E-Learning In The Academic Industry Proposal College Admission Essay Help

Introduction Motivation

More universities are integrating e-learning and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools with their curriculum. Despite the lasting association of traditional teaching methods with colleges and universities, the change switch e-learning and ICT based teaching has been rapid. E-learning and ICT based teaching has experienced tremendous growth in the education industry.

Even though e-learning and ICT based teaching approaches will offer a more flexible and apparently convenient method of teaching, the speed at which the trend has been embraced across the education industry calls for a deeper investigation of the benefits of integrating e-learning and ICT based teaching with academic curricula.

This research is influenced by the need to understand the influence of other contributing factors on the acceptance of e-learning and ICT based teaching methods.

Research Question

The aim of this research is to identify the factors influencing the increasing acceptance of e-learning and ICT based teaching. The proposed study will try to respond find out why more universities are switching to e-learning. A response to this question will be developed by integrating data from primary and secondary sources. The secondary data will be derived through a literature review.

The literature review will focus on previous studies that focus on the rationale behind the integration of ICT tools in the education industry. The primary data will be derived from interview sessions with members of academic institutions (school administrators) to identify their perception of the rationality of including ICT tools in education. The conclusion section of this study presents the expected contribution of this research.

Literature Review Various studies have analysed the advantages of e-learning. One important advantage of e-learning is that it helps students to access digital information successfully and efficiently.

E-learning has served as a tool for learners to identify learning subjects, resolve problems, and proffer answers to problems in the learning procedure (Glazewski


Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory Research Paper a level english language essay help

Handout The image restoration theory refers to a set of strategies designed to help organizations and/or individuals to restore positive public image. This theory underscores the different strategies that individuals, organization, and countries among others use when faced with the possibility of image destruction.

When image is threated, the reputation of the victim is at risk, and thus the image restoration theory offers a solution to this problem. At times, organizations and individuals face threats to their reputation, and in such cases, they have to invoke the image restoration theory’s provisions to restore their reputation.

Generally, organizations tend to enhance their cooperation with the media in times of crisis, thus creating a single information center to avoid rumors spreading to the public. Other strategies incorporated in dealing with conflicts that are likely to damage the reputation of an organization include denial, blame shifting, and mortification.

This paper seeks to analyze the key elements of the image restoration theory and explain practical examples of organizations and states that have used the theory successfully to restore positive public image. The paper shall specifically analyze the Middle East case, the Firestone’s image restoration campaign, and The ValuJet’s crisis.

A cross section of researchers has devoted considerable time and resources attempting to identify efficient strategies to improve the theory. Therefore, theory may be highly effective in the future following the implementation of research findings.

Some of the key resources for this paper include works by William Benoit who is credited for being one of the founders of the theory. Others include Timothy Coombs, Joseph Blaney, and LeAnn Brazeal among others as listed in the reference list at the end of this paper.

Introduction Currently, the society cannot overstate the significance of image. In most cases involving threats to reputation, individuals and organizations respond by applying various strategies in defense of their image. This paper explores the theory of image restoration as a tool of solving strategic conflict in corporations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paper also seeks to advance the current concept of the theory of image repair through the evaluation of whether strategies of image repair, sources of information, communicative agents, and the phase of a crisis influence the nature of reporting news.

In a bid to achieve this objective, the paper will incorporate content analysis of tourism in the Middle East, Firestone, and the case of ValuJet Flight 592 in the evaluation of the case of the BP’s oil spill in 2006.The paper begins with a research of the theory of image restoration. In the last part of the paper, the paper will discuss the future research in relation to the theory of image restoration.

Literature review According to Benoit and Hanczor (1994), image entails perceptions of individuals or organizations as revealed by the audience. Benoit (1995) contends that perceptions shared by audience arise from the actions and words of the messenger. With reference to the BP’s oil spill, it is evident that apart from the public entities, private organizations are subjected to accountability.

From the aftermath of the scandal, the significance of image repair emerged as an integral part of managing organizational conflicts. According to Blaney, Benoit, and Brazeal (2002), undesired activities of an organization can contribute to the damaging of the company’s reputation and image.

Benoit (1997) further contends that the perception of the audience contributes to the damaging of an organization’s reputation. Research shows “the prevalence of the proportional relationship between the extent of damage to the reputation and the responsibility held by the person or organization responsible for the damage” (Benoit, 1995, p. 79).

With reference to the response to crises and image repair, most researchers rarely recommend casual research. In the 1990s, Benoit (1995) formulated the concept of image repair theory, thus encouraging most researchers to formulate strategies of image repair in relation to his context.

According to Englehardt, Sallot, and Springston (2004), approaches to image repair entail descriptive analysis of rhetorical cases. In such cases, authors are inclined to the benefits or failures of a particular strategy, thus providing insufficient and biased information for decision-making.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The trend prevails because casual studies highlight “a variety of issues that affect the ability of an organization to rescue it image and reputation following a crisis (Coombs, 1998, p. 187). The two factors are crucial, especially when considering the strategy to use in repairing image of the affected company (Coombs, 1998).

Coombs and Holladay (2002) support this argument by adding that the reputation of an organizationis another significant factor that influences the strategy of image repair. In a study of tourism in the Middle Eastern countries, Avraham (2013) holds that perceptions of the people contribute to the deterioration of the image of tourism in the region.

However, the media in the Middle East focuses on adverse subjects such as war, conflicts, and terrorism, thus confirming and compounding the people’s negative perceptions towards the region. The researcher attributes crisis in the region’s tourism to negative image, stereotypes, and conflicts (Avraham, 2013).

Further, Avraham (2013) highlights the significance of media in correcting the reputation and image of the tourism sector in the Middle East. With the aim of expanding empirical research on crisis and image of an organization, Avraham (2013) advocates the consideration of factors such as culture in relation to stereotypes and media coverage to impact strategies of image repair.

Blaney et al. (2002) use the case of Firestone to highlight the concept of image restoration in an organization. The researchers note that Firestone attributed its crisis to the actions of Ford, which affected its reputation and image.

However, shifting blame to Ford contributed to the application of inappropriate measures of image recovery, thus failing to address the prevailing problems at Firestone. Although Firestone resorted to using the approach of bolstering as a mitigation measure, inadequate finances contributed to the failure of the approach (Blaney et al., 2002).

These studies highlight the significance of the contingency theory in the management of conflicts that affect reputation of an organization. Coombs (1999) defines the contingency theory as the dynamics that operate both inside and outside an organization and influence an accommodative stance.

The BP oil spill crisis The BP’s oil spill crisis started in 2006, but climaxed with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred toward the end of April 2010. Following the explosion and sinking of an oilrigoperated by BP in the Gulf of Mexico, approximately 11 people perished in the accident that also contributed to polluting the sea.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As one of the largest spill accidents in the petroleum industry, it attracted the attention of different sections of society, with the media playing an active role of reporting on the crisis. The federal government of the United States approximated that the explosion discharged five million barrels of crude oil into the sea (Ifill, 2014). However, it took approximately 90 days for experts to contain leakages.

However, sources from media indicate that the well continues to leak even to date despite prior reports from the government that the experts had contained the situation (Ifill, 2014). BP responded by implementing various measures to protect wetlands, estuaries through floating booms, dispersants, and controlled burns among other methods.

However, by the time the situation was under control, extensive damage had happened to the wildlife and marine habits, which contributed to adverse effects on tourism. Investigations conducted in 2011 revealed faultyoilrigs covered with defective cement as the cause of the accident.

Furthermore, the accident was attributed to insignificant industrial practices and policies of the government that failed to ensure the implementation of adequate measures of safety. Apart from adhering to criminal charges toward the end of 2012, BP cooperated with the federal government in monitoring the company’s safety practices.

Following the sanctions, relatively high level of interests from the media and environmental agencies continued at the company. Even to date, the media scrutinizes and reports various events related to this crisis (Ifill, 2014).

Theoretical Framework In a bid to counter the image destruction that was posed by the spill, BP employed the image repair theory in its communication strategies. In most cases, companies use both image repair and the contingency theory for the communication of crises and management of conflicts.

According to Burns and Bruner (2000), in public relations, the theory of image repair is embedded in the context of politics and social science. In the course of developing the theory, researchers identified five strategies in relation to the repair of image and restoration of a company’s reputation (Burns


Waste Disposal of Victoria City Problem Solution Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Consultation on disposing waste oil and cleaning chemicals

The city of Victoria has strict rules on hazardous waste disposal and environmental sustainability through the zero waste policy. A company interested in disposing a quantity of waste oil and cleaning chemicals in Victoria should follow the safety measures through the Environment Protection Regulation of the year 2009.

The regulations include licensing, waste tracking, immobilization approvals, liquid waste levy, and chemical control orders. Since the quality of wastes is above the amount which is allowed for disposal through the council, the company should begin by getting waste disposal certificate and observe the rules of disposing the hazardous wastes.

The certificate is an accreditation criterion for waste management sustainability. The certification will guarantee efficient and sustainable disposal since the accreditation process is very comprehensive (Wang


Kroger Company Essay essay help online free

Introduction This paper will provide an overview of the Kroger Company. The first part of the paper will provide the basic information about the company such as its mission, vision, and values.

The second part will highlight the company’s business strategies that enable it to achieve its objectives. The last part will shed light on the workforce planning approach used by the Kroger Company.

Company Profile Mission, vision, values

Kroger is one of the largest grocery retailers in the US. The company sells a variety of food products in 2,640 stores worldwide (Kroger, 2014). Kroger’s vision is to be the preferred provider of high quality grocery and personal care products in the world.

In order to achieve this vision, the company has focused on expanding its operations by joining new markets and aligning its products to customers’ needs. The company’s mission is “to be a leader in the distribution and merchandising of food, pharmacy, health/ personal care items, seasonal merchandise, and related products” (Kroger, 2014).

This mission enables the company to establish long-term relationships with its suppliers and customers in order to achieve its vision. The company’s core values include honesty, integrity, respect, diversity, safety, and inclusion (Kroger, 2014).

Kroger’s employees believe in being truthful to customers and suppliers to ensure high standards of integrity. In addition, they demonstrate respect by appreciating other people’s values, cultures, and beliefs.


Kroger’s workforce consists of nearly 375,000 full-time and part-time employees (Kroger, 2014). Majority of the employees are members of international labor unions. Diversity is an important characteristic of the company’s labor force. Specifically, the workforce consists of old and young employees who are from different cultures, ethnic, and racial backgrounds.

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Kroger operates supermarkets, convenience stores, and jewelry stores. The supermarkets have different formats, which include combination stores, price impact stores, and multi-department stores (Kroger, 2014). The use of different store formats helps the company to retain its customers by enhancing their shopping experience.

Kroger uses a decentralized organizational structure that consists of its headquarters and 20 operating divisions. This structure enhances decision-making processes by giving authority to the heads of the operating divisions to make merchandising decisions.

Key Strategies

Kroger’s business strategy is to maintain cost leadership while generating good financial returns. However, Kroger’s prices are often not as low as those of major retailers such as Wal-Mart. Kroger focuses on reducing its operating costs in order to sell its merchandise at a low price. This helps in increasing sales, which in turn improves the company’s profits.

Kroger prioritizes customers’ needs in order to achieve its profit and market share objectives. This strategy involves listening to customers and using their feedback to enhance the company’s operations. The feedback enables the company to provide excellent services to customers, stock the right products, set affordable prices, and create a memorable shopping experience (Kroger, 2014).

The rationale of prioritizing customer needs is twofold. First, it enables the company to improve its brand loyalty by retaining its customers. Second, Kroger achieves economies of scale as its customers increase due to excellent service quality. As a result, Kroger is able to sell its merchandise at low prices without compromising its financial results.

Investing in advanced technologies and innovation is central to the company’s strategy of creating competitive advantages by prioritizing customer needs. The core roles required by the company to achieve the desired innovation include technology innovators and customer service experts.

For instance, in 2013 the company’s technology innovators developed a real-time temperature monitoring system that enables the company to provide the freshest food products in its stores. Generally, innovation enables Kroger to improve the quality of its products and services beyond customers’ expectations.

We will write a custom Essay on Kroger Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current Workforce Planning Approach

Currently, Kroger uses a strategic approach to workforce planning. The company aligns its workforce planning initiatives to its overall business strategy to improve its performance. Additionally, Kroger links workforce planning objectives to employee development needs, recruiting/ staffing processes, and contingent labor requirements.

Kroger’s workforce planers focus on determining the talent gaps in the company by performing job requirement analysis in collaboration with line managers to identify the existing skill shortages and redundancies. The planers also forecast talent gaps to enable the company to understand its future labor requirements.

Reducing labor costs and hiring the best talent are key elements of Kroger’s workforce planning policy (Kroger, 2014). The company believes in reducing labor costs by hiring only the right number of employees. Having the right workforce size also ensures that various business processes in the company are executed effectively.

Kroger hires only the individuals with the right skill set to enable it achieve the highest level of performance. Overall, strategic workforce planning helps Kroger to access adequate talent to provide customer-centric services.

Conclusion Kroger aspires to be the leading grocery retailer in the world. In this respect, the company focuses on providing high quality merchandise and customer services. The company also sells its products at low prices to increase sales and profits.

Generally, Kroger improves its competitiveness by aligning its operations to market needs. Currently, the company uses a strategic approach to workforce planning to access the right quantity and quality of talent.

References Carre, F.,


BOS Solutions: HR Solution Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Return on Investment (ROI) BOS Solutions requires a more robust HR solution to support its human resource activities. The company must be more careful in its IT investment to derive maximum value from it. That is, vendors must deliver HR solution that will offer expected outcomes on the business.

The aim of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System is to streamline the HR processes so that executives can focus on employees’ development and productivity rather manually tracking, filing and shuffling their documents. BOS Solutions must realise tangible results from the IT investments from the start.

That is, it should not take over a year before the company realises any returns on the investment. Given that employees are critical part of the company’s assets for creating competitive advantage, the HR solution will be evaluated for its effectiveness on several areas.

The Applicant Tracking System will have to demonstrate returns more than financial benefits. In the past, companies would purchase and install ERP systems to enhance employee satisfaction. The ERP system would improve competitiveness by enabling the company to be able to gather, consolidate and generate accurate data about employees in a timely fashion.

The new Applicant Tracking System would be able to shorten process cycles, enhance the accuracy of collected data, facilitate application processes, reduce costs of operations and eliminate further costs incurred through the current redundant Ceridian Recruiting system.

The new Applicant Tracking System will facilitate employee self-service. The HR solution will offer several options to demonstrate ROI. It will eliminate manual search for missing data of employment history, certifications, or attached documents. As a result, it would save on administrative time.

In addition, employee records shall be easier to handle. In most cases, HR executives face challenges related to handling sheer volumes of employees’ records. Still, manual processes require greater attention to details when collecting information, typing them into a single system and ensuring that employee information reaches the intended audience e.g., HR/Payroll team.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new Applicant Tracking System will ensure that HR executives focus on their primary tasks and guide recruitment processes, develop key talents, review workforce and applicants paradigms.

The benefits of a new Applicant Tracking System for BOS Solutions would be far reaching. Having job, education and certification history on the employees would allow for a broader picture in promotions, training and development. The program upgrade would also allow for more detailed reporting of applicants by job, department and division.

BOS Solutions should be able to capture specific data because of implementing the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System to demonstrate impacts and return on investment. Data on HR productivity, user satisfaction, cycle time to locate employee information and applicants’ engagement with the system will demonstrate outcomes.

RIO must reflect monetary values against the cost of the project. For instance, in the cases of HR solution for recruitment, the ROI would be determined based on the some assumptions. This situation may lead to manual recruitment processes.

The HR recruitment team wastes time and resources because the current Ceridian Recruiting tool is not integrated, not customizable and does not allow the employer to upload documents such as employment history, certifications, or attached documents.

Initiate new hiring or change of employment terms

HR team would enter data once and save 120 working hours in a year due to enhanced efficiency

The average hourly rate for senior HR team is $100

We will write a custom Research Paper on BOS Solutions: HR Solution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Savings realised: 120*100 = $12,000

Therefore, BOS Solutions would save $12,000 per annum by implementing the new HR solution.

Assumptions There are basic assumptions adopted to ensure that the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System deliver the intended outcomes. Employees would be able to adopt the new systems, demonstrate satisfaction, and capture the intended data.

In addition, the HR executives will show changes in knowledge, attitudes and skills after adopting the new HR solutions. Still, it is expected that implementation processes would not face challenges, behaviour changes will facilitate adoption and performance of the HR team.

Moreover, senior executives will support the implementation of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System while the CFO will approve the budget. To facilitate adoption of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System, they should be compatible with the existing Ceridian Recruiting and seamlessly integrate.

The new Applicant Tracking System is expected to optimise HR processes. This would ensure that BOS Solutions meets its business objective of developing an integrated employee database with all HR/Payroll Latitude programs such as name, date of hire, division or department and rate of pay.

The database will also contain employment history, certifications, or attached documents, as well as all applicant data, applicant flow logs, EEO and Vets 100 information and basic recruiting statistics. With abundant data, the HR team will have reliable information to facilitate recruitment processes and succession planning.

The data would allow the HR planner to understand applicants’ characteristics and employee turnover trends to facilitate forecasting of employee turnover and salary increment if required. The HR department would be able to develop a forward-looking approach to all HR challenges, employee compensation structure and areas of weaknesses among others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on BOS Solutions: HR Solution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More BOS Solutions aims to develop an efficient, cost-effective, customisable and scalable recruiting process through the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System. Hence, HR recruiting experts will use the HR tools to develop a reliable recruitment plan. The department will develop specific metrics for new recruits.

The HR executives will rely on applicants’ data to evaluate in order to identify the best candidates for specific positions, determine costs of hiring and sources of qualified or best applicants. These data would support hiring, payment and even promotion decisions. It would balance recruitment and align roles, pay rates and qualifications.

By having all employment history, certifications, or attached documents, applicants’ data, applicant flow logs, EEO and Vets 100 information and basic recruiting statistics and rate of pay, the recruiting team would be able to successful applicants’ profiles, match applicants with appropriate positions and then perform competitive analyses to determine suitable pay rates.

It is assumed that the HR department would use employee data to develop employee capabilities and enhance engagement. In this process, HR executives would assess skills, experience levels, strengths and weaknesses of employees.

By relying on the company’s skill map, the HR executives would be able to evaluate the effectiveness of training and development programmes and develop appropriate plans while taking into account recruits’ potentials to comprehend expected roles and career growth prospects.

Further, the HR department may identify the best developmental activities as observed among top performs and use such information to develop the best training and development materials for the entire organisation. In addition, such information may also be utilised to select the best recruits and develop training and development programmes for them.

To derive maximum ROI from the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System, BOS Solutions HR executives would develop a competitive compensation plans or pay rates that aim to facilitate employees’ performance and drive results. The HR executives will review of all pay rates and other benefits to determine a group that drive performance based on their compensation structures.

This would determine the relationship between employee pay rates and performances, retention, attraction of new applicants and new recruits. The results may be used to determine the best pay rates and predict possible compensation for future performances. BOS Solutions executives will be able to compare its pay rates against the market benchmarks and then review these rates to determine their impacts on the budget and savings on costs of employee compensation.

As a result, HR executives may review the pay structure and adjust rates to competitive, sustainable levels based on performances. It is expected that BOS Solutions will rely on the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System to gather all relevant applicants’ data.

The HR executives will observe key demographic trends, applicants’ pools, current employees and then develop hiring strategies based on these observations. It would be effective for BOS Solutions to develop appropriate tools that would facilitate employee selection and recruitment.

The new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System should ensure customisation such as importing job, education and certification history. The program should also have detailed reporting of applicants in job, department, division, and geographic location and support the standard EEO and Vets 100 reporting and custom report building.

These may be generated automatically so that HR managers can respond to areas that require additional workforce, training or any other appropriate actions.

Risks Like any other new solutions in organisations, the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System are likely to encounter risks at various levels. These risks are categorised as high risks, moderate risks and low risks, but there are also critical success factors for the company to consider (Umble, Haft,


Reporting Inflated Numbers: Ethical Dilemma Case Study essay help: essay help

Executive Summary This paper reviews the case, Reporting Inflated Numbers, from the tenet of the Hartman and DesJardins model. The analysis is based on the four elements of this model, which are fact gathering, moral obligation, alternatives, making a decision, and monitoring the outcomes.

From the outcome, it is apparent that the actions by Barbara King attracted ethical dilemmas such as questionable integrity and professionalism.

Fact gathering In the case of Barbara King reporting inflated numbers as the communications specialist, there are several ethical dilemmas identified. To begin with, she conspired to support the fraudulent dealings despite her ethical responsibility of maintaining integrity in the company.

She conspired with the management to deviate from the main goal of the business and failed to take into consideration the shareholders’ interests when supporting the decision to report inflated numbers. Barbara allowed the top management of the company to use her to release manipulated records with an intention of enriching themselves (Silliman, 2010).

From an ethical perspective, Barbara and the management team of the company conspired to inflate the asset values, overstate the reported income, and eliminate the liabilities from the financial reporting (Hartman


Apple Inc. and Circuit City Failure Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The fall of Circuit City

Apple Inc.’s Success


Reference List

Introduction Leadership, organizational structure, and culture play a central role in the success of any organization. Huge companies have crumbled while others have maintained a consistent and steady growth. Considering the case of Circuit City and Apple Inc., Circuit City dictated the big-box electronics sector for over six decades.

Its shareholders enjoyed impressive returns from their innovative business strategy. Nonetheless, Circuit City became a victim of its own accomplishments that forced it to substitute its long-term goals with interim goals in response to the capriciously adjusting and competitive market. Its efforts failed.

Conversely, Apple Inc. has been a success story. Formed by two college dropouts, it has grown to become one of the world wealthiest and most innovative technology companies in the current generation. The analysis in this paper focuses on the two companies, Apple Inc. and Circuit City. It addresses the success of one and the failure of the other comparatively.

The fall of Circuit City Established in 1949 by Samuel Wurtzel, Circuit City became the first electronic retail in the US. It dominated the industry for many years up to 2004. Before its liquidation, the company stated that the mission of the employees was to work in unity in accordance with its values to achieve the goals of the firm.

Contritely, one of the main reasons that caused its liquidation was poor management. In the first decade after the company was established, the store recorded annual sales of $ 1 million. It witnessed a quick expansion rate. The profit gained from its lucrative sales helped to open other chain stores across the US and hence the witnessed increased profits (Campbell, 2014).

Furthermore, the high gains enabled it to offer lower price for quality products as a plan to outwit its competitors. Customers were the epicenter of all its goals and strategies. This situation attracted more and more clients. The company had made over $ 120 million sales by the end of 1979. It quickly rose to the extent of surpassing the $1 billion point by the end of 1987 (Perry, 2009).

According to Campbell (2014), the growth was impressive until the company began feeling the heat of other competitors such as Best Buy Inc. Circuit City was compelled to introduce new business strategies in the effort to hold its market share.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Circuit City sold products that were similar to other superstores such as Best Buy, its mode of operation was different. Circuit City had a high environment that was supervised by salespeople who would be paid on commission (Romero, 2013).

On the hand, Best Buy Inc. had informed staff members who would only assist their clients where necessary because it operated like a self-service store. Despite the then ongoing competition, the company was stuck to its goal. It intended to obtain a principal market share in every area that it operated. This determination would help in increasing sales and gains.

In essence, this move meant that Circuit City would establish a chain of stores in other regions. Similarly, Best Buy Inc. expanded its stores but with a contemporary technology and appearance that attracted customers. Wal-Mart stores were creating a new level of competition in the form of extended warranties.

Imitating Circuit City business model meant that competitors were having a damaging effect on the gains that superstores were making (Perry, 2009). With the hefty competition, Circuit City was forced to invest in new technology and ideas, it intended to keep in pace with its rivals.

It began retailing Divx as a new product in the market. Nonetheless, it suffered the burden of producing and advertising the product to potential consumers. The company strained its budget in an attempt to maintain this product in the market. The impact was exacerbated when a core investor, Rick Sharp, terminated his funding (Campbell, 2014).

Circuit City was struggling in the market but the strategies that its leaders adopted even had more exacerbating results. For instance, after being appointed as the new CEO, Allan McCullough decided to terminate the supply of appliances to focus on electronics.

This plan reduced the number of its clients and eventually the profit margin. The management made hasty decisions such as closing other several distribution stores and retrenchment of workers. Furthermore, the commissioning sales team was terminated with the intention of minimizing the cost operation and making clients the core of the business.

We will write a custom Essay on Apple Inc. and Circuit City Failure Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apple Inc.’s Success Considered as the world’s richest company, Apple Inc. began as a simple idea by two college dropouts, namely Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. These simple ideas quickly transformed the company to the world’s most innovative firm in the telecommunication sector.

The company lacks a clear vision statement. However, its philosophy has helped it to gain a multitude of loyal customers. It seeks to encourage its employers to think differently. It strives to ensure that employees use their skills to develop unique application software, hardware, and operating systems (Mallin


“Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” by Gettier Essay essay help: essay help

The thesis of Gettier’s article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” is centralized around methods of substantiating knowledge. According to the author, knowing that something is true takes several dimensions.

A person’s claim to knowledge depends on several factors including what the individual knows is true, his/her belief, and his/her right to be convinced. According to Ayer, these three factors form the basis of knowledge and its underlying definition.

On the other hand, Gettier argues that justified belief knowledge is false because it does not incorporate the element of ‘sufficient’ truth. Consequently, justified belief knowledge cannot be used to ascertain that a particular person knows that a certain proposition is true.

In addition, the article reveals that the concepts of ‘the right to be sure that’ and ‘has adequate evidence for’ only work if the element of ‘justified true belief’ is not introduced in an analysis. Gettier’s argument in the article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” focuses on the premises of truth, justified knowledge, adequate knowledge, and the right to be sure about something.

According to Gettier, in order for someone to know certain information several conditions have to be met. The first important condition for knowing certain information is the truthfulness of the particular suggestion. For instance, for someone to know a proposition, believe in it, accept it, and be sure it is the truth, the ‘information’ itself has to be true.

Gettier refutes the premise of justifiable true belief using the arguments of two other scholars; Chisholm and Ayer. According to Chisholm, a person has to accept a proposal and have adequate evidence to prove it in order for the aforementioned proposal to be true.

On the other hand, Ayer argues that any proposal is initially true. Consequently, a person becomes sure that the proposal is true, and he/she has the right to believe that it is so. According to Gettier, Ayer and Chisholm’s arguments are only true if the concept of ‘justified true belief’ is not introduced into their assertions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gettier’s main protest against ‘justified true belief’ is the fact that a person can use it to believe falsehoods. This argument is valid because believing in a proposition chiefly depends on the truthfulness of a conviction. Consequently, ‘believing’ a falsehood cannot be equated to ‘knowing’ it.

For example, someone can belief that person X is honest because he/she is justified to believe this to be true. The person’s conviction does not qualify to be termed as knowledge, because the person’s justified belief does not amount to ‘true knowledge’. When the same person finds out that X is dishonest, the premise of ‘justified true knowledge’ will subsequently be nullified.

Gettier uses parallel situations to access the premise of justified true belief. This method is quite effective because it enables Gettier to explore every possible outcome of a scenario that involves justified true belief. The author also offers a step-by-step analysis of what constitutes knowledge.

For example, the article contains two case-examples that pose hypothetical knowledge scenarios. In both scenarios, the author is able to prove that justifiable true belief does not provide substantial grounds for knowledge. Another argument that the author dwells upon although it is not given prominence involves changes in knowledge.

The article clearly proposes that propositions that are subject to future changes cannot be considered to be true. In retrospect, the author’s argument against justified true belief is another way of proving that true knowledge does not change.


Teaching Preventative Measures in Chronic Diseases Essay college essay help online

Teaching preventative measures and healthy lifestyle changes will be a key area in the management of global chronic diseases. Generally, disease prevention starts with the likelihood of a risk to health that emanates from a disease or an ecological peril with the aim of protecting people from potential health threats that may degenerate into chronic diseases.

Therefore, teaching preventative measures begins with the individuals who are not necessarily under the threat of chronic illness (Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy, 2013). The teaching itself must strive to create awareness on the public by imparting specific processes that are vital in developing and nurturing the lifestyles that can sustain and improve their health status.

To curb the emergent global trends of chronic diseases, the health care system may have to focus its attention on four key areas – promoting healthy lifestyle, reducing the cost of health care, enhancing patient satisfaction, and improving health outcomes.

Given that attention to preventive measures and changes in lifestyle can significantly cause all these functions, the future health care may have to increase on skills aimed at assisting the patients to capitalize on their health conditions to break the cycle of the chronic diseases (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, n.d.).

In emergent systems, the chronic disease treatments may remain an important objective. However, healthy lifestyle changes may depend on investing in the communities by teaching preventative measures to help destroy the life cycle of chronic diseases (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century, 2012).

In obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease, a proper nutrition can control blood glucose levels; the diet plan must balance the intake of oral diabetic medications and insulin. Similarly, regular exercise to control blood sugar levels is inevitable in such programs.

Therefore, disease control approaches will have to undergo a certain degree of entitlement to improve the quality of life by advocating for preventive measures and encouraging healthy lifestyle changes to lower morbidity while cutting down significantly on the overall cost of health care (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Future strategies that attempt to address the increasing incidence of chronic disease globally must include continued surveillance and identification of the determinants of illness. Immunization, for instance, could be a robust strategy that may amicably address the incidence of infectious diseases while early detection will help in decreasing morbidity and mortality.

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century (2012), surveillance and identification of the determinants of disease may make the good use of immunization and the application of prophylactic drugs at the right time before the chronic illnesses develop to unmanageable levels.

Continued surveillance may entail helping the patients to change their personal health lifestyles since certain lifestyles such as smoking, alcoholism and illicit drug use have the likelihood of leading patients to health risk factors such as cancer, heart attack, chronic obtrusive pulmonary diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, as well as sexually transmitted diseases (Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy, 2013).

Chronic diseases continue to be the leading causes of mortality in many communities; therefore, they require greater global support services. Curbing chronic ailments require a broad spectrum of services that have to be available in a range of settings such as hospitals, care homes, community and through public and non-governmental sectors.

Continued surveillance and identification of the determinants of disease may require evidence for chronic disease intervention policy, as well as a variety of responses capable of mitigating the growing trend of chronic diseases. Accordingly, many major chronic ailments are preventable under certain specified conditions, while delay to their onset can reduce their impacts.

While it remains a fact that some chronic diseases are not treatable on the context of current knowledge, proper surveillance may be useful in delaying their progression and mitigating various associated complications.

References Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy. (2013). Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Teaching Preventative Measures in Chronic Diseases specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century. (2012). Web.

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Web.


Organization Design: Optimizing Trade Offs Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Organizational design in the 21st century remains a delicate issue, not as it was in the pre-industrial revolution times. The dynamic nature of the market requires a design that balances an organization’s strategy and structure, the goals of the firm and that of employees, accountability and adaptability, as well as information coordination between the top management and the subordinates.

These factors have created tension in the management of organizations, resulting in under performance or even closure of entities. Failure by new enterprises to account for the future changes within the management system and the target market in their organizational designs has been a major setback for the organizations.

For instance, the chapter acknowledges the need by senior leaders in all organizations to understand the essence of incorporating all stakeholders in the decision-making process. This approach is vital as it instills in employees the spirit of collective responsibility of meeting the goals they participated in formulating (Jones 11).

As organizations expand their operations within and outside the system, issues of specialization arise. Robert Simons in his article, The Tensions of Organization Design, reiterates the need for an inclusive organizational design, which encompasses future changes in business operations. The entire process is a balancing act that managers must follow strictly, or else they risk being isolated in the current dynamic market.

Even though the process of designing organizations is not an easy undertaking, senior management must carry out the process given that it is more risky in doing nothing than trying to keep with the varying needs of the business. Simons’ article indicates that organizations that fail to adopt the new changes are merely planning to the growth crisis (Simons 3).

In my opinion, I concur with the findings of the research that businesses that fail to design their organizations in line with the existing strategy, competitive environment, and the firm’s life cycle are likely to face leadership crisis, autonomy crisis, crisis of control, and red tape crisis in their growth progress. In addition, I concur with the author’s prediction that such firms are always forced out of business, and replaced by their competitors that observe the changing needs of the business.

Evolutions at the workplaces, as well as in the market require flexible managers, that is, those who can easily inculcate the new changes in the management system. Currently, organizations are looking for customers, and designing products in line with their needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was not the case in the past. Decision making as well has to be decentralized. However, there should be appropriate stages that help in this, as well as reduce delays in making and implementing decisions. A case example of the collapse of Enron helps elaborate the accountability and adaptability level of organizational design.

The continued evaluation of employees based on their wok output, rather than using the stipulated operating procedures was a major factor for the company’s involvement in unethical practices. Employees were using all means to achieve the management’s objectives; they did not comply with the preset standards.

Successful organizations have to follow a design that recognizes the inputs of subordinates in decision-making, balances their success and employees’ self-interests, incorporates changes in the market, balances their structure and strategy, as well as incorporates the aspects of accountability and adaptability.

A rigid, inflexible organizational design is not sustainable in this century. Moreover, there is a need to strike a balance between the changing market and employee desires with the scope of an organization. In recognizing employees as strong partners in a business, organizations tend to increase commitment to achievement of the strategic goals and objectives (Simons 12).

Currently, apart from adopting a horizontal communication framework, successful organizations like IBM, Apple, and General Motors engage their employees in off-work training on achievement of the companies’ goals, as well as those of employees. This approach has enabled these corporations gain competitive advantage over their competitors.

Works Cited Jones, Gareth. Organizational Theory: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print.

Simons, Robert. “The Tensions of Organization Design.” Levers of Organization Design: How Managers Use Accountability Systems for Greater Performance and Commitment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2005. Print.

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OCP Plan: Measure Report college essay help: college essay help

In order to achieve the success while sustaining the change in the organisation, it is necessary to develop the effective measurement strategy which addresses basic approaches and measures that need improvement.

While focusing on the measurement plan, leaders become able to analyse the current progress regarding the change promotion and address any issues and barriers in a timely manner with the help of the proposed reaction plan.

From this point, the main focus is on measuring effectiveness of the change integration, customer satisfaction levels, employee satisfaction levels, training effectiveness, and profitability. Key indicators and reaction triggers are determined to conclude what aspects of the plan need to be changed.

The key objectives in measuring effectiveness of the change integration are the focus on analysing how change integration meets the industry’s needs and stakeholders’ needs and how change integration can respond to the corporate purpose.

Customer satisfaction is one more important factor which should be measured in order to understand the customers, suppliers, and regulators’ readiness for change according to the developed plan and with the focus on the milestone completion.

The other important aspect is the factor of employee satisfaction which should be monitored in order to create the positive environment for cooperation and sustaining the organisational change.

The main purpose to measure the training effectiveness is the necessity to understand how training can contribute to promoting the change and what approaches should be used to improve the current strategy. The final important category to be examined with the help of the plan is the return on capital investment and profitability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to conclude about the role of change while focusing on shifts in sales rates, customer satisfaction levels, and warranty rates.

Key Indicator Description Owner Measurement Method


Business Partners, LLC Term Paper custom essay help

Introduction Strategic management comprises a critical component in an organization’s quest to achieve business excellence. Thus, it is imperative for organizational managers to consider the environment in their strategic management context.

According to Faulkner and Campbell, the strategic environment comprises diverse environments, viz. the firm, the competitive environment, business unit environment, and the industry environment (232). To exploit the business environment successfully, it is imperative for organizational managers to undertake a comprehensive environmental analysis.

Faulkner and Campbell further affirm that it is paramount for organizational managers to develop an economic perspective of the business strategy by adopting different mediums (237). One of the models that an organization can adopt is the Structure, Conduct Performance [SCP] model. Using the SCP model enables organizational managers to evaluate the technical and economic conditions, which constitute the industry structure.

Faulkner and Campbell further corroborate, “the industry structure is characterized by factors such as the numbers of buyers and sellers, the concentration of the industry, level of product differentiation, cost structures, and the degree of vertical integration and barriers to entry” (237).

The industry structure has a significant impact on a firm’s behavior such as its determination of the pricing, product, distribution and promotion strategies, research, and innovation amongst other factors that contribute to the overall industry performance. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) asserts, “Industry level analysis sheds further light onto issues that might have been ignored by other macro-level analysis models” (11).

The industry structure influences an organization’s performance. Furthermore, it provides organization’s managers with an insight into the process of formulating strategies. To attain long-term competitiveness, it is essential for organizations to focus on increasing entry barriers, overcoming competition, and attaining a high competitive advantage (Porter 79).

Business Partners, LLC is a credit union servicing organization that was established in 1995 under the name ‘Strategic Partner’. The firm operates in the US financial services industry under the tenure of 16 credit unions. However, the main principle owners include Public Service Credit Union [PSCU], Great Lakes Credit Union [GLCU], and Farmers Insurance Group Federal Credit Union [FIGFCU].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The CUSO’s main offices are located at Chatsworth, California (Herter par.2). The firm’s operations mainly entail the provision of underwriting services, loan participation, loan origination, quality control, and servicing (Business Partners par. 1). The firm is focused on attaining long-term success in the US CUSO industry.

However, to achieve this goal, the firm must continuously evaluate the industry structure to formulate effective business strategies and policies. This paper presents an application of industry –level analysis to Business Partners CUSO using the Porter’s five forces.

Company Profile Since its inception, the firm has succeeded in enhancing its operational efficiency and profitability. The firm has gained remarkable market success over the years because of increased recognition on the contribution of credit unions to the country’s economic growth.

The firm’s partnership with credit unions has remarkably improved its ability to offer affordable and high quality business services. Through its operation, Business Partners has been able promote the establishment of an effective financial infrastructure for brokers and lenders, hence fostering the growth of a comprehensive loan portfolio (Business Partners par. 2).

Therefore, the firm has fostered the provision of credit financial services to its members who might not have the capacity to receive financial services from conventional financial institutions. Business Partners, LLC offers loan services to clients, who are mainly comprised of institutional customers.

Customers have to secure the loan using income property such as retail, industrial, and special purpose property. The firm mainly offers loans within the range of $750,000 and $15,000,000. It ranks amongst the largest CUSO members in the United States. Currently, BP serves over 150 credit unions in the US. The firm focuses on providing confidence to their clients with reference to lending needs (CU Insight par.3).

Over the years, the Business Partners CUSO has developed optimal competitive advantage in its service delivery process. Thus, the firm has improved its capacity in assisting its clients to enhance their income, diversify their loan portfolio, and to expand their asset base.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Business Partners, LLC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the firm assists its consumers in gaining a high competitive advantage by providing them with optimal market expertise and intelligence in addition to offering client diverse lending support services (Business Partners par. 2).

In an effort to cope with the changing business environment, Business Partners CUSO is continuously implementing changes in its strategic management practices. The firm has adopted a customer-focused approach by collaborating with credit unions in order to gather market intelligence (Samaad par. 3).

This strategy has considerably improved the firm’s capacity to offer products that are aligned with the credit union’s portfolio needs. Furthermore, the firm recently appointed a new Chief Executive Officer, Pam Easley, who will be charged with the responsibility of optimizing the firm’s underwriting and lending capacity (Samaad par. 3).

Financial Services Industry The financial services industry in the US constitutes a fundamental component in the US because it fosters the establishment of health demand and supply sides within the industry. Furthermore, it also provides consumers and investors an opportunity to access diverse financial services such as credit finance.

Corporate credit unions are incessantly experiencing a challenging businesses environment that can adversely affect their overall financial position (1). For example, the industry was adversely affected by the recent global financial crisis.

However, the economic recovery that is being experienced in the US has remarkably influenced the growth of the financial services industry as evidenced by the growth in the level of year-on-year borrowing amongst the US households from 1.3% in 2013 to 1.6% in 2014 (Callahan


Cross Cultural Management and International Business Qualitative Research Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction The technological advances and achievements have brought people from different parts of the world and diverse cultural backgrounds very close. People having different cultural identities are communicating are working together (Lauring, 2011).

It is good to be close to one another and know about different cultures, however having cultural diversity at workplaces may also create havoc. There are certain things that are permissible in one culture and some are considered as cultural taboos.

Organizational management requires execution of various tasks such as establishing procedures and developing strategies. Besides this, the organizations need to motivate their workforce to accomplish selected tasks. A sound understanding of the cultural diversities is necessary for carrying out these tasks (Kawar, 2012).

Cross cultural management is a stream of management that emphasizes on the processes and policies involving the management of workers coming from diverse cultural backgrounds. It also facilitates the implementation of management tasks by regulating the impact of cultural differences (Søderberg


How Hospitals Integrate Career Programs Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Abstract Hospitalised patients depend on nurses for the provision of health care services. Hospitals, on the other hand, must recruit qualified nurses and ensure that the nurses continue to offer their services for prolonged periods.

The discovery of new diseases and advancements in health care provision means that nurses need to develop their careers by undergoing continuous training. The recruitment process, therefore, needs to incorporate career programs to ensure that newly recruited nurses can advance their careers to offer quality services to patients.

Introduction A hospital requires a dedicated team that works diligently. The ability of hospital staff to work harmoniously is mainly influenced by the personal characteristics of the members of staff. However, training also plays a significant role in the behaviour of hospital staff.

The hiring of nurses in hospitals is becoming more complex since the assessment of core competencies requires more time and close monitoring of an individual’s ability to work. Though academic qualifications are crucial in gauging one’s ability to work, they are not the absolute standards for defining an individual’s competency.

An organisation’s success is highly determined by the competency and dedication of its staff. Staff performance is a result of career development and core competencies of its members. The role of the human resource department in career development is crucial due to the importance of career development in the nursing field.

The human resource department needs to have opportunities to develop its staff. In addition, the department should receive support to enable it motivate the staff members to develop their careers. Novel diseases are regularly discovered as new disease management programs continue to be developed.

Therefore, new knowledge regarding the management of various medical conditions is continuously generated. The ability of a nurse to remain updated in the nursing field through training and research is thus mandatory. This paper discusses the various models and methods that a hospital can use in the hiring of nurses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paper illustrates the integration of career programs into the hiring of nurses since the importance of intensive recruiting underscores the basis of developing careers. The paper also outlines the various models and approaches used in developing the careers of nurses in a medical organisation.

Career Development Models Career development entails the continued enrichment of one’s professional knowledge on a given job. There are various career development models proposed by different authors. These models assist in the evaluation and mapping of the career developments over time.

Career development is not a short-term activity, but a lifelong process that requires continuous action of an individual in deliberately creating time to learn and conduct research in the area of one’s specialization. Career development is essential and takes a different aspect during and after the hiring process.

The individuals under recruitment get chances to state their career plans during the hiring process, which forms the foundation of the individuals’ assessment on their career plans. Curson and Dell (2010) define career planning as a continuous process of developing the self, which is influenced by an individual and his working environment (2010).

The two approaches to career planning as stated by Curson and Dell (2010) emphasize the organisation’s needs and individual objectives. The authors explain that organisation-centred planning systems aim at developing human resources to suit an organisation’s needs and increase productivity.

Organisation-centred planning systems are organisation-based models of career development, which are applied to further the objectives of the organisation. According to Curson and Dell’s model of individual’s drive for career development, individuals develop their careers to increase their professional aptitudes (2010). Prior to joining any organisation, individuals have their aspirations and career plans that may also be important to their employers in the future.

The various individual plans as stated by Curson and Dell (2010) are mainly on individual career prospects and goals, which can be useful to the organisation. Various career development models are suggested. However, career development is mainly individual centred and organisation determined.

We will write a custom Term Paper on How Hospitals Integrate Career Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organisations that make it compulsory for individuals to advance their career have employees with great skills and knowledge as opposed to those organisations that do not make career development compulsory. Career planning on a personal level should start early enough to identify the key aspects of special training that an individual requires (Grumbach, 2012).

Individual career advancement and development is important as it helps in increasing the odds of securing an appealing job in one’s area of specialization. The process of hiring nurses needs to integrate a career advancement program because it is an industry requirement that needs to keep professionals with suitable capabilities.

The Hiring Process Hiring involves the process of identifying suitable candidates and assessing their capabilities to fill vacant positions in an organisation. Hiring has various importance to the organisation. For instance, it helps in the replacement of employees who quit their jobs for various reasons.

It also aids in meeting demands or filling up of new vacancies that come up due to expansion of the organisation. The hiring process is thus important in ensuring that an organisation is not understaffed. When hiring nurses, a number of factors need to be put into consideration.

These factors include government regulations concerning the training and certification of professionals from accredited institutions. Therefore, the hiring process is time-consuming and costly and can only be done successfully with meticulous planning.

Hiring Considerations of Hospitals

Hiring of nurses results from hospital requirements and considerations as determined by the management of the hospital. Those individuals who wish to join particular hospitals need to go through orientation programs prior to being appointed as nurses.

Graduate nurses require a transition period from college to practical work. The services offered by nurses form an integral part when rating the quality of services offered by the hospital. Therefore, improving the quality of services starts with recruiting nurses with quality training.

In addition, nurses are in direct contact with patients, who are the hospital’s clients. Consequently, it is crucial for the nurses to be highly motivated to perform their duties with the highest level of competency and professionalism (Girot


Human Behavior during Evacuations Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction Human beings will react differently whenever exposed to various disasters or fire outbreaks. Engineers and firefighters have conducted numerous studies in order to understand the issues associated with human behavior during evacuation.

Different evacuation models “are critical because they determine the time take to safeguard the lives of many civilians after a disaster” (Kuligowski, 2009, p. 3). Many scholars and theorists have analyzed the major issues associated with different human behaviors.

This situation explains why many engineers have not incorporated different human behaviors into their evacuation models. According to Simonovic (2011, p. 16), “every action performed by individuals in a dangerous situation results from a unique decision-making process”.

This decision-making process has encouraged many scholars to predict different human behaviors during evacuations. This essay analyzes the current literature on human behaviors during evacuations.

Theory of Human Behavior during Disasters

Occupants in different buildings or structures will react in a specific manner after encountering a disaster. Human beings perceive specific cues before performing certain actions. The next stage is interpreting the nature of the targeted risk or situation.

This interpretation usually depends on the cues perceived by every individual in the first stage. The individuals will “eventually make specific decisions in order to deal with the disaster” (Kuligowski, 2009, p. 3). This discussion explains why human beings follow a unique process whenever making their decisions.

However, some external and internal factors determine what individuals perceive or interpret whenever there is a disaster. According to Fahy and Proulx (2011, p. 718), “the phases of disaster response will vary significantly depending on the targeted individuals, the nature of structure, and the aspects of the situation”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the occupants in a building can perceive different cues depending on the targeted disaster. Individuals can see smoke, debris, or receive phone calls from their friends. The individuals in the targeted structure or building will gather different thoughts within the shortest time possible.

The second phase of the Disaster Response Model (DRM) occurs when the individuals interpret the perceived information (Kuligowski, 2009). The individuals might also decide to ignore the above signs. They “might also decide to ignore the threat if it is not serious” (Fahy


“Glass Ceiling” Concept Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Abstract Recognizing the implication of failure to manage organizational diversity, many organizations endeavor to provide equal job opportunities and career development through upward mobility practices that do not segregate employees based on their demographic and psychographic differences.

However, cases of glass ceiling are still common in corporations across the globe. The current research discusses the concept of glass ceiling. It identifies its potential relationship with the overall quality and productivity in the workplace.

Although the research findings are backed by qualitative data, they indicate that low overall quality and productivity in organizations that employ high number of minorities and women may be attributed to the glass ceiling effect.

Introduction Despite their well-designed policies for managing diversity, organizations continue to experience the glass ceiling effect. Buckalew, Konstantinopoulos, Russell, and El-Sherbini (2012) define glass ceiling as “the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper ranks of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements” (p.145).

Management literature contends that embracing the concept of effective management of organizational diversity, including ensuring equality and equity, may help to curtail the glass ceiling effect. However, it is not yet known why women and some minorities continue to have a low upward mobility in corporate ladder across the globe, despite the effective deployment of principles of equity and equality in organizations that employ people from diverse backgrounds (Wilson, 2014).

This paper focuses on this gap in literature on the glass ceiling effect. The rest of the paper is divided into three main sections. The first section presents the foundational framework, including a statement of research objectives and research framework or methodology.

The second section presents a literature review on glass ceiling effect in organizations by referring to the latest peer reviewed journal articles. Section three offers the implication of the research for managers. It also incorporates recommendations for organizations that are experiencing the glass ceiling effect.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research objectives Research objectives specify the purpose of conducting a research. The objective of the current research is to discuss how the glass ceiling may exist in a workplace. It also objects to discuss the significance of glass ceiling on the overall quality of an organization.

Research framework Research can be designed to deploy primary or secondary resources. The current research relies on secondary data to discuss the concept of glass ceiling in modern organizations. The search is conducted through online credible libraries.

Various scholars prescribe certain characteristics that a qualitative research must meet for its results and recommendations to arrive at effective resolution of the stated problem. For this reason, the methodology that is deployed in the current research needs to have some specific characteristics, which include credibility, reliability, use of rigorous methods and verification, validity and clarity, and coherence in reporting.

The current research needs to portray a high degree of internal and external validity for the recommendations and implications to hold substance in organizations. Internal validity implies the degree of truth of various claims that are raised in the research and the existing variables. On the other hand, external validity implies the degree to which the findings can be generalized.

The method that is utilized in a qualitative research needs to aid researchers to attain optimal levels of validity of their study for their work to add a significant knowledge to the body of knowledge they seek to amplify, which in this case is the status of the glass ceiling in organizations.

Since this research is designed to be a secondary research, validity encompasses a significant issue given that secondary materials are adopted from researches that were done in the past whose findings may be outdated. However, this challenge is dealt with by careful selection of the secondary materials for analysis.

The research only draws from researches that have been done in the past three years. To enhance reliability of the secondary materials in making recommendations and research implications, only peer reviewed articles are used in the research.

We will write a custom Report on “Glass Ceiling” Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Multinational organizations employ people from diverse backgrounds. This observation implies that organizational diversity is a key characteristic of such organizations. One of critical aspects to consider in addressing the challenges of diversity management entails resolution of the issues of glass ceiling (Wilson, 2014).

Organizational diversity refers to the myriads of differences that exist among people who work in an organization with regard to parameters such as sexual characteristics, race, societal principles, maturity, income levels, work experience, parental status, spiritual viewpoints, civilization, religion, and physical abilities among others (Wilson, 2014).

Given that failure to manage organizational workforce diversity may lead to a negative impairment of its performance in the short and long run, the challenge of workforce diversity management is a critical problem that every organization that seeks to go global needs to address proactively.

Cook and Glass (2014) define various elements that fuel the existence of glass ceiling inequality within a corporation. An organization needs to uphold racial and/or gender differences (Cook


Aramark Global Analysis Term Paper college essay help online

Aramark Global Analysis Aramark Corporation (hereunder Aramark) is an American-owned business, which has so far established its operations in 22 countries all over the world. In its website, Aramark indicates that it offers services in different sectors, which include business and industry, healthcare, sports, entertainment, higher education, and apparel (Aramark, 2014a).

Aramark is an international business because it produces and distributes goods and services, not only in its home country, but in other 21 countries spread across Europe, Asia and the American continents. Azevedo and Bertland (2000) describe an international organization as “a decentralized federation with distributed resources and delegated responsibilities that allows the foreign operations to answer to the local differences” (p. 3).

True to the foregoing definition, Aramark is a decentralized organization, which has assigned responsibilities to different offices across the 22 countries. Additionally, the company has provided the overseas offices the mandate and resources necessary to cater for local differences.

Aramark Ireland has, for example, set cultural theme days as one of the ways of marketing itself in the country. Additionally, Aramark Ireland translates its staff training manuals into languages that the staff members can comprehend. Moreover, the company changes its restaurant menus to reflect diets that serve the medical, therapeutic and religious diets of the consumer market in Ireland (Aramark, 2009).

Theories and Concepts of Globalization, Multinational Strategy and International Business

Bartelson (2000) has conceptualized globalization as transference, transformation and transcendence. In reference to transference, Bartelson (2000) indicates that globalization has led to a situation where, national, regional, cultural and other forms of boundaries do not prevent the transfer of goods and services from a unit to diverse countries, regions or cultures.

The foregoing is true in Aramark’s case because the company operates in diverse nations, regions and cultures. The transformation concept according to Bartelson (2000) indicates that globalization transforms the systems and units of doing business as they were traditionally understood. Consequently, traditional systems and units that were limited by geography and space can now be replaced by market-oriented structures where competition is crucial.

When applied to Aramark, the foregoing concept could be interpreted to mean that rather than worry about competitors in its home country, Aramark should be concerned about competitors in the global front, because, such competitors symbolize a competitive risk. In relation to transcendence, Bartelson (2000) argues that globalization defies the limitations of “pre-constituted units or agents” (p. 189).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transcendence is arguably a hard concept to grasp, but as Bartelson (2000) explains, it means that the boundaries and limitations that existed in the past have now been wiped away. Instead, the globalised world has networks that are not temporal or spatial. Used in context, the foregoing may be reflected in the real time communication that occurs in between Aramark’s headquarters in the US and its other offices across the world.

Multinational strategy

Firms that have a multinational strategy have other markets in addition to their domestic market (Lynch, 2011). In Aramark’s case, the other markets are the 21 countries, which it offers its products and services to, in addition to its home country, the US.

A multinational strategy has a distinct strategy for all the different markets targeted by the company (Lynch, 2011). The foregoing situation is informed by the fact that customer needs, preferences and demands differ between countries. In Aramark, the multinational strategy is reflected in how services are customized to each country’s consumer market and the prevailing market conditions.

International Business Theory

Porter’s diamond theory seems more applicable in Aramark’s case compared to other theories. The theory posits that the competitiveness of a nation (or in this case an international company), is affected by four things namely:

factor conditions (i.e. the factors that a company can exploit – e.g. labor – in order to gain competitive advantage of its rivals), demand condition (i.e. the demands by the consumer market, e.g. for excellence);

supporting industries (i.e. the cost effectiveness of suppliers);

and the structure, strategy and rivalry of a firm (Mahmud, n.d.).

Arguably, and although this is a hard thing to determine from the publicly available information regarding Aramark, the company is favored by all the four demand factors in Porter’s diamond model.

The foregoing assertion may not be true in all the 21 countries, but in countries like china, the company’s competitive advantages is attained from a combination of factors which include: its ability to utilize the cheap labor, the high demand for its services, the support industries in the country, and its structure, strategy and an almost absent market rivalry (United States Securities and Exchange Commission, 2012).

When, How and Why Aramark Entered Into Foreign Countries

Aramark first took the international path in 1968, when it served in the Olympic Games held in Mexico (Aramark, 2014b). By then, the company was known as Automatic Retailers of America (ARA) (Aramark, 2014b). Aramark’s partnership with the Olympic Games organizers propelled it to international operations (Aramark, 2014b).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Aramark Global Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ‘why’ of entering into foreign countries is best explained by the fact that the company saw an expanded market in those countries, and the fact that it had developed internal capacities to move into the foreign market. In 2001, for example, the company entered Ireland and Chile after expanding its service offers to include food services, healthcare, uniform services and conference center services.

Arguably, the reasons why Aramark ventured into foreign markets came true; its wide market base is a confirmation that the opportunity that the company had seen in the foreign market, did indeed exist.

The Potential, But Unrealized, Advantages of Internationalization to Aramark

The world today has 196 countries. Aramark has only established its operations in 22 countries. The foregoing statistics means that there are still more countries that Aramark can find a ready market.

Africa is, for example, one continent that Aramark needs to consider. With 55 countries in total and a population of approximately 1.033 billion people, the continent is no doubt a ready market for different consumer items and services.

Global Integration and Local Embedding

Aramark integrates its activities by ensuring that the same standards of quality are used everywhere (Aramark, 2009). Additionally, the company has benchmarks on issues such as diversity, which all its overseas operations have to abide with.

To embed such activities locally, Aramark has given its foreign operations the mandate to change whatever needs to be changed in order to meet customer requirements and expectations. However, and as has been revealed by Aramark (2009) any market-appropriate change that is made in the company has to keep within identified performance and quality standards.

Competitive Factors Driving Aramark’s Global Business Development

Aramark targets institutional buyers, who incidentally have weak bargaining powers. The foregoing position can be explained by the reality that Aramark does not have many competitors who can provide similar services, at the same quality, and the same efficiency (Aramark, 2009).

Additionally, institutional buyers buy frequently, in large quantities and would, therefore, face high switching costs. However, Aramark’s suppliers have stronger bargaining power because they deliver the supplies to Aramark in large quantities, and the company would not be in a position to find other suppliers at a short notice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Aramark Global Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aramark is arguably faced with the threat of new market entrants. However, since the company has a diverse business portfolio, the threat of new market entrants is more pronounced in some business lines (e.g. in janitorial services) than it is in others (e.g. in energy management services).

Another competitive factor which Aramark has to contend with is rivalry in the industry. Luckily for Aramark, its brand works to market its services hence ensuring that although competition is stiff in some of its business lines, its reliability usually attracts a significant market share over less-know service providers (Aramark, 2009).

Brand Strategies to Enhance Internationalization

Aramark went into foreign markets by exporting its own brand name. The company has performed impressively so far and as such, one would argue that its branding strategy was successful.

In future, however, the company might consider strategic partnerships with established non-competing firms in new investment destinations. Such partnership would assure the company of a ‘soft landing’ in countries where business cultures are completely different from the US.

New Areas for Global/International Expansion

As indicated elsewhere in this paper, Africa’s population and its growth rate provides Aramark with a viable potential market. The company may also look into other developed countries in Asia (e.g. Singapore).

References Aramark. (2009). Global diversity and inclusion: Our journey. Web.

Aramark. (2014). Services and industries. Web.

Aramark. (2014). History. Web.

Azevedo, G.,


Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories Case Study college admission essay help

Introduction Marketing is a broad area that passes out both as an art and science of communicating the value of goods and the efficacy of services to customers for the exclusive purpose of selling such products and rendering the services (Durkovic 2009, p. 59). Seen from an organisational level, Durkovic (2009, p. 61) opines that marketing offers a set of processes that are instrumental in creating opportunities for delivering and communicating product and services.

The aim however, is to create value to prospective customers while augmenting customer relationship management that benefit an organisation in turn. The topics under the study explore collaborative learning with group interactive marketing environment.

The paper makes it clear that marketing is not just the acquisition of new customer base, and that it is a process takes into consideration the responsibility of underscoring the efficacy of specific change aspects that are typical of business growth. Intensive marketing validates a rich way of using the available resources to meet the needs of businesses, and these are in the form of concepts and processes of marketing, marketing segmentation, targeting, and positioning.

Moreover, the paper deals with the efficacies of learning outcomes such as elements of extended marketing mix as well as the social dimensions achieved through the learning process. Precisely, in essence this article aims at inspiring human resource capacity to utilise the resource available like knowledge to convert further abilities and services into tangible marketing skills.

The basis of this article aims at designing the systems that shape human learning such as arranging the facilities, coming up with procedures that align the marketing processes with an inventory acquisition framework, and scheduling the learning outcomes and tasks, while providing a safe passage that ensures changes occur within a business organisation in a smooth effective, and rapid way.

Findings and discussions The concept and process of marketing

Business is an arena of adjustments, the value of which is to keep with the market trends within which organisations operate. The world over, marketing professionals constantly adjust their business strategy and tact to wage their competitive advantage and reach out to the ever changing customer demands (Lamarre, Galarneau and Boeck 2012, p. 36).

Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories marketing professionals must adjust their business strategy and tact to reach out to the ever-changing customer demands. With the contemporary competitive markets Lamarre et al. (2012, p. 45) opines that mobility in the concept of marketing is rapidly becoming an option in business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At their behest, contemporary markets continue to evolve as apparatus for allocating resources and a hub investing in communities. Well-organised competitive markets have the capacity to maximise consumer welfare to raise economic growth and cumulatively increase the total welfare of the regions under which they operate (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 56).

With development in marketing trends, firms have the capacity to thrive and provide what the consumers want and in the process, they aim at delivering the best to outdo their competitors. The new marketing trends offer great opportunities for effective competition, which in turn inspires effective competition with the likelihood of bringing significant benefits to consumers.

With effective competition, Hill (2012, p. 56) is optimistic that there is an increase in consumer satisfaction by ensuring that that businesses offers variety, greater choices, affordable prices as well as better quality of goods and services.

Effective competition guarantees strong incentives for businesses to be more efficient and innovative in their operations thus helping them to raise economic growth across the board (Hill 2012, 69). Within this business ambience, markets have always sought to deliver the utmost outcomes to their respective customers, to companies and even the governments under which they operate.

Various elements of marketing process

Innovative business mind-sets that the exiting business opportunities seek enable businesses to reach out to their customers successfully through a new concept of communication channel (Boone 2012, 65).

Today, social media marketing trends shape the scope of business and define their limits by delivering great opportunities for business growth (Lamarre et al. 2012, 67). The modern day marketing is highly interactive, and whereas businesses goes digital in the marketing concept, they have the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche (Boone 2012, p. 58).

Social media marketing, for example, consists of web browser advantages with mobile device interfacing that makes it possible to offer continuous access to business products and services to the prospective customers regardless of place and time (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 71). These developments in the concept of contemporary marketing brings forth effective competitiveness to that makes businesses to suffice as robust and dynamic with the capacity to shape and grow the economy in stature.

We will write a custom Case Study on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Generally, the developmental paradigms of marketing are expansive with abilities to develop consumer by making value, service, and quality of products and services to be a priority in the making. Coupled with several endowments that technology brings into the business, the modern day marketing continues to be highly interactive with the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche.

Benefits of costs of marketing orientation

Costs and marketing strategies are elements geared towards a competitive advantage, which in essence helps businesses gain over their competitors by guaranteeing customers’ enhanced value either by lowering prices or by extending additional benefits that cumulatively brings back the cash price.

For businesses involved in a niche type marketing scenario, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage reflects an increased profit margin that leads to business growth and sustainability. Businesses, according to Fraser (2012, p. 44), have to devise ways to design competitive advantage nonetheless.

This is so because competitiveness is the route to survival in a crowded market. Competitive advantage does not grow out of a business’ natural endowments, its interest rates, its labour pool, or its public image as a classical economic unit, businesses device ways to create them.

A business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to innovate and upgrade for business growth and economic sustainability (Srivastava, Franklin and Martinette 2013, p. 48). Tip-Top Accessories can only gain competitive advantage against some of the renowned economic heavyweights if it maximises on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market.

Focused businesses benefit instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals, they strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers. In an economy of an increasingly global competiveness, Tip-Top Accessories have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo competitors (Fraser 2012, p. 56).

Given the proclivity of the business environment to lean towards the conception of assimilation of knowledge, market strategists have to expand their scope to meet the growing demands in the market to keep the business at par with the economic trends (Pitts and Lei 2000, p. 75). For greater outcome, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage is by endearing a business to some of the least valued localised processes that other businesses might overlook.

The differences in the values of the businesses, their cultures, economic strengths, and management structures all contribute to the competitiveness of a business (Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, p. 72). Striking differences exist in the patterns of competitiveness in every business, as such no one particular business will be competitive over the other in all situations. Ultimately, businesses succeed in a particular way because their domestic environments are innovative, dynamic, and for that matter challenging, thus pushing them further to strategize accordingly.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concepts of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

For Tip-Top Accessories to be effective and efficient in its operations, the company’s management must step up the target customer market scope across the UK and beyond. To achieve this stature, the business need to its market segmentation, target market, and positioning to explore the full score of its market operations.

Market segmentation

This, according to Brown (2005, p. 56), grouping a business’ various customers and placing them under segmentation schemes with various schemes that show common needs that require similar marketing action. In this framework, demographics may be instrumental for a business to focuses on consumer characteristics and in deed, elements of demography such as age, gender, education, job, income, and cultural background can all assist a business in determining its strength in the market.

This applies to Tip Top in its bid to meet the needs of different customers. Moreover, elements of business such as psychographics are equally useful in determining the strength of a business in the market; this is so because the lifestyle of a customer base can produce the desired outcome if businesses chose to capitalise on it as a strength element.

For instance, buyer behaviour and consumerism could be strategic business strength especially when the management opts to consider the modern trends that drive consumerism such as online shopping, brand preferences, service delivery based on prior purchases (Brown 2005, p. 51).

Finally, geographical setting is equally a strong business attribute and Tip-Top Accessories may thrive on the scope of its operation based on the continent, region, country, state, or city, hence it is instrumental for the company to consolidate its strengths and exploit its opportunities.


Upon segmenting the market, a business has to go a scale higher and choose its targets. Business ethics holds that no one particular strategy usually suits all customer groups. Hence, being able to come up with specific strategies pertinent to the business is very crucial (Brown 2005, p. 56). Different approaches are available for Tip-Top Accessories to choose from in their targeting venture.

Some of the stratagems are discussed below:

Undifferentiated targeting: Here a business observes its market, as a single group with no distinguishable sections, hence using a particular market tactic becomes an option. This marketing plan normally suffice as a better option for enterprises with little or no competition, hence there may be limited need to cushion the stratagems to answer the varied favourites prevailing in the target markets.

Concentrated targeting: This strategy pays attention mainly on choosing a specific market place where promotion exertions have the utmost focus. A business has to focus on a single segment as part of its targeting approach so that it can concentrate on the groundwork to understand the needs of a particular market intensely. Tip Top Accessories may gain this type of strategy since laying great emphasis on a single segment may be useful in enabling it to compete successfully against its competitors.

Multi-segment targeting: This style normally proves very instrumental where a business has to concentrate on more than one well-known market fragments in order to develop different strategies for the segments. This approach, therefore, provides several benefits, though this can be expensive given that it includes and demands the greater participation from the management. Moreover, it demands an increased market research as well as greater promotional strategies to make it successful.

Overall, before settling on a given targeting plan, Tip Top has to conduct a cost benefit analysis that traverses all the available strategies necessary in determining the best approach that will best serve it.


Positioning consists of developing products and services as brand image in the memory of the consumers (Norus 2006, p. 687). This may as well involve refining the view of consumers about the knowledge available in a particular product.

In doing so, the business can be able to positively influence its customer base perceptions through strategic promotional drive and by categorically defining the marketing mix of the business (Brown 2005, p. 66). It is equally important to note that effective positioning entails a good grasp of the competing factors in a market and the benefits that that target market carries for a business.

Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories must be able to ascertain a differential advantage under which it can optimally deliver the benefits pertinent to the market and eventually outshine its competitors. Finally, the business must aim to define itself in the lenses of the consumers while considering what their competitors puts into the market while considering what their competitors puts into the bargain.

Extended Marketing Mix

In the corporate world, many tools are available for use in accomplishing specific business tasks to ensure businesses deliver on their commitments to the markets. This type of delivery necessitates the application of known marketing tools considered to have the ability to deliver businesses to efficacy and prosperity (Johnson 2014).

The marketing mix is therefore a combination of several factors with expansive range of choices that makes it possible for businesses to market their products and services otherwise known in the language of the extended marketing mix as 7ps.


As part of the business’ need to grow in stature, product development needs. Whether the business opt to trade in products or services, the business must take into account the fact that consumer needs are paramount and always seek to meet customer demands and expectations.

This entails the fact that products may have to under some developments such as changing the names or packaging in order to keep with the trends in the market. In this mix, Tip-Top Accessories can apply product differentiation strategy just like Apple, BMW, and Mercedes Benz Companies. This approach will enable consumers differentiate its products from those of the competitors.


Pricing is a very important business strategy that must be taken good care of when strategizing for markets. Profit margin together with the competing factors in a business may dictate the price of a given product or service but the rule has to be able to deliver the best that accommodate the consumers (Johnson 2014).

The prices of umbrellas and hats at Tip-Top Accessories should be lower than the competitors’ prices. Moreover, some elements under consideration within this mix are the associated issues that dictate the pricing formula such as leasing, financing, as well as other dictates of pricing in a business. Pricing as a strategy will further dictate other emergent factors such as the stores that keep the products for sale to various consumers.


Promoting a business on the merits of its product strengths could be instrumental in taking the business to greater heights. It is, therefore, necessary for Tip-Top Accessories to put in place a strong public relations department to help in the promotional activities in order to enable consumers know the hats, umbrellas, and scarves that it sells.

Promotional activities can bring greater an in-depth understanding of a business’ relative competitive positioning within a given market. As Norus (2006, p. 693) observes it adequately provide analysis of a business’ analysts with a clear framework with flawless framework to assess the impacts of the external condition on a business’ capacity to sustain the much sought after competitive advantage.


A business has to know its area of operation and acquaint itself with the emergent needs of the customer base under which it operates. As such, transactional, logistical, and functional issues have to be taken into consideration (Norus 2006, p. 694). Decisions made to this end may include the needs to supply the stores with various products that meet diverse customer demands.


People constitute the first P of the extended marketing mix and these include various individuals ranging from those working for the businesses as well as those that constitute the business’ customer base. Tip-Top Accessories has to ensure that it has the capacity to recruit and retain profitable individuals that would guarantee great customer experience in the UK market, as well as globally.

Physical evidence

Product presentation is very important to the growth of a business. Tip-Top Accessories must ensure that their products have the physical presence in the areas they explore to develop a robust existence in the market to put itself strategically for a competitive advantage.


Process as the final P has a lot to do with customer service and the business’ ability to deliver services, offer products, handle complaints, and forestall any business actualities. The process aims to garner greater customer experience by building customer confidence in the business’ ability to handle and mitigate business concerns.

Supplier power

Supplier power, according to Adcock, Halborg, and Ross (2001, p. 35), relates to how the business suppliers may sometime find it easy to hike prices in the process of business. This normally occurs due the number of the suppliers in the business and their reliability to do so.

Moreover, the uniqueness of the suppliers’ commodity as well as the services they render may define the operation of the business. In addition, the control the suppliers may have over the business customers’ may also shape the scale of a business operation.

Buyer power

Buyer power, according to Adcock et al. (2001, p. 37), relates to the buyers may find it easy to pool down the business’s prices. The number of buyers in the market can easily make this necessary by constantly switching from one product or service rendered by one business to another.

This scenario may prove particularly challenging for the business and for a business to ensure it retains its rich customer base it may have to strategize on customer retention plan to maintain its competitiveness.

Conclusion/summary From the foregoing analysis, we can deduce that competitive advantage does not come into the business by itself to give a business an advantage over others. Just like in the operations of Tip-Top Accessories, a business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to work within these modes to innovate and upgrade their strategies for business growth within the markets they operate.

Moreover, businesses gain competitive advantage against their rivals because of the ability to maximise on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market. Focused businesses benefit from these modes of competitive advantage instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals.

Smart businesses strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers to know the trends in the market to help them stem their competitive advantage. In an economy within an increasingly global competiveness, businesses have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo their competitors.

Recommendations Tip-Top Accessories have to devise ways and popular means of devising competitive advantage to ensure a business stands a better chance in the marketplace. The major theoretical approaches discussed are available businesses for organisations to build a sustaining of competitive strategy.

For the company to build and sustain a viable competitive advantage, it needs to focus constantly on identifying the diverse product and services to help in strategizing, reshaping the business core competencies, seeking out innovative technologies while consolidating greater intellectual property rights to make the business more distinct and appealing in the market.

Finally, identifying what is central to business competitiveness is the hallmark to building a sustainable competitive advantage for all businesses.

References Adcock, D., Halborg, A., and Ross, C 2001, Marketing: Principles and practice (4th ed.), Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, BPP Learning Media, Manchester.

Boone, L 2012, Contemporary marketing, Cengage Learning Custom, London.

Brown, I 2005, Marketing your service business, Thorogood Publishing Ltd, London.

Durkovic, J 2009, “Development of human resources as strategic factors of the companies’ competitive advantage”, Economics and Organisation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–67.

Fraser, C 2012, Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2010 basics, model building, and cases (2nd ed.), Springer, New York.

Hill, C. W 2012, International business: competing in the global marketplace (10th ed.), McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.

Johnson, M 2014, Extended Marketing Mix: The 7 Ps of Marketing, https://blog.udemy.com/extended-marketing-mix/

Lamarre, A., Galarneau, S., and Boeck, H 2012, “Mobile marketing and consumer behaviours current research trend”, Int. J. Latest Trends Computing, vol. 3, no. 201, pp. 1-9.

Norus, J 2006, “Building sustainable competitive advantage from knowledge in the region: The industrial enzymes industry”, European Planning Studies, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 681-696.

Pitts, R. A., and Lei, D 2000, Strategic management: building and sustaining competitive advantage (2nd ed.), South-Western College Pub. Cincinnati, Ohio.

Srivastava, M., Franklin, A., and Martinette, L 2013, “Building a sustainable competitive advantage”, Journal of Technology Management and Information, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 47-60.


‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction One of the most important, but often forgotten communities in the world histories is the Indian community, which has a remarkable history of evolution (Crinson 55). In the 1800s, the Indian community was still traversing the world and one of its destinations was Britain, even as the British people crossed to the Asian zones as well.

The British Raj is a historical moment between 1858 and 1947, when the British colonized part of the Indian subcontinent and established their British rule (Deb 32). During this moment, people had discovered the essence of writing stories about the life of the people.

One of the renowned journalists and poets of the era of the British Raj is Joseph Rudyard Kipling, who lived and travelled widely across India, South Africa, England, and the United States. The intent of this essay is to examine “The Jungle Book” of Joseph Rudyard Kipling and the prehistoric lifestyle or culture of the Indians during the ancient times.

The Indians during the Old era

Culture is a multifaceted concept in the history of the people because culture means the people’s way of life or the manner in which people live (Crinson 16). In the simplest perspective, culture generally describes the intellectual and the spiritual way of living, where the sense of living philosophies, religion, economic activities, literature, music, leadership, art, and legal systems are the major facets that guide the human life (Crinson 27).

The ancient Indians had their unique lifestyle or their standard of living that guided the manner in which they behaved, interacted with people, and interacted with the environment. Culture being a mainstay of history, was the major interest of Kipling in his Jungle Book.

Kipling used animal characters and described the lifestyle of the Indians as a form of life where lawlessness, social rejection, lack of appropriate leadership, poor agricultural practices, primitive customs and beliefs, and archaic cultures were common lifestyle issues (42).

Kipling showed interest in the lives of the Indian people and the way these people practiced their culture during the period of 1882 and 1889. In The Jungle Book, Kipling discusses numerous cultural aspects of the Indian people of the primitive days.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indians have continuously maintained most of their cultural values, and often practiced their religious dogma just as it was in their prehistoric days (Crinson 35). In his book, Kipling discusses the manner in which the Indians struggled to civilize into a modern society through the western civilization principles.

The Jungle Book presents animal stories that remarkably highlight the Indian culture and their major traditional beliefs. In this book, Kipling relates the animal’s life of individualism, collectivism, and lawlessness, with the real issues that affected the Indians while under the British rule (Kipling 3).

The book generally portrayed the naïve India, where lawlessness, racial discrimination, cultural civilization, and social concerns were major problems between the ancient Indians.

Lawlessness and the people

The Indian people during the 1880s were still naïve about lawmaking and they never realized the importance of having laws that could guide the actions of the people (Deb 30). Under the British governance, the Indians were unaware about their individual rights or any form of a regulation that would protect them from exploitation.

The book constantly mentions about the laws of the jungle, which are none existence laws just like in the animal kingdom, where wild creatures have no laws to guide them. “Thou hast been with the Monkey People—the gray apes—the people without a law—the eaters of everything” (Kipling 42).The Indians were living in lawless communities and much respect and attention went to their nuclear family structures, where no leadership existed.

The uncivilized and primitive India had people who never understood the importance of having laws to guide the human actions (Crinson 23). Lawlessness made the people aggressive, retrogressive, corrupt, careless, and inhumane.

Kipling uncovered the manner in which the lawless and the uncivilized Indian people behaved like the animals in the jungle. Through the literary art of personification, Kipling describes the prehistoric Indians as complicated people, who had different characters, but very submissive to their cultural norms (Kipling 12).

We will write a custom Term Paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kipling uses the metaphor of monkeys and describes their behaviour, which deemed similar to that of the Indians who were lawless during the ancient period. The author focuses on identifying the funny and uncivilized behaviours of some animals such as the unmannered wolves and the mischievous monkeys, which often engaged in serious fights against each other without an appropriate reason (Kipling 45).

Jungle is a metaphoric word that represents the prehistoric Indian, who cared less about making of the formal laws or a constitution that would guide its citizens. According to Kennedy (86), the Englishmen seemed more organized and thus powerful in ruling the Indians during the British colonial rule.

The unfriendly nature of the prehistoric Indians

Indians were generally primitive people who never wanted to interact with foreigners. Kipling uses a personification approach and names Mowgli, as a young man-cub that visits the jungle where hatred, unfriendliness, and fear and social alienation are frequent problems (Kipling 20).

During the era of the prehistoric India, uninformed foreigners who visited India, found it difficult to acculturate and survive in the region. The young man-cub struggles to adjust living with the animals in the jungle and living with the human beings in the villages (Kipling 38).

Kipling wanted to demonstrate the problem of social rejection in the prehistoric India. Mowgli lives in the lawless jungle with the wolves that finally reject him because of his likeness with the humans, but later faces a similar rejection within the human villages, because of his resemblance with the wolves (Kipling 28). A clear picture that paints around this quandary is that India was full of racial divide that brought about disunity.

Foreigners and the socially underrepresented people in the primordial India never enjoyed any social freedom because the nation was lawless and without any formal arrangement (Evans 77). Mowgli represents the plight of the foreigners.

Kipling describes Mowgli as a young boy in the name of a man-cub, who acculturates to the jungle environment in a very harsh and unfriendly manner. The primordial Indian people were aware that India was a place that only favoured its natives despite the hostile political environment that their leaders instigated (Evans 61).

The Englishmen were foreigners in the Indian land, but seemed more organized and civilized in the manner in which they practiced their foreign culture and norms. For the foreigners who admired to visit the primordial India, getting food from the natives, a decent home for sheltering, or a welcoming society, was a difficult endeavour (Evans 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With lawlessness and dilapidated dwellings, the prehistoric Indians never realized the importance of social harmony or social acceptance. After arriving in the new city from the jungle, Mowgli meets with the monkeys, who occupied the roofless palace and the deserted houses that existed around the ancient India (Kipling 60).

In this monkey residence, the monkeys disagree on so many irrelevant things, and Mowgli being a foreigner, remains worried and confused about the state of life in Bandar-log. The Bandar-log is the deserted place with no proper shelter, no proper housing equipment, or any protection against natural hazards (Kipling 61).

The monkeys at the Bandar-log represent the primitive Indian people who survived without caring about others, about their shelter, the plight of the foreigners, and even about their own future. Mowgli notices that in the Bandar-log, the monkeys “have no law, no hunting call, and have no leaders” (Kipling 62).

Mowgli in this case acts as a foreigner in India and portrays a more civilized being that leads the monkeys in improving towards being a civilized society.

The unstable Indian leadership in the Old India

A key issue that characterized the prehistoric Indians, according to the perceptions of Kipling, was the absence of a formal leadership in the lifestyle of the Indians (Kipling 62). The ancient Indians lacked a formal leadership and their kingship systems were either non-functional or unstable.

Mowgli discovers the deserted old Indian city, where the human beings vacated the palace, and only the disorganized monkeys occupied the roofless palaces and the roofless houses (Kipling 60). Although the monkeys admired the human wisdom and often associated the human beings with a high level of intelligence, they wondered why the Indian people lacked a stable leadership that would help the people.

The people lacked the leadership wisdom that was necessary to bring the Indians together and such lapses resulted to lawlessness, disorganized empires, and powerless castles (Kennedy 95). The British colonizers would often use the leadership weaknesses to establish their values of westernization and oppress the weak Indians.

The people of India lived under heavily divided regimes and their concentration to their family issues made them uninterested in the national leadership (Evans 132). Kipling mentions the real monkey, and the monkey-people, because the Indians were truly like the monkey-people, who lacked the command to establish a proper leadership that would guide the Indian state.

Mowgli said that, “They are without leaders and they have no remembrance, they often boast around, chatter, and pretend that they are a great people about to do great affairs in the jungle, but often fail” (Kipling 43). Although Kipling was referring to the lawless monkeys in the jungle, this metaphoric expression associated the Indians with poor governance.

The people were inattentive to the leadership because they concentrated on matters that were insignificant to the Indian nation. According to Kipling (65), simple issues would often destabilize the harmony of the Indians and they would turn against each other for no proper reasons.

The best way to describe the ancient occupants of India is the term anthropomorphic dwellers (Kennedy 81). The Indians were like these traditional survivors who never minded about the essence of having a stable leadership that would help the communities to transform smoothly.

The people of India never cared about the leadership of the nation because the nation seemed divided into racial groups and socioeconomic classes (Crinson 53). Lack of leadership and regulations that would govern the people made the Indian live in a mixture of individualism and collectivism, with the behaviours of some animals in the jungle portraying these two factors.

With no leaders, the monkeys lived a life of communism, but tended to disagree more often due to their behaviours associated with individualism (Kipling 46). Mowgli notices that some animals such as wolves a full of resentment and greed that makes them fight for power without any proper arrangement. Most Indians wanted power for their own selfish desires.

The ancient culture of wild hunting in India

A common Indian traditional culture that presents itself in the story of the jungle book is the culture of wild hunting that has its roots from the ancient India. The Indian people had a primitive hunting culture that made the jungle animals despise them and hate their presence around the jungle (Crinson 31).

The animals either would hide to avoid contact with the jungle people, or ran far away from the human population to avoid capture (Kipling 51). Apart from the ruthless competition for survival in the jungle, the animals feared the human population that preyed and hunted them without compassion.

A salient communal feature in the prehistoric India is that each subgroup of the Indian communities had a hereditary right to claim ownership of the land, including the forests where each community had its own fair-share of the hunting (Evans 15). Mowgli and the other wild animals remained spiteful of the hunting behaviours of the Indian people.

Just as the Indian pastoralists considered the grassland to be a free grazing zone for all the legitimate communities, the people who lived near the forests considered the woods to be their own (Kipling 186). There were no rules to safeguard the animal sanctuaries, the forests, or the bare land, because the young Indian nation was lawless and anarchic.

The traditional Indian hunters would hunt to catch the monkeys, would find the edible roots, and would search the wild fruits and dig out the tubers for food (Crinson 19). The Indian men would scare the wild animals in the jungle because they were in a dire need of wild meat, which was traditionally a needed delicacy among the Indians.

Mowgli exclaims, “Then they would howl and shriek senseless songs, and invite the Jungle-People to climb up their trees and fight them” (Kipling 45). The statement of Mowgli despised the chattering behaviour of the monkeys that predisposed them to the hunters.

In the jungle, Mowgli would see the Indian men carrying their hunting knives that were useful for skinning the hunted animals to produce flesh (Kipling 219). The wolf pack that accommodated Mowgli would remain silent in their hideouts or run away from the humans because they could not afford to come near the daring hunters who wandered within the jungle (Kipling 63).

Men were the food gatherers and hunting activity gave them an opportunity to provide their families with wild food. Kipling brings out the notion that just as the animals hunt for food, the hairy Indian men with shiny sharp knives would visit the jungle frequently in search of the wild meat (219).

Apart from hunting, there was human-wildlife conflict within the jungle. The animals clearly stipulated the Law of the Jungle that forbade the killing or attacking of a man. Animals feared that any killing of a man would result in attacks from the human beings.

The Indian religious doctrine during the prehistoric era

One cultural aspect that emanates from the stories in the Jungle Book is the issue of religion that seems to appear and reappear in the conversations of the characters. The prehistoric Indians were religious people who believed in various indigenous faiths and foreign religions that had already permeated into their country (Kennedy 13).

The scene where Mowgli meets the clergy at the village gate makes the readers understand the origin of the Hindu religion and its basic principles. After missing the promised food that monkeys were to offer, Mowgli strolled down the village in search for food, where he came across the yellow pariah dogs and the Hindu clergymen (Kipling 81).

According to the physical description that Mowgli gave, “the priest was a big, fat man, dressed in white, with a red and yellow mark on his forehead” (Kipling 81). Such a description portrays the traditional Indian community as a faithful society that mostly embraced the Hindu doctrine of worship.

The practice of Hindu worship has been in the history of the Indians since their prehistoric period, before the British introduced Christianity in India. Kipling recognizes the essence of considering the contribution of the Indian priests in the prehistoric India.

In their Hindu worship, the conventional Indians connected their religious principles with certain believes about the natural forces (Deb 33). In the book, Kipling reveals the manner in which the Hindu priest links the Hindu religion with certain natural forces and beliefs (62). As a way of cleansing and condemning the behaviours of Mowgli who still had the jungle manners, the priest waved a twig of a sacred tulsi plant.

Tulsi plant has been Indian’s holy basil and a very important symbol in the religious principles of the Hindu faith (Kipling 103). This scenario of the Indian priest demonstrated the ancient Indian beliefs concerning the importance of the tulsi plant and its association with religious cleansing.

A salient religious feature of the Indians that Mowgli notices on the face of the Hindu priest is the yellow mark on the forehead of the priest. Majority of the ancient Indians practiced the Hindu religion and the yellow or red forehead marks were important religious symbols (Kennedy 45).

The religion of the ancient Indians connected well with their cultural beliefs, which were mainly from the caste system of worship and governance. The forehead symbol has its roots from the caste leadership and the four castes of India that held beliefs in Varna or colour.

The yellow forehead colour came predominantly from the third caste known as the Vaisya, and signified a business success or wealth (Kennedy 38). The white garment of the priest is a noteworthy feature of the ancient Indian priests as this form of dressing associates with holiness. The description of Mowgli about the traditional Hindu priest shows a typical practice of the ancient and modern Hinduism.

The prehistoric Indian foods, houses, and transport systems

Through the Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some unique cultural aspects of the ancient Indians that associate with traditional foods, traditional housing designs, and the traditional transportation systems (74). When Mowgli goes to the human villages, he notices that the Indians have a cultural behaviour that is very similar to the jungle animals.

Before they civilized into the modern life, Indians were peasant farmers who practiced various traditional methods of farming to produce food for home consumption (Evans 9). The ancient Indian women gathered roots, tubers, and wild fruits, to supplement the bush meat.

The Jungle Book reveals how the vacated King’s garden known as the Bandar-log, was full of fruit trees such as the orange trees. The jungle was full of edible roots, wild fruits, and tubers that the Indian hunters dug out when they were in exploration of the forest areas (Evans 12). Such occasions explain the traditional foods of the ancient Indians.

Housing is one of the significant historical features that describe the ancient culture of a population (Deb 30). The book of Kipling mentions the thatched huts in several occasions to explain the traditional form of housing techniques that the Indians used to construct their houses.

After leaving the jungle and securing refuge within the Indian villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians lived in huts and slept on the red lacquered bedstead (Kipling 82). Before the British colonizers brought the western civilization, the Indians constructed thatched huts, which were common forms of shelter, apart from the slightly polished King palaces.

Little Toomai, the Indian Priest, and Messua are some of the human characters that Mowgli interacted with after escaping from the jungle and securing a refuge within the Indian villages (Kipling 83). Mowgli explains that the small settlements along the Indian villages were in form of thatched huts and each single family owned at least one hut.

The manner in which people transported goods or travelled across their villages is an important feature in understanding the ancient culture of the people (Deb 25). In The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some transport cultures of the ancient Indians before the British colonizers came up with the motor roads and rails.

Animals and carts were the main forms of transport systems. Donkeys, bullocks, and mules were the major animals of transport that the ordinary people used. On their journey to Khanhiwara market, Mowgli, Messua, the potter, the priest, and the village headman used the donkeys to transport their goods (Kipling 86).

For the royal families and kings, the main modes of animal transport were the horses, the camels, and the tamed elephants, which were the most treasured animals by the Indian monarchs. Mowgli explains that during the visit of the Amir of Afghanistan, the elephants, the camels, and a big troop-horse, formed the royal transport system.

Indian royalty – kingship and caste

A foremost feature in the ancient Indian culture is the form of kingship leadership that the communities embraced before the western civilization. The Jungle Book describes the life of the primordial Indians as one that relied on the kingship governance and caste systems.

Within the Bandar-log, there was a vacated place where the remnants of the king’s palace existed (Kipling 60). The book mentions the king’s palace, the king’s garden, the king’s elephants, and the king’s council chamber as some of the salient features that portrayed the kingship system of leadership of the primordial Indians.

During the prehistoric era, the Indians depended on the kings and queens, who had officials and advisers that helped to settle disputes between the Indian ethnic groups. According to Kipling (60), the palaces were ultramodern, as Mowgli reveals that the monkeys would run up and down the old palace that had pieces of plaster and some old bricks, which are features of modern housing.

The kingship system was an important cultural aspect of leadership because it portrayed the socioeconomic differences between the ordinary civilians and the royal families (Crinson 18). The conventional Indians lived in a social stratification based on the four Indian castes that separated the worriers, the common civilians, the leaders, and the successful businesspersons.

Mowgli compares the majority poor with the few rich when the donkey of the potter stuck in the mud while they were travelling to the Khanhiwara market. Mowgli exclaimed, “That was very shocking, too, for the potter is a low-caste man, and his donkey is worse” (Kipling 86).

The people of the upper caste were the rich businesspersons, the leaders, army commanders, and some powerful Indian priests who often dined with the kings and queens in the palaces. According to Crinson (21), these caste systems were the main loopholes that the British often used to strengthen their command and oppress the unprotected Indians.

Caste was the source of unfair social stratification that portrayed segregation and individualism between the powerful Indians and the underprivileged majority (Deb 100). The caste had an important connection with the aspects of religion, something that made the Indians believe and respect this form of tyrannical social stratification.

When the priest and the other clergymen caught up with Mowgli at the village gate, the priest bowed down in respect of Messua, who was a wife of a king that Mowgli regarded as the richest villager within the palace (Kipling 81). Messua wore some precious, heavy, copper rings around her ankles and wrists, as symbols of royalty.

The Jungle Book presents the word jungle, which is a metaphoric term that describes the lawless India, where the rich manipulated the poor through the caste systems (Kipling 8). With great respect and honour, the people of the low caste often showed some adoration and gave tribute to the rich monarchs.

The Indian art during the prehistoric India

In the entire history of human civilization, art has been a significant feature because it explains the cultural norms of certain ethnic groups (Evans 27). Kipling was keen about the ancient art of the Indians and thought it was imperative to note the ancient Indian art in The Jungle Book.

The book portrays some ancient arts of the primordial Indians, which are still paramount features of the present Indian culture. The story of Bandar-log shows how the monkeys adored the art of weaving that the Indians practiced during the prehistoric era (Kipling 63).

Knowing that the man-cub or rather Mowgli was a half human with an Indian origin, the monkeys felt delighted that Mowgli would finally assist them to weave sticks together to build nests that would shield them from the strong wind. In the villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians weaved small baskets of dry grass (Kipling 91). This scenario reveals the ancient Indian culture of weaving and basket making.

To supplement the income that their husbands would make from a few business trips, the conventional Indian women weaved mats, blankets, winnowing fans, and bamboo baskets. Another significant art that Kipling portrayed in The Jungle Book is the traditional art of pottery, which was very prominent among the ancient Indians (86).

Mowgli describes the hardship that the poor potter undergoes when he ferries his moulded pots to the Khanhiwara market using the donkey. Pot making was an ancient art of the Indians that still dominates a great part of the Indian ultramodern culture (Kennedy 65).

Mowgli came across several scenarios where the Indians used decorated and non-decorated pots for various issues. Sculpturing was another ancient art of the Indians that Kipling revealed in the Jungle Book. In the hut of Messua, Mowgli saw “a dozen copper cooking pots and an image of a Hindu god” (Kipling 83). Such scene portrays the Indian culture of sculpturing.

The culture of agriculture in the Ancient India

The ancient Indians had the culture of practicing small-scale farming, which people commonly refer to as peasantry or peasant farming. The farmers were peasants because they lacked powered machinery and modern farming skills to carry out commercial farming (Crinson 36).

Kipling uses some salient features of peasantry that lead the readers towards understanding the ancient peasantry of the Indians. The presence of the small-scale farming animals such as the bullocks, the donkeys, and the mules, signify the traditional practices of the Indian agriculture (Kipling 237).

Kipling also mentions the hoes, the gardens, and other peasantry tools to portray the small-scale farming of the conventional Indians. Rearing of livestock and taming of the wild animals were also some of the important farming activities among the conventional Indians (Evans 22).

In the Jungle Book, Kipling notes the presence of the cattle and the manner in which the Indian elders organized the youths to take the herds of livestock for grazing. While adjusting to the lifestyle of the Indian villagers, Mowgli noticed the rearing of the cattle and tamed buffaloes within the Indian villages.

Mowgli wondered that, “the custom of most Indian villages was for a few boys to take the cattle and buffaloes out to graze in the early morning, and bring them back at night” (Kipling 89). In the world history, one of the important features of the Asian civilization was cultivation and domestication of the world animals.

Rearing of the animals and domestication of some wild animals had a considerable contribution to the economic growth and stabilization of the ancient India (Evans 23). The ancient Indians hunted the elephants and domesticated them because they offered important service to the farmers and to the government of the ancient India (Kipling 177).

Taming of wild animals, digging of the farms with ploughs, and keeping of the herds of cattle, portrays the traditional form of agriculture of the Indians.

Conclusion Perhaps Rudyard Kipling is one of the outstanding novelists who managed to articulate the Indian history in the most desirable manner. Through The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals the real traditional India, which was full of individualism, naivety, weak communism, and unorganized leadership.

The word jungle is a metaphoric expression that Kipling uses to demonstrate a primitive India that was full of lawlessness, primitivism, unfair distribution of wealth and power, and oppression that resulted from the British colonists.

The traditional India survived through the kingship governance and caste leadership systems, and the people practiced hunting of the wild animals, gathering of the wild foods, peasantry, trading, pottery, weaving, and other nomadic and economic activities.

The conventional Indian families lived in nuclear families within their thatched huts and used the donkeys, camels, elephants, mules, and buffaloes for transport. The transport animals suited people of different groups of castes depending on their wealth and influence in the community.

Works Cited Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge Publishers, 2013. Print.

Deb, Debal. Beyond Developmentality: Constructing Inclusive Freedom and Sustainability, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge, 2012. Print.

Evans, George. First Light: A History of Creation Myths from Gilgamesh to the God-particle, London, United Kingdom: I.B.Tauris, 2013. Print.

Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj, California, United States: University of California Press, 1996. Print.

Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book, Scholastic India, Westland: Saddleback Publishing, 2001. Print.


Vertical Integration in Business Organisations Exploratory Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company



Introduction Business organisations exist to make profits. Most business organisations sell their products using distributors or dealers who are well known to the organisations. The existence of these organisations is founded on offering consumer-oriented products to drive sales.

Products created by the organisations can be raw materials, intermediate items or finished goods. The product creation process often targets a particular group or groups of the population. The buying potential of these groups determines the extent to which a certain product is manufactured. Consequently, the production process is driven by the demand for that item.

The manufacture of various products requires varying inputs, which vary from one organisation to another. The complexity of the materials used in the production process is also dependent on the nature of the commodity produced because certain items require more inputs than others.

However, the quantities of inputs for the manufacturing process can be regulated by the manufacturers. In addition, the nature of a product determines how the final product is marketed. Consequently, a single product can be manufactured partially or wholly by a particular company.

Frequently, companies produce certain products after a thorough evaluation of their capacity to produce a product at ease. Additionally, the cost of production is also put into consideration. Therefore, the company only sets out to produce a certain item if its production is cost effective to the company. Risky ventures or processes that are costly to the company are often foregone.

However, it is possible for a company to engage in the creation of raw materials and marketing provided that the company has enough resources to invest. Such a move is what gives rise to company integration as a company becomes its own input producer, processor or manufacturer.

The company also markets its products in company integration. When a company realizes such achievements, it is said to be vertically integrated. The process of vertical integration is often gradual because a company begins with the units of production that are easy to put together using various methods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company Vertical integration entails a company’s involvement in activities that allow it to control the inputs and outputs. Companies achieve this through employing various production techniques aimed at eliminating input suppliers and output distributors.

Companies that are vertically integrated produce products from their basic forms to the consumption stage. These companies are capable of exploiting consumers because they control the output entirely. The process of vertical integration is long-term and is mainly achieved after some time if the company operates on a large scale (Joskow 2005).

Input production during the integration process involves the company venturing into the production of raw materials. Companies making soft drinks may, for instance, venture in bottling of drinks to reduce the cost of production.

The inputs for this process are customised to suit the special needs of the company during the bottling process. It is also possible to determine the required units for processing or manufacturing because the company’s operations scheduled and every activity is an in-house job.

A brief insight on the origin of the soft drink businesses can be achieved by centering on one of the most lucrative and groundbreaking companies in existence (Saltzman, Levy


The Role of International Companies Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction As asserted by Hodgetts (2003), the societies that we live in are dynamic in nature. As a result, the interaction between the structures that are present within a given societal setting always changes with time.

To be particular, the advancement in the field of information and technology has made the world to operate on a global level. This fact has made nations to highly depend on each in order to fulfil their overall goals and objectives. By critically analysing this fact, it is evident that the relationships that nations have towards each other has become a critical factor in determining their overall development and sustainability (Davidson, 2005).

Therefore, foreign policies of a given nation play a critical role in safeguarding the national interests of a given state as well as in the realization of its operational goals through the international relations that it has with other states (Caves, 2001).

Thus, the study of international relation is important, especially in understanding the operation of contemporary sovereign states, the role played by intergovernmental, inter-nongovernmental, and non-governmental organization and most importantly, the impact of multinational corporations in safeguarding the national interest of a given state as well as realizing its developmental goals and objectives.

The industrial and technological development that we are currently experiencing has played a critical role in the growth and development of the global economy. The progressive growth of the Chinese economy can be attributed to the policies and strategies that have been put by the Chinese government as well as the relationship that it has with other nations across the world.

With this in mind, this paper will critically analyse the growth and development of the Chinese economy as well as the foreign policies that the Chinese government has put in place to support and regulate this development. The arguments that will be presented in this paper will be supported by international relation theories, specifically realism, institutionalism, and constructivism.

Also, a PEST analysis will be conducted to have a clear understanding of the Chinese foreign policies on its economy as well as that of other states around the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review Realism, Institutionalism, and Constructivism theories have been widely used to critically analyse the economic growth of China as well as its rise in power over the years especially since the 1990s. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the effects of China’s regional strategy in East Asia.

As such, the strengths and weaknesses of these theories have been clearly outlined with regards to this issue. From the studies that have been conducted, it is evident that no single international relations theory can be used to clearly explain China’s regional strategy hence resulting in the increased debates about its true intentions.

As such, this paper will critically analyse the international relations of China from the perspectives of realists, institutionalists, and constructivists. As asserted by Cantwell (2001), the theory of realism is based on the following assumptions:

The international structure in anarchic in nature

Global politics are controlled by sovereign states

States have an offensive force (mainly through their military)

The main goal of states is to survive

States are rational actors

States often fail to cooperate

Based on these assumptions, it is evident that realism theories often focus on the shift of political power and relations among states within the international stage (Dees, 2008). It is due to this fact that Erramilli (2010) stated that as a given state increases in power, it will strive to change the international system.

This change will be through territorial expansion, economic dominance, and political control up to that point whether the marginal costs of the system change will exceed the marginal benefits accrued (Erramilli, 2010). The fact that states live in an anarchic system means that there is no higher authority that they can turn to in an event such as an attack or invasion by other states.

All through history, this fact has made states to become uncertain about the intentions of their neighbouring states as well as other states within the global arena. As such, states have been forced to enhance their power as a means of protecting themselves and their interest within the anarchic system that they live in (Broadhaust, 2008) in order to be sustainable.

As asserted before in this paper, the main principle of any given state is to be sustainable in the long run. This clearly explains the reason behind the continued need of gaining power by states through political, economic, and social development.

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of International Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory of institutionalism takes a different approach as compared to that of realism. According to this theory, intergovernmental as well as non-governmental institutions play a critical role in promoting international cooperation among states resulting in social progress (Jun, 2006).

Thus, unlike in realism where cooperation between states is seen as an impossible phenomenon, cooperation between individuals, institutions, and states is deemed as being possible under the theory of institutionalism (Gee, 2003). Like in realism, the theory of institutionalism assumes that states live within an anarchic system. However, as asserted by Jun (1996), an increase in economic interdependence and cooperation among states results in a decline in political conflicts and insecurity.

Economic interdependence is a term used to define the sensitivity of transaction that take place between two or more nations, hence resulting in socioeconomic development (Behrman, 2002). This interdependence is complex and is characterized by international economic transactions such as the movement of people, the flow of money, exchange of messages through the communication portal and exchange of goods and services across state boundaries that result in reciprocal effects among the involved states.

By critically analysing this theory, it is evident that the cooperation that is present between the involved states is sustained by the active participation of intergovernmental institutions as well as non-governmental institutions. As such, it is believed that these institutions play a critical role in sustaining the international relations of the involved states, hence enabling them to protect their interests and achieve their goals and objectives hence guaranteeing their sustainability in the short run and in the long run.

On the other hand, the theory of constructivism holds that the he core aspects that are present within the international area among all the states are not objectively determined by the material structures that are present, but by processes and interactions that manifest themselves within the social practice (Kogut and Singh, 2008).

Based on this fact, Klein (2011) asserted that the structure of human association that is present in any given societal setting is not determined by material forces but by the shared ideas. It is these shared ideas that construct the identities and interests that manifest themselves within individuals, institutions, and states.

Unlike in realism and institutionalism where the anarchic system forces states to resort to self-help due to the lack of an overlooking authority over the states, constructivism purports that causal power within a given system is determined by the structure that is constructed through social practice (Goddal, 2008). From a critical point of view, therefore, it is evident that the theory of constructivism mainly focuses on the role played by norms, identities, and shared understanding between individuals as well as among states.

As such, the values, beliefs, and identities that individual states develop play a critical role in influencing their behaviour as well as political ideologies. It is due to this fact that Grebe (2005) asserted that the identity of a given state plays a significant role in determining its interests as well as its actions within the international area.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of International Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through constructivism therefore, one can easily determine the origin of the preferences and interest of a given state, unlike in realism and institutionalism where the key focus only lies on how states pursue their interests and objectives without focusing on the origin of these interests.

The case study The case

From the second half of the 1960s, the Chinese economy has been growing progressively as compared to many other states in the world. This economic development has made China to become an important player the world stage.

After the Asian Financial Crisis, China has been advocating for regional cooperation with its neighbouring states (Balasubramanyan, 2006). Through regional cooperation, China believes that its social and economic status as well as that of the states that will be involved will be enhanced.

However, the rise of China as a regional power in East Asia, coupled with its fight for regional development has brought about a lot of debate about its long term intentions within the international community (Cantwell, 2001). There are scholars who believe that China’s activism in East Asia is a means through which the state wants to achieve regional hegemony (Irmer, 2007).

However, there are those who believe that China’s efforts aim at achieving economic interdependence and mutual benefits (Cantwell, 2001). This disparity brings about a lot of debate that question the international relations of China.

For instance, there is the question as to whether China will continue to be peaceful in nature or will it affect the peace and security of its neighbouring states and the world at large has brought about a lot of debate and speculation. There are scholars who have been keen on the growing Chinese military power and the question whether the nation will use it to realize economic interdependence or for raising a claim over territories beyond its boundaries.

Finally, the debate of whether China will embrace the internationally accepted regimes of the world or whether it will challenge the rules and regulations set by the international community has been increasing with the socioeconomic development of China as a state over time.

PEST analysis

The foreign policy that China has developed to protect its interests as a state as well as to achieve regional cooperation with other states within East Asia and the world at large has an impact in the political, economic, social, and technological structures of the nation.

From a political perspective, it is evident that the rise of China as a regional power has enhanced the role it plays within East Asia. In accordance with the realism theory, the anarchic system forces states to compete for power and dominance as a means of surviving and pursuing their national interests (Latta, 1998).

This fact thus explains the rapid expansion of the Chinese military as well as the increased influence that this state has over its neighbours. As asserted by Head (2006), China might be planning to push out US forces out of China and East Asia so that it gains full control of the region the same way the USA pushed out European powers from America in the 19th century to gain full control of the region.

By holding such a position, China can easily control the structures and resources present within East Asia to achieve its interests and goals. From a constructivist perspective, however, China like any other state has its distinct characteristics that have shaped its unique identity. In accordance with the famous Chinese expression, Daguo jeuqi (the rise of the great power), it is evident that China view itself as a powerful state based from its history and current economic and political status.

As such, the nation is seeking cooperation with its neighbouring states to enhance economic interdependence hence resulting in socioeconomic growth. Such a system usually results in a decline in political conflict, an outcome that is in line with the Chinese expression, Daguo guanxi (great power relations).

Economically, the Chinese government has come up with a number of policies and strategies that aim at enhancing positive relations with other states as well as safeguarding its domestic markets and industries. In accordance to the theory institutionalization, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations play a critical role in enhancing international relations (KPMG, 2012).

As such, China, through its various government and non-governmental agencies have come up with desirable policies that aim at attracting foreign direct investments (FDI) within the nation. In China, (FDI) has been playing a critical role in increasing the productivity levels of a host nation by enabling it to meet its domestic demand. The Chinese government is thus advocating for regional cooperation to increase the benefits of FDI within East Asia, resulting in an increase in the rates of employment, development of infrastructure, reduction in the cost of goods and services and so on (Borensztein, 2008).

The enhanced cooperation between China, its neighbouring states as well as other states within the global area has enhanced social relations and interactions between the Chinese people and the rest of the world. This has resulted in sharing and embracing of new cultures within China and the East Asia region.

Finally, China has embraced information technology. The nation hosts several manufacturing plants for leading ICT companies in the world such as Toshiba, Microsoft, Nokia, Sony and so on. These MNCs operate in China due to the favourable foreign policies that the state has put in place. Furthermore, collaboration among East Asian states will further enhance the technological development of the region.

Holistic review

The economic growth of China and its regional strategy has had varied outcomes for individuals, states, as well as on international cooperation. The local Chinese population has benefited through increased employment opportunities that offer better pay and employment terms (KPMG, 2012).

There has also been an increased growth in businesses, especially small and medium sized enterprises. On a larger scale, the number of multinational corporations in China has also been increased due to its favourable foreign policies, availability of raw materials and the presence of cheap labour (Grebe, 2005).

As a nation, China’s economy has been growing at a tremendous rate since the 1970s due to its favourable international relations that support imports, exports, and FDI resulting in political, social, and economic stability within the nation. Finally, the international relations strategies of China have resulted in increased cooperation between China and other states all around the world. As such, the confidence that other states have with China has been rising over the years and explains the increased FDI.

However, the nation’s growth in power has had mixed reactions as to its intentions behind its regional strategy with other East Asian states especially by the states from the West.

Conclusion The international relations strategy that a given state has played a critical role in determining the relationship that it will have with other states. The growth of China as a regional power in the East has, however, brought about mixed reactions especially from nations in the West.

This is due to the uncertainty of its regional strategy that advocates for regional cooperation. Using realism, institutionalism, and constructivism theories, this paper has found that China’s main aim behind its regional cooperation ambition is to enhance its power and influence in the East as well as to develop great power relations with other states within the region and the world at large.

Thus, China’s regional strategy aims at enhancing interdependence through meaningful cooperation to achieve social, political, and economic stability within the East Asia region.

References Balasubramanyan, V 2006, ‘Foreign direct investment and growth in EP and IS countries’, Economic Journal, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 92-105.

Behrman, J 2002, The Role of International Companies in Latin America: Autos and Petrochemicals, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA

Borensztein, E 2008, ’How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?’, Journal of International Economics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp 115-135.

Broadhaust, L, 2012, ‘Business and the risk of crime in China’, The British Journal of Criminology, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 15-22.

Cantwell, J 2001, ‘A survey of theories of international production’, In C. Pitelis and R. Sugden, The Nature of the transnational firm, pp. 16-63, Routledge, London.

Caves, R 2001, ‘International corporations: the industrial economics of foreign investments’, Economica, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 1-27.

Davidson, W 2005, ‘Key characteristics in the choice of international technology transfer mode’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 5-22

Dees, S 2008, ‘Foreign direct investment in China: determinants and effects’, Economics of Planning, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 75-194

Erramilli, M 2010, ‘Choice of foreign market entry modes by service firms: role of market knowledge’, Management International Review, vol. 30. no. 1, pp. 135-150

Gee, P 2003, ‘The compelling case for perpetual strategic planning’, Service Line: Eight Essential Rules, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 62-64.

Goddal, S 2008, ‘Foreing dilemmas in China: The case of FDIs in Shangai’, Asia Pacific Business Review, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 1-21

Grebe, M 2005, ‘Strategic financial planning: What every trustee needs to know about facility replacement’,Trustee, vol. 12 no. 4, 24-28.

Head, K 2006, ‘Inter-city competition for foreign investment: static and dynamic effects of China’s incentive areas’, Journal of Urban Economics, vol. 40 no. 8, pp. 38-46.

Hodgetts, S 2003, ‘U. S. Multinationals’ expatriate compensation strategies’, Compensation and Benefits Review, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 57-62.

Irmer, B 2007, Human resource capital, Sage, New York.

Jun, K 1996, ’The determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries’, Transnational Corporations, vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 67-105.

Klein, R 2011, ‘Compensating your overseas executives: Part three. Exporting U.S. stock option plans to expatriates’, Compensation and benefits review, vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 27-38.

Kogut, B and Singh, H 2008, ‘The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 411-432.

KPMG 2012, The Future of MNCs in China, Silk Road Associates, Hong Kong

Latta, M 1998, ‘Expatriate incentives: Beyond tradition’, HR Focus, vol. 75 no. 2, pp. 53-67


Conflict Resolution in the Workplace Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Abstract Conflicts within the work environment are very common. They are caused by both internal and external factors. Well managed conflicts act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on employees.

On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and employee satisfaction. In the health sector, the performance and conduct of the employees are very important since they have an impact on the patient’s health and lives.

This paper will analyze ethical decision-making dilemma in conflict management in the Florida Department of Health. The paper will address the most significant ethical decisions that have been made to tackle conflicts in the Florida Health Department.

Introduction Disagreements within work environment are unavoidable. If managed prudently, such disagreements can act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on workers. On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and worker satisfaction.

When disagreements are ignored by the management, it gives an idea that unacceptable job performance and unfortunate conducts are tolerable. Unacceptable job performance and poor conduct on the part of the employees can have an impact on the overall morale of the employees, which consequently can lead to low productivity (Maldonado, 2012, p. 1).

Well managed conflicts are most common in organizations and institutions that encourage open communication, teamwork, regular response and prompt resolution of conflicts. Open communication and teamwork promotes the flow of new ideas and reinforces work relations, which in the long run boosts employee confidence.

On the other hand, regular response and prompt resolution of conflict enhance job performance and employee satisfaction (Classen


The Affordable Care Act and Benefits Management Research Paper college admissions essay help

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the ACA), which was signed into law on March 23, 2010, by President Barrack Obama, presents a new paradigm shift in terms of how employers in the United States proceed in the management of employee benefits (Deloitte, 2013).

Indeed, as suggested in the accruing literature, the ACA generates novel requirements and options for employers’ future benefits decisions particularly in providing affordable insurance coverage to employees and intensifying their access to health insurance either through personal mandate or through already evolving Medicaid expansion programs (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013; Schuman et al., 2013).

This paper brings the real issues surrounding the ACA and benefits management into the fore by presenting the findings of an interview with the benefits manager of a service-oriented company employing more than 250 full-time workers in the United States.

From the onset, the interviewee agreed that the ACA has the capacity to substantially shift the American workplace and workforce, in large part due to the important obligations that employers are expected to assume to expand employees’ insurance coverage.

The manager acknowledged that health insurance coverage forms a critical component of employee benefits management and that his organization has invested heavily in the development of a comprehensive health insurance plan for all employees.

As acknowledged in the literature, the ACA “requires employers with more than 200 employees to automatically enroll employees into health insurance plans offered by the employer” (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013, p. 1).

As a matter of fact, the interviewee suggested that the company was investing heavily on a policy that will enable the organization to gain access to new avenues to purchase employee health benefits with the view to providing a wider choice of plans and enhanced affordability through more transparent and competitive means.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When asked if the company would be able to adequately cover its employees as demanded in the ACA, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was shifting healthcare costs to employers rather than encouraging cost-sharing and plan design.

To deal with this scenario, the interviewee hinted that the organization was considering reducing other benefits accruable to employees and also shifting other expenses to employees so that it can have the capacity to provide employer-funded health insurance coverage.

This view is supported in the literature, with the report by Deloitte (2013) acknowledging that a similar employer-sponsored insurance coverage in Massachusetts caused employers to recalibrate “their coverage by scaling back benefits and increasing employee cost-sharing and financial responsibility” (p. 13).

According to the interviewee, reducing other employee benefits to fund the new Act is the only reasonable thing to do for middle-level organizations that neither benefit from the economies of scale open to large organizations nor utilize the various tax credits open to small companies.

Lastly, when asked to state the viability of the ACA in enhancing employee benefits, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was not justified owing to its adverse effects on overall employee benefits as organizations use available financial resources to purchase health insurance for employees with the view to expanding coverage.

Indeed, the interviewee was of the opinion that some of the provisions of the ACA were making organizations to reduce the monetary allocations earmarked for other benefits to expand health insurance coverage for employees, though this did not translate to improvements in health care delivery or reductions in health care costs.

As indicated in the literature, the Act continues to receive widespread criticism for its incapacity to control health care costs or enhance health care delivery system (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013), and also for its predisposition to redirect substantial benefits into health insurance coverage at the expense of other equally important issues dealing with employee benefits such as paid leaves, pensions and bonuses (Rosenbaum, Teitelbaum,


Concept of Poverty Definition Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Poverty is a widely useful and common concept in many spheres of socioeconomic development. Albeit a universal concept, many people have different conceptions of the term. In fact, Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) say the concept has different clusters of meanings and definitions.

Other researchers believe the evolving nature of poverty contributes to its varied meanings. The discourse analysis of Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) was among the first research studies to document how the evolving nature of poverty gave it different meanings and definitions. Pantazis, Gordon and Levitas (2006) take a pragmatic construction of this argument by arguing that most people cannot define poverty in any way that they like.

The discourse, or subject areas, of these meanings provide the differences. This paper builds on these arguments by reviewing different conceptions of the term.

Poverty as a measure of low income Since the 1880s, researchers have come up with three main conceptions of the term – “subsistence, basic needs and relative deprivation” (Talbot, Madanipour


Company’s CSR Initiatives Relation to Employee Retention Proposal college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Statement of research question

Proposed methods



Introduction This research seeks to find answers to questions on how a company’s CSR initiatives affect its employee retention. The research questions that this research will address include the extent to which companies involve their employees in CSR initiatives, how involvement of employees in CSR activities affect their decision to stay, and the extent of variation in terms of involvement of low-level employees and executive employees in CSR activities.

The question of how company’s involvement in CSR and how it affects turnover and retention is remarkable since every company is interested in retaining its pool of talents. A well-researched response to the query that this proposal puts across will be used to solve the problem of employee turnover, which has been a major issue that faces companies in the Kingdom of Sound Arabia (KSA).

Statement of research question Companies will also use CSR as a tool for internal marketing in a bid to pull the employees closer. When employees become good corporate citizens, their interest to turnover will be reduced.

This claim has been proven by companies such as General Motors and General Electric, which have deployed CSR in the KSA where it (CSR) is still seen as a programme for giving back some profits to the community, rather than upholding it for the sake of company employees.

The cost of carrying out CSR is low in relation to the cost that is incurred because of turnover. The proposal seeks to confirm whether communicating and integrating effective CSR within the workforce can have multiple benefits to the community, top employees, and the lower employees. To be inclusive in the survey, the target segment will comprise low-level and senior employees.

Concern of HR Manager with information-withholding by employees

Some employees may withhold information concerning their intention to quit or stay in an organisation. Withholding of information in fear of victimisation by the management will result in a distorted data and hence wrong results and analysis. Therefore, the HR will disclose the issue to the targeted employees that the gathered data will be used only for this research purposes and that employees should not write personal details in the questionnaires.

Findings of this research will help the organisation to boost its performance since it will elicit insight on the feelings of employees about involvement or failure to participate in CSR initiatives. Intentions of employees to quit or remain will help organisations to plan on retention strategies.

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According to Glavas and Kelley (2014), the issue of corporate social responsibility in businesses can be traced back to 1953. From another perspective, Powell, Davies, and Norton (2013) reveal that a company that has good corporate citizenship programmes experiences low turnover rates.

According to a research by Jones, Willness, and Madey (2014), company’s involvement in CSR has been used in attracting potential employees while at the same time retaining the current ones in America. This research confirms that employees want to remain in a company that not only values corporate citizenship but also one that has an environment that is conducive for employees to thrive.

In his research, Mellat-Parast (2013) observes that although there has been an increase in companies’ involvement in CSR activities, only few of them in the KSA are reaping the expected benefits. Sanchez-Hernandez and Grayson (2012) assert that big companies such as General Electric and Cisco have adapted the application of CSR as a facet of internal marketing. From another angle, Girard and Sobczak (2012) reveal how secondary researches declare corporate citizenship a remedy for employee turnover.

CSR has worked in internal marketing in such companies since employees understand and own companies’ values. Moreover, Mellat-Parast (2013) says that employees want to be associated with such values for their personal growth. A CSR strategic plan should incorporate the needs of every employee.

A review of secondary researchers shows a positive relationship between CSR and customer retention (Bhattacharya, Sen