Corporations, companies and schools should be allowed to randomly drug test their employees because employers have an expectation that they should not be high on drugs. As much as drugs can be used in a recreational manner thereby not interfering with somebody’s job or public safety, this should not be allowed in the workplace.
This implies that employees should not be compromised by anything as far as discharging their duties and responsibilities are concerned (Weber 19). In this case, it is a fact that there is time for everything and that is why employers should be free to drug test their employees to be sure that nothing will be compromised. It should be known that workplace testing has been a contentious issue in many organizations and will therefore continue attracting attention as time goes by.
Random drug testing of employees encourages greater responsibility both to the individual (employee) and others. This means that workers who may cause harm to themselves as a result of taking drugs will be protected as much as the use might be in a recreational manner. In a broad perspective, testing ensures that people do not work under the influence which enhances productivity and efficiency.
People will not feel comfortable if they know that professionals who are attending to them are under the influence of drugs or alcohol in any way. Employees who take drugs engage in this activity at their own will which does not need any interference from employers. All this withstanding, employees should be tested for drugs so that individuals who are in need of any help can be assisted (Weber 31). There are employees who might be having addiction problems and drug testing enhances the need for self reporting and honesty.
There should be properly informed procedures as far as workplace drug testing is concerned to ensure that it is a participatory exercise. This is because random testing will act as a deterrent for other people who might try to regularly use drugs or might be having an intention to experiment with alcohol.
The health of employees should be a great concern for any employer because it has an impact on productivity which is related to positive outcomes that an organization might be anticipating for. In this case, the health and safety of employees is guaranteed in an organization through random drug testing whereby it will discourage people from abusing drugs (Weber 19).
As a matter of fact, this will reduce different incidences of accidents and injuries that might come about as a result of working under the influence. Employers should not control the behavior of their employees in any way which means that everybody should be made to understand the need for random drug testing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Workplace testing should be allowed in any organization because there are cases where failures by different professionals might be irreversible and substantial. In this case, the costs that an organization might encounter as a result of people working under the influence are always too costly yet this could have been avoided. Organizations should be allowed to drug test employees because it is a way of monitoring them to ensure that they adhere to workplace ethics that enhance productivity.
The issue of random drug testing has taken a different dimension because there are employers who end up discharging employees off their duties if they test positive (Weber 45). Adherence to job requirements does not require people to use drugs and alcohol by pretending that they are being used in a recreational manner which is a fact. Drug testing by organizations should be done in consideration of many factors to ensure that it is all inclusive.
Works Cited Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Penguin Books, 2002. Print.
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Benjamin Temple Franklin was born on January 6, 1706 in Milk Street, Boston. His father was Josiah Franklin, a tallow chandler who married twice while his mother was Abia Folger. Benjamin was the youngest son of his father’s seventeen children. He stopped going to school at the age of ten, and at the age of twelve, he was already an apprentice to his brother, James. The latter was a printer who published The New England Courant.
Benjamin became a contributor to this magazine, later becoming its nominal editor. However, Benjamin and his brother James later quarreled. This forced Benjamin to escape to New York, and thence to Philadelphia. He arrived in Philadelphia in October 1723, where he became a printer (Franklin 2).
Benjamin was coerced by Governor Keith to move to London after working as a printer for several months. However, he found Keith’s promises empty, and he again worked as a compositor until a merchant known as Denman brought him back to Philadelphia. Denman gave him work in his business.
Following the death of Denman, Franklin returned to his initial printing career. After a short time, he set up his own printing house in which he published The Pennsylvania Gazette. Benjamin contributed many essays to this publication, through which he aired views for local reforms.
In 1732, he began issuing his well-known ’Poor Richard’s Almanac’. This was for the enrichment of which he borrowed his terse speeches of experienced wisdom, which are the foundation of a larger portion of his popular reputation. In 1758, Benjamin stopped writing for the Almanac and printed in it “Father Abraham’s Sermon”. The sermon is considered the most renowned piece of literature produced in Colonial America (Franklin 5).
In the meantime, Benjamin was busy in the public sphere. He established a scheme for an Academy, which was adopted latter and finally developed into the University of Pennsylvania.
He also founded an American Philosophical Society. This was for enabling scientific men to communicate their discoveries to one another. Personally, he had already commenced his research on electrics coupled with other scientific endeavors, which abandoned in the intervals of business and politics until he died. He sold his business in 1748 in order to get time to study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was after he had acquired comparative wealth. In politics, he was at ease with being an administrator and as a controversialist (Franklin 7). However, his term in office was characterized by nepotism-related cases of advancing his relatives. His most significant service in home politics was his reforms of the postal system. Nevertheless, his fame as a diplomat rested mainly on his services linked to the dealings of the Colonies with Great Britain and later with France (Masur 3).
Franklin was sent to England in 1757 to explain to the people and the ministry of England the Colonial conditions (Franklin 10). After his return to America, he was vocal in the Paxton affair, an endeavor that saw him lose his seat in the Assembly. Nevertheless, he was re-dispatched to England in 1767 as agent for the colony.
Franklin crossed to France in 1767 where he was warmly received. However, before he returned home in 1775, he had lost his status as postmaster following his role in exposing to Massachusetts the famous letter of Hutchinson and Oliver.
When he arrived at Philadelphia, Franklin was elected a member of the Continental Congress. Two years later, he was sent to France as representative for the United States. In France, he remained the French favorite until 1785. He successfully conducted the affairs of his country such that when he returned home, his reputation can only be compared to that of Washington. He is among the champions of American independence. Benjamin Franklin died on April 17, 1790 (Franklin 13).
What made Franklin rise to economic success? Going through the above overview of Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography leaves the reader with the mouth agape. This is at the discovery of the multifaceted nature of the Franklin. Simply put, he was an all-rounded personality. He was at ease in politics as he was in science and writing, not to mention printing.
He was, in deed, a practical factotum. Franklin’s autobiography, thus, can be read as a sort of ‘How-to Succeed’ manual for other Americans of his day and after. Franklin worked from the presupposition that wealth and status are objectives that motivate human beings in suffering.
He added that these evolutionary vital aims could be attained solely in a cultural framework. Franklin expounded his astute utilization of existing environmental circumstances, showing the viability of cooperative tactics in creating both wealth and reputation. Constantly, he underscored the gains of mutual philanthropy and related pro-social behaviors. His self-belief in the efficiency of cooperation is a reflection of his compassionate conviction that self-interest and community interest inescapably overlap (Masur 11).
We will write a custom Essay on The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Franklin, he rose to economic success through various strategies. One of the key tactics that Franklin used to become affluent and reputable was through industry and frugality. In deed, Franklin devotes a large portion of his autobiography to show how his eagerness to work hand and reduce expenses in order to achieve financial security helped him climb the economic ladder. Franklin also became successful economically because he underscored the viability of long term planning.
His industrious and thrifty character aided him to become prosperous. This is because, at every stage in his life, Franklin had clearly defined objectives. For instance, he purported to educate himself in order to become a good writer, and own his business. With time, his goals grow in various ways. They contributed largely to his scientific research. His well-defined goals also helped him to practice effective community leadership, to the extent of achieving moral perfection (Masur 13).
In order to become affluent and reputable Franklin also used competence as a strategy. He demonstrated that industry and frugality are not enough. The two traits ought to be propped up by competence for maximum effectiveness. This is evident in Franklin’s high level of skill in various capacities as a press operator, compositor, and supervisor.
He asserted that his competence was instrumental in his quick rise to the acquiring of his own printing house. The exemplary exhibition of this high skill later brought in gainful jobs and boosts demand for his services. Franklin’s competence as a writer also added to his rise to affluence and reputation by ascertaining the recognition of his newspaper and almanac (Masur 16).
Traits that Franklin identifies as leading to success and prosperity In order to be successful, Franklin, in his autobiography offered readers with a number of traits that they ought to possess. One of these is silence. He held that a talkative person might end up benefiting others or oneself. As such, although it is important to remain silent, at times, talking is not altogether bad because it is not possible to determine when it will be valuable to him or her.
Another trait that Franklin identifies as important in order to success is frugality. He believed that frugality enables expense for doing well to others or oneself. Therefore, for one to be successful, it is important to minimize expenses. However, this does not imply that one should not spend even when doing well to others or oneself (Masur 21).
In addition, Franklin identified sincerity as essential in being successful. Nevertheless, he added that this should not be confused with hurtful deceit, which is condemned by this virtue. Franklin also believed that one has to be just in order to succeed. This virtue entails avoiding injuries to others or omitting the gains that are one’s duty. Franklin advocates also advocates for industry as a trait necessary for one to be successful.
This virtue emphasizes the vitality of working hard at a useful endeavor. In addition, moderation is also highlighted as crucial as it stresses the value of cooperation even in hostile conditions. Franklin added that it is not worthy using moral righteousness as a scapegoat for aggression (Masur 25).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, although Franklin may have devoted much of his life in amassing wealth, it is also clear that his multifaceted life did not revolve around acquiring wealth alone. It was also dedicated to gaining community reputation and status. This is clearly evidenced in the way he enjoyed contrasting the depiction of his initial runaway predisposition as a runaway boy with the famous man he later became (Masur 29). As such, Franklin tends to suggest that for one to achieve complete success; his or her good traits must be visible to others.
Works Cited Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Arc Manor LLC, 2008. Print.
Masur, Louis. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, with related documents, 2nd edition. Boston: Bedford, 2003. Print.
The Meaning of Human Being Essay college application essay help
Introduction Viktor Frankl is a renowned psychiatrist, who survived the holocaust and transformed his traumatizing experiences to something positive. It is through his experience that he came up with the concept of logotherapy, which emphasizes the will to find meaning in life as the ultimate goal in one’s life. This paper shall express how Frankl addressed the problem of meaning or lack of thereof while in concentration camp.
How Frankl addressed the problem of meaning or lack of thereof while he spent time in the concentration camp Frankl, alongside with his entire family, were deported into a concentration camp known as Theresienstadt. In the camp, he worked very hard as a psychiatrist to help people cope with grief.
After sometime, he was transferred to a Nazi concentration camp where he was supposed to stay for six months and a number of days laboring as a slave. His mother and wife had been moved to different camps where they perished. The father also died in one of the concentration camps. He was lucky to have escaped from the torment of these camps when he and his sister, who was the only relative alive, were freed by the Americans in 1945.
His suffering at the camps, as well as those of the other people they were with, led him to a conclusion that there is still a possibility of one finding meaning in life, even in the most painful and dehumanizing situations. To validate his belief, there are several instances in Frankl’s life when he was able to overcome despair in the midst of very tough situations and made a choice to find meaning in life.
For example, he talks of an incident which occurred while they were working in harsh conditions in the concentration camps. During this time, he talks of the inhuman conditions they were subjected to as they moved from one place to another under the strict surveillance of their guards. The guards would treat them without any human dignity, shouting at them and beating them for no reason.
It is during this journey that one of the fellow prisoners expressed to Frankl a concern about their wives in the camps. This struck Frankl in a manner that he had never imagined and he started seeing the truth in what song writers and poets said in their works concerning the power of love.
He understood that even in the worst situation, it is possible for a person to experience a moment of bliss by just thinking about their loved ones. The thought of his wife brought him a lot of consolation, despite the harsh conditions that were surrounding his life. It is through thinking about her that he found meaning in life, and therefore came to the conclusion that there is a way that everybody, despite what life has to offer, can find meaning in life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, he also found meaning in life through overlooking the realities in his current life and living in a spiritual world. According to Frankl (47), was a way of finding meaning in life because no one had the capacity to access one’s spiritual life and destroy it.
By choosing to dwell in the spiritual rather than the real as a prisoner, he was able to adapt to the harsh conditions and this gave him an advantage over the rest because his chances for survival were higher than a prisoner who was yet to adapt. He has captured his arguments about the possibility of finding meaning in life in his book ‘Man’s Search for Meaning’.
Conclusion Frankl has been a positive influence to many people’s lives through his experiences of being able to find meaning in life in unimaginable situations. He is a believer of the fact that it is possible for every human being to find meaning in their life, despite what they are going through in life. He has learnt this from his past experiences.
Works Cited Frankl, Viktor. Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997.
Soft Drinks Industry Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction PepsiCo is among the leading players in the soft drinks industry. The Coca-Cola Company is the main rival of PepsiCo in this industry, although Cadbury Schweppes also has a sizeable market share. This industry report is an analysis of PepsiCo as a key player in the global soft drink industry.
Industry Overview Market size is one of the three key economic indicators used by analysts to assess the soft drink industry. The other economic indicators are overall profitability and growth rate. In the last couple of years, the market size for the soft drinks industry has changed dramatically. Soft drinks falls under the non-alcoholic industry and as of 2005, the consumption of soft drinks was estimated at 46.8% market share (Data Monitor 2005).
At the same time, Data Monitor (2005) reported that by 2004, the soft drinks industry had attained a market value of $ 307.2 billion. In the same year, the soft drinks industry is believed to have produced 325, 367.2 million liters of soft drinks. This indicates a lucrative industry capable of attaining even higher profits. Nonetheless, to do so, the industry players such as PepsiCo have to surmount several obstacles that they are faced with.
Market share Coca-Cola has the largest share of the soft drink industry, at 42 %. The company is closely followed by PepsiCo with a market share of 32 %. Cadbury Schweppes is the third largest company with a market share of 15%. The other companies constitute the remaining 11% of the market share. The 2004 Coca-Cola annual report reveals that the Coca-Cola Company sold soft drinks worth $ 22 billion (The Coca-Cola Company 2004). On the other hand, PepsiCo sold soft drinks worth $ 18 billion in the same year (PepsiCo 2004).
Main competitors The Coca-Cola Company is the main competitor of PepsiCo in the soft drink industry. Some of the most popular products from the Coca-Cola’s product line include Diet Coke, Coca-Cola, Sprite, and Barq’s. The company has over 400 drinks brands and these are sold in nearly 200 nations (Murray 2006).
After Coca-Cola, PepsiCo comes next as the second largest competitor. The company’s product line includes such products as Mountain Dew, Slice, and Pepsi. The three products account for over 25 % of PepsiCo’s sales. The third main competitor is Cadbury Schweppes. Some of the key brands in the company’s product line include Canada Dry, A
Socio-cultural Approach to Psychology Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help
Psychologists use various approaches to study the behaviors and conscious experiences. Socio-cultural approach is based on the idea that the society and culture shape cognition. The values, beliefs and language are all involved in shaping identity and reality. To understand cognitive processes, it takes more than an individual (Kregler et al., 1990). This approach focuses on human development interrelating it to human action.
Here, we see that human development starts with its dependence and care givers. This is influenced by a transmission of resources from the care givers to the dependencies. The genetic law of development that focuses on the human development has an influence from the interaction mode which makes it social.
The ability to function in any individual comes from first social then Psychological. An individual’s behavior is influenced by the environment then later he/she advances in whatever skills or knowledge he acquired by interacting with the others. Why do I say this? Let’s look at a child’s development from birth. When a child is born it solely depends on the parents and in this case the mother for all its provisions.
Its cognition or mental development is influenced by its environment. The kind of attention and language the child gets is from the surrounding. This explains the social effect. The child learns the ways of its people hence influenced culturally .This totally defines the child’s growth. The child will not act as if it was not taught but rather as if it was taught. The events of remembering, problem solving and decision making in the future are therefore influenced by the society.
Cognition refers to the mental process which is solely based on development with the influence from the environment. An individual employs other forms of living that he/she has never encountered, hence our own culture become our main influence in life. Human beings can adopt other culture when they move away from the reach of their own culture. This adoption is basically due to the nature of the surrounding (Kregler et al., 1990).
Weaknesses and Strengths of Socio-cultural Approach Every approach has disadvantages and advantages. This does not nullify the studies but rather explains various points of view of different researchers. Due to the similarities that the socio-cultural approach has with the other forms of approaches, it has been termed as the most advanced approach in research work in terms of its richness in information for psychological studies.
One of the main weaknesses is the tendency of generalization. The studies are restricted to potions or groups of individuals in the society. This does not give an actual picture for the wider generation. As these studies are extrapolated for the wider group, the essence of social studies is lost because different groups of people in the society function differently (Kregler et al., 1990).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another weakness to socio-cultural study is the ethics of the study process. It is evident that many individuals are inflicted with emotional stress. This is non ethical as the well being of an individual should be the first aspect to be considered. The findings could also be adulterated since the results are not based on the real individuals feeling but rather imposter feelings. It is very difficult to study social behavior without negatively affecting the participants.
Thus, safe modes that can protect human beings should be employed. In addition to ethics, it is very challenging to have control experiments. This is because the behaviors of participants in the real world do vary. Hence, socio-cultural approach does not provide real results from the study.
The main strength in the event of studying socio-cultural aspects is the use of real situations in behavioral studies. This is important because human beings are social beings .Real situations increases ecological validity hence making research more useful.
Comparison of Socio-cultural Approach of Psychology and other Approaches Cognitive Learned Learned during information processing Cognitive Predetermined There is power to change cognition Cognitive Focus on the present Changed cognition changes behavior Cognitive Scientific Brain is similar to the computer hence information can be manipulated Behavioral Learned Condition classical and operant Behavioral Predetermined Condition determines behavior Behavioral Focus on the present Only current behavior matters Behavioral Scientific Behavior can be observed, measured and manipulated Psychodynamic Not learned Results from cause in the unconscious Psychodynamic Predetermined Human beings have no control over their behavior Psychodynamic Focus on the past Focus on early childhood Psychodynamic Unscientific Behavior cannot be measured Biological Not learned Biological causes and chemical imbalance Biological Predetermined Medical condition predetermined Biological Focus on the present Current symptoms and medication Biological Scientific Behavior can be measured and manipulated by therapies and treatments Socio-Cultural Learned Initiated learning Socio-Cultural Predetermined Cognition can be changed by the surrounding Socio-Cultural Focus on the present Socio-cultural practices change behavior Socio-Cultural Scientific The society can manipulate behavior Figure. 1. Showing comparison of socio-cultural approach with other psychological approaches.
Socio-cultural points of view takes into account most of the features in the other forms of psychological approaches. It encompasses cognitive, Psychodynamic, behavioral and biological aspects. These views have been influenced in terms of developmental process which concerns human stages of development and cultural aspects that constitutes the surrounding. As the discussion revolves around the society, the biological aspects cannot be overlooked.
Socio-cultural Approach and Behavior The theory of social-cultural approach to psychology has proved a lot about the social status of every human being. This has been exhibited in the behavior of various individuals. Humans are social being; therefore their behaviors are solely influenced by their next door neighbors. This is the reason why human beings are so friendly. Human beings always want to identify with their culture and the society at large. Any individual would want to be differentiated from other animals which are considered be primitive.
Through demonstration of capacities, a human being would go to any extent to fight for their existence in the world. In addition, human beings are always innovative and are always trying to change the society to become a comfortable zone. In terms of proximity, research shows that a human being would befriend someone who lives in the same neighborhood as him or her. For the ancestors, their mere exposure effect was adaptive this meant that what was familiar was safe.
We will write a custom Assessment on Socio-cultural Approach to Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Physical attractiveness also tends to explain why human beings are social. Different cultures have different ways to measure attractiveness. Appealing traits such as honesty and trustworthiness seem to make people gather and involve themselves with other members of the society.
In addition to physical attractiveness, similarity also explains why humans socialize. Close friends are more likely to share common views, beliefs, habits and intelligence (Kregler et al., 1990). This explains the cultural influence. When we find people that share similar beliefs with us, we tend to identify with them. In such circumstance one feels more secured than he or she would with other forms of animals.
One main aspect that has promoted this closeness is language. This in the cognitive form has been advancing from time to time. Language development is influenced by the cognitive part of the individual. Therefore, behavior and development are interrelated. As human beings develop they are influenced by their surroundings. This also changes their mental development. Therefore the socio-cultural approach explains why human beings interact.
Reference Kregler et al. (1990). Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative Human Development. Chicago: Cambridge University Press.
Evaluating Security Software Research Paper online essay help
Introduction The best security software’s meets all user requirements. The antivirus, firewall, and antispyware play a crucial role in securing the computer system. Choosing security software depends on the computer system attack.
Antivirus software Viruses are malicious pieces of software that infect computers in many different ways. They are just similar to viruses that affect human beings. The viruses infect the computer by attacking legitimate files, hence making the computer system not to operate normally.
This is because the viruses spread from one computer to another, infecting files just the same way the viruses in human beings spread throughout the body, hence lowering body immunity. Once the computers get infected by the viruses they require antivirus software to clean and disinfect the computer system, thus making sure that they operate normally again.
At times, the damage may be so spread, that even the antivirus may not solve the problem, thus leading to reinstalling and reformatting (Laudon
Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Brain is one of the most important body organs. Its failure or malfunctioning usually results into fatal cases that are complicated and costly to treat. Like any other disease of the human body, brain diseases manifest into different ways, displaying varying signs and symptoms together with diverse risk levels. Medical practitioners describe the loss of brain function as dementia, a condition caused by certain diseases, which affect the brain. In discovering diseases, which lead to this condition, Alzheimer’s disease is among them.
Abbreviated as AD, the disease starts mildly before worsening with time. Its greatest effects are that it affects the overall memory ability of a patient, thinking and ultimately behavior. Alzheimer’s disease results into a wide range of diagnosis features, including memory impairment, poor judgment ability, personality problems, improper decision-making and language problems (Turkington
Business Information Systems Term Paper writing essay help
Discussion All organizations deal with information from various sources such as; suppliers, customers, government, manufacturers, and others. They must be organized in such a way that they utilize this information to operate efficiently and effectively.
The role of information systems in organizations is to manage information, make effective and efficient decisions, and improve execution of organizational business processes.
Information systems assists in improving business processes as they are used to increase efficiency of available processes and enable new processes capable of transforming the manner in which organizations conduct business (Rainer, 2009). This paper demonstrates understanding of information systems and how they contribute to forming competitive advantage in business.
How Organizational Systems are transforming Business and their Relationship with Globalization Information systems have transformed the world from an industrial society to a knowledge based economy. Managers today depend on information technology in running daily business operations and making strategic business decisions. As instruments of this information age, computers perform complex operations as well as daily tasks like word processing and creating spreadsheets.
The speed of change has been accelerated since personal computers became a necessary feature in most computer desks; individual units became part of the networks, accompanied by more sophisticated enterprise wide networks (Laudon, 2009).
Powerful desk computers enable most workforces to speed their daily work. Specialized super computer centers also enables workforce to tackle massive computational problems. Jobs or tasks that took years on a personal computer can be performed in just hours on a super computer. Businesses use super computers to improve inventory and production management and product design (Thierauf, 1999).
Information systems have had immense impact in transforming global business. Through the internet, organizations get opportunities to collaborate on international scale. This is in addition to computers and internal networks owned by businesses. Managers in organizations are able to share information with many people worldwide as easily as with colleagues stationed at other floors in same building.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, the internet and the web are critical business tools that facilitate communication within organization as well as customers. The size of electronic trading blocs has improved business thus leading to expansion of global economy. Through advancement of information technology, global electronic trading has gone beyond internet retailing. Special websites such as e-market places facilitate electronic trade between businesses in specific industries.
Why Information Systems are so Essential in Running and Managing Business Today Information systems are critical for running and managing businesses today. They are essential in the sense that they support the distribution, processing, management and evaluation of data and information.
Today, information systems are traced everywhere. They impact every aspect of people’s lives. For instance, the emergence and growth of the internet as an international information resource for all businesses has meant that computers are not only the way we communicate at work, but also with our family, friends and society at large (Laudon, 2009).
One of the essential recent transformations in the way businesses operate, is how much they depend on networked technology. It is commonplace now for businesses to have a website. Access of such website is through both wired and wireless networks. To access information, both customers and employees may use networked technologies such as personal computers, laptops, blackberries and mini notebooks. In today’s business environment, absence of online presence by an organization makes it difficult for it enjoys advantages of global opportunities available for business (Laudon, 2009).
How Information systems Support Major Business Functions and how they affect Business careers Information systems assist organizations to support their business processes. As businesses involve varying business processes, they need varying levels of software and support. Business information systems are sometimes specific to an area or groups of individuals. At other instances, offer services to the organization as a whole. In a functional view, business information systems are described by their business function, such as; sales and marketing, finance and accounting, manufacturing and production, and human resource (Stair, 2011).
Sales and marketing is a functional area that caters for selling business products or services. The marketing function is concerned with identifying new and existing clients for organizations products and services. It also assists determine client needs or wants. Primarily, the sales function concerned with contacting clients, selling their products or services, and taking orders.
It also deals with follow ups of initial sales with appropriate support and guidance. Information systems in sales and marketing function creates strategic advantage for companies through; customer management systems, online website monitoring tools, and business analytical tools. These tools are essential for better understanding of customers (Laudon, 2009).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Business Information Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The finance and accounting function is responsible for management of organization’s financial assets and managing firm’s capitalization, such as; determining new assets in stocks, bonds or other forms of debt. The function also involves maintenance of organizational financial records, such as; invoices, payments, receipts, stocks and payroll.
Information systems supports financial and accounting function through establishing, building and managing of strategic products and services such as; financial advising, wealth management, risk management systems, credit services, and online financial services (Laudon, 2009).
Manufacturing and production function governs production of organization’s goods and services. It is concerned with planning, development and maintenance of production infrastructure. It also deals with identifying production goals, procurement of materials, equipment and labor scheduling, and making of final products.
Information systems aid this function by developing manufacturing and production systems that assist organization to compete by; reducing supply chain costs, increasing quality and enabling the firm to design and introduce new products in the firm (Laudon, 2009).
The human resource function deals with management of company’s workforce. The human resource information systems support activities such as employee records, payroll, and training and skill programs. Information systems support this function by providing information and communication capabilities that reduce the cost of managing employees; organizing jobs, and work assignments to reduce operational costs. This gives an organization a strategic edge (Laudon, 2009)..
How a Four-Step Method for Business Problem-Solving Helps in Solving Information System Relations Problem The four-step method for business problem solving assists in solving information system relations problems; as it includes generation of new ideas using creative computer software. Solving information relations problem requires a process exhibited in the four step method for business problem –solving. The four steps involved in this method include; generation, evaluation, validation and establishment of boundaries (Thierauf, 1999).
Generation is the most significant step in problem search. It involves probing of potential problems that might have an impact to the organization. It assists search for future problems as well. Once the problems are identified and analyzed, it provides a need to evaluate the cause and effect relationships of each problem and its possible effects on the organization currently.
The evaluation step reviews the problem uncovered in the generation stage for managerial concern, aided by cost benefit analysis. It also uses creative computer software to generate new ways to evaluate future organizational problems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Information Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Validation step builds on evaluation of the problem. Actual problems are selected at this stage for managerial concern currently and in future. Validation for problem solving is generally supported by cost benefit analysis and related organization’s essential success factors if necessary. The fourth step involves establishment of boundaries. Completion of problem validation necessitates definition of each problem within its boundaries (Thierauf, 1999)
Conclusion Information systems have transformed the globe from industrial society to an knowledge-based economy. Organizational managers today depend on information technology for everything from conducting daily business operations to executing strategic business decisions. As tools of this information age, computers perform complex operations as well as daily tasks like word processing and creating spreadsheets.
Through the use of information systems, for instance, orders can be placed by clients from their own homes, payment can be taken and suppliers can be notified about which products to produce and where to ship them. All this can be done online through the internet, thus, enhancing efficiency in existing process of placing order.
Reference List Laudon, K.,
Comparing and Contrasting US Diplomatic Approach to Russia and China Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
The aim of this research paper is to compare and contrast the gradual shift in America’s diplomatic position over the past 20 years with respect to two countries that matter a lot to its foreign policy, Russia and China. Both countries are huge in size and population, had experienced strained relations with the US during the Cold War and as of today, are considered immensely important to the US economy, with China ranking ahead among the top three trading partners of the United States.
This research would seek to identify the transformation through key events in the past two decades, and use it as a basis to understand how US foreign policy has evolved in recent few years.
Today, Russia is considered the successor state of the USSR, America’s arch rival during the Cold War. Although, following the historical break-up of the Union, the country is unlikely to regain its superpower status, it would continue to hold center-stage in European and Asian geo-politics (CATO Institute, 2010). During the Cold War era, the USSR had demonstrated its capability in matching America’s power projection in different arenas: military maneuvers, the Space race and external influence on other countries.
According to the admission of key policy-makers in Washington, even the break-up of the Soviet Union did little damage to the towering legacy of a formidable superpower in the mindset of American intelligentsia (Merry, 2005, p.123).
Although, present-day Russia is a shadow of its USSR legacy, it still commands huge importance in US diplomatic circles; the voice of Russia is taken seriously and it’s not just in the US – no country in the world can afford to be strategically misaligned to Russia’s interests. The road ahead for the US lies in fostering good relations with its erstwhile arch-rival (Merry, 2005, p.124).
Basically, managing America’s diplomatic goodwill with Russia translates into seeking harmonious, stable relations, thereby undoing the bitter legacy of the Cold War. This can be a challenge in the face of several issues of international importance in which both countries find themselves at loggerheads, and lack adequate trust of each other’s intentions (Roskin
Future in Marketing using the Mobile Phone Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Executive Summary The advertising industry is a fast paced growth, challenging and innovative industry. The last decade has seen a shift in the methods and activities used in conducting business. One of the growth industries is the E-commerce industry which has seen the growth in number of people and transactions conducted. E-commerce has benefited from the growth of the internet which has business to become easier. Most of the E-commerce trade has emerged from growth in the use of the mobile phone.
Mobile phone use has grown tremendously in many regions globally making it easier for communication to occur amongst many people. Mobile phone use has been instrumental in the increase of internet users globally who make use of their phones to communicate or do business. As a result, mobile phone technology has been changing fast and in an advanced manner.
Many people make use of the internet to conduct business and their activities and thus creating a huge market for the sell and purchase of goods.
Most of these business people rely on online marketing to popularize their goods and services. As a result, the mobile phone industry has witnessed one of the largest growths in the online marketing since the mobile phones are ideal for online advertising. The future in the use of mobile phones in marketing is very promising, since it is expected that mobile phones will change the advertising industry.
Introduction The use of the mobile phone has changed the way people conduct business and live their lives. Mobile phones have been predominantly used for communication, but nowadays the device has found many uses. The mobile phone is today used for social interactions, conducting business and even changing lives.
The profound effect the mobile phone industry has had in the business world is unprecedented, since several efforts have been channelled towards thorough utilization of the mobile phone. Among the many businesses that the mobile phone industry has had a positive effect is the marketing industry. Mobile phones are currently the most used devices in the globe currently with mobile phone subscription numbers in the billions. This essay is going to explore the mobile phone use in the marketing industry.
SWOT Analysis In the analysis, of the use of the mobile phone it is necessary to conduct a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is used in the analysing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and weaknesses of mobile phone use in marketing. Strengths and weaknesses are used to measure the interior factors that affect the use of mobile phones in marketing while opportunities and threats are used in measuring the external factors that affect mobile phone use in marketing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths
Mobile phones are used by the approximately 3 billion globally and this represents close to 50% of the globe’s population. As a result, the use of the mobile phone will reach a considerable population if it used in marketing. Mobile phone devices are becoming more sophisticated in terms of technology they employ while the same time the cost of these devices are becoming more affordable.
Mobile phone technology has the capability of surfing the internet, displaying images and videos though the phone screens. As a consequence, adverts created in various formats can be deployed to targeted consumers with ease.
The future in mobile phone use is extremely promising, because of the number of mobile phone users has been increasing tremendously especially in Africa and the Asian continents (Cervino, 2004). Mobile phone use technology has advanced to the level where it allows devices to access the internet and the growing numbers of internet users make use of their mobile phones to access the internet.
This is beneficial to advertisers who are interested in launching online campaigns rooting for their products (Gillett, 2011). Mobile phones have the ability to display images, video, audio or graphics in different formats. Therefore, marketing or advertising firms have many different advertising options to utilize in their campaigns.
The use of the mobile phone has its disadvantages over traditional marketing media such as television or radio. Understanding the dynamics of these mobile phone users is complicated in the sense that mobile phone users is made up of a spectrum of consumers. One of the major weaknesses of the use of the mobile phone in the advertising industry is its small physical size. As compared to other advertising media, mobile phones are physically small and thus some adverts cannot be suited in using the mobile phone (Kohlbacher, 2011).
The use of the mobile phone depends on the infrastructure set up by several mobile phone providers who control the network frequencies. As a result, advertisers seeking to make use of the mobile phone in advertising need to be granted permission by these network providers especially in the case of SMS advertising (Glynn, 2009).
The future in marketing is incredibly challenging to due to the increased competition from different stakeholders. The future and the use of the mobile phone in the advertising industry are extremely exciting. Mobile phone use in Africa and the Asia regions continues to grow presenting an opportunity for marketing firms to make use of the mobile phone industry.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Future in Marketing using the Mobile Phone specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The growth in online advertising is growing at a fast rate surpassing other sectors such as television and traditional media channels. Therefore, the future in the use of mobile phone advertising is an industry that should be harnessed for use in the advertising industry.
Statistics have shown that 80% of the growing internet users make use of the mobile phone. The use of the mobile phone in the advertising industry has also benefitted from advanced technology that is utilized in the mobile phone industry The ever changing technology in the mobile phone industry has helped advertisers to pitch their ads and promotions through different formats (Hanssens, 2003). The future in the advertising industry is set to benefit from these changes in technology.
The use of the mobile phone faces several challenges from other well known and traditional industries such as TV and Radio. Traditional advertising media are trusted by consumers for their validity. Advertising through the mobile phone also faces the threat of delivery of the advertisers’ message.
For instance, traditional advertising formats make use of adverts that can easily catch the consumer’s eye this is compared to SMS or online adverts that can be easily ignored. There is high competition in the advertising industry with concentration in the online marketing sector (Kapferer, 2002). Traditional advertising media such as direct marketing, newspaper and radio advertising provides competition to mobile phone marketing.
PESTEL Analysis In the process of analysing market factors and dynamics of the mobile phone future growth, common factors such as Political, Economic, Social, Technical, Environmental and Legal issues have to be analyzed. The PESTEL analysis is the best marker to be used in assessing the future of marketing through the use of mobile phones.
The use of the mobile phone has become a vital part of the modern day life. The power in the use of the mobile phone cannot be ignored since political power also recognizes the importance of the mobile phone. Mobile phone use has gained strong significance in many countries in the world due to the ability of mobile phones to change lives.
Many political systems globally have embraced the use of the mobile phones unlike other traditional communication media such as Television and Radio where frequencies are heavily controlled by governments (Kautonen, 2008). For that reason, mobile use penetration has witnessed massive growth in the marketing industry to the benefit of advertisers and marketers.
Mobile phone use is a strong communication media that have the potential to change lives while at the same time become an economic empowerment tool. Mobile phone use has changed the economies of many people globally because it has been used in improving business and trade. In third world countries such as Kenya, mobile phone use has tremendously changed lives with many people finding employment in the mobile phone industry (Doole, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Future in Marketing using the Mobile Phone by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mobile phone technology has been used in special economic activities such as money transfer, online trade through buying and selling of goods. As a result, advertisers and marketers who are interested in marketing their goods should rely on mobile phone technology to promote their goods (Chen, 2006, p.15).
Trade through the use of the mobile phone industry has been on the increase and economists estimate that transactions worth around $ 30 billion were conducted using the mobile phone in the year 2010. Marketers and advertisers should make use of the mobile phone to advance and boost trade by marketing their goods through the use of the mobile phone (Keller, 2001, p. 16).
Mobile phone use has been instrumental in breaking down social barriers associated to communication. With the dial of a number or message, mobile phone users can easily get in touch with one another. This fundamental social aspect is particularly beneficial in reaching out to many people globally.
The mobile phone has reduced distance and time as people can share ideas through the use of the mobile phone technology. Mobile phones have the capability of reaching a wide and vast population making it a powerful media that can be harnessed by advertisers and marketers in their activities.
The advertising industry benefits a lot from increased social marketing trends currently on the rise among mobile phone users. Mobile phone users create one gigantic social market and group in that marketers can harness the opportunity advanced by mobile phone users (Govindarajan, 2007). For instance, many viral videos and the websites such as Youtube can make use of the mobile phone technology to advance marketing ideas.
Mobile phones make use of latest communications technology in its operation, and this technology has been developed in various parts of the world. Due to the advancement in the mobile phone technology, many applications and technologies have become easily available for deployment in the advertising industry.
Technological advancement in the mobile phone industry has seen mobile phones devices move from simple communication devices to complex devices (Berdy, 2000). Mobile phones have been used in various activities including shooting videos, sending SMS’s or social communication through the use of the internet. This technological advancement has been instrumental in accessing the internet since the mobile phone is currently used for online communication.
The mobile phone use has been declared as environmentally safe compared to other forms of communication tools. For instance, newspapers contribute to environmental degradation since trees are used to make paper used in newspapers. The disposal of newspapers and billboards causes a lot of environmental degradation compared to the easily recycled mobile phone waste (Berthon, 2008, p.36).
The process of producing mobile phones is involves a lot of activities and these activities have to be environmentally safe for mobile phones to be sold. Mobile phone service providers have been practising environmentally safe practices in their operations. As a result, the use of the mobile phone does not attract a lot of controversy compared to other communication media. Due to this reasons, advertisers and marketers would prefer to use mobile phones in their future marketing campaigns (Malhotra, 2006).
Legal factors in the use of the mobile phone marketing include issues related to security, trademark issues. The use of the mobile phone is widespread and many users are afraid of security of using the mobile phone and anonymity of mobile users is very important. As a result, mobile phone providers are bound by legal requirements whereby they are not supposed to disclose information of mobile phone users.
The use of mobile phone has generated a lot of debate in terms of the activities carried out by the use of the mobile phone (DeBonis, 2003). For instance, people with bad intentions can use the mobile phone to achieve ill achieved plans. An example is the blackberry mobile phone which is heavily protected and cannot be easily hacked into.
The issue of security in relation to the mobile phone is based on the fact that mobile phone frequencies can be easily hacked. Moreover, mobile phone providers can easily retrieve information from mobile phone users. This is a legal issue that could affect mobile phone marketing since mobile users don’t want their information to be displayed to unknown people (Stavros, 2008, p.52).
Current Competitor Analysis In the competitive marketing industry, it is important for an organization or individual to assess the competition in order for important strategies to be mapped out. The future in mobile phone marketing depends on how effective is the competition in attracting consumers. The main competitors of mobile phone in the marketing industry include; Events, direct marketing, Magazines, Television and Outdoor advertising media.
The advertising world is currently facing stiff competition from several communication media and between many different firms. One of the communication medium that has seen unprecedented growth is the events and sponsorship based marketing. The events sector has witnessed huge growth with many advertisers anticipating that this sector will grow by a margin of around 53% in the future.
Many organizations these days prefer using event-based marketing, as opposed to the internet or mobile phone marketing. This is because event based marketing is more targeted towards consumers unlike other forms of advertising (Curry, 2007). Event-based marketing will provide stiff competition against mobile phone marketing.
In the future, more advertisers will rely on direct marketing to promote and market their goods. Direct marketing is preferred compared to other forms of advertising. Direct marketing is mostly preferred medium for targeting consumers in the different market segments.
According to statistics, direct marketing is set to grow by a figure of 39% although; it is only 15% of advertisers who do not use direct marketing as the channel of advertising (Hanssens, 2003). Direct marketing is set to compete with mobile phone marketing in the future advertising industry.
Magazines are exciting and entertaining to read since most magazines are tailored for specific audiences. Since magazines are specific in their content and target consumers, magazines are able to reach a huge audience.
Advertisers prefer using magazines in their campaigns because this creates competition for use of mobile phone in marketing. Magazine advertising has grown from its position in the past and now it is used in targeting specific types of consumers. However, magazine advertising growth in the future is set to target close to a third of the growth in advertising (Kapferer, 2002).
The television industry has traditionally been used for pitching adverts or campaigns for advertisers. The presentations of adverts in the television are vivid and appealing to potential consumers. However, the cost of launching adverts using the television is costly and thus it only suits advertisers who have huge financial muscle (Berthon, 2008, p.35).
Moreover, television adverts are short, and potential consumers get very little time to understand the advertised products. This is in comparison to the use of the mobile phone whereby online videos can be accessed through the mobile phone giving ample time for potential consumers to decide on the product they like.
Outdoor advertising is quite popular among advertisers, and marketers since this form of advertising easily catches the eye of the potential customers. Billboards are the most common outdoor advertising media used and most of the billboards contain vivid images.
The use of outdoor advertising is growing in the marketing field but, the statistics show that this form of advertising is losing out to online advertising (Kitchen, 2004). The mobile phone industry enjoys the market for the large share it contributes to the increasing online users. As a result, outdoor advertising might grow but to levels and margins lower compared to mobile phone marketing.
Important Factors in Mobile Marketing The marketing requires the use of a consistent and clear strategy to be used in mobile phone marketing. In the assessment of the use of mobile marketing, we have to look into factors such as product, price and place.
The mobile is an important device in marketing due to the technology it utilizes. According to statistics, among every three human beings in the world, one person owns a mobile phone. The mobile phone utilizes technology that can allow different formats of adverts to be displayed.
The mobile phone as a product is widely used globally, and this creates a huge market for advertisers to make use of in promoting their products (Sheehan, 2010). The mobile phone has several advantages such as its portability, light size in terms of weight and user friendly.
Most mobile phone users who make use of the internet to socialise through social sites such as Facebook or Twitter (Kasper, 2000). As a result, advertisers can tailor their adverts into the format that will be appealing to the mobile phone user. According to a study conducted on the use of mobile phones, researchers found out that mobile phones are replaced every 18 months and in advanced markets like Korea and Japan mobile phones are replaced every 6 months (Stavros, 2008, p. 44).
This statistics attests that mobile technology is easily and widely accepted. Therefore, marketers should in the future enhance the use of mobile phone in marketing. Due to the fast-changing technology in the development of the mobile phone, users have found acceptance in the concepts developed for the mobile phone. Advertisers and Marketers should embrace this technology in the marketing field.
Mobile phone use and technology are easily available at an affordable cost. The low cost of mobile phones has made these devices be easily available to users of different ages and categories. Unlike products such as newspapers or television sets which are of fixed prices and features, mobile phones come in different sizes and prices.
The cost of a mobile phone depends on the capability and features of the phone, but most phones come with standard features at affordable prices. Due to the affordable price of a mobile phone, marketers and advertisers can easily create adverts that can be deployed in these devices. The cost of mobile phone marketing is cheap compared to other forms of media such as television or radio (Govindarajan, 2007).
SMS adverts are simple to create at an affordable cost through the use of the cheap mobile phones’ technology. Mobile phone technology is simple to learn due to the huge resources available in the internet at no cost at all. Therefore, advertisers and marketers can harness these technologies in their marketing campaigns and promotions.
In the business of marketing, it is important for marketers to understand the dynamics involved in promoting their goods. The place factor in marketing is very important since it differentiates the several strategies that will be used in marketing.
As a result, advertisers who make use of the mobile phone can reach a huge global market that is not limited to any boundaries (Chen, 2006, p. 16). The online industry is not heavily regulated, and the advancement of the mobile phone technology allows advertisers or marketers to make use of the mobile phone technology in marketing.
Conclusion The discovery and use of the mobile phone has changed normal human life in several ways. Mobile phones have found better uses compared to the mainstream and traditional utilization of the mobile phone for communication. Today, mobile phones are used to surf the internet, conduct live chats or even shoot videos.
As a result, marketers and advertisers have decided to tap the potential of mobile phones in advertising. The future in advertising will rely more on the use of the mobile phone as opposed to traditional communications media. The use of the internet is set to grow tremendously because most of the new internet users will access this resource through the use of their mobile phones.
The future in marketing will need a medium that can reach a huge market for growth in consumer levels and the mobile phone industry will definitely be the most suitable medium. The mobile phone utilizes technology that enables a variety of messages to be presented in different formats and places. As a result, the future in marketing will heavily rely on the mobile phone industry to promote and market products to different sets of consumers.
References Berdy, M. (2000). Testing Test Market Predictions: Comments. Journal of Marketing Research, 2(4), 196–200.
Blockbuster’s Market in US Essay essay help free
Introduction When examining what company has lost touch with its consumer base, the best example that can be seen at the present is the fall of Blockbuster and the subsequent rise of Netflix within the past 10 years. What is notable in this particular case is that Blockbuster originally had a dominant position in the U.S. market. It has 3,000 stores and controlled 95% of the video rental market, but it is interesting to note that its business model did little to change over time (Knee, 2011).
Blockbuster stores were notable for their large selection of movies and games. However, they tended to be overly spacious and placed in an equally large parking lot with few surrounding stores. Such a scheme resulted in high sales over a period of 15 years. However, it must be questioned whether the sales were a result of its business model or just the sheer proliferation of its stores and the dominant position it enjoyed in the market (Gandel, 2010).
When examining how Blockbuster dealt with local competition, it was obvious that they did so by offering a wider selection, cheaper prices and more attractive looking stores in order to gain more consumers. Not only that Blockbuster also enjoyed a rather healthy relationship with several studios which enabled it to release movie rentals faster than its competitors could have which resulted in more consumers coming to Blockbuster as a result.
The fall of Blockbuster By the late 1990s, it was obvious that Blockbuster was competitor centered in maintaining its dominant position that it neglected to examine changes within its consumer base (Gandel, 2010). By this time, faster internet speeds were becoming available to the general public which, along with the proliferation of home computer systems, resulted in more people turning towards the internet for their needs.
In fact, it was at this point that online e-commerce systems which enabled consumers to make purchases online started to proliferate which enabled new companies to enter into previously hard to enter markets due to the flexibility and low cost nature of online sales and consumer marketing.
When Netflix began its online video rental service in the latter half of the 1990s, this gave consumers a faster and more convenient method of video rental which subsequently eroded away at Blockbuster’s market position till by 2005 to 2009 when Netflix released its online video streaming service this could be considered the “final nail in the coffin” so to speak resulting in the dominance of Netflix and the complete erosion of Blockbuster’s previously dominant position (Knee, 2011).
Strategy to maintain balance between competitor and customer orientations While the book in class maintains the view that “the customer is king”, the fact is such that a marketing strategy cannot be practiced at its fullest. The reason behind this is the fact that businesses do not operate within a vacuum and have to deal with intense competitive environment forces on an almost daily basis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What must be understood is that there are three components to market orientation that dictate how a company acts within a competitive environment, these are: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination. In the case of customer orientation, a company spends what resources it has in gathering data on the needs and behaviors of various consumers, the same can be said for competitor orientation.
However, it focuses on competitors instead (Ward
Emile Durkheim Theories Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Sociology is an individual study now which serves for understanding the surrounding society, the processes which occur there, institutions, systems and relationships. Many years ago this study was not considered as individual one and only in the middle of the 19th century it was distinguished as a separate individual science. Emile Durkheim was one of the founders of sociology as an individual science.
Many ideas and theories expressed by Emile Durkheim still remain up to date and may be applied in the modern society. To understand Emile Durkheim’s vision of sociology three most significant theories are going to be considered with the detailed discussion of the application of his theories in the modern society. The institution of the family, origin of religion and social development are the central issues for discussion in the paper devoted to Emile Durkheim, a sociologist of the 19th-20th century.
To begin with, the brief discussion of Emile Durkheim’s bibliography should be presented for better understanding of his ideas. Many events and life situations impact human vision of life and future convictions. Emile Durkheim was born in religious family and planned to connect his life with this social institution, but after the death of his father he refused from this idea.
Being interested in philosophy, Emile Durkheim gave lessons in one of the French schools. He had an opportunity to visit Germany in 1885 where he received knowledge in philosophy, social sciences and ethics. After his return, he gave lectures in University of Bordeaux where he created the first department of sociology. Dwelling upon Emile Durkheim’s live, it is important to remember his friend Victor Hommay whose suicide impacted the sociologist greatly.
We can only guess the extend of this impact, but its presence cannot be put under question as later in his works Emile Durkheim writes that a person may become the part of the society and this connection may be broken. The World War I was a catastrophe for a sociologist as according to his theory the whole world had to be broken into pieces. Emile Durkheim died in 1917 after the death of his son on the war.
This loss was too painful for the sociologist and he could never adopt it (Lukes 50). The sociologist’s life consideration may be helpful in understanding his vision and approaches to society. As is has already been mentioned, many theories offered by Emile Durkheim can be used in the modern society as the rules are unchanged, only the form may be transformed and developed why the society lives in accordance with particular norms which existed and will exist.
The first theory highlighted by Emile Durkheim should be his consideration of the family as one of the strongest and most social institutions which deserves attention. It should be mentioned that the sociology of family considered by Emile Durkheim was ignored for many years until his ideas have been revealed and discussed right now in the social circles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main contributions Emile Durkheim made in the discussion of family as a social institution is the attempt to structure the institution of the family. Therefore, family institution consists of four central elements, consanguineous relations, husband and wife relations, children and relations to government. Each of these elements has subelements.
Thus, discussing the consanguineous relations Emile Durkheim pointed at the “relations of the husband with his own parents and those of his wife” (Bynder 528) and “relations of the wife with her own parents and those of her husband” (Bynder 528), “relations of children with parental blood relatives and maternal blood relatives” (Bynder 529), and relations with other relatives considered by marriage.
Husband and wife relationships are characterized by their attitude to those who are going to get married in the future and by their personal relationships as a wife and a husband. The children relationships should be divided into those with parents and other children. A family attitude to the government is considered as the most complicated and attention deserving.
The subelements of this element of family organization are as follows, the intrusion of the government into the family institution via domestic rights, the role of the government into family relations before the marriage (celebration pattern connected with documents), intrusion into husband-wife relations based on the “substitution of the authority of the tribunal for the of the husband under certain conditions” (Bynder 529), government intervention into relationships between parents and children, as well as into relationships between blood relatives (Bynder 529).
Considering his theory, it is possible to mention that the Emile Durkheim’s views may be applied to the modern social organization. The role of blood relatives, government, children and personal relations are considered as the basis for the modern institution of family. The application of this theory may help many sociologists in implementation of various theories.
Emile Durkheim states on the social origin of religion and is sure in its close tight with sacred. In other words, Emile Durkheim does not refuse that there is something sacred in religion but the social impact plays great role in the religion development in the society.
It may be stated that Emile Durkheim’s theory of religion foundation is something in the middle between theologians and anti-religion philosophers. According to the sociologist, “Religion is the first institution, because it is connected to the problem of the difficult, controversial, but pervasive socialisation which turns man into a social or civilized being” (Tarot 13).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emile Durkheim Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emile Durkheim is sure that religion can never exist that long only on the basis of mental preference. The role of society on religion development is inevitable. Relating religion to rationality, no one is able to reject the fact that the society is the institution which creates and forms religious patters. Durkheim considers religious rationalization in the society as a process of secularization (Goldstein 137).
The application of this theory in the modern society my help reconsider religion and add some particular aspects useful for the whole globe. Religion is not a stable idea, it is a science which develops and needs some changes as the society also changes. Moreover, the reconsideration of some particular notions in the society does not means that religion should change. It is important to remain society directed and meet the demands of the members.
Considering the principles of sociology, Durkheim criticizes the ideas of many philosophers of the previous century and states that sociology in not based on things which further become the ideas, but vice versa society should be treated as ideas which further transform into things.
Socialism for Durkheim is similar to religion, he describes it as a real concept which refers to “certain species of possibility in the basic unconscious ground rules of human thought and experience” (Nye and Ashworth 134). It becomes obvious that universal human categories are considered in the definition and the ideas may be called as realistic.
Only realistic concepts are appropriate for the modern society. Living in the materialistic world, the concept of ideas as the basis for things is exactly what should be applied in the modern society under the current conditions. Society is constantly changing structure which cannot be impacted by things for ideas generation. The versa effect is required and the theory of society development from ideas to things is exactly what is necessary (Nye and Ashworth 134).
Therefore, it may be concluded that even though the theories developed by Emile Durkheim were ignored several years ago, his ideas should be reconsidered and applied in the modern society. Having selected three the most appropriate theories by Emile Durkheim, it is possible to state that all of them may be applied in the modern society due to their materialistic nature. The theory about the division of the family institution should be refereed to due to the great role of the government which still remains.
The attitude to the origin of religion as the part of social opinion is discussed. Theologians may argue this point of view referring to the sacred origin of religion, still, the modern society requires more practical approaches, therefore, Emile Durkheim’s theories are considered to be more appropriate. The statement of the realistic social development as a part of materialistic world is the main concept which should be considered among many ideas expressed by Emile Durkheim.
Works Cited Bynder, Herbert. “Émile Durkheim and the sociology of the family.” Journal of Marriage
Child Psychology/Behaviorism Essay (Article) college essay help online
There are many branches of psychology in the world today. The reason for this is based on the fact that there are major advancements which have been made in the field of behavior analysis. It is worth noting that since psychology is a scientific field, it challenges the psychologists to be seeking new information with the aim of integrating what has been acquired with the emerging findings and discoveries. Such is the case with child psychology.
In essence, child psychology is a branch of psychology which is concerned with understanding the behavior of children. In this case, child psychology is considered to be an objective attempt to understand behavior. Its subject matter is the behavior or activities of human beings.
As a behaviorist approach, child psychology discards consciousness because it cannot provide the factual data demanded by natural science. The traits of this approach include the fact that it links up the behavior of human beings with that of lower organisms. It is objective in its methods, in that its conclusions and generalizations are open to verification by other interested parties. It aims to predict and control behavior. There are various theories which have been associated with this theory.
Behaviorism has several theories which are associated with it. Key among these theories is the social learning theory. This theory was developed by Albert Bandura. In this theory, it is assumed that behavior is learned and organized chiefly through central integrative mechanisms prior to motor execution (A. Bandura). By observing a model of the desired behavior, an individual and in this case a child forms an idea of how response components must be combined and temporarily sequenced to produce new behavioral configurations.
That is, patterned behavior is largely guided by symbolic representation rather than formed through reinforced performance. The social learning theory is more concerned with the process whereby representation of patterned activities serves a response guidance function than with the particular form in which response information is represented.
It is assumed that the basic matching process is the same regardless of whether the desired behavior is conveyed through words, pictures, or actions. In social learning theory, reinforcement is considered a facilitatory rather than a necessary condition because factors other than response consequences can also exercise selective control over attention (A. Bandura).
People will learn modeled events that command attention because of their striking physical properties, or because they have acquired distinctiveness and affective valence through prior experiences. One does not have to be reinforced to hear compelling auditory stimulus, to look at prominent visual displays, or to gaze at fetching belles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, when attention is effectively channeled to modeling through physical means, the addition of positive incentives does not affect the level of observational learning. In the 1960s, Albert Bandura conducted the Bobo Doll experiment experiments on observational learning. It was known as the Bobo doll experiment because the experimental procedure utilized a blow up plastic Bobo doll which was a popular children’s toy.
In this experiment, children were allowed to watch a film in which a woman would beat up the Bobo doll (Bandura and Ross). After the children viewed the films, Bandura and his colleagues placed them in a room alone with the Bobo doll and observed their behavior without their knowledge. If the children imitated the characteristic behaviors of the model, then Bandura knew that learning had occurred. In one of the experiments, three groups of children watched three different films.
In the retard film condition, the model was rewarded after beating up the doll. In the punishment film condition, she was punished after beating up the doll. Thirdly, no consequence film condition, nothing happened to the model after she beat up on Bobo. After viewing one of these films, the children observed with Bobo, and their aggressive behaviors were recorded. Finally, Bandura offered an incentive to all the children if they could remember the actions of the model in the film.
With this incentive, all the three groups recalled the modeled aggression at about the same level. It seemed that all children had learned equally from the modeled aggression, but those who witnessed punishment of the model were less inclined to perform the aggressive sequences. The children who had seen the model rewarded for beating up the doll were most likely to beat up on him themselves.
However, children who had seen the no consequence film were equally likely to beat up the doll. The Bobo doll experiment brought up two things (Bandura and Ross), that is, you do not have to engage in a behavior or experience reinforcement for learning to occur. Secondly, learning can be latent. The children who viewed the punishment film had learned how to beat up Bobo, but they were reluctant to beat him up because they feared there would be negative consequences for them if they did.
In conclusion, children who watched intently modeled activities presented on a television screen in a room darkened to eliminate distractions later displayed the same amount of initiative learning regardless of whether they were informed in advance that correct imitations would be rewarded or were given no prior incentives to learn the modeled performances.
When individuals observe a single sequence of behavior followed by different outcomes they learn what they have seen regardless of whether the model’s actions are rewarded, punished or ignored.
We will write a custom Article on Child Psychology/Behaviorism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Bandura, A., Ross, D and S.A. Ross. “Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 63 (1961): 575-582.
Bandura, Albert. Psychological Modeling: Conflicting Theories. Illustrated, reprint. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2006.
The America’s Education Crisis Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The state of American Education System
The Public School Enrolment Trends
The Public School Segregation
Causes of American Public School Educational Segregation
Introduction Over the past few years, it has become apparent that the American Education system is failing. This is a classical argument that is advanced by Moore in his publication entitled “Idiot Nation”; Moore argues that America, being the world’s richest country is lagging behind from an educational point of view.
This is also an argument advanced by Orfied Grays’s “Schools more separate” as he documents that from the early 1990’s, American schools have become more segregated. With a large focus being placed on corporate earnings at the expense of its educational systems, the country is destined for desegregation at the expense of educating its citizens.
The public schools are separate and unequal; they are also to a very significant extent racially segregated. As Orfield (par. 2) point out, the measure of resources between schools is not equal in terms of quantity and quality. This paper therefore provides useful insights on the state of American education; it also provides suggestive arguments on where the problem lies and its causes, and finally it points out as to why the American educational situation is desegregating.
The state of American Education System America faces present and possibly future educational problems if the current persistent educational problems are not addressed. In March, 2009, President Obama articulated that the current educational system must work towards improving the student performance in an effort to regain the lost international educational standing, he further quoted “……..despite our unmatched resources globally, our grades are still poor, schools crumble, the quality of our teachers constantly falling short and other nations outdo us.” It is also important to note that even with this reality nothing much has been done to improve the quality of America’s public education.
For many Americans residing in major cities with no firsthand information with regard to the actual happenings in the public schools; there is a tendency to generalize and create a vague idea that the greater racial segregations that were of major concern some forty or many years down the line have diminished in the recent American years. The truth however is the reverse; those schools that were segregated by then are now less segregated while those that were integrated are now gradually becoming more re-segregated.
The Public School Enrolment Trends Kozol (par.7), in his article “Still Separate, Still Unequal: America’s Educational Apartheid” says that by the year 2002-2003, in Chicago, 87% of the enrolment in public schools was black or Hispanic; with the remaining proportion being white.
The same trend was also observed in Washing D.C, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Los Angeles and even New York City. These general trends in enrolment rates, where Africans or Hispanic origin racial citizens occupy a large percentage of the poorest public schools represent how deeply isolated the poorest of American citizens have been in the pursuit of education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To further compound the problem, Orfield Gray (par. 15) of Harvard University in the publication, “Re-segregation in American Schools” argues that the little progress that had been made in the early 60’s towards integration has now been reversed.
Large proportion of America’s black students were in minority schools between 1968-69 whereby the educational standards were poor as compared to white schools, the figure of black students dropped slightly to 62.9% in 1996-97from the earlier figures of 76.6%, unfortunately by 1971 the figure had regressed further to 68% of students of black origin in an integrated environment.
As others would point out, it would be a disheartening experience if great American minds like Martin Luther Jnr. were to visit public schools that have their names or that of other leaders who fought for schools integration only to find out that a number of these schools are promoting “Contemporary Segregation.”
The Public School Segregation In New York City, a school named after Martin Luther Jnr. was located in the upper middle class of white residents in the hope that many of the white students from the neighborhood would easily access the school given its location while the blacks and Hispanic students would perhaps use other modes of transport to come to the school.
In 1975 during the opening of the school “it was seen” as Dillon Sam reported in The New York Times (par. 3) “…as a progressive effort to integrate white, Hispanic and black students…” It turned out that the parents from the neighborhood were reluctant to take their children to the school even with its location and ‘cultural expectations’; not long after, the school became home to black and Hispanic students who were denied admission into better performing schools. Today, the school represents the nation’s problematic architect of an American expectation that is quickly receding and a legacy of betrayal.
Causes of American Public School Educational Segregation Perhaps the main reason why racial segregation thrives can be attributed to the refusal to accept the existence of the problem or refusal to openly talk passionately about the problem as otherwise would have been advanced fifty years ago or so. Most of the schools for that matter do not even want to be associated with words like ‘Racial segregation’ and instead misleading statements as ‘Diverse student population’ are often used to describe such schools.
Subsequently, the cause of segregation in American schools is largely attributed to social and political factors: these include court rulings that reversed desegregation orders in the late 1980s, the progressive isolation of whites in the suburban schools, with increasing segregation of their black and Hispanic counterparts in suburban schools.
We will write a custom Essay on The America’s Education Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Orfield Gray (par. 18) further argues that the number of white students has in the recent years dropped while that of their black and Hispanic counterparts has re tremendously grown; this has led to the widening of racial segregation. This is in contrast to an earlier expectation and argument advanced by Moore (par. 6) that the education system has continuously created a divide between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ and that education should be universally accessed by everyone.
The Public education systems also fail as a result of sabotage by many educational stakeholders including teachers, administrators, and political legislators. Public education from the conservative’s point of view, fails due to social and cultural inclinations that interfere with classroom discipline and moral framework of education.
The gap of achievement between black and white students progressively narrowed between the years of integration until 1980, it started to record higher widening gaps in 1990s as a result of Federal courts’ decision to resegragate by abandoning the principles of Brown decision. The gap continuously widened or remained unchanged with public secondary schools recording the wider gaps ever.
Conclusion As America deepens racial isolation and educational inequalities in education, finance and uptake of innovative reforms, the inner city schools are busy making choices other than urban public schools. Many of these public school children have been forced to dedicate a great deal of time and energy into developing appropriate adaptive mechanisms that will guarantee discrete gains within the limits that the educational inequalities allow.
Works Cited Dillon, Sam. “Merger of Memphis and County School Districts Revives Race and Class Challenges”. The New York Times, 5th Nov. 2011. Web.
Kozol, Jonathan. “Still Separate, Still Unequal: America’s Educational Apartheid”. Harper’s Magazine V.311, N.1864, 2005. Print
Moore, Michael. Idiot Nation.Vol. 24. Westminster: Penguin Publishers, 2005. Print
Orfield, Gray. Schools More Separate: Consequences of a Decade of Re-segregation. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 2001. Print
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The Decriminalization of Marijuana Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The debate on whether to or not to decriminalize possession and use of cannabis has been in existence for quite a long time. Some individuals have been against the idea that just by one simply being found with the substance could warrant him or her severe punishment as a jail term. Up to date marijuana possession is treated as a criminal offence in most countries. This means anyone found in possession of the substance is charged in the court and either subjected to a jail term or a fine.
This debate has come up with several important arguments on why decriminalization of this substance is appropriate (Australian Institute of Criminology, and the New South Wales Department of Politics 7). One of the main reasons that the supporters of this argument have progressed is that by decriminalization of marijuana, the government would save huge amounts of money that it uses on enforcing laws that relate to possession and use of the substance.
In addition, reports from various commissions and academic studies that have been carried out in the last two decades have indicated that decriminalization of marijuana has little or no contribution to its increase in use among the populations in the state where the new law has been enacted.
History of Marijuana Decriminalization There have been active movements’ activities that have sought to reform the laws on marijuana since the 1970s in various nations. The increase in the use of the marijuana even after it was outlawed has led to increase in the costs incurred by the government when enforcing these rules and undertaking court proceedings.
In addition, the attitudes that most individuals had regarding the substance use was becoming more positive. This made many states and nations begin reforming the strict rules they had placed on the offences of being found in possession of marijuana. For instance, the period between 1923 and 1978 saw thirteen states in the United States decriminalizing the small amounts of marijuana possession.
These states were “Alaska, Colorado, Massechusetts, California, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York, Missisippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon and Ohio.” This was after Oregon State began this process where it reduced the possession offence of an individual found with less than 1 oz by inflicting a small fine of not more than 100 dollars.
This was contributed by change of people’s attitudes towards marijuana and an increase in cases of more individuals especially those who came from influential backgrounds being found in the possession of the substance. As a result of the enforcement of the new laws, the jail terms or other strict rules were replaced by only a small fine in most states.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of the decriminalization of marijuana The decriminalization of possession of marijuana in various states had great impacts on various issues in the society. These changes were observed in various aspects like patterns of use, costs of justice and even health care.
Impacts on the pattern of use
Initially there was fear that decriminalization of marijuana would lead to the increase in the use of the substance within the population. This is especially after the survey by the US Government confirmed that 25.8 million individuals used marijuana once a year while the percentage that use the drug monthly was about 6 percent. The report also showed that in the American population, about 95 million individuals, about 47 percent of the entire population, experiment with marijuana in their lifetime.
However, there were no reliable changes in the rates of use in most states after the decriminalization law was enacted. According to a study conducted by Rosalie, Jamie, and Janna (23), the states that decriminalized marijuana noted only slight changes while in other states, there was no change at all. For instance, in the states that noted a slight increase, the percentage was only 2 percent among the students in high school and other juveniles.
When a comparison was done between the states that have decriminalized and those that have not, it was noted that in the decriminalized states, rates increased immediately the law was enacted but later leveled in most states for both those who had decriminalized and those who had not. Single (459) therefore concludes that there was no considerable change even with enactment of the decriminalization of marijuana rule.
The other survey that was carried out was on the rate of those who were found in the possession of marijuana after decriminalization law. According to study that was carried out, there was no direct effect between the relationship of the number of offenders and the punishment imposed.
However, due to the effect the offender gets both in the access to future employment and the stigma that the family and other members of the society hold the culprit with, the possession would be low regardless of whether the decriminalization was passed or not.
This is particularly because possession of marijuana is still a major issue in the society even with the elimination of the punishment. The controls are therefore enacted by the social environment and the individual’s career prospects. This is because an employer may refuse to recruit an individual who has records of marijuana possession.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Decriminalization of Marijuana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impacts on crime
There was also a major concern on the effect of decriminalization of marijuana on the rate of crime. Most individuals saw the enactment of this law as a factor that would lead to an increase in the rate of crime. Most individuals arrived at this conclusion from the analysis they had of the comparison of those who often ended up in jail where the greatest percentage had used drugs in the recent period before they were convicted.
However, this is a conclusion that has no substantial evidence. This is because other factors especially the social-economic factors are active causes of increase in the rate of crime (Erickson 1156). On close scrutiny, therefore, marijuana use has little relation with individual’s criminal behavior.
According to a review carried out on drug control policies, marijuana was rated the least in its ability to generate activities related to crime compared to other illicit drugs like heroine and cocaine. The review also noted that marijuana has less chances of triggering violent activities since those who use the drug are those from middle and upper social economic classes. Decriminalization of marijuana may not be a reason for increase in the rate of crime in the society (Erickson 1166).
Impacts on Criminal Justice system
The decriminalization of marijuana had an impact on the criminal justice system which was largely viewed as being positive especially due to the economic impact it had on this area. This is because offences related to marijuana possession dropped in all the states that implemented the new law where most states reduced this rate to more than 30 percent (National Academy of Sciences 102).
As a result, these states observed a remarkable decrease in the costs that were incurred in the enforcement of laws related to possession of marijuana. In addition, as a result of fewer cases being taken to court, there was reduction in the resources and costs that were initially spent in processing these cases. This is because before decriminalization law was enacted, marijuana possession cases dominated the court proceedings thus taking up most of the resources.
The cost saving has been felt in all levels of law enforcement systems. The correction system was another area that observed reduction in the cost factor. This is in areas like jail, prison and even those who were on probation.
There were many individuals who would be arrested for crimes related to marijuana making the number to be as high as 755,000. This was an expensive burden to the crime and justice system. This is because among those who would end up in these arrests, most of the individuals would earn a jail term or at least spend some time in there while waiting to be released.
This was a big expense to the system as they had to pass through the booking process which is the most expensive process in the correction process. The reduction in the number of individuals who were arrested due to possession of marijuana, therefore, was a major factor in the reduction of these costs as the reduction of these cases reduced the costs incurred and even ensured the safety of the system facility.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Decriminalization of Marijuana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion On evaluation of these costs and benefits, one would conclude that decriminalization has been beneficial to the states that have enacted the new law. However, it is important to understand that some of these figures were based on scientific data some of which may not have a large impact. This is particularly because very few states undertook the research before and after the decriminalization law was enacted.
As a result, most of the conclusions that were made, results were arrived at on the basis of comparison. This is because there was no availability of primary data that would have been used to make authentic conclusions. In addition, lack of jurisdiction in these countries where decriminalization of marijuana has been enacted like the United States and Canada have made it hard to evaluate the marijuana use adequately. This is especially after the policy of decriminalization was enacted.
The conclusion that decriminalization of marijuana reduces government expenses especially due to reduction of costs in the areas of criminal justice and correction systems, may be refuted. This is because individuals making such a conclusion have to understand that the government places a fixed amount on these systems which means that it does not reduce its level of this amount based on reduction or increase in the number of activities that the criminal justice undertake.
Otherwise this reduction would only be visible and significant to the government spending if the police who undertake these activities were laid off and the court rooms stopped all their activities. Since decriminalization of marijuana is not likely to lead to such dramatic changes, the current cost saving figures being generated by various commissions may be overlooking some important factors leading to their misguided conclusions.
The only benefit that decriminalization may be counted to have caused in the criminal justice system that seems authentic is reduction of its expenses on the enforcement of marijuana laws and directing these resources to more meaningful areas like crimes that are more serious and which affect the whole population.
In order to help parents and the voters to come up with an informed decision on the impact of decriminalization policy on the economy and the changes in the rates of crimes, the various commissions and academic studies need to establish a way of acquiring primary data where possible in order to avoid misleading the public.
Conclusion Reduction of the punishment met on those found in possession or using marijuana by various states is definitely a positive move. Though there were speculations that decriminalizing marijuana would increase its consumption among the populations of these states, studies have shown that there is little or no evidence to these speculations.
Reduction in amount used in the enforcement of marijuana laws has also given the criminal justice system a chance to use these funds in more meaningful areas. However, lack of primary data has resulted to making important decisions based on comparison or through use of secondary data.
In addition, lack of new cases of jurisdictions that have passed through this process of decriminalization has led to a decision that may be detrimental due to overgeneralization and use of assumptions. In order to come up with a decision that will be beneficial to all aspects of a nation, the various commissions involved need to also focus on the effect that the cost reduction has after the enactment of decriminalization policy especially to the tax payer.
This is as opposed to making a general conclusion that since there was reduction in number of cases the criminal justice system and the court handled, there was equal reduction in the government expenses. This is because some of these reductions may not have been very meaningful to the common tax payer as the government still pumped the same amount of funds to these institutions.
Works Cited Australian Institute of Criminology, and the New South Wales Department of Politics. Marijuana in Australia, patterns and attitudes. Monograph Series No. 31. Canberra, Australia: Looking Glass Press, 1997. Print.
Erickson, Patricia G. “The law, social control, and drug policy: Models, factors and processes.” The International Journal of the Addictions 28. 2; (1993): 1155-1176. Print.
National Academy of Sciences. Marijuana and medicine: Assessing the science base. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999. Print.
Rosalie, Pacula, Jamie Chriqui, and Janna King. Marijuana decriminalization: what does it mean in the United States? Working Paper 9690. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003. Print.
Single, Eric. “The impact of marijuana decriminalization: an update.” Journal of Public Health Policy 10.4; (1989): 456-466. Print.
Religion – The Origin of Humanity Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction The answer to origin of humanity can be traced through evolution of culture of religion. Religion has been in existence since the earlier man’s period, and records that show that some form of gods were worshipped, which can be found on caves and statutes. In addition, practices by Homo sapiens of burying their dead indicate the existence of religion. Religion also appears to be the only unique practice with human beings.
On the other hand, Darwin model of evolution indicates that through adaptation and selection, there were some forms of changes that took place in earlier organism.
By treating religion like some organism, it is possible to explore some its adaptability and selection, which made human beings more superior than other animals. In such cases, certain attributes of a religion succeeded to the next form. Within these trends of religion, it can be possible to trace exactly the period and the type of religious belief that led to humanity perception in human beings.
This paper explores the argument of other Paleolithic’s and archeologist on the origin of religion. It also explores the transformation of the first form of religion to modern type. Then in a generative discussion, it proceeds to argue that cultural changes in religion as opposed to brain development or species evolution are responsible for the change in human perception of themselves.
Literature Review Mind Development
The past holds the key to understand the present and this is in archaeology hands (Mithens 10). His archeological work looks at how the human brain developed overtime by overcoming various selective pressures. According to his argument, the mind not only creates but is also capable of imagination. He disputed information from evolutionist psychologist, which argued that the mind can act like Swiss army knife.
He argued that when looking at the brain this way, it would not be possible to understand why modern brain is able to perform tasks not present in the ancestral periods. Instead, he suggests that general intelligence exists. Using a cathedral metaphor, he describes three stages of mind development. First is domination by general intelligence, which is supplemented by domain specific modules, and lastly these modules work in concert with an endless information flow to all domains.
After describing his architecture of the brain, he explored the various human evolution stages to describe the various selective pressures present. His journey begins with the exploration of the ape, common human ancestor. In this stage, he makes several deductions including that due to Chimpanzee problems in tool making, they lack technical intelligence and therefore only general intelligence can describe their behavior (Mithen 34).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also concludes that they posses certain levels of natural history intelligence and social intelligence. The latter is due to their ability to interact. Finally, he attributes their inability to communicate to their low level of general intelligence.
The next human evolution he described is the Homo Habilis. For these, he finds their ability to form shaped tools as an indication of development of certain technical knowledge as opposed to just general intelligence, which cannot be associated with this kind or craftsmanship. As for other types of intelligence like natural history, he considers some development to have taken place. According to him, brain development reached its climax in the neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens species.
Their natural history intelligence was also more developed especially because of the increased demands by the environment. He further points to existing tools in this period as indications of improved technical intelligence (Mithen 38). To him, these humans had knowledge and abilities equivalent to the present human beings. However, he also observes that they lacked the connection between natural history intelligence and technical intelligence necessary to design multiple-purpose tools.
According to his argument, modern culture originated from increased assimilation of various specialized modules. Therefore, human beings developed objects such as artifacts to communicate social messages. In time, human also demonstrated abilities to read the mind of others as indicated by art work in the time. To him, human beings increased in flexibility on social abilities.
Darwin’s Evolution Theory
His evolution theory consists of two assumptions. The first one is that all living things share the same ancestor. Second is that of natural selection, which explains why existing living things are not similar. Therefore under natural selection, differences occur through DNA mutations.
Some mutation changes to the species characteristics can result into improved reproduction. As a result, this change enables species to survive to the next generation. Species that adapt well to a certain environment are likely to undergo little change in an environment.
Mutation though is said to be progressive even in such environment, only that now the species would remain the same. On the other hand, when the environment is changing or dynamic, the evolvement of a species would be fast. Adaptations previously enjoyed in such an occurrence would cease to be of any benefit to the species. Mutations that take place in this stage would result into changes that make the species fit into the new conditions, and the new genes would be reproduced among generations (ASSS 11).
We will write a custom Essay on Religion – The Origin of Humanity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from natural selection evolution is also a factor of sexual selection. Various male species compete for sexual partners by putting on show, brilliant colors, complex calls, and other physical attributes. As for the female partner, preference is on impressive males. Consequently, these are able to get more of their DNA in the next generation. As a result, some of the traits that are attractive but have little benefit for survival are distributed in a population, like the peacock tail.
Empirical Evidence for evolution
Darwin’s theory of evolution is characterized by changes and adaptation and suggests a common ancestry for all forms of life (Ridley 44). In the contemporary society, molecular biology and chemistry evidence have continued to support his argument; that is, all living things’ physical bodies are made of same basic cells and these are made up of similar molecules.
Similarities of cells between species are more than the differences that have been observed. Anatomical structure across species are said to be more similar. For instance, frogs, rabbits, lizards and birds all have a similar bone arrangement in their forelimb, in spite of the different ways they are used.
Transitional fossils also provide other evidence for evolution of species. They record changes that take place in species across lines separating one body plan to the other and across species as well.
Evidence gathered from them points that a chronology from land mammals to whales as well as dinosaur to birds took place. It has also been verified that as expected, the most primitive organism live in deepest geological layers and complexity and variety of fossil organism increases with the layer preceding the other as one progress to the earth.
Another premise held is that related species should be close to one another both in time and space and have more similarities with existing species in their specific regions as opposed to others living elsewhere. This has been found to be true although at times, fossils of a species are not found in its habitat. Evolutionary theory explains this as a result of migration to other areas, which has been verified by scientific evidence (ASSS 12).
Questioning Darwin Theory of Evolution
The first argument put against it, challenges the first hypothesis of a common ancestry. This hypothesis suggests that all forms of life have a similar origin. It relies on argument that all species have the same DNA or genetic code, to support the similar origin.
Critics of this position argue that God used a common design plan to make the various types of living things that he created. However, they also observe that by arguing so, it might be easy to believe that similarities in various species are due to the shared ancestry or relatedness (Zacharias
Women writing in India Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Theme of Change
Razia Sajjad Zaheer
Ratakonda Vasundhara Devi
Introduction The confrontation between tradition and change comes out well in the collection Women writing in India. The collection contains various views on the theme change as presented by various women authors. This paper will examine the outstanding features of the tradition and the change as presented in the collection. The paper also brings out the effect that change has on the protagonists. An analysis is made on how both men and women respond to change and who between men and women responds better to the changes.
The Theme of Change It is worth mentioning that the collection of short stories in the book Women writing in India is one big representation of the theme of change. It is a representation of the change because it assists to bring out the talent that women possess, which was initially (before the age of learning institutions) not recognized. The collection is true evidence of the ingenuity that women posses; a potential which has been trampled down by male chauvinists.
Going through the stories in this collection, one gets to view the society from a different perspective. It was quite appropriate that the authors did not engage in any kind gender modification to represent women as better than men; such an action could have dispelled the authenticity of the application of the stories in the society. The stories are a true replica of the society with no unnecessary delineation, which could have depicted the society as it was not.
It is evident that the authors in this collection had embraced to write about change as it had seemingly set them free. This, however, is not an indication that the authors had depicted tradition in bad light. It can be argued that the authors had technically juxtaposed tradition and change thus leaving it to the readers to point out the good and bad element of both the tradition and the change.
The authors were very observant of the changes that were taking place in the society, especially those which touched on the liberation of women. Some of the authors who stood out well in representing the change in their stories are examined below.
Razia Sajjad Zaheer Razia Sajjad Zaheer was well educated; she acquired a master’s degree. She was married to a husband who shared the same interest as her and was an activist. It is alleged that he spent half the years he was married to Razia Sajjad Zaheer in prison. Nevertheless, they kept on communicating despite the geographical gap that existed between them.
Razia wrote many stories and the one which was captured in the collection was titled Neech, which meant low born. Using this story, Razia presented in an exceedingly powerful manner a huge conflict between the tradition and change. She juxtaposed dominant elements of tradition and change in a very amazing manner. Shymali was the daredevil who changed the tradition. To Sultan, who had developed an admiration for Shyamali, this was beyond reality, it was lunacy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tradition was that, husbands were very precious and in the words of Sultan: “a husband was so precious; he was a woman’s honor, her god on earth” (Tharu and Lalita 148). Shyamali, a low born, was of a different opinion; she did not believe she deserved to be treated as a prostitute. The author decided to introduce a change in a different manner, not through the noble but through the low born.
The change story Neech surprised both men and women. Sultan was seen struggling with the thought of how women could go against their husbands even if the husbands mistreated them. To Sultani, this was unthinkable. To Sultani, there was one fact; a fact that in that society “marriage was nothing more than legalized prostitution” (Tharu and Lalita 149).
Amrita Pritam Amrita Proitam went through a life that was filled with many restrictions that adversely hindered her potential from sprouting freely. After the death of her mother, her father restricted her so much that she could literary feel restriction in each breath she took. At a tender age of sixteen years, she got married and her new family was against her publicity, which was due to her writing of poems.
The general feeling was that she was not undertaking her duties as a wife and daughter in law but instead was engaging in writing, which brought much publicity to her. She later divorced her first husband and afterwards lived with the artist Imroz.
Amrita Pritam can be described as a champion of the women struggle against oppression from male. She often wrote about the loneliness that married women endured and the atrocities that they suffered. Her writings can be described as those which encouraged women to be open-minded and seek freedom from the entanglement of oppression.
She was quite frank and often informed the women who so desired to free themselves that they were likely to incur some costs. Amrita received a number of awards for her contribution towards empowering the womenfolk and encouraging them to stand up for their rights.
Amrita expressed a lot of pain in one of the poems that she wrote. The poem was titled Jada that is winter (Tharu and Lalita 163). The title might have been symbolic to display the coldness that was inherent on women’s lives. The poem described how her whole body shivered. The shivering is attributed to have started from her soul. This is an indication that the cause of the oppression that women were subjected to was an intrinsic factor; it was something that was inherent in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Women writing in India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the last stanza of her poem, she seemed to have had a desire for a cup of sunlight. She was to tuck this cup of sunlight into her womb and by so doing the winter in her life would have passed away. This was quite symbolic as it was a simple but powerful message that she was delivering to fellow womenfolk that they needed enlightenment in order to cross over from the coldness that oppression had locked them in.
Ratakonda Vasundhara Devi This is another writer who vividly brought out the suffering that women underwent while undertaking the roles that the society had prescribed to them. Ratakonda clearly fought for women right. Her writing brought to light issues, which touched on women “rights, their pleasures and pains, and their welfare” (358). The story Picchi (madness) was written by Ratakonda. She used this story to shade light on the burden that women were exposed to. In this story, a man married his second wife after the first one had committed suicide.
The second wife seems to put up well with the family but soon after she gave birth to the first child, she ran mad. The immediate family believed that it was the food she was given after giving birth that affected her. In the true sense, it was the pressure and burden that were laid on the first and the second wives that drove them to the kind of calamities that they underwent. Some members of the village often went to visit the second wife at the mental hospital.
Though visiting her was a show of concern, clearly the society was missing out on vital issues and attending to issues, which were of less significance. The vital issues were to ensure that women were not overworked. It was ironical that overworking oneself could be viewed as being a good and responsible wife. Unlike in the two stories above, this story on Picchi does not reflect any change but rather brings to full light the kind of chains that women were enslaved in.
Conclusion The collection Women writing in India brought out significant issues, which affected the lives of women. The collection was a good illustration of women fighting for their rights. The theme which dominated in this volume was that of change. The change depicted in most of the stories by the different authors was that of women going against oppression and moving towards their freedom.
As some of the writers noted, this movement was not easy, and in some cases it cost women a lot. Some of the changes which took place surprised even the women who were supposed to benefit from the changes. Men, who were depicted as agents of this oppression on women, did not take lightly the changes as they viewed them as a disobedience to what the society had agreed on as the normal way of life.
Work Cited Tharu, Susie and Lalita, ke. Women writing in India: 600 B.C. to the present, volume 2. New York, Feminist Press, 1991. Print.
Working and living in UK and Poland Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Executive Summary The report aims at comparing the living and working conditions in the UK and Poland. This will assist Mr. Blake in assessing the viability of his Polish job opportunity.
An environmental evaluation revealed that climatic conditions between the UK and Poland are only slightly different; the latter country is cooler than the former. Poland’s political background is less stable than the UK’s, so Mr. Blake should prepare for frequent policy changes in the target country. Poland’s economy is growing rapidly; however, the country has excessive bureaucracy and corruption.
Mr. Blake should learn how to overcome that bureaucracy in the country. The UK is more secular than Poland, so Mr. Blake will need to adjust to this too. A cultural comparison of the two countries revealed that the UK is more individualistic than Poland. John Blake will need to consider his colleagues’ well being when he accepts the offer. After looking at the similarities and differences, Mr. Blake should accept the job; however, he needs to make the above mentioned adjustments when he gets there.
Aims and Objectives A Polish local company has offered John Smith – a UK national – a job. Before taking on the challenge, John Smith needs learn about the general similarities and differences between the United Kingdom and Poland. Consequently, the main objective of the report is to prepare John Smith for his new job by informing him about the working environment in Poland. It will be necessary to compare this environment with his home country’s environment so as to provide him with a standard to gauge this new opportunity.
The aims of the research can be summarised as follows: To examine Poland and the UK’s climatic compatibility; to evaluate the political backgrounds of the two nations; to analyse the economic background of Poland and the UK; to look at the cultural differences; to analyse the religious standing of the Poles and the UK nationals.
Evaluation and Analysis Weather and Climate
Climatic conditions in Poland are dependent on the geographical locations under consideration. Likewise, the United Kingdom has variable weather patterns depending on the region under analysis. However, Poland is colder than the UK. In the winter, temperatures can drop to as low as 25oC. Furthermore, Poland’s winters are much longer than the UK’s. John Smith needs to analyse Poland’s weather on the basis of his regional affiliation in the UK and his target destination. He is probably familiar with Arctic climate if he hails from the Northern part of the UK. Mr. Smith probably does not mind heavy rain and mild temperatures, as well. He would live well in mountainous regions and other parts of Poland. However, if John Smith comes from the South, then he might be uncomfortable with Polish weather.
During the summer, rain mixes with sunshine, although temperatures tend to be warm. Autumn can get sunny sometimes, but periods of cold and rain can interrupt this pattern. Spring in Poland has varied temperatures of between -1 and 20oC. Therefore, John Smith would acclimatise easily in Poland if he came from a cold region of the UK, but would find it slightly uncomfortable if he came from the South.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political background
The UK’s political system is a much older one than Poland’s; this stems from the lack of any major revolution in over one thousand years (Cannon, 2009). Furthermore, Britain has a Monarch that shares power with the British Parliament. Conversely, Poland has a Presidential system that is also a parliamentary democracy. Consequently, one can say that Poland’s political system is more fluid than the one in the UK. The Monarchical system is more stable than the Polish system because leaders inherit those positions.
Nonetheless, the prevalence of a prime minister and a robust parliament in the UK is indicative of some degree of pragmatism. Overly, the political system in the UK is not as logical as the one in Poland because of its preference for tradition. The UK has a regional government that encompasses England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, yet the federal system is quite complicated.
England, which accounts for eighty four percent of the UK population, is reluctant to embrace the sense of regionalism that supports a federal system. Nonetheless, the UK still gives Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales a unique status within the administrative system. On the other hand, Poland does not have these challenges as it is not an amalgamation of various states. Nonetheless, the country still has its share of challenges. Because the country has a presidential system, it may be susceptible to abuse by the presiding executive.
Furthermore, the election of such an executive can sometimes be challenging. While the UK’s system has a neoliberal inclination, the Polish political system is more complicated. Tensions between socialists and neoliberals have led to many policy contradictions. Sometimes Parliament may take away workers’ rights, and in other instances, it may strengthen them. John Smith may want to consider this fact when he works in Poland – workers’ rights may not be a top priority for Polish political actors.
Poland is a fast growing economy, having recorded an annual GDP increase of 3% prior to the 2008 recession. Furthermore, the country was the only one in the EU that did not record a dip in their GDP after 2008. These remarkable results stem from an economic liberalisation project that started in the 1990s. The government privatised many state-owned corporations; this sparked off high GDP growth. However, liberalisation created negative effects on some segments of the population.
Although the Polish economy is growing, it is still not as large as the UK’s economy, which is the largest in the European Union and the sixth largest in the whole world. Such a result stems from the long history of industrialisation in the UK (Fisher, 2006). Having been a highly globalised economy, the 2008 global recession affected the UK; it is yet to come out of this problem. This explains why John Smith should probably consider a country like Poland, which was not as affected by the downturn as the UK was.
On the other hand, the business conditions in the UK are more favourable than Poland’s. First, the UK is 16th in the world economic freedom index. Conversely, Poland is 68th in that same index. This indicates that openness to trade and corruption are still a serious problem in Poland. John Smith may need to prepare for the excessive bureaucracy that mars entrepreneurial activity in Poland (World Bank, 2010). This problem is negligible in the UK; the country has transparent regulatory frameworks.
We will write a custom Report on Working and living in UK and Poland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Poland, inconsistent commercial code applications often hinder business operations. Mr. Smith should be cautious about such inconsistencies when he goes to Poland. Anti-corruption is still a significant problem in Poland as the country is 49th among 180 countries. Conversely, the United Kingdom is 17th (Shwab, 2011). This could be a problem to John Smith because he may experience difficulties when resisting corrupt deals or corrupt Polish officials.
When employers severe an employer’s contract, the UK does not require excessive or burdensome compensation; however, this is not true in Poland. In this country, contract termination is fairly complex. Polish employers find it difficult to dismiss employees, and this may work in John Smith’s favour. Since he is not going to Poland to start a business, but to work, then those labour codes can work to his advantage.
Religion and views
The United Kingdom is a highly secularised state. Although most citizens still identify themselves with Christianity, a vast majority of them do not practice their faith. Conversely, the Poles are a deeply religious population. They link their beliefs to their political and cultural systems. Most of their religious holidays are national holidays and few businesses will open on that day. Catholicism is the most popular religion in these two countries.
However, few Britons regard religion as an important part of their lives. Some census polls carried out in the UK have revealed that approximately 65% of the population are not religious. Furthermore, only nine percent of the population has attended church on a weekly basis. Consequently, the level of religiosity in the United Kingdom is quite low (Knippenberg, 2005). This may become a problem for John Smith when he leaves for Poland. He may not fit-in well with the group because of his secular nature.
The Hofstede cultural index is a powerful indicator of a country’s cultural inclinations hence its use in the analysis. The UK’s Power distance score is 35 out of 100, which is a low score. To people in the UK, issues of status, rank and inequality are unimportant. Conversely, Poland’s power distance index score is 50 out of 100.
This explains why the UK addresses the rights of its minorities (Evans, 2007). On a micro level, it also explains why relationships are quite casual between subordinates and seniors. John Smith will need to change his behaviour in order to suit this new environment. He may need to demonstrate greater respect for authority than he currently does.
The UK’s individualism score is 89 out of 100. On the other hand, Poland scored 56 for this. This indicates that people in the UK tend to focus on themselves more than the team in business environments. The Poles have a moderate concern for collective well being. This may challenge Mr. Smith as his workmates may think that he is selfish or inconsiderate.
The uncertainty avoidance score for the UK is 35, which is quite low. Conversely, the Poles scored 69 for this. This means that people in the UK tend to think of conflict in the workplace as a healthy thing, yet the Poles do not. John Smith may need to change his approach to workplace conflicts in order to gain acceptance in the Polish community.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Working and living in UK and Poland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The UK has a masculinity score of 66 while Poland has a masculinity score of 63. Their scores are quite close to one another. The result shows that both countries are striving for equality in the workplace; although there could still be some biases on the same. John Smith will not have to alter his attitude towards women when working in the UK because perceptions in the two countries are similar.
Recommendations John Smith should probably consider taking on the job offer in Poland because the working and living environment in Poland is favourable to him. This country’s economy has been growing steadily over the past few years, and the government has designed its labour laws to protect workers from dismissal. These are all qualities that Mr. Smith will find appealing.
However, he will need to make a few adjustments when he arrives there. First, he will need to show greater respect to superiors and people of greater rank than him. He should also try to be more agreeable with his workmates because Poland is less individualistic than the United Kingdom.
Mr. Smith should dress warmly in Poland because the climate is cooler there than it is in the UK. Furthermore, he needs to learn how to handle the excessive bureaucracy that is prevalent in Poland’s business systems. However, he should be ready to deal with slow or failed projects when contractors fail to deliver because they did not receive bribes. Lastly, Mr. Smith needs to consider the possibility of strikes and other complaints against the government concerning worker’s rights.
References Cannon, J. (2009). A dictionary of British History. Oxford, OUP.
Evans, D. (2007). The History of British magic after Crowley. Oxford, OUP.
Fisher, M. (2006). Counterflows to colonialism. London, Orient Blackswan.
Knippenberg, H. (2005). The changing religious landscape of Europe. Amsterdam, Het Spinhuis.
Shwab, K. (2011). The global competitiveness report. World Economic Forum report, 45-67.
World Bank (2010). Doing business in Poland. Doing Business. Web.
The pros and cons of sex education in school Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Merits of Sex Education
Demerits of Sex Education
Introduction Sex education in schools remains to be a controversial topic as various members of the community debate over its appropriateness. In theory, sex education aims at assisting children and youth in developing a positive view of their sexuality and gaining knowledge and skills that can help them to take care of their sexual health (Kirby 53). Hillier and Mitchell reveal that the contention around the issue arises as communities grapple over who should teach students about sex and how this learning should take place (211).
Its opponents express concern that comprehensive sex education may encourage pupils to become sexually active due to the exposure. Proponents of sex education, on the other hand, see factual knowledge about sex, contraception, and STIs as effective in delaying sexual initiation and reducing STIs. With these divergent views of sex education in mind, this paper will set out to highlight the pros and cons of sex education in school. The paper will authoritatively demonstrate that the merits of sex education outweigh its demerits.
Merits of Sex Education The spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in young people is mainly attributed to low rates of contraceptive use and the lack of information on safe sex practices. Juping reveals that school-based sex education has been documented to have some positive impact on knowledge of methods to prevent STIs and skills in using condoms by youths (188).
This revelation is corroborated by Hillier and Mitchell who acknowledge that prioritizing of sex education in Australia as a proactive response to the HIV pandemic has resulted in great success in deterring the spread of HIV (212). Sex education is therefore advantageous since youths who have it are less prone to HIV infection since they have the necessary information and skills to protect themselves.
Sex education offers practical knowledge such as how to use a condom and how to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Kohler, Manhart, and Yu Lafferty carried out a comparative study on the sexual health risks of youths who had received sex education with those who received no formal sex education (344).
The study revealed that while there was no significant reduction in the incidences of STIs in both groups, comprehensive sex education significantly correlated with fewer pregnancies. This is because sex education gives the youth the necessary skills on contraceptive use hence resulting in safe sex.
Sex education is structured in such a manner that it delivers factual information without instilling any moral values or judgments. A study by Vuttanont et al. on the sex education needs of teenagers in Thailand revealed that teenagers sought information on sex that was clear, non-judgmental and non-prescriptive (2078).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such information is unlikely to come from traditional sources such as the family or religious organization. Sex education, therefore, gives the youth valuable and unbiased information which can be used to make complex choices regarding sex in the real world.
Sex education is essential for young people who come from cultures or families where the topic of sex is not openly discussed. Juping reports that sex is a topic too embarrassing to discuss at home in many cultures although the family is the primary means of the socialization of children and has a significant influence on adolescents (190).
Many parents are less likely to discuss sex-related topics in detail due to many factors including; limited sexual knowledge of parents, differing sexual values, lack of communication skills and parents not receiving sex education from their parents. In such a culture, the youth is forbidden to talk about sex and their only source of sexual information is their peers or television. For such youth, school-based sex education is a valuable source of sexual health and relationships information, and it will empower the youth to make good choices in the future (Selwyn and Powell 229).
Children and youth are curious and will want to gain knowledge about sex. Sex education provided in school is vital in addressing the knowledge gaps between different groups of young people with regards to matters of sex (Selwyn and Powell 219). Without this avenue, the young will resort to other sources of information which may not be as benevolent.
Vuttanont et al. theorize that Sex education is a useful tool for countering media and peer influences that otherwise shapes the youth’s mind on the topic of sex (2073). Teenagers who gain information about sexual intercourse from friends are more likely to adopt liberal sexual attitudes. On the other hand, those who gained the same knowledge from parents and teachers are less likely to engage in sexual activities (Juping 192).
Demerits of Sex Education A major demerit of sex education is that the material taught is mostly against the moral or religious beliefs that the students have been brought up with. As it is, sex education is provided within a secular context, and any moral or religious background of teaching is ignored. The reasoning behind this is that the role of sex education is not to instruct children not to have sex but rather to provide comprehensive and inclusive education on sex.
Religion plays a significant role in the lives of individual and research indicates that religious commitment and participation in religious activities results in sexual abstinence (Juping 191). Religion can, therefore, be seen to have a positive impact on sexual attitudes and initiation among the youth. Sex education, thus, undermines the influence of religious and moral values in guiding young people in matters of sex.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The pros and cons of sex education in school specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sex education results in the acquisition of intimate knowledge on sex by youths who may up until then be uninterested or ignorant of the topic. For this reason, some of the conservative parents believe that there is no need for their children to understand sex until a definitive adult relationship is at hand (Vuttanont et al. 2078).
These parents think that sex education could indeed corrupt the student’s moral standing and incline them to engage in sex. This assumption is supported by Vuttanont et al. who revealed that sex education programs give students information which may result in sexual ideas and experimentation among some students (2070).
A compelling argument raised by opponents of sex education is that the provision of too much or the wrong kind of sexual education can destroy the innocence of the youth.
This is not an unfounded fear since as Hillier and Mitchell concur; comprehensive sex education includes teachings on abstinence, safe sex practices, homosexuality and sexual diversity (212). Since sex education is provided in a value-neutral environment, the youths lack guidance on the matter and are left to do whatever they want with the information provided.
Discussion As can be seen, there are many valid arguments both for and against sex education. However, most of the opposition to sex education is based on the assumption that once young people are made aware of sexual possibilities, they will immediately and without restraint indulge in sexual activities. Hillier and Mitchell note that this paternalistic belief has persisted despite being disapproved by multiple research findings. Research by Kirby suggests that sex education does have a significant effect on sexual behavior or outcome.
As such, the students are not at risk of experimenting with sex due to the sex education they receive (53). In spite of the disadvantages of sex education revealed herein, this education empowers the youth and helps them reach better decisions concerning sex. The discussed provided in this paper have demonstrated that sex education results in adolescents acquiring useful skills that help alleviate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases as well as teenage pregnancies.
Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the pros and cons of providing sex education to students. From the discussions held herein, it is evident that sex education has advantages as well as disadvantages both to the individual students and society at large. However, this paper has demonstrated that the merits of providing this education far outweigh the demerits.
This paper has shown that the commonly held perception that sex education leads to sex is unfounded and should therefore not be used to justify objection to sex education. From this paper, it can be authoritatively stated that holistic sex education is crucial for the youth since it results in better choices on sex being made.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The pros and cons of sex education in school by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Hillier, Lynne and Mitchell Anne. “It was as useful as a chocolate kettle’: sex education in the lives of same-sex- attracted young people in Australia.” Sex Education, 8 (2), 211–224, 2008.
Juping, Yu. “Sex education beyond school: implications for practice and research.” Sex Education, 10(2), 187–199, 2010.
Kirby, Douglas. “Effective approaches to reducing adolescent unprotected sex, pregnancy, and childbearing.” J Sex Res, 39 (1), 51–57, 2002.
Kohler, Paul. Manhart Leonard and Lafferty Edgar. “Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 42 (1), 344–51, 2008.
Selwyn, Neil, and Powell Eryl. Sex and relationships education in schools: the views and experiences of young people. Health Education Volume 107 Number 2 2007 pp. 219-231.
Vuttanont, Uraiwan et al. “’ Smart boys’ and ‘sweet girls’—sex education needs in Thai teenagers: a mixed-method study.” Lancet, 368 (1), 2068-80, 2006.
Depression Psychological Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Chad is going through a condition known as depression. Many people undergo a period of sadness as a normal reaction to the disappointments, struggles and setbacks in life. Depression accounts for more than one in ten years of life lived with disability. Its prevalence is ten percent, and it ranks fourth as causes of disability worldwide.
The first step to managing the condition is to seek help from a medical doctor or preferably a mental health specialist. There are certain medications and medical conditions, for instance hyperthyroidism, which can cause depression-like symptoms. A doctor can examine the patient fully to rule out the differential diagnoses.
If there are no significant findings, a psychological evaluation will have to be done. The case may then be referred to a mental health specialist. Once diagnosed with depression, the specialist will initiate treatment. It should be noted that one treatment will not work for everyone. Treatment is personalized to fit the individual’s needs.
The approach to management is based on the biopsychosocial model. Optimal benefits are achieved from a combined approach. Biological treatment includes the use of antidepressants for six to eight months and if relapse occurs, continue for two years. Other physical treatments include electroconvulsive therapy, light therapy and psychological management.
Electroconvulsive therapy is, however, not preferred by many patients due to its numerous side effects. These include confusion, disorientation and memory loss. These side effects usually disappear with time. The patient should give informed consent before allowing the procedure to be performed on them.
Examples of antidepressants used include Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors and Mono-amide Oxidize Inhibitors. According to the Monoamine Hypothesis, these serve to increase the serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels. Medications relieve the symptoms but are not a cure.
There are two types of psychotherapies in use: cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps the individual think positive about themselves. It also helps in identifying the cause of the depression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interpersonal therapy helps the individual understand and solve relationship problems that may be the cause their condition. Chad should learn how to recognize and accept his emotions. He should also ask for help from his friends and relatives. A strong social support system will speed up his recovery. For mild and moderate depression, psychotherapy is enough treatment.
He should make healthy lifestyle changes. They are not easy to make, but they have a significant impact on depression. He should cultivate supportive relationships, exercise regularly and get adequate sleep. Eating healthy food and learning how to manage stress is also helpful. He should consider practicing relaxation methods and techniques. Learning how to build his emotional skills will give him the ability to cope with any adversities and trauma he experiences.
He will become resilient if he learns how to express his emotions. He should also break up heavy and large tasks to small ones. He should expect the depressive mood to improve gradually and not immediately. He should postpone important decisions until he feels better. He should set realistic goals for himself and continuously educate himself on depression.
According to the ‘Attachment theory’, the relationship between an infant and the adult taking care of them dictates whether the individual will get depressive disorder in adulthood. An early loss or separation by the caregiver may all lead to insecurities in the future as the individual will feel unloved and unwanted. Chad should consider talking to a counselor in case an incident like this happened in his life.
References Darjee R., Jonathan B., McIntosh A., Sempel D., Smyth R. (Eds.). (2005). Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry. London: Oxford University Press.
Rohan K. J., Lindsey K., Roecklein A. (2007). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy and their combination in treating seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80, 273-283.
Cochran SV, Rabinowitz F. E. (2004). Men and Depression: clinical and empirical perspectives, San Diego: Academic Press.
We will write a custom Essay on Depression Psychological Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More NIMH. Depression – National Institutes of Health (NIH). (n.d.). Web.
Performance Management Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effective employee performance management
Performance management for profit agencies
Introduction Performance management is a set of tools that the management uses to ensure the set strategic goals and targets are achieved. According to Insala (2006), it broadly starts from the strategic management stage, trickling down to the actual performers. Ultimately, the employees who are involved to a set of the evaluation procedure that in general constitute performance management practices. This involves planning, monitoring, developing, rating, and rewarding the human resource (Franco-Santos, et al. 2007).
Effective employee performance management This success substantially depends on the employee’s motivation and rewards offered. According to Grumman 2005, the day-to-day management of employees’ performance is the key to effective employee performance management. First, their mindset should be structured towards greater involvement.
They are then to be monitored through continuous assessments and test. Third, their capacity to work is further improved through development programmes that tend to improve knowledge, competencies, and work related skills such as using up-to-date technological systems (Calandro and Lane 2007). They are then rated and evaluated against a given performance scale and rewarded from the appraisal reports appropriately (Rebecca, 2009).
New Trends There is changing trend in the evaluation of employee performance in the use of systems. Most organizations are revamping their previous systems with new generation (performance) management software, according to the Development Dimensions International (DDI) (Insala, 2006). This has led to automation of the majority of the HR function that was previously done as paper work (Grumman 2005).
The human resource function is increasingly being integrated. In this endeavour, the goals of the employees are being linked with the general goals of the organization. The Business Forum (2011) suggests that the heightened link between reward programmes to performance is escalating. In addition, target learning aimed at reducing performance gaps through identification of top skills and performers for retention is on the rise.
Performance management for profit agencies Profit agencies face many challenges. For them, ‘Training is not Enough’ (Villegas 2006). Costs in these organizations have to be minimized at every available opportunity. As such, organisations only engage in investment ventures that will ensure maximization of resources available to ensure sustained profitability in the long term (Forstenlechner et al. 2007, Fink et al. 2005).
For instance, automation would be an opportune venture as it advances to reduce the costs of hiring more workers. There is increased reliability and efficiency in the output. Notwithstanding, Rebecca (2009), suggests that employee retention is one practice that has been growing on a wide scale in various organizations across the globe, ensuring that target learning is attained to the benefit of the organization. Profit agencies have also not been left behind in the adoption of the new trend.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is particularly because these trends are visionary in their efforts to reduce costs, improve reliability, and ensure employee satisfaction by making them feel as part of the organization when majority of the training exercise is geared towards improvement of their capacities: skills and competences (Budhwar and Aryee, nd, Spender
Romeo and Juliet Essay cheap essay help
Romeo and Juliet is one of the greatest love stories of all time. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by Shakespeare and it is thought to have been written in 1595 or 1596. The play is set in the city of Verona. It is a tragic love story and the love between Romeo and Juliet eventually killed them in the end. Romeo and Juliet were responsible for their own destiny and from the start to the end they their love remains strong.
The young lovers Romeo and Juliet are both from families who hated each other for centuries. Their love causes many tragic events to occur as they are from a family of Capulet and Montague. Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story of a forbidden love due to their families’ strong objection to their love. The two young lovers’ untimely death ultimately united their feuding families.
“William Shakespeare was born allegedly on April 23, 1564 in Stratford- Upon-Avon. The church records of Holy Trinity show that he was baptized on April 26th, 1564. In reality” (Shakespeare’s Birth para. 1) the actual date of Shakespeare’s birthday is unknown. William Shakespeare father was John Shakespeare who was a Glover and leather merchant. His mother was Mary Aden who was a landed local heiress. According to the church register of Holy trinity, William Shakespeare was the third of eight children.
Little is known about Shakespeare’s education and it is alleged that he probably attended the endowed grammar school of Stratford where he learned “little Latin and less Greek” as referred by Ben Johnson. In 1582, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years his senior. In 1587, Shakespeare left his family to pursue his dreams in London where joined Burbage’s company of players. Shakespeare poems marked the beginning of his success.
His poem “Venus and Adonis” became immensely popular in London. After this he wrote a succession of wonderful plays, – Merchant of Venice, As you like it, twelfth night, Julius Ceaser , Hamlet, Mac Beth, Othello, King Lear, Antony and Cleopatra etc. “At the time of Shakespeare’s death twenty- one plays existed in manuscripts in various theaters” (William).
There are many controversies as to when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Apart from this, many historians are claiming that the works of Shakespeare are really the work of Edward de Vere. “Many Oxfordians believe that the true author of Shakespeare’s plays was an aristocrat named Edward De Vere” (History of Doubts Surrounding the Authorship of Shakespeare’s Works). Edward de Vere was the 17th Earl of Oxford and was born in 1550. He graduated from Cambridge University at a tender age of 14.
The theories that the work of Shakespeare’s was that of Edward de Vere was based on the upbringing , knowledge , education and many of the similarities of works between the two writer. Many historians believed that the Edward De Vere wrote plays and sonnets under the pseudonym of Shakespeare. Despite all these allegations and theories, there is no concrete proof to that Edward de Vere was the real author of Shakespeare’s plays as many of Shakespeare’s plays were written after the death of Edward De Vere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Romeo and Juliet, the development of characters eventually led to the tragedy of the main characters. The characters developed throughout the story. In the beginning of the story, we are introduced to a young girl Juliet. Juliet is the daughter of Capulet and Lady Capulet. The development of Juliet in the play is the most dynamic as she undergoes a huge transformation in terms of love, loyalty and maturity. At the beginning of the play Juliet is a carefree and innocent girl who is not ready to settle down in life.
When her nurse jokes about the sexual life of marriage to Juliet, Juliet goes on to tell the nurse that ‘It is an honor that I have not dreamt of’ “(Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5). From this we can see that Juliet is not ready to marry yet and has not taken the responsibility of settling down in life. Juliet in the beginning shows no intention of marrying and has not taken the responsibility of fulfilling her parents wish.
Juliet rapidly evolves into a mature young lady and transforms into a determined, sober-minded woman in the four day span in the play. Her sense of loyalty to her parents is shown in her dutiful determination to try to love Paris, her fiancée, “I’ll look to like, if looking liking move” (Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5). She is an obedient who is respectfully to her mother and sensible towards her parents need, “Madam, I am here, / what is your will?” (Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5).
Juliet rapidly transform from a carefree young girl to a lady after she falls in love with Romeo. She no longer feels the need to comply her parents wish or the need to sacrifice her happiness for her parents. She revolts against her parents by and stands by her decision to die rather than marry a person whom she does not love: “If all else fail, myself have power to die”(Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5 244). Her love for Romeo makes her defy her parents wish.
In her relationship with Romeo, Juliet gives her all and is loving, faithful and strong. She is the one who suggests that they get married even without their parents’ approval. Often times, Romeo is rash in decision, but Juliet always seems to be clear headed. Her maturity is seen in the balcony scene of Act 11, scene 2, when she comments about the rashness of their love “It is too rash, too unadvis’d, too sudden.”
Juliet lives under the control of a patriarch. She has very little freedom and is completely dependent on her father. However, she is prepared to leave everything dear to her life and marry her lover Romeo. She matures throughout the play and abandons her family to be with Romeo.
Juliet bravery is noteworthy as she is a mere child of 14 years old. She makes logical decision and does not rush to anything. Even when Romeo kills Tybalt in his rash decision, Juliet takes time to think about her decision to marry Romeo. She does not blindly follow Romeo when she makes a decision that her guiding priorities should be her true love, Romeo.
We will write a custom Essay on Romeo and Juliet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After a lot of thinking and reflecting, she finally awakes from her prior social life – the nurse, her parents as well as her social standing in Verona to reunite with her lover. When Juliet wakes from her sleep in the tomb to find her husband dead, she stabs herself with a dagger out of the intensity of her love for Romeo. Juliet development from an innocent, naïve girl to a strong, independent woman is one of Shakespeare triumph in characterization.
The love of Romeo and Juliet is a remarkable love as they have to undergo many obstacles to be united. Many good things come out of their love as their death finally united the family of Capulet and Montague. It is a tragedy that their families have to find out through the death of the young lovers that love always triumphs. The death of Romeo and Juliet finally end the bitter feud between the Capulet and Montague. The Chorus also reminds us that “their death [will] bury their parents’ strife,” (Shakespeare
Privacy in Small and Large Business Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction This document tries to look at the issue of privacy in e-business. It looks at both insecure open environment and overly secure environment in doing e-business. Of importance in the discussion are the advantages and disadvantages of the two that will help in weighing and comparing; hence, selecting the best alternative.
The whole discussion is about two key areas in doing business; Privacy and security. Sometimes we have invasions to privacy as well as insecurity issues in business. This calls for wise decision in selection. On the other hand, customers complain especially when they have no access to information about the company that they have invested in due to restrictions in the business.
This compromises the level of customer service and satisfaction. “Internet users including businesses are apprehensive about privacy and security” (Drumheller, 2008). Although the choice of either insecure open environment or overly secure environment is not simple due to associated advantages and disadvantages of each, businesses must decide to implement an e-commerce platform (Drumheller, 2008).
Insecure open environment An insecure open environment ensures availability of services to customers without denial of any kind while paying little attention to security risks. According to Will (2011), insecure open environment allows customers to access information with ease. It does not need one to login first before accessing the information.
Strengths and weaknesses
Pondent (1999) says that, “businesses that have an online presence, can choose to operate in a secure and open environment, or in an insecure environment”. This means that any decision taken has both its strengths and weaknesses. Insecure open environment has a number of strengths.
It gives quality customer service hence, there is satisfaction among them. Corr (1999) compares overly secure environment to shuttering of a shop when customers wants to buy. This implies that an insecure open environment is more customers oriented than the latter.
Open environment helps customers in getting services at their own convenient time. Will (2011) supports insecure open environment due to its low implementation costs. In other words, this means minimizing operational expenses hence, more profit to the business; however, insecure open environment posses a lot of risks to the business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Will (2011), the information can be breached by hackers or even crackers. Corr (1999), emphasizes on the inability for businesses, which operate day and night, to openly deal with security matters. This creates an avenue for fraud.
Overly secure environment This kind of environment is restricted to access, whereby transactions are conducted in a secure manner. Data access is confidential and free from outside interception or misuse (Corr, 1999).
Strengths and weaknesses
It is secure. Corr (1999) talks of security in terms of digital certificates like of authority like ATM cards that verifies the identity of the certificate holder. One must login to access his/her account through the PIN number. Most of these contain owner’s name, key, and expiry date depending on the business. It is disadvantageous in that customers need to establish a login account to access information (Will, 2011). Also the cost of implementing it is higher as compared to insecure open environment.
The ethical issues that must be addressed in the selection process are; security. This protects the customers and the business information from misuse. Also privacy is important. Customer’s identification should be a secret. It should remain confidential. Trust is also very important. Customers need to trust their company in the way they conduct their business, and the lastly is the legal requirements (Byron, 2001).
Conclusion An overly secure environment is the best. According to Drumheller (2008), “the secure site offers secure communication with its users via encryption, and protects their data via firewalls”. If the only options available are the two discussed above, the secured environment is the better alternative, because of the trust factor with customers, and the obvious security it provides.
However, assurances and precautions must be in place when disseminating information between parties in the business to protect them from loss, misuse and/or alterations at all times (Liu
Beauty and Culture Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Varied Beauty Perspective in Spain, America and China
Introduction Beauty also called prettiness, loveliness or comeliness is a characteristic of a person or idea that provides a experience of pleasure or satisfaction. It is a function of a culture. Beauty can be seen everywhere from paintings to magazines and television. It is all about trying ideally (Lam 1).
Magazines have been used as a media of showing off beauty. In addition, a lot of spending goes in the so called beauty preparations. Hence, beauty and money are two inseparable aspects. Most people who deal with beauty products have been pinpointed as being extremely rich in this current society.
Varied Beauty Perspective in Spain, America and China The essence of beauty is not similar for every culture. Different cultures have different perspectives of beauty. For the Americans, the ideal beauty and world’s highest models have been predictably white and blonde.
The white, blonde and blue –eyed look has been declining for some time as the cosmetic industry is adapting to the growing markets such as China and Latin America (Roncato 1). In the United States, to be beautiful is to be attractive, differential, unaggressive, emotional, nurturing and to be concerned with people and relationships. On the other hand, China describes beauty based on facial aspect.
China began appreciating western brands but has recently reverted to the local taste. Spain, on the other hand, has adapted the ultra option for the beauty scene just like in the U.S. They describe beauty for women by the so-called size-six appearance. This though has resulted into a saga as the government tried to prevent eating disorders by banning certain beauty focused advertisements. The US and Spanish criterion for beauty is thinness.
Beauty is a construct that varies from culture to culture and changes over time. In the U.S, beauty is constructed in terms of the bodily parts while in China beauty constitutes a pretty face. While Chinese are having their cosmetic industry growing, the U.S and Spain are concentrating on the fashion industry in terms of clothing. In china porcelain skin is valued while in America it’s more of the body parts, curves and the ultimate size and shape thing (Lam 1).
Beauty for sure varies from culture to culture. That is to say different countries use the so-called beautiful for different purposes. Most magazines in these two countries have demonstrated women’s role in the society as sexual objects rather than being given respect in the society as their male counterparts (Wood 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the men have also shown increasingly more attraction to exposing themselves in magazines, they are not as frequently as compared to the woman’s beauty exposure. On the other hand, Chinese beauty is not mainly for sexual pursuit but rather the women are represented as decorous and their clothing is always less sexually suggestive.
Conclusion The constriction of beauty advertised in various magazines from various cultures shows variability among different cultures. However, the essence of globalization might change this perspective. As much as the media it trying to paint a good picture of the basic use of magazines in various countries, globalization tends to paint a wrong picture of the whole matter. Most people believe that the ideal nature of beauty is in the context of the U.S. This is not true.
Different cultures have their own representation of beauty. What is influencing the other non western culture is the issue of media globalization. This has attracted various forms of interaction that has influenced other cultures. Although this might be so for the present perspective, originality still counts. The preservation of culture is ideal for every group of people which helps to identify each culture by its uniqueness.
Works Cited Lam, Derek. “Beauty in China”. Vogue Daily 9th Nov. 2010: Print.
Roncato, Stefano. “The Golden story”. Magazine for Fashion 28th Oct. 2011: 63. Print.
Wood, Zoe. “Changing Faces: Cosmetic Firms are Forced to Find a New Image as Beauty Truly Goes Global”. The Observer 3rd July 2011: Print.
Market Strategy Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Value proposition, differentiation and positioning
Abstract This article explains the market strategy of Persil laundry detergent Company which was developed from close consideration of the current customer needs and the market environment. Market segmentation is strategy that has been used and segments Persil laundry detergent Company differentiates itself from the other competing companies such as Aerial and Omo detergents.
Some of the ways that it uses to differentiate itself is by coming up with new products which are packed in new looking packets that communicate a lot of information and are acceptable by the segmented customer market. The new products provide the customers with extra services at compared to the other detergents hence giving us the advantage over the other companies.
Introduction Market segmentation is a concept found in both marketing and economics and it involves dividing the market into smaller segments of individual groups which have similar wants and needs. There are two major categories of segmentation i.e. industrial market segmentation and consumer based segmentation.
In this article we will mainly focus on consumer-based segmentation since the sales of the product we are marketing (Persil laundry detergent) can be significantly increased if we applied this approach. The main aim of consumer-based segmentation is to divide the customers according to their specific needs and wants and to make it easier for the marketers to target them, convince and retain them.
Market segmentation The consumers (markets) can be categorized into three main segments i.e. behavioral segmentation, Psychographic segmentation and lastly geodemographic segmentation.
Geodemographic can be split into two segments (geographic and demographic segmentation) but considering them together as one segment helps marketers get more accurate results in that geodemographic considers the needs of the consumer population together with the geographical areas that they cover.
In a nut shell geodemographic kills two birds with one stone. In the case of marketing Persil laundry detergent geodemographical segmentation would be involve area covered by the customers (i.e. the whole country), class, religion, education and age of the target customers of which the main in our case is the middle aged females and the bachelors since they are the ones who mainly shop for the laundry detergents (Christian, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Psychographics segmentation applies the principles of psychology and demographics with the aim of understanding consumers. It segmentation therefore divides consumers according to their personality, lifestyles and values.
We can generally say that our target customers usually have a lot of chores to attend to and they would greatly value a detergent that saves them some few minutes by removing the dirt together with the stubborn stains from their laundry immediately it comes into contact with the clothes i.e. in a single wash. Mentioning this to the customers on advertisements and printing it on the detergent packets would help a lot in achieving this (Hawkins and David, 2009).
Behavioral segmentation groups the customer market according to the customers attitude towards certain products, their knowledge about it and lastly their responses towards it. This clearly shows that the marketers must obtain accurate information concerning the above three from their customers and by so doing they are able to retain the customers for as long as possible.
Value proposition, differentiation and positioning Value proposition is a statement that businesses and marketers use to convince potential customers to buy their products instead of those of their competitors it summarizes the additional benefits that the customers will gain from their product. This is achieved by how a business differentiates itself from its competitors and positions itself at a distinct position with an advantage over its competitors (Robertwinton, 2007).
Differentiation on the other hand is simply the act of developing a set of differences that clearly distinguish what a company offers from what its competitors are offering. Each difference that a company develops comes with a cost of implementing it but also there is an overall benefit from what it communicates to the consumers.
Therefore, the benefits of the differences must be more than the cost for them to be profitable to a business. The decisions that are made during differentiation are what positions a business in the market in other words differentiation leads to the positioning of a business either at an advantaged position or a disadvantaged one. According to Phillip Kotler (2009),
“Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and identity (that will create a planned image) so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct competitive position in the target customer’s minds. The end result of positioning is the creation of a market-focused value proposition, a simple clear statement of why the target market should buy the product”.
We will write a custom Essay on Market Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The relationship between the three concepts (value proposition, differentiation and positioning) is now clear i.e. differentiation leads to positioning and positioning results in creation of a value proposition which convinces customers to by one product and not the other (Littler, 1995, p 34).
The value proposition of Persil laundry detergent is in a simple statement,”Wash out the dirt not the colors”. A lot of customers are usually discouraged y how most of the detergents end up washing away the original color of their clothes leaving them faded. Also on the packet of Persil laundry detergent is some simple instructions on how to use it and it clearly shows that Persil laundry detergent does all the work of removing all the dirt in a single wash.
The two main competitors of Persil laundry detergent are Aerial and Omo detergents. The two companies are still young but they are growing at a very high rate that seems threatening to Persil laundry detergent which has been the major detergent in the market for decades.
Aerial’s value proposition is also in for of a simple statement that states that ‘Aerial is your cheapest laundry solution’. This is one of thing that puts the other two companies at an advantaged position since customers perceive Aerial as only economical but not the best. Omo detergents also have a value proposition which is a bit better than that of Aerial and it states that ‘Omo multi active detergent removes all stubborn stains’.
This kind of assures the customers that Omo detergents will give them the best results by simply removing all the stubborn stains from their laundry. What they miss to quote is that the original color of the clothes will still remain unharmed hence leaving us a t an advantaged position i.e. the customer is assured that Persil laundry detergent will remove all the dirt, including the stubborn stains, on their but leave them as they were before.
As you know, the whole world is trying to develop green technologies that are environmental friendly. This is as a result of the increased environmental degradation which has in the long run affects the health of us humans by causing some diseases that claim a lot of lives in the societies.
This has also drawn the attention of Persil laundry Detergents Company and as result; we have come up with a herbal version of Persil laundry detergent. The new Herbal detergent performs even better than the previous one due to the fact that it contains some natural components extracted from natural herbs and they are environmental friendly since they are biodegradable.
This idea convinces customers to buy our product because they will receive the better service from our product and they will be actively participating in environmental conservation. This put us in an advantages position from our competitors who are still producing the old chemical detergent which in some way is not environmental friendly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Market Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Our new positioning statement will be ‘Go green and wash out the dirt not the colors’. This will also displayed in the new look of our packets which will contain a green color with some of sample drawings of the herbs that are used in manufacturing the detergent.
Conclusion There are numerous benefits of a well-planned market strategy among them being the development and definition of the goals of a business and the possible ways of achieving them. One thing that allows businesses to continue thriving is the achievement of the goals that were put in place and for this to be attained the business must be able to acquire and retain customers. This can only be done through marketing and sales since they are the only business functions that directly deals with the customers in all forms of businesses.
References Christian, G. (2008). The Marketing Strategy Continuum: Towards a Marketing Concept for the 1990s. New York: MCB UP Ltd.
Hawkins, D. and David, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy. UK: McGraw-Hill College.
Kotler, P. (2009) Marketing Strategy – Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering. Web.
Littler, D. (1995). Marketing strategy. Oxford: Butterworth.
Robertwinton. (2007). Develop A Product Marketing Strategy. Web.
The Cause of China’s Inflation Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects of inflation in China
Causes of inflation in China
Introduction In May 2011, China’s inflation reached 5.5% mark; this is despite all the interventions and efforts by the government to control the rise in price of commodities. China’s National Bureau of statistics realized that the inflation was more than 5.3% in April, and this led to the announcement to increase the reserve requirement ratio by China’s Central Bank (Fewsmith 48).
The increase was effected from June 2011, with a deposit of 0.5% for all financial institutions. The inflation has had impacts on the economy of China thus affecting the lives of the Chinese people. This paper will discuss the effects and causes of inflation in China.
Effects of inflation in China The effect of inflation is felt in various ways by the economy; first, the supply of fruits and food reduced. The supply is affected by the increase of prices of food in the global market, whereby, the Chinese government finds it difficult to satisfy the food demand of the increasing population of the Chinese population.
The increase in prices of food has caused a reduction in purchasing power of Chinese people, with this; life has become more difficult for Chinese people because they cannot do without the items (Klein and Shabbir, 102). The Chinese people are now struggling to live because the money they earn is no longer enough to satisfy their needs.
The prices of other products have also increased; therefore, the cheap products produced by the Chinese people to the world markets are no longer cheap because of the inflation. The costs of raw materials together with labor wage increases has led to an increase in the costs of production; it is because of the high cost of production that the price of finished goods have increased leading to a reduction in demand of goods from China. The sector that is most affected is that producing apparel, toys and furniture.
Causes of inflation in China The inflation is caused by few key factors, and one of them is the strict control of currency by the Chinese government. The Chinese government argues that the strict control of currency will ensure that the country always has enough funds to pay for clearing its debts; however, this control has an indirect effect on the country’s economy.
The strict control makes the importation of food as well as energy resources to be more expensive (Fewsmith 63). When the energy resources are expensive they increase the cost of production because it is one of the factors of production; this, in turn, increases the price of finished products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase in price of Chinese goods in the international market has reduced the demand for the goods, which leads to a reduction in the exports.
The reduction in exports coupled with the Chinese growing population then continues to increase for consumer goods in China and because the goods made locally are expensive for the Chinese population to afford the imports becomes more (Klein and Shabbir, 99). The country contributes to increased inflation by consuming more imports than before thus increasing need to use more of its foreign exchange reserves.
The Chinese growth in population has suffered a lot because of the increase in food prices in the world market; the increase has caused an increase in food price in China as well, with the increase going as far as 50%.
This means that the little money earned by the Chinese citizen, most of it is spent on food and other products and services whose prices has increased, and as a result, the minimum wages have increased. The increased level of spending on food and other expensive products leave citizens with any fund to save or invest; also, they fear spending all of what they have for fear of the future.
The global market has also increased prices for raw materials, which take the biggest portion of cost of production; this has led to the increase of price of finished products and in turn reduced the demand for Chinese products (Fewsmith 56).
Another issue of Chinese inflation is that China exports more than it imports; this creates current surplus. The government is then is forced to print money for sale so that foreigners can have currency to buy their products, and when all these money is supplied in the Chinese economy, it increases the inflation further (Academy of Political Science (U.S.) 77). This trend will continue as long as China continues to export more and more, unless solution is sought to help China to deal with its exports without having to print currency.
Conclusion The Chinese government is trying hard to reduce the inflation and considering the causes. It is evident that money circulation is the biggest problem and China being a country that is so active in business activities, money circulation should be under control. To control the circulation of money, both local and foreign currency, the Chinese Central bank has increased lending rate to commercial banks; this will help to strengthen the weakening Chinese currency.
We will write a custom Essay on The Cause of China’s Inflation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Academy of Political Science (U.S.). China’s Developmental Experience. New York: Academy of Political Science, 2009. Print.
Fewsmith, Joseph. China Today, China Tomorrow: Domestic Politics, Economy, and Society. Lanham: Rowman
An Analysis of Almost Maine Essay a level english language essay help
I enjoyed “Almost, Maine” because of the honesty it had shown its spectators. The cast of couples were introduced to the audience with their eccentricities, their hurts and their needs with affection and warmth thus building a link between the characters and the viewers. The play used metaphors to define the story in fuelling the personal connections of the audience to the play. Metaphors used in the play remind us of what is really important in life as we move through our days.
The purpose of the play is to send a message to its audience that love should not be taken for granted. The main concept of the play is that love allows us to see the magic and wonders that exist around us but often goes unnoticed. Each story in the play explored gaining or losing love. Some characters discovered love in the least expected manner while others rekindled love. Each scene in the play climaxed with a magical moment. This is the moment when the characters realize they have found love.
The play is about the consequences of taking the risk of falling in love. It is about the terrifying, elating at the same time fulfilling possibility of falling in love. The play shows the bravery of the characters in taking a chance in love and how they deal with the outcomes of their decisions. An opportunity for discussion is being provided by “Almost, Maine” on the topic of the moments of choice and fundamental risks we take in our relationships whenever we communicate our needs and wishes.
This paper aims to explore the ideas of love by analyzing the characters at their crucial moment of choice and evaluating the element of magic in that given moment. The ideas of possibility, growth and commitment in love will be the main topic of discussion. First we explore the possibility of love despite a heartbreak in the scene “In Her Heart”.
Glory travelled to Maine to see the northern stars because she wanted to pay her respects to her late husband who broke her heart by cheating on her. Literally, Glory kept her broken heart in a bag which she carried along with her. She camped out on the yard of a repairman, East, who fell in love with her at first sight. Glory declined East’s proposal of love because she could not give or receive love with a broken heart.
East a repairman offered to fix her broken heart and in the last part they ended up in each other’s arms in love. The idea of this scene is that even when we are hurt by the people we love and decide not to love again because of the tremendous pain we felt before, still we cannot stop love from coming to us in the most unexpected way. Wounds heal even if we are not aware of it. Sometimes it would take meeting another person to fix a broken heart.
The magic in this scene appeared when Glory met East who offered to fix herat broken heart. Another idea worth exploring is commitment in love which is best portrayed in the scene “Getting It Back”. One night Gayle came over to her boyfriend’s house, Landell, to give all his love back and get all her love from him as well. She had concluded that Landell doesn’t love her anymore because he never proposed to her. She returned sacks of Landell’s love and demanded to get all the love she gave him back.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stunned, Landell gave her a tiny bag. Surprise to receive a tiny bag of love, Gayle denied that a small bag represented all the love she gave to him. Curious, she opened the bag found a ring then Landell proposed to her. Love is often associated with commitment and loyalty to the person you love. It is in the power of commitment to spend the rest of your life with the person you love that shows that the love you share with that person has gone to a higher and more serious level.
This happens when lovers have been together for a long time that they are already certain that the love and passion they share is their faith. The magic in this scene is that material things can represent love which cannot be seen. In this case Glory’s ring is a representation of Landell’s love for her. In marriage a ring represents love and commitment.
Lastly, the idea of growth in love is essential in our analysis of the scene “Sad and Glad. In the scene, Jimmy accidentally bumped into his old girlfriend, Sandrine in a bar. She disappeared one night and never came back. Jimmy, who still hoped to reconcile with her found out a heartbreaking truth, Sandrine was engaged to be married the next day and she was having her bachelorette party in that same bar.
Jimmy showed Sandrine his tattoo that says “Villian” and explains that it should be “Villain” because he wasn’t able to get a hold of her. Sandrine walks off to her bachelorette party, leaving Jimmy sad and depress. A twist of faith happened when a lonely lady named Villian appeared and became Jimmy’s new friend.
The scene ended by hinting to the audience that Jimmy and Villian will fall in love. We are all hurt when someone we love abandon us. For every relationship that ends, letting go and moving on has always been difficult. In the case of Jimmy he was brave enough to let go of Sandrine in the end and meeting Villian proved to be a promising way for him to move on.
The magic was revealed in Jimmy’s tattoo which was accidentally misspelled to the name of his destiny. “Almost, Maine” is a moving play that is sweet and insightful. The play has realness in its stories that keeps audience adoring it because the latter can relate. Love is portrayed in this play as something shocking, cold, dangerous and difficult but at the same time it is also exciting, refreshing and full of hope. It is a wonderful play which explores the ideas of love in terms of possibility, commitment and growth.
The Nature Principle Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the Thesis
My perception of the book
Alternative Ways of achieving the above goals
Introduction Richard Louv is a renowned author of the 21st century. The author has written a number of books that have caught the eye of the public. Perhaps his most successful book was Last Child in the Woods in which he talked about how children of this generation suffer from nature deficient disorder.
In this book, he focused on the importance of nature in the growth and development of children. In his new book, The Nature Principle, Louv has shifted his concentration from children to all other age groups of the community. The main theme of the book is the importance of nature to the life and well-being of man.
In this new book, Louv clearly states the current trend of man. He says that man has put a lot of effort and concentration on technology. This has affected his interaction with nature. To explain this, he talks about the importance of nature in improving the lives of teenagers, young adults and the older people of the society. With the use of various personal experiences, methods and principles, Louv is positive that nature is an importance aspect in improving the lives of individuals.
To explain the nature principle, Louv says, “The Nature Principle is about the power of living in nature—not with it, but in it… twenty-first century will be the century of human restoration in the natural world” (Louv 6). From the discussions and the examples that have been presented in the book, it is therefore essential for man to reconnect with nature in order to improve their well being, health, spirit and survival (Louv 3).
Summary of the Thesis According to the author of the book The Nature Principle, the year 2008 marked the world`s history for the first time to have more than half of the world`s population living in urban settlements (Louv 9).
These individuals live a life that is characterised with a lot of building, congestion, traffic, pollution and high state technology. They have minimal influence to the environment and nature. This may have contributed greatly to the poor health conditions of the individuals living in urban areas, high stress levels, low life expectancies and poor social life.
To support this argument, Louv came up with seven different concepts/theories. He states that, “ I describe the future shaped by what I call the nature principle, an amalgam of converging theories and trends as well as reconciliation of old truths” (Louv 3). According to Louv, the application of these theories in the life of man will increase the level of sustainability in life. People will be more connected to nature, understand its needs and requirements, utilize these resources to their advantage and maintain the status of nature.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My perception of the book From my own perspective, I think the argument that is presented in the book is practical. However, the full applicability of these concepts is questionable. Through reasonable planning, these concepts can be used to achieve our overall goals and objectives in life. The world that we are living in currently is growing at an alarming rate. All the sectors of the economy are experiencing a dramatic growth and development.
The field of information technology has been the fasted growing sector for the last few years. These developments have made our lives to be high-tech. In the book, Louv states that, “We even hear of the talk of the transhumant or posthuman era in which people are enhanced by technology…” (Louv 4). However, it is essential for this growth to be in line with nature. This is because all the resources that we need in life come from nature (Louv 127).
Our interaction with nature also tends to improve our physical and mental well-being. That is why we need to go on vacations, visit gardens to relax and escape the fast city life. This relieves us from the stress and daily pressure that we are always in. The life that most city dwellers live in has a lot of destructions. In his book, Louv states that, “You are writing e-mail, watching TV and answering phones. You`ve got your head in so many channels. Your body could be collapsing and you cannot even realise it” (Louv 25).
While we are in the outdoors of nature, we tend to meet and interact with friends, family, strangers and nature. Man is a social creature. We therefore need to interact with other people in order to find joy and love. These are essential ingredients of life. It is also true that nature represents part of our identity and personal history.
We should therefore take much consideration and put a lot of effort in ensuring its status is maintained. We will hence maintain our natural habitat and improve the status of our natural resources. This will in turn improve our lives and economies.
Our natural habitat is our status symbol all we do depends on our interaction with nature. Through a hybrid mind, we will be able to incorporate technological development with nature (Louv 79). Louv states that, “This research also suggest that individuals can also proceed on their own to gain a natural intellectual and creative advantage by tapping into nature” (Louv 31).
This can be achieved through creative thinking, creativity and increased intelligence. All these factors can be achieved if man is in tune with nature and appreciates it. The principles presented in this book are applicable in the life that we are living in right now. Currently, we need to be in touch with nature and maintain it in order to achieve our developmental goals and objectives.
We will write a custom Essay on The Nature Principle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Alternative Ways of achieving the above goals It is almost impossible to substitute the resources and benefits that we get from nature. In this book, Louv has presented an argument that has shown the importance of nature in achieving a balanced existence. The overall outcome of these theories can on the other hand be achieved through sound economic, social and political principles.
By creating self-sustaining rules and regulations, man can be able to achieve his social, economic and political needs with the available resources that he has at his disposal. This will make his life to be relaxed and comfortable.
Conclusion This book is a useful tool to help us understand and improve on the life that we are living in at the present moment. It is true that man has over time grown apart with nature. This may have contributed greatly to some of the problems that we are currently experiencing. However, with the application of these principles, we will be able to overcome these problems and improve on the rate of achieving our developmental goals and objectives.
Work Cited Louv, Richard. The Nature Principle. New York: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2011
Analysis of “The Falling Man” Essay writing essay help
Reader Impact From the beginning of the article, the reader is already gripped by the strong image of the “falling man”. It is as if it has the power to hypnotize due to its bizarre subject. Junod (2009) writes,
“In the picture, he departs from this earth like an arrow. Although he has not chosen his fate, he appears to have, in his last instants of life, embraced it.”
It makes the reader think deeply if this statement is true basing it from the way the picture is depicted. It is a dramatic, graphic, engrossing start of a long but read-worthy article.
Reader Interest Junod makes the reader read on with the information he baits with. He intersperses the information with dramatic flair of description. On the people’s reaction to the bombing, he writes,
“They began jumping not long after the first plane hit the North Tower, not long after the fire started. They kept jumping until the tower fell. They jumped through windows already broken and then, later, through windows they broke themselves. They jumped to escape the smoke and the fire; they jumped when the ceilings fell and the floors collapsed; they jumped just to breathe once more before they died. They jumped continually, from all four sides of the building, and from all floors above and around the building’s fatal wound.”
From this, the reader can get the feeling of panic and chaos and it is as if he is brought to that exact time that the writer describes.
Emotion and Fact The article is dripping with both emotion and fact. Junod writes objectively how people felt but his words are easily translated to emotions that the reader feels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Americans responding to the worst terrorist attack in the history of the world with acts of heroism, with acts of sacrifice, with acts of generosity, with acts of martyrdom, and, by terrible necessity, with one prolonged act of — if these words can be applied to mass murder — mass suicide.”
Mood and Atmosphere The mood and atmosphere of the article was morose, very dark and hinting of helplessness. The characters in the story seemed to be numb and preferred it that way instead of wallow in the pain of the situation. Junod writes,
“In a nation of voyeurs, the desire to face the most disturbing aspects of our most disturbing day was somehow ascribed to voyeurism, as though the jumpers’ experience, instead of being central to the horror, was tangential to it, a sideshow best forgotten.”
It sums up the sentiments of the author as he struggled to defend the point of view of the photographer of the picture and the strong reactions of the people to the picture that they would rather silence.
Thematic Unity The theme of the article was unified by the photograph of the falling man which branched out to several stories surrounding it… the story of the photographer who took the picture, the story of the family of the falling man, and the story of the search for the falling man who was for a long period of time unidentified. All the subplots of the story was unified by the theme of the falling man and what he stood for. Junod writes it as such:
“In truth, however, the Falling Man fell with neither the precision of an arrow nor the grace of an Olympic diver. He fell like everyone else, like all the other jumpers — trying to hold on to the life he was leaving, which is to say that he fell desperately, inelegantly.”
This message goes for all the subplots.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of “The Falling Man” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Structure The length of the article was justified by the richness of the information and the stories that were organized in a logical manner. Everything revolved around the theme and the resolution of the story was thus:
“ the Falling Man — became the Unknown Soldier in a war whose end we have not yet seen”.
Junod was successful in opening the story to grasp the attention of his readers and sustained this throughout the body, engaging his readers to empathize and sympathize with the characters he has brought to life. His ending was as strong, as readers are constrained to accept that the main reflection for the story of the falling man is the readers themselves.
Story-telling Techniques Although this was a journalist’s article that should be packed with information that is news-worthy, Junod was able to give life to his characters. He told the story of the falling man so well that it branched out to subplots so like a literary masterpiece. The article vacillates between reality and his own subjective interpretation based on the characters’ opinions and expressed feelings.
He is able to create anticipation for the climax and sustains the interest way up to the resolution. Along the way, he keeps on feeding more information to his readers, and they end up more knowledgeable about the falling man after they read the article.
Reader “Experiences” the Story Filled with human drama, the article depicts every emotion possible in such a tragic situation of the 9-11 terrorist attack and the choices the dying made in their final hours. Junod appeals to the senses and emotions of his readers in choosing the appropriate words to describe their feelings. One example is this:
“The Hernandezes looked at the decision to jump as a betrayal of love — as something Norberto was being accused of. The woman in Connecticut looks at the decision to jump as a loss of hope — as an absence that we, the living, now have to live with.”
Junod voices out what the characters needed to express but may be unable to.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of “The Falling Man” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Outstanding Reporting Junod’s reporting skills were impeccable. His research was detailed and thorough. He was able to name names and attributed appropriate emotions to the stories of the characters and came up with a well-woven story balancing objective facts with subjective opinions and emotions gathered from various people.
In all this, Junod has kept his stance as an objective reporter leaving the judgment to his readers of whether what he wrote was fact or fiction. However, credible as he is as a journalist, most of his readers are bound to agree with that what he wrote was all true.
Context of the Story This is one of the multitude of stories borne out of the 9-11 terrorist attacks. One photograph painted a thousand other stories and Junod tried to capture those stories and revolved it around the photograph of the falling man.
Style and Language Junod’s style and language was a wonderful blend of simple and complicated. He quoted the words of his characters and inserted some other words to interpret their actions to add depth to what was said. He writes:
“Jonathan Briley’s father is a preacher, a man who has devoted his whole life to serving the Lord. After September 11, he gathered his family together to ask God to tell him where his son was. No: He demanded it. He used these words: “Lord, I demand to know where my son is.” For three hours straight, he prayed in his deep voice, until he spent the grace he had accumulated over a lifetime in the insistence of his appeal.”
He could have simply written that the preacher prayed that his son be found but Junod found another way to use words effectively to depict the actual emotions felt by the characters and the emotions that must be understood and empathized with by the readers.
Tone Junod shared the sentiments of the people affected by the bombings. As a journalist, he tried to keep his tone neutral, but it seemed more effective to take on the prevailing feelings of despair, confusion, hopelessness and regret to put his message across. In general, the article’s tone was that of a news report but somehow, Junod managed to insert his literary prowess and incorporated drama and lyrical language that soothed the readers consuming his lengthy article.
Source: Junod, T. (2009) The Falling Man, Retrieved from https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a48031/the-falling-man-tom-junod/
Differences between state of nature, state of war and United States constitution Essay best college essay help
There are various differences between John Locke’s state of nature, state of war and the United States constitution. People have a perfect freedom on most of their actions in state of nature. They can dispose of their possession in any manner they deem suitable without having to seek for court consent or ask for permission from any related parties. The United States constitution gives the American people a right to enjoy their freedom under conditions that they are bid by law and their activities do not contravene other parties’ rights.
The state of the nature allows the equality where everybody has equal powers and responsibilities. The United States constitution allows individuals to have an authority and responsibilities. Legal procedures of attaining particular jurisdiction, authority and rank are well stipulated. These procedures include being elected by United States people, being appointed by the judiciary, legislature or the executive arm of the government in accordance with the law.
The state of the nature allows people the state of liberty to dispose of themselves or their possession in nobler instances. According to the United States constitution, everybody is at liberty on condition that he/she does not interfere with other people or public rights and freedom. The state of the nature teaches all people on spirit of being equal and independent. It contradicts the United States constitution where one’s independence is restricted if it is against the governing law or it threatens public interest.
In the state of the nature, servants are considered slaves and property of the sovereign master. The United States constitution amendment 13, bill of rights prohibits slavery unless it is a form of punishment to a crime committed by an individual. In latter circumstance, it must be confirmed that the suspect committed the crime before is punished. The nature of the state accords the jurisdiction to take law in the hands of people.
This means that individuals have the right to punish criminals to extend they feel it best suites the severity of crime they have committed. According to the United States constitution all criminal offences are tried and determined in a judicial court of law. Judges or magistrates assess the magnitude of violation and gives appropriate punishment in accordance to the law. Under the United States constitution amendment 8 of bill rights offenders are not excessively punished or charged excessive fines.
In the state of the nature, any one offended has the right to punish the responsible person for the offence committed against him but according to the United States constitution judicial legal process is followed. Offended goes to judicial court for judge or magistrate to determine his case. In the state of the nature, individuals have jurisdiction in prosecutorial of law. No judicial framework is followed to settle disputes between individuals. The state of the nature prohibits superiority and advocates for equality among the members.
In the state of the nature, no one has a power to punish another man from a different country which has the same state of the laws nature because they are deemed equal and have the same powers. Additionally, the alien acknowledges that no man has more power over him and he is equal hence no one should punish him. This is contrary to the United States constitution because it authorizes punishment of alien in accordance to laws of the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A man can quit and declare himself free from being subjected to the governing nature of the state laws while every person is subject to the laws of the United States constitution. One ceases being subjected to these laws by quitting being a member of the United States. An offended man in the state of the nature has the right to seek compensation from the offender.
A third party is justified to intervene and force the offender to compensate the offended without any legal authority. The offended has the right to punish the offender, and the demand compensation inform of goods or services from the offender as a right of self preservation.
While according to the United States constitution, a person offended has no right to punish the offender neither appropriate goods nor services from the offender. Their disputes are resolved in a criminal justice court by a magistrate or judge. They also determine whether a compensation or a punishment fits the offence. In the United States constitution, a third party can not come in to determine disputes without legal authority or power.
In the state of the nature, a man can do anything to safe his life including endangering another man’s life to extend of killing him. The United States constitution bill of rights prohibits such actions to end another man’s life. The state of the nature allows punishment of offenders to the same degree or severity of the crime committed. It states that each transgression should be punished to same degree and severity in order to back ill the offender, make him repent or terrify others who plan to commit the same offence.
In the United States constitution, amendment 8 of bill of rights excessive bail, fine or punishment is prohibited. In the state of the nature, every one is executive in himself and individuals can judge their own cases but in the United States constitution roles, criteria of appointment, mandate and duration of tenure for the executive, judicial and legislature is specified.
The state of the war creates enmity and can cause people destruction the same way a man may destroy any threatening lion or wolf. This is contrary to the United States constitution because the bill of rights protects all its citizens from all kind of invasion and attacks. Additionally, courts of law are established to protect interest of everybody in the United States.
In the state of the war, a man can put another man in his absolute power to compel him against his freedom. This is a way of having another man as slave. The United States constitution guarantees protection of its peoples’ interests by those in authority. Also, amendment 13 bill of rights of the United States constitution, slavery is abolished and everyone is set free from any form of slavery.
We will write a custom Essay on Differences between state of nature, state of war and United States constitution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the state of the war, a man can kill a thief who has not hurt him but has declared a threat on him or he has tried to put him under his power by stealing money from him. The United States constitution protects each of its people from such malicious damage or injury.
In conclusion, comparing John Locke’s state of the nature and the state of the war with the United States constitution, it is evident that they have distinct differences in political aspect, power and individuals rights. The state of the nature gives everyone in the society a lot of freedom and it does not consider the protecting individuals’ rights.
How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Religion is one of the world’s phenomena that have undergone significant evolutions which have resulted into intriguing transformation of beliefs and traditions. Cutting across the plane, these religions have rich histories and carry elements which make them unique. They have also played a major role in shaping the norms, behavior and culture of millions of people globally. In this regard, it is important to understand existing differences and similarities among religions of the world (Molloy 3).
This is so crucial in appreciating the beliefs and traditions of others as they relate to who they are. In this regard, this essays explores how Mahayana differs from early Buddhism in terms of practices, believes and overall doctrine. To achieve this objective, relevant information has been gathered from both the college library and online sources like journals, books and websites.
Mahayana analysis According to theological and historic findings, Mahayana began in India between 100 B.C.E and 100 C.E. This was as a result of a debate which was going on explaining the appropriate Buddhist teachings and rituals, monastic discipline and discussions about the continued existence of Buddha even after his death. Additionally, it is has been argued that the nature of enlightenment which engulfed people further contributed to this emergence (Molloy 149).
Importantly, Mahayana was formerly impacted by several Buddhist schools of thought that were common in India during that time. As these practices spread within and outside India, aspects of the indigenous religious practices were also absorbed and assimilated. Some of these indigenous religious traditions included but not limited to Bon, Taoism and Confucianism. Hinduism also played a major role in influencing Mahayana.
Even though there has been no consensus on the founder of Mahayana, credit has been given to Nagarjuna, a philosopher along with other prominent people like Asanga and Vasubandhu. The controversy behind this is that each of the figures mentioned in the foundation of the tradition went ahead to establish their own sub-schools within Mahayana (Molloy 150).
It therefore follows that there is no particular person who can be identified as the core founder of Mahayana. Earliest Mahayana texts were mainly composed of several texts referred to as “Prajnaparamita” or translated as “Perfection of Wisdom”.
Although this aspect of the school may not be remembered by many, it forms the basic foundation of countless Mahayana schools which exist today. Other early texts which were considered important were “Sadharmapundarika” and “Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra” (Patheos 1). As a general observation, Mahayana thoughts have become quite recognizable and influential in several parts of the world and in Western philosophy where it has been manifested through religious teachings and numerous ethical teachings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Mahayana emphasized several things, the book received extraordinary recognition and respect. Hundreds of books were written by experts and distributed to people all over as they were of great significance and sometimes worshipped. Other theological analysts argue that this move was mainly aimed at suppressing and countering the supremacy of stupa veneration in several Buddhists schools (Religion Tolerance 1).
Notably, Mahayana is commonly known by many as the schismatic movement. After its emergence, there were several sub-schools which were formed in India and China that later became quite important. These included Ch’an, Madhyamaka, Pure Land Schools and Yogacara. In addition, Mahayana was highly supported by the leadership of the time including influential kings. Among them were Tang and Han in China, Palas in India and the Kushanas (Patheos 1).
This recognition and abundance support enabled Mahayana to spread to several parts of India via missionary activities, led supporters of the kings and monks. This expansion spread to regions outside India like China and Asia by the onset of the second century C.E (Patheos 1).
By understanding the analysis of Mahayana, it is possible to see that is has undergone a series of transformations that have led to its revolution in the 21 century, with continuous evolution into the modern world. Besides, Mahayana has been integrated into several religions of today’s world (Molloy 151). Mahayana has also thrived as a result of integrating its practices into political and social welfare of other regions like Asia, North America and Europe.
With regard to sacred times, Mahayana does not observe consistent sacred time. This is mainly attributed to the fact that bodhisattvas are always present and working around the world regardless of the season or time of the year. It therefore attempts to have a holistic sense of sacred time where every moment is considered sacred unlike in several religions where certain seasons and times of the year are perceived to be more sacred than others, depending on a religion’s activity season (Patheos 1).
However, it has to be mentioned that Mahayana highly values and recognizes the temple as its most holy and sacred space. Diagrams which are used in the temple during mediation are always elaborated in Mandalas. Nevertheless, practitioners can always occupy space of representation through mediation practices.
Like in other religions, Mahayana recognizes rituals and ceremonies as part of its traditional norm to be observed. These include mantra recitation, ritual devotion, mediation practices and pilgrimages among others. According to Mahayana believers, the rituals and ceremonies are important in affirming their faith and in teaching vital traditions and rules that have to be followed by those who accept to be members of the religion (Patheos 1). They also give worship guidance as it considered as one of their fundamentals.
We will write a custom Essay on How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How is worship conducted? Mahayana Buddhists worship an array of objects in the name of gods, serving different functions as defined by their traditions and beliefs. Common purposes of these gods include protection, guidance and devotion to people. They therefore believe that they thrive in everything they do by the power of gods. Examples of Mahayana gods are Tara, the Buddha, Avalokiteshvara, Amitabha and the bodhisattvas among others (Patheos 1).
There are also symbols which are commonly used in Mahayana during rituals, worship and devotion services. It is important for people to learn these symbols in order to understand when used by those conducting services and ceremonies. The lotus and the eight-spoke wheel are highly regarded and ever-present in Mahayana practices and rituals (Patheos 1).
The role of lotus is to represent purity, a core component among its believers while the eight-spoke wheel usually denotes the main teachings of Buddha, also known as dharma. Seating, standing, the book and the sword are among other commonly used symbols during important functions.
Early Buddhism The two main schools of Buddhism are Mahayana and Hinayana which originated from India. However, the former has dominated in other countries like Nepal, China and Japan. This religion and the philosophy were founded by Siddhartha Gautama known as Buddha in c.525 B.C (Molloy 126). In terms of statistics, there are at least three million Buddhists in the world with Asia leading in numbers.
Apart from the two mentioned schools above, the Vajrayana has its roots in Japan and Tibet even though is not as common as the other main classes in China and India. Due to continuous globalization and other factors, Buddhism disappeared from India, its country of origin although the presence of refugees from Tibet and people who get converted from Hinduism has maintained the religion (McGovern 1). Like other religions, early Buddhism has beliefs and practices which makes it unique or similar with other world regions.
The spread of Buddhism to other countries resulted into the splitting of the main religion to form smaller sects in various geographical regions. As a result, each sect adopted certain beliefs, customs, rituals and practices which were to be the pillar of their practical faith as Buddhists (Molloy 132).
Nevertheless, all the sects had a backbone of these doctrines and beliefs with shared similarities regardless of their location. A common belief among Buddhists is that every person is in a position to have happiness regardless of their background, race and age (Patheos 1). By such, Buddhists believe that all forms of delusions and negativism among people can only be overcome by mediation. With this understanding, it follows that men and women can easily restore their happiness through a simple mediation process.
Additionally, reincarnation is a core belief as Buddhists believe in rebirths and continuity of the human race. Their doctrines strongly believe in the existence of certain life cycles which ensure that life remains a continuation process. These cycles revolve around birth, life, death and the ultimate rebirth. Besides these cycles, the doctrine further emphasizes that Nirvana can only be achieved by shedding off personal desires and ego (Pillai 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are four truths which are strongly contained in Buddhism doctrine and beliefs. These truths are Dukkha, Samudaya, Marga and Nirodha. The fisrt truth is Dukkha which refers to suffering. According to this belief, suffering is inevitable in the life of any individual (Molloy 134).
Therefore, every Buddhist has to expect some from of suffering in life and need not to be received negatively as it is viewed as part of a normal life. Suffering which is categorized in this doctrine include anger, loneliness, fear, embarrassment and frustrations. This belief also explains workable ways of achieving happiness in life (Patheos 1).
According to Samudaya, suffering among Buddhists is mainly caused by their constant aversions and craving which they go through in their daily lives. Furthermore, craving together with greed have the potential of depriving individuals off their happiness and their contentment. Importantly, an individual can only achieve Nirvana if he or she curbs existing luxurious cravings in life (Pillai 1).
Similarly, Norodha gives an explanation on how suffering can be overcome in order to realize happiness in life. Based on this belief, incidents which occurred in the past should not be allowed to cause fear or worry. Accordingly, uncertainties of the future should not take away happiness, as it emphasizes the need to live each day at a time. According to the fourth truth, Marga, total happiness can only be achieved by adhering to “eight-fold path”.
This model encourages the need to have a stable mind and being conscious of thoughts and ones actions. Additionally, morality and a good livelihood it is highly encouraged under this doctrine. Those who adhere to the four truths are believed to have wisdom and compassion. Buddhist teachings are always taught to everybody as people are encouraged to solve their problems since it is believed that problems are caused by individuals (Pillai 1).
Early Buddhism also observes sacred narratives whose main component is the story of Buddha which is considered holy. Other stories are narrated by teachers with reference to the sutras. On the other hand, the notion of salvation in Buddhism does not have a consensus, with variations being seen from country to country or era to era.
Unlike Mahayana, Buddhism does not have sacred time but rather emphasizes the need for Nirvana as with reference to a Nirvana dichotomy (FPMT 1). However, their sacred space includes stupas, which contains Buddha relics and other monks. Additionally, some mountains are highly regarded as the most high place. Accordingly, there are variations in the calendar of events.
On the other hand, Buddha’s birthday and the New Year day celebrations are quite significant. Other rituals include pilgrimages and death-related ceremonies. Notably, Buddhist monks demonstrate different life with lay people as this relationship is defined by merit. Early Buddhism symbols include the stupa, the dharma wheel and what was considered as Buddha’s footprint. Others are monks’ robes, Mandalas and mudras. It is important to note that some symbols vary from country to country (Patheos 1).
Conclusion From the above analysis of Mahayana and early Buddhism, it is clear that the two religions have several elements which make them different. Although they share a number of similarities, Mahayana and Buddhism have different beliefs and practices. Their sacred time, spaces, and the understanding of suffering are also different. However, their similarities can be attributed to the fact that Mahayana is one of the schools of Buddhism.
Works Cited FPMT. Buddhism FAQ, 2011. Web.
McGovern, William. Introduction to Mahayana Buddhism. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2003. Print.
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the world’s religious. New York City: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.
Patheos. Mahayana Buddhism, 2011. Web.
Pillai, Maya. Basic Beliefs of Buddhism. Buzzle, 2011. Web.
Religion Tolerance. Mahayana Buddhism, 2011. Web.
Strategic Management: Art or Science? Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The subject of whether strategic management is an art or science has been very critical amongst strategic management scholars. This paper discusses whether strategic management is an art or science. It explains when strategic management is an art and when it is science. It further explains the aspects that make strategic management an art and science.
Introduction Strategic management is a management tool used by corporate organizations. Corporate organizations have used it to determine goals and objectives, values, mission, vision, roles and obligations within the management system. Strategic management requires a mix of strategies used to ensure most achievable accurate decisions and choices in the management process. Strategic management is a progressive process.
It appraises and ensures controls during business operations. Besides, strategic management lays down strategies to be used in dealing with both existing competitors and the potential ones. Whether strategic management is a science or an art has been a question of major concern to various scholars. Some have argued that strategic management is more of an art than science while others have argued otherwise (Choo 533).
Literature review A number of scholars have described strategic management as both science and art. This is because the whole concept of strategic management borrows from both sides of science and art (McCabe 3).
For instance, some scholars have defined strategic management as the science and art of formulating, executing and assessing of critical decisions which are cross functional in nature to assist organizations realize their long-term goals and objectives. This implies that strategic management utilizes both artistic and scientific concepts in the management process. However, it is argued that strategic management is more an art than the science it is believed to be (Mason 5)
The concept of art entails the realistic application of personal knowledge and skills so as to realize concrete outcome. This is what defines strategic management as an art (Swayne et al. 435); the whole management process requires personal skills and knowledge in applying management strategies deemed to have the potential of realizing the goals and objectives of an organization (Karami 12).
Moreover, in designing management strategies, creativity is paramount. Otherwise, strategic management requires a systematic involvement of certain principles that have been formulated and tested through research. These principles are universal and scholars concur that they can be used universally. These principles give strategic management a scientific dimension (Levner et al. 72).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though strategic management has been considered to borrow from art, it largely utilizes science through relying on particular theories and principles developed and tested through scientific research. Irrespective of any organization, strategic management is a philosophical task.
Hence, strategic managers still face crucial judgments when in the process of formulating strategies for their organizations (Gilbert et al. 137). The resolution to adopt a certain set of strategies has always been grounded on philosophy based on experience, skills, research and rational reason. This makes strategic management to be oriented more towards science than art. Therefore, strategic management is science in practice.
Recommendation Strategic management is defined as science and an art of formulating, executing, and assessing of critical decisions which are cross functional in nature to assist organizations realize their long-term goals and objectives. This has created some form of ambiguity in terms of its definition (Kang 30-56).
However, scholars agree that strategic management has universally been grounded on philosophy established through systematic research and rational choice. This is a model only consistent with science and for this reason, strategic management should be considered purely as a science. The fact is that science and art disciplines are intertwined into one another; but, each discipline should be defined as science or art depending on its model of practical application.
Conclusion The definition of strategic management has been subject to ambiguity given that strategic management scholars have not postulated whether it is an art or science (Kang 30-56). However, they consider it as both science and an art; this is because it borrows from both disciplines.
Nonetheless, since its practical application utilizes a specific model of philosophy grounded on research, strategic management should be defined as a science and not an art (Gilbert et al. 137). It is important to note that both science and art disciplines borrow from one another and there definition should be based their practical applications.
Works Cited Choo, Chun. The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management: Art or Science? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gilbert, Marius, et al. Strategic Management in the Knowledge Economy: New Approaches and Business Applications. New York: John Wiley
The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The transition of banking to a new system
The role of debt clearance
Role of privatization
Role of bank regulation and supervision
Introduction Hungary was a centralized economy during and before early the 1980’s. The economy was highly controlled by the government including sectors within the economy. The Hungarian banking sector was under the control of the government with no private banks in operation during this time.
The country was operating under a mono-bank. The bank was later divided based on specialization with introduction a two-tier banking system. This led to the establishment of three banks that were owned by the state. In 1987, Hungary initiated the transition process of converting its economy from being centralized to become market-oriented economy.
This transition led to the changing of Hungarian banking sector from centralized banking system to a market-oriented system through privatization. Creating an open competitive market for foreign banks to invest was one of the government roles in developing banks in Hungary.
During this time of transition, the economy of Hungary was performing poorly and was nearly collapsing. The state-owned banks during the beginning of transition were faced with the problem of non- performing debts, bad debtors, as well as bad investments. The financial sector, which highly incorporates banking, had thus a great role to play in this transition process. In the late 1980s, Hungary was faced within the problem of bad debts, massive under-capitalization as well as high concentration.
The main reason of developing banks in Hungary through use of market-oriented system was to establish a stable banking system. The government had to solve the existing problems in the banking system before introducing new reforms. This paper discusses the process of consolidating state-owned banks and then privatizing them. The paper also looks into the role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition.
The transition of banking to a new system In the late 1940s, the Hungarian banking system was established with formation of the national bank known as National Bank of Hungary (NBH). NBH was established as a monopoly. It was the only bank dealing with money circulation and credit activities within Hungarian economy.
The government further established a centralized banking system with the introduction of specialized banks. For example, the NBH only dealt with allocating credit to enterprises, the National Savings Bank (NSB) only dealt with colleting deposits from savers, and Hungarian Foreign Trade Bank was only involved with foreign trade transactions. All these banks were owned by the state that made them monopolies in their respective areas of specialization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the late 1980s, the Hungarian economy was performing poorly. The government initiated the process of transition from use of centralized economy to introduction market oriented economy.
The market-oriented economy meant that foreign investors would invest in Hungary. This made the government permit some foreign banks to invest in Hungary. During this time, these foreign banks faced competition from the state owned banks in foreign exchange and trade transactions. The banking system became more decentralized with introduction of the two-tier banking system.
This system led to NBH becoming the central bank while its commercial functions were delegated to three new commercial banks, which were introduced in the country. The government went further to allowing introduction of new specialized banks, which had very narrow functions. These reforms greatly influenced the post-socialist government to create way for more reforms in the banking sector.
In early 1990s, the new democratic government formed new reforms for the banks. The banks were expected to meet a certain percentage of capital adequacy ratios. Banks were also expected to provide reserves against their bad loans. This issue on bad loans made the banks to suffer huge losses. This is because several major banks had huge negative equity percentage of loans that were considered doubtful loans. These banks suffered huge losses, as the existing accounting laws at this time did not require provision for doubtful loans.
These structural reform initiatives led to a significant drop of the country’s GDP. This drop in GDP led to heavy losses among state-owned enterprises, which made them unable to service their debts to banks. With these losses, the government had to resolve the issue on bad debts. This led to the instruction of loan consolidation program in 1993.
This program enabled banks to exchange their bad debts for government bonds called consolidation bonds. These bonds had a coupon equal to 90-day treasury bills. Although this program removed bad debts from banks, it did not create new capital in the banking sector. The government then went further to recapitalizing its state-owned banks to attain the minimum requirement of 8 percent.
In the mid 1990s, there was a significant progress in establishing a market-oriented banking system. The government still discouraged foreign banks with its preference of keeping a golden share of the venture. To achieve transition in the banking sector the government started negotiations with foreign banks in offering them flexible terms and conditions of bank privatization.
We will write a custom Essay on The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Privatization of large state-owned banks involved two important stages. The first stage of privatization took place in parts with blocks of shares being offered to different foreign investors at different times. This was a significant step for foreign investors whose initial cost and risk of investments was reduced strategically.
Although the government offered block of shares to the foreign investors it still held 20-to-25 percent ownership of these banks. The government instead allowed the foreign partners to take full control on management of these banks.
In the second stage of privatization, the government negotiated with foreign investors. The government came into contract with foreign investors on terms of privatization. These contracts allowed subsequent price adjustments in the purchase price, according to profits to be made by the bank in future.
The contract also provided for acquisitions of share from the government or any other non-private partners. This method of liberal privatization faced criticism politically even if others supported the idea as it meant a strong efficient banking sector foundation.
The role of debt clearance In developing banks in Hungary, the government wanted to deal with the problem of bad debts, which had even led to collapse of many firms. This had contributed greatly to the poor economy and high rates of unemployment. In trying to overcome this problem on debts, the government had to allow for entry of foreign banks into Hungary.
The government had to restructure the banking system by developing banks to deal with issue on debts as some state-owned banks had even lost their capital. The government had to deal with the issue of debts and debtors in the banking system through bank consolidation. The government wanted to develop banks with no bad loans to pave way for privatization and avoid the problem of bad debts again.
In the initial stages of bank consolidation, the government had to do portfolio cleaning. Here the government gave bonds in exchange for bad debts to those banks with a capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of less than 7percent. The government then sold a part of the non-performing loans bought as bonds at a discount to the Hungarian Development Bank (HDB). Although the government left the other part of bad loans with the banks it gave them a fee of 2 percent to encourage them work out bad loans.
This measure of government exchanging bad debts with bonds solved the problem on debts partially. This is because the government did not include neither doubtful nor substandard loans. The government also failed to solve the problem of banks’ bad investments and contingent liabilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1993, the bad debts were still increasing and the government had to carry out recapitalization but this time including bad investments and contingent liabilities of the banks. The government here purchased newly issued shares by the recapitalized banks through use of bonds. This increased the government ownership in the banking sector.
The government then recapitalized banks by extending subordinated loans to banks. This form of recapitalization prevented increasing government ownership. The government then left the banks to solve issue on other debtors as it had more information regarding them.
The objective here was to try to separate banks with more debtors from those with few. This paved way for privatization process. The government also introduced consolidation program aimed at putting banks on track. This program required banks to improve their management, internal control and come up with modernized operations. These measures enabled the government to develop banks and solve the issue of debts in the beginning of transition.
Role of privatization The government had controlled the banking system before transition process began in Hungary. The government had to develop banks to enable their privatization as it had being unable to run them. This is because at the time of transition Hungarian banks were facing large bad debts, and were poorly managed. The government had thus to introduce a market-oriented banking system to enhance economic growth. Therefore, another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to encourage their privatization.
The government also encouraged privatization of banks through introduction of liberal licensing policy. This policy encouraged many foreign banks to set up subsidiaries in Hungary. This led to a decrease of government ownership in the banking sector with about 20 percent.
This enhanced competition which encouraged better management skills, and provision of services in the banking sector. This left the government with the ownership of just one large commercial bank. The banks from European Union invested in Hungary contributing to the 70 percent of foreign ownership in the country.
Privatization of banks in Hungary has played a great role in its economic growth. This is shown by the stabilization of Hungarian banking system that is evident as shown by the current high level of CAR. The percentage of bad debts has also decreased significantly to a very low percentage of about 3 percent. The increased investment of foreign banks in Hungary has also encouraged direct investment in other sectors with banks from home countries operating in Hungary.
Role of bank regulation and supervision The centralized banking system applied by Hungarian government before beginning of transition prevented better regulatory measures to apply. The government was unable to impose measures, which would regulate banking system efficiently as it was the one still controlling them. Therefore, another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to establish a regulatory structure.
The government had experienced high rate of non-performing debts before transition began. These debts had led to high instability in the banking system leading to a deteriorating economy. The government had thus to develop banks to as to introduce measures to regulate and supervise the banking system.
These regulations in the banking sector help to control the stability of an economy. Hungary with the aid of EU has improved its regulation and supervision in the banking sector. The government established a group-based supervision as opposed to the institution-based mode of supervision applied earlier. The group-based supervision was to be introduced through formation of a single agency to supervise all banks.
Management role The government of Hungary had experience and significant increase of the non-performing debts during the late 1980s. This was due to the poor performance of the state-owned banks during this period. These banks allocated loans on basis of political influence rather than based on profitability that had contributed to the large amount of bad debts.
This was partially the contribution of poor management and unskilled staff in the banks. Another role of developing banks in Hungary during the beginning of transition was to improve their management and human capital.
Privatization process of state-owned banks was also aimed at improving their management. In the first face of privatization though the government only allowed a given percentage of ownership to foreign investors, it left management role to them.
This is because these banks were characterized with poor operations management structure that incorporates many undisguised employees. The government also introduced measures through ministry of finance to supervise these banks on basis of management. These measures led to the decrease on non-performing loans, which were now allocated on basis of profitability.
Conclusion Hungary transition from a centralized economy to a market-oriented economy started in late 1980s. The government had to change the banking system from a centralized banking system to a market-oriented system. The government had to allow foreign banks to invest in Hungary. Before foreign banks were allowed to invest in Hungary, the government had to solve the problems, which existed within the state-owned banks.
The role of developing banks was thus to pave way for more reforms in the banking sector which would lead to a stable banking system. One role of developing banks in the beginning of transition was first to consolidate them. The government had to deal with the issue existing bad debts and bad debtors that had even led to the closure of some banks due to lack of capital.
The government had to introduce use of bonds to buy these bad debts and those debts debtors were owing to banks. The government went further to recapitalizing the banks including their bad investments and liabilities. This was followed by privatization of these banks to be owned by other foreign banks. The government did this by first selling partial ownership before realizing full ownership in mid 1990s.
The government then introduced a single group-based supervision agency to supervise all banks on standards of management, performance and services offered. This has led to improved banks management, and reduced non-performing loans within the banking sector. Through these developments of banks, the government of Hungary has been able to establish a stable banking system.
References Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L. (2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund.
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Footnotes Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L.(2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer.
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L.(2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer
Hajdu, Z. (1999). Regional processes and spatial structures in Hungary in the 1990’s Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Colombo, E. and Stanca, L. (2006) Financial market imperfections and corporate decisions: lessons from the transition process in Hungary. New York, NY: Springer
Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Barta, G. (2005). Hungarian spaces and places: patterns of transition. Hungary. Centre for Regional Studies.
Horvath, J. (2006). International currency arrangements and policies. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
Cottarelli, C. (1998). Hungary: economic policies for sustainable growth. Washington DC. International Monetary Fund
Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature Essay online essay help: online essay help
Thesis Statement: The Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
The Puritans and early colonial literature shows suffering as part of their redemption process.
The research focuses on the redemption theory of the Puritan religion’s members.
The research includes a study on the Puritan religion’s members’ suffering concept.
Colonial literature and the Puritans wholeheartedly accepted suffering as part and parcel of their redemption process.
The Puritan religion’ members believed in predestination.
The same members accepted Jesus Christ as the only way to reach heaven’s redemption area.
The Puritan religion’s members considered suffering as a consequence of original sin.
Indeed, the Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Puritans and early colonial literature show suffering as part of their redemption process. The research focuses on the redemption theory of the Puritan religion’s members. The research includes a study on the Puritan religion’s members’ suffering concept. The Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Puritanism and colonial literature during the 16th century was a sweeping revival the enveloped the Church of England. The Puritan member took to heart John Calvin’s religious teachings. Calvin’s teachings focused on the nature of a person. Similarly, Puritan beliefs included man’s free will as well as predestination.
After King Charles II rose to England’s throne in 1660, Puritanism split into three major religious groups. The three groups are Presbyterian Church, Congregational Church, and Baptist Church groups. The Puritans believed that God as the Father God of the Old Testament. The Puritans firmly believed in God’s righteousness, majesty, and control of the universe for God’s own glorious magnificence.
In terms of redemption, Tom Webster (315) emphasized the puritans believe that God is the author of redemption. Puritan theory employed the medieval distinction of Go’s absolute and ordaining power. God can do all things possible, including the redemption of all members of the Puritan church.
The puritans strongly believed in predestination and the assurance of salvation of all its members. Predestination states that each person has been predestined to enter heaven or hell after one’s temporary stay on earth. God predestined some persons, some are called saints, to never fall from grace. The reformation movement places great emphasis on the doctrine of assurance.
The Puritan’s teaching runs counter to the Catholic Church’s teaching. The Catholic teaching dictates the members of the church are not sure whether they will go to heaven or hell during the dooms day. The Catholic faith does not incorporate predestination. Puritan stance of predestination is grounded on faith alone. A puritan’s faith in Jesus Christ, salvation by faith alone, is enough qualify one to enter the gates of heaven. Puritan faith is self –validating. The puritan member’s faith is enough to ensure one’s redemption process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The puritans and colonial literature interpreted the Bible as showering its members with redemptive piety. The puritans strongly believed that the only way to enter heaven, redemption, was to be converted to convert to Puritan religion. The redemption dictates that good works is not required for one to enter the kingdom of heaven. A primary source indicates John Winthrop, a Puritan, stating in 1630 “There is a time when a Christian must sell all and give to the poor, as they did in the Apostles times”.
The grace of Jesus Christ is the only requirement needed to be redeemed. Thus, the redemption principle dictates that once a person is saved, such person is always saved. This is the very essence of the Puritan religion’s redemption concept. However, the Puritans believed that they are required to do good works while they are on the short journey on earth.
The Puritans emphasized strict compliance with the bible’s instructions. Hard work was a considered the Puritan members’ duty to God and one’s community. The puritans encouraged people in the community to be converted to the Puritan religion. Failure to convert was a signal to the Puritan members to expel the unbeliever from their ranks.
To spread their redemption theory, the Puritans placed importance on education. The Puritans prioritized the education of their children.
In terms of suffering, the Puritan religion’s members as well as colonial literature shows belief in enduring suffering for the sake of their religion. The Puritan religion’s members considered themselves the descendants of the English martyrs. Many of the Puritan religion’s pastors were literary ejected from their church pulpits when the crackdown their religion cropped up.
The Puritan religion’s members had been taught to accept suffering willingly. The members trusted God to reduce the degree of their sufferings. The Puritan religion’s members believed that God will lessen the length of during endured by each suffering Puritan religion’s member.
Thomas Watson reiterated Jesus Christ is their model of suffering. The Puritan religion’s members should happily endure each suffering minute as an offering their God in heaven. Favorite Puritan religion’s members’ quotes include “A sanctified person, like a silver bell, the harder he is smitten, the better he sounds” (George Swinnock). Another favorite quote goes “He that rides to be crowned will not think much of a rainy day’ (John Trapp).
We will write a custom Essay on Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Anna Duane (40) proposed during the colonial times literature, the Puritan religion’s members’ parents were classified as protectors and not abusers of the faith. In contrast, the Indian parents were classified as too soft on their children. The Indian parents were overly gentle parents. The Puritan religion’s members’ parents were disciplinarians. The Puritan religion’s members’ parents often use the rod to breed the children in upright ways.
The father was described as the religious practice of ensuring the children’s unyielding obedience to the father’s strict family policies. The strictness was considered necessary in order to keep the children away from harm’s way. Robert DeBellis (5) mentioned that Puritan religion’s members considered are suffering because of their original sin. The Puritan religion’s members’ suffering includes illness, spiritual weakness and death.
Catherine Martin (283) stated that a Puritan religion’s member, Ludlow, suffered for his Puritan religion’s sake. Sam-son-like exile, public humiliation, imprisonment, feelings of Godly desertion united a broad spectrum of Puritan religion’s members from Ludlow to Algermon Sidney and Sir Henry Vane, and many others during the colonial times.
During his two year incarceration, the Puritan religion’s member Vane was finally executed by the King’s soldiers. In addition, Ludlow waited for God to restore the saints to power or lead them to martyrdom.
The Puritan religion’s members and colonial literature believed in the world of heaven and hell. The heaven is reserved for those who God has predestined. God knows who would enter heaven long before the person was born.
In the same light, God knows who would predestined to hell long before the person was baptized. The Puritan religion’s members believe that one must comply with their religious concept in order to be counted as one of God’s chosen few to enter the kingdom of heaven. The puritans believe that only the Puritan religion’s members will be allowed to enter the gates of heaven.
The Puritan religion’s members’ redemption and colonial literature focus is on Jesus Christ. The Puritan religion’s members do not consider praying to Mother Mary, mother of Christ, as a way to redemption. The Puritan religion’s members do not consider praying to Saint Peter as a way to redemption.
The Puritan religion’s members do not believe asking for the priest’s prayer would trigger the Catholic Church members’ redemption. The Puritan religion’s members emphasized that Jesus Christ is the only way, the only truth, and the only life. Jesus Christ is the only roads towards redemption. The Puritan religion’s members believe that giving alms to the poor, visiting the sick in the hospitals, feeding the hungry, and clothing the naked, are necessary for one to be redeemed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suffering and Redemption in Puritan and Early Colonial Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the Puritan religion’s members’ faith does not include avoiding helping others during times of need. For example, a Puritan religion’s members should help the old person cross the street. The Puritan religion’s member must aid a limping physically disabled person trying to board a train. In addition, the Puritan religion’s members should not stop giving alms to the poor.
Colonial literature shows the Puritan religion’s members’ long thorny journey towards salvation, they were normally theologians. They love to read the bible. The spend most of their time acting as theologians. Many acted as pastors. Other members of the Puritan religion’s members acted as soul healers. Other Puritan religion’s members did perfectly well as counselors to the community. Many believe that the Puritan religion’s members understood how the people think and do.
To further secure their redemption, colonial literature indicates the Puritan religion’s members normal go out of their way to do pleasing things in the eyes of God. The members tried their best to avoid doing acts that would be classified as sinful in nature. The Puritan religion’s members feared sinning in the eyes of God.
Based on the above discussion, colonial literature and the Puritans wholeheartedly accepted suffering as part and parcel of their redemption process. The Puritan religion’ members believed in predestination. The same members accepted Jesus Christ as the only way to reach heaven’s redemption area.
The Puritan religion’s members considered suffering as a consequence of original sin. Indeed, the Puritan religion’s members and related colonial literature affirms happy acceptance of suffering as part of the Puritan religion’s predestined redemption through Jesus Christ.
Works Cited DeBellis, Robert. Suffering: Psycholocial and Social Aspects . New York: Routledge Press, 1986.
Duane, Anna. Suffering Childhood in Early American Violence. New York: University of Georgia Press, 2010.
Martin, Catherine. Milton Among the Puritans. New York: Ashgate Press, 2010.
Webster, Tom. Puritans and Purtitanism in Europe and America. New York: ABC Press, 2006.
Winthrop, John. A Model of Christian Charity.1630. Web.
Footnotes Winthrop, John. A Model of Christian Charity. Web.
Is Social Justice the Same Thing as Political Egalitarianism? An Analysis from a Theory of Justice Perspective Essay college admission essay help
Introduction The issue of social justice has occupied the minds of many scholars in the society for a long time. Scholars and philosophers such as St. Augustine, Plato and John Locke among others have all tried to define what social justice is and how a society can benefit from it.
According to Zafirovski (2005), social justice can be conceptualized in terms of equality and human rights. To this end, this scholar defines this concept as a situation where a society or an institution operates on the basis of equality solidarity (Zafirovski, 2005). For a society or an institution to be regarded as an entity operating on social justice, it must uphold human rights and the dignity of each and every individual in such a society or institution.
But where did the concept of social justice originate from in contemporary philosophical and political discourse? According to Benhabib (2004), the concept of social justice can be traced back to the writings of Luigi Taparelli in the mid 19th century. Taparelli was analyzing the teachings of Thomas Aquinas when he came up with this concept.
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati later on built on the works of Taparelli to further define social justice in contemporary society (Zafirovski, 2005). Other scholars associated with social justice in contemporary social and political discourse include John Ryan, Coughlin and Kant among others.
According to Benhabib (2004), social justice cannot be separated from human rights and equality in the society. This is given the fact that if the rights of the individual are abused, such an individual will not be in a position to partake in social justice.
On the other hand, a society full of economic, social and political inequalities cannot be regarded as having embraced social justice principles. Social justice is also related to economic egalitarianism (Garrett, 2005). A society which is characterized by economic inequalities as indicated above cannot be regarded as operating on the principles of social justice.
But is social justice the same as political egalitarianism? This is the question that is likely to arise when one is analyzing social justice in the context of political developments in the society. This paper is going to look at whether social justice is similar to political egalitarianism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author will first provide a brief background on both social justice and political egalitarianism. The author will then try to analyze how the two are related and whether they are one and the same thing. The paper will be based on social justice theory as envisaged by scholars such as John Rawls, Kant and John Locke.
Social Justice An Overview
Wardell (2011) justice as a concept has been addressed in various legal, political, philosophical and religious discourses. According to him, this concept involves the treatment of the poor and marginalized individuals in the society on an equal basis with those who are privileged. Wardell’s definition of social justice might appear simplistic on the eyes of social justice theorists, but it provides a significant perspective to the social justice concept. This is the aspect of treating the marginalized and the disadvantaged members of the society equally with the privileged. A society that draws a line between the so called ‘common man’ and the ‘elite’ is not just at all. This is the reason why scholars such as Locke and Kant were concerned with the social stratification in early societies that treated members of the royal family as superior citizens while the rest of the society was left to grapple with poverty and starvation.
Like any other concept in contemporary society, many schools of thought on social justice have been formed over the years. The different schools of thought advocate different strategies in addressing the issue of social justice in the society. Most of the arguments advocated by the different schools of thought are based on the principles of social justice that are to be found in John Rawl’s theory of justice.
Social Justice Theory Rawls’ Theory of Justice
Several scholars have made contributions to the justice theories depending on their academic orientation and their beliefs in this concept. These scholars include John Rawls, John Locke and Kant among others.
In the year 1971, John Rawls wrote a book titled Theory of Justice in which he provided his views on several aspects of justice such as social justice and political egalitarianism. In this book, the scholar gives his views of a liberal egalitarian society built on the principles of human rights and equality (Wardell, 2011).
Rawls borrowed heavily from Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher who is also regarded as a father figure in social justice discourses (Wardell, 2011). Kant was of the view that “people are individuals first (and not) the means to another individual’s ends” (as cited in Wardell, 2011: p. 2). Building on this concept, Rawls (1985) asserts that individuals in the society must work in tandem to establish equality for all regardless of their social or class status.
In his theory, Rawls is of the view that a society operating on social justice principles is characterized by freedom of speech (Benhabib, 2004), equality in the eyes of the law and freedom of assembly (Solway, 2006). The members of such a society must also enjoy equal access to education, employment and other social facilities such as health cover. Contemporary scholars subscribing to Rawls’ school of thought cites the central theme in his theory in their writings.
We will write a custom Essay on Is Social Justice the Same Thing as Political Egalitarianism? An Analysis from a Theory of Justice Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the fact that the disadvantaged and marginalized members of the society should be assisted to enable them succeed in the society and live at par with the privileged individuals (Zafirovski, 2005). According to Rawls, all nation states in the world should put social justice at the forefront given the fact that all other policies formulated by the state rest on it. This is for example social and legal policies that are formulated by the state to improve the wellbeing of the citizens (Fernandez
Creative process in William Shakespeare works Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Staging a discussion of William Shakespeare perhaps invites people to reminiscent the glamour of his literary works, which were masterfully created within a quarter of a century. Introspection of Shakespeare works, “individually, several of them are among world’s finest written works; taken collectively, they establish Shakespeare as foremost literally talent of his own Elizabeth age and more impressively as a genius whose creative achievement has never been surpassed in any age” (Dutton and Howard 7).
Shakespeare consequently emerges as one of the widely popular English language authors who not only made an immense impact in the seventieth century, but the impacts of his works have remained intact even in the twentieth century.
To the millions of people who admire him, perhaps he is also the most gorgeous. As Dutton and Howard posit, “since his death in 1616, no other writer has surpassed his ability to capture the human soul in words, and no other writer has been more read, more written about, and more debated” (10).
Creativity in his works, Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, is portrayed by the manner he makes choice of characters, the way themes are tied up with stylistic language to reflect hidden meanings reflective of the society he lived in during his life. These two works of Shakespeare are introspected to reveal the aspects of literal creativity.
Various scholarly proponents of Shakespeare’s essays, poems, critics and dramas works have acclaimed his works as rich in both technical skills and creativity. Wilson laments, “One might succeed in discussing individual facets of Shakespeare’s unique genius, but it is utterly impossible to summarize his achievement.
There is something miraculous about Shakespeare’s peculiar gifts; and every sensitive reader will eventually discover the miracle for himself” (30). The rhyming of words to fit given context evidences, one aspect of creativity, in both Merchant of Venice and Hamlet.
Surprisingly William Shakespeare wrote his literally work in times when dictionaries were nonexistent. However, his vocabulary was essentially appalling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, according to scholarly research findings, an average person utilizes slightly higher than 1000 word in general communication, slightly lower than 1000 words while expressing himself or herself in writing and can only be able only about 5000 different words. However, Shakespeare utilized “over 25,000 different words in his writings – that is more than any other English writer has ever used!” (Hale para.2).
With the absence of dictionaries, it meant that he had no way to refer on whether he had used a certain word correctly and or in the right context. However, scrutinizing Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, and examining the meaning of the hefty vocabularies in these two works reveals no fault in the use of vocabularies. What made him achieve such success? His impeccable level of creativity must have done the trick.
Creativity in writing infers the capacity to express ones feelings, thoughts, and perceptions of how the society needs to look like. However, such criticisms need be presented through deployment of stylistic devices such as symbolism, mockery and humor among others to make the works interesting.
More often than not, creative works are meant to correct certain wrongs within the society. In Merchant of Venice and Hamlet, Shakespeare, amid many criticisms presents ways of correcting vices in the society by employing the villain-hero approach. In Hamlet, Hamlet delays in killing Claudius.
This act raises many criticisms as to why Shakespeare presents ideal characters by the fact that the prince took too much time to revenge. However, these critics do not appreciate the fact that Hamlet was principally a noble and exemplary character while Claudius was an immense villain comprising the creative literal facets for William Shakespeare. Knight reckons “…the tragedy of Hamlet lay in the fact that a “good” character was destroyed because of an “evil” usurper” (Para. 5).
Creatively created work, presents the readers with a myriad of interpretations, varying with contexts from which they interpret the work. These contexts may be from the author’s contexts, the texts context or even the reader’s contexts. In this regard, perhaps attempting to interpret, Hamlet from the texts context, Claudius may be seen as a treacherous villain.
On the hand, knight’s interpretation from the reader’s contexts refers “the image of Claudius at prayer, repenting of his crimes, while Hamlet refuses to kill him, not wanting his soul to go to heaven” (Knight Para.8). Rather than looking at Hamlet as a noble and sweet character, Knight sees him as ruthless and rude towards his mother, Rosencrantz, Ophelia and Guildenstern. Shakespeare, arguably is creative in the manner he ridicules the vices in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Creative process in William Shakespeare works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hamlet can be argued as a good, pure and innocent character. However, his goodness is concealed by the evil characters surrounding him. In this context, Shakespeare deploys Hamlet as a creative symbol depictive of how evil in the society can emerge to afflict even the dutiful people.
Congruent to this argument, many critics argue that, “Hamlet’s tragedy is not a result of the supposed weaknesses/flaws in his character or even mistakes in his judgment/action, but from the evil and intolerable situation into which he is cruelly thrust” (Knight Para. 8). Hamlet emerges as a victim of circumstances. His mother is remarried; his father dead and hence has no one to turn to for any form of help.
More about Hamlet Why Does Hamlet Act Crazy? 5 108 In Hamlet, act 1, scene 2, which dramatic convention does Shakespeare employ most? 5 164 What are Examples of Dramatic Irony in Hamlet? 5 89 What is Hamlet’s concluding thought after he has mused over the skulls and the idea of death? 5 131 Which excerpt from Hamlet, act 1, scene 1 is a stage direction? 5 178 What was the “moment of final suspense” in Hamlet? 5 502 Claudius ends up being a powerful man and hence Hamlet’s intentions to take action against him hit a dead end. The circumstances facing Hamlet depicts the Shakespeare’s creativity in presenting the way power hinders existence of cute and right society.
Shrouding the themes of Hamlet this way was perhaps vital since, at his time, literal works had to pass through government sensors to scrutinize political contents before proceeding to theater. Given that Hamlet can be interpreted in from historical, psychological, and romantic approaches and yet make sense, it presents incredible creativity in its composition.
Merchant of Venice is yet another Shakespeare’s literal work that portrays immense creativity. Shakespeare creatively ridicules capitalistic systems. He achieves this through narrations of the lives of his characters.
Christian characters value the society wellbeing while characters like shylock, have a dare need for money. While Antonio lends money without intents of individualistic gains in term of earning interests, Shylock is in deep agony when he loses his money: he strolls down the street crying “O, my ducats! O, my daughter!” (Shakespeare: Merchant of Venice, II.viii.15).
In this context, shylock is depicted as to value money more than he even values his daughter. This is arguably presentation of capitalistic systems, which only values personal gains in terms of profits. Shakespeare is creative enough not to express the theme of greed in Merchant of Venice: a menace that afflicts the society largely.
As priory mentioned, any creative piece of literature genre addresses the author’s opinions, feelings and thoughts in a vivid and witty way. In Merchant of Venice, the motif of law is redundant. Through the characters and various stylistic devices, the author creatively challenges the capacity of the laws of his land to be manipulated to favor those in power.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creative process in William Shakespeare works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While used accordingly, laws proactively produce good will of the people, but when manipulated, they serve to perpetrate wantons and cruelty. As Dutton and Howard reckon, “Portia’s virtual imprisonment by the game of caskets seems, at first, like a questionable rule at best, but her likening of the game to a lottery system is belied by the fact that, in the end, it works perfectly” (57). The complementariness of Bassanio and Portia is portrayed in a vivid way. What is this? Creativity?
A creative writer is well equipped with vocabulary, deploys stylistic devices such as symbols, humor, and shrouds the themes of his or her work in an attempt to give valid meanings depending on the context of interpretation of the work by the reader.
In Merchant of Venice, symbols such as the three caskets, Leah’s ring and a pound of the flesh are used to serve the purpose of presentation of abstract ideas. Hamlet and Merchant of Venice are rich in vocabulary, and the ability of these vocabularies to rhyme with the contexts in which they are used despite the fact that he had no dictionary to refer from during his time of writing.
Consequently, Shakespeare works are not only congruent with what we have discussed so far about the creative process but also sounds substantial to make an assumption that they have attained magnificent level of creativity that perhaps remarkably few writers of the twentieth century have reached.
Works Cited Dutton, Richard, and Jean Howard. A Companion to Shakespeare’s Works: The Histories, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
Hale, Ali. Creative Writing, 2011. Web. .
Knight, William. Literally Criticism for Hamlet by William Shakespeare: Various Interpretations of Hamlet, 2008. Web..
Shakespeare, William. Merchant of Venice. New York: Simons
Drivers Use of Cell Phones While Vehicles Are In Motion Should Not Be Prohibited Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Social Networking Benefits
Introduction The rate of cell phone use has been increasing since mid 1980, and this industry has been ranked as being the most growing in the world. Cell phone use has got lots of application be in business, between families and between those in transit.
Though all these situations use cell phones, but the equipment is very useful particularly to those in transit, including those driving vehicles most of phone operators have reported to be using the technology. In real sense, a large percentage of phone calls have been found to be initiated by motor vehicle drivers. However, many scholars and government agencies have argued that, the use of cell phones while driving “increases the risk of traffic collisions, property damage, injuries, and fatalities” (Lissy,
Segregation during 1960s Essay argumentative essay help
THESIS: The civil rights movements opened a new chapter in the nation’s history. African-Americans were embroiled in a vicious war that aimed to end discriminatory and segregation laws. They fought “the war of a lifetime” in which they demanded suffrage, educational and housing rights. In addition, they wanted equal access to employment opportunities as well as the abolishment of state and federal laws, which discriminated against them in public places.
The civil rights movement
Demand for full civil liberties
Discrimination in Churches and other public places
Use of visual symbols and metaphors
Use of Irony
Use of caricatures and stereotypes
Use of visual arguments
Segregation during 1960s In 1960s, the civil rights movements opened a new chapter in the nation’s history. Blacks were embroiled in a vicious war that aimed to end segregation laws.
They fought “the war of a lifetime” in which they demanded suffrage, educational and housing rights. In addition, they wanted equal access to employment opportunities as well as the abolishment of state and federal laws that segregated them in public places. In this editorial cartoon, posted in the Washington Post in 1960, the Herblock explicitly demonstrates that segregation laws were prevalent in public places across the United States (n.d).
Essentially the Church is considered the house of God. Consequently, it ought to embrace every person regardless of his color, race, ethnic background, class, or religion. However, in this cartoon the Church symbolizes the extent to which segregation laws had affected blacks in Churches and other public places.
In the earlier 1960s and before the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965, African-Americans worshipped in separate Churches and attended separate schools from the whites. In this cartoon, the cartoonist has ironically implied that this was “The First Segregationist Church,” which represented “The Brotherhood of Man” (Herblock n.d).
At this point, it is also important to note that the cartoonist himself visually exaggerates the message when he selectively employs white and black backgrounds to label the signpost of the church. This categorically presents substantial grounds to support the fact that segregation laws had profound effect on the American society although they were unconstitutional.
He strategically places an old, fat white man, who obviously looks worried at the sight of African-Americans who have come to the Church. This view clearly symbolizes that segregation laws were intact in the minds of conservative Americans. The title of the cartoon, “Pray, Keep Moving Brother” also provides another form of ironical expression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The white man standing at the entrance of the Church is telling the father of the little boy to keep on praying and it is indisputable that the little boy is listening to the conversation. In essence, the whites are not comfortable to share the same Church and other public places with blacks however; because of the government’s decision to outlaw discrimination in public places, whites reluctantly begun recognizing blacks.
This is shown when the white man in the cartoon uncomfortably calls blacks his “brothers” and mockingly tells them to pray and keeps moving in order to get official constitutional recognition. The name of the Church itself “first segregationist Church” is a slogan that is used to assert that indeed this was the first Church that allowed both blacks and whites to share the common platform.
It is also crucial to note that conservative whites were not ready to share similar platforms with blacks despite the fact that the government outlawed segregation laws. Consequently, the editorial cartoon oversimplifies the view that whites boycotted Churches and other public places because the Civil Right Act gave blacks the legal recognition to share public places with whites, this is shown when the white old man leaves the first segregationist church to pave way for blacks.
The cartoonist also emphasizes the fact that blacks were determined to share the American dream because they defied all odds to show whites that attaining civil rights was their constitutional right as revealed by the middle-aged father who brings his son to the first segregationist Church.
The cartoon is arguing against racial discrimination and the enforcement of segregation laws as evidently portrayed when the cartoonist dresses the white old man in black suit and dresses the blacks in white suit. In addition, the cartoon is asserting that blacks not only wanted an end to segregation laws they also fought alongside their children as depicted by the father who has brought his son to the Church.
In conclusion, this editorial cartoon symbolizes the extent to which segregation laws affected blacks in Churches and other public places during the 60s besides it also emphasizes how blacks confronted whites in public places to achieve basic civil liberties.
Works Cited Herblock. “Segregation 1960.” The Washington Post14 Aug. 1960. Web. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblock/
We will write a custom Essay on Segregation during 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction For a city to be established, there are specific things that need to be considered, for instance, economic growth, cultural affiliations, geography and topography, history that defines the origin of the city, resources available, politics, governance, population and facilities available. San Francisco is one among the many cities in California.
This paper will discuss San Francisco and determine how it established itself. San Francisco city occupies the seven-mile-wide northern tip of the San Francisco peninsula, and hosts a population of 750,000 people with very slim possibilities of going beyond that capacity (Sinclair 1).
As a city, it has gone through tough and good times socially and economically, some but a few include earth quakes, floods, and economic instabilities in the earlier days and the world wars both one and two. Due to it being a hub of activities, each time the city is faced with such challenges; it takes a short time to get back to its feet (Bing and Channell 33). It is considered as one of the major centers for transportation, cultural and financial activities. It has its history based on arts as its major establishment activity.
The San Franciscans are known to be imaginative, which has given the city its name, “city of the imagination” (Sinclair 1). Throughout history, San Francisco has been known to be a city where anything and everything is possible. From politics, economic backgrounds and stands to their liberal perception on issues, it creates an atmosphere where everybody and anybody can coexist. This has attracted foreign investors from around the globe which has changed the face of the city to a more attractive one.
Thesis Statement Due to San Francisco’s establishment as a city based on imagination and one that is always in progress and growth, it has taken the position of being considered a more livable city than most of the other cities in California. This far, it has been able to preserve the grounds on which it was established; imagination and attracting the outside world through its position in the region, state, national and global economy (Brook, Carlson and Peters vii).
Due to the city’s stand, it has continued to contribute positively to the growth of California, which has contributed to the attraction of foreign investors and heads of major corporations. This has contributed positively to the image of San Francisco from the old ugly town to the productive town that has grown with time.
San Francisco The economy of San Francisco has been on rapid growth since the time of Gold rush. This attracted so many people from all over the world who came in order to search for the gold. This increased the population of the city to an unimaginable number which in turn contributed positively to make the city a commercial centre and the present financial district (Sinclair 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the city got to be established financially, California became a major beneficially of the same growth since it opened its frontier to investors. San Francisco being a Financial District, which is expansive to the shores of the ocean, and opens the beaches to the tourists, has been a major source of income to the California people.
The growth of the economy in San Francisco has established itself as a centre for employment, which has attracted professional work force from neighbor states, cities and countries, a thing that had not happened in the past.
Though the magnetic pull of employment has called people from all professions, this has greatly led to the economic liberation of the young people since the housing rents remained low enough to allow artists, refugees and those outside the mainstream to survive and to prosper in the main city (Brook, Carlson and Peters 9).
Its ability to host the Chamber of Commerce, Mission District, banks like Bank of America among other banks and many other significant components of the economy has made San Francisco accessible to all kinds of development that comes with civilization.
Many people have been leaving their countries to get white color jobs in San Francisco even though the standard and the quality of living are very high there. Its opening to the neighborhood has been a drive in establishing restaurants and entertainment centers to cater for the needs of the people.
As a city, San Francisco has been well established in arts and entertainment. The city is known to host the most enduring artists whose works sell so much all over the world. The city has been consistent in the production of high-quality soaps that are watched all over the world through their refined artists who have been in the field for a long time. San Franciscans’ use of stage from acting to music is such a catching thing that all over the world people will tune to the San Franciscan TV channels to watch their productions.
The arts in this city range from photography where they have one of the best world collections that can be seen in their museums and galleries (Bing and Channell 40), social commentaries, painting and sculpture, high concepts, high craft, storytelling and by use of the new technology, they are still developing more arts.
We will write a custom Research Paper on San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The San Franciscans are also in music where they are producing music in different categories ranging from opera to local entertainment. All the mentioned arts contribute to the economy of the city and in turn to that of California at large (Bing and Channel 42).
Freedom of expression is one of the key features in the law that makes San Francisco to be one of the most liberal cities in California. Freedom of expression is meant to be respected by all citizens as long as an individual is not threatening the peace of the society around him/her, the person should be let to express themselves as they deem fit.
The gay and the prostitute community are free to express themselves since they are accepted politically and culturally. Any people who express themselves and face the threats from the police or members of the public are at liberty to report that as harassment and the demonstration of such persons is justified.
Education offered in San Francisco is that of highly specialized skills so that as professionals and individual are able to offer the society the best skills needed in changing the market. Every so often, San Francisco and California at large review the education system in order to improve the system to match up with the emerging needs of the world (Divine 1). This not only sets the city at a good position globally to provide up to date services, but it improves the city’s governance as they respond to local and international need to do that.
As mentioned earlier, the city of San Francisco is one of the major tourist attraction places in the world, and tourism is the largest industry which generates the highest annual income for the country. Every tourist who has visited the city will do it repeatedly because the entertainment venues in San Francisco cannot be exhausted.
This is because there are enough recreational sites to visit ranging from the museums, entertainment theaters, public and private beaches, animal reserves, local entertainment, explorations to up to date accommodation facilities.
Out of statistics in San Francisco, it has been shown that, “the massive injection of visitors directly supports local hotels, restaurant, shops, attraction and cultural centers. It also indirectly bolsters practically every segment of the city’s economy and has a broad positive influence on the government finances” (San Francisco 1).
Politics and governance are two important key features of any given place and greatly affect the economic condition of the place in question. San Francisco being the only consolidated city- County in California passes its own laws and budgets through the mayor, who is the head of the city. The mayor who has the power to appoint a committee to govern the city, and this makes it easier for him to manage the city governance (Brook, Carlson and Peters 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on San Francisco as a Center for Transportation, Cultural and Financial Activities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been like so since 1856 out of the observation that the city out of its numerous economic activities was doing well. Due to its independence, it has been mandated to be the state of Supreme Court of the state of California. San Francisco is considered as one of the best places for conventions and conferences.
Due to good governance and the security established by the local government, San Francisco has been considered as one of the best places to invest. Its rapid growth and central governance of resources make it an attractive city for business people who put in efforts to meet the needs of the growing population; one is always sure of selling their goods and services and make profits.
Because of the city’s ability to attract wealth from many corners of the land, San Francisco has a legacy of wealth; this has made California one of the greatest engines of the world’s economic growth (Brook, Carlson and Peters 8). This also has a disadvantage because it attracts people with all manners of expertise from positive to negative. San Francisco is one of the cities where one needs to be careful when dealing with strangers lest one finds themselves in the hands of gamblers or thieves.
Conclusion San Francisco as one of the cities in California, has greatly established itself. Its establishment is based on the development of a strong economic foundation through many activities that are carried out in the city. The strong education system and the ability to attract many investors give San Francisco a chance to contribute to the world economy.
Tourism as a major attraction point has been one of the greatest strengths in raising the largest share of country and global revenue, a position that gives San Francisco a plus over other cities in California. Due to the city’s ability to attract investors and different economic activities from around the world, San Francisco is considered a city where everything is available regardless of its small size as compared to other states around California.
People have always been moving to San Francisco for a better life which is made possible through improved infrastructure which the city government had to put in place to take care of the growing population. This has made the city so famous, and it makes the city attractive to people from all over the world that have either heard about the city or have been to the city.
Works Cited Bing, Alison and Channell Dominique. San Francisco. San Francisco, CA: Lonely Planet, 2008. Print.
Brook James, Carlson Chris and Peters Nancy. Reclaiming San Francisco: History, Politics, and Culture. San Francisco, CA: City Lights books, 1998. Print.
Divine, Caroline. “Education Policy in America; Education Policy in San Francisco.” Divine Caroline Articles, 2011. Web.
San Francisco. “San Francisco Visitor Industry Statistics.” San Francisco Travel, 2011. Web. .
Sinclair, Mick. San Francisco. A culture and literary history. San Francisco, CA: Signal Books, 2004. Print.
Comparing Robert Frost’s Poems: The Road not Taken and A Question Essay cheap essay help
The two popular poems by Robert Frost – The Road not Taken and A Question – focus on experiences and hardships that a person should undergo before a decision is made. Although they rely on the problem of difficult choices, they are a number of differences in their viewpoints on philosophical conception of life. In particular, The Road not Taken focuses on the events that influenced the narrator’s choice and provided the rationale for his actions.
In contrast, A Question deliberates on what has already been done. Specific attention requires the question about the value of death and life, as well as about the reflection on previous experience. Hence, the leading aspects and themes discussed in both poems are associated with the difficulties in decision-making, influence of life experience on the choices, and consequences of our actions. All these themes are represented from the viewpoint of the narrator who is concerned with the problems of being.
The structure and size of the poems differ significantly. In particular, The Road not Taken is a four-stanza poem with five lines each. The rhythmic pattern is iambic tetrameter which coincides the ABAAB scheme. Rhymes are masculine and straight, except for the last line where the stress is put on the last syllable.
A Question has only one stanza with four lines, but it also has iambic structure. Although the poems are from different collections, they indicate similar features in terms of themes, characters, and philosophical outlooks on life. Biographical features in both verses are explicitly illustrated. Although the author focuses on natural phenomena, most of subjects relate to the human feelings, experiences, and emotions.
Description of life experience is, probably, at the core of all literary works introduced by Frost. According to Bloom, “Frost’s verse is often so apparently paraphrasable as to seem the précis for some short story: a domination of plot that takes up the slack seemingly left by an overly straightforward, honey, and blunt language” (87-88). Presence of metaphysical elements, as well as reflection on the sense of existence, is also associated with autobiographical features of Frost’ poetic work.
Decision-making is, apparently, the prevailing theme in Frosts’ poem because both literary pieces focus on this issue. The problem is highlighted almost in similar figurative manner because Frost refers to the ideas of decision-making through representations of metaphorical comparisons. Thus, in the first poem, the author compares choices with paths in the forest: “Two roads diverged in a yellow wood/And sorry I could not travel both” (The Road not Taken 9).
While interpreting this, the author assumes that an individual cannot made two opposite decisions, just as it is impossible to take roads simultaneously. Similar to this poem, A Question also relies on metaphorical comparisons while deliberating on the matter of choice: “…tell me truly…if all the soul-and-body scars were too much to pay for the birth” (A Question 45). In the passage, the author compares “soul-and-body scares” with the consequences of the decisions that people made during their lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Influence of life experience on people’s choice is also brightly demonstrated in both verses, but at different angles. In particular, both poems refer to such feelings as regret and frustration while questioning the outcomes of the choices made. At the end of The Road not Taken, Frost makes use of the word “sign” to render his disappointment with the decision he made in life: “I shall be telling this with a sigh/…I Two roads diverged in a wood and I – I took the one less traveled by” (9).
At the same time, negative experience is interpreted in the second poem, in which the poet compares human knowledge with “soul-and-body scars” that should be paid off. With regard to these metaphorical interpretations, it should be assumed that both verses unveil the author’s viewpoint on the concept of life, in which experience defines the goals of human existence. It also creates understanding of what role free will and fate play on our lives.
Consequences of our actions shape our future. Frost refers to human lives with irony because all our decisions are largely limited by the existence of choices in front of our paths. In the majority of cases, people are under the influence of circumstances that make them choose the path they go.
Nevertheless, Frost constantly questions the inevitability of the choices made and justifies the chosen solutions in life. At the same time, he thinks that people are not the only ones to blame in their searching. In particular, there are other supernatural powers that do not depend on circumstances created by humans. In both poems, external powers are represented, but in different capacities.
In conclusion, Frost’ verses analyze the role of decision making in human lives, as well as how it is affected by personal wisdom and external circumstances. Although both novels relate to different epistemological dimensions, they discover such problems as the matter of choice, importance of life experience, and consequences of human actions. While investigating these topics, the emphasis has been placed on literary devices that the author employs, including metaphors and irony.
Works Cited Frost, Robert. “A Question”. A Witness Tree. Robert Frost. US: J. Cape. 1943. 45. Print.
Frost, Robert. “The Road not Taken” Mountain Interval. Robert Frost. US: Henry Holt, 1916. 9. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing Robert Frost’s Poems: The Road not Taken and A Question specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bloom, Harold. Robert Frost. US: Infobase Publishing, 2003. Print.
Entomophagy as Portrayed by Western Media and Literature Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Entomophagy is consumption of insects by humans. Consumption of insects has been practiced by humans for ages. However, different cultures consumed insects for different reasons. In western and European cultures insect consumption is restricted to extreme conditions. In these cultures insects were considered to be repulsive organisms and their consumption was not condoned. In fact insects were viewed as causes of various health problems that inflicted pain on man. Currently, literary works portray insects as desirable creatures.
Insect eating has existed for long in some cultures. Entomophagy is widely practiced in Eastern cultures and Africa. Members of these communities eat insects for their taste, for survival, and as a cultural expression. In western culture insect eating is largely regarded as a disgusting undertaking.
The aspect of insect eating for survival is emphasized in western media perhaps in an attempt to make entomophagy more acceptable. However, media and literary productions in the west are preoccupied with portraying entomophagy as exotic. Exoticism appears to be the driving force behind the emergence of television shows featuring insect eating and insect containing cuisines.
Exoticism appears to provoke the interest of the viewers and television audiences. Viewed from this perspective, entomophagy seems acceptable to the western viewer. Mass media and literary productions are increasingly portraying insects as acceptable creatures. This is evidenced by arguments supporting environmental protection. The love for nature should compel one to consider insects as part and parcel of a beautiful environment.
It has been argued that to love nature is to love everything in it. Previously insects were not considered as food in western culture. Therefore, accidental ingestion of insects would evoke a lot of misery and suffering. However, mass media and literary productions have helped shape the notion that insects are other food. Some people have accepted insects as alternative food. The aim is to give an impression that insects should not be reserved for extreme times only.
Insect eating is currently portrayed as a source of entertainment and awe. There are many television shows whose main content is insect eating. These shows tend be sensationalistic in nature. Entomophagy in the shows is packed in such a way that it provokes fear and disgust at the same time.
Insect eating is used to create spectacle. The television shows feature characters playfully eating insects. Before the emergence of these shows insects were largely viewed as disgusting creatures. They were perceived as dirty disease causing organisms. Few would dare touch them and even less would dare eat them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mass media and literary works are aiding change in attitude towards insects. Insect consumers can now critically examine their position as consumers. Similarly, they assist the consumers to examine their opinion of insects. Critical examination of consumers and products was suppressed in the past. In the process consumers get to understand that they must support conservation efforts.
In conclusion, entomophagy has always existed in various societies but the advent of popular culture has significantly affected our perception of insects. In the past western culture did not consider insects as ‘normal’ food. However, media has contributed to the perception of insects as ‘other’ food in the west. Insect cuisines are viewed as exotic delicacies worth trying. Media has used insect eating as a source of entertainment and amazement. This has contributed to the acceptance of insects as beautiful creatures.
Media Relations Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Public relations (PR) refers to the process of presenting information to the public by an individual or an organization through appropriately managed channels (Henslowe 34). It involves dispensation of information in different forms such as blogging, educational websites, and social media by.
Companies use PR to market themselves to the public through persuasion. They convince investors, employees, stakeholders, partners, and the public to hold a certain viewpoint about their services or products, leadership or management system (Henslowe 36). Activities that are commonly associated with PR include awards, invitation to address conferences, and collaborations with the press on projects that affect the welfare of the public.
How has Wikipedia (celebrating 10 years) affected PR practices?
Many PR firms use Wikipedia to provide information to the public. However, there have been criticisms of bias in the information given by both individuals and organizations. Wikipedia’s celebrations have reiterated their effort to provide the public with accurate and unbiased information (Henslowe 33). Wikipedia has revolutionalized PR practices because of its unique model of presenting information. It allows people to edit offensive, inadequate, or biased information (Duhe 26).
However, there is conflict of interest in cases where clients contract PR firms to edit certain information on their behalf. In addition, Wikipedia has streamlined the process of information delivery on the internet because it allows individuals to add or delete unwanted information (Duhe 27). This has increased the possibility of obtaining accurate and reliable information on the internet.
Moreover, verification of information by editors improves the accuracy of information. Wikipedia has established policies that control content on their website (Duhe 28). This ensures that individuals do not manipulate information that they publish at their own will. In addition, their guidelines on conflict of interest ensure that clients do not misuse the website by adding biased information that is directed towards their competitors (Duhe 31). Wikipedia has affected PR practices significantly.
How has social media changed the PR field?
Social media has changed the field of public relations immensely. It has changed how people gather and share information, and how they communicate. It has increased the speed of gathering and sharing information (Nelson par5).
For example, PR professionals have access to loads of information that help them to solve a variety of problems. Companies can collect information from customers about a certain product or service through social media. For instance, Twitter and Facebook are important resources used by companies to collect vital information that help them to develop plans and strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has also changed the dynamics of journalism. Journalists and PR professionals can easily obtain information online without necessarily going out in the field (Breakenridge 62). Moreover, with the advent of social media, information became readily available online. People can share information easily because it is fast and reliable. Information is gathered firsthand from targeted people instead of secondary sources.
What is media bias? Find examples Media bias refers to the action of forcing a certain viewpoint on people by giving distorted or misleading information in order to promote a certain ideal (Ruschmann 41). As such, media bias is exhibited by either print or digital media companies. An individual journalist rarely exhibits it. Media bias is a common phenomenon in journalism because of differences in views, opinions, and interpretation of information. An example of media bias is the exclusion of viewpoints of a certain story covered in the media.
The media may incline towards one side of the story and as a result give information that supports their viewpoint. The media has been accused of bias in almost every instance it gives information to the public. However, presenting all the views on a particular topic of discussion is difficult because people approach issues and synthesize information differently (Ruschmann 41). Therefore, it is difficult to present all viewpoints without excluding some.
For example, minor political parties in the United States express their concern that the media focuses its attention on the two major parties: Democrats and Republicans. This constitutes media bias because they have a right to be heard and represented by the media. In addition, the media ignores their viewpoints on matters that are important to the public and instead concentrate on the viewpoints of the two major political parties (Sloan and MacKay 56).
Conclusion Public relations refer to the process of presenting information to the public by an individual or an organization through appropriately managed channels. It is used by companies to create organizational images that portray them positively to the public. The media has played a significant role in changing the PR field.
It has increased speed of information gathering and sharing. In addition, it has changed the way people communicate. Media bias is one of the challenges of PR. It involves presenting information that leans towards one side of certain situations while neglecting other sides. For example, the media focuses attention on major political parties and neglects minor parties. Media bias is common in political and religious circles.
Works Cited Breakenridge, Deirde. Social Media and Public Relations: Eight New Practices for the PR Professional. New York: FT Press, 2012. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Duhe, Sandra. New Media and Public Relations. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. Print.
Henslowe, Philip. Public Relations: a Practical Guide to the Basics. New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2003. Print.
Nelson, Kristin. Social Media: Shaping Public Relations since 1970. 10 Oct. 2012. Web. .
Ruschmann, Paul. Media Bias. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.
Sloan, William, and MacKay Jenn. Media Bias: Finding it and Fixing it. New York: McFarland, 2007. Print.
American Political Culture Essay (Article) essay help
The American political culture has gone through a series of interesting and fundamental changes between 2004 and 2012, a major one being a shift in voter turnout and use of social media. The victory of Barack Obama, an African American president reflects the mind of the voter who wanted a change from war, growing oil prices, unemployment and an economy which showed no signs of revival.
In Barack Obama, the new American political voters saw simplicity and optimism for a better America and a hopeful future for the new generation. Needless to say, the Hispanic population, the African Americans played a pivotal role in creating history by electing an African American president, Barack Obama.
Obama was able to connect with the young voters and attract Hispanic votes “like no president before him” (Lister par. 6). His simple slogans promising hope and a constant call for a change appealed to the Americans who were tired of the Bush administration.
The Americans seemed fed up of George W. Bush’s presidency which centered on the Middle Eastern wars and a period of high recession in an economy which was struggling and showed no hope for improvement. With a high federal deficit the Americans were looking for a change from the problems they had been facing through the Bush regime.
New social media played a crucial role in the political polarization and dynamics of the 2008 election results (Zakaria par. 9). The Facebook fundraising campaign by Chris Hughes attracted more than three million donors, proving to be a Masterful operation, leaving Obama with a spending capacity of four to one against McCain (Lister par. 6). The funds made it easy for Obama to target TV airtime as well as online ads.
Young Americans voted in huge numbers to make their choice showing the change technology and social media had brought about in communication. With easier means of communication, Obama, with his simple yet assertive speeches appealed to the American voters instantly.
His call for “hope” and “change” appealed to the people who were looking for a change (Presidential Campaign Slogans, par. 50) in severe contrast to the Bush administration which sidelined the social welfare of its people and centralized foreign policy matters. Overlooking important economic matters such as the tanking stock market, the weakening banking sector and the lack luster of the real estate proved to be the deciding factors of the 2008 elections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Obama’s victory and re-election is largely based on a high black turnout and large Hispanic vote. With Latinos amounting to “the fastest growing minority, making up 16% of the nation’s population” (Rodriguez par. 2), Obama won with a huge majority. In the 2008 elections too, Latinos accounted for 9% of the electorate and with 19.5 million eligible voters, Obama secured “67% of the Latino vote” (Rodriguez par. 4).
With the growing majority of Latinos and “nearly 24 million Hispanics eligible to vote” the Latinos “made their mark on election night as they voted over Barack Obama over Republican Mitt Romney” (Rodriguez par. 4).
Works Cited Lister, Richard. Why Barack Obama won. 2008. Web.
Presidential Campaign Slogans n.d. Web.
Rodriguez, Cindy. Latino vote key to Obama’s re-election. 2012. Web.
Zakaria, Fareed. Why political polarization has gone wild in America (and what to do about it). 2011. Web.
A Change to Scared-Straight Programs Proposal essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sacred-straight Programs are not Effective
Opposing Views to Scare-Straight Program
Introduction The rate at which criminal activities happen around the world is alarming. While majority associate these activities with adult men and women, it is surprising to realize the share of the crimes that are committed by children. In most instances, people assume that children are not involved criminal activities.
It is therefore worth noting the depth of Schmalleger’s report on children and crime. In fact, Schemalleger’s report of 2008 revealed that about 10% of the 99,794 juvenile arrests were of children of 12 years and below (2011, p. 542). An approximately 17% of all the arrests made in the United States every year comprised juveniles.
In addition, juveniles are responsible for about 16% aggressive felony acts and about 26% property crimes in the United States. Since children form less than a third of the population, their percentage involvement in crime is disproportional (542). This argument indicates that the prevalence of criminal activities resulting from juveniles has been assumed in the world.
The percentages revealed by such studies like that of Schmalleger are enough to prove that children’s involvement in criminal acts is alarming. In fact, this trend has been increasing over the years especially in the United States. Therefore, the rising trends of criminal acts by children have made it necessary for advocates and law makers to develop ways of reducing incidences of crimes committed by juveniles.
They introduced the scared-straight programs as mechanisms of fighting felony acts by children. Whether they are effective or not has been a subject of discussion. As the paper reveals, removing some aspects such as confrontation and maintaining contact and support to the offenders and their families over an extended period can make the programs effective. However, the share that this strategy can have is insignificant in relation to the weight of the cons of the program, which make it ineffective.
Sacred-straight Programs are not Effective Scared-straight programs cannot be effective by themselves alone because juvenile crimes continue to rise even after great efforts by the government of the United States to enact legislations to promote it over the years. For instance, in the United States, several acts promoted the establishment of juvenile courts in a bid to separate children in crimes from mature adults. A good example of such a move that has never born any fruits is the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899. This Act initiated a system of juvenile courts in the state of Illinois.
Through the same Act, all juveniles in crimes were to be regarded as delinquents. Because of this Act, judges of the juvenile courts were advised to keep focus on the interest of the children in crimes than on their criminal act (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 546). In fact, no juvenile offender would be regarded as a criminal in such courts. Judges were to regard them as delinquents. This strategy is one of the grounds that made scare-straight programs unsuccessful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second effort by the program was to eliminate the guilt of crime from the delinquents in a bid to promote reformation. The move made many juvenile criminals feel pampered to continue with their criminal activities even after being taken through the court process. They would never be remorseful about their acts. In 1938, the federal government of the United States passed another law: the Juvenile Court Act.
This Act had many attributes and incorporations of the previous Illinois Act (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547), which was followed by concerted efforts by the federal government to ensure that, within the next eight years, the states in America had established legislations on juvenile offenders and their treatment in courts of law (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547). However, these efforts were not fruitful.
There were certain principals that the juvenile courts were to follow as the guidelines. Such principles included the assumption that the state was the ultimate parent to every child. The state should use non punitive measures to save children since it was worthwhile to do so.
Every state was to nurture children and protect them from formal judicial procedure’s effects by individualizing the process of justice to recognize that every child is different by aspirations, living conditions, and needs. In addition, states were to be guided by the principle of non criminal procedures when adjudicating juvenile cases (Schmalleger, 2011, p. 547). Each state had to consider these factors in handling juvenile cases.
All these efforts flopped. In fact, by 1980s, the rate of juvenile crimes rose to a higher scale (Dammer
Simulation of VTI Mobotics’ Strategy Essay online essay help
Introduction Amalgamated Mobotics was one of the first producers of lawn mowing robots, which are now known as mobots. The company was one of the leaders in this market. However, lots of competitors entered the market and the company faced a “classic problem”, i.e. the “revenues were dropping” and their “costs were rising” (Ireland, 2013, p. 5). VTI Mobotics acquired the company. Now the company is developing a new strategy to address the major issues.
New Strategy The team makes the right decision to start with developing a new strategy. Admittedly, it is essential to have a specific plan to reach certain goals (Griffin, 2012). There are a number of possible ways to address the problem. The most important is to work on the new product development. This should be the company’s priority as the competitors have gained a great share of market and it is essential to come up with new ideas to win the market back.
While developing the new strategy, it is also crucial to pay attention to time spent on personal projects. The companies (Amalgamated Mobotics and VTI Mobotics) have quite different approaches and the staff should understand the importance of the work on personal projects. The staff should be able to provide the feedback which is crucial for the effective implementation of any project.
Communication Admittedly, it is essential to have effective communicative channels to make the staff aware of the new strategy. One of the possible ways to communicate the new strategy is sending an e-mail. It is the fastest way and the top management can be sure that all employees will get the information.
Employees will also be able to respond and ask any questions. However, this way has certain downsides. In the first place, some e-mails are ignored and there are odds that some employees may fail to pay the necessary attention to this e-mail. Furthermore, answering all questions is very time-consuming.
Therefore, the best way is to send a company-wide e-mail and reveal the major points of the new strategy. Those who have questions and suggestions should respond with their questions.
The e-mail should contain the day of the company-wide meeting where the detailed presentation of the new strategy will be delivered and most important questions will be addressed. The employees will be able to ask questions during the meeting. This is the most efficient way to introduce the new strategy as all employees will actively participate in the process and will be unable to ignore the message.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Production The company has one serious issue to address. Its supplier, MotorWorks, postpones deliveries. The quality of the microchip-controlled motors provided by MotorWorks is excellent, but the late deliveries lead to certain losses. Some employees think that it is necessary to start developing the motors internally and stop buying from MotorWorks.
However, MotorWorks is one of the biggest customers of the company and rejection of their products can lead to the loss of this important customer. At that, production of the motors internally requires additional funding. One of the suggested ways is to start buying motors from different suppliers. However, the company may lose one of its customers.
Therefore, it is necessary to think of another way out. This can be a formal agreement with MotorWorks about purchasing the necessary parts “exclusively” from them “in return for guarantee delivery” (Ireland, 2013, p. 10). It is also necessary to start in-house production of some parts which will make the company less dependent on suppliers.
Quality of Services Another problem the company is facing is related to the quality of services. The customers are satisfied with the quality of the products and are not against the necessary services. The customers are ready to have the products serviced as long as the services are provided properly and within the necessary time limits. However, the company’s professionals are unable to provide high-quality services which leads to the customers’ dissatisfaction. Since the company’s employees are unable to do their job well, it is necessary to hire qualified staff.
Individual Projects After the acquisition, the company is focused on the specific goals. Admittedly, the new strategy requires a lot of effort and every employee is loaded with certain work. Clearly, this is no time to give employees a lot of time to work on their own projects as the company should address quite urgent issues.
However, it is inappropriate to make the employees forget about their own projects completely. It is crucial to limit the time spent on the individual projects to 10% of the overall time. The employees will have opportunity to generate ideas (which is really important for the company and the employees’ motivation). However, the employees will need to report on their progress (on both their own projects and the work on the strategic projects).
Sales and Marketing Department Since the Sales and Marketing department is working effectively, it does not need many changes. However, it could be beneficial to increase competitiveness in this department. It is possible to suggest larger compensations to the employees. It is also possible to introduce extra perks.
We will write a custom Essay on Simulation of VTI Mobotics’ Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The New Year Strategies Possible initiatives for the next year may include recruiting top talents, improving internal systems, analyzing customer data. The best option is to work on the improvement of the internal systems as it will enable the company to decrease expenditures. Clearly, hiring new staff can lead to extra costs and rather unpredictable results as no professional can ensure effective development of the company.
Prices Cuts The company is facing one more problem. Two large customers (which make up to 30% of the total sales) require 10% discount, but the company does not have the policy of offering any discounts.
However, the prices are not too high; therefore the discount should not be that big. It is possible to consider smaller discounts 3-5%, but it is necessary to set certain minimum, i.e. minimal amount of supplies to get the discount. This will prove the company’s flexibility and interest in the customer’s needs. However, it may also prevent companies from asking for discounts.
Product Development Finally, some of the company’s employees suggest that the company collaborate with another company, which has developed a new product (mobots working in high humidity). However, this suggestion should be carefully thought over. It may be necessary to hire experts to work on the new technology rather than collaborate with another company.
There are several companies working on this kind of improvement and collaborating with any of these companies will not ensure that the company will develop an exclusive product. Thus, in-house experts will be the best option for the company as this option is the most cost-effective (there is no need to pay to other companies to get innovative ideas as the ideas will be developed by the company’s professionals).
Reference List Griffin, R.W. (2012). Management. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Ireland, S. (2013). VTI Mobotics: Paper-Based Simulation. University Canada West.
Amalgamated Mobotics Essay custom essay help
The main facts about the organization The company Amalgamated Mobotics which was founded in 1993, produces lawn mowing robots (Ireland, 2013, p. 1). Although at the very beginning of its operations, this organization achieved relative success, it later lost its positions to other competitors that could manufacture better products at a lower cost (Ireland, 2013, p. 1).
Amalgamated Mobotics was acquired by a large corporation Virtual Technologies. At this point, the management of a newly-created division called VTI Mobotics has to find ways of improving the performance of this organization.
The postulated strategy The series of discussions and meetings have resulted in the identification of the following goals: 1) improved retention of customers; 2) the development of innovative products; 3) reduced operational costs. These objectives are critical for the sustainability of this organization. As it has said before, Amalgamated Mobotics lost their competitive edge because their rivals outperformed Mobotics in terms of price and quality.
The chosen communication strategy The choice of communication strategy is vital the performance of VT Mobotics. It is possible to prefer such a method as a company-wide meeting. The main advantage of this approach is that senior executives can clearly communicate their objectives to every employee of the company (Wright, 2006, p. 16).
Furthermore, the message will not be distorted in any way (Wright, 2006, p. 16). This method is not the only one that business administrators can use. The directors of each department should later specify the details of the strategy to the workers. In this case, the main advantage is that employees will be more willing to ask clarifying questions when they interact with managers who are more familiar. These are the main aspects that should be considered by business administrators.
The partnership with Motorworks For a long time, Amalgamated Mobotics has cooperated with such a supplier as MotorWorks. This organization has indeed provided Mobotics with high-quality components, but they often failed to deliver their goods on time (Ireland, 2013, p. 8). At this point, the management has to decide whether the organization should further rely on the services of MotorWorks or establish partnerships with other suppliers.
Under the circumstances, the most rationale policy would be to conduct the evaluation of clients’ satisfaction with motors. On the basis of this research, the management can better evaluate the efficiency of Motorworks as a supplier. The main recommendation is that Mobotics should not rely too much on a single supplier since such a policy can make them too vulnerable. Moreover, they should not be responsible for improving the organizational performance of MotorWorks. This is one of the main points that should be made.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Complaints of customers One of the most important tasks is to increase the satisfaction of clients. In their opinion, the quality of the company’s after-sale service does not always meet their expectations (Ireland, 2013, p. 8). This is one the reasons why they choose to purchase the products manufactured by the competitors of Mobotics.
To some extent, it is the duty of the R
Evolution in the English Language Essay (Article) college application essay help: college application essay help
English is now indisputably an international language. It even has a new acronym: ELF, or English as a Lingua Franca. However, unlike French or Latin, the original LFs only of the European world, English is literally everywhere, and is the default language for many industries and fields of study and employment.
Whether you are travelling, living abroad in an Anglophone country, or studying English in school, you will find that there is not just one variant of English. If you are not careful, you can run afoul of regional differences in word usage that can embarrass or inconvenience you, and may detract from the clarity of your writing.
Because of the mix of ethnicities that makes up the USA, American English has evolved along different lines. Thus, a British speaker and an American speaker can find themselves talking at cross purposes unless they understand the idiomatic differences between the two regional forms of the language. The following are some examples from personal experience:
Consider the classic error made by a British hotel guest when suggesting to an attractive young person that they sightsee together the following day. “Shall I come round and knock you up in the morning?” asks the Brit, and the American wonders why this ill-mannered lout wishes to get her with child.
The phrase “to knock up” is US slang for getting someone pregnant. He could have said, “Shall I knock on your door in the morning?” and this international incident would have been averted entirely. And by the way, the phrase “young person” is another Briticism, albeit one that may be a bit vintage. Americans would speak of a “young lady” if they have any manners.
Another classic mistake can occur in a “pub” (known to Yanks as a “bar”), when someone offers “cider”. In the USA, almost without exception, “cider” is unfiltered apple juice. It is served as an eco-friendly and often locally sourced alternative to less healthy “soft” (non-alcoholic) beverages such as Coke, Pepsi, Dr. Pepper or other overpriced mixtures of sugar water, caramel coloring, and marketing.
In Britain, on the other hand, the term “cider” refers to a fairly potent (and tasty) fermented version of apple juice that can set the unwary imbiber reeling. Cider was once fermented enthusiastically everywhere in the colonies, as was Perry, or pear cider, but Prohibition nearly wiped that industry out. It making a comeback as an alcoholic drink, along with locally made sausage, and boutique beers, but it will be reliably referred to as “hard cider”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As long as we are on the topic of embarrassing mistakes, consider the word “rubber”. In the USA, this refers to the substance derived from latex, but also to male contraceptives, or condoms, which protect the male reproductive organ, or “pecker” (USA). In the UK, the word “rubber” refers to an eraser, and the “pecker” is the chin, meaning that “keeping one’s pecker up” is a phrase to use with care. Another pitfall phrase is “on the job”. In the USA, this means literally while working – as in “managerial training on the job”.
In British English, on the other hand, this can refer to that most intimate of consensual interpersonal activities, so avoid this phrase unless you are sure of your audience! “Fannies” in the USA are what a lady sits upon, but in Britain, the word refers to her most female of parts. This is another word to avoid!
Now that we are all thoroughly embarrassed, consider the word that, in Britain, is used to refer to cigarettes, or at least used to be; “f*g”. In the USA, this pejorative and offensive term for a homosexual should really be avoided entirely. Another explosive word, ni**er, seems to be used in the UK to apply to all people with dark skin. In the USA, this is called the n-word, and refers usually to those whose African ancestors were enslaved. These words have such hurtful connotations that the best strategy is to just find different ways to describe others.
Moving on to happier topics, and remembering the popular modern adage, “Life is short; eat dessert first”, take note that the traveler who asks for “pudding” in the UK will be served a sweet ending to a meal of almost any type.
In the USA, however, “pudding” means a very specific sweet; a soft composition of milk and eggs (or the modern food chemist’s equivalent thereof), cooked to a consistency that sticks to the spoon. A baked mixture of milk, eggs, and sugar, with bread cubes, cooked rice, pasta, or tapioca, generates a nearly endless ethnic and regional variety of “puddings” (bread pudding, noodle kugel, etc.). They can all be yummy in the hands of a deft cook.
Likewise, “biscuits” in the UK are a “cookie” in the USA. American “biscuits” are actually a quick bread, not made with yeast, but with baking powder and a great deal of shortening (butter, lard, or vegetable fat).
They are not sweet, but serve as a magnificent transport mechanism for gravy, drippings, butter, honey, maple syrup, sorghum syrup, or fruit preserves. A specialized American use of biscuits is strawberry shortcake, which originally meant a biscuit (salty) topped with fresh berries (sweet and tart) and whipped cream (richly unctuous and perhaps sweet).
We will write a custom Article on Evolution in the English Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is all fun, but there are additionally serious differences that anyone trying to live, work, or study internationally needs to remember. These divergences in practice are extensive and keeping a reference list at hand or bookmarked on the computer is a good idea. Here is a sampling:
In American English, teams and corporations usually take singular forms of verbs (e.g., Apple Corporation has brought out a new model), whereas in the UK, they often take plural forms (e.g., Manchester United are the winners. This is an instant signal indicating where one’s English was learned.
British English uses shall more often than will.
In British English, the preposition from is used to indicate start times (e.g., Classes start from Monday), whereas in American English, the word “starting” or the preposition “on” is used instead (e.g., Classes start on Monday”, or “It will run six weeks, starting Monday”).
Americans enroll in courses, go to addresses on streets, and enroll in courses, while Brits use the other preposition.
As English is used more and more widely and by peoples all over the world, there will be inevitable evolution in the language. What will “correct English” mean in 10, or 50 years? This subject is much too large for this article, but is the subject of serious academic consideration. In the meantime, try to use local variants but don’t let worry keep you from trying out your English in every possible situation.
The Relationship Between Loss of Bone Mass and Deficiency in Vitamin D After Hematopoietic SCT Essay (Article) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Fundamentals of leukemia
Preparation for the study
Bone mineral density
Vitamin D homeostasis
Introduction This paper reflects a summary of an article on the relationship between loss of bone mass and deficiency in vitamin D after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). G. Massenkeil, C. Fiene, R. Michael, W. Reisinger and R. Arnold compiled the article in collaboration with Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine and Institute of Radiology.
The major sub-topics to be summarized are fundamentals of Leukemia, Preparation for the study, Bone mineral density, and Vitamin D homeostasis.
Fundamentals of leukemia According to the article, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is capable of curing hematologic diseases like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
Observations of a study conducted on patients show a close relationship between osteoblasts, osteoclasts and hematopoietic stem cells. After the stem cell transplantation, the outcome is a reduction in the number of hematopoietic generating cells in a patient’s bone marrow for a stretched period.
Preparation for the study The article shows that sixty-seven patients with ALL, AML, MDS and CML were prospectively studied after allogeneic SCT. Cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (MTX) were given to the patients as prophylaxis. Patients with donors who are not linked were injected with prednisone 0.5 mg/kg from day seven and 1.0 mg/kg from day 14 after allogeneic SCT.
First-line therapy of acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) was performed with a high-dose methylpredonisolone. It was prescribed that Persistent GVHD be suppressed with CsA, prednisone, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil. In order to prevent hyper-catabolism, all patients received total parenteral nutrition starting on the day of SCT (energy 30-32 kcal/kg, fluid 2.5-3.0 I, carbohydrates 4-5 g/kg, amino acids 1-1.5g/kg, lipids 0.5 g/kg). This included 220 IU vitamin D and 660 mg calcium per day.
Bone mineral density The article shows that lumber bone mineral density was measured by quantitative computed tomography scan. Bone mineral density was reduced before SCT in 49% of the patients. Pathologic bone mineral density values before SCT were mainly seen in patients with acute leukemia (ALL, AML and MDS), 55% of the patients with acute leukemia had osteopenia or osteoporosis before SCT. There was a significant loss of bone mass after SCT. Thirteen percent trabecular bone was lost after 6 months and 16.9% after 12 months.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Twenty-five patients underwent further bone mass density analysis after SCT, and only two patients had a further decrease in bone mass density. The two developed osteoporosis but only one presented chronic GVHD. Sixteen of 25 patients showed no variation in the values. Seven patients out of the 25 presented with increased bone mass density because after SCT, they were constantly supplied with alternatives options for oral calcium and vitamin D.
The article indicates that donor status, age, sex and amenorrhea had no significant impact on bone mineral density. Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) increases the chances of patients developing osteoporosis in short-term. In a short period like 6 months, bone mineral density in patients with acute GVHD decreased. However, after a long period, the situation came back to normalcy.
Vitamin D homeostasis The article shows that before SCT, 39% of the patients had pathologic vitamin D plasma concentrations. It was noticed that all patients presented with hypovitaminosis immediately after SCT. Constantly reducing vitamin D concentrations were observed after the SCT. Disease, sex and donor status had no significant impact on vitamin D concentration.
General conclusion According to the article, the study shows that after SCT, bone metabolism changes. It is also indicated that there is an increase in osteopenia after SCT. The study in the article shows that children with hematologic and oncologic malignancies have reduced bone mineral density after conventional chemotherapy.
Before SCT, bone mineral density and urinary excretion showed a great dependence in their causative diseases in with acute leukemia. The article indicates that rigorous chemotherapy seemingly, causes a major dangerous effect on bone metabolism.
Therapy that involves steroids also has a potential influence on bone mass. After allogeneic SCT, the loss of bone mass affected all patients except those who continually received treatment like supplement of vitamin D. It can only be speculated that the older age of patients with CML compared to those with acute leukemia made them more susceptible to change in bone mineral density due to the harmful effect of condition therapy.
Bone mineral density was lost early after allogeneic SCT. Loss of bone mineral density immediately after SCT is because of conditioning therapy characterized with high quantities of dosage. Lack of movement of hospitalized patients is notorious for causing rapid changes in calcium metabolism and decreased levels of vitamin D. Due to isolation, multiple infusion, general weakness and infections, physical activity is reduced during high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow asplasia in patients.
We will write a custom Article on The Relationship Between Loss of Bone Mass and Deficiency in Vitamin D After Hematopoietic SCT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Osteopenia and osteoporosis are prevalent in adults who have experienced hematologic diseases caused by conventional therapy. Those who are mainly affected are Patients with rigorous pre-treatment exercise. A rapid bone loss is observed early after allogeneic SCT. Patients with higher bone mineral density before SCT comparatively lose more bone mineral density after SCT.
Religion in the African-American Community Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Over the years, the church has been a very important viability in the African-American community as it has been a social institution that accepts everyone. The African-American church is considered an agency for social control in society. Historically, schools, families and churches have been the core institutions that the African-American community draws their strength from. It is at these institutions that they get to express their basic values that are embodied by their cultural heritage.
On the other hand, spirituality has played a vital role in the viability of the African-American people as it helps in bringing them together as a community; and as a result, easing the challenges they face as they go about their day to day activities. It has always been the vision of spiritual leaders to influence their congregation into gaining economic independence by eliminating crimes that hinder development.
Apart from instilling moral values, black churches have always been involved in the fight against crime and drug abuse. With the influence they have in the black community, the church is able to reach out to the lost souls, especially youths involved in criminal activities. Additionally, they also have programs that help the unemployed secure job opportunities in order to discourage poverty.
Over the decades, these churches have been supporting those that are in need through outreach programs. By encouraging high aspirations, and family commitment, the church has enhanced the survival of the community. Also, by supporting educational institutions, more and more African-Americans get to secure top positions in the political scenes, the government, and in foundations that supports humanity.
This way, the blacks are no longer voiceless as they have activists who fight for their rights. Martin Luther King is an example of the religious leaders who played a critical role in advocating for freedom of the African-American community (West et al. 319).
Since the 1970s, mega churches have tremendously gained popularity and have taken half the population of churchgoers. Most of them have a weekly attendance of around 2000 people, and others even more, depending on their vicinity and the space used to conduct the service. Basically, mega churches are the modern places of worship as they are evangelical centres that attract massive congregations on a weekly basis.
With mega churches, people feel less judged as the congregation is so big that recognizing someone becomes difficult. People have grown to prefer mega churches to small congregated churches because there are less commitments, and the environment is suitable for everyone. By preaching messages of acceptance, morality, spirituality, admiration and guidance, the congregation tend to relate to the word; hence, bringing them closer to salvation. It is for this reason that mega churches have social significance in influencing people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By attracting huge masses, mega churches have the power to influence their followers. For this, they are no longer ignored in politics; on the contrary, their opinions are highly valued. Even though they have tried to seclude themselves from politics, and controversial topics that affect people, politicians have been seen seeking support from them by requesting for endorsements.
People have come to respect and trust decisions made by religious leaders as they represent the voice of God (West
Buddhism in China Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
China possesses rich cultural, social and political profiles because; most of the historical events were documented. The intelligence of the Greeks seems to have permeated its territories over different Chinese dynasties, which existed before the present China, in East Asia.
One of the most fascinating cultural histories is the existence and the expansion of Buddhism in China. However, it is worth noting that Buddhism was founded in India, long before it spread allover East Asia. It took a series of centuries for Buddhism to enter China because; the ancient Chinese did not borrow religious doctrines from other communities in East Asia. Moreover, most of the rulers in the ancient Chinese dynasties did not allow traders to enter their territories. For instance, rulers who ruled before the Han Dynasty denied non-Chinese merchants from introducing their cultures, instead; they preserved the ordinary Chinese culture.
In retrospect, the four centuries, upon which the Han dynasty existed, experienced remarkable cultural and socio-political changes. One of the most significant changes that took place during the Han dynasty was the expansion of trade across East Asia, through which non-Chinese merchants interacted with Chinese and exchanged cultural practices (Buddha Dharma Education Association par. 1).
Buddhism bore variant traits to the indigenous religions of Daoism and Confucianism because it was dualistic in nature. Ordinarily, Chinese practised non-dualistic religious doctrines, in which, a self-generating and impersonal continuum within which matter and spirit were encompassed within a cosmos (Whyte par. 5). That is probably the reason as to why, Buddhism in China, in most literature, is referred to as the ‘imported’ religion.
However, it is worth noting that Buddhism doctrines remained consistent since its formation by Siddhartha Gautama, in the 6th Century B.C.E (Vail 1). Siddhartha Gautama, who was commonly referred to as the ‘Buddha’ or the ‘Enlightened One’, was born in a small kingdom of the Shakya family, in India, about 2500 years ago (Theobald par. 1). Buddha developed the core doctrines of the religion, which characterized Buddhism as a concise set of spiritual practices and teachings.
Buddhism doctrines contained, among other religious teachings, the description on how to attain perfect enlightenment about the truth of the universe. The core doctrines of Buddhism emphasized immensely on the essence of Buddha’s teachings, based on the literal meaning of Buddha; ‘one who has awakened to the truth’ (Koyasan Shingon Buddhism par. 1).
It is believed that the existence of Buddhism in China today encompasses invaluable clues on the way the Chinese tradition was defined (Teiser par. 2). Historically, Buddhism in China was introduced in the 2nd Century A.D, during the Tang dynasty, and it became one of the most established religions in the Chinese traditional profile. Thereafter, its dominance diminished significantly towards the end of the Tang dynasty because; its powers were perceived to as a potential threat to the social order of the Chinese society (Whyte par. 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The officials of the late Tang dynasty viewed Buddhism from such a perspective probably because; it was a foreign tradition to the ordinary Chinese. Shortly, after the end of the Tang dynasty the influence of Buddhism subsided, especially during the Song dynasty and paved way for Daoism and Confucianism religions, which were non-dualistic (Theobald par. 1).
Buddhism was dualistic in nature; thus, it appealed to some Chinese. Therefore, some of its fundamental verities were embedded on the two dominant religions; thus, it remained to be a significant element in the Chinese tradition.
Buddhism appears to have gained its popularity in China, shortly after the end of the Han dynasty, which had preserved Confucianism as the acceptable State religion.
However, it is worth noting that one of the most significant factors, which favored the flourishing of Buddhism, was the disunion of China, owing to the succession stalemate among the successors of Han. As a result, China’s unified status vanished with the emergence the three kingdoms: the Wei, Wu and Shu, around 205 A.D, after the fall of the Han dynasty in 184 C.E (Ebrey 61).
China was reunited again, in 280 A.D, by Jin who established the Jin dynasty, but a civil war broke out within the Jin dynasty, in 300 A.D, leading to the disintegration of the dynasty into Northern and Southern dynasties. Non-Chinese gained power and ruled the Northern dynasties over the next two and a half centuries, whereas, the Southern dynasties were ruled by Chinese rulers (Ebrey 60).
During the four centuries of division, Buddhism spread within China in different magnitudes. For instance, there was remarkable popularity of Buddhism in the Northern dynasties, which were dominantly ruled by non-Chinese rulers. On the other hand, Southern dynasties were ruled by four successive, short-lived Chinese rulers who did not cultivate the culture of foreigners; thus, the spread of Buddhism was retarded; instead, Confucianism dominated the Southern dynasties.
In general, history of Buddhism appears to intersect with monumental episodes in the Chinese political chronology (Teiser par.5). Its spread in China was influenced by the political landscape. Consequently, its doctrines were philosophized to encompass some principal practices of the Chinese political administration.
We will write a custom Essay on Buddhism in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, philosophized doctrines of Buddhism emerged around the 1st Century, after the formation of Mahayana Buddhism (Koyasan Shingon Buddhism par.2). However, it is worth noting that all sects within Buddhism shared the original doctrines of that religion but, they only differed on philosophy on how to become enlightened about the universe.
Another factor, which enhanced the spread of Buddhism, in China was the existence of the Greek civilization, through which learning was introduced. Religious texts were composed on papers; thus, facilitating learning of the Buddhism teachings by scholars.
Consequently, Chinese schools based on Buddhism emerged across China. Some of the old Chinese schools, which were based on Buddhism faith, included the Pure Land School and the Chan. Other schools, which were established during the Tang dynasty, were Huayen and Tiantai schools (Foy par.5).
These schools stressed on the significance of believing in the salvation of Amitabha Buddha and these teachings formed the foundation of Chinese Buddhism (Whyte par.5). It is believed that the long process of adaptation of the Chinese Buddhism led to the establishment of temples and monasteries, which served as the training centers for monks and nuns.
Today, Buddhism is said to be the only foreign religion, which has flourished in China amongst the indigenous religions. Its consistent existence in China can be attributed to its diverse nature, which enabled it to be incorporated in the Chinese traditional cultures. Another feature of Buddhism which enabled it to gain popularity, in China, was its approach to salvation through grace.
This approach appealed immensely to the ordinary Chinese because; it was in contrast with virtually all the other religions, which tied salvation to ascetic practices (Whyte par.5). It is blatantly true that, Buddha’s approach to life appears to be overly acceptable. Vail remarks, “Buddha advocated a moderate or “balanced” wandering life-style and the cultivation of mental and emotional equanimity through meditation and morality” (1).
Works Cited Buddha Dharma Education Association 2008, Buddhism in East Asia. Web.
Ebrey, Patricia. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Buddhism in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Foy, Geoff 2013, Buddhism in China. Web.
Koyasan Shingon Buddhism. The Origin of Buddhism. Web.
Teiser, Stephen 2007, Buddhism: The “Imported” Tradition. Web.
Theobald, Ulrich 2000, The Historical Buddha. Web.
Vail, Lise 2013, The Origin of Buddhism. Web.
Whyte, Bob 2012, Religion in China. Web.
Career Path Paper in Public Relations Report best college essay help
A public relations officer’s main role is to ensure that the public has a positive image of an organization. This is achieved through coordination of various activities that ensures that a company’s reputation is kept at the highest possible standards.
Several skills are required for an individual to perform well as a public relations officer. The most important skill is the ability to communicate effectively. Since communication is a two-way traffic, good listening and writing skills are also vital. Furthermore, problem solving and reasoning skills are a necessity for effective performance of duties required of a public relations officer.
Good management skills, in terms of efficient time management, people, and oneself are also relevant. In addition, a person should possess teamwork skills and also have the ability of utilizing the available resources to achieve the desired goals within a given time.
The major organizations that hire public relations officers are universities, colleges, professional associations, businesses, and non-profit organizations. These organizations hire public relation officers on a permanent or contract basis that may be long or short term.
For an individual to successfully acquire a job opportunity in the field of public relation, the specifications depend on the level of the job. In the case of a public relations manager, the individual must possess a bachelor’s degree in public relations or related courses, a high school diploma, and a minimum of five years working experience.
Other employment opportunities in public relations require a minimum of high school diploma with additional educational requirements that are relevant to the duties of a public relations officer. Some of the high school courses that are relevant in this field include journalism, public speaking, communication, creative writing, technical writing, principles of advertising, and computer applications. The degree, which is a requirement for a management position in the public relations field, can only be obtained at the university level.
The courses that are required for an individual to work in the public relations field are offered in almost all the public and private local universities. For instance, in Alabama, institutions that offer relevant courses required in this field include Auburn University, Community College of the Air Force, Spring Hill College, University of Alabama, and University of Phoenix.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The remunerations in this field depend on the job classification level, the organization, and the state’s salary regulations. However, the national’s average entry salary for a public relations manager is $68,060 annually. The medium and top annual salaries are $93,310 and $130,780 respectively.
This field expects to obtain more employment opportunities from consumer products and services companies due to the increasing competition among the companies. The growth rate of job opportunities in this field is 14.1% in Arizona. Nationally, public relations job opportunities are growing at about 16.5% per annum.
This value is higher than the growth rate of all occupations that lie at about 14.3%. There are more job opportunities in the field of public relations in other states compared to Arizona. In comparison to the rest of the United States, the number of job openings in Arizona is moderate on average. There are 60 annual job openings in Arizona compared to 27,900 jobs in the whole of the United States.
Epictetus and Epicurus Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Epicurus was a hedonist, who believed that one’s goal in life is to maximize pleasure. Conversely, Epictetus was a stoic, who taught people that their key priority should be to live life in accordance with nature. While these teachers prescribed to different philosophies, they both agreed on the need for ataraxia as a prerequisite to living a fulfilled life; however, they differed on how to attain this goal since Epicurus saw things in an instrumental way while Epictetus focused on their inherent goodness.
How the philosophers compare in terms of ataraxia Ataraxia is a state of mind in which one is free from anxiety or worry. In other words, the person exists in a state of tranquility. Epictetus and Epicurus both acknowledged the immobilizing role that anxiety played in attainment of ataraxia. They affirmed that one would never enjoy life if one were in a state of worry about other things.
However, they prescribed different ways of how a person can free oneself from worry. Epicurus had a four – part prescription, in which he urged his followers not to fear the gods as one of the recommendations. The philosopher believed that the gods were happy beings who did not care about man’s actions (White 8).
If they watched every move that humans made, then they would compromise their own happiness. Epicurus claimed that the gods were not out to punish men for their misdeeds, so people should free themselves from anxiety about divinities. Conversely Epicurus held that man was indeed accountable to a divine being. He asserted that people should think of themselves as actors in a play (Inwood and Gerson. 16).
Someone else did the casting, so one’s duty was to play his or her part well. To Epictetus, God is the only giver and receiver of life. Therefore, when a loved one dies, one should think of it as a settlement to the creditor. Epictetus thus argued that knowing the supremacy and divinity of God allowed one to accept unpleasant situations since these experiences were not in one’s control.
Eventually, this leads to a state of ataraxia. On the other hand, Epicurus advocated for an elimination of gods from the picture in order to acquire ataraxia. To this philosopher, a fear of the gods was an obstacle to tranquility while to Epictetus an acceptance of the gods was the path to ataraxia. It should be noted that Epicurus’ views on God were radically different from his contemporaries because they were quite religious. His materialist background led to such conclusions.
Epicurus taught that an accident created all elements in the universe and they only seemed orderly because they were the most stable structures among a series of chaotic elements. Conversely, Epictetus believed in divine intelligence because the stability of the universe could not have arisen by chance; a divine being it must have created it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two philosophers also believed in the relevance of virtue or moral actions in the attainment of harmony. However, they differed on the primacy of virtue or motivations for abiding by moral acts. Epicurus affirmed that one ought to strive to maintain happiness always. If one engages in immoral acts, then this compromises one’s happiness as one would have to worry about the repercussions of their actions (White 25).
In this regard, the philosopher advocated for moral actions only because of the consequences they had on other people. One may assume that since Epicurus’ prescription only depends on one’s circumstance, then it becomes inconsequential to engage in immoral acts if no one will be around to watch. However, Epicurus negates this assertion by stating that one can never be certain that other people will not find out, so moral actions are indispensable.
The philosopher acknowledged that society developed moral laws over a relatively long time in order to protect man from harm. To Epicurus, moral acts were simply a means to minimize harm and maximize one’s happiness. On the flipside, Epictetus argued that virtues in and of themselves were inherently good. People should strive to live virtuous lives because they are good while vices are evil.
One would attain a life of ataraxia if one strove to live by virtue. In fact, the pursuit of pleasure was frowned upon by the Stoics because it always led to unwanted circumstances. Virtues were the only things in the world that were inherently good such that other things were neutral. It was one’s judgment of those things that would compromise one’s ataraxia. For instance wealth or health were neither virtuous nor negative, they only became so when the judgments made about them were detrimental (Inwood and Gerson. 13).
Therefore, one’s moral character has a critical role to play in determining how effectively one attained happiness and thus ataraxia. The stoics advocated for maintenance of the right moral standing as it was the only thing that was within one’s control. They believed that one’s ability to know evil and good allowed one to achieve self mastery. Virtues have more primacy in the stoic school of thought than they do in the hedonic school. To the latter, they were mere instruments but to the former, they were at the heart of the philosophy.
Perhaps one of the areas that the two Philosophers converged was the need to live a basic lifestyle. Both philosophers argued that it was essential to be content with what life had in store rather than to seek for wealth, status and power perpetually. Epicurus surprisingly advocated for a simple lifestyle in which one met one’s basic needs for survival. It is possible for one to live in a state of tranquility or ataraxia when one limited oneself to the necessary and natural things of life.
Epicurus identified food, shelter and clothing as some of the necessary needs that must be met in order for one to eradicate worry and anxiety (White 30). He believed that bodies require relatively little to survive and the mind would stop worrying if it had assurance that these needs will be met. However, when an individual starts yearning for other unnecessary desires like power or wealth, then the person will neutralize his state of tranquility.
We will write a custom Essay on Epictetus and Epicurus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Things like power and status are needs created by society based on artificial beliefs. Additionally when one desires external things like jewelry, then one may become dependent on the material item. Essentially, one will become anxious that one will not have the item in the future, and this undermines their ataraxia. Similarly, Epictetus argued that people should not focus on externals. The key to tranquility is prioritizing things that one can control.
The philosopher prescribes working on oneself rather than other externals because they could be changed. In essence, material desires are vain because they are limiting. They can enslave a person because one can become dependent on them, yet they cannot be altered. For instance, seeking public office would lead to unhappiness because it is not something that contestants can control (Inwood and Gerson 16).
One ought to select things whose victory is within one’s power. Living a basic life in the stoic school of thought also spanned across interactions of people with one another. A person who wants to attain ataraxia should avoid displaying how the person has attained self mastery (Inwood and Gerson. 27). Furthermore, he or should not lecture others about his principles of philosophy as that would be approval seeking.
The most one can do it to focus on oneself and let others learn about the philosophy through one’s actions. Both philosophers acknowledge that human beings require relatively minimal amounts of externals to attain inner harmony. However, Epictetus takes it a step further and argues that simplicity should also be seen in the way one interacts with others. Epicurus did not ask his followers to refrain from enjoying luxuries on occasion, but dependence on them was his key contention.
Conclusion Hedonists and stoics disagree on the relevance of divinities in attainment of ataraxia. Hedonists affirm that there is no divine being that will punish human beings, while the stoics state that acceptance of the supremacy of the divine being leads to inner harmony.
Additionally, Epicurus and Epictetus also diverged on the primacy of virtue in freeing oneself from anxiety. To Epicurus, it was a tool for causing no harm to others while to Epictetus is was the only good thing that one could seek. Finally, both schools of thought converged on the need for simplicity in attainment of ataraxia as longing for unnecessary externals lead to dependency and anxiety over getting them in the future.
Works Cited Inwood, Brad and Lloyd Gerson. The Epicurus reader: Selected writings and testimonia. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1994. Print.
White, Nicholas. The Epictetus handbook. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1983. Print.
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History of the African-Americans Religion During the Time of Slavery Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The importance of church as an institution on African-Americans
The social significance of the Mega church
Introduction Religion refers to cultural customs or beliefs of a community in regard to what they worship. However, types of religion differ from one community to another. Just like any continent, America values religion and it gives its citizens freedom to choice of religion. Ronald Johnston gave a real insight on how religion is viewed and practiced in America. His famous book “religion in society”, analyzes religion as a process which acts as a social body, mutually dependent and offers instant interaction with other social aspects.
This paper will discuss the religion of Black Americans (African-Americans) during the time of slavery. It will also discuss the importance of church as an institution on African-Americans as well as the social significance of the Megachurch. Lastly, it will assist readers to comprehend the important role played by religion in a society. Nevertheless, whether balanced and unbiased, it shows the sociology of religion as a subject that is rich and bountiful (Johnstone 291).
The importance of church as an institution on African-Americans In the ancient times, African-American churches were categorized by a congregation that was poor but totally committed to the pastor. These issues led to lack of participation in community outreach program and lack of higher learning. One of the most desired elements was the fact that despite their poverty level the members from these churches maintained loyalty to one another. However, with time, this changed since more churches were instilled with new improvements by the black clergy.
Black clergy stood prepared not only to accomplish the spiritual purpose but to offer basic needs like clothing, food, and medical care to the African- Americans. The great important issues brought by church institution to Africa-America society was the concern about meeting their domestic needs (Johnstone 303).
The clergy realized the truth that social circumstances bring out the difference in good health or health problem among their followers. For example African-American ministers and pastors were the first to take action during the Hurricane Katrina’s disaster. Their churches worked hard to bring the separated and displaced families together by providing shelter for them. Additionally, nurses and doctors where also employed to give necessary first aid and treatment needed.
The second important role achieved through institution of these churches was the aspect of the church being a social club as well as a counseling institution. Different age groups have a forum to discuss issues affecting them and in most cases they try to come up with solutions to these problems. For instance women have their meeting at a given time and this applies to youth, men and even children. These meetings usually bring people together and teach them how to cooperate with each other in times of need (Johnstone 308)
The institution of these churches served as a talent corner where members were given chances to explore their talents. These included music composition, acting, and works of arts. In effect, members work together to realize their talents in order to make the community a better place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These churches also acted as areas of political arena since aspiring political leaders would use the opportunity to address the congregation. They would do so to articulate their manifestos and to seek votes from the church members. Apart from politicians seeking votes the churches were used as major avenues to mass demonstrations and the congregation helped activists in forming movements because they believe it was religiously inspired.
Churches also provided education to their members in colleges. This in effect led to an increase in education levels, better modes of communication and sense of belonging was finally realized by the black church members at large.
Prominent thinkers such as Dubois W.E. B came out and inspired Black Americas to relate with each other for economic, social and political benefits, rather than demanding to fit in the white American society which always differentiated them. He claimed that organized actions from church groups in relation to economic issues would allow the African–Americans to have better living conditions and boost their social life (Johnstone 306).
The social significance of the Mega church Mega church is a church that is protestant and has 2000 average members who attend on weekly basis. These churches usually have large number of attendants and researchers believe that they are not so much into cultural practices but more familiar with modernization.
Mega churches are one of the key and prominent churches that promote social and economic development. Recreational themes are usually anonymous in mega churches by giving the congregation an opportunity to practice their best talent. They also contribute to unity among believers which in return promotes peace in the country.
This is achieved through fellowships and important small group meetings. The fact that most mega churches have a charismatic leader or pastor sets a good pace for young people since most view their leader as their role model. Furthermore, mega churches are great assets of technological advancement and contribute immensely to the growth and development of a country (Travis
“The Road not Taken” by Richard Frost Essay a level english language essay help
The road not taken is a poem that most people have misinterpreted for a long time. Some say the poem the poet is talking about a road less travelled. However, a keen look at the poem reveals the opposite as the speaker talks about a road not taken at all as opposed to a road less travelled. The last stanza of the poem is ironic and talks about choosing a road and living with the decision.
The speaker is not concerned with the road less traveled, but choosing one road at the fork. A decision to take one road has to be made because “And sorry I could not travel both” (Frost 2). No road is less travelled as the speaker puts it “the passing there / Had worn them really about the same” (Frost 9-10).
Therefore, the speaker has to take one of the roads and live with the consequences of taking that road. The two roads pose a dilemma for the speaker, but a choice has to be made. The roads symbolize the decisions that people have to make in their day to day lives. Sometimes one cannot tell how the decision one makes will turn out, but it is fate that it has to be made and the rest left to chance.
The last stanza is ironic because the speaker introduces a sign of remorse through his words “I shall be telling with a sigh” (Frost 16). He seems to be justifying the reason he took the less travelled road “because it was grassy and wanted wear” (Frost 8). He is trying to say even though taking that road has its consequences it was really a matter of fate as both roads looked equally worn.
He seems to be saying that he could not have known what was ahead on the path he took, but maybe things would have different if he had taken the other road that he did not. It is ironic that he would feel remorse yet a decision had to be made to take one path between the two unknown roads.
It is ironical that the speaker would have to explain his decision in his later days yet he made a decision that had to be made and the nature takes its course. Furthermore, the speaker has no control of what may happen to his life in the path that he chose, but there is the chance of regretting taking it because the other one not taken may have had a different result. However, he will never know because there is no chance of going back to take the road not taken.
Besides, the speaker has shown independence of mind at the point of making his decisions because he says: “I choose the one less travelled by/And that has made all the difference” (Frost 19-20). Thus, he chose to go a different way than most people. For instance, many would take the more travelled road, but would it have made any difference?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The speaker is remorseful and he shall be telling “somewhere ages and ages hence” (Frost 17). The less travelled road does not mean it is necessarily a better choice because he says something different in the last stanza hence the irony (Pritchard 1).
On the other hand, the irony in the last stanza shows that we can only know the outcome of making a decision after we have made it and not a minute before as the speaker demonstrates. He observed both paths “And looked down one as far as I could/ To where it bent in the undergrowth” (4-5). The other road he saw it was grassy and he “And having perhaps the better claim” (Frost 7). At that point he could not tell the outcome of taking that road that he did even though he chose the one that was grassy and less travelled.
The irony is that one has to make a choice and only know if it was good or bad after setting out as opposed to knowing the implications beforehand so as to make informed choices. It means that human beings have to make decisions and learn on the go. The destination of human being will only be realized upon arrival (Richardson 1). Therefore, one must learn to live with the decisions made in life.
In conclusion, the two roads that the speaker has to choose between and take one look the same. He has to use his impulse to make the decision. However, at the end of the poem the tone becomes ironic and the speaker seems to regret taking the road that he took. Therefore, he can only guess how his life would have been if he had taken the other road, but he will never know the difference it would have made.
More importantly, should the speaker live with regret of the outcome of the choice he made or become content because there was nothing much he could do apart from choosing. It seems some decisions we make in life are really necessary, but we have no power over how they turn out and we can choose to live in regrets or be glad we took the road that we did for all the things we encounter in our lives.
Works Cited Frost, Richard. The road not taken. n.d. Web. .
Pritchard, William. On the road not taken. n.d. Web. .
We will write a custom Essay on “The Road not Taken” by Richard Frost specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Richardson, Mark. On the road not taken. n.d. Web.
About the victims in three novels Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Victims in “The big sleep”
Victims in “The pledge”
Victims in “A coffin for Dimitrios”
Introduction Most books concentrate on heroes and villains as opposed to other characters. In fact, minor characters are usually ignored in most novels. This has also been paramount in movies as well as documentaries. It is important to note that victims are sometimes ignored in novels if they are minor characters.
However, it should be noted that victims are important in development of stories. Moreover, they play vital roles in stories. It is therefore necessary that they be actively scrutinized in books. This paper will explore the role and representation of victim (s) in three books namely “The big sleep,” “The pledge,” and “A coffin for Dimitrios”
Victims in “The big sleep” The novel contains numerous instances of victimization. In fact, it begins with victimization of General Sternwood by Arthur, who threatens to blackmail him with scandalous pictures involving his daughter. In this regard, the general is a victim of circumstance. The second victim seen in this novel is Carmen Sternwood.
She is found drugged and naked in Geiger’s house. The novel is full of victims because characters are killed for unclear reasons. For instance, Brody is victimized for Geiger’s death. Lundgren kills him for a crime he has not committed. Another victim mentioned in this book is Regan who is killed by Carmen. Similarly, Canino, a professional killer, kills Harry Jones. In essence, the novel is full of victims of circumstances utilized to construct the author’s story. Use of victims exemplifies the theme of revenge throughout the novel.
Moreover, it is utilized to solve different puzzles for the protagonist, Marlowe. Therefore, victims play an important role in constructing this story. In addition, they qualify different themes utilized in the novel. For instance, even though Carmen is considered psychic, she kills Regan. This is ironic as well as surprising. Moreover, she attempts to kill Marlowe. In essence, victims play an important role throughout the novel.
Victims in “The pledge” The pledge is a story about the murder of a girl. The young girl’s mother is terrified about the incident. In this regard, it can be seen that the girl is the victim in this case. A criminal who has no sympathy for children kills her. In addition, someone else is mistakenly held for the crime.
Besides, the girl’s mother is forced to bear the pain of child loss. In essence, to this extent, three characters are victimized here. However, this happens at different stages. The mother is a victim of circumstance. This is similar to the person held for a crime he has not committed. In both cases, they are caught unawares. In fact, they pass through gruesome situations for unknown reasons. On the other hand, the detective also fall victim to his pledge. He faces numerous obstacles to his mission.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, no one suffers the full consequences of victimization as the young girl who loses her life. She is killed out of criminal acts. It can be noted that victims are used to construct the story in this case. In effect, the girl’s death is used to bring about all the other events in the novel. Victims; therefore, play an important role in the novel.
Victims in “A coffin for Dimitrios” The novel is about a notorious criminal known as Domitros. The novel contains numerous instances of corruption, assassinations, and espionage, among others. Some of the victims in the novel include Bulic, who is robbed of his money through gambling. Dimitrios also tortures him for information about the maps. In this case, the victim is used to exemplify Dimitrios’ activities. This also includes his friend Grodek with whom Domitrios swindle Bulic. Bulic is extorted, seduced, and destroyed by Dimitrios.
Bulic is describes as a lowly clerk who Grodek wins through flattery words. Moreover, another victim who is paramount in the novel is Bulgaria’s president Stambulisky. Right wing terrorists overthrow him. The victim is used to highlight Balkan’s politics during that era. Other victims of Dimitrios include Peters and Mohammad, among others.
The former is jailed after being betrayed by Dimitrios. Throughout the novel, victims are used to qualify Dimitrios’ vile acts. These include assassinations, corruptions, betrayals, and drug trafficking, among others. Therefore, it can, be observed that victims have been utilized to construct the storylines of the novel. Moreover, they have been used to support themes as well as other elements of the novel. In essence, victims have been used in a structured manner to achieve the objectives of the author.
Conclusion In all the three novels, victims have been utilized to construct the stories by their various authors. In addition, victims have been used to depict characters in the novels. For instance, in “The big sleep,” death of Regan has been used to depict Carmen as a murderer although others like her father sees her as psychic or childish.
Moreover, in “The pledge,” the girl’s death depicts the killer as a villain in the novel. Furthermore, destruction of Bulic in “A coffin for Dimitrios” depicts both Grodek and Dimitrios as criminals. In essence, victims have been utilized throughout the novel to achieve authors’ goals. In addition, they have been used to vilify villains.
Max Weber’ and Clifford Geertz’ Views on Religion Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Max Weber and Geertz offered varying ideas regarding cultural theory. They both viewed culture as people’s ways of doing things in society. Culture is usually developed over years whereby it is adopted and passed from one generation to the other through language. Regarding religion, which is one of the aspects of culture, Geertz and Weber offered a number of views. Some viewpoints are similar while others are different.
However, the two scholars believe that religion happens within a group implying that it is a group affair. In this regard, various groups have different religious principles and beliefs. Morality is the main principle that all religious groups and teachings espouse. Even though the two scholars agreed that religion happens at an individual level, they offered varying approaches to the understanding of group behavior. Weber noted that each religion is rational and consistent as far as its rules are concerned.
Unlike his predecessors such as Durkheim, Weber claimed in his works, ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ that religion could easily bring about change in society. His analysis was based on the spread of capitalism in Europe. He claimed that the Protestant abstemious self-confidence was attributed to the quick spread of capitalist ideals.
However, unlike Geertz, Weber did not intend to develop a cultural theory that would explain the dynamics of religion. His main aim was to discuss the interactions and interrelations between society and religion. On the other hand, Geertz perceived religion as a cultural system that is full of symbols, which have both public and social meaning.
People always construct their own beliefs meaning that each person has his or her own views concerning religion. Some groups have shared views regarding religion. Weber’s views were different from the ideas of Geertz because to him, religion had a different role to play in society. This article looks at some of the similarities and differences between the views of Weber and Geertz as regards to religion. The paper uses one aspect of culture to discuss their views.
Similarities Geertz undertook various studies in one of the villages in Javanese, which was one of the most complex religious societies. He sought to understand the reason that inspired people to worship the supernatural being in their daily lives. Other scholars had suggested a number of views regarding the topic, but he diverged from such views by noting that the issue of religion is not a group affair, but instead it is a social affair.
This implies that it happens within a particular society. Evans-Pritchard was one of the scholars who suggested that religion is simply a group attitude because it is developed to check the behavior of group members. Geertz rejected this subjective and vague view by adopting the ideas of Weber regarding the role of religion among the Protestants in Europe. Weber was of the view that religion is a phenomenon that starts at an individual level meaning that each person has his own belief.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These beliefs develop with time into complex ideas that are in turn adopted by a group of individuals in society. Once the belief is within the public domain, it turns out to be a social system that influences people’s behavior and interactions in the wider society. Since the behavior is learned and would be internalized for years, it becomes a cultural belief or a cultural system, given the fact that it can be transmitted from one individual to the other.
Weber had earlier noted that people are always in search of truth since a man is an animal that is suspended in webs of significance. In this regard, a man does not have to look for solutions on the Earth that would resolve the many issues facing him but, instead, he has to interpret society using some mystical principles. Offering simple explanations to religious beliefs is not enough implying that people should look for the real meaning of religious events.
To explain some of these religious events, clear interpretations should be given. Geertz was of the similar view because he noted that thick descriptions should be applied in interpreting religious events if adequate answers were to be provided. According to Geertz, the use of symbols in interpreting religious events is the only solution to the many problems affecting people as far as religious issues are concerned.
He noted that some symbols are always in use in religion. Therefore, the understanding of the use of these symbols is very important. Weber noted that the Protestants were able to engage in trade and other economic matters because their religion taught them that an individual’s destiny is always predetermined. Weber reached this decision after observing the behavior of Protestants for years.
He also used some of the symbols, which was the basis of Geertz’s analysis. Geertz suggested that an anthropologist should use empirical methods to interpret the behavior of a group or an individual as regards to religion. Weber had also suggested a similar view by noting that a sociologist should use technical methods such as guessing, assessing, and drawing conclusions as far as the understanding of religion is concerned.
Geertz and Weber believed in the semiotic interpretation of culture meaning that their major aim was to understand some of the factors that drive people to join certain cultures. In this regard, they both believed that the understanding of culture starts with the interpretation of certain elements and categorization of certain interactions. The whole system should be categorized into sub-subsystems if any substantial meaning is to be offered.
The system is characterized based on the major beliefs and principles meaning that there are various subsystems of culture in society. Each category of the subsystem has some of the principles that members respect so much. Geertz termed this aspect as a form of collective property. Geertz’s and Weber’s argument is that religion influences the actions of various group members because it is larger as compared to the actions of any individual in a group.
We will write a custom Essay on Max Weber’ and Clifford Geertz’ Views on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences Even though the two scholars discussed extensively the issues surrounding religion, their aims were extremely different. While Geertz aimed at developing a cultural theory, Weber was simply trying to link religion to the behavior of individuals in society. For instance, Geertz noted that cultural theory is not its own master meaning that it relies on certain concepts just the way other theories do.
Therefore, the suggestion on thick description is meant to give anthropologists one of the ways in which cultural issues could be construed in society. For Weber, he was simply describing the influence that culture has on the economic behavior of certain groups in society. He utilized the Protestants to show that people are encouraged to do some things because of the influence of their culture. In one of the articles titled Deep Play, Geertz showed how thick description could be employed to comprehend the actions of certain groups.
While Weber viewed religion as an aspect of culture that has a great impact on the life of an individual in society, Geertz was of a different view because he believed that religion is a cultural system. This implies that no society can survive without religion. In his view, all symbols in any society signify the presence of religion. This system is constructed over time, which results in a powerful and pervasive motivation for individuals.
With time, people in any given society come to appreciate their culture and tend to believe that other cultures are inferior to theirs. The culture ensures that social order prevails in society because it regulates behavior. Weber was of the different view because he did not give a cultural function of religion but, instead, he only related it to the behavior of individuals in society. His major aim was to give the relationship between religion and society.
According to Geertz, religion is inseparable from culture because they are both systems of communication in any given society. However, Weber believed that the two concepts exist independently meaning that they are autonomous, but they influence each other. Geertz concluded his analysis by noting that a strong relationship between an individual’s worldview and morality exists.
Intel Strategic Management Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Summary of the case study By 2005,Intel had been in the process of identifying a location to site its Assembly and Test plant. The plant was to be the biggest for the company, helping it to enhance its efficiency. Consequently, the company had to evaluate different countries putting into consideration both the global relations, dynamics and strategic operations in order to come up with the most appropriate location for the plant.
Operation costs in the majority of the South East Asian and Asian countries were the lowest globally, making these countries the most appropriate to build the plant. All the sites were evaluated based on necessities like reliability, safety, environmental health, availability of utility, rates, and human resources, among others (Alcacer and Herman 2-10).
In the end, Intel decided to locate its Assembly and Test plant in Saigon Hi-Tech Park, in Vietnam. Political instability in India made the company refrain from establishing its plant in the country. Vietnam was selected because it had low propensity to natural disasters. In addition, the cost of water and power was low, in addition to the fact that the country was civilized.
Vision, mission and value of Intel Based on the effort that Intel exerts to ensure that it reaches all its target clients and that it offers quality products, it is evident that the company has the sole mission of offering quality products to all its clients. According to Intel Global Citizenship Report, Intel’s mission is to, “do a fantastic job for our customers, employees, and stakeholders by being the preeminent building block supplier to the world wide internet economy” (10).
The company’s vision is, “to create a continuum of personal computing experiences based on Intel architecture” (Intel Global Citizenship Report 10). The company observes a number of values, which add to its success. The values include customer orientation, risk-taking, discipline, quality, results oriented, and quality working environment.
About Intel Noyce and Moore founded the company in 1968. Initially, the company was called NM Electronics. Later, they changed the company’s name to the current name (Integrated Electronics) or in short, Intel. The company began by manufacturing semiconductors, and later, it made a breakthrough in the manufacture of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip.
Soon after, the company came up with the first microprocessor. In 1972, Intel embarked on expanding it operations by establishing branches in foreign countries. Its first foreign operation was in Malaysia. In 1991, the company came up with the infamous “Intel Inside” marketing slogan (Alcacer and Herman 4-6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slogan facilitated to entrench the company’s brand in the mind of most computer users. Andy Grove, the longest serving employer, was made the chief executive officer of the company. Under his stewardship, the company’s income grew by over sevenfold, and the value of its shares grew by 1600 percent.
In 2005, Intel was the global manufacturer of semiconductors, delivering over 80 percent of the central processing units installed in workstations, personal computers, and servers. According to Alcacer and Herman, “… the central processing units (CPUs) accounted for 90 percent of the company’s total profit” (6).
Apart from the CPUs, the company also manufactured flash memory and chipsets for personal computers. Its principal customers were Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Dell. In 2004, the company sold 19 percent and 16 percent of its products to Dell and HP respectively.
Alcacer and Herman posit, “In 2005, the semiconductor industry generated approximately $226 billion in revenue worldwide” (2). Today, Intel has research laboratories in strategic countries across the globe. The laboratories help the company in coming up with superior specifications for its microprocessors and semiconductors.
This triggered the company’s desire to establish numerous branches across the globe to facilitate in the exploitation of the semiconductor industry. The company continues to open branches in countries, it perceives to be strategic, having a wide consumer base.
SWOT analysis Strengths
Intel has a superior brand, and it enjoys the biggest market share globally.
Intel Company has a stronger market position relative to its rivals.
Intel offers the state-of-art products that meet the changing technological needs.
Majority of the computers use Intel’s microprocessors
Intel enjoys over 80 percent of the market share, making it almost a monopoly in the industry.
Intel has numerous branches across the global, which allow it to reach a wide customer base.
Intel has neglected the mobile market, which is anticipated to have a significant influence in the internet in future
Because Intel sells its products at low prices, it does not benefit from economies of scale
Intel has a wide market; nonetheless, it pays limited attention to its customers
At times, Intel is unable to face technical challenges brought about by its competitors
Intel can benefit from partnership, alliances, and relations it establishes with other companies
Intel is targeting the emerging markets
Intel can cut down on production cost by embracing forward and backward inclusion
Intel can merge with other brands to consolidate its market share
Changes in consumer taste might lead to Intel losing customers to rival companies
International Business Machine (IBM) and Dell continue waging stiff competition
New companies are making it hard for Intel to maintain its market share
SWOT matrix Helpful to realizing the objective
Harmful to realizing the objective
Internal origin (Qualities of the system)
Strengths Superior brand and biggest market share globally;
Stronger market position relative to its rivals;
State-of-art products that meet the changing technological needs;
Majority of the computers uses Intel’s microprocessors;
Over 80 percent market share;
Numerous branches across the global making it possible to reach a wide customer base.
Weaknesses Intel has neglected the mobile market;
Intel does not benefit from economies of scale;
Intel has a wide market; nonetheless, it pays limited attention to its customers
At times, Intel is unable to face technical challenges brought about by its competitors
External origin (Qualities of the environment) Opportunities Establishing partnership, alliances, and relations with other companies;
Exploiting the emerging markets;
Cutting down on production cost by embracing forward and backward inclusion;
Merging with other brands to consolidate its market share
Threats Changes in consumer taste and preferences;
Competition from IBM and Dell;
New companies are making it hard for Intel to maintain its market share.
Current and future strategy
Initially, Intel focused on selling its brand across the globe. This underlines the reason why the company opened numerous branches across the world. Currently, the company focuses on a strategy that aims at increasing and sustaining its consumer base. Intel has moved from business marketing to consumer marketing.
We will write a custom Report on Intel Strategic Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has realized that the majority of the young adults do not take long to purchase a new computer once their computers break. Hence, the company now focuses on generation Y, which comprises the biggest portion of Intel’s target market (Norris 14-19). Moreover, the company hires staff with diverse skills. The staff works together to come up with products that meet all the consumer needs.
Establishing new markets and coming up with new products are some of the Intel’s future strategies. Recently, the company has announced that it would collaborate with Google to introduce new capabilities in the market. The company seeks to enhance user experience, and at the same time, to introduce novel products in the market. For instance, in collaboration with Google, Intel Corporation intends to develop Chrome operating system and Ultrabook system, which will enhance computing (Norris 20-24).
Conclusion and recommendation Since its initiation, Intel Corporation has managed to come up with startling innovations in the computing world, leading to its current success. For instance, its success in semiconductor and microprocessor fields is unparalleled until today.
Despite the immense success, other companies are emerging, posing a threat to Intel’s market share. Companies like IBM and Dell are enjoying positive reception in the market. In the process, Intel is losing some of its customers to these companies. This underlines why Intel Corporation has embarked on a strategy to consolidate its market share.
Rather than selling the brand, the company now targets its consumers. Intel intends to convince the consumers about the quality of its products, therefore, wining their trust. To continue enjoying the current success, Intel ought to identify new markets and establish its operations there. Besides, the company ought to focus on the mobile market, as the market will have a significant influence in the future.
Works Cited Alcacer, Juan and Herman Kerry. Intel: strategic decisions in locating a new assembly and test plant. 2012. Web.
Chapman, Alan. SWOT analysis method and examples, with free SWOT template 2012. Web.
Intel Global Citizenship Report. Vision
The Sociology of Religion: Childhood Indoctrination Essay essay help: essay help
Childhood indoctrination is one of the ways how one become religious where people are brought up and grow old while still in a given religion and always believe it. This becomes difficult to overcome because people are born and told that a certain religion is the true one making it difficult for them to question it, fail to accept it or believe it is a lie.
The parents cannot be blamed because their main intention is to show the truth and they grew up the same way. This becomes like a circle that has no end, which is passed down from one generation to the other until someone reveals that it is not the truth.
Fear makes people become religious and fail to question the religion. When people think about death they are afraid because they do not know what will happen to them after they die. The religious people tell them to believe in a certain religion so that they do not go to hell forever.
When they believe that these people are telling the truth they fear the punishment that would follow if they do not believe. Many people cry and pray for forgiveness when they are very sick due to the fear of death. If there were no fear, people would question what they are told as the truth before they believe it. (Davie 62)
People become religious when they are desperate and in need. They believe in what they are told due to lack of anything else, lack of hope and nothing to hold on. In a situation where one is satisfied completely then religion would not be significant since people would be contented with what they have as well as the way they are. In addition, people accept religion as a tradition that would be accepted for many years.
The great grandparents followed the religion and therefore people follow it too. For example, the people who are born in the United States of America are likely to be Christians while Muslims are from the Middle East.
The people have many questions without answers and therefore become religious to search for answers. There are questions without answers and no one attempts to answer them while religious people leave them unanswered. When people make bad decisions, they feel guilty and fail to forgive themselves and therefore turn to God who forgives them so that they feel better. Their sins haunt them and believe that they may be punished for their deeds (Davie 49)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people believe that it is only in the church that they can get a chance to socialize with others. Their main aim is not to attend the church service but interact with others and have a sense of belonging. They get the comfort they desire as well as assurance, which make them feel safe when they know that everything is all right.
They remain in the religion when they think that they would have chaotic life if they stay without a religion. Many religious people are not responsible and need God so that they can be taking all their problems to him. For example, those who smoke or drink believe that they cannot stop smoking alone and put their faith in God to do everything and help them live a righteous life.
People become religious for spiritual fulfillment in order for their life to have meaning. This makes them turn to religion for the spiritual void to be satisfied and live a comfortable life. People go to church and when they find others being exited, they believe that is what they require and that nothing can worry them (Davie 53)
There are dogmas and beliefs in religion that are accepted and the followers are expected not to question about them. When other beliefs are available there can arise intolerance as well as inflexibility because no one is allowed to compromise the word of God. When the scriptures are allowed to be interpreted and the interpretation is correct, it becomes difficult to solve any conflict that arises when people doubt it.
The only person who is the winner is the one that will have most followers who are motivated through action. The extremists of religion who apply radical measures to fulfill the wishes of God bring about the conflict of escalation. When there is a conflict between what is evil and good, it becomes difficult to compromise by accepting the devil (Davie 27)
Religious conflict can arise when evangelism has different strains. Some people may come together and not allow other religions the right to practice their own faith. They do this in order to minimize their beliefs because they feel that the religion may be dominant. For example, Christianity was suppressed in China where the government thought that it was dangerous and rival of loyalties of the citizens.
The media emphasize on the negative effects of religion, which leads to hostility, as well as fear to the believers. The media do so by confusing people instead of informing them through misunderstanding the goals of different religious groups.
We will write a custom Essay on The Sociology of Religion: Childhood Indoctrination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The difference in religions is a potential source of conflict because people ignore other faiths. The religious group that is less popular is under tension compared to the most popular and privileged.
When it happens that the group that is most popular is the minority it becomes easier to have a conflict with them and understanding becomes difficult. When crisis arise, members involved rely on extremists to provide solution. The identities of the group members can be shaped when compared to others, which makes the faith of one religion threatened by the other.
Religious conflicts arise because the mind of people is unique and has different experiences. These different individuals are located at different places where they associate with others with different experiences concerning their religion. When these characteristics are combined conflicts often arise in the course of their relationships.
Hinduism has been reformed many times since it started due to conflicts when the caste system that was hereditary was rejected. Nanak emphasized that Muslims and Hindu should tolerate one another when he declared that similar God was worshipped. He could not be tolerated by the two religions, which made a new religion to be started.
There serious conflict between the apostles of John and Jesus was about baptism. Those who followed Jesus were supposed to pay a price through baptism to be accepted by those who followed John. Peacemakers have been solving religious conflicts whenever they arise because they are complex. The people should be informed about the wishes of God in different religions so that they can avoid evil and do well (Davie 34)
Works Cited Davie, G. The Sociology of Religion. California: Sage Publications, 2007. Print.
Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings Research Paper best essay help
Introduction According to Gadotti (1994), one of the most famous philosophers of the 20th century was Paulo Freire. Born and raised in Brazil, Freire was subjected to living in poverty, which later influenced his works. Freire is well known for advancing the theory of pedagogy by authoring the piece of work known as the “Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. This piece of work is termed as the main foundation on which the critical pedagogy movement was based. Freire made a great contribution to the theory, as well as by his actual deeds during his lifetime.
Thus, his works can be compared to the works of other theorists and educators like John Locke, Plato, John Dewey, Booker T. Washington, and Jean-Jaques Rousseau among other renowned philosophers. This paper explores life, philosophy and teachings of Paulo Freire. In the discussion, the paper takes an analytical comparison of the teachings and philosophies of Freire with those of other renowned philosophers, like Rousseau, Dubois, Locke, and Plato.
An overview of the works of Paolo Freire Freire contributed a lot to philosophy as observed in the introduction. It is critical to look at a number of philosophical works of Freire in order to comprehend the scope of his study. Freire is considered as one of the most remarkable thinkers in education of the 20th century, who did a lot for development of the educational theory and philosophy.
The works of Freire can be traced back to the mid 1940s when he was working at the Department of Education and Culture in Pernambuco, one of the states in Brazil. His tenure with the department exposed him to an environment where he was working with the poor and illiterate population.
The nature of his work made him start thinking about developing a liberation theology to help salvage the masses from poverty and illiteracy. For one to participate in presidential elections in Brazil, one had to be literate. Owing to the fact that most people were illiterate, only the few literate had the chance to take part in the presidential elections, locking out a vast number of the people from taking part in this critical exercise.
Apart from the liberation theology, which resulted in a political uprising in the country forcing him to left the country, the other works of Freire include ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ and ‘Education as the Practice of Freedom’. The ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ gave Freire his identity as a true educator because it explained most of the issues that were impeding the advancement of education.
This work was quite enticing as it had a lot of information on the interplay of factors in education, which impeded the development of the society. It was one of the most influential tools for liberalization the society from the antecedents of poverty, illiteracy and political suppression. He became a sought after education advisor (Gadotti, 1994).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The contribution of Freire to the philosophy of education is outstanding. It can be compared with both, an intense classical philosophical approaches by Plato and neo-classical approaches like the ones utilized by Karl Marx and other thinkers. A great number of his works can be easily interconnected with the neo-classical pieces of work in philosophy. It is vital to bring out the main argument in Freire’s work, ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, in order to understand the point and dimension of the argument about social change in the society.
A study of the philosophical work of Freire, particularly his contribution to educational theory and philosophy, reveals that education can be used as a tool for demolishing the structures of domination in the society, besides promoting social transformation. When compared with other works by other classical philosophers, it comes out that illiteracy is a form of oppression that cannot be washed away. People get oppressed because of their failure to understand the society in which they live (Schugurensky, 2011).
Understanding the theoretical underpinning in ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ It should be noted that ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, was published in the year 1970, but it was accepted in Brazil only four years after because political regime in the country did not like the content of this work, which strongly addressed the issue of justice from the educational point of view.
The inspiration to develop this piece of work came from the situation of illiteracy in Brazil, which was utilized to support control over the people and authorize justice in the country. According to Freire, education ought to be used for liberating the oppressed by giving them a sense of humanity, which is critical to help people fight the oppressive conditions.
However, Freire reiterated that it could not be attained without the participation of the people who were oppressed. This implies that liberation is a process that begins with self. Therefore, the oppressed have to play a greater role in their redemption by showing the willingness to change their ways of life. This can be attained through careful thought and a re-examination of the role that can be played by the oppressed in the liberation movement (Freire, 2004).
According to Freire, it is quite difficult to separate education from pedagogy. This argument is based on the view that education is considered to be a political act. Freire was of the opinion that politics must be ”a diet for students and their teachers”. The manner of teaching and the education content itself act to fulfill political goals.
He argued that teachers in their own sense often have political notions, which they explore in the classrooms. According to Freire, education provides people with a lot of benefits, since through education men and women attain the sense of responsibility, which comes from the commitment of knowing the unknown (Freire, 2004).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freire attacked what he referred to as ‘banking’ on education. This concept implies that the student is an empty entity that has to be filled by the teacher. Therefore, under this concept, the teachers are seen as the main sources of content in education.
This is undesirable according to Freire, as it makes teachers have absolute dominance over the students, who are only seen as the receivers of the content from the teachers. This inclination of the learning environment is undesirable as it depicts the control of thought, which is critical to the adaptation of people in the world.
The transformation of students into receiving entities suppresses the creative power of the students. There is a close relationship between the synthesis of education by Freire and the conception of education by Jean-Jaques Rousseau. In his conceptualization of education, Rousseau saw children as a critical part of the learning process. He termed them as active learners, meaning that they were not just meant to be receivers, but also contributors to the learning process (Golby et al., 1975).
The conceptualization of educational theory and philosophy by Freire In the theoretical explanation of his philosophy, Freire made emphasis on the role of both teachers and students in what can be termed as a liberated education environment. Teachers are critical elements of every teaching environment, same as students. A simple reasoning is that the learning environment cannot be complete without the presence of either teaches or learners.
For learning to result in the social transformation and the liberalization of the society, both teachers and learners must play their roles. No one can conceive a teaching environment without the presence of teachers and students. According to the conceptualization of learning by Plato, Freire, and Buber, learning helps in the development of individuals who later play a major role in development of the society. Through imparting of knowledge to the individuals in the society, teachers also gain the sense of self realization.
Teachers are supposed to bringing about a socially conscious society. To attain this, the teachers should be in a position to understand the society. Therefore, the direct contact and participation of teachers in the developments taking place within society is a vital feature of attaining the goal of developing social consciousness (Shim, 2008).
It can be said that the active participation of Freire and Plato in the society acted as a means of understanding the society and a means of addressing the issues affecting the society through education. In his book, ‘The Republic’, Plato presents a two fold depiction of the society, a human being with education and a human being without education. Plato sought to derive an explanation of the role that is played by education in the life of man (Rosen, 2005).
On the other hand, Freire discovered the values of education by assessing the measure of education in the society. In an era where education was supposed to be the key to liberalizing the society, Freire discovered that it was being used as a tool for dividing and suppressing people in the society. Therefore, the philosophical concept of education was developed as a means of streamlining the role of education, as opposed to the manner in which it was being conducted in Brazil (Shim, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Education, according to Plato, is taken as a gradual process which aim is to lead to understanding. Therefore, Plato argued that human beings often exist in darkness, which implies the state of ignorance. The realization of the existence in the status of ignorance acts as the ignition to the search for light, which in this case means the search for education.
Plato heavily relied on abstractions when explaining the essence of education in the society, which was then marred by illiteracy, which compounded the rate of suffrage of people (Beck 1985). Freire conceived the status of illiteracy in the society by experiencing it. His argument about the liberalization of the society comes from the fact that the elites in the society were taking advantage of the state of illiteracy for pursuing the political and social goals.
Freire’s work also shows that education was the most valid way of propelling people from the bondage of darkness. Teaching is a facilitative process that requires consciousness on the part of the society, as well as the teachers. The freedom of human beings is highly dependent on the knowledge that freedom exists. Education enables men live, communicate, and think, which in turn helps in improving the life of men (Shim, 2008).
The role of teachers is expanded by the virtue that they have to aid students in synthesizing knowledge. Teachers are required to go beyond the teachings as coded in the learning materials used in imparting knowledge in students. By the virtue of borrowing from the happenings in the society, teachers have to help students stand against social change (Roberts, 2003).
This is a precursor to the attainment of a just society. A just society implies a society that embraces democracy and the observance of the rights of human beings. However, just as was opined by Socrates, the attainment of a just society is a complex exercise that requires a combination of numerous factors. Both teachers and students need to constantly and consistently play out their roles, something that is quite daunting to attain (Noddings, 2003).
Unlike the theoretical explanation of education, such as utilization of education as a means of attaining status in the society, as explained by John Locke, Freire’s approach to education is more radical as it entails the search for social order through participatory education. There are calls for revolution in the works by Freire, which are meant to free the oppressed people in the society through education. The issue of oppression is revealed in the philosophical works of Freire.
Therefore, the essence of education is making the oppressed realize the origins of their oppression. If education is to bring about social order and liberalize the society, then it has to be cultivated in such a way that the students are made to realize the need for education. On the same question of oppression, John Locke had emphasized the need for the development of human potential in all aspects as a way of promoting reason.
In the theory of social contract, Locke dwelled on the address of the issue of individual liberties by the government as one of the ways of attaining social order. Locke dwelt on the role of the state as a facilitating tool for the achievement of individual liberties. The same issue of individual liberties was expressed by Freire through educational activism, where the fate of individual liberty was seen as lying so much within the same individual (Wall, 2001).
The promotion of an educational environment that allowed people learn in a participative environment allows people to realize the sources of the oppressing factors. Freire further advanced that freedom of an individual is not only dependent on the sources of power in the society, but also on the ability of the individual to decentralize the opportunities, to learn things that are critical to the development of a balanced social state in the society.
Locke influenced Freire by bringing about the issue of individual liberties and the need to attain them in order to gain social justice and balance in the society. As a believer in practice rather than sheer praxis, Freire saw the need for actualizing the liberalization of individuals, which he did through active sensitization on how to attain liberalism through education (Eagan, 2010).
Freire reiterated that the setup of the education environment was critical to the attainment of liberation, and went further to explain how education ought to be structured to meet its objective. Contrary to the theoretical underpinning of Locke, Freire sidelined the role of the state and emphasized on the role of the teachers and the students (Ornstein
The Theme of Revenge in Shakespeare’s Hamlet Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Theme of Revenge
Introduction There is hardly a single play in the world that is as well-known and popular as Hamlet. One might enjoy it or hate it, but either way, one will definitely find something strangely attractive about it. Perhaps, the given effect owes much to the palette of emotions that Shakespeare uses in his play; it has something for everyone, starting with the pain of losing a father to the dilemma between betraying a friend and being killed, which Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have to deal with.
The most powerful emotion that makes the play work, however, is the desire of taking revenge. Viewed from several perspectives in Hamlet, it was and still is one of the most complicated feelings to deal with. Exploring the many ways of how revenge shapes the lead characters’ lives, Shakespeare offers a unique journey into the troubled mind of the protagonist, showing how tragic and at the same enthralling vengeance can be.
Overview The idea of revenge has always been controversial, allowing both to feel sorry for the leading character and at the same way to see him/her as an outsider crossing the line between good and evil. As a wise man, Shakespeare knows it and uses the given idea not only as a plot device, but also as a perfect foil for the character development.
Therefore, Shakespeare allows for viewing revenge as both the drastic measure that signifies Hamlet’s gradual descent into madness and as dispensed justice. Therefore, the double-sidedness of the argument adds controversy to the leading character, bringing the torture that Hamlet goes through into the light.
The plot of the play is known worldwide; a power-hungry brother of the monarch of Denmark kills the latter, marries the widow and plots to kill the monarch’s only son, Hamlet. The latter, after seeing his father’s ghost and learning the truth, feels that he is taken over by revenge and sets up a performance that copies Claudius’s, the murderer’s, plan and results in a tragic denouement and the untimely death of Hamlet and the rest of the characters.
Therefore, the story is basic enough; however, one more element at times seems to be on par with the leading characters of the play. To be more exact, the emotion of revenge that seizes Hamlet nearly becomes an independent being. Setting the theme for the entire story, it turns Hamlet into a three-dimensional character and creates a moral dilemma mentioned above, i.e., the explanation – though not a moral justification – for Hamlet’s actions.
The revenge theme gets the plot of the story off the ground, helping the readers view Hamlet as both a victim and a villain, bringing the XXII-century audience to the prehistoric eye-for-an-eye idea of justice: “Hamlet, in fact, is not represented at this point as a virtuous character” (Gottschalk 156). In fact, Kastan points out that Hamlet “is never quite as ‘apt’ as a revenger” (Kastan 112).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theme of Revenge Shakespeare seemed to have conducted research on personality and how it influences human behavior at various levels. This play has focused mainly on the theme of death that has been propagated by the desire to seek revenge by different characters.
It is necessary to state that while reading this book an audience may be persuaded to think that the main theme is death but this is not the case. This play has focused on death through its major cause and not in its entirety. Therefore, this book presents death as an effect and not a cause as some readers may believe.
The story begins with the scene of a Ghost that speaks to Hamlet and informs him that the present king killed it. Apparently, this Ghost is the spirit of Hamlet’s father who was the previous king of this land before he was killed. It reveals to Hamlet that Claudius was responsible for its death and thus he should seek revenge to fulfill his father’s wish. Old Hamlet is very angry because his brother killed him to become the King of Elsinore.
Therefore, it can be concluded that Hamlet’s revenge mission is motivated by the need to seek justice and expose the evil deeds of his mother, as well as bring back the honor to his father’s name (Skulsky 78). Naturally, it is expected that when a husband or wife dies the other partner should at least wait for sometime before getting married. However, in this case the opposite happens when Gertrude rushes to marry Claudius even before the burial ceremony is over.
More about topic name How did King Hamlet Die? 5 108 What are Hamlet’s last words? 5 123 How do the actors’ physical appearances affect their adaptations of Hamlet? 5 73 Which Word does Hamlet Use to Describe Those Who Choose to Live? 5 44 Why does Polonius think Hamlet is mad? 5 92 What is the significance of the Willow Song in Othello? 5 1036 On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the idea of revenge that seizes Hamlet’s mind is self-destructive. Even though the audience would probably be happy to see the main antagonists of the play, i.e., Claudius and Gertrude, being punished and finally getting what they deserved, the ending does feel devastating, which must signify the fact that vengeance is a pointless end in itself; once it has been achieved, there is nothing left to live for.
It is necessary to state that Hamlet is seeking revenge just to prove that he is not a coward. His emotions betray him and he does not see why he should kill Claudius apart from the fact that he killed and took his late father’s wife (Shakespeare). However, after the First Player expresses his concern about Queen Hecuba’s misfortune Hamlet is convinced that this character is more concerned about his father’s death than he ought to be (Riley, McAllister and Symons). This challenges him to evaluate whether or not he should kill Claudius.
On the other hand, King Claudius uses underhand ways to seek revenge against his enemies. He convinces Laertes that Hamlet is to blame for his sister’s madness and that he should seek immediate revenge (Shakespeare). However, Laertes is not convinced that Hamlet deserves to die even though he is later persuaded to kill him. His anger is not sufficient to warrant his vengeance against Hamlet and he finally tells him about his plans. However, Hamlet manages to persuade him to stop his plans and together they plan to kill the king.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Theme of Revenge in Shakespeare’s Hamlet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Revenge has other effects on the characters apart from causing death and suffering to victims. First, it changes their perception towards life and other people (Gottschalk). Gertrude learns that all men are ruthless due to what she witnesses in her surrounding and vows never to get married again. Secondly, Hamlet is not persuaded to kill King Claudius but since this will be a show of brevity and loyalty he decides to do it just to make his father happy and prove that he is not a coward.
Works Cited Gottschalk, Paul. “Hamlet and the Scanning of Revenge.” Shakespeare Quarterly 24.2 (1973): 155–170. Print.
Kastan, David Scott. “’His Semblable in His Mirror’: Hamlet and the Imitation of Revenge.” Shakespeare Studies 19.14 (1987): 111–124. Print.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. n. d. Web. .
Skulsky, Harold. “Revenge, Honor and Conscience in ‘Hamlet’.” PMLA 85.1 (1970): 78–87.
Riley, Dick, Pam McAllister and Julian Symons. “Hamlet. Young Prince Takes Revenge on Murderous Uncle.” The Bedside, Bathtub and Armchair Companion to Shakespeare. London, UK: Continuum, 2001. 255–259. Print.
Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development Term Paper essay help online
Piaget’s theory of intellectual development is widely used in the education field especially when it comes to the formation of basic guidance strategies. According to Piaget’s theory, intellectual development is based on assimilation and accommodation processes that are associated with evolutionary adaptation of species (Oakley, 2004). Piaget’s theory emphasizes the fact that intellectual development is progressive and takes place in stages.
Age is the main determining factor of the various stages of intellectual development (Oakley, 2004). The mental abilities of children develop as they continue to grow up. According to Piaget’s theory, intellectual development of children is measured by their ability to reconstruct concepts and ideas leant in the previous stage. Each age period has a certain reality that a child gets used to (Oakley, 2004). The practice of education has been influenced in a great way by Piaget’s theory of intellectual development.
Piaget’s theory helps teachers to focus on the thinking process of children rather than the correctness of their answers (Oakley, 2004). Cognitive functioning of children helps teachers in the formation of basic guidance strategies. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development advocates for interactive learning where children are actively involved in the learning process.
Teachers are therefore required to come up with a variety of activities that can enable children to interact with their physical environment. Piaget’s theory does not support premature teaching where intellectual development of children is accelerated beyond their age (Oakley, 2004). Teachers are therefore encouraged to formulate learning strategies that promote true cognitive understanding rather superficial acceptance of concepts that are above the children’s level of intellectual development.
An example of this case is where primary school pupils are taught secondary school concepts that are beyond their understanding. Piaget’s theory recognizes the fact that children have different rates of intellectual development and therefore teachers should come up with classroom activities that accommodate differences in development progress (Oakley, 2004).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and motivation theory can be applied in education and general learning processes (Mangal, 2007). According to Maslow’s theory, learning can not take place without motivation. The ability of students to retain whatever they are taught in class depends on how well they are motivated.
Teachers should therefore come up with strategies that motivate students to meet their learning goals. Maslow’s theory has a significant impact on the general structure of education (Mangal, 2007). School teachers and administrators must be guided by their students’ needs in the design of teaching programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The hierarchical order of needs should always be observed by teachers for effective design of classroom programs (Mangal, 2007). An example of this case is the relationship between food and learning. It is difficult for starving students to be motivated and this consequently affects their concentration in class. Motivating a well fed student is easy and this can be reflected in their concentration and performance.
The above example clearly shows that a student with some unmet needs can not concentrate in class. In order to solve this problem, the school administration should come up with feeding programs to help those students who come to school while hungry (Mangal, 2007). This strategy is meant to make students learn effectively without thinking about food. Maslow’s theory of knowledge encourages teachers to come with programs that can help students to deal with the realities of life.
There are some basic life skills that students need to be taught in order to cope with the basic realities of life (Mangal, 2007). According to this theory, students should not be trained to only absorb facts but much emphasis should be put in the entire learning process. Individual needs of students and their intellectual development should be accounted for by knowledge because of its dynamic nature (Mangal, 2007).
Dewey’s theory on education calls for the integration of practical everyday occupations with intellectual activities (Dewey, 2007). According to Dewey’s theory, children are supposed to participate in activities out of schools for them to develop a culture of self-reliance as they grow up.
This theory suggests that children should not in any way be denied an opportunity to participate in the available occupations for them to develop a sense of action and judgment (Dewey, 2007). The social needs of a community are very instrumental in governing the conduct and behavior of pupils. This theory helps teachers to come up with guidance strategies that cater for the social needs of students.
According to this theory, teachers should not act like task-masters but should play an instrumental role in ensuring that their students have a desire for knowledge through inspiration (Dewey, 2007). Intellectual development of pupils can only take place through spiritual, mental, physical and social development. According to Dewey’s theory, intellectual development of children depends on their interest and how they balance their school life and life out of school (Dewey, 2007).
Extra-curricular activities such as music can be developed if a child is nurtured at school and out of school (Dewey, 2007). This is a perfect example of how experience can be blended with intellectual activities to produce a complete graduate. Children must have the support and affection of parents and teachers in order to have an interest in developing their talents.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three education theories that have been discussed in this paper are very useful when it comes to education reforms. The theories influence curriculum design and instruction techniques in learning institutions. The discussion has provided a new insight in understanding the meaning and importance of the three education theories.
References Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Mangal, S. (2007). Essentials of educational psychology. New York, NY: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Oakley, L. (2004). Cognitive development. New York, NY: Routledge.
Women Rights Violation Expository Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Women Rights Abuse
Introduction Modern societies have undergone complete metamorphosis and adopted new ways of doing things. Modernization has become a common occurrence in almost all aspects of our daily lives and this has improved our living standards.
However, an improvement in technology does not reflect human developments if what happens to some members in the society is anything to consider. For a long time, women have suffered various challenges and become victims of circumstances without anyone raising an alarm about this. This essay explores the violation of women rights and possible causes in our modern societies.
Definition Human rights refer to the privileges that a person enjoys as a human being. These rights include the permission to access quality healthcare, security, food, shelter, education and public amenities (Wollstonecraft 7). In addition, it also includes the freedom to move and express opinions regarding various happenings.
Causes of Women Rights Abuse Most women have been abused in modern societies due to illiteracy and lack of exposure to their rights. Women constitute the greatest percentage of the illiterate population due to societal perceptions. This exposes them to various forms of discriminations that lead to their oppression (Rich 7).
In addition, the lack of proper guidance from governments is also to blame for women oppression. Most developing nations are struggling to adopt democratic policies and forget that women deserve the right to be heard and considered as members of the society.
Moreover, poverty has continued to propagate women suffering due to the lack of sufficient funds to cater for domestic needs. Most women are forced to look for food for their families and this makes them vulnerable to oppression. It is imperative to state that the modern woman has become so occupied with the desire to earn a living without relying on men.
However, she is not able to find job so easily unless she bows down to some form of pressure from a man’s side (Rich 12). Consequently, women seek favors by submitting their bodies to men in exchange for these aspects. As a result, they end up being victims of rape and other forms of sexual abuse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, drug abuse has become a common problem in many homes and this makes women the most susceptible victims to the effects associated with this vice. In most occasions, men have violated women either verbally or physically when they are under the influence of drugs. The number of cases of rape and other forms of sexual abuse among women have increased due to drug abuse especially in the informal settlement areas.
In addition, some traditions are extremely retrogressive and still consider women as domestic servants. The fact that there are free primary and secondary school education and many scholarships to study further education has not helped women to attend schools. Their communities still treat them as servants and have not given them opportunities to utilize their talents (Wollstonecraft 13). In addition, most women are comfortable with their positions and therefore they are not ready to challenge their men in higher positions.
Lastly, affirmative actions have not gone well with most men since they view this as defiance. On the other hand, women have embraced these actions without consideration how to approach men in dealing with the anticipated challenges. As a result, men have felt like they are being challenged and have countered this with violence and other forms of abuse.
Conclusion Most women will continue to be abused if necessary steps are not taken to address these issues. It is imperative to ensure that both men and women are involved in women empowerment and emancipation to ensure that society embraces change and respect for human rights.
Works Cited Rich, Jennifer. Modern Feminist Theory: An Introduction. New York: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
South Korea political economy Essay essay help free: essay help free
South Korea Internationalization, globalization, and changes to the International Political Economy (IPE) impact on nations’ political and economical environments (Dani 43). It has become easier for corporations and companies to move or invest wherever they want due to the mobile nature of money and of manufacturing of goods.
This implies that national governments are less capable of regulating and controlling the activities of multinational corporations (Banerjee and Duflo 23). Additionally, it also could imply that multinationals are at an advantaged position over national governments to dictate how they would operate within a country. The political implications of globalization and the changes to the IPE therefore focus on creating a power balance between national governments and multinational corporations (Al-Obaidan and Scully 240).
Scholars argue that this scenario forces the national governments to retreat because of the inability to gain full control over the operations of these international businesses (Haberl and Marina 13). Others have argued that the sovereignty of state is slowly shifting away towards the multinational corporations. From a different perspective, one can see that globalization and the changes to IPE created tension between the need for economic prosperity and the need to maintain community values (Harris 144).
The state plays a very important role of protecting communities from the effect of competition by multinationals. Through measures such as tariffs, local industries are protected from such effects. The sovereign power of national governments however can be extended in the face of globalization through signing of international treaties and cooperating with international organizations (Dani 34).
In South Korea, the impact of globalization and changes to the IPE has opened up the country’s market in addition to economic empowerment. There is immense technological advancement in the country which has increased its connection with the rest of the world. Scholars have identified that the country got its taste of globalization for the first time during the 1980s (Thistlethwaite 80).
It was during this time that the economy of the country was opened up to free trade. Even though this has not only been met by positive consequences, the impact it has had on the country’s economy has made it one of the richest nations in the world. Local technology and automotive companies have expanded and operated on a global scale (Keohane 40).
The political and economical sphere of the international economy is slowly being replaced by MNC based economy. The MNCs in South Korea are playing a decisive role in the national government. The same effect is seen in other countries where these multinationals operate. According to statistics, States no longer comprise the largest economic entities in the world today. Instead, companies operating on a global scale are now the largest economic entities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case of South Korea is a perfect example of this scenario (Haberl and Marina). The central government in the country only dictates a quarter of GDP spending while the remaining three quarters is dictated by companies and the private sector. Samsung electronics alone contributes to more than 20 percent of South Korea’s GDP. If the three largest South Korean based MNCs (Samsung, Hyundai, and LG) are combined, they contribute an overwhelming 50 percent of the country’s GDP (Raphael and Stokes 917).
These statistics reveal that the financial concerns of multinational corporations are now taking over the diplomatic and political concerns that were once a huge part of international political economy. The dictating power of multinational corporations is fast spreading and evidence of this power can be seen in several other countries in both the developed and the developing world. The multinational corporations now have international responsibilities.
Samsung Electronics Samsung electronics is one of South Korea’s thriving multinationals. In terms of revenue, it is currently the largest company in the world dealing with information technology. By 2011, it passed Nokia to be the largest mobile phone manufacturer globally. Samsung electronics is also a leading company in the manufacture of television sets, home appliances, and semi conductor chips.
The company has recently established a prominent position in the smart phone market and tablet computer market. Samsung has sales networks in over 61 countries worldwide (Grand mont and McFadden 114).
Samsung electronics alone contributes to almost a quarter of the country’s economy. The government only spends around 20 percent of its GDP. Samsung, as described, has a sprawling network of 80 subsidiary companies which in total produce estimated annual sales of $250 billion.
If the company’s asset is combined with other local based multinationals such as Hyundai and LG, they have a larger share of the country’s total asset than the central government alone. Based on sectors, South Korea’s GDP comprises of agriculture, industry, and service sectors (Keohane 67). Each of these contributes 3.2%, 39.6%, and 57.2% respectively to the country’s GDP. In the industrial sector, electronics and automobile make up more than two thirds of its revenue.
The presence of multinational corporations, such as Samsung electronics, and the existing changes in the IPE has also impacted the trade structure in the country. The country has signed free trade agreements with other like minded states such as the US, European Union, China, Japan, UAE among others.
We will write a custom Essay on South Korea political economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These states and international organizations are South Korea’s major trading partners. The government has also established an investment and trade promotion agency which has the mandate to enhance competition and national prosperity in the country. The agency works closely with Korean Trade Centers in other countries. As a result, the government has managed to establish business centers in more than 70 countries to enhance trade and promote investments. It is also in these countries that Samsung has a huge market.
Samsung electronics has made South Korea to be a leader within the global IT, semi conductor, and digital display industries surpassing economies such as Japan and the US. The technological developments have made the government to have huge interest in the robotic industry. There are a lot of investments going on in this industry with a goal of becoming a robotic nation by the year 2025.
Samsung electronics is also known to have a policy of attracting the low end market especially in low cost countries in Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia. Its operation within these host countries has created investment opportunities, job opportunities for both high skilled and low skilled labor, and technological transfer. It produces goods in host countries and provides a ready market in South Korea where the goods are exported.
Because of the free trade agreements it has signed with international organizations and other developed countries, the goods produced in host nations are also sold within the free markets. It has long term commitment to the host nations. The huge amount profit it makes by operating in a host country is not usually transferred for investment in South Korea. Instead, the profit is invested locally within the host nations. This further helps to improve the economy of host nations.
From this point of view, it is apparent that Samsung electronics has almost a similar ability to assist host nations as the central government of South Korea. The position it has in shaping the economy of a country is quite significant compared to that of the central government.
Despite the significant role the company as well as other Korean multinationals play in shaping investments in the country, the central government also has power in creating strategies which shape its future. The focus of the central government has always been on strengthening the economy further to compete with other strong economies such as the US, China, and Japan.
In consequence, there have been a lot of talks with neighbors especially their northern counterpart in the Korean Peninsula to reunite and form a stronger economy. Currently, South Korea’s economy is ranked 13th in the world but if it manages to reunite with North Korea, it would be among the top four largest economies in the world (Haberl and Marina).
There is a lot of corporation between the central government and these multinationals when it comes to future investments strategies. Currently Samsung electronics is known to have the best policies on environmental sustainability. The company as well as the central government makes huge investments on energy saving technologies and on green energy. Due to the magnitude of its manufacturing and industrial sectors, the central government introduced a program to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses (Begg and Ward 29).
Not sure if you can write a paper on South Korea political economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The program is considered to be largest of its kind in the world bearing in mind that other developed nations are still yet to make significant steps towards green energy. Additionally, the central government is collaborating with the multinationals to diversify the economy by increasing investments in other sectors and in some low populated regions of the country.
Works Cited Al-Obaidan, Antoinette and Scully, Goerge . “Efficiency Differences between Private and State-Owned Enterprises in the International Petroleum Industry.” Applied economics Taylor and Francis Journals 24.2 (1992): 237-246. Print.
Banerjee, Abhijit and Esther Duflo. Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011. Print.
Begg, David and Damian Ward. Economics for business. 3rd. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print.
Dani, Rodrik. One economics. Many recipes. Globalization, institutions, and economic growth. Princeton: Princeton university press, 2007. Print.
Grand mont, James and McFadden David. “Technical note on classical gains from trade.” Journal of international economics 2.1 (1972): 109-125. Print
Haberl, Helmut and Marina, Fitscher. “A socio-metabolic transition toward sustainability? Challenges for another great transformation.” Sustainable Development 19: 1, (2011): 11–14. Print.
Harris, Paul. “Peace, security and global climate change: the vital role of China.” Global Change, Peace and Security 23. 2 (2011) :141–5. Print.
Keohane, Robert. “The old IPE and the new.” Review of international political economy 16.2 (2009) :34-46. Print.
Raphael, Sam and Doug Stokes. “Globalizing West African oil: US “energy security” and the global economy.” International Affairs 87.4 (2011): 903–21. Print.
Thistlethwaite, Jason. “Counting the environment: the environmental implications of international accounting standards.” Global Environmental Politics 11.2 (2011): pp. 75–97. Print.
Hume’s Two Forms of Inquiry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Hume
Matter of fact
Relations of ideas
Difference between matter of fact and relations of ideas
Hume According to Hume, there are two forms of inquiry; they are matter of fact and relations of ideas. All enquiry objects can naturally be categorized into matters of fact and relations of ideas. The propositions are usually discovered solely through the application of thought.
This is never dependent on things that can be found in the universe. Irrespective of the fact that, in nature, triangles and circles were not in existence, Euclid came up with truths that maintain the evidence and certainty of their existence. This paper aims at analyzing the matter of fact and relations of ideas.
Matter of fact Matters of fact are the 2nd enquiry objects. Irrespective of how much evidence of their existence there is, their assertion is totally different. There is always the possibility of the opposite of each matter of fact because it does not indicate a contradiction. Moreover, it is contained in mind with a similar uniqueness and facility.
This is accomplished in a manner that agrees totally to reality (Hume, 1902). For instance, saying that the sun will not rise from the east tomorrow, is not an intelligent proposition. It introduces more contradiction than the already present evidence, that is, that the sun will rise. Hence, trying to show the falsehood of this statement would be in vain. In case it is shown to be false, this would bring about a contradiction, and the mind would not conceive this distinctly.
Relations of ideas In philosophy, the term relation refers to a form of the fact that is either agreeable or disagreeable of the two items. For instance, the aspect of ‘taller than’ is agreeable in relation to Ross Perot. On the other hand, it is false as far as Mt. Everest is concerned. In this relation, it is worth noting that items and substances possess properties.
For instance, this patch is blue; it is worth noting that relations involve two substances or properties. For instance, this patch is smaller compared to another one. Relations of ideas refer to the form of knowledge that is considered as having arisen from pure reasonable procedures and theoretical opinions (Hume, 1902). This is a complete contrast of matter of fact. For example, in logic it can be argued that water surrounds all islands. In mathematics, 40 * 2 is 80.
Difference between matter of fact and relations of ideas Relations of ideas refer to a logical or mathematical proposition. Irrespective of the fact that it has rational certainty, it informs nothing in regards to reality. On the other hand, matters of fact refer to an empirically verifiable proposition. Although it informs about the real world, there is no rational certainty.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, according to the relation of ideas, a triangle refers to a geometrical figure with three sides. The total sum of all the angles is one hundred and eighty degrees. There is one hundred percent certainty that this is what the triangle is. However, there is no confirmation whether triangles exist in reality or not (Hume, 1902).
In the matter of fact, it can be argued that the Sun always rises in the east. Therefore, all people globally accept this to be the case according to the overall experience. According to Hume, this is referred to as custom. However, it is not clear whether the Sun will rise from another direction the following day.
Reference Hume, D. (1902). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. London: Oxford University Press.
The Fish – a Poem by Elizabeth Bishop Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The Fish is a poem authored by Elizabeth Bishop. The author uses language to attract the attention of the readers. She also manages to express her feelings through imagery in her literary piece of work by employing similes, descriptive language, and adjectives. These literary devices culminate into a precise mental image of the occurrences in the setting.
This poem figuratively describes several events that culminate into the main message that the author communicates to the reader. The speaker describes an encounter on a fishing expedition using a rented boat. Several events culminate into the events that are finally revealed in the poem.
The speaker in the poem managed to trap a large fish. The fish is rather old since algae and barnacles are growing on its outer surface. The fish is strong and powerful enough to fight for its life. The speaker analyzes the fish and wonders how much energy the fish had used to resist being caught. The size and the age of the fish make the narrator to respect the creature.
The narrator compares herself with the fish due to the struggle that each one of them has to make in the deep waters. She acknowledges that she has been fishing for many years and the boat is symbolic of the fish. She becomes emotional and eventually lets the fish to go. If she had not taken her time to study the fish, she could have never imagined how much struggle the fish has undergone in order to avoid being trapped by fishermen for several years.
She ended up appreciating the struggle for survival undertaken by the old fish. She equates herself to the fish because both of them have been striving to survive against all odds. Her boat was old and spilling oil although it was still running. This is the moment that changed her thoughts. When she stared into the eyes of the fish, it immediately created an emotional trigger that culminated into the moment of revelation.
The narrator experienced three revelations as a result of her detailed analysis of the fish, the boat and herself. The first revelation was based on how she described the outlook of the fish. The latter was old as apparent from the outside look. However, it appeared to be rather strong. The body was covered by layers of algae and had lines of bruises presumable sustained after escaping from fishermen traps.
This created an image of the fish as a vital part of her life since it symbolized struggle to live. The fish was made to appear as an important image in the fishmonger’s life. As a result, the fishmonger ended up creating a mental picture that related the fish and real circumstances of life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author has largely managed to personify the fish. She uses possessive nouns such as ‘his’ that attempt to a humanly picture of the fish and how daily struggle to be alive is dominant feature. She handles the fish, looks straight into its eyes, and admires the appearance of its face and the jaws. This makes the narrator in the poem to be attracted to the fish emotionally. The emotional attachment between the fish and the narrator intensifies as she compares the struggles the fish has endured to hers.
The struggle that has been endured by the fish makes the narrator to perceive it as a hero. In addition, the fishmonger examines the jaw and observes that is has long hair. The author relates this eternal feature of the fish with wisdom. This makes the narrator to appreciate the fish as a wise creature especially if it managed to survive in the waters for many years. All these observations tend to strengthen the attributes of the fish as far as the fishmonger is concerned.
Another outstanding instance that guaranteed the freedom of the fish after being caught is the condition of boat. The boat is definitely old. The author compares the age of the boat and the fish and finds that they are both dilapidated. Nonetheless, both the boat and the fish are vital in the entire survival cycle in spite of their ages.
As much as the boat is old and full of imperfections, its functions are overwhelming according to the narrator. The leaking oil that formed a rainbow on the surface of water compelled the narrator to let the fish free since there was no time to deal with it while the boat was leaking.
This narration describes several processes that culminated into acquittal of the fish even after being trapped. The fish is displayed as a vulnerable captive that has created a sorrowful situation. The personal relationship between the fish and the fishmonger also enhances the feelings crop up and culminate into the freedom of the fish.
The narrator admires the fish. As a result, it strengthens the relationship between the two parties. The hooked jaw also reveals that the fish has escaped being caught several times. This compels the narrator to equate the fish to a hero. She ends up respecting the aquatic creature.
References Bishop E. The fish. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [date unknown; cited 2020 Feb 11].
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Cezanne’s Sense of Color Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A renowned French artist, Paul Cezanne is considered as ‘The father of the modern art’ for his contribution to the evolution of painting. His inspiration was revealed in Paris during his frequent visits to the Louvre Museum (Turner 459). His paintings are considered a foundation and inspiration to the modern art. In fact, it has been argued that his intensive use of colors and compositions represents his originality in painting (Loran 26).
Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seems to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from the use of dark colors to an application of light colors (Sidlauskas 90). The purpose of this paper is to analyze some of Cezanne’s paintings with an aim of describing his sense of color in painting (Turner 459).
Arguably, one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world (Sidlauskas 84). Cezanne paves way for upcoming artists when he decided to give quality to his paintings as compared to the traditional ones (Bois and Krauss 32).
Cezanne’s 1896’s painting “Lake of Annecy” was an exhibition of use of color to depict nature at its best. He used a range of cool colors such as blue and green with deep tone and a combination of warm color to produce contrast, thus making some features look closer. In 1906, Cezanne exhibited an oil painting, which he called “the Bathers” (Turner 26). He distinguished his artwork from other small paintings by calling it “Large Bathers.” The painting took him seven years though it was never finished due to his death in 1906 (Shiff 54).
His understanding and use of color was also an inspiration from his wife, who had a great passion to do artwork of her master. Cezanne wanted to articulate a painting meaning with color. An example is the painting of his wife Fiquet Cezanne he used color to give different conception to her features (Sidlauskas 90).
In his artwork, Cezanne used color to signify depth and surface at once, mobility and skin revelatory suited a young man nicknamed “Iecorche”. Although Cezanne’s “Mont St. Victoire” painting portrays a traditional landscape, the use of color technique makes it complete revolutionary. His impressionism is extreme as he uses color patches to convey mountains cape atmosphere.
This is an amazing work as the bluish tint color portrays a thick atmosphere. The use of color to portray fruits and glassware objects in “Compotier, Pitcher and Fruit” gives shadows and textures and creates a realistic perception as the fruits looks as they are falling off the table. In his Harlequin painting, Cezanne uses blue color to symbolize mood on how Picasso lean on his elbow (Bois and Krauss 35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Loran (41), Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seem to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from these use of dark colors to an application of light colors.
According to Bleicher (122), this shift in paradigm provides some evidence of the influence that impressionism had on the works of several artists in the 19th century. In the initial stages of his career, Cezanne used flat brushstrokes. However, he progressively changed to the use of light strokes in which he added light and dark tones to produce a three-dimensional effect (Bois and Krauss 32).
His ability to use both dark and light colors to come up with three dimension effect is one of the fact that makes Cezanne’s work appears quite unique from those of other impressionist painters of the time (Badt 151). It is also worth noting that Cezanne’s initial strokes were usually based on simple primary colors. Rather than using a palette, Cezanne used canvas. This additional aspect makes Cezanne much different from the rest of his impressionist colleagues.
The shift in paradigm from focus on dark colors to lighter colors in his later part of career is explained by his shift of focus from mixing and blending of colors. Accordingly, his works increasingly became unique in that they appeared as patches of distinct colors.
For example, an analysis of his famous painting “Mont St. Victoire” reveals that although it is based on traditional landscape, it is equally applies revolutionary technique developed by patches of color that convey a true atmosphere of mountain (Merleau 62). Some scholars have argued that with this style of color use, Cezanne must have taken impressionism to the extreme.
Secondly, it is worth noting that in this piece of work, Cezanne has shows his amazing ability and skills by using blue-ish tint in his painting to portray a thick atmosphere. In fact, in this painting, Cezanne has moved towards a more architectural design rather than an imaginary painting. Riviere and Schnerb recall that Cezanne was very particular when working on planar surfaces like walls, where he made the look spherical by modulation of color (Bois and Krauss 35).
In fact, this is a common style among the cubist artists (Ione 59). According to Becks-Malorny (36), this method of color application in painting was popular among the cubist painters, which makes some scholars argue on whether Cezanne was an impressionist, a post-impressionist or a Cubist painter. However, he makes use of his skills and knowledge to ensure that both depth and perspective are present in his paintings. This is actually a researchable aspect within the context of his theory of color application (Sidlauskas 88).
We will write a custom Essay on Cezanne’s Sense of Color specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cezanne uses color in its three dimensions to favor different contrasts of hue to re-assert different structural painting qualities (Stewart 451). He had the opinion that surfaces that are near the viewer should have pure color. This hints how he uses color to build form. Cezanne used three dimensional model that is value to illustrated by light-dark color, hue using varying wavelength of green, red, yellow and other colors and saturation where he applied purity of colors.
These dimensions of colors he used in combination with four forms of contrast separately or mixed thus building form and space at the same time intensifying lighting effects. Cezanne at the same time used a warm-cool contrast, which is a function of hue.
According to Loran (83), Cezanne’s painting can easily be analysis used in terms of black and white illustrations of value. In his analysis “Cezanne’s compositions”, Loran argues that the paintings by Cezanne are quite brilliant due to his style of color application (Loran 94). Nevertheless, it is arguable that Loran overlooked the fact that Cezanne’s work was developed from a composition of sophisticated application of value, saturation as well as hue.
Cezanne’s painting, “naked female”, presents the evidence of density and tension (Loran 73). He grouped the naked women and shaped them like trees. A triangular shaped view gives focus to the lake and the bathers seem to be calmed under the trees. The painting “Large Bathers” gives the reminiscence of other artist’s work such as Paul Ruben and Titian with landscapes, trees and the river (Dorival 19).
The calmness of the water and the dawdling movement of the figures gives a mythically and an imaginary element to Cezanne’s work. Though Cezanne followed no stylish paintings, which did not match with the methods of the nineteenth century, he was in an attempt to come up with a timeless painting (Stewart 453).
According to Dorival (55), the paintings “large Bathers” are quite outstanding paintings due to their wide spaces, color use and figures especially on the right side seem to be well- figured. In addition, Cezanne’s use of space is revealed by the whirling blue, bright, and clear sky. Cézanne used lines to give a well-outlined shape of the women. In addition, lines created and emphasized movement, which makes one to hold the movement of the eyes. Cezanne seems to have a better understanding of the viewer movements.
Cezanne’s work is based on nature and his own imagination especially on the figure paintings. He was also fascinated by the human figure, which in his painting portrays un-sensual and statuesque showing his personal classicism interpretation. The painting shows how female figures can add an aesthetic value and harmony to the landscape (Becks-Malorny 88).
Cezanne’s work on the Large Bathers shows a well-developed architectural combination of rhythm, format and color. By pairing the spots symmetries of object is created resulting in a secret life to a static object. In addition, use of natural and human forms brings out weight and dignity in his work (Stewart 453).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cezanne’s Sense of Color by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Dorival (55), Cézannes works “Large Bathers” are surrounded by trees on their sides and each nude female is lend interiorly thus making a triangular shape which frames the lake. This gave the naked women a pre-arranged space. This composition gives Bathers various poses through bending to fit Cezanne’s art composition. He tried to create space between objects, which are closer from the far ones (Dorival 64).
This spacing could be seen through perspective though it depended on the viewer’s eye when standing on one place .He accounted his natural vision through art representation since nature cannot be reproduced through art. Cezanne expressed his emotion and feeling in his drawing, in his paining of his wife, he used pale coral pigment to draw her wife face giving it a distinct consistent feature (Sidlauskas 93).
Cezanne used dark and light blue colors in his Bathers. The paintings show how Cezanne toned his palette down. He also eliminated some colors and reduced the hue intensity to tones of green, blue and ochre. His tree trunks were painted with oak brown in addition to golden tones. Skin color of the bathers showed a complimentary color with brown hair. Back and the hips of the women are painted dark brown giving them a female shape (Loran 83).
Cezanne’s Bathers seem to be well illuminated especially on the right side hence little light reaching the bathers on their right hand side. He used natural light in creating shadow patterns, which in turn creates a spectacular outcome. In this painting, the light is seen hitting directly on the crouching down bather on the left elbow of the woman and on the lower sides of her thigh.
hough the waters seem to be calm, they look troubled by the waves. Cezanne’s use of a brush stroke gives the texture to his work. The painting appears unfinished leaving trails of the painting patterns. Thick coats of paint give the Large Bathers a fog of green and blue colors (Loran 91). In addition, the time that Cezanne spent in working out the painting produces shifts in point of view.
Although Cezanne did not finish his work, he left a spectacular artwork, which inspires many upcoming artists. Cezanne created a sense of distance by using parallel brush marks that added depth. In his work “Montagne Saint Victoire”, Cezanne painted a mountain shape in the middle and a stylised tree to the left incorporating shades. He added pink and blue colours with stretches of pale brown (Loran 118).
In his painting, “The Blue Vase”, Cezanne created a still life picture by using colours that are both luminous and high-keyed in the object as well as in the background (Loran 122). Despite the use of greater brightness, the sensitiveness creation of the small difference coupled with the richness of hues brought about a refined and gradated tones.
He uses blue colour to create mood giving a differing quality in the background and contrast with warmer tones used in flowers and smaller units. Cezanne’s work, which is rich in colour, employs variety of colour relationship to contrast, coolness, mood and harmony.
In a letter to Emile Bernard of April 1904, Cezanne gave his personal view on the use of color in his paintings. In this letter, he says that one cannot separate drawing and color, as long as the painter is drawing. According to him, the more the amount of color applied in a painting, the more exact is the painting.
Color brings richness to a painting, which in turn makes the form to attain its fullness (Bois and Krauss 34). He further argues that the secret of modeling and drawing is the contrast achieved through color tines. From this analysis, it is worth arguing that one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world.
Works Cited Badt, Kurt. The Art of Cézanne. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2010. Print.
Becks-Malorny, Ulrike. Cezanne. Ediz. Inglese. London, UK: Taschen, 2009. Print.
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color: Theory
Debates on Whether Dog is the Best Pet or not Essay best essay help
Debates on whether dog is the best pet or not are very common when it comes to choosing a pet. There are many pets that a person can keep, but dogs stand out from the rest. Dogs have been branded as the best friends of man for a very long time and this yet to change.
The relationships between dogs and man have been improving over the years and this has made dogs to be the most preferable pets in the world. Dogs are known to reciprocate love by remaining loyal and the best companions. The people who are still reluctant to choose dogs as their pets simply lack adequate information on why dogs are the best pets to keep. This paper will explain why a dog is the best pet to keep compared to other pets.
The first reason why one should choose a dog for a pet is its ability to do things for its owner. Dogs can do several tricks that other pets such as cats and birds can not do. Dogs are quick learners and can therefore be taught simple domestic tasks for fun. In terms of companionship, dogs are the best option because they have the energy to jog and run alongside their owners.
Dogs are known to offer unconditional love to their owners and are always concerned about their safety. A good pet should give its owner some attention and no other pet does this better then a dog. Dogs learn their names in the shortest time possible and can always respond quickly when they are called by their names. Dog can be learned to play different games and are always available to play with its owner any time it is called upon.
Recent studies have shown that dogs bring health benefits to their owners apart from offering companionship. A dog owner becomes fit by having regular walking sessions with his or her pet. Regular dog-walking sessions help dog owners reduce their cholesterol levels.
Having a dog as a friend helps its owner forget about his or her worries by playing with it. A person who lives alone needs a dog for security and companionship. Psychologists believe that dogs can help bereaved people overcome their traumas in the shortest time possible compared to other pets.
In addition, dogs often serve as guides for blind people. It is believed that dogs feel seismicity and can help their owners avoid being harmed by destruction in case of earthquake. The strong bond between a human being and a dog makes the owner feel calm when their pet is by the side. A dog can make its owner laugh after a very stressful day. A dog is always available to welcome its owner at home regardless of the mood of the day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, people with a problem of choosing a pet for themselves should consider having a dog as a pet because of the many benefits it brings to the owner compared to other pets. Dogs have special qualities that make them stand out from other pets when it comes to companionship and security.
Other pets have limited abilities and can not match the versatility of a dog. Research has proven that dogs bring quite a number of health and social benefits to their owners compared to other pets. The reasons explained in this paper are enough proof that a dog is the best pet that one should consider keeping.
Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Political and religious leader
Introduction Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini is a famous Iranian Muslim cleric credited with marshaling the revolution against the Iranian leader of the time known as the Shah. After the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was named the supreme religious leader of Iran, which later was transformed and renamed the Islamic republic of Iran in 1979.
When he was appointed, Ayatollah Khomeini ensured that the Shah did not serve as the Iranian ruler. The Shah was toppled due to his ties with the west. After the success of the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was subsequently named as the religious and political leader of the Islamic republic of Iran for life (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 1; Reich, p. 310).
Early life Khomeini is believed to have been born on the 24th day of September, 1902. This is also believed, which is also the anniversary of the birth of Prophet Mohammed’s daughter Hazrat Fatima. He was named Rouhollah Mousavi, which when translated, means “inspired by God”.
He was born in a small known as Khomeini, which is about 160 km southwest of Qom. His family was well known for their quest in religious scholarship. His surname was derived from the town in which he was born. Thus, he was known as Rouhollah Khomeini (Iran Chamber Society, para. 1). During the early 20th century, his father was murdered. Khomeini’s mother and aunt took care of him from a tender age.
However, they later on succumbed to cholera leaving him orphaned. Khomeini’s elder brother was left with the obligation of taking care of the family. There are assertions that Khomeini’s family was related to Prophet Mohammed. The family boasts of a legacy of avid religious scholars all the way from their ancestors. Khomeini and his sibling Mourteza were great Islamic intellectuals (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 2; Moin, pp. 2-4).
In his youthful years, Khomeini enjoyed sporting activities and was a jovial person. He was also very strong and a great scholar. He was also successful in his studies at the local maktab. Maktabs are local schools that are primarily dedicated to teaching the Qur’an. His older sibling who was responsible for taking care of the family asked him to go to the Arak City in the second decade of the 20th century. This was due to his scholarly prowess.
In Arak, Khomeini was in the same class as other Islamic scholars such as Yazdi Ha’iri. After three years of staying in Arak, Khomeini and Ha’iri went to Qom. Under the apprenticeship of Ha’iri, Khomeini dedicated and committed most of his efforts to the development and furthering of his own personal religious studies. He also taught other younger students at the Ha’iri’s school (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political and religious leader The two great Islamic scholars worked together in Qom. However, in the 1930s, Ha’iri passed on and his religious position was taken over by Ayatollah Boroujerdi. As a result, he gained favor and had a strong following of all Muslims, Khomeini being one amongst them. It can also be noted that both Boroujerdi and Ha’iri shared a common belief that religion should be separated from the state. In this case, religion or the state should not involve themselves in matters of the other (Iran Chamber Society, para. 7).
Consequently, the Iranian leader, Reza Shah looked for ways in which he could tame the influence of the religious leaders. Most of the powerful religious leaders and clerics remained mute on the issue and encouraged their followers to follow suite. Furthermore, the same difference was advocated for when Reza Shah’s successor. His son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi sought support of the western governments, particularly the United States.
This was meant to control and contain protests for democratic reforms in Tehran during the year 1950. Khomeini among those clerics muted. Khomeini was not able to challenge what he saw. He thought that his country was moving away from the teachings of the Islamic traditions. He was angered by this and decided to focus on teaching the Islamic science known as Fiqh (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
After the demise of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, Khomeini emerged as one of the possible successors. This was brought about by his publications on the writings of Fiqh. The basic handbook of Islamic practice titled Tozih al-Masael was the most notable. Later on, Khomeini became a Marja-e Taqlid. In essence, he gained general acceptance among the Iranian Shi’as. In the early 1960s, the Iranian administration introduced new legislations on elections.
These laws did away with the previous prerequisite requiring the elected officials to take their oaths using the Quran. Imam Khomeini telegraphed both the prime minister and Mohammed Reza warning that they should stop violating the Iranian constitution of 1907 and Islamic law. If they failed to comply, the Ulama or religious scholars would lead the public in sustained protests to campaign against this provision (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 8-9; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6; Harmon, pp. 16-20).
On the 3rd of June, 1963, Imam Khomeini made a speech at Feyziyeh madreseh. He warned the Shah that, if he did not change his ways, one day the Iranian public will welcome his departure from the country.
He was arrested two days later by military commandos. When news of his arrest broke at dawn, there were widespread demonstrations that took almost six days before calm was restored. Demonstrators were ruthlessly confronted by heavy military tanks. This marked the turning point of Iran. Imam Khomeini was later released on the 7th of April, 1964 (Iran Chamber Society, para. 11; Khater, p. 229).
We will write a custom Essay on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Shah’s government continued to strengthen its ties with the west. He signed an agreement with America that offered immunity from prosecution to all United States people and their dependents in Iran. This triggered Khomeini to issue a statement against the leadership. He denounced the agreement and termed it as a relinquishment of the sovereignty and independence of Iran. Armed commandos from the military stormed the Ayatollah Khomeini’s residence in Qom and arrested him a few hours to dawn during the 4th of November 1964.
This time, he was not sent to jail but was taken to the Mehrabad airport where he was flown to Turkey for exile. While in Turkey, the Shah hoped that Ayatollah Khomeini would fade from the memory of the populace. Turkey had a law that prohibited the wearing of the turban and cloak. These aspects are critical to the Muslim scholars. However, on the 5th of November, Khomeini left Turkey for Najaf in Iraq where he spent the next 13 years (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 12-13).
During his stay in Najaf, Khomeini continued teaching Fiqh at Sheikh Mourteza Ansari madreseh. From his lectures on Velayat-e faqeeh, he published a text that bordered on issues of administration and religion. This was later smuggled into Iran by sympathizers who came to visit him in Iraq. He also started making video tapes of his lectures and sermons while in exile.
Through these strategies, Khomeini was accepted as the supreme leader of the Iranian opposition against the rule of the Shah’s government. The opposition’s struggle was starting to gain momentum. In 1975, a crowd of demonstrators camped for three days at a famous religious school in Qom where Ayatollah Khomeini used to teach while he was in Iran.
The crowd was adamant and was only dispersed by brutal military force under the orders of the Shah. As a response to this, Ayatollah Khomeini then released a public statement from exile in support of the demonstrators, which declared that the liberation and freedom from the shackles of imperialism for the Iranian people was indeed imminent (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 9).
More protests and demonstrations continued to be witnessed all around Iran during 1978 defending the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. On each occasion, the rioters and demonstrators were heavily and violently confronted by the military and other government institutions.
The Shah was concerned about the frequency and the magnitude of the demonstrations. He felt that the proximity of Khomeini’s exile to Iraq was relatively too close for any comfort. Within a short period, Khomeini’s residence in Iraq was again surrounded by military personnel who gave him two alternatives: he was asked to either leave the country or stay in Iraq but stop making any political statements.
Ayatollah Khomeini chose to leave the country (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 10). The Iranian authorities then colluded with the Iraqi government to force Khomeini out of Iraq. He moved to Kuwait where he was denied entry at the border, but finally made his way to France. It is from France that the teachings of Khomeini dominated world news and media (Iran Chamber Society, para. 15-16; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Khomeini went to Paris, which inevitably was to become his last residence outside Iran before he made his jubilant return to his motherland, Iran. During his stay in France, he vehemently defended himself against skeptics and criticisms regarding the accusations of being power hungry by making various public statements.
He argued that it was the sole responsibility and the desertion of the people of Iran to elect, select, or choose individuals that they thought were trustworthy and capable to lead them. He categorically stated that he was not personally interested in any special role or responsibility. He asserted that he was comfortable with his status as the Ayatollah (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 11).
Khomeini returned to Iran in 1979. This was just a few months after he had moved to Paris. The middle class, students, self employed businessmen, and the Iranian military took to the streets protesting against the Shah’s administration. At this point, the Shah was forced to turn to his close allies from the west such as the United States for assistance to control the demonstrations. However, the Shah had to leave the country when the revolution found its way to his doorstep.
Regardless of the statements that he issued in Paris, Ayatollah Khomeini was widely regarded and accepted as the new ruler of Iran. When Khomeini finally returned home, he returned to cheering crowds and immediately embarked on laying the foundations of setting up an Islamic republic that he had envisioned for his country. During this period, he entrusted his fellow clerics with the task of formulating and writing the new constitution for the new republic. He also began making authoritarian statements and remarks than before.
This includes when he called for the people of Iran not to listen to those who advocate for democracy. He insisted that the proponents of democracy were against Islam, and their intentions were to derail the nation from its ultimate mission. Khomeini swore not to entertain those advocating for aspects related to the west. Specifically, he singled out those advocating for democracy and nationalism (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 12).
After the Shah left Iran, he needed a country where he could spend his exile. It was later discovered that the Shah suffered from cancer. With this in mind, the United States under the administration of President Carter reluctantly allowed the Shah to serve out his exile in America.
Back in Iran, a group of Iranian was outraged by the American decision to accommodate the Shah. They stormed the American embassy in Tehran and took about 60 American hostages on the 4th day of November 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini saw this as an opportunity to demonstrate the new Islamic republic of Iran in defiance of the western powers.
As a result, the new Iranian government and the American government were engaged in a standoff that ended after the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan in January 1981. This was due to the pressure of economic sanctions and oil embargos that the American administration imposed on Tehran. This is what came to be known as the Iranian Hostage Crisis (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 13).
Shapour Bakhtiar was appointed Prime Minister by Shah before he left Iran. Imam Khomeini came back to Iran on 5th of February, 1979. He was appointed a Prime Minister disregarding the one appointed by Shah on his departure from Iran. He then ordered the citizens to defy the curfew imposed, and on February 15th, the regime collapsed. A referendum was conducted in which the Islamic Republic of Iran was created, and Ayatollah Khomeini became the supreme leader (Iran Chamber Society, para. 18).
During his 10 year rule, Khomeini established a theocratic administration over Iran. He failed to fulfill his pre-revolutionary promises made to the people. Instead, he went on to marginalize and suppress the opposition groups. He amalgamated authority and protected the cleric governance. Most of the books were edited to reflect Islamic values or destroyed. Many who were against these changes were either sentence to life imprisonment or death (Iran Chamber Society, para. 21).
Once in authority, Ayatollah Khomeini was far less sympathetic to the plight of the secular left than the Shah was to Khomeini’s call for reforms. Anybody who protested against his administration was killed.
Khomeini made sure that his doctrines and beliefs were inculcated into the education curriculum in all schools and education centers. He also made sure that all the top positions in his administration were occupied by clerics who were sympathetic and loyal to his doctrines and beliefs. They ranged from the small town officials to the top officials in the government.
Furthermore, Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the new values and doctrines established in the new Islamic Republic of Iran were meant to be exported all over the Muslim Middle East. As a result of achieving this end, Ayatollah Khomeini declared war on Iraq and the two nations went to war for about eight years before a truce was called. The number of those who died in the war cannot be accounted for, but is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands.
The war only came to an end after the American military forces intervened on behalf of Iraq, a key ally at the time. The American forces forced Iran and Khomeini into a ceasefire agreement. In his response, Ayatollah Khomeini termed the compromise made in reaching a ceasefire to be more deadly and venomous than swallowing poison (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
Ayatollah Khomeini was also well known for the publication of various Fatwa. This is a legal publication published by a Muslim cleric. Khomeini released a Fatwa that called for the death of a controversial Indian-British author by the name Salman Rushdie for his remarks made in the book “The Satanic Verses” published in 1989.
This is a fictional book that was interpreted as depicting the Holy Prophet Mohammed as being a false prophet. The book also went on to cast significant doubts about numerous Islamic doctrines and beliefs. After the Rushdie Fatwa was published and declared, the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini succumbed to his illness and died on the 3rd day of June, 1989 (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
His foreign policy was centered on reverting the notion where the Shah had established a strong relation with the west. Khomeini also advocated for the adoption of stance of unwavering hostility towards the super powers of the west. Under the rule of Khomeini, the Iranian economy foundered a lot. His quest for victory against Iraq in the Iranian-Iraqi war subsequently proved futile. However, Ayatollah Khomeini continued to endear himself among the people of Iran’s Shi’a community.
Thus, he ruled over Iran till his demise. Khomeini’s grave is situated in Tehran’s Behesht-e Zahra cemetery. This has become a shrine for his loyalist supporters and sympathizers who pay a visit to the tomb. In terms of ideology, he can best be remembered for establishing the ideology of velayat-e faqih (meaning ‘guardianship of the jurist’). This was published in a variety of lectures and sermons that he delivered and taught during the period when he was exiled.
These lectures and sermons were later published and smuggled into Iran by Khomeini’s loyalists who visited him in exile. They were later reprinted and circulated among his followers in Iran. In these publications, Khomeini emphasized on the establishment of a theocratic administration led by Islamic jurists instead of the corrupt secularist led regimes. Iran came up with a constitution in the year 1969. This constitution has articles that supports the authority of the jury (“Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6-7).
Conclusion Khomeini’s conservative ideology strongly opposed any pro-western affiliations. His rule was marked in history by the Iraq-Iran war and the Iran hostage crisis. Iran is still a religious-based society. The work and rule of Khomeini will unquestionably continue to influence the political and religious views in Iran presently and into the future.
Works Cited “Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.” The Biography Channel website. 2013. Web.
Harmon, Daniel E. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. New York: Infobase Pub, 2004. Internet resource. Print.
Iran Chamber Society. History of Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini. Web.
Khater, Akram F. Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Moin, Baqer. Khomeini: Sign of God. London: Tauris, 1989. Print.
Reich, Bernard. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. Print.
“Ruhollah Khomeini“. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2013. Web.
The battle at Gettysburg Essay essay help online
The battle at Gettysburg is considered to be one of the most significant and bloodiest battles of The Civil War. There were great losses on both sides and so, it has become a memorable moment in the history of the United States. It is also significant because president Abraham Lincoln gave a speech that became instilled in time and is thought to be one of the most powerful and influential speeches of the States. It serves as a reminder and basis for all those who fight for freedom and equality.
The Battle of Gettysburg took place on 1st to 3rd of July, 1863 and is regarded as a turning point in The Civil War. The army of General Lee was defeated and the further continuation of Gettysburg Company was halted. During the three days of battle North Virginian army lost more than 20000 men.
The fighting force of General Lee was exhausted and the danger of the federal army giving a counter strike was at hand. Lee had to withdraw his troops into a defense position and wait for the attack of Meade but the attack did not follow. After General Lee realized there will be no attack, he decided to withdraw.
The outcome was important because in case the South would have won the battle, they had a good chance to direct an attack on Washington, which was an easy target at the time. But the loss of the South had resulted in a major fall back. It lost many men and resources and so, was unable to continue with the same determination. The Union had a much better chance to replenish its resources and troops, creating all the conditions to continue the war (Ashby 37).
Abraham Lincoln’s address was a memorable one because it was short but at the same time powerful and heartfelt. The president mentions in his speech that it will not be remembered throughout time and that anything said is really incomparable to the losses and devastation that American people have suffered.
Lincoln mentioned the equality of people and referred to the war as the fight for freedom and the unity of the country in the search for better life (Olson 19). His speech pays tribute to the soldiers that lost their lives in battle and this shows that the president’s primary care was not in who was on which side but in people and his sorrow for the men who have lost their lives to the great cause. Even in the beginning of war, it was clear that he used every chance to avoid it and has only proceeded because there was no other choice.
It is memorable when he says that men who are present will never forget this moment and it is up to the future of these men and generations to follow to remember this moment and base the conditions of better life on the lessons that history teaches (McRaney 4). From the speech it is evident that Abraham Lincoln was a great leader but at the same time he was understanding of people, human emotions and forces that sometimes governed the worst events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil War left a great mark on the United States and American people. It has become a part of history that people can learn from and strive to avoid such horrific events from happening again.
Works Cited Ashby, Ruth. Gettysburg, North Mankato, United States: Black Rabbit Books, 2002. Print.
McRaney, Amanda. The Gettysburg Address, New York, United States: Benchmark Education Company, 2007. Print.
Olson, Steven. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: A Primary Source Investigation, New York, United States: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004. Print.
Reasons why Americans work too much. Research Paper essay help online free
The modern American society is very demanding of people in their workplace. Very often, time spent at work is greater than that at home or at leisure activities. There are several reasons that offer explanations to such a trend. The way of the “American life”, people’s personal goals and work demands, all lead to extra work.
The society and the general population of a country are the moving force in the workplace. The article “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up” offers explanations that are related to the demands of the society and gives ways to avoid being caught up in the workplace.
Even though the wages stay the same, so there is no clear incentive to stay at work longer, individuals still contribute extra hours to their jobs. This can be attributed to the society and the American way of life. The country is a very fast paced environment where industrialization has created many opportunities and avenues for people to work. There is a large number of professions that exist and so, people are able to choose any type of activity they like.
This, in turn, leads to the replacement of leisure time by working hours. This happens not because people are forced to work but because there is true enjoyment in work. A person can take pleasure and pride in their profession and this is very much representative of the society. The education provided is very differential, which gives people a very diverse selection of jobs they can dedicate themselves to.
Not only has work become more interesting but it is now a place of social life and self-representation. People are appreciative of their jobs and thankful to have one. Of course, financial reasons and the natural pull of society to have more resources is another factor. As social life creates conditions that require more money to be spent on life, people feel forced to spend more time at work (Jason par. 2).
The personal goals of a person play another significant role. Psychologically, a person can be greatly focused on their job. It is a place where they can practice and display their skills, gaining respect for themselves and from others. A determination to have a better way of life, to have higher quality of products acquired and services enjoyed will without a doubt lead to more hours spent at work. “The American way of life” is often associated with a dream where people are able to afford pretty much anything.
The society allows for a great number of pleasures and people are very attracted to the different activities they can participate in. This makes an individual become a victim of their own wants and as a result they spend more time making money for vacation and their favorite products, instead of actually taking a vacation or buying that car they have always dreamed of (Love par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The technology has also made it easier to work from a remote location. While on vacation, many people are still very much connected to their workplace through computers or phones. It might seem that working while on vacation is not very demanding but sometimes it interferes with family matters, which causes unnecessary stress for several people.
One of the negative reasons why people must stay overtime and sacrifice their family and leisure time is the fear of losing they job. The present economy and market are very unstable and people have to greatly rely on their jobs. Even if it is low paying or has an increased amount of hours, it is much better than being unemployed or constantly seeking a place to work.
This creates great stress on a person and often there are health side effects (“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard” par. 5). The American nation is one of the most developed and highly industrialized countries but still, sometimes there are moments when jobs become scarce and so, people realize how important it is to have a well paying job.
While the society demands people to hold on tight to their jobs, a loss of work by someone close plays a major role in people being forced to work longer. Not to mention that many people are single parents and all they have to support themselves and their children with is their job. It is evident that people become victims of their circumstances of life and not their success or personal enjoyment of the workplace.
Overall, the majority of people are of the type where the environment gives them no choice but to work hard in order to get by and provide for their family. This is a sad reality of the modern world that has many negative effects not only on person’s physical health but on their psychological well-being also.
As evident, there are several reasons why people work more and while some of them might be beneficial, the majority are negative. The world is a fast paced environment that demands obedience and those unable to contribute, are left without employment.
Works Cited Jason, M. “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up.” alternet.org. AlterNet, July 29, 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Reasons why Americans work too much. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Love, D.A. “Americans work too much.” startribune.com. StarTribune, June 10, 2011. Web.
“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard.” CBNNews.com. CBNNews,October 09, 2010. Web.
Discrimination against Immigrants Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The United States has always been branded as a land of opportunities and this has consequently attracted many immigrants to the country. Immigrants arrive in the U.S without expecting any kind of discrimination but they often end up in disappointment. Immigrants face different types of discrimination in the course of their stay in the U.S that make their assimilation into the American society very difficult.
Discrimination against immigrants has been in existence from the colonial era and is still prevalent in the U.S (Lentin, 2011). The most common types of discrimination that the immigrants in the U.S encounter are language-based discrimination and racial discrimination.
The major immigrant groups that are in most cases exposed to acts of discrimination include Italian Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and the Hispanics (Lentin, 2011). Despite the efforts that have been put in place by the American government towards stopping discrimination, the most recent immigrants still complain of various forms of discrimination. This paper will highlight the different forms of discrimination that confront immigrants in the U.S.
The immigrants in the United States have a problem in finding employment because of their race and language (Lentin, 2011). The majority of companies in the U.S prefer hiring Native Americans compared to immigrants even in a situation where an immigrant is more qualified for a particular job than a native applicant. Statistics indicate that immigrants are the worst paid employees and yet they do the hardest jobs in America (Lentin, 2011).
This trend has been there since 1800s and there are no signs of improvement. Most government policies favor Native Americans and this has been a great challenge for the ethnic minorities living in the U.S. The fear of losing their jobs to immigrants makes the Native Americans angry and full of resentment towards immigrants. The refusal by some immigrants to learn the local language makes the native people think that immigrants do not respect the established norms.
The negative stereotypes associated with certain ethnic groups increase the chances of discrimination in the American society (Lentin, 2011). It is very easy to fuel antagonism if much focus is put on the negative stereotypes that are associated with a particular minority group. Cases of bias-motivated crime are on the increase with immigrants being the main targets of this type of crimes.
The Latinos who live in California have over time been attacked as a result of the anti-immigrant sentiments in the U.S. Native Americans are inclined to the view that most of their economic and social problems have been generated by the influx of immigrants into their country. The recent increase in terror attacks has not made things better for Americans of the Arabic descent (Lentin, 2011). The Arabs in the U.S have become victims of hate crimes just because they have the same national background with the perceived terrorists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Language-based discrimination has become very prevalent in the U.S and the immigrants who refuse the idea of learning the native language face unfair treatment (Lentin, 2011). Immigrant groups encounter discrimination at their places of work where employers come up with polices that favor native English speakers.
Employers have always defended their actions by claiming that the policies are only meant to enhance efficiency and safety but this is not the case. Immigrant groups with high immigration rates are the most targeted because the natives fear that they might overturn their dominance (Lentin, 2011). The need to retain the hegemonic position of Native Americans is what motivates employers as they formulate policies that discriminate against immigrants.
An example of this type of discrimination happened in one healthcare organization where two Hispanic employees were dismissed for speaking Spanish at their place of work. According to the supervisor, the two employees went against the company policy (Lentin, 2011). The employees in this organization are not allowed to speak any other language at their place of work apart from English.
Language prejudices are a sign of hatred and mistrust and many immigrants suffer because of these injustices (Lentin, 2011). Communication problems should be the basis for language discrimination but this is not the case in the U.S. There are some schools in the U.S that do not allow the admission of immigrant students (Lentin, 2011).
There are many cases of open discrimination against immigrants but the authorities in America are not concerned about the suffering that immigrants go through. There have been some efforts towards accommodating the linguistic needs of immigrants but many of them still face language-based discrimination.
In conclusion, discrimination against immigrants is not a new thing in the U.S and is often motivated by the need for Native Americans to maintain their hegemony. Immigrant groups still encounter discrimination because of their linguistic and racial affiliation. Immigrants can not attend certain institutions or work in certain companies because of their identity (Lentin, 2011).
The American government and companies formulate policies that favor native citizens and pay little attention to the concerns of immigrants. The American policies and ideologies should accommodate and tolerate the needs of immigrants as a way of protecting immigrants against discrimination (Lentin, 2011). Legal immigrants should be treated fairly without any kind of discrimination because they play the same role as the native citizens when it comes to nation building.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination against Immigrants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Lentin, A. (2011). Racism and ethnic discrimination. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help
Table of Contents Problem Statement and Purpose
Problem Statement and Purpose From 1892 to 1969, Canada forced many Aboriginal children to join public funded schools under the administration of churches like the Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church. During this period, these children experienced both physical and sexual abuse besides the forced separation from the family and society.
This abuse left scars that have seen transmission across generations. To fill this gap, many writers have come up with indigenous literature that focuses on decolonizing the minds of the Aboriginals. Indigenous literature seeks to construct positive identities for people, families and societies as well as repossess economic, political, cultural and social independence. It is for this reason that most literature by non-native indigenous writers focuses on forgetting the past and obliterating narratives of colonization (Justice 335).
On the other hand, most indigenous writings by natives consist of narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Thus, while both native and non-native indigenous writers aim at reducing the impacts of colonialism, they use different approaches. Indigenous literature by natives tries to build a common truth that can lead to healing though revisiting negative colonial aspects, while non-native indigenous writers seem to hide negative aspects of colonialism from their work.
Background Information Writing in English is a political and therapeutic act that offers the basis for the process of decolonization. Elucidation of indigenous literature in English focuses on the theme of communism.
According to Episkenew, literature is communist as far as it has a positive commitment to the native society (12). To encourage communalist values means to take part in the healing of the pain and sense of isolation felt by native societies, especially in communities that have often been broken and made dysfunctional by the results of over 500 years of colonialism.
That is to say, indigenous literature is communal since it attempts to heal psychological wounds caused among the natives in the process of colonization, and the main goal of communalism is to heal native communities by reconnecting native people to the larger society (Mosionier and Suzack 5).
The practice of writing in English is revolutionary in nature, as it seeks to recover indigenous societies through restructuring the language of the enemy (Episkenew 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Restructuring language in the colonizer’s dialect and revolving those images around to show pictures of the colonized to the colonizers, through a process of decolonization, denotes that something that will politicize and transform literary expression is happening and at the same time evolving. Reformulation occurs as a way of undoing some of the challenges that came with colonization.
The irony in the whole process is although the language and literary customs, which the colonial systems of education forced on indigenous people, caused vast damage to both communities and people, contemporary indigenous literature in English uses the very language and literary customs in its development (Weaver and Robert 22).
Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with the intention of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. While the English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities, it does offer indigenous writers with several benefits on the distribution of their literary works.
Another irony is that we have come to get more commonalities than there were, since the colonizers started to group the many, different people indigenous to Canada using generic expressions “Aboriginal”, “Native” and “Indigenous” (Episkenew 13). Thus, we share a history of related experiences from colonial policies, and our societies experienced similar wounds.
A majority of these communities, including those who know their indigenous language prefer to speak in English apart from some natives living in Quebec, speak. Therefore, through writing in English, modern indigenous writers can reach a big and diverse audience that not just includes ethnic relations (Womack 17). For instance, they can reach Indian readers from similar or different ethnic cultures who are not conversant with the customary elements central to the work but who may recognize the strong power of language.
Modern indigenous writers can also reach non-Indian readers who look at the novel with a very different set of values and assumptions. Since indigenous writers are aware of their varied audience, they use different characters and themes to suit different implied readers in the text of their literature, so that every group of implied reader will comprehend the narrative quite differently, depending on their communal perspectives.
Gold, in his work of “Reading Fiction as a way of Enhancing Emotional and Mental Health,” explains that it is possible to differentiate people from other conscious animals in how they build and understand their lives through making narratives (Episkenew 14). Gold examines how we structure and restructure our autobiographies daily in our dreams and concludes that human beings are stories in themselves. He sees this as true for all communities, irrespective of race or culture, both individually and collectively.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, he concludes that people in every society build and express their shared realities through narratives. Tafoya, a native psychologist shows that from an indigenous viewpoint, narratives are a type of therapy and like drugs can cure or kill depending on the prescribed amount or type (Episkenew 14). He explains that the natives have heard poisonous accounts in the colonial disclosure.
Thus, he supports that people must write or make a new narrative or script of their lives to heal. Anishaubae novelist Johnstone also supports that words are a remedy that can cure or hurt and have an aspect of the Manitou that allows them to build ideas and images from nothing (Episkenew 14).
Several native writers reverberates Tafoya’s and Johnstone’s opinions referring to their conventional indigenous knowledge about the healing characteristics of language and narrative. Harjo, a poet, explains that free expression without considering the cost leads to empowerment and not victimization through destruction (Episkenew 14).
Ethnic customs in a society realize the power of language to cure, to restore and to generate. Armand Ruffo, an Anishiaubae intellectual reiterates the words of Art Solomon, that “the need for expression and the need for healing and are inseparable. Ruffo further says that Art Solomon encouraged native writers to write for the promotion of their community, particularly the children and youths” (Episkenew 14).
Loyie, a Cree playwright of Oskiniko, explains that indigenous writing encompasses more than just the traditional narratives. From Loyie’s standpoint, writing is healing, or else a good way for people to manage the fury that exists among them. Masak, an Inuvialuit writer, portrays the way writing enabled her to manage the repressed sentiments allied with her residential school encounters (Episkenew 14).
Campbell writes a letter to Culleton expressing her feelings about his work on In Search of April Raintree (Episkenew 14). This piece of work involves its readers in April’s fights with internalized racism and colonialism as she alternately escapes and faces the social situations that portray her identity as Métis.
Cheryl, her sister develops the passage, providing significant characters of an anti-racist and anti-colonial viewpoint to the story (Mosionier and Suzack 5). As Cheryl falls apart, terminating her life and losing her earlier might and agency, April gets a new admiration of the views that Cheryl symbolizes. In a memo to Culleton, Campbell explains that the story is a powerful account because with calmness, it handles the illness in people and communities.
She describes the writing as one that will start the healing of the community, and let a dominant society appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. Thus, indigenous writing is not just like any other writing. Campbell recognizes literature potential to both heal native groups from post-colonial traumatic experiences and to cure the colonists from the mirage learned from their traditions. From this perspective, indigenous literature has power to build a common truth on our common past.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As Mosionier and Suzack state, “a non-native friend is one who acknowledges the confines of her or his comprehension, but does not hide himself under those limits” (65). A true non-native ally knows that he has to get knowledge on the cultures and societies whose artistic conceptions he evaluates before entering the decisive fray and giving public interpretations.
A true non-native ally assesses the work of indigenous scholars, authors and community members as a genuine effort to produce the most valuable criticism, but not as a political action. Nevertheless, he does not acknowledge their work without critic, as he knows that critical debate and good skepticism are symbols of commitment and respect.
Further, a non-native ally understands that profound and eventually valid perceptions of societies, cultures, and histories cannot emerge from book studies exclusively. Besides, he must understand that the continuing vigor of native communities should serve to increase and correct the alienated forms of library material. Lastly, the non-Native ally should act with a sense of responsibility to native societies in general and most specifically to those whose artistic work is under study.
Mosionier and Suzack show that indigenous literature develops from indigenous communities and as a result influences native societies (72). In exploring, conceptualizing and explaining indigenous stories, literary criticism tries to intervene in this common process. Criticism of indigenous literature usually tries to take part in the shared lives of stories. Stories affect the world outside.
Although not directly, or obviously, stories and significant discourses about stories do affect how people live. In the area of Native studies, some stories quite forthrightly, influence some lives far more intensely than others do. Given that intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, the feeling of that person’s work cannot have a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native (Warrior 75).
This critical consciousness, while necessary for morally suitable critical and political relations with indigenous literatures, has created great anxiety among non-indigenous scholars working in the area for the past several years, resulting in a line of critical reactions (Mosionier and Suzack 64). At the same time, main strategies assumed by non-indigenous critics to evade doing harm to native texts have had unintentional inverse (and adverse) impacts of concealing native voices and damaging the critical field.
The perspective of indigenous literature by natives and non-natives on decolonization faces lots of criticism. Some critics support the standpoint of indigenous literature on decolonization, while others oppose it. Apparently, most indigenous literature focuses on negative aspects of colonialism such as racism, oppression as well as loss of land and identity.
Proponents of how indigenous literature approaches decolonization explain that overemphasis on racism and identity is crucial as it facilitates cultural awareness and the impacts of colonization among both native and non-native people ( Mosionier and Suzack 7).
As McKegney explains, “…given colonial intervention, not all Native people have inherited full understandings of their tribal cultures and histories, let alone those of other Native nations” (57). Thus, indigenous literature facilitates healing through acceptance that follows knowledge dissemination.
On the other hand, opponents of indigenous literature on decolonization explain that most writers rely on secondary resources, or incorrect primary resources. As Mosionier and Suzack expresses, neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences due to inadequate cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population (5).
However, the fact is that unlike non-native literature that ignores the concepts of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, indigenous literature highly emphasizes on these issues. As Culleton states, “without a critical approach, the potential exists to perpetuate or exacerbate systems of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, particularly in that Aboriginal literatures often look at such oppression” (16).
From this perspective, contemporary indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization. These writers use English as a language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism in with the aim of healing themselves and their audiences from the colonial sufferings.
Unlike their non-native counter parts who refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists, indigenous writers do not shy away from expressing themselves in English, which is a language of the colonists. This demonstrates their objectivity and honesty in their work, unlike non-native writers.
Thus, indigenous writers seek to write literature that will start the healing of the community, and let the colonialists appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. They also seek to build a common truth on their common past. These goals lack among non-native writers.
Possible Solutions Native writers should write indigenous literature in the native language. Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism. However, we know that English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities.
To find the real reasons why native writers of indigenous literature emphasize on themes like racism and violence, studies about how colonialists treated natives are essential Issues such as land alienation, physical as well as psychological abuse should get a closer look.
To solve the problem of stereotyping in indigenous literature, we should avoid using native-oriented works and focus on cultural study of the aboriginal population. This approach should emphasize on the role of history, culture and social processes in explaining how colonization occurred in a broader context of indigenous history. This can occur through constant interaction between native and non-native populations.
Lastly, Canadian authorities should try to prove genuineness of their information sources before implementing policies on the native people. Canadian authorities rely predominantly on myths and stereotypes while forming their policies related to the Aboriginal culture (Episkenew 70).
In conclusion, indigenous literature from natives and non-natives approach the issue of decolonization from different perspectives. Most writings of native writers include narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Native indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization.
These writers recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with aim of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. On the other hand, their non-native counterparts refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists. Non-native writers do not show racism, violence, and inequality as the main underpinnings for depicting the relationships between native and non-native population during colonial times.
This inadequacy of non-natives is due to lack of cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population. Neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences. Indigenous literature seeks to heal and let a dominant society appreciate and experience the lives of a group it almost ruined.
Criticisms of indigenous literature usually try to take part in the shared lives of stories. As far as intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, it is impossible to feel the effects of that person’s work individually with a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native. Thus, indigenous literature from native writers is more precise than from non-native writers.
Works Cited Culleton, Beatrice. “Through White Man’s Eyes.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 24.1 (2012): 15-30. Web.
Episkenew, Jo-Ann. Taking Back Our Spirits: Indigenous Literature, Public Policy, and Healing, Ontario, Canada: University of Manitoba Press. Print.
Justice, Daniel Heath. “Current of Trans/national Criticism in Indigenous Literary Studies.” American Indian Quarterly 35.3 (2011): 334-352. Web.
McKegney, Sam. “Strategies for Ethical Engagement: An Open Letter Concerning Non-Native Scholars of Native Literatures.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 20.4 (2008): 56-67. Web.
Mosionier, Beatrice and Cheryl Suzack. In Search of Appil Raintree, New York: Portage
Mixed Race Marriage Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Treating people with dignity regardless of their skin color is a pre-requisite that of national integration. The United State of America has been struggling with racism for many years now. There have been attempts to fight it by encouraging interracial marriages as a way of improving national integration. The report from Pew Research Centre indicates that people are increasingly embracing mixed race marriages.
More than 22% acceptance of mixed race marriages means that there is a slight improvement in how people view their counterparts from other races. This may be as a result of work of scholars who, from time to time, tried to state the importance of accepting one another regardless of skin color.
The statistics also proves that the 1976 ruling changed the views of different people on interracial marriages. During the four year period of 1967-1970, people began to understand the importance of interracial marriage but due to fear, others still held on to their beliefs. Less than one 1% agreed with the fact that human beings were programmed to follow what others were doing (this is always a life preserving habit).
The number of interracial marriages moved from an insignificant percentage to 5% by the year 2000 even with that nature of human beings. The attitude to blacks also improved at that time due to establishment of international community. However, out of the 77% who said Yes to the relationships between blacks and whites, few were not ready to enter into such relationships because of fear. They needed to resign to the status quo.
The Y generation born after 1976 has a different perspective because they are aware of people like Luther King who spoke as they bubbled with rage at the palpable injustices and inequalities that the Black Americans experienced. As a result, 91% accepted interracial dating. They interacted, fell in love and would easily accept interracial marriage except for a few who still lived in fear and were not ready to compromise their relationships.
From the recent research done in 2005, more people were expected to have a positive attitude because they were approaching global integration where racism was perceived as outdated. From the report, it was clear that 97% of Africans supported interracial marriages. The youth were also interacting with other races in institutions and were getting to know the facts behind racial intermarriages. It was this behavioral change that led to the 34% of positive responses among the youth.
The regional pattern among the westerners had a slight influence on intermarriages. It was obvious that human beings took time to embrace change given the challenges within their communities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Acceptance could be one of the reasons why only 33% identified with friends and relatives in interracial marriages. The same happened in the Northeast and Midwest with a record of 19%. Further evidence of the life-preserving habit of human beings was shown in the census data done in 2000. Everyone did a common thing as in the case of white husbands marrying Asian wives.
Conclusion While other strategies have failed to improve integration, interracial marriages can be the fourth wheel towards this effort. Creating a peaceful coexistence is important for the country. Therefore, mixed race marriage is important and should be embraced by everybody. It is only a matter of time (with enough education and awareness) that this global village can generate more relationships from all corners. We started from somewhere. If the trends from these research reports continue then the future generations will win this battle.
Government Concentration of State Power Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources
Key concepts Conservatism
Introduction Leaders in the political, social and economic domains in many states of the world usually control different forms of power by virtue of the nature of their jurisdictions. Power can be separated or concentrated depending on the system of administration in question. In the United States of America, separation of power is evidenced by the existence of political parties.
The Republicans and Democrats have a long history of contention involving several issues of governance in the United States. The party with the majority of votes is usually the winner of a particular dispute in parliament or in an election. Power can be defined as the strong will and authority to command, lead or administer a particular norm.
The President of the USA has the power to reinforce changes in the Air Force, the FBI or even the CIA. Power has been widely used in the field of academics to refer to the government, the elite class, the Supreme Court and the state among others. In all the mentioned areas, power is the central theme that defines the different institutions.
The government is considered to have the highest rank in power. Concentration of power on one state separates and isolates it from others. The Supreme Court is considered as a powerful institution in the judicial system. Separation of power is a wide subject which is operational in some sectors within the US and non-operational in a few cases.
The concept becomes operational when it applies to the partition of a nation in a democratic or socialist basis. The idea can also be considered non-operational when it comes to conservatism and liberalism. In non-operative cases, one can argue that power is concentrated rather than partitioned. Three theories have been advanced to explain separation of power and these comprise the theories of marjoritarism, the elitism and pluralism.
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources The United States is a sovereign nation comprising of many states. During the Civil War (1861-1865) that defined the federal government and eleven southern states, power was inequitably divided. The states from the South involved were South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Albania, Louisiana, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and Texas. Each of the mentioned states demanded power and secession from the federal government.
The move by the states meant liberation for them and utmost freedom from the central government. However, though 10,000 Jewish soldiers were involved in the secessionist exercise by the states; Great Britain was non-partisan and therefore remained neutral. The existence of the Republicans, Democrats and political parties exemplified the whole phenomenon of separation of power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theory of marjoritarism played a crucial role in the division of power. In 2010, the Democrats were able to dominate the Republicans by getting 255 to 180 majorities during the election. However, after the election, power shifted to the Republicans who enjoyed a 243 to 192 majority. It was surprising that even though the Republicans had the majority votes, the Democrats still captured the presidency and the senate as well.
Some observers even questioned the power of the Congress in determining key decisions. The fear of a ‘big government’ brought about insecurity within the political movement especially when the Republicans lost their popularity after speculation that they were reducing budgetary allocations on social programs. The 2012 elections described the electorate of the US as a close, bitter and divided one. The government was mandated to consolidate power to preserve itself.
Democracy Democracy can be divided into that of the few and of groups. Democracy offers any nation the freedom of choice. The elitist theory is a key proponent of democracy of the few. The theory of pluralism justifies democracy of groups whereby systematic clusters of people fight for power.
In this scenario, the impoverished are left out and only the privileged are represented. Even though many Americans consider themselves conservative Democrats, evidence shows that none of them has been actively involved in humanitarian and democratic issues in the capital of Washington D.C by 2008.
The issue of political affiliations only leads to cases of indiscipline between the Democrats and Republicans. Democracy means peace, solidarity and genuine contention of power. The dominance of the Republicans in the Northern State of Marine, Connecticut, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island purely describes how the partitioning of power is a contentious subject.
Socialism Socialism unlike democracy plays a minor role in the politics of America. It has an ideological influence on social and economic equity. Division based on social status is not enormous in the US like in the 3rd world countries but the elite theory still applies to ideas of socialism.
Key concepts Conservatism Conservatism was driven by liberalism for religion, patriotism or support for traditional ideology. Conservatisms in the US were able to speak out against certain kinds of marriages between individuals of one gender. Though the government advocated for the practice, the church heavily opposed it. Separation of power became evident when there are opposing views or stand points between the state and the church (Rangel, 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Government Concentration of State Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liberalism Alongside conservatism, liberalism advocated for a position in governance and the welfare of individuals in the society was given priority. Prejudice based on religion of cultural standings was contested. Modern liberalism developed a strong foundation in the society and civilians embraced it (Art and Jervis, 13).
The separation of Britain from the US especially during the Civil War aroused interest and opinions with many experts predicting economic and social rivalry between the two most powerful nations of the world. The rivalry between the two sates led to a sudden change in their economic and foreign policies in the face of global recession and competition from the eastern bloc especially China Edwards, 38).
During the 2007-2008 global recessions, many experts made analyses that the war in Iraq depressed the US economy though it was believed that the US was demonstrating its military strength against terrorism enhanced by the need to make oil exploits in the oil rich country of Iraq. The division between the Republicans and the Democrats created differences between the two ideological factions. On one side, the world was fighting the financial recession but, on the other, Bush was fighting the Democrats.
It was not until the Democrats became fully opposed to the excessive spending by the Republicans under the regime of Bush that Barack Obama, a democrat, was elected to as the president to spearhead a neutral approach to issues afflicting the US especially on foreign policy (Bardes, 17). Political experts proposed that power was an important tool for democracy, conservatism, liberalism and socialism. However, the beneficial element of power can be destructive if not used or shared properly.
Works Cited Art, Robert, and R. Jervis. International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues tenth edition. Boston, USA: Longman. 2011. Print.
Bardes, Shelley. American Government and Politics today; Separation of Power, 17th Edition. Connecticut, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2013. Print.
Edwards, Sebastian. Left Behind: Latin America and the False Promise of Populism. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. 2010. Print.
Rangel, Carlos. The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning. 1977. Print.
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The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans Research Paper best college essay help
For the concerns of this paper, there is a need to understand what is meant by human behavior and behavioral problems. The term human behavior is widely explained across various disciplines of study.
Some of the academic disciplines that have been associated with the concern of human behavior include, but are not limited to, sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, social work, and psychology. Generally, the term human behavior refers to the wide range of habits or behaviors that are exhibited by humans. In other words, this refers to potential and expressed capacity for social, mental, and physical nature of being, as realized in the course of various phases of life.
Obviously, this domain is characterized by the way humans would act in accordance with the effect of different aspects that tend to influence various trends of life. As it would be observed, human behaviors are impacted by some particular traits as possessed by each individual, and are observed throughout the entire lifetime. Some of these aspects or trends include things such as attitude, faith, social norms or values, and genetics.
A behavioral problem, on the other hand, refers to unexpected outcome on an individual’s behavior, especially one that is negative, which may result from bad influence of the involved factors. Environmental and social factors are thought to be great contributors of various behavioral problems in humans. For the purpose of this topic, this paper applies the science of human behavior in providing a deeper understanding on the link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
As it would be observed, many studies have been conducted across the world to determine whether there is any link between video games and behavioral issues. However, there have been conflicting outcomes as well as perceptions from the work of various researchers who have played a role in this particular study.
While some of these studies have pointed out a significant connection between the two elements, others have been skeptical about it, and have remained stubborn in their contrasting perception that there is no link between video games and human behavior. However, there is strong empirical and theoretical evidence from previous studies justifying the fact that there is a very strong link between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
For the purpose of this paper, aggression and violence, both of which fit well within the identified context of social engagement will be applied among other behavioral issues. Video games, like any other form of interactive entertainment, are important for personal development among other benefits of leisure and entertainment. There are many avenues and platforms through which people could access and play video games, thanks to modern advancements in technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This form of recreational activity has become popular nowadays, especially with the teenagers and young adults, who are said to spend way too much of their free time in gaming activities on computers, mobile devices, and a variety of other hand-held technological devices (Anderson 119). Irrespective of the recreational benefits normally associated with such sedentary activities, their consequences on human behavior cannot be overestimated.
As it would be observed, video and computer games may stimulate human minds to some extent, thus helping them to relax from the stress of work and study. This is arguably one of the several benefits associated with video games as far as recreation is concerned.
There have been a lot of concerns, however, that these games would tend to have a significant impact on peoples’ behavior, thus contributing to increased behavioral problems among the participants. According to Strasburger, Jordan, and Donnerstein, there is a very strong link between televised violence and potential human behavior, since there must come a time when the experience would be sufficient to justify action in the near future (761).
Similarly, people who have had regular exposure to video games, especially violent ones, are likely to exhibit the behavioral elements portrayed in the games. One understandable aspect of video gaming is that it is active, unlike things such as watching television or movies, which are passive. Even though this is a special feature which is likely to attract many participants into these types of games, it is also a very dangerous avenue that can attract behavioral problems since it revolves around first-hand experience of violence.
Just to add weight onto this perception, humans have the inherent tendency of learning better when they are directly engaged into lessons in an active manner, rather than when they are passively involved. Based on this argument, there is a high likelihood that video games would tend to have a direct impact on our feelings, thoughts, and behavior. In this regard, violent video games play a key role in increasing the chances of adopting and harboring aggressive or violent behaviors on individuals.
Various studies on this subject have shown heavy players of violent computer and video games to possess aggressive attitude towards their siblings, peers, and teachers. More importantly, teenage pupils who have regularly taken part in violent video games have reportedly been involved in constant troubles with other people around them (Birch and Davison 893). Past studies have indicated a number of highly publicized actions from allover the world, where incidents of violence have been linked to peoples’ involvement in video game activities.
There is also suggestive evidence that those people who are known to possess traits of aggression or anger have responded differently after being exposed to violent video games. Apart from exhibiting increased aggression or anger, such players have proved to be less angry after getting exposed to violent video games. Even though there is limited evidence to support this claim, there is a possibility of a close association of speculated behavior and the applied form of sedentary leisure activity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As some proponents of video and computer games would argue, people don’t always bring into reality whatever kind of behavior they observe from various gaming activities. For example, those people who are used to playing video shooting games on computers would not allow this to transcend their normal behaviors or attitudes, and end up becoming murderers in real life.
This, according to Anderson and Bushman, is a fallacious reasoning which is meant to mislead people on the countless studies that have shown the existence of a direct connection between video games and human behavioral problems (459).
Violent video game activities may be cathartic to anger, as some people tend to believe. This, however, is not a perfect reason to convince humans, especially the younger generations who have been caught in the midst of this crisis, against the many dangers that are associated with video games. In just another perspective, the effect of video games on peoples’ behavior depends on the levels of exposure to the games.
This has the meaning that, those people who are directly involved in the activities will have higher chances of adopting the behavioral elements portrayed in them, compared with those who have been indirectly involved. This notion was proved by Funk and Buchman, in a study that was aimed to test the effectiveness of violent video games on human behavior based on levels of exposure.
In this particular study, teenage participants were randomly chosen and made to take part in a violent video game. In the meantime, a different lot was exposed to nonviolent video games, for comparison purposes. The lot which had participated fully in the violent activities would later on appear to be more aggressive, compared to those who had merely watched the activity or the ones who were exposed to non-violent video games (Funk and Buchman 94).
As it is observed from this research report, there is arguably a strong link between video games and the many behavioral problems observed in humans. Within the realm of modern psychological study and understanding, exposure to video game activities is likely to generate both positive and negative impacts on behavior depending on the context of the games. In this regard, people should try to disregard the less supported claim that exposure to video games does not affect our behavior and attitude towards other people around us.
As a matter of fact, there is no doubt in the conclusions reached upon in this report that video games, especially ones that have violent themes, do correlate with prolonged increase in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in prosocial behavior. This is a clear indicator of the strong connection or link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
Works Cited Anderson, Craig. “An update on the effects of playing violent video games.” Journal of Adolescence 27. 1 (2004): 113-122. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Anderson, Craig and Bushman Brad. “Media violence and the American Public revisited.” American Psychologist 57. 5 (2002): 448-450. Print.
Birch, Leann Lipps and Davison Kirsten. “Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.” Pediatric Clinics of North America 48. 4 (2001): 893. Print.
Funk, Jeanne and Buchman Debra. “Video Game Controversies.” Pediatric Annals 24. 2 (1995): 91-94. Print.
Strasburger, Victor, Jordan Amy and Donnerstein Ed. “Health effects of media on children and adolescents.” Pediatrics 125. 4 (2010): 756-767. Print.
Core Stability Training Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Article Summary The article, “Core Stability Training”, describes the role of particular training approaches in the enhancement of health and strength of athletes. Willardson discusses the applicability of diverse methods of training in the improvement of the strength and resistance of different body muscles. The impact of core stability training varies depending on the group of muscles that an athlete trains. Willardson compares the level of core stability attained among athletes exercising on different surfaces.
Analyses of core muscle activity shows that athletes exercising on a Swiss ball attain greater core stability in comparison to athletes who train on a stable surface. The Swiss ball initiates greater activation of muscles located in the lower abdominal region. Analyses of muscular activation during curl-ups highlights a significant discrepancy in the levels of abdominal activity for curl-ups performed on a stable bench and those performed on a Swiss ball (Willardson 981).
The article emphasizes on the need to maintain balance between the lower and upper regions of the body during core training to mitigate instances of diverse resistance performance among athletes. Willardson describes the role of core stability training in the improvement of athletes’ performance as skill-specific and thus the Swiss ball test for the general core stability could provide varying results during the evaluation of athletes’ performance based on their skills.
The Analysis of Swiss ball exercises for sports that do not involve a base of support provided different results in comparison to exercises on dry land. Apart from enhancing athletes’ performance, core stability training is crucial in the prevention and rehabilitations of injuries among athletes. Willardson concludes the article by providing recommendations on the modification of core training among athletes with different skills. In addition, he emphasizes the need for further research on the impacts of core stability on healthy athletes.
Article Analysis Willardson has extensively analyzed various muscles and joints affected by core stability training. He has clearly described the interconnection between different muscles and joints, and the impacts of training on different surfaces on athlete’s performance. By providing evidence concerning the level of core stability attained through different methods of training, Willardson has successfully highlighted the importance of the combination of core training and resistance training for athletes.
Analysis of data from different experiments on muscular activity during core training provides evidence regarding activation and strengthening of muscles and joints through appropriate training approaches (Willardson 982). However, the fact that most of the data used in analyzing the impacts of core stability training emanates from studies on injured athletes raises doubts on the applicability of the results in the case of healthy athletes.
Evidence shows that muscular activity varies between injured and healthy athletes sine healthy athletes may overlook core training and thus fail to attain optimal muscle activation during training. In this regard, the Swiss ball test results used in evaluating athletes’ performance may provide an inappropriate description of the level of core stability attained by healthy athletes. Jeffry bases his assertions on experiments with unspecified sample size.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the sample size used to test the level of core stability in different conditions was small, the results on Swiss ball training and flat surface training are likely to constitute numerous errors and thus discredit the assertions on the effectiveness of core stability training. Jeffry has effectively demonstrated the role of core training in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries by describing various experiments on athletes involved in extensive movement and resistance training.
Core stability training strengthens muscles around the abdomen, pelvis, spine and shoulders and helps in the maintenance of a good posture (Elphinston 11). In this regard, core stability plays a significant role among athletes concerning the enhancement of performance and prevention of injury. Appropriate core stability facilitates maximum utilization of the power originating from an athlete’s trunk and promotes effective coordination of movement in the limbs.
The lack of appropriate levels of core stability hinders sustenance of good posture during athletes’ performance and increases risks of injury due to poor protection of the spine and skeletal structure. Furthermore, core stability ensures proper distribution of forces acting on the body. Physiotherapists acknowledge the role of core stability exercises in enhancing the performance of athletes, building up weak areas and minimizing injuries.
The lack of focus on the benefits of core stability for healthy athletes is largely due the nature of core training that may seem boring to individuals without any muscle and joint injuries. However, evidence show that the benefits of core training supersede the benefits athletes derive from other sporting movements in their day-to-day activities. Different approaches to core training ensure that athletes do not get bored by core routines and overlook their benefits.
Conclusion By rotating the muscle groups that an athlete exercises, trainers can ensure core training becomes challenging even to healthy athletes and thus ensure they enjoy the long-term benefits of core stability training. Core muscles within the torso have significant impacts on the stability of the spine, pelvis and shoulders, which form the base of support for human beings. Powerful movements and stability have close correlation concerning functional fitness.
Works Cited Elphinston, Joanne. Stability, sport, and performance movement: great technique without injury. Chichester, England: Lotus Pub. 2008. Print.
Willardson, Jeffrey M. “Core stability training: applications to sports conditioning programs.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21.3 (2007): 979– 985. Print.
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Sociology Reflection Paper Essay online essay help
The sociology of religion is the study of how different sets of people in religious groups interact and how their behavior is influenced by these interactions. People’s religious practices, norms and behavior are influenced by interactions they have with each other in their religious groups.
Religion is a collective set of beliefs and practices with a spiritual foundation meant to influence people’s perceptions and behaviors. People who share similar religious ideals have collective behavior which identifies them as followers of that specific religious group. They have strong ties to fellow devotees in their religious groups.
These beliefs strengthen people’s adherence to religious doctrines which define the essence of a religion. Followers of a religious group have common ways of interaction which bind them together. They are required to perform specific roles which determine their status and power in their religious groups. They have faith in religious teachings which are strongly emphasized as sacred.
Religions has a set of beliefs and practices which all members need to adhere to. Followers of different religions have to be familiar with sacred texts which spell out beliefs and their relevance. They need to satisfy various expectations by performing religious rituals and other activities which have a lot of spiritual symbolism. Members of a particular religious group are socialized to treasure various moral codes of conduct in their lives.
By fulfilling moral objectives, members satisfy important tenets of their religion. The sacred aspects of religion make people interpret extra ordinary experiences differently. Any extra ordinary event is associated with a revered form of supernatural power or deity.They believe that a supernatural power guides their lives and as such, they need to reciprocate by devoting by their lives to the religious order they believe in.
Religious sociology is important because it helps people understand the value of religion in their lives. This makes one understand the essence of religion and how it shapes human character, identity and personality. People devote their thoughts and emotions to their religion for various reasons. Therefore, this helps one understand how religion binds members of a particular society to enable them have collective practices and beliefs.
People are able to understand the relationship they have with their religion and how this contributes to their existence. They are able to look at various rituals, practices and teachings rationally. This helps them understand how these religious tenets build their faith. The sociology of religion makes one to look critically at religious rituals which bind him or her with other devotees. The devotee is able to understand how these interactions shape their personality and behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This subject helps a person understand the moral implications he needs to satisfy as stipulated by his or her religion. Therefore, this models an individual’s behavior to conform to acceptable societal norms and standards of behavior. Religious affiliation makes people more aware of their identity and the roles they are supposed to play within a given society.
Interactions people have with each other in a particular religious group gives them a sense of belonging and identity. General beliefs which bind people within various religious groups help them focus on life and what they seek to achieve out of it. Sacred texts enable believers interpret the teachings contained therein and apply them in their own lives. Sacred texts reassure people to be more righteous in what they do to reduce their pre-occupation with material objects.
The Rational Choice Theory argues that people are motivated by their own self interests before they choose to perform certain actions. Therefore, natural human behavior inclines people to engage in activities which have material or psychological benefits. The theory argues that people who choose to observe religious doctrines are motivated by their own individual needs. They expect to benefit from their devotion to religion by improvements in their personal welfare.
This theory argues that people are rational beings who only engage in an action after assessing benefits they stand to gain. Individual human actions determine how people in a group interact with each other. Different life experiences shape human behavior and they impact on choices people make. Therefore, people make personal religious decisions based on their past experiences after assessing how these choices will work for them.
This theory asserts that people opt for religious choices which give them personal satisfaction. They evaluate results they intend to achieve and come up with ways to attain them. The theory argues that human behavior is planned and this makes every individual calculate rewards and losses likely to be experienced before engaging in a particular action. People prefer to engage in actions that are naturally rewarding over those that punish them.
Therefore, they are willing to devote themselves to religion to gain protection, consolation and future promises of personal prosperity. Human consciousness drives them into religion to gain recognition, status, social connections and money. This is made possible by interactions they have with other devotees who have similar aspirations. Therefore, by being active in religion, devotees achieve their own personal interests.