high and even reach 1000mm annually.
The basins form a large lake in this highlands region. The Saharan Atlas also receives more rains than other regions of Algeria. The Tell region and the coastal plains also receive mild rains during winter. Temperatures may rise up to 50 degrees Celsius.
Orologically, there are various mountains in Algeria for example the Ahaggar Mountains, which are also known as the Hoggar Mountains. These mountains found at the centre of Sahara desert are arid. They are located at the southern part of Algeria. The highest part of these mountains is Mount Tahat at 3,003 meters (9,852 feet).
There is also the Er Rif mountain range, which is located to the western frontier of Algeria. This mountain forms a cliff, which is very stiff and is about 2438 meters (800feet). In terms of climatic features, Algeria is located within the Sahara desert. Therefore, daily temperatures are extreme. There are extreme winds, and the place is very arid.
The country receives an annual rainfall of less than 130mm i.e. (5in). There is a Mediterranean climate in the northern part of Algeria especially on the Tell Atlas and the Coastal plain. This climate is characterized by warm and dry summers and mild rainy winters.
The Tell Atlas and the coastal plains make the most humid region of the country. The Sirocco winds, which are hot and dry, blow in summer from the Sahara towards the north. The southern part of Algeria is very dry. In terms of flora, Algeria’s northern part has been the grazing field to the herders over the years.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Algeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has resulted to overgrazing and deforestation. In the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas, there are only few remaining forests. In this region, trees such as Atlas cedar, Oaks and pine are common. On the other hand, the lower parts of the slopes are occupied with scrubby type of vegetation, for example, the juniper plants.
On the high plateau, the area is barren. There is steppe vegetation that comprises of brushwood and esparto grass. Since this is part of the Sahara desert, plants are very scattered, mainly comprised of the acacia, jubebe trees, and drought-resistant grasses. The cedar and conifers are also common in Algeria.
On the mountains, there are evergreen forests, which comprise of junipers, oak trees, and Aleppo pine. There are also deciduous trees on these forests. Towards the warmer areas, there are forests of agave , palm, and eucalyptus trees. On the coast, there are palm trees and grape vines.
In the wider Sahara, there are acacia trees and olives especially the wild ones. The fauna in Algeria is also limited due to the sparse vegetation. This vegetation can only support a small number of animals. The animals in Algeria include jerboa, fennec fox, ibex, boars, jackal, hare, antelope, monitor lizards, and servals.
The dama gazelle and the oryx have vanished from Algeria although they were common before 1990s. The vegetation of Algeria varies from coastal, desert vegetation, which is grassy, and mountainous. People live in close relationship with some wild animals, for example, the jackals, gazelles, and boars.
Wildlife there comprises of leopards, cheetah, and panthers. The variety of species of birds has attracted many tourists who like watching birds. There are also many monitor lizards and snakes. There are also dangerous scorpions and poisonous insects in the desert.
Some animals that existed some years ago have become extinct. These include bears and Barbery lions. The animal that is most reared is the camel due to its use as a pack animal that are very reliable for transport across the desert.
History of Algeria The first Algerian kingdom was founded by chief Masinissa who was a Berber. He reigned between 202 and 148 BC. He was allied to Ancient Rome. This kingdom was called Numidia. However, Masinissa’s grandson was conquered by the Romans in 106 BC.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Algeria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romans made the kingdom prosper to the level of becoming the source of olive oil and grains for Rome. During this time, the Romans used the military patrols in surrounding roads to garrison the towns. This was aimed at protecting the towns from the nomads.
The towns included Tipasa and Timagad, which also developed into small cities. During the decline of the Roman kingdom in the 3rd century, Rome withdrew its legions that were taken on warfronts elsewhere. The Donatis Christian movement that was previously persecuted by these Romans experienced independence.
The natives also denounced the Donatism sect. For example, Saint Augustine denounced it on his writings. Later on during the 5th century Vandals, a tribe from Germany conquered this region and established its own kingdom.
Emperor Justinian of Byzantine used his army to overthrow the Vandals even before the end of that century. The vandals’ invasion of Algeria had left a mark during the whole of the 5th century (Collins 124). He restored the lost glory of Roman Empire.
During the 17th century, Arabs who overthrew the leadership of Justinian and planted an Islamic leadership invaded North Africa. However, resistance from the Kusaylas, the Barber leaders, and from the Kahina, the alleged Judaism prophesier, faced the Arab invasion.
Nevertheless, Algeria later became Umayyad Caliphate province when the resistant Berbers surrendered to Arabic leadership. Algeria became an Islamic country with the Arabs preferring urban lifestyle. It is also worthwhile to note that the Kabyles Berbers were given an upper hand by the colonial government in a bid to divide and rule (Alec and McKinney 104).
However, the caliphate was seized from the hand of Umayyads by the Abbasids during the 8th century. During this seizure, the Berbers who belonged to Kharijte Islamic sect established their own kingdom. This kingdom was also Islamic with Rustamids as the leading one in Tahert in Algeria.
The Tahert developed during the 8th century to the 9th century. However, it was overthrown by Fatimids people that belonged to Shia Islam. The Berber kingdoms of Almoravids and Almohads led to an autonomous centralized authority in the whole of Northwest Africa during 11th and 13th centuries.
This made the city an Islamic city with Islamic learning centers and schools. Mosques were also a notable part of architecture. Handicrafts were also common. The Bejaila, Algiers, and Annaba ports prospered in trade with Europe. These ports supplied Barbary horses, fine leather, fabric, and wax to the Europeans.
They also captured Christians and sold them as slaves (Hitchens 12). During the Ottoman rule, the Zayyanid took over leadership. When Almohad kingdom collapsed in 1269, the Zayyanid ruled for 300 years. Its capital was at Tlamchen. These people competed with the Muslim and Christians for the control of the seaports.
This led to hiring of pirates who were known as corsairs to seize trade ships and their crew to demand for ransom. During the 16th century, Christian Spaniards captured and took over these ports. They also blockaded Algiers from all external trade and made it pay tribute.
Due to this impact of the Christians, the Muslim requested the sultan of Ottoman to come to their aid. The sultan of Ottoman was the overall caliph. During this time, corsair brothers, referred to as Barberossas, prevailed on the caliph to send them on this mission to North Africa accompanied by a fleet of fighters.
When the sultan sent them, they took over North Africa, overthrew the Spaniards, and took over their possessions. Khayr ad-Din was made the representative of sultan in Algeria. He acquired the beylerbey title. Since Algiers was far from the Constantinople, it was made autonomous.
The corsairs were very effective, as they made Algiers become very powerful. Hence, their pirates became very dominant and controlled the port to the point of forcing European traders to pay tributes for protection of their ships. This money plus the money paid for ransom made them very rich.
The Ottoman janissary garrisons were in charge of internal security. However, the Ottoman Empire declined during late 18th century. This opened an opportunity for Europeans to improve on ship construction and firepower to the point of challenging Corsair’s leadership. At the same time, they entered the international agreements outlawing piracy.
This was followed by a naval squad that was sent to conquer the city by the United States in 1815. In 1816, an Anglo-Dutch war fleet almost destabilized Algiers. Finally, French army took over the city in 1830. By 1834, the French had taken over Algiers and its surroundings. It had already begun the occupation of most of its coast and main lands.
These territories fell under direct leadership of the French governor-general. Since the leadership of the French was incomparable to that of the Ottoman, native tribes began waging resistance. These tribes were led by Abd al-Qadir, a military leader and head of Sufi Muslim goodwill referred to as Qadiriyya.
He trained his militants to use hit-and-run strategies. These tactics were very effective in fighting the French. Al-Qadir remained a hero until 1847 when he was subdued. However, the Barbers continued with the resistance though 1871 when the Kabyle Berbers waged the fieriest resistance that made them weaker.
In 1872, the French forces won and confiscated the Berbers land. It is at this point that France colonized Algeria and allowed its citizens to settle there. French settlers bought land from barbers at very low prices. Others just confiscated it. The settlers developed industries, schools, banks, and agriculture to make Algeria look like their home.
The agricultural products supported their home country with food. Production of citrus fruits and wine for export to France became prosperous just like it was when Algeria supplied grains to Rome. The move to confiscate land and to apply modern techniques of farming added to the available land (Horne and Alistair 32).
French rule made the Muslim disadvantaged to the point of becoming its slaves. Muslims who were the majority were faced with restrictions. For example, they could not be in possession of firearms, hold public meetings, leave home without official permission from the French, and they were to work for them.
However, some Muslims renounced Islamic religion. They were allowed to become French citizens. In fact, by late 19th century, most of those that had renounced Islam were allowed to go and work in France. The French government provided schools in Algeria.
Since the population of the Muslim was growing very steadily, some of them went to school. It is from these educated minorities that the first nationalist emerged. After World War I, some Muslims who wanted equality with the French began the journey of nationalism in Algeria.
The most notable nationalists in France in the 1920s were Shaykh Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis and Ahmed Messali Hadj. Their agitation made the French government come up with a plan of provision of equality right to Muslims. However, their National Assembly frustrated this plan. This made the nationalist more furious.
Messali and Abbbas united and formed an anti French Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty party. This was during the Second World War. When the war ended, the Algerian Organic Statute put in place the first bicameral parliament that comprised of two colleges made up of one wing of the indigenous Algerians and the other wing of the settlers.
However, the powers of this parliament favored the settlers. This parliament was unsatisfactory to both the settlers and the Algerians. This formed the basis of many young Algerians opting for armed revolution to oust the French colonization. The war of independence began with the formation of Revolutionary Committee for Unity and Action in 1954.
It is from this Committee that the National Liberation Front (FLN) was formed. The National Liberation Front then launched its independence bid on 31 October and 1 November. They organized various attacks on military and police posts, government buildings, and centers of government communication.
This was followed by intensive guerrilla warfare to the point of forcing the French to request for 400,000 troops for reinforcement. The National liberation Front used both Abd al-Qadirl’s led guerrilla strategy and intentional terrorism attacks.
They immobilized the French army and the continuous kidnapping and killings of French. Muslims who were not supporting them terrorized Algeria. To counter the situation, the French retaliated by burning of villages and even the urban dwelling that they suspected of supporting the guerrillas.
They also subjected captives from these areas to massacres, forced evictions, and bombings. In 1956, this war hit Algerian cities. For example, schools and shops were terrorized, a cause that drew international attention. The French ruthlessly halted this war in cities and used aircrafts to bomb FLN centers.
They also erected an electric fence on the borders of Morocco and Tunisia to cut off contact between FLN soldiers outside Algeria. Unable to find an amicable solution to this war, the war raised international criticism. Both the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization criticized the French of fighting an unpopular war.
It went on until May 1958 when both the French army and settlers joined their forces to oust the French government due to its vacillation. They formed a committee to check on the safety of all the public and to demand that Charles de Gaulle reoccupy the office.
The committee was for the idea that only this wartime general that fighting for a Free French Algeria that could settle this war. When he was installed in power, he allowed the Algerians to have some self-determinism in 1959. This made the settlers angry. They unsuccessfully revolted against him in 1960.
This was followed by another attempt of overthrowing the government by a group of French armies. A minority army group referred to as Secret Army Organization championed these attempts although majority of the army remained loyal to the government.
Victory became evident in March 1962 when the government and FLN called for a cease-fire. This was announced at Evian in France. In July, a referendum was held with the Algerians voting for independence. This made the settlers to start returning to their homeland. It is estimated that about 500,000 people died with many others maiming as property was destroyed.
After the Evithian agreement, Algeria became independent. However, it had to rely on France for special aid. This cooperation was to help Algeria come out of the devastation because of eight years of war. This agreement also allowed the French government to continue exploiting gas and oil in Algeria.
It also allowed the settlers to remain in Algeria for three years after which they would decide whether to acquire Algerian citizenship or to leave the country. These Europeans left immediately after independence (De Azevedo and Cagiano 25).When most settlers left; Algeria suffered a crisis of lack of skilled laborers.
However, there were internal wrangles within the leadership of FLN, which had declared it the only legal political party. It had also declared Algeria as a socialist nation. In September 1962, Ahmend Ben Bella was elected the first prime minister of Algeria after the chief of Defense forces of the National Liberation supported him.
Ben Bella was one of the founders of FLN. In 1963, the voters approved the first independent constitution, which mandated a presidential government. On the same year, Ben Bella was elected as the first president of Algeria under the independent constitution. The presidential powers were only to be checked by the National assembly.
Due to this loophole in checking the powers of the president, Ben Bella became autocratic and concerned himself with international affairs. This made people detest him. In 1965, his minister for defense Mr. Boumeduenne made the president to be arrested.
He declared himself president in what was seen as a bloodless coup. Boumedianne made the national army dominant and reduced the importance of FLN. He also focused on developing the vast resources in Algeria. Boumedianne remained the president, minister for defense, and the prime minister of Algeria.
He also used the supreme authority of a 26-people council of revolution that mainly drew its membership from the army and his civilian friends. He was undemocratic and autocratic in his leadership. In 1971, he nationalized the oil fields that were formally controlled by the French.
He also made the lands that the settlers had left government property. He also worked hard to develop the hydrocarbon industry. It is also in 1970s that president Boumedienne distributed settlers land to cooperatives made up by peasants in his attempt to exaggerate productivity of the nation.
This president also promoted the Arabic language. He made it used in schools. He also promoted the Arabic culture. However, most of the Berbers resisted this attempt and railed themselves against it. In 1976, Boumedienne was elected as a legal president using the new constitution and the national charter.
However, he later died in1978. Following the death of Boumeddienne, Chadli Benjadid, a colonel in the army, was selected to take over the presidency. He was later confirmed as the president after an official election in the same year. Colonel Chadli pardoned and released Ben Bella the former president in 1980.
Chadli was re-elected in 1984 when he run for the presidency unopposed. He relaxed strict rule policies and liberalized Algerians economy and agriculture. In the 1980s, the prices of oil declined. This had adverse effects on Algeria. This made the government faced a series of demonstrations from the protesting youths.
It used the forces to suppress these rioters. It also initiated changes that won over the public confidence in the president who was the elected to the presidency for his third term. He also allowed for constitutional changes that allowed for multiparty democracy in 1989.
This legalized the political parties for example Islamic Salvation Front party FIS. However, this marked the beginning of the conflict between the military that supported FLN and the Muslim who supported FIS parties. Islamists became persistent winning civic elections in 1991.
When it was evident that they would win the parliamentary elections in 1992, the government counseled them. Benjedid was forced by the army to resign. The Army and civilian officials took over the High Council of State led by Mohammend Boundiaff as president.
This was followed with the ban of FIS. However, Mohammend was assassinated in 1992. This made the government to clash with Islamist militias in Algeria. In 1994, Liamine Zeroul, the then defense minister, was named the president by the council.
He was elected the president in 1995 during the first multi-party elections in Algeria. He was formerly a soldier and a diplomat. This made Algerians’ international creditors reschedule the country’s debt. He championed constitutional changes that banned political parties based on religion, region, gender, language, or race.
In 1999, following the step down and resignation of other presidential contestants, Abdelaziz Bouteflika who was the former minister of foreign affairs won the presidency. He later called for national reconciliation and offered amnesty to Muslim militants. This made most of them stop the infighting.
However, the al-Qaeda-led group refused to submit. In 2004, when he was re-elected, Bouteflika brought stability in Algeria. He has created union with the European nations and the United States besides giving amnesty to Muslim leaders who had earlier rebelled.
In 2007, Algeria conducted another multiparty election. Surprisingly, there was no violence before, during, and after the election. Bouteflika was re-elected as the president in a coalition government.
This government comprised of FLN, National Democratic Rally, and moderate Islamist movement for a Peaceful Society.
Political System Algerian government is a multi party democracy led by the president. The government comprises of the executive, the legislature, which is bicameral, and the judiciary. The executive is made up of the president who is also the head of state, a prime minister who is appointed by the president and who is the head of government, and the council of ministers appointed by the prime minister.
The president is the head of state who can declare war or peace. He is also the country’s representative in foreign matters. The prime minister is the head of the government in Algeria. He has the power to head the cabinet. He is the leader of the government business. The prime minister also appoints the council of ministers.
These ministers are in charge of the management of various government ministries. They represent the government in those ministries. The legislature is bicameral comprising of the upper house with 144 members and the national people Assembly or the lower house with 389 members.
Out of the 389 members, the head of state directly appoints 1/3 while the rest come from municipal councils appointments. The members of the National people’s assembly serve for four-year term of office while the members of the upper house serve for six-year term. The upper house is in charge of legislation.
The officials here make, amend, or abolish laws. They are also a representation of the public interest in the government. The lower house plays an oversight role and checks on the excesses of the upper house. It also has the power to monitor and impeach the president.
This house also approves the national finance and expenditure. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Algeria. The Supreme Court also acts as the high court of appeal that has the power to hear cases from all jurisdictions of the country. It can also arbitrate over political matters and cases of appeal.
There are three courts of appeals, which are located in Algiers, Constantine, and Oran. Other special criminal courts also play a key role. For example, they arbitrate cases of political and economic violations on the state and individuals.
Algeria has also established many commercial courts that have powers to hear business disputes from across the country, and courts of justice and peace, which are responsible for developing and enhancing national cohesion. Political representation in Algeria starts with the president who is elected by the majority.
Presidential elections take place after every five years. Initially, a legally elected president could only hold two terms of office if he or she is re-erected for the second term. However, this was changed through constitutional amendments by the parliament in 2008.
The second level of political representation is at the legislature level. The president nominates a third of the members of the lower house mainly from his party. The upper house is also a political representation function as the members are directly elected by the people for a six-year term.
The municipal councils also select the remaining two thirds of the members of the lower house, which is also highly influence by their political parties. The elected member of councils becomes the head of Wilayat and the communes. This is an authoritarian governmental regime with little or no freedom of the press.
There exists a universal suffrage of all registered voters above 18 years. The most dominant party in Algeria is the National Liberation Front (FLN), the party that led to the country’s independence. In 1992, when multi-party democracy was allowed, Islamic Salvation Front (ISF) was formed and nearly won the 1992 elections.
However, it was banned in 1996 because it was religious based. During the 2002 elections, several other parties came up. These included the National People’s Assembly, National Democratic Rally (NDR), which was pro-government and business and which was linked with president Bouteflika, the Reform Movement, and Islamist Movement for Peaceful Society.
Other political parties are not as vocal as the above-mentioned ones. These include Algerian National Front, Workers party, the Rally for Culture and Democracy, Renaissance Movement, and the Socialist Forces Front.
The National Liberation Front (FLN) has formed the government over the years although it has entered national coalition with other loyal parties due to its inability to win with a majority. The Islamist Salvation Front (ISF) remains the only illegal political party in Algeria.
The national symbols depict the identity of the nation to represent legacy of Algeria. The main national symbol in Algeria is the flag. This flag was derived from the designs of Abdel kadir. These designs were inspired by Turkey’s flag. This flag was officially adopted on third of July 1962 by the new government of Algeria.
The Algerian flag is rectangular and comprises of green and white colored rectangles. The flag has a crescent shape at the centre, which is a religious symbol that depicts that Algeria is an Islamic country. There is also a red star at the heart of the crescent. Every color on the flag signifies something.
The white color represents peace, the green color represents Islamic religion while the symbols that are red colored are a representative of the blood that was shed by freedom fighters in the time of the struggle for independence in Algeria where many people died and others were maimed.
The other national symbol is the national Emblem. This looks almost similar to that of many other countries. The national emblem was officially adopted in Algeria in 1976. The language changed to Arabic from the initial French. This emblem has the Algerian ancient symbol of Fatma inside in the form of an inscription.
This Fatima represents the sun that portrays the coming of another era. There are also some other symbols that represent agriculture and industrialization in Algeria.
There is also a mountain on it that signifies the Atlas Mountains. The third national symbol in Algeria is the National Anthem of Algeria.
Economics The Algerian currency is called the Algerian Dinar abbreviated as (DZD). In 2011, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Algeria was 263.661 billion dollars. The per capita of Algeria was 7,333 dollars.
The backbone of this economy is the prevalence of fossil fuel. This accounts for 60% of its budget, which is 30% of the country’s GDP. This also accounts for 95% earnings from export hence the country’s main export commodity. The human development index in 2010 was 0.698.
Unemployment rate is also high at about 20.1% with agriculture accounting for 14% of the country’s employment. Algeria is an importer of foodstuff and warfare equipments. Among the agricultural products that it exports are barley, oats, vegetables, and citrus.
In 2011, Algeria exports were worth 73.39 billion dollars while the imports were worth 46.45 billion dollars. Inflation rates in Algeria are 4%, the lowest rate in this region.
In 2001, Algeria signed a pact to purchase warfare equipments worth 7.5 billion dollars in exchange for their historical debt of 4.7 billion dollars. In 2006, Algeria paid its debt worth eight billion dollars to Paris Club even before the maturation date.
Culture and Tourism Arabic and the Berber languages are the known native languages in Algeria. These languages are used by 99% Algerians. These languages are also official. French is also used widely especially in education and media.
However, it is not official. The most common Berber language is the Kabyle, which is the most spoken. The Berber language is spoken by 27% with colloquial Arabic being spoken by 72% of the population. The predominant religion is the Sunni Islam, which account for 99% of Algerian population.
Other religions include Christians and Jews. The culture of Algerians is greatly influenced by the Islamic religion. This culture is also distributed to denote Kabyle, French, and Arabic influence. Algeria has some of the most famous novelist in African literature including Albert Camus and Mohammed Dib.
Paintings have also denoted Mohamend Khadda especially in the 21st century. Painters like Pablo Picasso who painted the works ‘Women of Algiers’ are great sources of the Algerian culture. Painters have also preserved the values of the Algerian people.
Music also forms a great part of the Algerian culture. For example, the Chaabi music, which dates back to 1920s, comprises of poems and rhythms from various dialects in Arabic language. The Malouf Constantinois style has been preserved through music by Mohamed Fergani.
There is also the Algerian classical style of music from the Andalusian people, which has also been preserved. There is also the folk music, for example, Bedouin, which has poems on pastoralist, Kabyle folk songs comprising of poetry, and tales. These songs majorly revolve around love, exile, and even politics.
The Turkish culture is also depicted though Turkish food, drinks, and even music. This is mainly by Turkish remnants that had migrated to Algeria during the rule of the Ottoman (Ruedy 22). They are today referred as Kouloughlis. These were children of Algerians native women and Turkish descendants.
The major food is cuisine, which includes cereals at all times because cereals are abundant. It is prepared using fish, meat, and vegetables. Other main dishes include chorba, Berkoukes, and Mthewen. Cakes are also common in Algeria.
Tourist sites includes kabylie mountains, Algiers beaches, Timgad ruins left by Romans, the Sahara, Biskra El-Kantara, Mt. Tahat, which is the highest point in Algeria 3003m, and Gantret El’Hwa in Constantine. Cinema is also part of the Algerian culture.
This can be stemmed back to 1962 when movies began to be produced in Algeria. Films, for example, the Opium and the stick produced by Ahmed Rachedi and The battle of Algiers produced in 1966 are also common in this culture. Algerian films such as Chronicle of the Year’s Fire have won international awards.
Comedies are also establishing in Algeria. There are museums, for example, the Gsell museum in Algiers. Education is compulsory in Algeria especially for the children who are between ages of six to 15 years. It is therefore compulsory for the parents to ensure that their children in this age are taken to school.
This is an official move by the government to promote literacy. Statistics shows that about 5% of all the adults are illiterate. This means that the literacy levels in Algeria are not very low.
Conclusion In conclusion, Algeria is an ancient country, which is officially referred to as People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. The country was formerly known as Democratic and popular Algerian Republic. The earliest inhabitants of Algeria were Aterians and the Capsians.
Before its independence in 1962, the country was ruled by a series of dynasties for example the Numidians, Romans, Carthaginians, Vendals, Umayyads, Byzantines, Fatimids, Almohads, and the Turkish. Algeria is an Arabic country with its capital in Algiers.
This country is a partial presidential democracy with 48 provinces, which are subdivided into 1541 communes. The population of Algeria is about 37 million and is ranked 34th in world most populous nation list. The total area of Algeria is 2.381,741 km. It is the second largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country in the world.
The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president appoints the prime minister who then heads the government. The government has three major branches.
These are judiciary, executive, and the legislature. The major source of economic power of Algeria is the fossils oil, which is also the major export for the country as revealed in the paper.
Works Cited Africa: Algeria. The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010. Web.
Alec, Hargreaves, and Mark McKinney. Post-Colonial Cultures in France. London: Psychology Press, 1997. Print.
Collins, Roger. Vandal Africa, 429–533. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
De Azevedo, Raimond Cagiano. Migration and Development Co-Operation. Europe: Council of Europe, 1994. Print.
Hitchens, Christopher. Jefferson versus the Muslim Pirates, 2011. Web.
Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962. New York, NY: New York Review Books Classics, 2006. Print.
Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. India: Indiana University Press. Print.
Appendices Algerian Flag
Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
Geography of Algeria
Area 2,381,741 sq km 919,595 sq mi Coastline 998 km 620 mi Highest point Mount Tahat 3,003 m/9,852 ft Lowest point Chott Melrhir 40 m/131 ft below sea level Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
The economy of Algeria
Gross domestic product (GDP in U.S.$) $115 billion (2006) GDP per capita (U.S.$) $3,440 (2006) Monetary unit 1 Algerian dinar (AD) , consisting of 100 centimes Number of workers 13,887,214 (2006) Unemployment rate 20.1 percent (2004) Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
Map of Algeria
Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)
“Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
The article “Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence talks about the Native people, the way the laws and relationships between the modern world and long standing traditions have changed and shaped the present treatment of a whole population.
It is evident that previously Native people had a much different life and the population of Canada and the United States has drastically changed the lives and freedoms of Natives. Presently, things have changed for the better but there is still much discrimination that is seen everywhere.
There is no doubt that the Native population of Canada and the United States was greatly segregated and deprived of their land and freedoms, at the time of colonization. The white man has taken possession of land as if it was empty of people who lived there for generations. The Natives of North America had established traditions and cultures, which were not considered and abused during the populating of the Americas.
The Indian Act was put in place to regulate and control the Native people and greatly limit their freedom, movement rights, ability to participate in the country’s matters and use the land that was rightfully belonging to Natives (Lawrence 5). It is clear that the Act itself and the actions of people who came to the North America are much discriminator.
The oppression that Native people faced was accompanied with much violence and unequal treatment. Even the word “Indian” itself is politically incorrect and shows how little attention and care people have paid to those they have deprived of rights, equality and deserved ability to enjoy a life free of stereotypical behavior. The land was divided and Native people were placed into Reservations, which were strictly regulated by the government and the necessary laws.
The Indian Act violates the rights of Native people, it limits their movement, deprives them of the rights of possession towards land and the available resources, as well as their reputation and acknowledgement. Gender is another major issue that is present in the Indian Act. A woman of Native descent would lose her Native status after marring a white man. This is ridiculous, as it is unreasonable and is not admissible.
This sort of thing does not happen to people of other races and origins and so, the discrimination is clearly evident here (Lawrence 8). Another article titled “Housing America’s Native People” by Wendy Helgemo, talks about the legal provision of housing that the government has put in place towards the Native people. A large number of Native population was homeless due to the hardships they had to experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has become a significant problem and the government was forced to change several things. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was created to administer changes and provide Native population with housing (Helgemo 10). The policies that are being enacted in the present days are the proof of how much segregation Native population had to face. The change in laws and the life of a whole population have changed the conditions that go back very far in history.
For thousands of years Native people have enjoyed their freedoms unmarred by the forced ruling of others and the “civilized countries”. Staring in the 18th century, the colonizers would use gifts and promises of prosperity to the Natives, in order for them to change into their culture and forget their own.
This was a trick to assimilate the whole population and enforce own rules and government. The Europeans dominated in power and technology and thus, were able to enforce their influence and will. The seeming peaceful relationship that was prevalent at the first stages of the interaction was very temporary.
There were a number of treaties that were based on peace and mutual cooperation and communication. But, it seemed that there was no obligation for Europeans to honor those Treaties and many were ignored and broken. There are many examples of how colonizers used trickery and deviant ways to fool the Native people.
The trading and influence of alcohol was one of the major changes that Natives have experienced in their relationship with the “white man” (Trigger 205). It is outrageous that such a great number of educated people from Europe were able to behave in such a way towards others. The disrespect that was so great that often there would be violent conflict, as Natives had no other avenue to fight back.
Overall, this sort of behavior from colonizers is nothing new. This has been happening all over the world with all the Native people. The colonizers think it is their right to use their technology and knowledge, to discriminate against those of different cultures and way of life. The fact that Native people have different traditions and beliefs that the colonizers cannot understand, does not give people the right to take over and deprive of respect and natural rights, which have existed long before any colonizing took place.
Works Cited Helgemo, Wendy L. Housing America’s Native People. Washington, United States: Poverty
Ramadan in Islam religion Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fasting: An Overview
Significance of Ramadan
Introduction In Islamic religion, a lunar calendar is used instead of a solar calendar. In this calendar, each month starts with the appearance of the new moon (“Celebrating Ramadan”, n.d). Therefore, because of the fact that the lunar calendar is found to be shorter by eleven days as compared to the solar one, the “Islamic months ‘move’ each year” (Stacey, 2008, p.1).
For instance, it is reported that in the year 2008, the month of Ramadan was found to coincide directly “with the month of September” (Stacey, 2008, p.1). In the course of a Muslim’s life, the month of Ramadan can take place in the period of winter when the days are much shorter as well as during summer, being the toughest time for Muslims since days are much longer in summer, so it takes more efforts for a Muslim to withstand the fast.
In this regards, there exist some differences between the Muslims who dwell in different hemispheres of the globe (Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). Similar to any form of celebration existing in any culture and religion, the celebration of Ramadan is associated with joy.
However, it is celebrated in a way that is quite different from the one followed by the non-Muslims. Ramadan is not the time of merry-making and socializing but, it is rather the time to worship through fasting, since fasting during the Islamic month of Ramadan is among the Islam pillars.
Fasting: An Overview Fasting during the month of Ramadan starts at dawn and goes on till sunset. The Muslims wake up before dawn and they take the pre-dawn meal or what is referred to as Sahur, and drink enough quantities of the liquid as a preparation for fasting. In the course of the day, there is no eating or drinking. The Muslims also abide by an Islamic moral code because if one fails to do that, it means not following or violation of some requirements of the proper fast
Fasting during Ramadan is a worship activity which all the Muslims who have reached puberty carry out. However, not all adults take part in fasting during this month. For instance, the women who at the time of Ramadan have their menstrual cycle, or those who have recently gave birth to a child may not follow the fast until the time the period is over or a woman is totally recovered and gets stronger. Moreover, the people who may feel sick or travelling may decide to fast some time later.
The Muslims engage in fasting for the main reason that this is a command from the Most High God. At the same time, they may as well enjoy some other gains that fasting can include, such as exercising control over one’s hunger, thirst, or restrain one’s sexual desires, “training to be a good moral person and testing sincerity to the creator” (Ali, 2007, p.2). In the course of fasting though, the Muslims may engage in carrying out their businesses the same way they conducted them during the whole year round.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Breaking of the fast is carried out in the evening after the sun has set by drinking water and eating some food. Any accepted in the religion drink or food or meal can be utilized in breaking the fast. After breaking the fast, this is followed by a sunset prayer or “the Maghrib salah” (Ali, 2007, p.2). This prayer is followed by a full meal and then a brief rest. After resting, the people then move to the mosque to give the “Isha salah (night prayer) and afterwards Muslims conduct a special night prayer, which called taraweeh” (Ali, 2007, p.2).
Significance of Ramadan The Muslims show love as well as gratitude for God by worshipping and being obedient to Him (Perry, 2005). They worship in line with God’s guidance taught in the Quran and they also worship through the true traditions presented by the prophet Muhammad (Segle, 2004).
Ramadan is an exceptional month during the period of which people engage in fasting, reading the Quran and trying to fully comprehend it. They also engage themselves in special prayers. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who convene to break their fast and to engage in praying. They recite the Quran all through the night, pray together and praise their only true God (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).
In the course of the Islamic month of Ramadan, all the Muslim people who are above eighteen and physically healthy are supposed to engage in fasting. They all know that, they are not supposed to take any food, drink, smoke, or have any sexual contact with their spouses from morning to evening.
However, these are just physical aspects of following the fats. Spiritual aspects observed also exist, such as avoiding engaging in gossips, telling lies, insulting as well as engaging in all behaviors that are in conflict with the appropriate ones (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).
The people try to evade looking at and listen to all indecent and sinful things as a means through which actions and thoughts are made clean. Fasting is as well considered as “a way of experiencing hunger and developing sympathy for the less fortunate and learning thankfulness and appreciation for all of God’s bounties” (Stacey, 2008, pp.1-2).
The Islamic month of Ramadan is considered to be a month during which the Muslims make an effort to either “establish or re-establish a relationship with the Quran” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). It is pointed out that even if this may be viewed as strange for followers of other religions, God’s words are “a guiding light and a mercy” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives in one way or another.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ramadan in Islam religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Quran and the month of Ramadan are intricately intertwined. Possessing the book of Quran, reciting it, reading it, remembering its readings and thinking over their meanings uplift a person spiritually, comforts him or her, and also serves as a source of his or her strength (Asad, 2003).
Reciting the Quran during the whole night is especially of great benefit since the disruptions that occur during the day have gone away and God’s closeness is profound in the calmness of night. In the evening, there is a performance of special prayers during which people recite some sections of the Quran. These special prayers are referred to as Taraweeh. During Ramadan, 1/30 of the Quran is being read every evening so that “by the end of the month, the entire Quran has been completed” (Stacey, 2008, p.2).
Among the last odd-numbered nights of the Islamic month of Ramadan, there is Laylat ul-Qadr. It is also referred to as the “Night of Destiny” or “Night of Power” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). This night is said to be the holiest one during the holiest month of the year. This night is believed to be the one when God initially started to reveal the Quran to Muhammad.
God did this through Angel Gabriel. This is the season for particularly passionate and dedicated prayer on such nights; what is more, there are several rewards that such prayer brings. The Quran teaches the Muslims that engaging in praying all through this single night is far more important than a constant praying for several months. No person can tell exactly which night this is because this is considered to be one of the God’s mysteries (Foucault, 1994).
Moreover, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in various charitable activities. The Muslims strive to show generosity to their neighbors and friends. They also try to carry good deeds only and avoid being sinful at all costs. The simplest charity activity may involve smiling, among other lavish activities.
Charity that is offered in a quiet manner is found to be good for the giver as well as for the one who gives it. Muhammad gave whatever he had to other people with a good heart at all times; he never owned more than what was sufficient for him to meet the immediate needs that he had. Whatever the excess he had, he gave everything out in a generous way to the people around; of course, during the month of Ramadan, he was even more generous in giving food or providing support for the people.
One may think that these are virtues as well as qualities a Muslim person dedicated to serving God, must always display despite the month of the year. The Muslims need portray these virtues all the time all year round. But, on the other hand, all the human beings have their own weaknesses and happen to engage in committing sins and mistakes against other people and Allah. The nature of life makes people tend to forget and fail to remember the purpose in their life.
The purpose of a Muslim in his or her life is to engage in worshipping God and as Stacey (2008) points out, “God in his infinite wisdom and mercy has given us Ramadan” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan, if utilized in a wise manner, can help in recharging a person’s spirit.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ramadan in Islam religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the month dominated by a show of forgiveness as well as kindness when God makes it easier for the human beings to get over their weaknesses and lack of perfections, when He rewards them in plenty. God is a Creator of the whole mankind and he understands very well that we have a lot of imperfections.
When human beings start seeking God, He meets them; when they hold out their hands, He reaches them and forgives their sins and deeds. Muslims have the whole month of Ramadan for their salvation. Muslims stand “shoulder to shoulder and bow down before God as they submit” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).
There is spreading of Ramadan all over the world while the Muslim people jointly commence and end their fast, “one body, one people, and one nation” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan comes softly and the deeds it brings goes up gently to God. It is pointed out that “far from being a trial of deprivation, the month of Ramadan is a joy and a gift beyond compare” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).
Before the month of Ramadan comes to its end, the Muslims start mourning the fact that Ramadan has almost passed and the month has expired, because this is the month they consider as the one which is blessed; they make attempts to prolong the time by staying with the Quran and giving praise to God whenever it is possible (Stacey, 2008).
The end of the month of Ramadan is marked by Eid al-Fitr festival or what is referred to as “Feast of Fast-Breaking” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3). It starts with the appearing of the new moon which comes on the “first day Shawwal, the tenth month in the Islamic calendar, and generally lasts for three days” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3).
The Muslim people participate in the communal prayers and they can do this either in an open space or in the mosque; all the people are obliged to engage in giving charity to the poor people.
This celebration also bears a significant social dimension. The urban centers take up celebratory mood, and people dress themselves in the best way possible. The friends and relatives walk together in the streets, meet in the mosques or visit each other, engage in exchanging presents and gifts, and also embrace and congratulate one another (Poonawala, n.d).
However, there is one question left that a reader may get interested in, namely, can fasting be harmful to the human health, bearing in mind that it may 15 hours for a person to stay without any food or any kind of drinking? (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). This question is answered where it is pointed out that, basing on the studies that have been conducted in the past, it has been found out that “fasting is practically the most powerful of all remedial measures” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
It makes it possible for a person’s body to get rid of the poisonous substances that may have been accumulated during the year; it helps to purify one’s blood and undertake a kind of renovation of the whole body system of a human being (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). As it has been mentioned, fasting, on the one hand, purifies and cleanses the body, on the other hand, however, it adds to the real essential body strength by getting rid of the toxic substances that may make the body nerves and cells weak (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013).
It is also pointed out that skipping a few meals is not similar to starvation. Studies have shown that the energy that is derived from food is not instantly available, in other words “some of this is stored in and upon the body as and when needed at a later time” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
It is also important to underline the fact that during Ramadan some people may lose weight while others do not. It has been recommended that during Ramadan, the meals taken need to be light, however, a larger number of people cannot “resist sampling special sweets and food associated with Ramadan” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).
Conclusion As it has been looked in the discussion, the month of Ramadan in the Islamic culture is very important to the Muslims.This is a time every adult Muslim engages in fasting and seeks to have a close relationship with God. During Ramadan, the Muslims engage in celebration and their form of celebrating is found to be very different from the normal celebration in many other cultures. They find joy in this celebration but this joy is not associated with making merry.
They also engage in holding special prayers and reading the Quran. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who come together to jointly break their fast and to engage in praying. The month of Ramadan is regarded as a month during which the Muslims make an effort to renew their relationship.
During the month, the Muslims hold a strong belief that the word of God is ‘directing light and a mercy’. People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives, in one way or the other. The Quran and Ramadan are intricately intertwined. In addition, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in charitable activities.
The Muslims make an effort to engage in giving in a liberal manner and increase the level of the good actions they engage in doing. It has also been found out, basing on research, fasting is not harmful to the human health. It is not a form of starvation and it is interesting to find out that it is an important way of eliminating toxins from the body.
References Ali, A. M. (2007).Ramadan and fasting. Web.
Asad, M. (2003).The Message of the Qu’ran. Bitton, England: Book Foundation.
Celebrating Ramadan. Web.
Foucault, M. (1994). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York, N.Y: Vintage Books.
Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days, (2013). Web.
Perry, M. (2005). Between Muslim and Christian Worlds: Moriscas and Identity in Early Modern Spain. Muslim World 95(1), 177-97.
Poonawala, I. Ramadan. Web.
Ramadan: A guide, (2013). Web.
Segle, Z. (2004). Re-imagining Ramadan: The Significance of Festival Discourse in Pérez de Hita’s Guerras civiles de Granada. Web.
Stacey, A. (2008). Why Muslims love the month of Ramadan. Web.
Training Evaluation: New Techniques and Strategies Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Review of the Literature
Implications of the Literature
Abstract The ineffectiveness of goal-based and systematized evaluation methods has led to development of new training evaluation methods. This paper reviews some of the present approaches used in training evaluation.
It then provides two training evaluation methods developed in Europe and notes features that make the two methods superior. Additionally, it notes the incorporation of technology in training evaluation. Finally, it provides a brief conclusion of the main points.
Introduction Training evaluation is a fundamental component of instructional design models that many organizations use. Evaluation instruments and methods assist organizations to determine the usefulness of instructional interventions.
However, regardless of the significance of instructional training programs, there is indication that many training plans are not consistent and ineffective. Possible reasons for the inconsistency and inefficiency include insufficient time and budget allocations, inadequate expertise and poor training schemes and tools.
Additionally, the complex nature of evaluation methods could be the cause of inefficiency and inconsistency of training evaluations that companies perform.
Training evaluations involve numerous and complex factors. Training evaluations relate to factors connected to continuous and dynamic contacts of various aspects and features of companies’ and training goals, training situations, evaluation technologies and trainees (Blanchard