The main argument in this article is that white employers use discrimination to make certain claims against black women. This is targeted to provide them with legitimate justifications for their biased and prejudicial actions against women workers.
The author highlights that much studies have been conducted concerning racism and sexism and there are documentation of how individuals perceive political issues that touches on race, granting of public support, present racial actions in the media, and incorporated housing. However, he argues that, little or no studies have taken the opinions of employers into consideration.
He categorically claims that employer’s perceptions of men are actually gendered. He points out to the shortcomings of the existing research, which has not looked into the significant question regarding how employer’s opinions could vary from their perceptions of black women as well as how these gender-based, racial perceptions can lead to exclusive disadvantage of various groups in the labor market.
In this study, the author looked into some of the images used by white employers to hypothesize assertions concerning black females in the labor industry. He argues that most of these images are basically stereo-classical and could be adversely used.
Kennelly demonstrates that the changing aspects of these white employer’s categorizations of females and of blacks varies from their imageries of Black women, showing that this set could stand at an exceptional drawback compared to all other ethnic and sex groups.
He further illustrates how certain white employers apply an intricate but extensively common stereo-type of Black working-class females as solitary mothers to characterize members of this set. In rather conflicting ways, white employers apply these images to justify why they believe black women are unfortunate, reliable workers and why they consider both black men and women are not well prepared to work anywhere.
Their creation of these kinds of claims could be dependent, partially, on what they observe in their corporations, though their opinions are tinted by widespread cultural stereotypes regarding black women. Owing to the fact that these imageries of a group to forecast and analyze the performance of people, employer’s classification of black women as solitary mothers could form the ground of discrimination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In putting emphasis on the claims made by white employers regarding black womanhood, the author does not focus on the well-documented consequences of labor market discernment, like disparity in pay rates and raises, but on how managers create and apply the images that could form the foundation of it.
Since these managers have the authority to employ, pay, and raises, their opinions can be significant for Black women’s chances of existence. Even though the author do not have data and statics to relate the white employer’s opinions about black women and their hiring decisions concerning this group, he argues that evidences indicates that actually these perceptions exist and is convincing in itself.
Analysis in this study lays more emphasis on the previously unexplored details of the solitary-mother perception as applied by certain white employers. To bring this assessment into context, the author first explains shortly the procedure of stereotyping and its connection to statistical discrimination.
He then highlights some of the shared stereotypical perceptions of females, Blacks, and Black women, acknowledged in preceding research. He makes use of the In-depth conversations lately carried out in Atlanta to recognize and assess how some white employers view black women and how these kinds of views appear to be dependent on at least partially on stereotypical imageries.
While concluding, the author suggests that understanding the views of white employers is necessary in determining how to counteract them. The evidences from his study show that no all white employers treat all races and gander groups equally.
In most cases, these white employers view black women as solitary mothers, which is not essentially negative. However, white employer’s perception is based on conventional rhetoric that they can use negatively. He suggests the need for positive action programs to counter the discriminatory attitudes that consider employment, dismissal, raises and wage rate decisions.
Response of the reading Analysis Careful analysis into this study reveals that all employers who induced the single-mother perception were in most cases trying to clarify why such kinds of opinions existed in their work environments instead of simply identifying which personnel were solitary mothers and the ones which were not.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination against black women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They were suggesting this perception of lone motherhood as an instrument they could employ in understanding their work environments. Their clarifications or claims show that single motherhood is a prominent matter that influences their labor force.
Even though the data obtained from these interviews could not conclusively authenticate the correctness of these claims, they could enable an individual to better comprehend the manner in which some white employers create descriptions of what takes place in their places of work. Probably, some of these descriptions were dependent upon white employers’ understandings of one or more black women.
It appears more likely, though, considering the frequency and negativity of the single-mother typecast for Black women embedded in the greater U. S culture, together with suggestions indicating the workers with little direct interaction with Black females were more probable to portray them as solitary mothers, that these clarifications were dependent upon stereotypes.
By applying stereotypes to create assertions about the work force is part of the influence that employers have over their employees, not simply because this custom could form the foundation of biased action but also since it operates to propagate the stereotypes themselves.
Based on the assumption that whites control most places of influence and authority in corporations, some substantial fraction will carry on playing part in describing black womanhood for associates of the greater culture. It could be accurate to say that these data offer evidences that the manners in which white employers perceive Black womanhood are devastatingly negative.
Various individuals have fallen victims of melancholy whereby they are not being treated appropriately by their employers. Domestic reasons and low pay have also made most of the workers to lead a miserable life.
There is evidence which is illustrated by the author as an example. In this illustration, an interview was conducted with a plant manager of 70% Black and 30% white women order processors. The author notes that the manager talked much about ‘single families’, ‘solitary-parent families’, as well as single mothers interchangeably.
The manager also spoke about space and racism in a correlated way. He used the expressions such as ‘inner city’, and Black as substitutions for each other and mentioned single moms only in situations of difficulties of the inner town. Actually, he mentioned single mothers as his greatest problem with his workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Discrimination against black women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This kind of comments about an employer indicates a deeply-rooted perception of Black women. Even though, the author could not find the accurate data on the relationship between employer decision and the race and sex decisions, the evidences he presented clearly validate his argument about this issue.
In conclusion, racism and sexism are very harmful as they destroy viable social relations, lead to destruction of property, and offers unbearable mental tortures among the victims. Racism and sexism are diverse problem and occur in all ages, cultural societies, races and different organizations.
They are problems that are deeply rooted in the belief of dominance and power to control and manipulate the other partner. Currently, different nations and institutions are stopping this problem in the society. In this context, different participants should be able to understand the major causes for each and every couple before determining the best approach in solving this problem.
However, knowledge of dominance and power plays in relationships, if properly used, can help to avert the aspects of racism and sexism in the society.
Some of the means of using this knowledge include; encouraging victims to share their experiences, encourage them to take their responsibilities as well as conducting campaigns against such predicaments. In addition, encouraging good social relations through proper communication is also important. This is a vital provision when considered comprehensively.
The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion Essay essay help
Introduction U2, the Irish Rock Band, has been under the guidance of the songster called Bono since 1980s. During most nationalized prayers particularly the February 2006 Washington, DC state mealtime payers, Bono offered a crucial speech concerning religious issues.
The affair was planned by the evangelical Christian charity and was attended by various world leaders, congress members, George Bush, and over three thousand people across the world. Before this crowd, Bono admitted that there could be something inappropriate or something deviant a propos the rock stars going to the podiums and starting to preach at the world leaders.
According to Bono sermon virtues, instead of preaching to the presidents, the rock stars should give aid to the poor Africans and the sick. With reference to the universal higher bylaws, Bono on behalf of U2 implored global elected officials to go past religion since it usually obstructs God’s ways. In fact, politicians are requested by Bono to hold the grace period that instigated with the Jubilee year, which is the new millennium.
The speeches offered by Bono during most mealtime prayers have made fanatics as well as the popular press associates to label Bono as the Messiah of Roll and Rock. Whereas since 1980s this songster has been infusing opinionated and theological teachings in the U2 lyrics, Bono transformed songs discourses into persistent political actions (Lofton, 2006).
In fact, Bono united with Pope Paul John 2 together with others in the waive debt drive. The songster invoked the Jubilee period as noted in the customs of Leviticus when most arrears were waived devoid of penalties. Songster, as a manager of DATA, spiritual and U2 pop group organizer has habitually been rising to the arena to sermonize to elected official and states heads.
The procedures and promotion schemes used by the songster are akin to those utilized by the present-day American renaissance evangelists that scholars idealized. Similar to Billy and Moody, who are the United States of America evangelical complements, the songster travelled the universe to urge the developed nations to waive the arrears poor nations owe them.
Bono via advocating for the Africans debt waiving fuses the revival strands and the American roll and rock in the politics of religion. The backing of the inclusive politics by the songster serves as an image of what various sociological practitioners dubbed the internationalization of dogmas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, to take part in the modern world politics, Casanova claims that social artists should accept the modernity commands that accrue from the desire. This is particularly factual for the religious conviction according to Casanova.
In fact, Bono asserts that, just the religions that have included as their personal enlightenment religion critique, the central aspects affecting poor nations stand a chance of playing the optimistic responsibilities in advancing the realistic rationalization progression (Lealand, 1994).
Bono and the U2 Irish Band act as religious brokers and the negation techniques used to advocate for the African debt waiving materialize to be religious. The data foundation, which is a poor state construction venture initiated by the songster in support of U2 pop group is both a wholeheartedly spiritual observer as well as an indisputably material undertaking.
Advocating for poor nations basically demonstrates what Asad Talal tentatively argued concerning the secular conception claiming that the practice can hardly happen devoid of the religious notion (Lofton, 2006). Through advocating for the poor African nations, the U2 Irish band songster preaches the secularized soteriology.
This emerges to be the communal fiscal and spiritual prescription for deliverance unrestrained by the religious organizations. Whilst committed to the saintly behaviors as mature and material activism which incorporates the undertakings of creed, the U2 pop group has upheld the West overall diplomatic status with eschatological prospects and gospel sparkles.
This paper illustrates the Irish Rock band U2 as a critique of modern religion. The salvation messages asserted by Bono as Max Weber indebted are incorporated in the paper.
For instance, by linking the personal deliverance soteriology lyrics to the opinionated direction on what poor nations ought to undertake to be salvated, the analysis of Bono and U2 band works in this paper symbolizes the three features of Max Weber soteriology hypothetical accounts. The first section claims that social agents may not receive deliverance or salvation devoid a rational global reflection offered by the prevailing humanity.
We will write a custom Essay on The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Part two utilizes Marxist designs on simplified conceptions or the humankind theodicy to elucidate the Almighty’s folklore. The last section asserts what Max Weber claimed that some theodicy sufferings instigate from the deliverance hope.
The Irish Rock Band U2 and global politicians The songster and U2 pop group move athwart capital avenues to pastoral mountains, athwart ecological milieus, chronological architects, gaps, and era, to the Western nations from Ireland. Bono in this lyrical image depicts the true American image that is tangled up. In fact, U2 and Bono snatched a limelight intended to shine the blue-sky bullet that darkened the stage.
Throughout the lyrics, Bono and U2 band lament about the capitalism evils, but through highlighting and advocating against the capitalists ideas, Bono shades light across the board. Bono blames Americans for ignoring the African AIDS disaster through hoarding wealth (Finney, 2003).
The U2 band praised the Beastie Boys, the UN representatives, and Bill Clinton for the humanitarian responsibilities assumed, though Bono requested them to give out additional aid to the developing nations and fund research studies conducted on AIDS.
Bono manages to blend the political convictions with religious renderings by calling on the Americans religious commitment. The devout backwoods for the songster could be developed nations and U2 pop group perceives America as a terrain of opinionated leeway and pious assurances. When compared to the bands political messages, the divine passion of Bono are somehow unstructured (Trachtenberg, 2008).
Throughout Bono’s speaking engagements, concert performances, and references lyrics, Bono portrays the bands religious thoughts. During public religious politics performances, the Irish Rock Band U2 undertakes the communal theologians’ responsibilities.
Despite his liking of America, Bono and U2 band claim that American has been consuming various poor nations. In fact, America is Bono and the U2 band pulpit, but the songster tells the graduating populace that in the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God, loving thy neighbors’ residing in the universal villages is convenient. Thus, Bono calls upon developed nations to waive the debts given to the third world nations.
The Irish Rock Band U2 in ‘pop’, the most non-judgmental album, claims that not everything can be reached, grubbed, nor forced, and they cannot be religiously grabbed given they can hardly be connected to love. Bono and U2 avows that just the passion for can help in rattling the Iron cage. In the popular lyrical song, ‘Blue-sky-bullet’, the songster is correlated to the Israel’s holy bible fantasy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, the unfolding in first book of the bible emphasizes that Israel clashed with the Almighty’s correspondent in the darkness (Lealand, 1994). Acting as Jacob, the Irish Rock Band U2 under the guidance of Bono emblematically tussled with the U.S. and the Almighty.
Actually, Bono has a clear understanding of the Americans and the Almighty and claims that both ought to be conquered. According to Bono and the U2, the United State of America acts as the prospective envoy for the Almighty kindness, or Deity’s loveliness that should be emulated in the America’s capacity to waive debts.
Resembling the Almighty’s representative in the holy bible, the Western nations possess the supremacy to surname, classify general countries, and bestow commands. Therefore, via DATA, the Irish Rock Band U2 and Bono have frequently been recognizing such commands held by the U.S., and they call upon America to offer support for the people of God.
As a matter of fact, Bono and U2 demands for grace having been jerked by the Americans during the day (Lofton, 2006). Using the Almighty as the reference point, Bono and U2 has been requesting for the new fangled pledge of equality at the financial possibilities frame.
Conquering religious conviction
While the Irish Rock Band U2 toured Vertigo, the songster, Bono, wore a diadem during most stage performances. The headband had numerous symbols portraying the pictures of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Some of the symbols included the Cross-, the David’s Star, and a Crescent written within the ‘Coexist’ phrase.
Also dubbed as the ‘Rock Messiah Bandana’, Bono diadem was sometimes reserved for special occasions. For instance, Bono wore the headband all through the ‘Else, or Peace and Love’ concerts while reserved it for some melodies such as ‘could there be the primary communion moment?
A song sung for Miss Sarajevo, and ‘do we spare instances to go to the synagogue?’ or ‘do people have occasions spared to visit the exquisiteness emperor facing God, Mecca? In concluding, Bono and U2 ask whether there special moments meant for the shared principles and fighting for rights of fellow citizens (Lealand, 1994).
When performing the ‘Blue-Sky Bullet’, Bono slipped the so called the messiah crown to cover his eyeballs and consequently knelt downward while putting his arms on the skull. Most people referred the activities as all of us belong to father Abraham’s descendants.
However, after the sermon, Bono and U2 band explained the diadem importance to the fanatics by naming every sign whilst delivering in rhythm. The symbols denoted Muhammad, Jew, and Jesus all of whom are children of God and Abraham’s sons (Lofton, 2006).
With the occurrence of the September 11 2001 terrorists’ attack of the world trade center, Bono blamed the incidence as a spiritual transcendence. During the Vertigo tour, U2 band under Bono control delivered various religious messages but in all cases, the messages seemed packaged, reproduced and proffered in a restructured approach.
Whilst delivering the messages, the U2 band could alter the lyrical contents yet maintaining the methods utilized. Under chock-full sports ground that stymied the faint illumination, the songster utilized torches to burnish the arena. Furthermore, Bono tore the messiah crown and invited the elected officials who attended the show but remained sited in the luxurious boxes (Trachtenberg, 2008).
While entertaining the guests and fans, the Irish Rock U2 members and Bono ran about the heart fashioned podium. Despite emerging, as the modus operandi of the lyrical concerts, the techniques applied by Bono and the U2 band resembled the contemporary revitalization methods initiated and idealized by the American evangelists of the 19th century.
The Second Great Awakening between the fiscal 1780’s and 1830’s is denoted by the Finney revivals as claimed by Mathews. The creation of a mutual world experience by establishing several analogous local institutions enables the revivals to geologically consolidate discrete groups of persons into a national body. The utmost achievement of the awakening was the American democratization of Christianity.
Through church according to Hatch Nathan, revival brought to individuals self-determination, independence, and democratic standards. Accompanied with gospel music, the flames of religious ecstasy were fanned into popular culture by the ministers during that time (Lofton, 2006). As a result, Nathan correlated the opinionated efforts of the songster to the Western nations’ revivalist spiritual vocation
Bono’s application has comparable net special effects to those of American revivalist as it echoes their revival drudgery. In fact, the principles of Second Great Awakening that was distributed gets support from Bono’s talking engagements, preaching concerts, and working with DATA.
Besides, Bono’s rhetorical tropes, antics in concert, conversation policies, and distribution methods are comparable to other later evangelists (Lealand, 1994). For instance while in United Kingdom Bono said, ‘Provide you’re already converted, you don’t need me preaching at you.
Though I must say I take pleasure in it addressing the conference of Labour Party. The songster possesses his own techniques of conversion just like other philosophers including Finney. Bono’s conversion strategies would leave a fresh revival with a scorching and gentle love for enemies, relations, and friends souls.
Political conversion enabled Bono to convert Helms Jesse who was for a lengthy period served with a staunch conservatism as a Senator in North Carolina. In reality, after personally meeting Bono and moving to tear in the U2 concert, Helm turned into a resilient fighter against African AIDS (Lofton, 2006).
Finney tempted alteration and atonement to the listeners planning to make them surrender their lives to the Deity. Comparable to Finney, Bono established a parallel kind of dispensationalist zeal in working for the radical apprehension of biblical Jubilee.
The religious signs and messages conveyed by Bono in mystical concerts are similar to those of revivalist such as Moody Dwight approaches. In their revivals, Dwight Moody and others included gospel singing. Otherwise, in the course of his nomadic tours, Dwight was often escorted by Sankey Ira who was a song frontrunner. In fact, these nomadic tours initially covered Great Britain and thereafter all over US.
Sankey worked on ‘Moody and Sankey Hymn book’ that was his own songbook in this trip. This was the best ever published worshipping script according to the journalist of New York Times who was present at the concert in the fiscal 1875 (Lofton, 2006).
Actually an individual can sing the verses in this song just after a single audible range. It is possible as its lyrics are affirmative in character, filled with gospel, simple, and the melodies express the purpose they are lined up for.
Even though a number of U2 songs are simple and straight forward, not all of them are entirely positive. Indeed, certain volumes recorded by Harlem gospel choir that is, ‘I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For’ or the ‘Pride’ a version bestowed to King Martin Luther Junior as an anthem were like gospel.
During the performance alongside Bono, the whole spectators could as well sing and only a few individuals could dispute this. The songster materializes to be dirt free claiming that U2 pop group lyrics vocalizes deity besides claiming that honor and adoration songs are secondary but undeviating progenies of inspired religious account (Finney, 2003).
On the contrary, the songster accentuates whilst dialoguing the biblical conception premise as a godly of expected manifestation asserting that U2 pop group lyrics have their unambiguous affirmations about deity. Normally, various shows portrayed the songster like a roll and rock star in one given that Bono recurrently offered binary guiding tasks involving evangelists as well as religious melody favorite.
The sustained efforts to overcome religion mark the utmost remarkable similarities amid American revivalists and Bono. Otherwise, Bono operated on rhetorical and musical ways and means. In the fiscal 2006 mealtime plea, the songster uttered the band’s commotion that faith is repetitively obstructing Almighty.
Learnt examples from developing in the hands of Catholic females along with Protestant dads in Ireland proffer the songster’s analysis on Bono struggle with religious conviction. U2 pop group’s Irish frameworks advanced its stance in regard to structured creed at particular theaters.
Nonetheless, U2 pop group begged off to be part of the Irish scuffle amid Catholic devotees and churches full of Protestants. Thus, Bono’s evangelical mood relates to his strength of character of working separate form religious organizations (Lealand, 1994).
U2 pop group was fundamentally drawn in dynamically in the Almighty’s evangelical huddles bar for Clayton. This involvement was so committal that it emerged to be a band’s issue. At a particular moment, an argument of whether to take on Christian pursuit more explicitly or to remain in rock ‘n’ roll ascended between Edge, Junior, Mullen Larry, and Bono.
Obviously they chose to continue in the rock ‘n’ roll. In fact, such resolutions hardly ended the patent evangelical craze. Within the Messiah roll and rock lyrics, U2 pop group asserts that creed have repetitively thrilled some pious stars.
Moreover, what additionally makes the songster analogous to the western sacred revivalists is the prominence on private affinity to the heavenly figures and this makes the leader the correct pious model for sanctity (Finney, 2003). U2 pop group proffered an oration on personage devotion significance over directorial reparation identical to the revivalists.
U2 pop group equally disapprove quite the reverse of the ecclesiastics that gawk through the orbits in the Protestants’ approaches. The libretto offered by Sunday Billy, ‘conviction in Almighty rescues beings, not devotion in worship places’ echoed the mistrust of U2 on structured creed.
For all intents and purposes Jesus I the only way according to Billy. In contrary, it is the responsibility of everybody to seek individual faith for the soul and that Jesus is his way according to Bono. U2 band asserts that the position for deliverance is dutiful personage and hardly the cathedral institutes hence designing the soteriological remedies to emerge material.
Through the office charisma but not the specific person, Eucharist is made sacred as actual manifestation (Trachtenberg, 2008). For this reason, through the apostolic series ministers possess power due to their rapport with the ecclesiastical. This makes Bono to go for an individual select over the obligation of the organization by objecting the authority of church pastors.
U2 pop group skillfully prepared a say ‘Approved, we might crack bucks and lilac proviso churches exist for us’ in the band’s Achtung child lyrics in the acrobatic folder. Nonetheless, the appraisals of Finney that beings are gratis decent instruments are hearkened via U2 pop group’s rhythmical doggedness on special fortitude, personage autonomy, or the incomparability of character authorization.
Comparable to Jones Sam, Bono’s attitude as regards the Eucharist unusually look similar (Lofton, 2006). Jones supposedly inquired ‘things that ought to be carried out to receive salvation in the resurgence oration. Jones could inform people to obtain the reparation of the Almighty’s evening meal.
Sam moreover answered that, this is one of the sacraments of the ecclesiastical of God. Jones moreover assumed that he spotted the manner in which individuals could expire and be mislaid, keep consuming the divine spiritual union, and groups that could repeatedly consume sacraments.
Based on Jones claims, priestly atonement can hardly reject a character from being mislaid in the vulnerability of anguish inferno but moderate devotion in the charm of Almighty could shield superstars. U2 pop group might hardly distribute the analysis of Jones that freedom is simply emancipation from aberrant battles yet not lyrics.
Nonetheless, U2 pop group tries to allocate such judgment on the rebuff of reparation recovery in evangelism. The messages of Bono give an impression of secularized soteriology due to rejection of sacramental salvation and his emphasis on the moral freedom of individuals (Finney, 2003).
Definitely, Bono has given a sermon on the message of personal salvation devoid of the intercession from house of worship just like Sam and Finney the American revivalists did. Bono has as well by means of employing the revival techniques to mete out this message of salvation.
Internationalization and developing nations The Irish Rock Band U2 and Bono consistently requested for the well-being Africa and other poor nations. For instance, Bono in the Blue-Sky Bullet lyrics touched on the dark America sides although not every homily lingered on such points. However, other songs sung by this band praise America for being positive and responsible.
For instance, Bono uncovered various wrongdoings although the U2 band rapidly recovered the evildoers with God’s grace. In the Irish Rock Band U2 album named ‘Everything that can hardly be left behind’, Bono was somehow very frank and positive.
Lyrics specifically the ‘fine-looking moments’, ‘refinement’ and ‘serenity on globe’ were drawn on by U2 pop group and Bono to reveal the leeway and soul compromises. Whereas Bono used the ‘peace on earth’ lyrics often as his utopian plea and prayer, the songster’s moral mantra was the ‘grace’ song.
Conclusion The Irish Rock band U2 is amongst the major critiques of modern religion. The salvation messages asserted by Bono are some of the tactics used by the U2 band to make most leaders not just to pursue their dreams, but to ensure that such leaders take part in helping the poor nations who are their neighbors. Bono justifies the need to help neighbors by quoting some phrases from the biblical teachings.
Bono and U2 band linked personal deliverance soteriology lyrics to the opinionated direction on what poor nations ought to undertake to be salvated. Bono and U2 band claim that social agents may not receive deliverance or salvation devoid a rational global reflection offered by the prevailing humanity.
Moreover, the U2 pop group uses Max’s imageries on restructured conceptions or the intact humanity theodicy to enlighten the liberators’ folklore. In conclusion, the U 2 pop group asserts what Max alleges that various theodicy miseries initiates from the relief anticipation.
References Finney, C. (2003). A revival is not a miracle: In a documentary history of religion in America to 1877. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Lealand, G. (1994). American popular culture and emerging nationalism in New Zealand. National Forum: The Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 74(4), 34-7.
Lofton, K. (2006). Practicing Oprah or the prescriptive compulsion of a spiritual capitalism. The Journal of Popular Culture, 39(4), 599–622.
Lofton, K. (2006). The preacher paradigm: Promotional biographies and the modern-made evangelist. Religion and American Culture, 16 (1), 95-123.
Trachtenberg, M. (2008). Bono: Rock star activist. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc.
Key Global Warming Issues Expository Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need to Address the Subject of Global Warming
Global Warming: Differing Viewpoints
Introduction The subject of the truth behind global warming remains controversial. While opponents of the subject have declared it a myth that has no scientific basis, proponents of it have given their stand based on facts that global warming is indeed a scientific fact that needs to be addressed to people. As the paper reveals, this claim seems valid based on the things that people need to be aware of as far as global warming is concerned.
The Need to Address the Subject of Global Warming There is a need for the world to know the mystery behind the rising temperatures. As of the end of 19th century, there has been an increase in the normal temperature of the atmosphere of the globe and the oceans. The cause is believed to be global warming. Scientists are certain that the cause of global warming is mainly human activities.
Therefore, the world needs to know the activities that bring the rise so that they can be reduced or curbed. According to Wong (2007), “at least 20 scientific associations and all science academies in addition to all the national science academies of the G8 states have proven that the average air temperature of the earth increased by 0.56-0.92 degrees from its surface, 100 years ago”.
Issar (2010) suggests that climatic changes pose a dangerous impact to the individuals who have settled and or live next to the shores of the oceans and those who already face problems of famine, flooding, and poverty.
Further conclusions from the IPCC show that between 1990 and 2100, the temperatures of the earth will most probably increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degrees with a temperature range because of the utilization of fluctuating situations of fluctuating degrees of climate responsiveness.
There is also need to address the contributions of global warming to nature, for instance, the rising in sea levels and alternations in the quantity and pattern of rainfall. Additionally, there may be extra frequent and strong weather conditions ranging from stronger hurricanes, tsunamis, and thunderstorms.
According to Gupta (2005), negative effects caused by global warming have also been witnessed in the “yields of agriculture, for instance, species exterminations, glacier retreat, the rise of diseases and decreased summer watercourse flows” (25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The raised levels of carbon dioxide and other conservatory gases discharged by the smoldering of remnant fuels, deforestation, and other behavior undertaken by people are the key contributors of poor farm yields and hence poverty. Therefore, the world needs to be taught or given equipment that have limited carbon dioxide emissions.
A number of researchers wonder whether there could anything good that could be associated or expected from global warming. However, as mentioned by Farrar (2008), many of them agree that, even if positive effects are witnessed, the negative effects will seriously outweigh them.
The anticipated changes in climate because of global warming comprise the possibility to seriously and permanently alter the climate, which will have permanent negative impacts on virtually every living thing.
Global Warming: Differing Viewpoints It is crucial to bring on board the views of those who view global warming as a myth that need not to be addressed. According to them, global warming is a myth based on credible scientific facts. For instance, in his book Global Warming: Opposing Viewpoints, James Haley argues that one of the skeptics of global warming (Fred Singer) believes that the world should not pay attention to concerns of global warming.
According him, “global warming is not scientifically credible and not worth paying attention to” (Haley, 2001, p.57). Singer is inclined to the perspective that media, politicians, and governmental agencies overemphasize the subject of global warming in the effort to advance their own individualistic gains.
In this extent, Singer treats global warming issues as propaganda. On the other hand, experts working in the US department of energy argue that global warming is an imaginary issue that governments need not to focus on or take any stance measure, as proponents of global warming do, through enactment of policies to minimize greenhouse gas emissions (Haley, 2001, p.10).
The experts further argue the cost of remedying the problems of greenhouse gas emissions now would be the same in the next coming 20 years. Therefore, according to them, global warming has no share in problems of greenhouse emissions and hence a myth.
We will write a custom Essay on Key Global Warming Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Therefore, unless these key global warming issues are addressed, the world will keep on engaging in their day-to-day activities. They will suffer the consequences of activities with no information on how they link with global warming. Once they are aware of global warming, decisive measures will be put to practice especially errors that are under human control and hence a secure present and future.
Reference List Farrar, A. (2008). Global Warming. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.
Gupta, R. (2005). Encyclopedia of Environment. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers
Southwest Airlines Case Study custom essay help
Background information Southwest Airlines operates in the US airline industry as a passenger carrier having been incorporated in 1967. Since its inception, the firm has been focused at profit maximization. Consequently, it has integrated expansion as one of its strategic management practices in its quest to stimulate high growth rate.
By 31st December 2011, the airline operated in 72 US cities and transported approximately 106 million passengers. Its average annual revenue at the beginning of 2012 amounted to $15 billion. The firm’s adoption and continued sustenance of the low cost structure has enabled it to sustain its success (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 3).
Mission statement: Southwest Airline intends to offer its customers the highest level of customer service, which will result to the creation of a friendly and warm environment. Southwest Airline holds that such an environment will result in development of individual pride and enhanced company spirit.
Southwest airline is committed towards the creation of a conducive and stable work environment that provides all employees with an equal opportunity for personal growth and learning. The firm encourages its employees to be creative and innovative in its quest to attain high effectiveness and efficiency in its operation.
In the quest to attain a high level of employee retention and public image, the airline is focused at ensuring that its customers are treated with respect and caring attitude(Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 3)..
Analysis of the external business environment Porters’ five forces
Rivalry: Currently, the US airline industry is characterized by intense competition and a high degree of volatility. Additionally, the industry is extremely technology and capital intensive, heavily regulated, and taxed hence reducing the profit margins of domestic firms.
Over the past decade, firms in the industry have experienced a conundrum emanating from the increment in cost of operation. Rise in the cost of fuel is one of the major challenges that the firms have faced in the past. From 2000, the cost of fuel has risen with over 300% hence making it a challenge for firms to operate (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry: Despite the rise in cost of fuel, Southwest Airline is grappling with a high degree of industry concentration. The concentration has emanated from an influx in the number of new entrants. Deregulation Act of 1978 has provided a window for foreign companies to venture into the industry.
Minimal differentiation in the industry is another major hurdle that Southwest Airline is currently facing. Price has become the main market variable that firms in the industry are hedging their competitiveness against in their operations.
Therefore, firms in the industry are continuously experiencing a significant reduction in their profit margins. However, the threat of entry is currently minimal due to the high startup and operational cost and the intense competition from incumbents. New entrants into the industry usually fail while those that survival will take a considerable duration to position themselves as credible competitors (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 13).
Threat of substitute: Over the past decade, the industry has been experiencing an increment in the number of substitute due to the development of alternative means of transport such as car, train, and bus (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 65).
Most individuals prefer these means of transport when travelling for a short distance, which is a major challenge for Southwest Airline as it focuses on short hauls. Emergence of intercity railroads also presents a major threat to the firm’s future survival. The high cost of fuel and an increment in baggage fees in the US airline industry are pushing consumers to train transportation hence making it a viable substitute.
The pressure on the US government to upgrade the country’s rail system and develop high-speed rails is a major threat that Southwest Airlines will have to deal with in the future. In a bid to counter the threat of substitute, Southwest Airline has integrated an effective reservation system that makes customers to prefer the firm as their travel alternative (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 14).
Supplier power: The primary sources of supplier bargaining power in the airline industry include labor, jet-fuel, and aircrafts (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 15). Over the past few years, jet-fuel has become a major source of supplier bargaining power in the US industry. However, Southwest Airlines has effectively addressed the threat of high supplier power by adopting a hedging strategy.
We will write a custom Case Study on Southwest Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This adequately shields the firm from experiencing enormous swing in its operating expenses (Carter, Rogers, and Simkins 3). Aircraft manufacturers have a relatively high bargaining power, which emanates from a high switching cost. The main aircraft manufacturers, which include Airbus and Boeing, can increase the price.
In its operation, Southwest Airline solely procures aircrafts from Boeing, and it might be affected in the future in the event of Boeing increasing the price of its airplanes (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 14). Labor costs also form a significant proportion of supplier power.
The US airline industry has experienced an increment in the number of unions seeking for premium wages over the recent years. However, this trend is changing constantly due to increased bankruptcies in the industry.
Consequently, most airline companies are cancelling their pension plans hence diminishing the threat of supplier bargaining power. Additionally, firms in the industry are reviewing their employee compensation policies.
Buyer power: the buyer power in the US airline industry is minimal. The low bargaining power has emanated from the prevailing price wars amongst industry players in the quest to remain competitive. Consequently, buyers are unable to push the price down.
SWOT analysis Strengths
Incorporation of point-to-point route strategy has provided the firm with flexibility with regard to selecting the most profitable routes.
The firm mainly relies on secondary airports located in major cities thus resulting into improved on-time reliability.
Short turnaround duration enable the firm to utilize its aircrafts optimally.
Effective customer relations leading to high level of customer satisfaction
Integration of strong marketing campaign hence leading to improved customer reputation
The firm’s rapid growth presents a major challenge with regard to sustenance of its reliability in offering services. The firm’s on-time performance has continuously dwindled. In 2011, its on-time performance in Alaska increased to 88.2% from 87.6% in 2011 and 81.3% in 2010 (Stevens Para. 3). The acquisition of AirTran in 2011 is likely to worsen the situation.
The firm also faces a challenge emanating from increasing its fleet by incorporating 88 Boeing 717s. The firm did not have such type of planes.
The firm’s acquisition of AirTran presents a unique opportunity for the firm to grow by increasing the number its routes and venturing into new markets.
The firm can improve its customer base by integrating internet technology such as WiFi. This will attract customers.
In 2013, Southwest Airline started to offer customers onboard. With live television and satellite-enabled WiFi Internet technology through its contract with Row 44 (“FierceWireless” Para. 1)
The firm is experiencing intense competition from other major industry players such as EasyJet and Jetblue. If the firm does not focus on improving its competitiveness, it might experience a reduction in its growth.
The firm is also facing a major threat emanating from increment in cases of terrorism.
Increase in the cost of operation if not addressed may result in a decline in the firm’s level of profitability. The firm is currently facing a major threat emanating from the fuel price volatility.
Changes in the legal environment for example institution of environmental sustainability rules and regulations may limit the firm’s ability to compete with regard to price.
Occurrence of another economic recession such as the one that occurred in 2008 may adversely affect the firm’s operation
Conclusion From the above analysis, it is evident that Southwest Airline is facing a dynamic business environment. The competitive nature of the US airline industry is a major challenge that the firm has to deal with in its operations. Therefore, to sustain its growth, Southwest Airlines will be required to formulate and implement effective business and corporate level strategies.
This move will enable the firm to sustain its competitive advantage. Additionally, the firm’s management team will also be required to deal with external challenges such as rise in oil prices, economic recessions, and terrorism, which are some of the major challenges facing the industry.
Works Cited Carter, David, Daniel Rogers, and Betty Simkins. “Hedging and value in the US airline industry.” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance18.4 (2006): 1-33.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Southwest Airlines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More FierceWireless: Southwest Airlines and Row 44 announce milestones in WiFi partnership 2013. Web.
Hawkins, Owen, Rahul Misra, and Hao Tang 2012. Southwest Airline Company. PDF file. Web.
Hitt, Michael, Duane Ireland, and Robert Hoskisson. Strategic management: Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and globalization, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.
Stevens, Suzanne. Alaska, Southwest Airlines rank high in quality, 2012. Web.
2009: The airline ventures into new domestic routes by unveiling the Boston Logan, Reno/Tahoe and Denver routes.
2010: The airline decides to increase its fleet size by incorporating the Boeing 737-800.
2011: Acquisition of AirTran Airlines.
2012: The airline company enters into a deal with Row 44 for the firm to offer baseball and football games to customers onboard through WiFi.
2013: Completion of satellite enabled WiFi internet technology and live-TV on 400 Southwest Aircrafts.
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach
Introduction The business sector has undergone tremendous changes due to the emergence of new technologies and the globalization effect. Change management is therefore very essential in ensuring that companies maintain professionalism and a competitive advantage over its competitors.
Companies can only become effective through proper planning when implementing organizational change (Silverman, 1996). Internal and external changes are very necessary when a company wants to improve its present and future state. A company can only remain relevant in a competitive market by involving all the stakeholders in the change process (Silverman, 1996).
Companies should always have a realistic plan regardless of the scope of changes it intents to undertake. Organizational change managers have a difficult task of convincing everyone within the organization to embrace change. The change process should involve specialists for a comprehensive execution of all the change projects (Silverman, 1996).
The external and internal forces that drive change should be detected as early as possible for a company to benefit from the available opportunities and at the same time control impending market threats.
This paper will highlight the use of Kotter’s 8-step approach in implementing organizational change in companies like Microsoft Corporation. Effective implementation of organizational change is essential in the present and future success of an organization.
Company Overview Microsoft Corporation is a multinational company in America that designs and sells computer software. The company’s headquarters are stationed in Redmond, Washington and is among the best companies in the world when it comes to manufacturing and licensing of computer products and services (Hill, 2007). The company was founded in April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and his long-term friend known as Paul Allen.
Microsoft enjoys high revenues because of its reputation in software making. Microsoft has continued to dominate the software market since mid-1980s. Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS are among the most popular operating systems from Microsoft (Hill, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has been involved in a number of corporate acquisitions as a way of diversifying its business. In addition to operating systems, the company has created quite a number of application products such as Microsoft Office, video games and other digital products (Hill, 2007).
Microsoft has undergone tremendous expansion since it was founded with the company having up to five product divisions by 2010 (Hill, 2007). Microsoft is a publicly traded company under the leadership of a board of directors whose members are elected during the annual general meeting by the company shareholders.
In addition to the board of directors, the company has five committees within the board that carry out specific functions within the company (Hill, 2007). Microsoft Corporation went public for the first time in 1986 when it launched its initial public offering but offered a dividend for the first time in 2003. The company has been sued several times because of its use of unfair business tactics that extinguish competition.
Microsoft believes in creating unique features that meet customer needs. The value of Microsoft’s assets is approximately $ 41 billion with a corporate bond of $ 2.25 billion (Hill, 2007). The year 2011 was not good for Microsoft because its quarterly profits went down. The decline in revenues was brought about low sales in personal computer sales and Microsoft’s Online Services Division.
The emergence of Apple Inc. and some costly acquisitions are among the reasons why Microsoft has been incurring losses in the last two years (Hill, 2007). The decision by Microsoft to acquire an advertising company known as aQuantive in 2007 was the beginning of Microsoft’s financial woes because the acquired company had a lot of problems.
Diagnosis Despite the tremendous success that Microsoft has enjoyed over the years, the company has its fare share of challenges. The value of Microsoft’s stock has been slipping since 2004 because there is stiff competition from other industry players such as Linux, Apple and Google (Hill, 2007).
New versions of application software such as Office and Windows have recorded small amount of sales in the last five years and this has reduced the company’s revenues.
We will write a custom Essay on Kotter’s 8-Step Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A thorough diagnosis of Microsoft shows some of the areas that need to undergo organizational change for the company to recover from the current crisis (Hill, 2007). To begin with, Microsoft is a company that needs to have a business model that promotes innovation. Microsoft has a huge bureaucracy that has continued to hamper innovation at the company.
Innovation teams should be given the power to work on their products from the beginning to the end without interference and in-fighting. Microsoft does not have a clear definition of what the company does and this has left some customers very confused (Hill, 2007).
Every product and service is associated with Microsoft is branded by Windows and Office which makes the company appear as if it does not have any kind of diversity. The monopoly tag makes it difficult for Microsoft to reclaim the support of its customers. The company should adopt a strategy where each product or service has its own unique brand (Hill, 2007).
Microsoft as a company no longer exhibits the innovation spark it used to have even with the development of the Surface tablet (Hill, 2007). The company is no longer a market leader when it comes to innovation and has been surpassed by companies such as Apple Inc. and Google.
As a company that has been in existence for quite some time, people should always be waiting for Microsoft’s next innovation. Microsoft is not coming up with new concepts to encourage hardware manufacturers to continue using the company’s software. Microsoft’s CEO Steve Ballmer spends most of his time engaging in meaningless verbal wars with Apple rather than focusing on improving the quality of Microsoft’s products.
Microsoft Corporation lacks a visionary leader who can pick up from where Bill Gates left it after resigning from the position of the company’s Chief Executive Officer (Hill, 2007).
Most of Microsoft’s products are not compatible and therefore makes it difficult to install more than one of its products on the same personal computer due to bloat problems. Microsoft underestimated its competitors and that is the reason why the company’s fortunes have been dwindling in recent years (Hill, 2007).
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach Kotter’s 8-step change model is one of the best approaches when it comes to the successful implementation of organizational change (Kotter, 1996). A company such as Microsoft needs to introduce organizational change for it to remain relevant in the software market. The process of introducing organizational change is not always an easy one regardless of whether the changes are small-scale or large-scale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kotter’s 8-Step Approach by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kotter was a change expert whose eight-step change process is regarded as one of the best in leading and managing organizational change (Kotter, 1996). The first step in Kotter’s approach is to create a sense of urgency by making sure that all the stakeholders within the organization understand the need for change.
Urgency can be created when leaders take the initiative of having honest discussions with everyone about the threats and opportunities that the company faces (Kotter, 1996). According to Kotter, 75 percent of a company’s top leadership should agree with the concept of organizational change for the process to be successful.
It is also important for a company to prepare well for the change process to avoid further loses. A company like Microsoft is in bad state and therefore its leaders should show some urgency when it comes to changing certain aspects of their business (Kotter, 1996).
The second step of Kotter’s model involves forming a coalition of change within the organization (Kotter, 1996). All the key people in the organization must be involved in the change process through strong and effective leadership. The coalition of change should involve influential leaders within the organization to continue creating the sense of urgency needed for change.
Team building is also done during the second step to bring out the best from the leaders in the change coalition (Kotter, 1996). It is always important for change leaders to work as a team. A change coalition should include members from different departments within the organization to demonstrate inclusiveness (Kotter, 1996).
All the weak areas within the change process should be identified and corrected as soon as possible before the process of implementing organizational change begins.
The third step in Kotter’s approach of change implementation encourages change leaders to come up with a clear vision for change (Kotter, 1996). All the ideas generated by members of the change coalition should be harmonized to come with an overall vision that all the stakeholders within the organization can be able to understand.
A change leader should ensure that all the people involved in change implementation have a clear vision of what the company is trying to achieve. Organizational change should be guided by specific values that the company intents to promote (Kotter, 1996).
The change coalition should then come up with a strategy that will help it to convert its vision into actual change. Every member in the change coalition should be upbeat about change for them to inspire the rest of the people.
The fourth step is for the leaders to communicate their vision for change to other members of the organization (Kotter, 1996). The success of an organization depends on what the leaders do with their vision. The change message should be communicated on a regular basis and powerfully until the moment when all the activities done within the organization reflect its vision.
The managers should be able to make important decisions based on the company’s vision (Kotter, 1996). Every person within the organization should be reminded about the company’s vision on a daily basis so that the vision sticks in everyone’s minds. At this stage, the change leaders should address all the fears and anxieties that some members may be having concerning change.
The change vision should be applied in all the operations in the organization especially those regarding training and performance (Kotter, 1996). The most important thing is for the leaders in the coalition to show a good example to the rest of the people on all the issues regarding organizational change. The fifth step in Kotter’s approach involves the removal of the change obstacles from the way.
The obstacles may be those people who are resisting change or the old structures and processes. The change leaders should put new structures and processes in place and eliminate all the change barriers (Kotter, 1996).
The management can encourage employees to participate in the change process by rewarding those who have been exemplary in promoting change within the organization. At this stage, it is also necessary to hire people with the ability to foster change. The change leaders should encourage those resisting change and help them understand the need for change (Kotter, 1996).
The sixth step in Kotter’s model of implementing change is to create short-term wins that can motivate the staff (Kotter, 1996). The staff should see the immediate results of change to erase any kind of negative thoughts from their minds. All the stakeholders should experience the fruits of change as soon as possible for it to be justified. Critics of change can only be silenced when the organization enjoys a taste of victory.
This can only be achieved through the creation of short-term goals which are achievable. Change leaders should work hard to ensure that all the short-term goals are achieved within the required time. The short-term projects should be accomplished without the help of the change critics as a way of challenging them.
Change leaders should also avoid expensive projects during the initial stages of change implementation in order to effectively justify all the initial investments (Kotter, 1996).
The change initiative can be messed up if the first goal fails. It is therefore important to critically analyze targets to determine whether they can be reached or not. The people who help the leadership to reach the change targets should constantly be rewarded as an appreciation of their efforts to promote change (Kotter, 1996).
The seventh step in Kottler’s approach is to build on the change that has already been achieved during the initial stages (Kotter, 1996). Change leaders should not make the mistake of declaring victory before the entire process is complete. According to Kotter, change projects are likely to fail if change leaders become complacent after initial victories.
Change is a long-term process that requires patience and determination until all the projects are accomplished (Kotter, 1996). Initial victories should only serve as a platform for accomplishing other projects. Change is a gradual process and any victory should be a learning experience for all the people involved in the change process.
The change momentum should be maintained through continuous improvement on all the areas that have a weakness. Change agents should be recruited where necessary to bring in fresh ideas that can facilitate change (Kotter, 1996). The eighth and final step of Kotter’s model of change implementation is anchoring the changes in corporate culture.
All the aspects of the organization should reflect all the values brought about by change. Change should be part of the organizational culture and should remain sustainable even if the change leaders leave the company.
Conclusion Organizations whose performance is not impressive should adopt organizational change as a means of revival. The approach used to implement change determines how successful the change process will be. Kotter’s eight-step approach is among the most effective models of implementing change.
A company like Microsoft that is not performing well at the moment needs to implement some changes in its functions and operations for it to bounce back.
The company needs some radical changes to be able to compete with companies like Apple. Microsoft needs to adopt some changes when it comes to innovation and marketing in order to regain its former glory. Kotter’s model is the most suitable for a multinational company like Microsoft.
References Hill, C. (2007). Strategic management: An integrated approach. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Siverman, D. (1996). Facilitating organizational change. New York, NY: University Press of America.
Importance of employee motivation Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Spray diagram The diagram is used to represent various aspects of employee motivation as applied by J.D Wetherspoon Company. Key central word focuses on “Wetherspoon employee motivation” and is addressed using various theories and practical aspects. The following diagram is used for the purposes of providing better understanding on various aspects applied by the company which makes their employees work with such vigor.
Such ideas and the concepts as expressed are categorized according to importance within areas of critical challenges. As shown various aspects are branched to their specific sections focusing on one idea at a time, hence allowing for creativity (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
In most instances employees are considers as vital elements within any organization. The nature of their efforts largely determines extent of success an organization can achieve. This can be explained from various perspectives which incorporates technological aspects, nature of competition, nature of work force within the organization as well as economic set-up within the market place.
Employee contributions lead to overall development of organizations. Ata the same time, for the purposes of sustainable competitive advantage, employees should be motivated based on their nature of input within the company.
Description of what is meant by motivation, and why does it matter to have a motivated workforce
Employee motivation is a concept used to describe actions and status of employees within defined work boundaries. It is always important for management to apply appropriate strategies capable of making employees to be self-driven towards excellent work performance which far much exceeds management standards.
Therefore, employee motivation based on status determines the extent to which management succeeds. However, the degree of motivation varies depending on competing ideas and type of rewards derived from various jobs which can either bring extrinsic or intrinsic rewards.
Intrinsic rewards are associated with the level of satisfaction obtained from performing the work itself. Such aspects entail learning of valuable skills as well as the feeling of being successful amongst other satisfaction levels. At the same time, extrinsic rewards are associated with processes involved in performing the work which at times are indirectly considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such rewards entail financial compensation amongst other benefits such as health insurance. Having motivated workforce may lead to constant flow of creative ideas from employees. Such aspects on motivation drive away fear from employees’ hence encouraging creativity and innovation.
Pushing power to create down the ranks within an organization enables empowerment of employees hence granting them capability of using their ideas to improve defined product or service as well as their jobs. Such power to create leads to employee motivation and ultimately benefits organization, assisting in the creation of more flexible work force and at the same time increases exchange of ideas and information amongst employees within various departments (Gerhart and Milkovich,1990).
Providing motivation based on monetary incentive might involve sharing of company’s profits with employees. Such action gives incentives to employees enabling them to produce quality products.
At the same time, it enables unleashing of quality services, hence leading to overall improvement on processes within the company. Motivation aspects also assist in generation of cost savings and at the same time reduces rate of absenteeism amongst employees. However, monetary motivation works effectively in conjunction with other non-monetary incentives (Gerhart and Milkovich,1990).
Analysis of Management’s practices and motivational policies, assessment of theories applied by the firm and their effectiveness using examples from the case
J D Wetherspoon as described in the case study, owns and operates a number of pubs across United Kingdom. The company’s provisions are based on quality food and drink at affordable prices. They also focus on recruiting well trained employees with friendly attitude towards customers. The management offers customers conducive environment capable of promoting free conversion amongst individuals.
The current status of the company can be attributed to availability of qualified, friendly and motivated staff capable of providing high standard customer services. Management of Wetherspoon encourages employees to contribute their ideas through challenging existing company practices. Such open culture encourages employees hence motivating them towards identifying best practices within their various jobs in the organization.
In terms of communication various departments within Wetherspoon are encouraged to suggest appropriate ways through which services can be improved. This includes improvement in kind of food offered, kind of products appropriate for promotion amongst others. Waiters and waitresses are endowed with such responsibility since they interact with customers on daily basis. This makes them encouraged to communicate various ideas for improvement to line managers. At the same time there are frequent meetings held after every two weeks.
We will write a custom Case Study on Importance of employee motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The meetings are usually attended by individuals from every department and category of employment and involve detailed decision making on operational and strategic plans. Inclusion of employees in the decision making process has contributed towards high level of employee commitment. The company believes on open approach towards management based on high level belief and understanding of human motivation.
Consequently, Wetherspoon encourages employees’ self-esteem by giving them valued and recognized job descriptions. The company also considers cognitive needs by providing individual employees with high level skills and knowledge enabling them to climb up the hierarchy ladder within same organization. This is in line with Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs which divides human needs into higher and lower-levels.
At the same time the company uses high pay rates compared to that of their competitors. This is considered a likely motivator towards employees’ commitment since they are paid more than the minimum required. However, some theorists provide the idea that financial benefit has less to do with the motivation in employees rather than design of the job position itself. One of the most appropriate tools of motivation within such scenario is extrinsic motivation.
This is since Wetherspoon employees are considered as professional within hospitality industry hence intrinsically may feel no more room for exploration within other sectors calling for need on external factors enabling performance for satisfaction.
Provision of external factors always ensures that employees develop an attitude of performance towards their duties. This ensures that they diligently prove their worth for such high payment rates. Consequently when such conditions are met they will strive for self satisfaction within their various duties of which intrinsic factors will be part of them.
Assess the role of power within organizations, communication, active listening and conflict management on employee performance and motivation (300)
Active listening is considered as one of the most important aspects required for active conducting of business. The level of listening skills within an organization determines the process of problem solving and interpersonal skills amongst frontline and top management. Poor listening skills majorly results into loss of time and revenue and at the same time affects smooth operations within organizations. Additionally, poor listening skills may result into poor inter- or intra-departmental communications.
Active listening and communication usually contributes towards positive outcome within various company departments. Several benefits are associated with active listening which includes; increased level of productivity, reduced conflict with customers, improvement in teamwork and morale amongst employees.
Conflict management is considered an important phenomenon within organizational behavior. Conflicts can be intra-, inter-organizational and have the potential of structurally affecting normal operations within organization. Conflicts occur in various forms which include vertical conflicts, horizontal conflict as well as role conflict.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of employee motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vertical conflict involves hierarchical levels where command is received from senior to junior employee while horizontal conflict is experienced between employees within same rank. This can be due to reasons such as differences in ideas, decisions on resource distribution. Role conflicts usually arise due to misconception of the assignment given to employees at particular moments.
Communications play a crucial role in increasing understanding and reducing risks in the process of discharging organizational duties. Communication is used in solving conflicts based on various functions such as familiarization with employees within the organization. It also contributes towards development of consistent relationship based on individual social reality.
Benefits of applying the systems approach to running an organization and assess the extent to which and how this approach is applied at Wetherspoon
Wetherspoon Company considers to a larger extent improvement on physical aspects within all its pubs around UK. Such attributes includes focusing wages increments, excellent working environment as well as job security. Various employee needs are considered essential for the purposes of boosting morale amongst the staff. Such aspects are extended to encompass other needs including secondary needs (Schultz
The United States in the Aftermath of 1860-1870’s Civil War Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
The United States in the aftermath of 1860-1870’s American Civil War In order to reconstruct the United States in the aftermath of 1860-1870’s American Civil War, an analysis that would take a holistic approach addressing the root causes of the war ought to have been scrutinized. Following the events preceding the war several factors can be seen to have staked a claim in stimulating the same.
Among them include efforts fronted by the Northern states to make a Union (United States), and concerted efforts geared towards ending slavery typified by the southern states otherwise ‘confederacy’ that was threatening secession.
Basically, the core of the war has a bearing on the slavery which built a rift between the two factions (the Northern Union and the Southern Confederacy). Thus, in order to reconstruct the United States then abolishment of slavery in the entire states would have been a rational way to commence from (Foner 53).
In order to implement the reconstruction process, both the Democrats and the Republicans in the congress ought to have pulled strings towards one direction. Vitally, the Southern whites ought to have been given civic education demonizing slavery as an ‘evil’ practice. This would have ensured an end to slavery that threatened to tear apart the US.
In the aftermath of American Civil War, the US had remained divided momentarily into two factions following the declaration of Emancipation Proclamation issued by the then president, Lincoln. As such, segregation within social, economic and governmental institutions was popular.
To this end, the institutions that needed change in the wake of reconstruction included churches which were segregated along different ideologies regarding slavery, industrialization had to trickle down the South to discourage slavery, judicial system needed change and, republican form of government had to be implemented to the southern states (Jones 45).
The Western states The Western states depicted a war-torn region contested by both the Union forces and the Southern Confederacy. The economic activities of these states are skewed towards cotton farming. As such, as a farmer ready to settle in this area upon visiting a departmental store I would purchase farm inputs since agriculture forms the backbone of this economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, since this region is unstable politically then the main challenge in transporting these items by road would be interference by wars that happen occasionally between the antagonistic groups. To conclude the transaction, the payment through a cheque would be the safest mode, and given a chance I would purchase an arm for defensive purposes (Jone 13).
Nativism Plainly put, nativism means an opposing stand taken by the inhabitants against immigrants whom are believed to be the reason for diluted cultural values. Basically, nativism is common in many countries owing to different nationalism, religion and cultural identities.
In the ancient America, the aftermath of nativism which resulted in warfare and forced assimilation led to the extinction of Indians by the European immigrants. Basically, nativism in America was typified by anti-European, anti-Catholic, anti-German and anti-Chinese movements.
In recent history, nativism still had a role to play in preserving or modifying natives’ cultural values. That was mostly evident along religious lines. For instant, in the early 21st century, the president of France, Nicolas Sarkozy, was opposed to Hijab wearing by French female but Muslim students in class.
Also, some cultural values of Africans are still intact hitherto long after European colonization. This includes polygamy among others (Deloria and Salisbury 23)
Works Cited Deloria, Philip and Salisbury Neal. A companion to American Indian history. Logan: Utah State UP, 2004. Print.
Foner, Eric. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. Boston: Allyn, 1980. Print.
We will write a custom Assessment on The United States in the Aftermath of 1860-1870’s Civil War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Howard. Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War. Denver: MacMurray, 1999. Print.
Strengthening Todays Soldiers through Positive Psychology and Resiliency Factors Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Positive Psychology Defined
Positive Psychology and resilience
Applying Positive Psychology and resilience to the Military
Abstract The media has been constantly focusing on the cognitive impairments as well as on the mental health conditions which affect a large number of military officers participating in wars. Positive psychology and resilience play a very major role in assisting soldiers as well as their families from war to cope up with their situation.
Positive psychology serves to improve the mental state of the soldiers as well as their families after they have gone through stress. Resilience is applicable in enabling soldiers to recover from the stress they go through during and after the war. Programs have been set up in this regard, in order to assist soldiers.
These two concepts are very much similar. There is need to put in place more programs that promote these in order to continue strengthening the soldiers as more wars are expected in the future.
Introduction The media has been increasingly focusing on the cognitive impairments as well as on the mental health conditions which affect a large number of military officers participating in wars. A larger number of soldiers do not come back home from wars having the “invisible wounds” (Tanielian
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The idea of psychological archetypes has an important connection with the portrayal of mythology. This concept is mainly in agreement with Joseph Campbell’s suggestions of mythology in regard to the hero archetype. Campbell claims that the power of mythology lies in the fact that myths reflect realistic and valid archetypes.
Since the ancient time, myths have been the main way of explaining battles, major life events and people’s behavior. There is always a hero in such stories or myths, who faces a struggle that acts as the basis of the story’s plot.
With a lot of strength, talent, as well as admiration, the hero upholds the most precious thing to the audience, heroism. However, as time goes, the role of the hero remains indistinguishable from any other character (Mitchell 1).
A myth about Gilgamesh describes the main hero as a person that beholds different heroic characteristics seen in many stories. At the beginning of the myth, Gilgamesh decides to conquer the jungle’s beast, Humbaba. Gilgamesh sets this goal for himself. Every hero must set a certain aim.
Otherwise, there would be nothing to accomplish or tell in a myth. After Gilgamesh defeats the Humbaba, he loses Enkidu, his best friend, which is a great loss and challenge to any hero. In his mourning, Gilgamesh goes through a transformation making him appear like Enkidu.
The hero appears in tatters and puts on animal skins. This makes Gilgamesh the opposite to Enkidu. Civilization influences the appearance of Enkidu like that of Gilgamesh. In this case, the hero becomes more savage. Changing appearance is a way of keeping Enkidu alive by appearing like him (Mitchell 11).
Gilgamesh finds it hard to believe Enkidu is dead and is in denial of the idea of his death. However, after seeing a worm coming out of Enkidu’s body, Gilgamesh accepts the fact that his friend is no more alive. He realizes that he is not immortal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes Gilgamesh seek a way to cheat death. Gilgamesh chooses to look for Utnapishtin, thus he goes to Mashu. He encounters lions on his way and seeks the protection of Sin. These adventures are presented as a dream and actual encounters. In some cases, Gilgamesh is scared even though it is not clear whom the hero faces (Mitchell 1).
As Gilgamesh reaches Mashu, at the mountain’s entrance, he walks into darkness. This is a common feature in most heroic myths. Gilgamesh faces a terrifying encounter as he meets Hunbaba. This proves Gilgamesh’s heroism.
As a hero, Gilgamesh must go through this experience alone. The whole place is dark, and Gilgamesh can see neither front nor behind. Gilgamesh cannot escape his solitude. Literally, there is nowhere for Gilgamesh to go. There is also nobody to turn to for assistance. In the literal sense, the darkness symbolizes Gilgamesh’s solitude.
After challenging Hunbaba, Gilgamesh arrives at the other part of the mountain. He enters beautiful gardens filled with brightly colored flowers and fruits. Gilgamesh can see the sea beyond the garden. Gilgamesh is now in a new world. The passage through darkness symbolizes the process of birth. Gilgamesh’s emergence in the new world symbolizes his rebirth.
In his mourning for Enkidu, Gilgamesh is actually seeking to have his own salvation. Even though Gilgamesh believes these problems can be solved by immortality, he discovers that there are different forms of salvation.
Joseph Campbell suggests that the power of mythology is that myths are reflection of psychologically realistic and valid archetypes. The heroes’ behavior in the myth is similar to the stereotype human conduct. Just as seen in the case of Gilgamesh, every hero goes through various stages of progression.
These include the hero being introduced to the ordinary world, being called for adventure, being reluctant at first and then being encouraged by a wise man or a woman. After Gilgamesh goes through the first threshold, he faces various tests as well as meets friends ready to help him.
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Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre Expository Essay college application essay help
Definitions What is Art?
Scholarly work indicates that art originated from the time man learnt to paint in caves, dance around the fire, decorate and narrate stories (Laban, 2006). In its broad sense, art comprises of three important elements. These are Music, Dance and Theatre.
Therefore, a distinct definition of art does not exist in scholarly world, but it is agreed that art is actually a concept that embraces all human activities and allows people to exchange information, ideas and to express themselves.
In fact, art is a concept that allows people to connect with space and time, body and spirit, emotions and intellect and event and experiences. By passing information from one generation to another, art plays an important role in offering interpretations for new as well as familiar ideas (Fazenda, 2002).
It provides people with their own way of perceiving their world, own habits and state of thinking. Finally, art is a concept that defines the culture, traditions and values of a given society or group of people within a given society.
What is music?
Although a specific definition of music does not exist, it is agreed that music itself is a form of art that involves arrangement of tones in an orderly manner or sequence in order to achieve a continuous or unified composition of tones, which conveys some meaning.
However, music conveys different meanings depending on differences between groups of people. Music has the following characteristics – pitch, rhythm, timbre, texture and dynamics. Music is created for the purpose of entertaining, communication and expression.
What is dance?
According to Laban (2006), dance is a part of arts that involves body movements in a rhythmic manner, often following the rhythms of a given piece of music. In fact, dance is a form of expression and communication. Dance in a given culture has the role of providing a means of emotional expression, interaction and connection between the people with their past, their culture, future and their spiritual world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is theatre?
Theatre is a form of arts with an emphasis on performance, where live performers present the information to be conveyed to the viewers. The event presented on the stage might be real or imaginary, but communicates experience through a combination of other forms of arts such as dance, music and narration.
National standards for arts National standards for music
The National Standard for Arts Education has established a set of guidelines for teaching music in elementary schools. First, it emphasizes the singing alone (and with others) as a varied repertoire of music. Secondly, it compels using musical instruments when performing.
Here, it requires that the learners use these instruments individually and in a group as another repertoire of music education. In addition, it requires improvising of variations, melodies and accompaniments. Finally, it requires students to participate actively in reading as well as notating music.
National standards for dance
Dance has seven standards as developed by the national standards for arts. First, it singles out the identification and demonstration of elements and skills of movement while performing. Secondly, it requires the students to understand the principles, processes as well as structures of choreography.
Thirdly, it puts emphasis on teaching the students to appreciate dance as a way of adding meaning to communication. It further emphasizes the application and demonstration of critical as well as creative thinking skills when performing dance. The sixth standard requires establishing the connection between dance and healthy living. Finally, there must be connection between dance and other fields of study.
National standards for Theatre
The first standard puts emphasis on script writing through improvising refined scripts based on imagination, history, literature and heritage. The second standard emphasizes acting by developing and communicating characters that must also be sustained.
Scholarly application of teaching skills in art In teaching visual and performance arts, it is very important to put emphasis on the subject matter.
We will write a custom Essay on Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Example 1: In Arts
According to Campbel (2005), student’s ability to acquire knowledge in music education is dependent on their ability to know the specific subject. The teacher ought to ask himself or herself one major question “what is the connection between the specific task and the content being studied? Here, the teacher must consider the connection between the subject matter and nature (Gelineau, 2004).
Example 2: In Music
According to Ratey (2001), student’s ability to grasp things in class relies on how frequently a given topic is repeated. Rauscher at al (2004) confirms that repetition is critical to teaching music.
Specific academic skill: students will be able to comprehend the topic in folk music “Miss Susie”. They will be able to identify the role of “telephones” and “telephone” operators in their society.
Example 3: In dance
Moreover, Moser and McKay (2005) argue that the students’ ability to develop interest in arts depends on how frequently they take practical sessions. It is crucial to know how the subject area relates to the real life as well as life-long learning. It is important that the students attend art classes and learn well what they are taught there. They need to understand how important such knowledge is in their life and future career.
Specific academic skill: in the dance “Ring Around the Rosie”, the students will learn the impact of death in human lives. They will learn how people in old times cremated their dead ones. Here, they will connect with the idea of life and death.
Example 4: In theatre
In theatre arts, the audience is an important factor. According to Moser and McKay (2005), it is critical for the students to learn how to determine the type and nature of the audience in order for the performance to be successful.
The main purpose of performing is to ensure the message is communicated to the audience. As such, the students must understand the audience in front of them and learn to attract and hold the attention of the audience.
Specific learning skills: In the children Theatre “”Little Red Riding Hood”, the students will be able to learn the need to be cautious when dealing with strangers. They will be able to identify the “good” the “ill” of the society. By acting the theatre, the students will be able to connect their emotions, actions and body signs with the imaginary tale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Campbell, P. S. (2005). Teaching Music Globally. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Fazenda, M. J. (2002). Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano.
Gelineau, R. P. (2004). Integrating the arts across the elementary school curriculum. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Laban, R. V. (2006). The language of movement: a guidebook to choreutics. Boston: Plays.
Corporate Social Responsibility Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Recycling resources and environmental conservation
Introduction Environmental conservation is the new trend that organizations are taking as their corporate social responsibility. Corporate social responsibility is a method which organizations use to be self regulating to prevent the firm from adversely affecting the environment or the society which they are operating. It ensures that the firm obeys the law, maintains ethical standards and has a positive impact on the society. Many multinational firms have taken up this to ensure that their activities do not harm the environment (Harding, 2012).
Panasonic is the firm I will focus on because of its many initiatives in maintaining the environment. Panasonic is a leading producer of electronic devices around the world having begun its operations in 1918. The firm has branches around the world producing electrical appliances and semiconductors.
Panasonic is placed fifth in terms of production of its electronics. It is ranked ninth in terms of environmental conservation among its rivals around the world. This ranking was done by Green peace guide to greener electronics organization. This is a ranking of electronic manufacturers who have policies and practices that are aimed at reducing impact on climate. It shows the firms which produce green products that make their operations sustainable to the environment.
Panasonic is one of the firms that produce green products. These products have a good life cycle and have a reduced quantity of polyvinyl chloride plastic in them. Its products especially TVs are energy efficient and consume lower than the level of energy conservation needed (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
In their plan to reduce the green house effects of the manufacture of its products Panasonic has come up with various initiatives. These initiatives are presented as corporate social responsibilities by the firm. Panasonic has developed an environmental strategy that will see it achieve the goals it.
The strategies cover ways to reduce Carbon dioxide emissions, recycling resources and proper manufacturing processes. The main policy is recycling oriented manufacturing. This has an impact of making a lasting effect on the environment and is in line with the laws that were developed in the world forums on environment. Many competitors also implement policies that are environmental friendly (Harding, 2012).
Recycling resources and environmental conservation The firm has ensured production of products that have zero emission levels. These products have an efficient energy performance. These two factors reduce the energy consumed. The firm ensures that there is energy recreation and storage. The products being developed are eco-conscious and offer all ways of conserving energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One strategy that Panasonic has adopted is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions both in its products and when manufacturing the products. This is in line with the world set standard of reducing green house gasses emissions by 50% by the year 2050. This strategy has been set for attainment by 2018. Panasonic will have been able to reduce emission of green house gasses in its manufacturing activities and in the use of its products.
The main way that the firm has adopted is to recycle the resources. Recycling ensures reduction in dumping of electronic waste in many countries. There is increased exploitation of resources around the world in the many manufacturing branches of the firm. The increased exploitation deteriorates the environment. When getting the resources there is a lot of emission of green house gasses.
The aim by Panasonic is to reduce the exploitation by recycling the existing resources. The exploitation of minerals and natural resources will lead to depletion of the resources on the earth. Panasonic began an initiative to recycle these resources to prevent depletion. The firm benefits from the initiatives by reducing costs of materials (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
The strategy is to develop a Recycling oriented manufacturing concept. Under this strategy Panasonic has managed to minimize the amount of resources used and maximize the recycled resources. This is also in line with the zero waste emissions policy that Panasonic has adopted. The firm has been making the products smaller in order to reduce the amount of resources used.
The firm has also adopted the use of modern technologies in order to collect more materials to recycle and effectively use these recycled materials. They have reduced the amount of wastes at the factories by recycling. The waste sent to damps is reduced to almost zero due to this. The firm also offers the recycled materials to the members of the society who engage in manufacture of products that can use these resources.
The main aim of the recycling oriented manufacturing is to ensure reduction of total resources used and promote recycling. The firm recycles iron and other metals, plastic, papers, cardboards and wooden materials. The firm has put measures in place to ensure that their system is effective. They have control mechanisms that establish how effective the recycling and resource reduction process is.
In the year 2012 the firm developed a full factory that manufactures all it products firm recycled parts. The entire Panasonic manufacturing entity is set to make a transition to full recycled resource use. This will help Panasonic attain its zero waste emission policy in line with the global standards (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Panasonic has taken an initiative to ensure the spread of environmental conservation activities by the stakeholders. This is an initiative that has seen the firm participate in activities that educate the stakeholders on environmental conservation. They educate the stakeholders on their activities that they are doing to conserve the environment in an easy manner.
The main stakeholders who they collaborate with are the suppliers in the supply chain. Panasonic urges its suppliers to provide materials that are environmental friendly. Panasonic also partners with its consumers to ensure they use the products and promote a green environment by using the products efficiently (Cengel
Impacts on Liquidity Essay a level english language essay help
Liquidity is defined in simple terms as the monetary supply in the financial market in a specific period of time. The manipulation of open market operations affects the level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). It is not advisable to ignore the kind of impact of open-market operations on the level of liquidity.
It is not easy to determine the most suitable level of liquidity required by financial markets without careful analysis. It is necessary for a financial market to have some level of liquidity because lack of it leads to severe economic consequences (Hubbard, 2008).
A financial market without liquidity will definitely experience less market transactions and high interest rates which are not good for economic growth. A financial market with an excessive amount of liquidity is bound to experience high inflation rates (Graham, 2001).
The size of a budget deficit affects the level of liquidity in the financial market The falling over of the Federal government budget deficit weakens the argument that there is too much liquidity in the financial market (Graham, 2001). The economic growth of a country depends on its level of deficit spending. The Federal government budget deficit fall means that deficit spending goes down.
The level of liquidity in the financial market can only rise with an increase in deficit spending. Deficit spending is therefore very critical in an economic recession (Graham, 2001). The level of liquidity in the financial market entirely depends on the Federal government budget deficit. A large budget deficit means that most of the government spending will depend on borrowed money in order to cover the deficit.
This normally leads to a high level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). A very small budget deficit means that the level of deficit spending goes down. Deficit spending leads to economic growth because the borrowed money is used to increase production and at the same time create employment opportunities.
The Federal government can decide to pump money into the economy as a way of covering its budget deficit (Hubbard, 2008). This increases the level of liquidity in the financial market and promotes economic growth. The falling over of the Federal government budget deficit means that the national income and consumption goes down.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The level of national income and consumption reflects the level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). A decline in deficit spending leads to lack of liquidity in the financial market. All forms of deficit financing increases the level of monetary supply with a possible risk of inflation. A fall in the budget deficit means that the Federal government will rely on income from taxes to finance its operations.
A fall in the Federal government budget deficit leads to an increase in currency demand which in turn drains liquidity (Hubbard, 2008). Financial institutions such as banks are normally forced to demand for their reserves from the central bank due to lack of liquidity in the financial market.
The credit potential of banks is normally reduced by the demand for excess reserves. Budget deficit spending enables the public to be in a better position to save money and in the process reduce currency demand (Hubbard, 2008). The level of liquidity goes down with an increase in currency demand.
A lower budget deficit reduces government spending on infrastructure and other social services hence making it impossible for the financial market to have enough liquidity (Graham, 2001). The Federal government can decide to reduce its spending in order to have a low budget deficit but this affects economic growth.
A low budget deficit may seem good in the initial stages but it affects the monetary supply in the financial market. There is no way that the level of liquidity in the financial market can increase with a falling budget deficit (Graham, 2001). The main argument is that a falling Federal government budget deficit is not good for the economy.
An economy that is doing well depends on deficit spending. Deficit spending stimulates economic growth through tax cuts and creation of employment opportunities (Graham, 2001). The Federal government can have the incentive to overspend in an economic recession because of a reasonable budget deficit. The need to have enough liquidity in the financial market is the reason why the U.S government has been overspending.
In conclusion, a falling Federal government budget deficit does not in any way increase the level of liquidity in the financial market. Deficit spending ensures that there is enough monetary supply and in the process stimulates economic growth (Hubbard, 2008). A budget deficit that is falling over tends to restrict government spending.
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts on Liquidity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The resulting effect of a low budget deficit is an increase in currency demand due to lack of liquidity. A falling budget deficit leads to high interest rates and less financial transaction (Hubbard, 2008). The two effects of a low budget deficit are responsible for the low liquidity level in the financial market. Federal governments overspend intentionally for economic sustainability (Hubbard, 2008). There is a very strong correlation between budget deficits and the level of liquidity in a financial market.
References Graham, J. (2001). Firm value and optimal levels of liquidity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hubbard, R.G. (2008). Money, the financial system, and the economy (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley.
Cross-Cultural Management Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Cross- cultural management is a vital skill which all managers need for them to be effective in their duties. A manager who has cross-cultural skills is able to work in a variety of workplace settings without any problems. Attachments which people have to their cultural backgrounds influence the way they interact with one another.
Organizations which have embraced multi-culturalism are willing to transact business with customers from different cultural backgrounds. Managers need to be aware of underlying cultural values which influence the way employees perform duties assigned to them.
A manager who understands diverse cultural backgrounds of his employees is likely to relate with them better than a manager who does not. This report will show the role of culture in an organization and how cross cultural managers need to adapt to different work environments to achieve good results (Young).
Young reveals that cross- cultural skills help expatriates to fit in foreign environments where they have been hired to work easily. It is necessary for managers and other senior workers who work in foreign work stations to familiarize themselves with cultural values and attitudes which are dominant in their new work locations.
This knowledge helps managers improve their communication skills to help them interact well with other people there. Managers who are contracted to work in foreign work stations need to be willing to learn new ideas and attitudes which will help them adapt to their new locations.
They also need to learn cultural norms and ways of life which are practiced in those locations. Managers need to have a foresight on challenges which they will encounter while working with people in their new work stations who come from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
Managers need to nurture their soft skills to be effective in cross-cultural work settings. They need to improve their communication skills and learn proper social etiquette for them to be effective in their new roles. It is necessary for managers willing to serve as expatriates in other countries to improve their language skills to enable them interact well with other people in their new organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, managers who intend to work in Brazil need to improve their knowledge in Portuguese which is the country’s official language. A manager who does not understand the language commonly spoken in his new work location may not be able to perform his duties effectively. This is because he may not be able to articulate himself to his subordinates effectively. Young reveals that managers need to learn how to display courtesy and humility through their actions as this will help them break cultural and language barriers easily.
Business managers need to learn meanings of commonly used non-verbal signs to understand how people in their new work locations react to different issues. The ability to understand different signs commonly used in a foreign work station helps a manager to understand people’s emotional reactions to different issues..
Some signs and gestures send different signals and messages in different locations. In some countries, hugging is frowned upon because their cultures do not condone unnecessary body contact.
For instance, in several countries in the Middle East, handshakes between men and women are frowned upon yet in other parts of the world, this is considered as a normal way of greeting (Young). It is important for expatriates to understand modes of interaction in societies where they will be working for them to have proper knowledge on how to conduct themselves.
Managers need to take time to reflect on their own cultural backgrounds and how they affect their personalities and behavior. This will help expatriates to understand themselves and what they need to do to adapt to a different cultural environment. Managers who are globally exposed understand management systems used in different countries and regions.
It is important for managers who seek to be competent in their duties to learn how to interact with employees at the workplace. This will help them to come up with an effective approach to make employees serving under them perform their duties diligently to obtain positive results.
For instance, in China, business leaders are more authoritarian compared to Germany where managers consult their subordinates before they make important decisions. A manager who is used to the ‘German’ way of doing things needs to adapt quickly to the new corporate environment in China, if he gets transferred there (Young).
We will write a custom Report on Cross-Cultural Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary for professionals that seek to make an impact globally to be flexible in the manner they approach work tasks. They should be ready to adapt to different workplace practices in their new work locations. They need to take time to understand commonly used business styles and how they are applied for them to make positive impacts in their new locations.
Likewise, managers who seek to improve their cross cultural skills need to learn about dominant social systems in their new locations and their relevance to communities which live there (Young). There are different social functions which are deeply revered in different countries which managers need to be aware about. This will help such managers to understand their employees and clients well enough so as to satisfy their expectations effectively (Young).
Effective cross-cultural skills help managers to manage diverse teams of employees more effectively. Managers must not try to introduce new concepts without taking time to understand how they will be implemented. They need to understand the cultural contexts their organizations operate in and how change management approaches are used.
A manager who fails to understand these situations will face resistance from employees in lower levels of the organization who have worked there for a longer period. Some managers undergo various stages of “culture shock” when they are deployed to work in foreign locations.
Such managers may find it difficult to adapt to their new locations because they do not understand the organizational behavior of employees in their new places of work (Young). Such managers may make unfavorable comparisons between their foreign work stations to their previous work stations where they were more familiar with the organizational behavior.
Expatriates should not go overboard in an effort to show they are adapting to new cultures in their foreign work locations. They should try and understand the culture first before displaying their affection to it to ensure they are not treated as objects of ridicule. In their quest to fit in, expatriates need to subdue their excitement to acceptable levels, to help them focus on tasks which need to be performed.
Expatriate professionals can be more comfortable in their new work locations if they have an open mind. This will help them to avoid being influenced by personal negative prejudices towards foreign cultures which they are adapting to. They need to be more accommodating to divergent views and opinions shared by employees and other people they work with.
Managers need to have strong conflict resolution skills to help them resolve any disagreements which are likely to occur in their new work locations. Expatriate professionals may be singled out for unfair criticism due to some political, social or economic issues which exist in their countries of origin. They need to understand how to avoid unnecessary conflicts which may have a negative impact on their reputation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross-Cultural Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Managers who try to initiate changes in new organizations where they work may face a lot of resistance from employees which is likely to result in workplace conflicts. It is necessary for managers to be ready to compromise with their employees to ensure crucial work procedures do not stop due to unresolved conflicts (Young).
Young opines that managers who seek to be acquire cross cultural skills need to be adaptable and tolerant. They should accommodate other people’s divergent views, opinions and practices in locations they are going to work. They should not be quick to take offense when derogatory remarks are made by clients and other people during important business undertakings.
Managers who are not able to control their temper are likely to face difficulties when working in a foreign business environment. Young advises managers to be more patient and understanding so as to excel in their new work stations. Expatriates need to change the way they think about certain issues to enable them adapt easily to their foreign work stations. They need to strengthen their multi-cultural skills for them to be competitive in different global work environments.
Works Cited Young, Rudolph. “Cross-Cultural Skills: Essential for Expatriate Success.” The Chronicle of Higher Learning, 23 Aug. 2011. Web.
Technology and Its Future Development Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The development of technology has drastically changed the world. It is a good thing because it will help develop mechanisms and further advancements to help humanity on individual and social levels.
The article “Singularity” talks about a great rate of development in technology and that it might lead to technology becoming self efficient. This is a possibility out of fiction movies such as “Blade Runner” and “Gattaca” and literary works like “Frankenstein”.
The article specifies that the development of atom size technology will advance self evolution of intelligence of machine and eventually, it will become superior to humans and overtake the world. It is clear that technology is starting to become smaller but it is to the benefit of people and with careful control will not evolve into a great evil.
The movie “Blade Runner” illustrates a future where people gained an ability to create clones which are used for work on planets other than Earth. Eventually, these half-humans half-machines start a war against people. This sort of scenario seems very unlikely because modern people would be able to control the conditions of evolution.
They would notice that machines have the potential to self-evolve and get out of control, and actions would be taken to prevent this. Another movie “Gattaca”, tells a story of DNA modification and discrimination where people are outcast due to their genes and biological make-up.
This sort of technology is slowly developing where scientists are able to do experiments with DNA but discriminating people due to their genetics is highly improbable. There are laws today that are becoming world-wide which prevent any type of discrimination, especially if it is in-born. A story of “Frankenstein” is another example of a futuristic case, where a person is created in a laboratory.
The story uses a semi-scientific method in the creation and coming alive of a “person” but he is attributed human qualities and a life where the development according to society is illustrated. This can somewhat be aligned with technology helping people who are extremely ill. A technology like that would also be beneficial, even though making someone come back to life has little chance of happening.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Futuristic movies and short stories portray a grim future where machines take over humanity and people have to fight their own creations. People are the ones that give these mechanisms an idea, which is manifested through their ability to function. Of course, there is always a possibility of a malfunction in the mechanism, as can sometimes be observed today.
Computer viruses and system breakdowns are very common and this is an example of the detrimental factors of technology. People must take into account all outcomes, as well as machines gaining their own “understanding” and functioning. The article makes it clear how technology can be used for the benefit of humanity. “Biorobotic” limbs can find very useful application in the population.
Cell technologies can reach great potential in preventing the spread and outbreak of diseases. Nanotechnology can allow for smaller devices to be used both mechanically and biologically. The fact that technology is becoming smaller increases the ways it can be implemented into people’s lives.
Technology and its advancement have seen a great jump forward in the last years but it does not mean that it will be the catalyst in destroying humanity. With careful usage and controlled environment it will serve for the benefit of people for years to come.
Is Social Media A Useful Tool For Brand Promotion? Research Paper college admissions essay help
Background and need of study The time is going through the era of the Information Technology that changed the regular lives of humankind as well as business by the way of free flow of information and communication and provided the opportunity of e-commerce for the business communities where social media is a powerful tool for brand promotion.
Odhiambo (2012) pointed out that social media is more effective than the other traditional advertising media, but it would not put into practice as an isolated scheme devoid of enhanced alignment with traditional advertising media; the repercussion of the social media would not able to generate brand awareness as well as business development without integration with the existing media.
The social medias are the new experience to connect people from all over the world through online presence, it turned into a charismatic feature of the marketing mix by modernising the technique of the companies to interact with their customers, rather than traditional media of advertising the companies are significantly turning to the social media.
Under the concurrent recessionary economy almost every business look for cost effective solution for their brand promotion and marketing mix, social media is the approach that facilitated the business communities to promote brand loyalty, thus it is emergence to conduct a research to investigate the social media and its application for brand promotion.
Aims and objectives In the modern corporate world, integration of social media has turned as the most significant feature of marketing mix in order to transform the technique companies adopt to connect with customers, which is a new area of research where the literature of brand promotion striving to adjust in a most scientific method.
The traditional marketing literature required to having enough scientific evidence and data to attain a perfect fit with the social media that is still in scarcity, on the other hand the existing research with lack of sufficient industry data hinders the emergence of recognising the social media as a right alternative to the mainstream advertising media.
Thus, the objective of this study is to present social media and its greater significance for brand promotion supported by enough literature along with most favourable industry data found from the real life practice of different companies presented in the case study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the social capital mostly consigns the resources gathering by the way of utilising relationships among the individuals where social media contributes a platform to build strong association through the network of large members of that media in order to ensure right use of social capital.
At the same time, the wider application of the Internet has provided ‘vaunted ubiquitous connectivity’ to connect each other whether it expected or unexpected by the user, the unexpected information are identified as sperm that negatively influence the people where social media could generate a stopple for sperms (Wellman, Haase and Hampton 2002).
In this context, the aim of this study is to identify the contribution of social media how brand promotion could fit its customers to overcome the hindrance of sperm assigning ‘like’ or ‘follow’ in the social media pages.
Hassan and Bashir (2012) mentioned that largest social media Facebook has 500 million of active users with 100 billion clicks per day, while other social media platforms have almost bulky user’s data that provide large engagement of people, the business always put its attention where people gather, so it’s right place for marketers to keep marketing efforts and brand promotion.
The recent economic downturn and its consequential recessionary economy has generated continuous pressure on the corporate world to adopt cost cutting strategy in order to sustain with crisis, thus, another vital objective of this study is to examine how social media could assist to reduce investment for brand promotion.
Brown (2010) added that to reduce business risk of the traditional media, most of the companies are designing social media strategies pointing to the growing sales, the shifting attributes of customers illustrate that they are changing their TV channel while the corporate advertisement starts, it occurs due to lack of understanding the diverse customers attitude.
In case of social media, there are huge applicable tools to address each individual customer’s liking choice and queries, this study also aimed to provide a well understanding with the associated tools of social media those have great contribution to generate a communication and marketing strategy by the way of brand promotion.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Social Media A Useful Tool For Brand Promotion? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Defining social media The history social media can be traced back from 1980, such as first dial-up BBC stared to develop from the very beginning of its operation (Hershey 2010, p.5; and Morrison
“Shrek” as a Popular Broadway Show Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The musicals have been around for a long time and “Shrek” has become a popular Broadway show. But an important aspect of a musical is to stay real and make the audience feel the special atmosphere.
The musical “Shrek” is very much different from the animated films and the difference is not a positive one. Shrek wears a costume that is somewhat disproportional. The body seems extremely large, compared to the head and the head itself has a strange form. Also, the general behavior and movement is very unnatural.
The walk does not simulate the way an ogre walks. It is known that the actor is really a person but it is possible to get into the character more and make it animal like and unfamiliar. The way lines are said and words enunciated, does not represent the comical and sarcastic nature of the ogre.
The character is unnatural due to the way he looks and behaves. Donkey is very much unlike the one people are used to seeing in the film. It is obvious that the person playing donkey tries very hard to be like Eddie Murphy but this is a mistake. The lines seem forced and the actor gets lost, trying to parody another person. This can only be done sarcastically, for comic affect, which would be pointless in a musical.
Also, it seems a major let down that he walks on his back legs, instead like a real donkey. It is understandable that it would be difficult for an actor to accomplish this but it must be as much as the original performance of characters. The dance moves are jagged and separate the character from Donkey even more.
Princess Fiona looks like the original one but the charm and atmosphere is not present. In the film, even when the princess turned into an ogre, there was femininity and pleasantness about her. In the musical, the actress does not look relaxed and does not seem to “believe” that she is Princess Fiona.
The actor must become one with their character, so that the audience believes the performance. When the setting of the stage changes and the dancers come out, their dancing technique is well performed but their faces look very firm. The smiles do not look natural and so, the dance looks like a well practiced stepping routine, instead of a happy celebration. When Prince Charming appears on stage, it is somewhat unexpected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The scene is not made to lead into his entrance. His costume is very original but the movements are not smooth. The audience understands that the actor stands on his knees but the effect would be more comical if he was crouching down. He would be freer in his movements and so, the dancing and walking around would be more real. The singing part also needs work.
When he ends with a high pitched sound it is humorous but the majority of signing is loud and should be made less intense. The stage does not transfer over the atmosphere of a castle or a “magical land”. There need to be more decorations and details. Trees, grass and better scenery in a form of drapes or decorations would add to the effect, creating depth and distance. Musicals based on animated films would be acceptable for children but adults are more demanding, expecting a well thought out performance and actor’s play.
“Restoration Comedy” – English Play of 17-18th Centuries Essay college essay help online
This play is a comedy that seeks to show the author’s opposition to susceptibility of women in the Restoration society. This play seeks to show how the female characters play prominent roles. Further, it portrays them as strong and independent.
The play extensively focuses on three women Hellena, Florinda, and Angelica. The fates of nunnery, marriage, and well-paid prostitution bind these women respectively. Further, this play shows how the women’s determination and strong will help them escape from their fates (Sneider and Douglas 7).
This play outlines the standard treatment of women by men. It emphasizes that men treat women according to the way the women behave. If a woman has character and position, she commands dignity and respect from men. Conversely, if a woman lacks character men treat her with less respect and dignity.
This play portrays Hellana as a quality woman masquerading as a courtesan and Florinda as a philanderer who only stops this behavior when Belvile falls in love with her. The sisters, Hellena and Florinda discuss on how to explore their love. Hellena the younger sister wants to discover love before her brother Don Pedro sends her off to the convent.
On the other hand, Florinda the elder sister wants to marry the man she loves rather than the man her brother and father choose. The two women decide to explore their independence. The women want to do this before their planned futures choke their independence.
The two decide to go to a carnival dressed as gypsies where they meet three English nobles, Belvile, Blunt, Fredrick, and a sailor, Willmore. The sisters change the men’s choices using their disguises. In addition, the play focuses on Angelica a Courtesan new in Naples who is also at the carnival. Different men pursue Angelica for courtesan services, but Angelica chooses Willmore (Behn and Russell 10).
Encounters at the carnival trigger conflicts between the men prompting them to engage in fights over the women. At the end, women are free from their fates. Willmore agrees to marry Hellena and the two get Don Pedro’s approval for the marriage. Florinda marries the man of her choice, Belvile while Angelica sets Willmore free and leaves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second scene of the second act takes place in Angelica’s bedchambers. Willmore removes angelica’s Portrait from the wall. Angellica wants to know why He had removed the portrait. Willmore argues out that the portrait was there to tempt him and justifies why he had to take it down. In spite of Willmore awareness of Angelica’s high price, he tries to convince her to sleep with him free.
He says that he will join forces and finances with the other merchants to gain time with angelica. Willmore says that he repulses the idea of individuals’ selling their bodies. In addition, he says that his passion for Angelica’s divine powers allows him to pay for the services. Angelica ignores Morettas advice not to listen to Willmore. Angelica agrees to Willmore’s demands claiming she has fallen in love with him.
This scene is significant to this play in theme development. It contains many aspects that help to create themes for the entire play. Themes that come include prostitution, courtship, love, exploitation, among other themes.
The author brings out the theme of prostitution in this scene. Willmore points out that he repulses the idea of Angelica selling her body. In addition, he goes one to show his commitment in joining forces with other merchants so he can afford to enjoy time with Angelica.
Evidently, the theme of love and courtship come out in this scene. Angelica agrees to Willmore’s demand of sleeping with him for free claiming she has fallen in love with him. Willmore shows intentions of courtship when he says that he wants to have Angelica forever.
In addition, the author develops the theme of exploitation in this play. Willmore brings this out when he tries to exploit Angelica. Despite of him knowing that Angelica is a courtesan, he wants Angelica to offer him free services.
The author brings out the role of each character well. He portrays Angelica as a woman who is independent and strong. Angelica plays the prominent role of being a courtesan. Despite of this, she goes on to show her independence by doing as she pleases. She agrees to sleep with Willmore for free as she is in love with him. Further, the author portrays Willmore as a man who exploits women as he does with angelica.
We will write a custom Essay on “Restoration Comedy” – English Play of 17-18th Centuries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, this scene helps the author to develop the main plot of this play. She brings out the female characters as strong and independent and gives them prominent roles. Further, the author shows the society their actions and the extent to which those actions put women in compromising situations forcing them to disregard the society rules.
This leads women to lose status and position. The author’s view on position of women shows double standard of liberation in both public and legal spheres. The author manages to influence viewers to evaluate women’s roles in this new age by mocking and exposing constraints imposed on women in the restoration society.
Works Cited Behn, Aphra and Anne Russell. The Rover, 2nd ed. Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. Print.
Sneider, Maja-Lisan and Douglas Canfield. The Broadview Anthology of Restoration and Early Eighteenth-Century Drama. Ontario: Broadview Press, 2001. Print.