Introduction Cyclonic storm is considered as the worst one in the history of the North Indian Ocean. With the speed of wind of above 240 km/h influenced severe thunderstorms, rainfall and heavy waves forcing seven thousand people to relocate from the Muscat coastal areas. The eastern coastal towns, especially Sur and Ra’s al-haad, were confronted with the cyclone’s wind-speeds, and a deluge occasioned by waves of over 12 yards high.
Analysis of the level of preparedness
The level of preparedness was not adequate because no disaster plans were available. Emergency management office was unprepared because such as a disaster had never happened in the past. In addition, there was extremely poor public awareness particularly of the elderly people.
Scientists used satellite to monitor the progress of the cyclone both in terms of its general direction and in terms of increasing intensity. The Metrological Department of Oman and the National Warning System informed people living in low-lying areas about the necessity to evacuate. The National Civil Defense Committee actively coordinated the various aspects of information dissemination prior, during, and after the disaster.
Analysis of the level of the response
Although the Omani national weather service had indicated that cyclone would be very destructive, the government response was not adequately prepared. The available ambulance services were not enough to serve at least half of the affected people. The ambulances moved and lacked effective skills and training to perform in difficult situations.
However, volunteers offered their support to reduce the effect of the cyclone. Despite there was no activity from the Disaster Management department, the National Civil Defense was at hand to ensure the seamless coordination in the evacuation and provision of necessary supplies.
Analysis of the Recovery process
The government saw the need and immediately developed a recovery plan. This plan involved the estimation of the damage in the wake of the cyclone, the individuals and communities affected as well as the amount needed to compensate the victims of the disaster. The cyclone had caused great damage to the infrastructure including roads, mobile phone masts, and electricity poles.
Humanitarian organizations such as the Bahwan Charitable Foundation chipped in and offered financial and other support to those suffered. It is estimated that over $6 million were spent on the recovery process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lessons Learnt
From the Gonu cyclone, a number of failures were noted in the government planning. This included poor coordination, poor planned mechanism related to warning procedures and alerts. In addition, it was learnt that there must be adequate preparedness to enable efficient response to such problems.
People also learnt the need of finding out what happened in the past and taking disasters more seriously. The destruction to property and infrastructure and loss of life resulting from the Gonu cyclone indicate that the level of preparedness is not yet perfect. Apparently, in as much as there was information about the impending cyclone, the means of dissemination of that information was disjointed. This means that it was not as efficient as it might have been.
Conclusion To manage disasters such as the Gonu cyclone in an effective manner, it is crucial to focus on efficient planning, as well as coordination programs. Every agency must be given clear responsibilities based on a comprehensive executive authority. In addition, it is important to offer training and procedures to be followed in case of such a disaster.
There is a need to develop a well-coordinated system of disaster management equipped with efficient mechanisms for early warning preparedness and recovery procedures. This would enable the country to avoid destruction and loss of life caused by the Gonu cyclone.
Theories of learning Essay argumentative essay help
This chapter of the book is aimed surveying several theories of learning. In this paper, I would like to focus on the idea of operant conditioning because it is critical for explaining the development of a person’s behavior.
In my view, this approach can indeed throw some light on the formation of a person’s values, attitudes, or principles, but it attaches too much importance on the consequences of an action, rather than internal motives of a person.
Additionally, this framework is not effective for discussing the situations when people take actions that contradict the law of effects. This is the critical limitation of this framework, and it should not be overlooked.
Overall, the principle of operant conditioning is based on the assumption that a person modifies the behavior depending upon the consequences of an action that he/she takes. According to the law of effect, the behaviors that lead to positive consequences are more likely to be adopted by an individual. In contrast, the negative consequences prompt a person to make corrections in his/her conduct and avoid certain actions.
This mechanism is essential for the learning of an individual. The modifications of these positive and negative consequences are described as reinforcements and punishments, and they are critical for explaining the way in which a person can acquire certain skills. These are the key postulates of this model. To some degree, the model of operant conditioning has been confirmed in empirical studies.
In my opinion, the theory of operant conditioning is quite applicable when one speaks about the behavior of animals. Moreover, it can tell much about the conduct of children. Nevertheless, it is not applicable for explaining many decisions that people take. In particular, judging from my observations, people do not necessarily think about rewards and punishments when they take actions.
For example, I was able to observe many teenagers who chose to violate the rules set by their parents even despite the possible punishments of their parents. For example, they did not want to come home at the predetermined time. To a great extent, their conduct reminded me of my own opposition to my parents. Such choices contradict the law of effect according to which a person is more likely to avoid the decisions that lead to negative consequences. This is one of the main points that I can make.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, the idea of operant conditioning is important for the explaining the leaning process among various species. Nevertheless, it does not explain those situations when an individual takes ethical choices that can harm his/her interests. This is another aspect that cannot be explained by the principles of operant conditioning. In my view, the supporters of this theory do not pay sufficient attention to the internal convictions of a person. This is one of the main issues that should not be overlooked by psychologists.
It has to be admitted that an individual inevitably takes into account the consequences of certain action. But one cannot say that the law of effect is always suitable for describing the conduct of a person. The principles of operant conditioning should be evaluated more closely so that psychologists could make more accurate predictions about the behavior of groups and individuals. This is the main arguments that can be put forward in this discussion.
Research paper review Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Review 2 research papers that are relevant to your topic. The papers should be research papers not white papers or meta-analysis papers. The papers should be recent (within the last 3 years, unless approved by the instructor ahead of time). 1 paper should use a small sample size and 1 should have a medium to large sample size. If you can find one with a mixed-method approach (if it is relevant to your work, then it can be used as one of the papers). My research topic is The Affects of Physical activity related to social and behavioral development in children
Analogies for Daosism: Self-Construction and the Attempt to Reach the Enlightenment in Comparison to Confucianism Essay argumentative essay help
Although the key concepts of Daoism and Confucianism seem to be miles away from each other, there is still a distinct similarity between the two. While most of the concepts that Daoism embraces stand on their own, some of the ideas expressed in the Daoism postulates cross with the ones conveyed in Confucianism.
Analyzing the key concepts of Daoism, i.e., “analogies”, one can possibly figure out what the philosophy of Daoism manifests as the ultimate enlightenment, as well as compare the given ideas with the similar ones from Confucianism.
First and foremost, the harmony between yin and yang must be mentioned. Aimed at restoring one’s balance within, Daoism stresses the importance of balance between the feminine and the masculine. Further on, the Daoism teachings say, “Make yourself like bamboo, a bowl, door, window, canyon/valley: empty, void, still” (Daoist philosophies, n. d).
Another key Taoism analogy concerns water; as Oldmeadow put it, “Still following the analogy of water, Taoism rejects all forms of self-assertiveness and competition” (Oldmeadow, 2007, 220). Finally, the analogy between a Taoism follower and a child is drawn to stress such virtues of a child as innocence and curiosity (Scharfstein, 2009, 266).
Though the four above-mentioned analogies are considered the key ones in the Daosism school of thought, there are also a couple of related concepts that are worth brining up. To start with, Daosism teaches that Dao, the crucial concept in the entire philosophy, can be viewed as an analogy of a family’s house.
On the one hand, the given analogy might not seem adequate enough; while a family house is something stable, Dao is usually translated into the concept of a road and, therefore, represents a constantly changing environment. Therefore, Dao as an analogy of a family house seems quite a stretch.
However, the given analogy still has certain grounds to base on. Considering a family house as a shelter, a place where one can feel relatively safe, will inevitably bring one to perceiving Dao as a kind of “family,” the school that teaches one basic values and provides a viable way to analyze things, as well as develop one’s own set of values, which is actually often what family members provide their child with. Therefore, the analogy that represents Dao as a family’s house is quite understandable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the issue of Zhuangzi, or wu wei, should be mentioned. An important analogy in the philosophy of Buddhism as well, wu wei is usually referred to as “nonaction,” though there is no actual translation – at least not into the English language – for the given concept.
However, the given translation is wrong; as Daoist principles claim, “Those who wu wei do act” (Daoist philosophies, n. d.); only, in contrast to the traditional actions that people perform on a daily basis, the wu wei actions are “natural,” “effortless” (Daoist philosophies, n. d.).
Hence, Daosism concepts embrace a wide range of virtues and abilities that contribute to finding the way to the ultimate Enlightenment. While Confucianism communicates the principles of returning to nature, Daosism focuses on personal development. Therefore, it can be concluded that in Daosism, the focus is on a person as an individual, while in Confucianism, the focus is on the relationships between people and nature, i.e., the interpretation of a nature-versus-nurture argument.
Reference List Daoist philosophies (n. d.). Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/daoism/
Oldmeadow, H. (2007). Light from the East: Eastern wisdom for the modern West. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, Inc.
Scharfstein, B.-A. (2009). Art without borders: A philosophical exploration of art and humanity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Telegraph to Twitter Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The practice or the science of transmitting information from one party to the next especially through an electronic means is called communication. Communication is inevitable. It takes place in everyday life whether the people involved in the process are close to one another or far away from each other.
Also, it takes place consciously or unconsciously. Communication can be verbal or non-verbal. Long distance made it difficult for individuals to communicate. This, as a result, led to the invention of technology that would enable messages to be relayed over long distances. Twitter as form of communication is more appealing than telegraphy (Fang, 2012).
Differences Electric telegraph is an ancient system of communication that has since been obsolete whereas twitter is a current micro blogging and a networking social system of communication service. Electric telegraphs and signals were conveyed from one locality to the next using wire as a medium of transmission (Robert, 2013).
It is this signals that were translated into meaningful messages. The electric telegraph came after the non-electric telegraph which Claude Chappe invented in 1749. The non electric telegraph used sophomore which is a flagbased alphabet. The system was visual and relied heavily on a line of sight to communicate (Loretta, 2008).
Samuel, F.B. Morse invented the electronic telegraph. In order to convey the message, he initially used thirty five wires containing gold electrodes. He plunged the wires into water transmitting the message on the receiving end via electrolysis. The message was enabled by the amount of gas that that came as a result of electrolysis. Morse later investigated with electromagnetic indicators in the mid nineteenth century.
He got funds from a congress that saw him through with the telegraph idea (Mary, 2013). Characters sent via a twitter message are called tweets. This was an invention from an undergraduate student at the University of New York, Jack Dorsey. His first idea was using a short text message to communicate to a small group of individuals. He created twitter in March of the year 2006 and was launched in July the same year (Vasellaro, 2008).
While telegraphic information is retrieved in the form of writing in a paper, twitter is a type of communication that takes place in the internet. For one to send telegraphic information, they must have a telegraphic machine. The message is written by the sender of the message in a paper after which it is telegraphed to the receiver who also must be able to access the machine.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Twitter, on the other hand, relies on the internet. One is only required to log into their tweeting account to view ‘tweets’ form their followers. This can be done on a computer or via an internet enabled mobile phone (Robert, 2013).
While twitter requires membership, sending a telegraph does not require one to be a registered member. Telegraphic means of communication does not require one sign up for an account in order to send or receive information.
With a telegraphic machine, one is able to send information to anyone so long as they have the telegraphic machine. One can also read information sent to them without being a registered member Twitter on the other hand requires one to register as a member for one to view or post messages for others to view (Mary, 2013).
Telegraphic form of communication was not flexible and convenient as compared to twitter which is flexible and convenient. Telegraphic machines are not found everywhere. One has to get them from a designated location like in a post office. This makes the process time consuming and less efficient.
Twitter, on the other hand, is faster as internet is easily accessible. One can ‘twit’ via their mobile phone, tablet or a cyber café. One can ‘twit’ while travelling, having dinner, when they are about to sleep, first thing in the morning when they wake up and even in the toilet (Robert, 2013). Such flexibility was impossible with the telegraph.
Telegraphic form of communication is conventional and less attractive unlike twitter which is attractive and easy to understand. Telegraphic information is written on a paper in black and white. It is less attractive and can prove to be difficult to understand sometimes because it has no illustrations in the form of a video or photographs.
Twitter, on the other hand, uses motion pictures and photographs as well as videos that keep the readers entertained. These attributes enhance the comprehension of the message. Twitter also offers its users the option of sending messages in different formats, styles and lengths. The telegraph was more restricted (Mary, 2013).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Telegraph to Twitter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whereas twitter information transfer takes place instantly, telegraphic information does not take place instantly. When using the telegraphic form of communication, one does not get a feed back as soon as they send the information (Tom, 2009). This is because a process must take place before the receiver of the message corresponds to the message.
Further, the long distance that one has to travel to access the machine also delays information. Using twitter on the other hand is an instant means of communication. A click of a button and the information is read by the receiver and replied instantly for as long as both the receiver and the sender are on the same site (Neil 1985).
While telegraphic means of communication can be used to relay any amount of written information without limitation twitter has a limit to the number of characters that can be sent. In the telegraphic means of communication, one can write as much information as they please and the information will reach the receiver just as sent. It gives the sender of the message a chance to express themselves in writing without limitation on the information to be sent (Loretta, 2008).
As a result, it is appropriate for the formal type of communication. Twitter on the other hand has restriction on the number of character sent to the receiver. The maximum number of characters that the sender can send is 140 only. This limits one in expressing themselves (Standage 1998).
Twitter can be used for advertising while the telegraphic means of communication cannot be used to advertise. Telegraphic communication technology uses written information only and has no tools for formatting.
This makes it difficult to advertise. Furthermore, telegraphs are intended for few receivers. Twitter, on the other hand, is appropriate for advertising. Many individuals access the internet causing to reach a wider market. The site also provides tools that enable users to reformat their information thereby making it more attractive (Vasellaro, 2008).
Telegraphic means of communication is not only used to relay messages but can be put into other uses like the telegraphic money transfers, a feature that twitter does not have. The telegraphic machine was reinvented and is able to perform other functions.
Western Union and Money Gram are the largest money transfer organizations which came into operation the same year that telegraphs came into operation-1851 (Tom, 2009). Twitter cannot be used for money transfers because it has not been designed to do so, furthermore, many would not consider it safe as millions of people access the site (Robert, 2013).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Telegraph to Twitter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarities In addition, there are a number of similarities between the two. First, both telegraph and twitter are means of communication. In both, there is a sender, a medium of communication, a channel of communication and the receiver. They are both used to relay information.
They both have the same format of communication which is written message. The first message transmitted by a telegraph was “what hath God wrought” while the first message sent via twitter was “just setting up my twttr” (Loretta, 2008). The two gadgets are unlike phone, which send voice messages.
In both means of communication, the sender of the message has to write or post written information which has to be transmitted to the receiver through a medium. The receiver then reads the message, understands, interpret the information then respond back in the form of a written message to the receiver, who was initially a sender (Neil 1985).
Both telegraph and twitter are used to relay messages over long or short distances. Telegraphs started in the form of cables that were connected from one city to the next in 1838. Morse demonstrated the gadget by guiding an indicator through wire in Morris town. He later secured funds from a legislative body that assisted him mount a demonstration line in the middle of Baltimore and Washington DC (Tom, 2009).
It was unmanageable to hide the wires below the ground and had to hang them from pole to pole. It took a long time before telegraphic cables were put through the Atlantic Ocean to connect the whole world.
Twitter also uses internet cables to communicate worldwide. The use of telegraphs and twitter has made the world a global village. For example, somebody in the United Kingdom can easily communicate with somebody in Africa clearly and easily by twitting or via a telegraph. They were both invented for one basic need-to communicate (Robert, 2013).
Both telegraph and twitter started on sketchy grounds before developing into the wide networks in later years. People have come up with better ideas that have seen the technology grow from a frame to a wholesome system that ensures efficient and effective communication.
Their introduction got positive responses from people who contributed positively towards their growth. Both can be accessed by any individual who wishes to use them. There are no restrictions as to who can use the technology in terms of social class or age among others (Mary 2013).
Both have been used to relay important messages. During the civil war, Associated Press used a telegraph to dispatch information to various relevant offices. AP collected presidential poll results in1848 using a telegraph for the first time that saw Zachary Taylor secure victory in the presidential race.
President Abraham Lincoln state union was transmitted via telegraph. The contemporary world today has seen presidential and parliamentary campaigns carried out on twitter among other social networks (Vasellaro, 2008). Technology keeps upgrading from one decade to the next. Twitter is an upgraded form of technology that has made communication easy and enjoyable making it highly preferred to telegraph in the contemporary world (Vasellaro 2008).
References Fang, I. (2012). Alphabet to internet: Media in our lives (2nd Ed.). Kansas: Rada Press.
Neil,P. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. Viking: Elisabeth Sifton Books.
Standage, T. (1998). The remarkable story of the telegraph and the nineteenth century’s outline pioneers. New York: Walker and Company.
Loretta, O. (2008). Peek-A-Boo World. New Jersey: Paulist Press.
Tom, S. (2009). The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Vasellaro, J. (2008, October 27). Twitter goes mainstream. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online,wsj.com/article/SB22461906719455335.html.
Mary, B. (2013, March 30). The history of electric telegraphic and telegraphy: The beginning of an electronic communication inventors. History 1800. Retrieved from about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/telegraph.htm.
Robert, M. (2013, March 30). The invention of telegraphs changed communication forever: A communication revolution wired the world in the 19th century. History 1800. Retrieved from about.com/od/inventioninnovations/a/telegraph01.htm.
Managing Quality, Innovation and Knowledge Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Value of quality management in organisations
Introduction The economic environment is changing constantly and competition among business organisations is becoming stiffer every day. This is a call for organisations to take major actions that will help them stay in competition. No organisation can risk losing to a competitor since that would act as a major blow on its financial performance.
Market failure or organisational failure is a catastrophic phenomenon and organisations should avoid at all costs. Organisations need to be producing quality goods and offering quality services consistently. Managers should ensure that their organisations engage in activities that give competitive advantage to the organisation (Sukhija, 2009).
Some of the factors that can give the organisation competitive advantage include quality management, innovation and change. Quality management is the form of management whereby the manager directs all his or her duties towards ensuring that the organisation produces quality goods and services.
To do this, there must be employees who are highly knowledgeable and skilled. Therefore, the human resource manager should be capable of managing a high quality human resource that would in turn be able to produce quality products and services (Bessant and Tidd, 2008). Under quality management, the organisation is expected to produce high quality goods in a consistent manner.
Innovation, on the other hand, is the art of coming up with something new and better than what was there before. It involves improving what is already there to increase consumer satisfaction (Swann, 2009). Finally, the change is simply doing things in a different and better way. This essay focuses on the importance of quality management, innovation and change in an organisation. The paper will evaluate the reasons why an organisation needs to have the above factors and how the factors would give the organisation competitive advantage.
Value of quality management in organisations Quality management is a skill that has become highly significant among organisational leaders and managers. Quality management is a distinct skill of management and most managers are thriving to add it to their skill set (Charantimath, 2009). Quality management is guided by the quality management principles.
Quality management principles can be defined as the rules that are adopted by leaders and managers in leading an organisation. The rules are aimed at improving the long term performance of the organisation, as well as addressing the needs of customers and those of other organisational stakeholders, such as the employees and shareholders. There are eight principles of quality management that are all aimed at improving the performance of an organisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In discussing the benefits of quality management, it is advisable to look at each quality management principle and its associated benefit. In Australia, quality management has been there for a long time. However, it was not enforced seriously until around the year 1990. In 1991, an award for quality management was launched where best companies would be awarded each year. Today, quality management is a priority to most companies in Australia (Funk, 2004).
The first quality management principal is customer focus (ISO Central Secretariat, 2012). This is a principle that refers to organisations that rely on their customers to know the areas they need to improve. They understand what the customers need currently and what they would need in the future.
The aim is to maximise customer satisfaction and, therefore, the management adjusts their operations to attain this goal. Customer focus is beneficial to the organisation. First, it helps the manager realise the existing market opportunities and respond on a timely basis. SGS Limited is a construction company that values its customers and customer focus has been of much advantage to the company (Jolly, 2003).
If the manager realises what customers need in the future, his or her management activities get focused on producing goods that meet that requirement. It is important to note that a consumer needs to represent the future market opportunity. The other benefit of this principle is that it enables the organisation to utilise the available resources effectively to enhance consumer satisfaction.
The organisation is able to research on consumer needs and then take the necessary action depending on the findings. Finally, consumer loyalty also increases since customers get satisfaction from the organisation. This creates a strong consumer base that ensures that the organisation has a future. Today’s businesses need to be proactive to survive competition. Understanding what customers need and producing it in advance helps organisations survive in the current economy (Pfeifer, 2002).
The second principle of quality management is leadership. This is very important for the success of any organisation. Leadership gives motivation to employees and increases their productivity and the performance of the organisation in general (Northouse, 2010). Leaders establish the direction of the organisation.
They determine the goals and purpose of the organisation, as well as devise ways of achieving those goals. Good leaders are what organisations need in order to cope with transition to a sustainable economy. Good leadership also influences innovation and competitive advantage in organisations (Jolly, 2003). SGS managers are aware of the importance of good leadership and the benefits thereof (Jolly, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Managing Quality, Innovation and Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third principle is the involvement of people. For quality management, the managers need to involve other people at all levels. It is important to note that people are the essence of any organisation. When people are involved in the organisation, it is easier to get the best out of them, and this is for the organisational benefit (Pun and Nurse, 2010).
Motivated employees feel motivated and give their best. This is important for the organisation since it assists the organisation deal with the challenges it faces. People have different knowledge and skills. When all these skills are combined, it becomes easier to solve problems that face the organisation (Liu et al. 2013). When people are involved in the organisational activities, they become responsible and accountable for their performance.
This compels them to perform well since they are prepared to take responsibility. Everyone aims at producing his or her best performance. All the organisational stakeholders also understand the significance of their contribution and the roles they are supposed to play in the organisation. The implication of people involvement is that the performance of the organisation improves significantly. In a transition economy, a good performing organisation does not have problems coping.
Process approach is also a very important quality management principle since it influences efficient achievement of the organisational goals. Process approach production lowers the cost incurred by the organisation and helps in effective utilisation of resources. In addition, it is easy to improve results since the manager is able to easily identify a problem and deal with it effectively.
Further, it is easy to prioritise opportunities and improve on them for the benefit of the organisation (Qin and Bei, 2002). Managers who use quality management have the ability to identify the activities that can be beneficial to the organisation. For instance, Capgemini in Australia has benefited from efficient utilization of resources, leading to efficient processes that lead to quality production as an aspect of quality management (Funk, 2004).
Process approach enables managers to carry out an analysis of major activities and take the necessary actions to execute such activities. Performing the key activities and maintaining low costs give the organisation competitive advantage. This leads to increased income for the organisation’s chances of survival in the future economy (Rönnbäck and Eriksson, 2012).
Quality managers use system approach in their management. The organisation system contributes to the organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency in goals’ achievement (Flynn and Flynn, 2005). Once the manager uses the system approach, he is able to identify, understand, as well as manage its processes.
This assists in the integration of processes that can be beneficial in achieving the set goals. The manager understands how the organisational system relates to the major processes and enhances their integration. Managing by system approach enables the organisational leaders to structure the system and increase its efficiency and effectiveness to achieve organisational goals and objectives. The success of an organisation is proportional to its achievement of objectives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Quality, Innovation and Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This improves it survival chances (Li, Anderson and Harrison, 2003). A clear understanding of the system is vital for the organisational survival in a transition economy. Managers of Capgemini, for instance, have a good understanding of the organization system. The company’s resources are well utilized to maximize its earnings (Funk, 2004).
Continual improvement is a quality management principle that calls for the organisation to ensure that its performance is consistent for a long time. The organisation, therefore, engages in activities that would enable it to be competitive for a long time. It is important to note that an organisation that is committed to continued improvement is in a better position to take the necessary action towards a perceived opportunity (Zu, 2009).
In addition, such an organisation can take actions in advance and be at an advantage over other organisations. For an organisation to secure continued improvement, it needs to have workers who are constantly and consistently improving in terms of their knowledge and skills. Therefore, the organisation should offer the employees training opportunities so that they can grow.
This is a form of motivation to employees and they in turn perform better and improve on the organisational performance (Judge and Douglas, 2009). The implication of this is that the organisation is steadily positioned to solve any problems that it may face since it has knowledgeable and skilled human resource. The firm is also comfortably able to cope with a transition economy.
Decision making is another major factor for the organisation’s success. Quality management influences decision making based on facts (Kuei
The Asphalt History Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction The composition of crude oil is infinitely varied and complex. This is because of the several components that can be derived from crude oil after the separation process of distillation. However, the components derived from crude oil vary with the original location of the crude oil (Barth, 1962, p. 56).
For instance, crude oil found in West Virginia and Pennsylvania has a lot of wax, which may not be found in crude oils found in other regions. On the other hand, crude oil found in California is known to exhibit a lot of asphalt. Among the various components that can be separated from crude oil include lubricating oil, wax, heavy fuel oil, naphtha, tar, and asphalt just to mention a few.
In this section, the production, history, and uses of asphalt will be discussed. “Asphalt is a semi-solid or highly viscous substance that could be found as natural deposits or could be manufactured from crude oil. Asphalt is black in colour and very sticky given its high viscosity” (Freemantle, 2013, p.1).
It is important to note that asphalt is something that we see and step on almost every day. Indeed, asphalt is the core substance in the construction of roads and airplane runways. It is because of the presence of asphalt that roads and runways are black. With this in mind, it can be deduced that asphalt is heavily used globally. For instance, the United States of America alone uses about 70 billion lb of asphalt yearly. However, this usage is expected to increase in future given the high rate of development.
A big percentage of the asphalt used today is derived from the distillation process of crude oil. In fact, asphalt happens to be the residual product of crude oil distillation. “As such, asphalt comprises of saturated and unsaturated compounds as well as aromatic compounds whose composition differs with the source of crude oil” (Barth, 1962, p.56).
However, most aliphatic compounds contain sulphur, nitrogen, heteroatoms, and oxygen among other compounds. “Typical asphalt will be made up of 80% carbon, 10% hydrogen, 6% sulphur, and small quantities of nitrogen and oxygen” (Freemantle, 2013, p.1).Trace elements such as iron, vanadium, and nickel will also be found in asphalt. Most of the aliphatic components have a high polarity, thus easily dissolving in polar substances such as hexane and heptanes.
Aliphatic compounds exhibit high polarity due to the presence of functional groups such as amine, alcohol, and carboxyl in their structure. Nevertheless, asphalt is said to be thermoplastic in nature given its polymer network. Above all, asphalt is hard and able to withstand harsh temperature changes and forces hence its use in road construction. Below is an image showing an asphalt particle.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fig. 1 (Barth, 1962, p.67)
History of Asphalt Asphalt has been in existence for the longest time in history since 4000 B.C. Asphalt was first realized as deposits that occurred naturally on earth. It was thought that these deposits were as a result of ancient remains of living things such as microscopic algae and other diatoms.
These remains were found at sea beds, lake bottoms, and mud, which were inhabitants of living things. Having been found in the ancient times, asphalt had several uses including being used in binding of bricks, cementing carvings, waterproofing, and ship caulking among other uses.
“The bible indicates that the Tower of Babel was constructed using asphalt as a binding substance for the bricks” (McNichol, 2005, p.104). This therefore shows that asphalt is as old as the bible. The Dead Sea commonly known as the Palus Asphaltites (Asphalt Lake) by the Romans was the major source of asphalt for the Egyptians.
Asphalt air blowing unit Upon distillation, crude oil is bound to recover various products including gases, heavy fuels, naphtha, wax, and asphalt. As mentioned earlier in the paper, asphalt is the residue of crude oil distillation thus being the lowest substance in the distillation unit as depicted in the figure below.
Fig. 2 (McNichol, 2005, p. 107)
Crude oil distillation involves two stages of atmospheric and vacuum distillations. Atmospheric distillation entails heating the oil at temperatures above atmospheric pressure thus recovering gases and light density substances such as gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. Vacuum distillation is conducted at pressures that are absolute as well as under vacuum conditions of 10-40 mmHg. This stage is meant to recover heavy fuel oil as shown in the diagram below.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Asphalt History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fig. 3 (Volodin et al., 2003, p. 213)
As depicted in the above diagram, once the distillation process is over, oil with asphalt is extracted and de-asphalted before it goes through the air blowing process. The air blowing process of asphalt entails the use of an air compressor that is sued to blow air through the liquid asphalt that remains after distillation.
This process takes place at temperature ranges of 235 to 290 0C (Volodin et al., 2003, p. 213). Asphalt is heated until it attains this temperature range and then held in the blowing tower. Hot air is injected in the blowing tower for a predestined period. The high heated air is introduced into the blowing column through the bottom part of the column.
This air is normally meant to agitate mixing of the heated asphalt in a bid to increase the surface area for intended reaction. The air blowing process is carefully conducted to avoid any instances of asphalt combustion. As such, the temperatures are normally below the asphalt flash point just to avoid the possibility of combustion.
The air blowing process involves exothermic reactions since heat is produced. It is important to note that oxygen in the air used in the process causes the asphalt to oxidize. On the other hand, the asphalt is dehydrogenized thus making it increase in molecular size. Several factors affect the reaction rate in the blowing column. These include the temperature used, residence time, the air-to feed ratio, as well as the viscosity and origin of the asphalt fed.
Asphalt emulsifying process After the air blowing process, the extracted asphalt undergoes an emulsification process to come up with an asphalt emulsion. The emulsifying process essentially entails mixing of the asphalt with water at reduced melting point temperatures. An emulsion can be simply defined as the dispersion of one liquid’s droplets in another liquid of different densities. Most often than not, emulsions are either oil in water or water in oil mixtures.
Common examples of emulsions include butter, creams, and mayonnaise among others. “An emulsion of asphalt ideally contains 70% asphalt with the rest being water and chemical additives” (Freemantle, 2013, p.1). This is because the emulsion is prepared by mixing asphalt with water in addition to emulsifying agents. The emulsifying agent function is to disperse the asphalt globules thus making them far from each other.
This helps in space creation in between the globules for water globules to bind hence forming an emulsion. Through the application of mechanical energy adequate to break down the asphalt into small particles, the emulsion process sets on. The aim of the mechanical energy is to lower the viscosity of asphalt and make it miscible with water and other substances. The reason behind the emulsification of asphalt is to make it workable at different temperatures given the fact that asphalt is normally very hard at low temperatures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Asphalt History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before emulsification, asphalt is of brown colour, which significantly changes to black upon emulsification. This turning of colour is an indication that the emulsion is broken after the evaporation of the water. It should be noted that the time taken for the water used in emulsification to evaporate and set is dependent on the emulsion type.
Below is a typical diagram showing the emulsification process of asphalt.
Fig. 4 (Volodin et al., 2003, p. 213)
The blending process “Upon emulsification, asphalt becomes miscible with each other as well as with other liquids in different proportions” (Freemantle, 2013, p.1). This then makes it possible to produce different blends of asphalt that are of different characteristics. The blending process of asphalt is determined by the softening and penetration points of the asphalt hence the need for blending charts.
The charts show the softening and penetration points of the asphalts intended to be blended. The meeting point of the two line graphs on the chart is then used during blending. The softening points are determined by measuring the viscosity of asphalt using a viscoliner and a graph similar to the one below derived.
Fig. 5 Use of asphalt viscosity blending chart (Volodin et al., 2003, p. 215)
Examples of asphalt blends
In this type of blend, paraffin wax is blended with asphalt. The fact that paraffin wax has a low melting point of about 600C when blended with asphalt, the outcome product has a lower viscosity than the original asphalt. This blend also has a reduced tackiness especially during low temperatures.
Asphalt/ Petroleum oil blends
These are commonly referred to as cutbacks. These blends are made from petroleum oil products such as gas oil, kerosene, and naphtha among others. When blended, the product is normally softer than the original asphalt.
Types and grades of asphalt produced
There are different types and grades of asphalt produced during processing. These types differ in terms of composition, physical characteristics, and appearance. Some of the common types and grades of asphalt include the following:
Mastic asphalt: This is commonly known as sheet asphalt. It has a low percentage of asphalt. “It is mostly used in road construction as well as footpath construction. Some of it is used in flooring and roofing” (Freemantle, 2013, p.1). This is mainly because of its slippery characteristic, which makes it hard to absorb water.
Cut-back asphalt: This type is made by blending asphalt with kerosene and then mixing it with aggregate. This makes it environmental unfriendly since it causes pollution. As such, it has been rendered illegal in most parts of the world. As time goes by, the asphalt becomes hard due to the loss of kerosene through evaporation.
Hot Mix Asphalt (HMAC): As the name suggest, this type of asphalt is produced at high temperatures of about 1600C. This means that this asphalt is of low viscosity and with less moisture thus very durable. As such, this type of asphalt is preferred for use in highways, airport runways and other areas of high traffic (Volodin et al., 2003, p.214).
Warm mix asphalt: The temperatures in this type of asphalt are relatively low, thus allowing the addition of wax and other substances to form emulsions. The process of making this asphalt is deemed environmental friendly because of reduced emission and low consumption of fuel. The only problem is that the warm mix asphalt is not as durable as hot mix asphalt. As such, it is used in areas of low traffic or used to patch damaged hot mix asphalt concrete.
Specification and properties of each type of asphalt produced (high penetration, low penetration, etc)
Grading of asphalt according to its penetration abilities is a system that began as early as in the 1900s. Penetration of asphalt is determined using a needle of 100 grams, which is inserted in the asphalt at a temperature of 250C. Using this test, the standard needle will penetrate deeper in less viscous asphalt, which is then graded as high penetration asphalt.
In low penetration asphalt, the needle will not penetrate or have a shallow penetration. Penetration grading is important in determining the type of asphalt to be used in different climatic regions. In that case, the low penetration asphalt is used in regions of high temperature while the high penetration asphalt used in cold climatic regions. Nevertheless, this method has attracted much controversy with the critics arguing that the method is not ideal, as it does not test fundamental parameters such as viscosity.
Uses and application of different types of asphalt
Asphalt is mostly used in making asphaltic concrete that is a material for road construction. “The consumption of petroleum asphalt on asphaltic concrete is approximated at 80% of all petroleum asphalt used in the U.S. It is normally used as glue holding together crushed stones, sand, slag, gravel, and other materials” (McNichol, 2005, p. 67).
For instance, rolled asphaltic concrete has the asphaltic binder and aggregate, cutback asphalt has petroleum solvents, asphalt emulsions contain chemical additives and asphalt, and mastic has less aggregate than rolled asphaltic concrete.
Secondly, asphalt is used in roofing shingles, which account for about a fifth of all asphalt used in the U.S. Roofing materials made of asphalt are actually the dominant roofing material in the U.S (McNichol, 2005, p. 34). In China and Japan, asphalt is incorporated in ceramics thus making them waterproof. In France, asphalt is embedded in photography and art where it used to make photographic films that are fitted in cameras.
Asphalt is also used in paving of parking lots for vehicles and runways in airports. In addition to this, it is also used in making dam facings, canals, and reservoir linings. Asphalt has also been used in making battery casings and floor tiles. Due to its waterproofing property, asphalt is used to waterproof materials like fabrics.
It can also be used in making cattle sprays and treating wooden objects and materials like wooden fence posts. Overall, the usefulness of asphalt comes as a result of its binding property and its waterproofing property. These properties work together to ensure that materials with asphalt are tough, hard, and durable.
Conclusion From the above discussion on asphalt, it can be deduced that asphalt is indeed an important component despite being the residue product in crude oil distillation. Asphalt is the product that remains after distillation of crude oil although it could also be found as natural deposits in sea and lakebeds.
In order to be rendered appropriate for use, asphalt undergoes various processes such as air blowing, emulsification and blending among others (Barth, 1962, p. 68). Additionally, asphalts are of different types with the main differences being physical properties and applications. Common types include mastic, hot mix, warm mix, and cut back asphalts.
Asphalt is the core product in the construction of roads and airport runways (Volodin et al., 2003, p. 214). Other uses of asphalt mentioned in the paper include roofing, flooring, waterproofing and binding just to mention a few.
Despite having several uses, asphalt has proven to have significant health impacts especially after prolonged contact with the substance. Asphalt fumes whose common way of exposure is through inhalation, pose health dangers to the respiratory system of a human being.
Some of the immediate respiratory problems felt after exposure include cough and through irritation. If not immediately treated, lung cancer could arise. Asphalt fumes have also been depicted to bring about skin rashes, irritation of eye, headache, and fatigue among other minor ailments. Being carcinogenic, asphalt fumes could lead to different types of cancers such as stomach and throat cancer in cases of prolonged exposure.
Reference List Barth, E. (1962). Asphalt: Science and Technology. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Freemantle, M. (2013). Asphalt. Retrieved from http://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuff/7747scit6.html?
McNichol, D. (2005). Paving the Way: Asphalt in America. Lanham, MD: National Asphalt Pavement Association.
Volodin, Yu, et al. (2003). Production of Asphalt from Activated Crude Oil Residues. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 39(4), 213-215.
Managing People and Organisations Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Organisations develop and implement management concepts that enable them to operate efficiently. These concepts are also called functions of management. They help managers to make tactical and strategic decisions to enhance efficient management of an organisation (Griffin and Moorhead 108).
Functions of Management Planning
This is the major function of management. It acts as a pillar upon which other functions are built. Planning enables managers to evaluate the present position of an organisation and decide in advance possible future developments. It provides a plan of action that elaborates what should be done and at what time.
Moreover, it enhances drafting of the means and ways of achieving predetermined goals. It is vital in management because it ensures that human and no-human resources are utilized properly. Moreover, it helps the management to avoid uncertainties, risks, possible wastes, and confusion (Keller 109).
Organising helps the management team to assemble human, finance, and physical resources. As a result, a productive relationship is created between the resources that enhance realization of set goals and objectives.
Organising involves the identification of available resources, allocating and delegating duties, and coordinating both non-human and human resources. This ensures that resources are organised properly to enhance the achievement of goals developed during the planning phase (Griffin and Moorhead 108).
Directing involves influencing people to work efficiently. Influence to achieve goals is attained through motivation, communication, supervision, and leadership (Keller 109). Motivation inspires, stimulates, and encourages employees to work with determination.
It can be in the form of job promotion, gifts or recognition of individuals who perform excellently. Supervision entails monitoring the workforce and providing necessary directions and support.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership entails guiding the workforce in a desired direction. Finally, communication entails passing information, opinions, and/or experience within an organisation. It promotes teamwork and understanding.
Controlling is the last function of management that entails measurement of the organisation’s accomplishments and correction of possible deviations. This is meant to ensure that the organisation achieves its goals systematically. Moreover, controlling ensures that the plans of an organisation occur according to predetermined standards.
It investigates whether the company is aligned towards achieving its goals and objectives. In addition, it involves taking appropriate actions when necessary to correct any deviations from standards (Keller 109).
Controlling entails the following steps: setting standard of performance, measuring actual performance, comparing actual performance with standards, and taking corrective actions (Griffin and Moorhead 108).
Effective Management Traits
For a person to manage an organisation effectively, he/she need to possess effective management traits. These traits will enable the person to control system processes and drive an organisation towards success. According to Jonathan Scott (79), effective management traits include the following:
A good manager has integrity. This trait enables workers to build trust on the manager. To effectively manage people and organizations one need to be honest and follow rules. Integrity deters corruption which is dangerous to organisation development.
A good manager is self-motivated. He/she does not need to be monitored to deliver. He/she must be capable of understanding the goals and objectives of an organisation. Furthermore, he/she should be ready to develop strategies for achieving those goals and objectives.
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To effectively manage a business or people, one should be ready to work with a team. This means that a manager should corporate with the staff to achieve business goals and personal satisfaction.
Ability to Solve Conflicts
A manager acts as a bridge between top management and workers. He/she should be capable of solving conflicts between management and employees. In addition, one should be able to solve conflicts between the organisation and outside rivals diplomatically.
An effective manager should be dependable such that the employer or employees can counted on him or her any time. Reliability helps one to gain people’s trust.
Effective management requires a person to have an optimistic attitude. This enables one to be visionary i.e. looking into the future with determination and hoping for the better even if the situation seems hopeless. Optimism inspires employees and makes them feel good about their work.
Effective managers have good leadership traits. He/she must be confident with his/her abilities to lead a team, provide directions, delegate duties appropriately, and command actions where necessary. Moreover, one must be capable of influencing others to achieve business or personal goals and objectives.
Effective communication is vital in today’s business world. To manage an organisation effectively, one need to have efficient communication skills. This will enable him/her to communicate with prospective clients/customers.
Effective management requires that both negative and positive feedback be provided to respective parties. Feedback helps individuals to reflect on their performance and adjust accordingly.
An effective manager should have a good understanding of his/her field of study and be able to show what he/she knows. This trait entails other characteristics such as intelligence, creativity, and humor (Keller 109).
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Managers should demonstrate fairness when formulating policies or delegating duties. This trait is vital in any organisation because it encourages teamwork and loyalty.
Ability to Remain Calm
Being able to remain calm and composed in all situations even when things are not working according to plans is not easy. However, a good manager should be able to cool down when circumstances get worse, employees become nuisance, and strategies fail to work.
How to Achieve Effective Management Traits
Effective management traits can be achieved through many ways. Some of the traits are inborn while others are learnt through several processes (Guido and Nueno 56). To achieve these traits one need to do the following:
Investing in his/her Strengths
People have natural strengths that permit their skills and capabilities. Investing in these strengths through training can enhance their perfection and refinement. For instance, if one is naturally good in negotiation, he/she should take negotiation classes to improve his/her negotiation skills.
Invest in Knowledge
Investing time to acquire the right knowledge and intelligence enhances one’s career development. For instance, to acquire better leadership skills, one may need to invest in leadership trainings to be perfect (Keller 109).
Having the right relationship
Keeping the right relationship with people who have management skills may help one to learn similar skills. Having a personal advisory board can enable one to achieve management traits. For instance, one may attain teamwork trait by having right networks or relationship.
Investing in a Coach
A coach can help one to achieve some traits such as self-motivation or provide one with tools to keep him/her focused. Coaching is one of the mostly used methods of attaining effective management traits.
When one is chosen as a manager of an organisation, he/she can learn effective management skills while working. For instance, he/she can learn how to give feedback, treat each employee, and get employees motivated to achieve goals.
Sharing with other Managers
Sharing gives a person an opportunity to reflect on his/her management traits. This helps him/her to takes appropriate action to improve. For instance, if one becomes emotional very first, he/she can learn how to control his/her temper through colleagues (Keller 109).
Seminars and workshops
One can achieve management traits by attending seminars and workshops presided over by management experts. The experts will teach how to develop and nature management traits.
Works Cited Griffin, Ricky and Gregory Moorhead. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Oxford: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print
Guido, Stein and Pedro Nueno. Managing People and Organizations: Peter Drucker’s Legacy, Bingley: Emerald, 2010. Print.
Keller, Andreas. What is Effective Leadership? Managing People in Organisations. New York: GRIN Verlag, 2011. Print.
Scott, Jonathan. Fundamentals of Leisure Business Success: A Manager’s Guide to Achieving Success in the Leisure and Recreation Industry, New York: Haworth Press Incorporated, 1998. Print.
Analysis of Japan Report essay help online
Japan has always been known as a conservative society that is well entrenched in its ideas of tradition, culture and the preservation of social institutions (Japan, 58-63). Yet, it is this focus on tradition that has resulted in the preservation of its ancient cultural traditions that has enthralled and fascinated the world for generations.
At the present, the country is home to 125 million people with the main language spoken being nihonggo. There are also various regional dialects such as Kansai-bien which is primarily being utilized within the rural areas of the Kansai region (Japan, 58-63).
At the present, the current exchange rate between the Yen and Dirham is 1.00 AED = 21.7418 JPY. While it may seem high you need to take into consideration the fact that while Japan has some of the best inns in the world, the inherent costs are usually twice as high as those in other countries.
For people wishing to visit the country, the best time to do so is during the winter and spring seasons in order to take full advantage of the hot spring resorts that the country is famous for.
Infrastructure When it comes to the local infrastructure of Japan, it is actually quite interesting to note that the Japanese utilize public transportation more so than other countries. There are actually relatively few cars within the country with a vast majority of the general public relying on the dozens of train lines, bullet trains as well as airports that the country has to offer.
To make things easier for tourists, the Japanese government has helpfully placed signs in both English and Japanese on all public methods of transportation in order to help tourists easily access various locations around the country.
It should also be noted that weekly passes can be bought at various train stations that allow travelers to utilize the trains as much as they want within the designated period on the cards. As such, for any tourist wishing to go to various locations within the country it can be done in a relatively cheap and easy manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Types of Tourists International (Encompasses the U.A.E, U.S., Europe and other countries) Regional (Within the Asian region) Local (Within Japan) Potential Retirees (People looking for a permanent place to retire) Demographics: Middle to high income 30 to 55 years (middle aged) College Educated Is usually quite stressed 2 to 3 children High income Aged 30 and above Composed of Businessmen and entrepreneurs Usually coming from areas such as Hong Kong, Beijing and Australia 3 – 4 children Low to moderate income Young to middle agedHigh education statusWorks within the 2 largest metropolitan areas in the country (i.e. Tokyo and Osaka)1 to 2 childrenUsually goes on vacation with a large group of friends or associates from work Pensioned (fixed income) 60 years old and above College graduates Usually composed of U.S./European retirees 2 to 3 children Benefits Sought: Mid-quality hotel rooms, Affordable food, Located near the beach, Access to public/affordable transportation Professional hotel staff Friendly Locals High quality food, Located right next to the beach, Luxurious hotel rooms Professional hotel staff Friendly locals Cheap hotel rooms, Inexpensive food, Convenient access to the beach Located near affordable places to eat Access to public transportation Relaxing environment, Low cost of living expenses, Safety, Friendly locals Shared Values: Seeks to conform to an allotted budget for the vacation Focuses on a variety of outdoor activities such as surfing, diving, paragliding etc. Thinks quite highly of the local population Cost is not an issue Seeks to derive as much enjoyment as possible from the experience Interested in experiencing as many new things as possible Does not think highly of the local population To spend as little as possible Focuses more on practicality rather than luxury Enjoys taking vacations in large groups To find a nice quiet place to retire Develop good relationships with the locals Relax for the rest of one’s life in a nice environment Thought Patterns: Independent Open to new ideas Confident Arrogant Superficial Sticks to preconditioned ideas regarding the local culture Possesses a feeling of entitlement Peaceful Cooperative Fear of spending too much Peaceful Cooperative Open to new ideas Targeted By: Mid-level hot spring resorts, High end luxury resorts Mid-level resorts Small beach resorts with an attached development plan for beach front property for retirees. Purpose: To experience new activities and get away from the stress of work To enjoy the various luxurious amenities available within the target destination. To go out on a vacation with a group of friends in order to better connect with one another To look for a place to retire in peace Motivation: The desire to unwind and relax To experience what Japan has to offer To go out with friends To finally retire in peace Buying Behavior: Influenced by the desire to experience new activities that they otherwise would not be able to do in the countries they come from (i.e. relax on the beach, paragliding, deep sea diving etc.) Focuses on having the best of everything throughout the entire experience. This encompasses having the best hotel rooms, the best foods, going for the most expensive activities etc. Revolves around the desire to participate in activities as a group. This involves eating with a large group of friends, interacting with people they know and going for a variety of group based activities. For retirees, this involves examining the country and location where they plan to retire. As such, buying behavior for this particular demographic is heavily influenced by the degree of safety and relative ease of life in their desire location. Tourism Contribution to Local Economy On average, Japan brings in roughly 8.3 million tourists a year from various international locations such as the U.S., Europe, the Middle East and several countries within Asia. While tourism is not a vital part of the local economy, it still provides more than $3.5 billion dollars a year in annual income.
It must be noted though that as a direct result of the Fukushima nuclear disaster tourism in Japan has actually dropped by 25% within the past year, however, the numbers are expected to rise given that the supposed danger has passed.
Another factor that should be taken into consideration when examining the local economy of the country is the fact that a vast majority of tourism services are oriented towards local rather than international consumers.
This is evidenced by the fact that there is little in the way of significant internationalization of services which specifically cater to international clientele.
This is actually one of the impediments to increasing tourism within the country since many tourists are wary of visiting a country that does not have sufficient local services to address their concerns especially when it comes to being understood by the local populace that barely speaks English.
Evaluation of Destination Marketing The primary strategy that has been employed by Japan has been to create partnerships with a variety of travel agencies within other countries in order to incorporate various locations within the country in their packaged tour deals.
By doing so, this has brought in almost 60% of all guests to the location during the busy and slow seasons and continues to be one of the main ways the country is able to get tourists. One of the primary reasons behind the utilization of such a strategy is due to the fact that while English is taught in various schools, it is not extensively utilized in business proceedings.
We will write a custom Report on Analysis of Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, Japan has had to rely extensively on external agencies in order to promote its various tourism destinations. Not only that, compared to Europe, Australia and the Philippines there is little in the way of a sufficiently extensive online presence within social media networks for Japan.
The country does not even utilize E-commerce platforms in order to create a faster and more prudent method for international guests to make reservations and pay for rooms ahead of time.
While it may be true that this due to the fact that many of ryoukans and onsens prefer to operate utilizing “traditional” methods this just means that they are missing out on potentially tapping the a large online consumer market.
It must also be noted that the popularity of social media platforms such as Facebook and Google makes it a free and easy method for hotels and tourism destinations to advertise their services via satisfied liking and sharing of the page as well as through various online promotions.
It is based on this that it is recommend that various ryoukans, onsens and tourism destinations within the country setup a proper E-commerce application for future websites as well as setup a Facebook page.
By doing so this creates the potential for such establishments to access new customer bases in far off locations and make it easier for them to make a reservation and pay for their room without having to spend too much.
Comparative Analysis of Popular Tourism Destinations within the Region to Japan Philippines Thailand Japan Australia Strength Has one of the world’s most biologically diverse marine ecosystems Possesses beautiful white sand beachesThe local population is known throughout the world for their hospitalityFood and hotels are relatively inexpensiveNearly everyone within the country speaks English Possesses a wide range of cultural traditions and historic sites that are unique to the country Has one of the lowest prices for hotels and food in the world
Locals are relatively kind to foreigners
Has one of the oldest cultures in the world with a wide range of unique cultural attractions throughout the country Is well known for its hot springs which supposedly have restorative properties
Is one of the safest and most technologically advanced countries within the world
Has a local culture that is understandable by most westerners Is well known for its beaches
Widely considered to be one of the surfing capitals of the world
Has a relatively low crime rate
Weakness The local armed resistance groups such as MILF and Abu Sayyaf have been known to kidnap and hold tourists for ransom There is rampant corruption in various sectors resulting foreigners sometimes being gouged on prices
Is located within a region that is prone to tsunamis The country is known more for its lucrative red light districts that it is for its cultural attractions
Kidnapping by local criminals is a definite possibility
It is one of the most expensive places in the world to take a vacation with prices for even basic goods exceeding the cost seen in most western countries The locals rarely understand English and are often afraid to interact with foreigners
The country has hundreds if not thousands of local species that could kill a person rather quickly The Australian Outback is one of the most dangerous places on Earth
Due to adverse water distribution policies several areas within the country are prone to dust storms
Opportunities Still has a relatively underdeveloped tourism industry and as such there are numerous opportunities for expansion Within the past few years Thailand has emerged from the tsunami disaster through large investments in its tourism industry resulting in better facilities and more affordable prices Recent initiatives from the Japanese government to increase the number of tourists entering the country have resulted in fewer restrictions and red tape involving tourist visas The country has slowly been building up a platform for increasing the number of tourists to the country through vigorous TV ads and online viral marketing campaigns Threat All locations indicated in this table suffer from the same problem of increased uncertainty over the current state of the global economy which has negatively impacted the number of people that willing to go on extended vacation (Hiwasaki, 675-692). Consumers have become more hesitant to go on vacations since they do not know if they will be able to continue to keep their jobs if they do so. The current prolonged recession has actually resulted in a direct slowdown of infrastructure development involving resorts within the countries indicated in this analysis and has cast doubt over the ability of the region to continue to maintain its current level of distinction which is the primary factor behind the continued decline of their tourism industries within the past few years. Tourism Organizational Structure The main tourism organization within the country is the Japan Tourism Agency which basically monitors and implements the various tourism polices that apply to foreign tourists as well as local residents.
The main purpose of the agency is to promote and monitor the number of tourists that enter into the country and develop specific legislation that is subject to the approval of the main governing body of the country that is aimed at ensuring a steady flow of tourists and the income they provide for local businesses (Japan: Market Profile, 186-190).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the more recent actions of the agency has been the implementation of new legislation which lowers the standards and amount of requirements for foreign tourists to enter into the country (CHOONG-KI, 392-323).
The main aim of such an endeavor was to encourage even individuals with moderate to low incomes to visit the country and see the sights. It should be noted though that the Japan Tourism Agency mainly concerns itself with international tourists and does not involve tourism activities of local residents.
Security Risk and Assessment An examination of the U.A.E travel advisory website reveals that there are currently no announcements that specifically state that there are major problems with vacationing in Japan at this moment in time.
It was noted on the website though that tourists from the U.A.E should be cautious regarding the current political climate between Japan and China due to their current island dispute.
As such, there is a possibility that increased activist protests may occur. All in all though, Japan is considered a relatively safe environment for foreign tourists and, as such, citizens of the U.A.E are free to travel there if they wish.
Operating Sectors Attractions
Underwater Scuba Diving
Considered to be one of the most biologically diverse areas on the planet, Japan, particularly Okinawa island, has a wide variety of coral reefs and diving spots that have been widely praised by diving magazines and the International Diving Association as being one of the most beautiful yet also one of the safest places to see the wonders of underwater nature unfold before their very eyes.
Guests at any one of the various resorts in Japan can sign up for a rather affordable diving lesson along with supervised dives at several of the island’s best locations. These dives include an exploration of the local coral reef system, diving into various caves near one the other local islands and a moderate feeding of the local marine life.
Due to the crystal clear waters that the Japan island system are known for, guests can rent a variety of underwater cameras and equipment in order to film themselves diving and exploring the fascinating wonders in an around the island system of Okinawa.
Do note though that it is highly illegal to either capture fish or attempt to extract coral from the surrounding areas and as such guests should abide by the rules lest they get into trouble and be banned from ever diving in the waters of Japan again.
Another factor that should be taken into consideration is that those who wish to take up diving lessons must already know how to swim and have a moderate level of physical strength since the tanks are quite heavy.
While the Japan does not necessarily have large mountainous areas, it does however have a variety of beautiful hiking trails where an intrepid explorer can go and visit the wonders the sparsely tree covered areas have to offer.
It is usually the case that tour groups are led by a local guide who follows a predetermined path through the hilly landscape where he/she points out a variety of interesting sights and animals.
Do note that forest exploration within Japan is not as dangerous as compared to countries such as Africa or South America for example since the country does not have any predators that would pose a danger to a hiker that is aware of his surroundings and can make a certain amount of noise to scare the creature off.
Some hikes even end in a rather exciting whitewater rafting adventure where hikers climb onto orange rafts and navigate down the river until they reach a miniature lake which often has an alternative source of water in the form of a small waterfall.
Do note though that you need to be in relatively good health and be in tip top shape in order to go hiking since it is often lasts for hours and goes through relatively tough terrain.
Japanese Hot Springs
If there is one thing Japan is famous for it is its onsens (i.e. hot spring resorts) located in areas such as Kusatsu, Shibi, Shirahone and Okuhida. These resorts cater primarily to individuals who want to experience the joys of relaxing in naturally heated (i.e. heated from the volcanic rock below) mineral rich waters (Buckley Jr. et al., 357-383).
It is often the case that onsens are open air baths within resorts that gives bathers a panoramic view of a clear night sky and the surrounding landscape.
It is usually the case that the demographic to a Japanese onsen are individuals usually within their late 30s to early 70s however there has been an increasingly large amount of younger demographics that have been trying out these hot spring resorts as of late.
The primary reason is the fact that an onsen is considered the ultimate traveler’s experience within Japan that any tourist in the country should seek out (Hall, 19).
Major Shopping Districts
While Japan has several of the world’s best shopping districts none compare to the fame of its Akihabara district. Connected with the otaku subculture of Japan, Akihabara can be considered a hub for technology, manga, and anime.
It famously has an assortment of maid cafes wherein attractive Japanese girls dress up in maid costumes and serve you while calling you “master”. The shopping district is also one of the best places in Asia to find the best discounts on electronic goods and various unique types of consumer devices (Foster, 351-372).
Lastly, it is also the primary location from which Japan’s otaku sub-culture congregates in order to trade, buy and sell all things related to manga and anime. What you have to understand is that the popularity of manga and anime has surpassed the borders of Japan and has actually reached numerous international locations such as the France, the U.S., China and even the U.A.E.
As such, Akihabara has become a prime destination for many anime and manga lovers from different countries to stock up on various figurines and toys related to their favorite series. It should also be noted that what is unique about Akihabara is that unlike other prime tourist destinations around the world, it actually lacks the presence of any major hotel chains in the area.
The primary reason behind this is due to the fact that a majority of the buildings located within the district primarily cater to the sale of consumer electronics and anime related paraphernalia.
What the area has instead are “capsule hotels, these hotels utilize a unique concept wherein instead of rooms rows of stacked man-sized capsules are placed within a room that have a bed, television and a small ventilation shaft installed inside. This type of hotel was meant to maximize on the limited amount of space within the Akihabara.
Is a major business and commercial hub within Japan that possesses dozens of malls, several of the best hotels in the world and is comparable to Los Angeles on a busy day. Overall, this city is not that unique since it shares numerous similarities with other cities all over the world and does not have the uniqueness of Akihabara.
While Japan has innumerable ecotourism destinations due to its focus on preserving natural resources and saving the environment, the most famous ecotourism destination within the country is Hokkaido Island located on the northwest part of the country (Hiwasaki, 107-126).
The reason this particular destination is considered an ecotourism hotspot is due the fact that the general environment looks like an area in Europe rather than Asia. This is due to the combination of long fields of grass, small hills dotting the landscape here and there, snow capped mountains as well as various species of trees that have white bark that do not resemble native species (Hiwasaki, 107-126).
It should also be noted that the area is home to numerous native species that are not found any other place on the Earth such as the reclusive Hokkaido fox and deer as well as various species of owls. Not only that, the design of the buildings within this particular
Business travel within Japan is facilitated easily through the use of its expansive public transportation system, its bullet train system that connects various regions of the main island (the Shinkansen) as well as through several regional airports that have 24 hour flights. Overall, travel within the country is quite easy for foreign tourists so long as you follow the necessary guides for reaching your destination (Japan: Market Profile, 186-190).
Cultural Heritage Tourism
What you have to understand is that in the case of Japan its unique cultural heritage is the main selling point of its tourism industry (FRANCIS-LINDSAY, 151-168).
As such, in regions such as Kanto, Tohoku, Chugoku, and Kansai the main tourist attractions are not the local flora or fauna, rather, it is the various traditional temples, villages and ways of life that several Japanese communities espouse that become the main selling point of such regions (FRANCIS-LINDSAY, 151-168).
For any tourist wishing to stay in Japan there are an assortment of 5 star hotels within the cities of Tokyo, Shinjuku, Osaka, Saitama and other such major areas of commerce, however, to truly appreciate a tourist experience in Japan it is highly recommended that you skip hotels and instead utilize “Ryoukans” which are the Japanese equivalent of inns.
While these areas do not utilize the same ranking system as hotels, they are considered some of the best places to stay within the country since they serve guests traditional Japanese cuisine within traditional Japanese rooms with sliding doors, tatami mats and walls made out of thick paper.
Do note though that there are no ryokans within the city since they are often found in the countryside in order to help their guests relax and appreciate nature. Several famous areas for ryokans are Tamatsukuri, Arima, Okinawa and Hokkaido due to their largely un-spoilt areas which are free from industrial development.
Major Festivals and Events
It is actually quite interesting to note that each region in Japan celebrates a variety of unique festivals that are inherent only to that particular region. This is due to various historical events, however, there are festivals such as Hanami, Tanabata, Toro Nagashi, the Shogatsu and assortment of others that universally celebrated across the various regions of the country.
A large percentage of these festivals are usually held near or on the grounds of the local Shinto shrine and, as such, is usually the best direction to head to for tourists that want to experience the full force of Japan’s festivals.
Future of Destinations
When it comes to the short and long term goals of the Japanese tourism industry, it is interesting to note that due to the current European debt crisis and the general turmoil in the global economic market it has been decided that within the short term the tourism sector of the country will continue to follow its current plan of providing high quality amenities and services at high cost however in the long term what will happen is a slow and carefully planned diversification of services in order to cater to clients that have medium to low income brackets (Hiwasaki, 675-692).
The reason behind this is quite simple, the current problems within the global economy has created a noticeable impact on hotel guests and tourists at the present wherein many have been reluctant to spend as much as they used to (Uzama, 356-365).
If this current trend continues it is likely that Japan will still continue to receive a steady stream of people however these will consist of individuals/families that would be looking for a bargain instead of luxury (Uzama, 356-365). Thus, a transition would be necessary in order to meet the demands of this new consumer market.
It was realized within the past year that if such a strategy is not implemented it is very likely that the country will see a considerable reduction in the amount of tourists that arrive. Japan has actually taken the first initial steps into this direction by lowering the visa requirements needed to enter into the country in order to encourage foreign tourism.
The current problem with the tourism market between Japan and the U.A.E is the fact that consumer spending is at an all time low due to the 2008 – 2012 (present day) economic downturn.
Unfortunately, the inherent problem with the current situation is that it creates a vicious cycle wherein low consumer spending results in companies reducing various aspects of their operational capacity (i.e. manufacturing of products, low level employees etc.) in order to remain in business which results in even lower consumer spending since people do not have jobs to support themselves anymore.
An example of the effect of such a behavior by major corporations can be seen in the Dubai wherein up to 28% percent of current construction projects have been delayed due to workforce cutbacks employed by various companies in an attempt to continue to remain viable despite lackluster local demand.
Another global factor that should be taken into consideration when examining the tourism trade of Japan is the current debt crisis in Europe that was brought about through not only the reckless actions of various banks within region (as seen in the case of Ireland) but also through government mismanagement of finances (seen in the case of Greece) and exposure to a reckless housing market (the case of Spain) which has also adversely affected domestic manufacturing within the U.S. Such factors have taken a steep toll on the airline passenger market with up to 50% of profits effectively wiped out in period immediately during the aftermath of the 2008 recession with only a marginal improvement on domestic flights. As a direct result of such issues, this has severely impacted Japan’s local tourism industry resulting in far fewer profits and the closure of several prominent tourism destinations due to lackluster demand.
Solving the Problem
Shifting to New Consumer Markets
With low consumer spending and an atmosphere of economic uncertainty which pervades the traditional markets of Japan in Europe and America there is a necessity to pursue new consumer markets in various parts of the U.A.E. As such, the following are recommended methods of increasing the popularity of the country through using social media networks:
Advertising Through Social Media: YouTube Stars
Various forms of consumable media in the form of print ads, billboards, commercials, online marketing campaigns and a plethora of other types of advertising initiatives are rife with the images of various popular individuals showing just how prevalent product endorsements are in the advertising campaigns of numerous companies.
The logic behind this particular method of advertising stems from the fact that people are more likely to purchase a product or utilize a particular service if they see someone else happily using it, studies even show that the likelihood of product patronage goes up astronomically if it is seen that a pop culture icon is utilizing a particular type of product.
This speaks volumes of the influence of pop culture on consumer buying behavior however it is also indicative of the fact that companies are aware of what causes consumers to purchase a particular product and act accordingly in order to exploit it.
Yet, the inherent problem with using popular culture celebrities is the fact that they are often quite expensive and demand millions of dollars in fees. An alternative strategy that I have devised that overcomes this particular problem utilizes YouTube stars as a means of promoting the resorts of Bohol.
On average, YouTube stars such as Ray William Johnson, Philip DeFranco, Shane Dawson, Smosh and others like them often generate millions of views per video, greater even than some shows on cable television. Furthermore, these shows are watched by a global audience encompassing countries such as the U.S., China, Russia, Australia, and various states within the European Union.
This would enable any marketing campaign that centers on the use of such YouTube stars to in effect target a wide range of consumer markets at a relatively low cost.
YouTube stars in general do not demand a lot of money for placing ads within their show; it is usually the case that by providing promotional code or a link in the description of the video the company that created an advertising contract with them usually pays on the basis on the number of clicks.
This averages to around $5,000 to $6,000 on select advertising and promotional deals; this is a vast difference when compared to the millions demanded by A-list stars within Hollywood. You also have to take into consideration the fact that YouTube stars can come from a variety of different countries wherein they have a distinct level of popularity with the local populace.
Based on this, a marketing campaign could spend half the amount of money that would normally go to an A-list star yet reach four times the intended audience demographic by utilizing a select marketing strategy devoted to using YouTube stars from specific regions that cater to the audience demographics that the campaign is attempting to appeal to.
Strategies to Consider
Sponsored Links, Promotional Codes and Banners
The best way in order to fully utilize the viewership of a YouTube star is to have them sponsor the resort by having them mention it then have them point to either a banner location on the screen, a promotional code the viewers can use to get discounts or a link in the description of the video where viewers can go and visit a website detailing the various resort packages they can avail of.
This is often the strategy Netflix uses on either the Philip DeFranco show or on EpicMealTime in order to gain a substantial amount of subscribers to their services. The same strategy can be utilized on select YouTube stars from specific regions and through multiple shows.
By examining the viewership range and what type of viewers normally watch a particular YouTube star the marketing campaign will be able to determine what star to use, how long should the promotion period last for and will be able to monitor the overall effectiveness of the campaign via the number of clicks on the link, the number of people watching the video or the sheer amount of times the promotional code is used.
Vloging a Sponsored Vacation
One potential avenue of approach is to arrange for an all expenses paid trip for the YouTube star to a select resort in Bohol where they can vlog their experience to their viewership. Vlogging is a term that is a result of combining the words “blogging” (referring to act of publishing personal thoughts and experiences online for complete strangers to read) and “video”.
The vlogs of YouTube stars often generate a substantial degree of views due to the current obsession over “reality viewing” wherein people want to watch people living their lives as it unfolds. By having YouTube stars vlog their experiences within the resort for a few days this in effect acts as type of commercial which shows cases the amenities and overall appeal of the location.
Since it comes from a personal perspective and not through a telegraphed and obviously one sided view of the resort, this in effect generates a unique appeal to the market segments that the marketing campaign is attempting to target.
It must also be noted that the YouTube stars in question could also be potentially convinced to host their shows with a live background of the resort. This enables the marketing campaign to more effectively capture a larger audience without having to increase the amount of money paid to the YouTube star since they are already on an all expenses paid free vacation.
Summary Overall, it can be seen that Japan is a country that is rich in cultural heritage and possesses attractions that would cause a significant degree of wonder and amazement for any tourist from the U.A.E. It is truly beautiful and amazing and one that I myself would love to visit in the near future.
It must be noted though that at the present the country lacks a significant enough online presence and is still considered one of the most expensive places to take a vacation.
It is based on this that it is highly recommended that the country attempt several new ways in which it can develop its online presence, especially through social media, and devise a way that it can make its local services cheaper for tourists in order to increase the amount of foreign visitors into the country.
Works Cited Buckley Jr., Peter J., Hafiz Mirza, and Stephen F. Witt. “Japan’s International Tourism In The Context Of Its International Economic Relations.” Service Industries Journal 9.3 (1989): 357-383.EBSCOhost.Web.
Choong-ki, Lee. “The Impact Of Visa-Free Entry On Outbound Tourism: A Case Study Of South Korean Travellers Visiting Japan.” Tourism Geographies 12.2 (2010): 302-323. EBSCOhost. Web.
Foster, M. D. “What Time Is This Picture? Cameraphones, Tourism, And The Digital Gaze In Japan.” Social Identities 15.3 (2009): 351-372. EBSCOhost. Web.
Francis-Lindsay, Janice. “The Intrinsic Value Of Cultural Heritage And Its Relationship To Sustainable Tourism Development: The Contrasting Experiences Of Jamaica And Japan.” Caribbean Quarterly 55.2 (2009): 151-168. EBSCOhost. Web.
Hall, Kenji. “Get Sick, Visit Japan.” Businessweek 4143 (2009): 19. EBSCOhost. Web.
Hiwasaki, Lisa. “Community-Based Tourism: A Pathway To Sustainability For Japan’s Protected Areas.” Society
Consumer Behaviour in Relation to Ethical Marketing Report writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the case
Relevant supporting evidence
Consumers feel guilty for the wrong reasons
Conclusion and recommendations
Introduction Ethical marketing is an area of ethics that deals with the morals that are associated with marketing. Ethics can highly influence the decisions that people make in any situation being principles of ethical conduct. In a certain setting, people are required to behave in some particular way.
In addition, they need to respond to a number of situations. Consumer behavior can be influenced by ethics in marketing (Schlegelmilch, 1997). A business is expected to behave in some peciliar way while marketing its goods or services.
A business organization should always try to do better than its competitors so as to maintain its customers, and at the same time, attract new ones. Marketing is essential in helping the organization gain a competitive advantage over its competitors.
It is imperative that a business should be ethical when marketing its products. It should observe ethical principals when developing and manufacturing the products (Diacon and Ennew, 1996). This way, the organization can be able to satisfy its customers.
Recently, there has been much focus on ethics. Consumers are loyal to organizations, which adhere to ethical principles rather than just provision of services or production of goods. They know which product is suitable for them and which one is not. As a result, many organizations are now turning to corporate social responsibility so as to build their image.
This article looks at a case study of Cadbury when the company has decided to substitute cocoa butter with palm oil in its production of chocolate. The purpose of this step is to cut the cost of production since the company has found itself in a rough situation which is not promising for their future performance.
Overview of the case The case study in question clearly shows how a customer can influence the performance of a company based on its ethical and unethical activities. Consumer behaviour theories can be used in understanding how the public responds to a company’s unethical activity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cadbury decided to use palm oil in the chocolate production instead of cocoa butter beacuse of reducing its cost of production. The move caused a public outcry from international environmental groups as well as from local organizations.
It gave the company negative publicity because the use of palm oil posed a threat to the extinction of Orangutan forest. The forest acts as a habitat to palm oil plantations in New Zealand. Conservationists stood against the move by Cadbury which led to the company reversing its palm oil policy within a period of three months.
The case illustrates how strong the consumer can be in influencing the performance of a company that engages in unethical or ethical behavior based on the buyer behaviour theories.
Relevant supporting evidence A lot of customers in the market prefer brands that are socially and environmentally responsible and friendly. Therefore, the company that markets goods, which do not adapt to ethical issues, are likely to have a dismal performance since most customers will not buy its products (Mangos, Roffey and Lewis, 1997).
Customers will move to competitors’ products that adhere to ethical standards, as a result, the size of the market for such a product will decrease immensely. If the company is to lose its market in Europe, it means that it is going to lose a large amount of sales.
It is pinpointed that out of the twenty countries that consume chocolate, 16 of them are from Europe. It means that more than 22 percent of consumers are from New Zealand and Australia. On the other hand, when Cadbury turned to ethical marketing of its chocolate, its sales increased significantly.
Fairtrade Certified Cadbury Dairy Milk was presumed to be the best selling blocks of chocolate in the country. About 5.7 million blocks were expected to be sold upon its introduction.
We will write a custom Report on Consumer Behaviour in Relation to Ethical Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, it was projected that the selling block would increase the sales of chocolate by 20 times in both New Zealand and Australia (Cadbury, 2012). Therefore, it is imperative that the company has to act ethically for it to secure and maintain its share of the market.
Marketing concepts Consumer behavior can be highly influenced by the ethical activities of a company. The perception the consumer will have on the company’s activities is crucial in influencing their behavior. It is emphasized that most customers and especially the so called green consumers, have now learnt about Fairtrade logo.
The logo is used by companies that conduct ethical business activities. Consumers prefer brands which are socially and environmentally responsible. It is useful for companies to cooperate with marketing and business activities that have the ability to change the perception of consumers.
They should engage in positive activities that are appealing to consumers. The outcome will be the fact that consumers will transfer their values to the positive brands.
Corporate Social Responsibility is an activity carried out by companies which are eager to take control of their actions (Chen, 2011). They act in a manner which is not harmful to both the society and the environment. This is the way that Cadbury has to go if it wants to change the perspective of its customers.
The mass media has been influential in changing the perspective of customers about the chocolate containing palm oil. The negative reports in the press have made customers buy ethical products.
The other consumer behavior that has to be taken into consideration is the issue of self-concept. Consumers will go for products that help them identify their self-concept that would help them have a feeling of self-satisfaction (Rhee and Johnson, 2012).
However, lower prices that come with unethical products, are likely to get the attention of some customers especially the youths, who are the main consumers of chocolate (Peters, Shelton and Thomas, 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Behaviour in Relation to Ethical Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They may wish to go for greener products, which have a positive image, however, these products often the prices of such products go premium. Young people will likely to buy the palm oil chocolate since they want to have the sense of self concept, which becomes a significant challenge to green marketing.
Motivation cannot be overlooked in this area of marketing as well. Consumers have to be motivated for them to buy ethical products. Such nature of consumption behavior is explained by the Maslow’s theory that describes the hierarchy of needs (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005).
According to this theory, human beings are motivated by their own needs which are placed in a hierarchical order. The needs start with the most basic and end up with the least basic ones.
Therefore, an individual will work to satisfy the needs at the lowest level of the hierarchy, and move up after satisfying these primitive needs. The theory can explain the need for consumers to prefer ethical products.
According to this theory, low involvement products offer customers more choices as compared to the higher ones. However, brands, which are satisfactory and at a higher level, are more appealing to consumers.
As a result, consumers are likely to go for unsustainable products. In the case of Cadbury, these are the chocolate brands using palm oil in the chocolate production.
Consumers feel guilty for the wrong reasons Consumers of chocolate have the tendency of feeling guilty when eating chocolate that leads to fattening despite the fact that it is delicious and tasty. However, in New Zealand, the feeling of guilt exist for a different reason among people.
Cocoa butter used in chocolate has been replaced by palm oil for the purpose of cutting costs. Palm oil is said to have a negative effect on the environment. One of the problems associated with consumption of palm oil is the threat of extinction of some species and the effects onthe environment leading to greenhouse gases making customers have a feeling of guilt since palm oil is perceived as unethical marketing or business activities.
At the same time, it has been stressed on the fact that it is not the right reason for one to feel guilty when consuming chocolate.
Conclusion and recommendations Companies ought to take right approaches in order to avoid the destruction of palm oil forestation. This will help to save the habitat; it will also help to preserve trees which are helpful in reducing the effects of greenhouse gases.
Consequently, I would recommend the company to reverse the policy and engage itself in ethical marketing activities, which are the use of cocoa butter rather than palm oil. It should engage in corporate social responsibility.
Despite the fact that this will increase its cost of production, it will be helpful for the consumers who strive and prefer to buy the brand. It is pertinent to note that marketing activities help the organization gain a competitive advantage and, hence, it can survive in the current economy.
Reference List Cadbury Website 2012, Fairtrade Certified Cadbury Dairy Milk Hits Nz Shelves. Web.
Chen, C H 2011, ‘The major components of corporate social responsibility’, Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 2 no. 1, 85-99.
Diacon, S R
Management Problems in Culture Works ESL Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Organization Size, Life Cycle, and Decline
Innovation and Change
Introduction Organizational analysis is important since it helps in identification of problems that might be affecting the smooth running or the performance of the organization. Organizations are faced with a number of issues that affect them. Some of the problems that they have to deal with are the structural and operational problems.
This paper is an analysis of an organization whereby two problems (structural problems) affecting it are to be solved based on appropriate analytical tools. These tools should be able to provide actionable recommendations from which the organization will have to implement.
Organization Size, Life Cycle, and Decline One of the major problems that the organizations face is based on its size, as well as its life cycle. As the organization grows, managing it becomes a tedious task. Growth of the organization becomes a huge challenge to the managers and employees.
An organization cannot afford to be static especially in the current economic environment that is highly dynamic. Therefore, growth is inevitable. As the organization grows, it calls for the imple4mentation of complex systems and procedures. Further, bureaucracy in such organizations becomes quite complex.
This presents a problem that has to be solved by the management. It is imperative to note that the size of the organization has an influence on its design, as well as goal achievement. It also influences the life cycle of the organization. CultureWorks ESL has to deal with these problems following its increase in size.
The growth in size was due to its alliance with Carleton University. The management needs to implement complex systems, which can easily handle the size of the resultant organization. It has to increase the number of employees and restructure its current structure in order to address the issues associated with the increase in size appropriately.
Therefore, the organization should deal with the problem before it affects its performance. It should assess the various theories available that address the issue of organizational size and life cycle. Some of the theories that the organization can look forward to include the bureaucracy theory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This theory was developed by a German philosopher and economist known as Max Weber. Under this theory, CultureWorks ESL organization should set the rules and standard procedures that will guide its employees. Different rules are applicable for different organizations.
The rules are set based on the organizational size. A large organization has many employees who need to be guided by rules that are different from those that will guide employees of a small organization.
In addition, the organization should set standard procedures. This will be important in that it will help the employees serve customers in a speedy manner. The procedures will also aid in helping employees execute their duties on a timely basis.
The bureaucracy theory also addresses the hierarchy of the organization. A substantial hierarchical structure is needed for proper and effective communication. Communication is very essential in an organization.
Following its increase in size, CultureWorks ESL should adjust its hierarchical structure to enhance communication. The model of communication could be vertical whereby communication will be from the top managers down to the lower managers.
It can also be horizontal communication whereby information will be communicated between individuals within a department, or from department to the department within the organization. The vertical hierarchy is favorable for a large organization and thus CultureWorks ESL should embrace this form of communication.
A structure that favor promotions of employees should also be developed. Promotions motivate employees and thus the structure of an organization should address this issue. A large organization has many employees and promotions become a challenge to those involved.
We will write a custom Essay on Management Problems in Culture Works ESL specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization should develop a structure whereby employee turnover is kept low, and employees should be rewarded constantly for their performances through promotions.
Innovation and Change Innovation is the fuel that drives most organizations to success. Therefore, it is imperative for any organization to be innovative. In addition, the organization needs to be changing constantly since the market environment is also changing constantly.
The need for innovation and change presents managers with a challenge that they should overcome. It is a problem that requires a skilled manager to address it. The organization should execute structural changes to accommodate the change and prevent the extent of the problem, as well as speedy development of a solution.
Cultural change and innovation stir structural change in the organization. The culture of CultureWorks ESL will have to change after it forms an alliance with Carleton University. In addition, the larger organization should be innovative for it to be successful.
Cultural change may involve changes in technology. In this case, the organization should use the ambidextrous approach. Here, innovation could follow organic structure whereby creativity will be from bottom personalities to the top personalities. The lower personalities develop new ideas.
This is followed by mechanistic whereby the implementation of these ideas starts from the top managers down to the junior personnel. The top managers explore the capabilities of employees and then put their ideas into applications.
The structure of the newly formed CultureWorks ESL should encourage innovation and technological changes. The managers can form structures whereby innovation is stimulated by separate creative departments.
Further, venture teams can be formed to aid innovation. In addition, innovation can be led by corporate entrepreneurs who have the ability to come up with new ideas, as well as technical and management ability.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Problems in Culture Works ESL by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Innovation and cultural change are likely to bring a change in the services and products that the organization produces. Therefore, the organization should come up with a way in which it can use to coordinate the new services and products. In the case of CultureWorks ESL, a horizontal coordination model can be used.
This is likely to enhance delivery of services. This will give the organization a competitive edge over other institutions, which offer similar services. Under this model, all the organizational departments should coordinate in service delivery. They should maintain an effective communication between each other.
The top managers of the organization should coordinate with the middle managers and the lower managers. Furthermore, all managers should coordinate with customers to understand their needs.
They should also coordinate with the environment that surrounds the organization. The organization should adopt to a structure that can facilitate the development following its innovation and changes.
Conclusion Organizations are faced with constant problems, which they need to solve. Skilled and knowledgeable managers are required to lead the organization in making decisions that will ensure the best solutions for the problems are made. Organizational size highly influences the structure of the organization.
It also causes structural problems to the management. The same happens when innovation and changes are introduced in an organization. Leaders and managers in the organization should have ways to deal with these issues in a timely manner.
Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Wheat Gluten Term Paper essay help online free
Abstract Importation of wheat gluten is a worthwhile business in both the United States and the European Community (EC) members. The importation cost seems to be very high for the EC merchants. Apart from economic instability, they also oppose some polices established by the American government in relation to wheat gluten exportation.
This ideological difference seems to have affected the two communities negatively. They had no option but to find ideal ways of solving their problems through WTO. WTO has numerous policies enacted to govern the operations of the wheat industry and the international marketing provisions.
The importation and safeguarding of wheat gluten is a critical provision in the global market. International marketing is very different from the domestic marketing. Concurrently, some of the biggest problems concerning wheat entrepreneurship are the challenges of the market as shown in the case.
The perfect protection actions on import of wheat gluten from the EC dispute settlement, an internal trade dispute at the World Trade Organization is critical.
Introduction By the year 1999, both the EC and United States were involved in some sort of consultation. The consultation was mainly based on dispute settlement. The two communities have been having ideological differences when it comes to decision making.
Through the help of WTO, each community established considerable marketing and exportation provisions to enhance their global presence. The EC was greatly affected by the rules and regulations imposed by the United States on wheat importation. Consequently, they tried their very best to abolish the law.
In the year 1999, one of the bodies known as Dispute Settlement Body, arranged for a meeting due to constant complains from the European community. The EC still did not achieve their target and went on making various sidesteps that they believed could help them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper discusses the definitive safeguard measures on imports of wheat gluten from the European Communities dispute settlement, an internal trade dispute at the World Trade Organization.
The background, purpose, and effectiveness of the WTO and how the case exemplifies its function By the year 2000, the dispute panel ordered the two communities to write a review report based on their opponents requests. This was to be used by the panel committee in coming up with ideal decision helpful to all (Jensen, 2006). The United States brought in new measures to guide and control import of wheat gluten in the market though the WTO provisions.
These were rules generated from one of the bodies that govern the United States International Trade Commission. This body was established to help in solving some of the problems that may arise in the trade industry.
Companies or organizations that were found to be out of the importation rules were subjected to some sort of punishment and this made importation of wheat very difficult.
On 15th January 1998, it was established by the United States Trade Organization that the wheat industry was experiencing difficulties in its expansion quests. This was due to the high rate of wheat importation within the country. This finding was later channeled to the United States president who also re-channeled it to the court.
It was after the court review that clear and detailed information was given to the World Trade Organization. A series of reforms that were passed in the year 1998 and the year 1999 by the United States Dispute Settlement Body reduced the payments by state made to the American Farmers.
According to Pear, Respondents United States, the Association of wheat farmers, and EC presented a suit in the United States District Court for the California Central District, with claims that the reductions in payment were not in agreement with the U.D.S.C that required the farming plans of a state to conform to the federal laws.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Wheat Gluten specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Description of the events and the relevance of each to WTO procedures and/ or policies WTO has numerous policies enacted to govern the operations of the wheat industry and the international marketing provisions. For instance, providers of wheat farming services file suit to enforce the Act 30(A) since the provision gives no enforceable rights, and the congress had no intention to enforce the statute.
WTO has considerable policies and provisions meant to govern its operations. This is a considerable provision in diverse contexts. The Supreme Court is expected to give a ruling on whether UDSC (United States Dispute Settlement Commission) can file a suit under the Supremacy Clause to stop a state policy that decreases the cost of wheat importation.
Eventually, the issue of whether private parties are able to file a suit under the Supremacy Clause for enforcing federal policies has the potential of affecting the ability of the private parties to file a suit to challenge state policy, the federal law’s predictability as well as agricultural product availability to the consumers. This relates to the events and the relevance of each legal provision to WTO procedures and/ or policies.
The UDSC carried out some comprehensive research to develop contingencies to solve the possible problems that existed between them and the EU in terms of wheat importation. In order to solve the issues that exist between them, WTO decided to regulate the cost of wheat importation while decreasing that of local production.
This enhanced wheat growth within the two communities because the country had no option but to encourage wheat farmers to avoid using excess funds on importation. They also introduced farm sprinkler system for area with poor climatic conditions that cannot support wheat growth.
Through WTO, there will be need to maintain the system for the purpose of preventing the development of problems. Moreover, it should be drained on a regular schedule. In the business realms, this relates to the events and the relevance of each legal provision to WTO procedures and/ or policies.
The reason that makes wheat gluten available in the global markets regards the aspects of international WTO marketing policies. They have been made mandatory by the local farming codes and WTO. The wheat marketers might have lower cost as a result of a premium discount.
The need for having a sprinkler system in big wheat farm is apparent. Novel WTO policies can help during market crisis hence making the wheat cultivation and marketing easier to both the American and European farmers. This is a considerable provision in diverse contexts and in the realms of gluten communication and other provisional quests.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Wheat Gluten by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Detailed analysis of both sides of the issue The importation and safeguarding of wheat gluten is a critical provision in the global market. The issues regarding this trend can be discussed in regard to WTO stipulations. Definitive safeguard measures on imports of Wheat Gluten are critical provision in the WTO’s context.
Accordingly, the safeguard issues require a number of items in order to function. In general, the fewer the components, the more consistent the system becomes. This is very important and essential, since the system should be ready any time of the year, yet it might not be required to work for several years after being installed in wheat farms.
In order to modify the market and safeguard the public from wheat gluten (to the anti-gluten factions), the two mentioned issues need to be resolved considerably in order to enact harmony amidst the concerned groups.
Contextually, the market can be greatly affected by the rules and regulations imposed by the United States on wheat importation. They tried their very best to abolish the law. In the year 1999, the Dispute Settlement Body, arranged for a meeting due to constant complains from the European community.
This is a considerable provision in the context of international business. Due to wheat importation problems, there are very many options that the dispute settlement department considered.
Actually, problems in importation can also affect exportation. Being that two communities had resolved back to wheat farming they had to develop their export strategy.
According to WTO, any commodity can be exported, however, success is not always guaranteed. The process of exportation can be complex and challenging. However, when it is advanced with cautious consideration, critical business strategies will emerge.
The following are the fundamental steps that must be followed in order to ensure a successful process: This is a vital provision in the context of international business. The clandestine of victory will carefully consider the export plan (Sutia, 2002).
This is the foundation of course as businesses journey to the far-off markets. This is a crucial provision in the context of international business and marketing provisions (Bygrave, 2003). This is a vital consideration in the business context.
International marketing is very different from the domestic marketing. Anyone who ignores this fact finds it rough. There are always differences in the customs, tastes and needs of consumers. High-quality promotional tactics significantly assist the exporter to comprehend and tackle these impending variations.
According to WTO, this is perhaps the last step that is taken after the management has ensured that all other steps have been established. The union must feel complete to enter the market and access the potential clients.
When the management of a company follows all these steps carefully without skipping on, their entry into an international market will definitely be fruitful.
Over the past few years, there has been a sort of re-evaluation of the whole concept of wheat gluten production entrepreneurship.
Authorities and governments in various places have recognized the necessity and the importance of nurturing Wheat entrepreneurs and safeguard the definitive safeguard measures on imports of wheat gluten from the European Communities dispute settlement, an internal trade dispute at the World Trade Organization.
Many governments, across the world have come to discover the vital role wheat entrepreneurs play in the political, economic and social welfare of citizens or a nation as whole (Sutia, 2002).
In the European community for instance, wheat business enterprises are the main drivers of the economy and that is why European community has come up with policies that target wheat entrepreneurs in a bid to improve the economic performance of their government.
Agricultural activities and minds are vital to building a stable and sustainable economy. This can be explained in so many ways for instance it creates job opportunities, growth and makes the currency stronger. A number of things do contribute to increasing entrepreneurial activities in a country and in the developing of a wheat entrepreneurial economy.
The European community is so determined to promote enterprises particularly those activities which aim at achieving economic goals and those that also aim at increasing the productivity of the European community as an economic block.
Many organizations and marketers of gluten rely on the policies set WTO to govern the global market.
Both experts and practitioners seem to agree that importation, as part of entrepreneurship, is basically an activity which involves the realization, evaluations, and exploitation of economic opportunities in a bid to realize wheat and other services for the people, penetrating new markets through putting together efforts, which were not previously in existence.
Others believe that wheat entrepreneurship basically involves bringing together ideas and converting them to form end products that benefit people (Brinckerhoff, 2004).
Results and an objective evaluation of those results Some of the biggest problems concerning wheat entrepreneurship are the challenges of the market. For instance, new business startups and competition are critical provisions of the market. When people innovate a new a wheat product for selling to a wider market, they might lack information about other far flung markets.
A good example of this is seen when a film industry by the name Viacom was coming up and attempted to thrive internationally. This was an entertainment company whose target audience includes television, film, radio, digital media, and a wide range of other activities. This industry is ever changing and changes at an extremely rapid pace.
Another barrier that is closely related to this is the fact that wheat entrepreneurship in some fields requires a high amount of capital for establishment. The biggest problem when it comes to matters concerning start up capital can be solved by organisations being able to reinvent themselves and become more of wheat entrepreneurs (Barker, 2005).
This is a considerable provision in the context of its applicability in regard to WTO stipulations. Companies within the wheat industry must innovate to be able to prosper (Porras, 2005). Concurrently, competition brings about ideological differences in wheat importation for the two communities.
Another barrier regards embracing technology and incorporating marketing trends in the industry. Most people’s lifestyles today are driven by technological innovations. If one is interested in coming up with an innovation or any other kind of entrepreneurial idea, they have to make it compatible with current marketing methods.
Most of the wheat innovations lack longevity. This is another serious barrier. Wheat entrepreneurs have very big problem of emerging with concepts that can last longer in the market. Most young entrepreneurs create new innovations. However, they usually lose relevance.
A good technology is that which can endure for long and still be used decades after its invention. In the context of WTO, longevity propels wheat business provisions in the realms of exportation and importation. When it comes to customers’ loyalty, an invention with a considerable longevity provisions will sell more than that which has limited durability.
Indeed, even the much talked about economic growth seen with older agricultural companies depends on the support of content owners who risk losing potential new market share. Most entrepreneurs lack means or strategies of ensuring that their products stay in the market for longer periods of time.
For a wheat company to grow and become international, it has to be different by coming up with technologies and ideas that the market lacks.The European companies are unique in the realms of business and marketing. In the past, wheat had a relatively strong market share in bigger organizations and companies.
For instance, in the 1970’s the very first spreadsheet data program called VisiCalc was launched and came together with the new wheat planting techniques. To remain relevant, wheat companies still relate with other corporations like the fertilizer companies. New wheat products were introduced two years before importation problems arose.
In the recent past, wheat farmers re-focused on the corporate market. In 2009, wheat out growers committee came up with what they called advanced plough. This improvement was essentially aimed at enabling corporate information and technology departments to help in supporting wheat business merchants (Jorani, 2010).
Societal trends try to advance wheat planting methods to relieve farmers from inconsiderable harvests. For any wheat entrepreneur attempting to come up with an innovation, one of the targets he should never miss is the social media because it is from there that most of the youthful and older entrepreneurs are found.
Unfortunately managing to incorporate that in any wheat business is the biggest problem and many entrepreneurs consider it as a significant barrier. Most wheat entrepreneurs can hardly ensure that their message or innovation gets to the intended group (Jostem, 2004).
With new contenders entering the exportation industry, the business needs to expand in its operational quests. Precisely, entrepreneurs should consider the WTO stipulations and marketing provision in the realms of marketing. This is a vital consideration in diverse contexts.
The popularity of social network sites like Facebook and twitter, which claims five hundred million users, gives credence to various site owners such as Google.
YouTube is currently gearing up to create viewer content instead of wheat licensing from traditional providers, which the company plans to make available as channels along with highly sought social-networking features.
This kind of innovation requires a lot of ordination. This is very complex. Some of these social media is what can help the wheat farming sector upgrade its status in the global market (Bricksam, 2007).
Conclusion The definitive safeguard measures on imports of wheat gluten from the European Communities dispute settlement, an internal trade dispute at the World Trade Organization, formed a critical discussion in this context.
Importation of wheat gluten is a worthwhile business in both the United States and the European Community (EC) members. The importation cost seems to be very high for the EC merchants.
Besides wheat importation, the two communities (the United States and the European Community) have established, ratify, and embrace ideal solutions to importation problems. WTO can also enhance such importation provisions.
The solution in this case should be based on balancing the export and import rate. This will enhance economic stability for the two communities hence creating good relationship. If one is interested in emerging with an innovation or any other kind of entrepreneurial idea, they have to make it attuned with modern marketing methods.
According to WTO, any commodity can be exported, however, success is not always guaranteed. The process of exportation can be complex and challenging.
Notably, the EC is so determined to promote enterprises particularly those activities which aim at achieving economic goals and those that also aim at increasing the productivity of the European community as an economic block.
References Barker, J. (2005). Paradigms: The Business of Discovering the Future. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.
Bricksam, H. (2007). A Legal Guide to Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organisation. New Jersey, NJ: Wiley.
Brinckerhoff, P. (2004). Social Entrepreneurship: The Art of Mission-Based Venture Development. New York, NY: John Wiley
Early Intervention for Young Adults with Autism Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Autism is a developmental disorder that affects the brain and derails the normal development of social and communication skills (Brill, 2007, p.24). It normally occurs during the first three years after birth. Autism alters mechanisms of processing information by the brain.
It affects the proper functioning of nerve cells. Symptoms of autism are observed from the sixth month after birth and intensify during the second and third year. Symptoms of autism include impairments in communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors, limited interest in social activities and atypical eating habits (Brill, 2007, p.26).
Its cause is not well understood but possible causes include genetics, synaptic dysfunction and environmental factors. However, more research is underway to study the environmental causes of autism. According to research, Hispanic children often experience developmental delays that go undiagnosed.
This is due to unavailability of information on children development stages and the importance of early detection and intervention in the case of autism.
Early intervention Application of early intensive and specialized intervention in children with autism is highly effective in management of autism. Early intervention ensures that autistic individuals are offered specialized care at a young age before the disorder aggravates as they grow into adulthood (Corsello, 2005, p.74).
It is effective because at an early age, the brain and the cognitive system of children are still in the early and growing stages of development. The earlier an autistic child receives specialized care, the higher the chances of living a productive life in future.
Early intervention is so important that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening between the ages of 18 and 24 months (Corsello, 2005, p.75). Recent developments in the treatment of autism necessitate early intervention in the management of autism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effectiveness of early intervention has its foundation on the ease of teaching young children and introducing new dietary interventions compared to adults (Matson and Minshawi, 2006, p.64). In addition, interventions such as speech therapy work more effectively with children than with adults.
Young children are in a stage in which they are learning to speak. Therefore, it is easier to correct errors in speech and communication. When children advance in age, their learning develops and correcting language errors becomes difficult. In addition, young children are less concerned with appearances and image.
This makes it easy to correct their errors. Older children are self-conscious because other children tease and segregate them because of their problem. Early intervention is the best strategy to ensure effective management of autism.
Interventions for autism A single treatment method for autism does not exist. However, several interventions exist and most individuals respond better to behavioral programs that are structured to serve the specific needs of individuals.
According to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, applied behavior analysis is an effective method for combating autism (Matson and Minshawi, 2006, p.68).
Autism interventions include Speech and Language Therapy, Sensory Integration Therapy, Applied Behavior Analysis, Occupational Therapy and AAC (Gerlach, 2003, p.53).
Each of these methods uses a different strategy to combat autism. These interventions are highly effective because they incorporate social aspects that encourage interactions, socialization and communication.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Early Intervention for Young Adults with Autism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Applied behavior analysis (ABA) Behavior analysis uses basic behavioral practices such as positive reinforcement, prompting and repetition to help individuals with autism develop communication, social and academic skills (Gerlach, 2003, p.56). In addition, the method helps them to minimize the effects of problem behaviors in learning.
ABA aspects are used to foster development of important aspects of development such as language, social behavior and play (Gerlach, 2003, p.58). ABA helps to reduce behaviors that impede learning such as self-stimulatory responses and tantrums associated with effective communication.
An example of a method used in ABA is the Discrete Trial Testing. In this method, the instructor breaks down learning tasks into smaller tasks and then spends significant amount of time teaching the learner the skill that is involved in that task (Gerlach, 2003, p.58).
Some ABA methods involve structured instructions of children by adults while others involve the utilization of the child’s interest to develop learning activities.
In this method, children are presented with opportunities to learn and practice certain skills in different environments. To ensure the effectiveness of this method, learning activities are broken down into small steps that are easy to follow.
Developmental interventions Developmental intervention is an intervention method for young adults with autism that is child-oriented. In this method, the child initiates talk and the adult gives a response that is appropriate in serving the need of the child and that encourages more interaction.
To ensure effective learning, activities are designed in a way that encourages social interactions. Despite limited evidence on the effectiveness of this type of intervention, a certain study has shown that it is effective in achieving positive language outcomes.
This method is most effective if the child s is active enough and engages in a variety of activities. The therapist directs the child to doing activities that address the language and communication needs of the child.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Early Intervention for Young Adults with Autism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Speech and language therapy (SLT) The technique used in speech and language therapy depends on the communication problem of an individual. An assessment of a young adult’s communication and language abilities is vital in ensuring the effectiveness of this intervention.
Social initiation and joint attention are two language development methods used to inculcate and improve language skills (Gerlach, 2003, p.63). Social initiation involves techniques such as questioning to encourage individuals to communicate and hence improve their communication abilities.
Alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) AAC involves the application of communication channels that are used in expression of ideas, thoughts, emotions, and needs (Simpson and Boer, 2005, p.84). This method is appropriate for people with severe language problems. It can be used to eliminate nonfunctional speech elements or to enhance existing speech.
Communication boards, pictures and electronic devices are used to enhance social interaction, which is important for combating autism (Simpson and Boer, 2005, p.86). The use of these devices and materials is meant to help individuals enhance their communication abilities by improving how they express themselves.
Feeding therapy Many autistic children exhibit atypical eating habits that result from oral sensitivities. The problem is augmented by the texture and taste of foods. As a result, many children develop a diet of very few foods. If this problem is not eradicated, it mostly results in malnutrition or poor health.
The main aim of food therapy is to restore the health of a child’s gut. This can be achieved by supplementing digestive enzymes and administering probiotics to improve absorption of nutrients.
Integrated play group Autistic children experience problems in their efforts to learn how to play and interact with other children. To them, play and socializing is not a natural skill and needs to be developed. This method is effective because it helps autistic children develop their social skills trough play (Simpson and Boer, 2005, p.88).
It encourages interactions between children to facilitate development of play skills. Children are encouraged to participate in social activities that are designed by instructors depending on the needs of the children.
The instructor monitors these children closely to determine their social limitations and afterwards develops a plan to correct the limitations. This approach focuses on improving language and communication skills of autistic skills by encouraging social interaction and play.
Conclusion Autism affects the proper functioning of the brain because it alters the brain’s mechanisms of processing information. It affects the proper functioning of nerve cells. According to research, Hispanic children often experience developmental delays that go undiagnosed.
This is due to unavailability of information on children development stages and limited knowledge on the importance of early detection and intervention in the case of autism. Early intervention ensures that autistic individuals are offered specialized care at a young age before the disorder aggravates as they continue to grow into adulthood.
Early intervention is effective cause at that an early age, the brain and the cognitive system of a child are still in the early and growing stages of development. Autism interventions available include Speech and Language Therapy, Sensory Integration Therapy, Applied Behavior Analysis, Occupational Therapy and AAC.
Even though each of these programs applies a different intervention strategy, they all incorporate similar social aspects that encourage interaction and communication.
References Brill, M. (2007). Autism. London: Marshall Cavendish.
Corsello, C. (2005). Early Intervention in Autism. Infants and Young Children, 18(2), 74-85.
Gerlach, E. (2003). Autism Treatment Guide. New York: Future Horizons.
Matson, J., and Minshawi, N. (2006). Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York: Elsevier.
Simpson, R., and Boer, S. (2005). Autism Spectrum Disorders: Interventions and Treatments for Children and Youth. New York: Corwin Press.
Wireless Headphones from H2pro Company Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
H2pro Company has invented wireless headphones that can work without connection through wires to electronic devices that transmit sound. These headphones will work well with smart phones and other mp3 devices that have applications of Bluetooth.
These headphones are waterproof and, therefore, can receive sound impulses even under water. These headphones will be very significant to swimmers and athletes that could be distracted by wired headphones in the course of their activity.
With their property, that makes them to apply Bluetooth, they can receive sound impulses from devices to which they are configured from as far as fifteen hundred metres in the air and up to eight hundred metres in water.
These are new inventions that will improve concentration of participants in any competition as well as keeping them updated during competition.
H2pro Company sales team are set to make sure that these headphones are made available to all people in the competition in football, swimming, and athletics. Through this device, competitors in athletic and swimming will be kept updated on the progress of events.
These headphones will also be very crucial gadgets to football referees that are supposed to hear some comments from linesmen so that they can make well informed decisions about some fouls that they might not have seen clearly.
The gadgets are light and, therefore, will not create discomfort to their users. On the other hand, they have voice adjustment system that will ensure that regulation of voice is made.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sales team will carry out training on the device to ensure that team members have adequate information as they go to market the gadget. Sales team members will be taught on how to express themselves to potential customers and how to maintain good relations as customers seek to get more information about the headphones.
The sales team will also be trained on the usability of the wireless headphones H2pro have produced so that they can be able to explain it to customers.
Another thing that will happen to H2pro sales team is that they will be sent to different market areas where they will be expected to conquer the market by ensuring that those headphones win the favour of players in comparison to wired headphones used by potential customers.
Another area where the sales team will be informed is the sector on prices and different qualities of H2pro wireless headphones. In that way, they will have enough information about these headphones and their usability. Information about retail and wholesale prices will be given to these sales team members during the training.
Marketing team of H2pro Company will ensure publicity is done to ensure that these earphones are known. After extensive advertisement is made about these headphones, the marketers will be sent to major sports shops to sell these headphones.
They will also do promotion activities with a few headphones to catch the attention of athletes and swimmers and other sportsmen. These will involve attending major events that have great potential to convene many players and participants.
The headphones will be sold at slightly reduced prices during these events, which will attract players to buy. The sales team will also target major cities that have busy sporting activities that will increase the probability of creating awareness to as many people.
We will write a custom Essay on Wireless Headphones from H2pro Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sales team at H2pro will send sales representatives to major sports shops with business proposals, which will seek to open a seller-buyer relationship that would lead them to be usual buyers of the headphones.
Retail shops that will be selling H2pro wireless headphones will be subjected to offers and their prices will be reduced as according to the orders they will make.
The sales team at H2pro will acquire the schedule IAAF so that they can partner with major athletic retail shops to carry out promotion activities during the time of competition. These promotions will make the athletes from all corners of the world to be aware of these wireless headphones.
In carrying out the sales of these wireless earphones, H2pro will take into consideration the competition it will face from producers of wired headphones. Some athletes might be reluctant to purchase these new headphones because they are relatively more expensive than other headphones.
However, although wireless earphones can be used in various sports like swimming and football refereeing, H2pro Company targets athletes. This is because of their growing number and the comfort they will be at when they are using this kind of headphones than when they use other wired headphones.
In innovation of wireless headphones, however, H2pro is the first on this line. This product is made with unique qualities that will attract customers to buy.
For example, some of its qualities are that it is light and it is easy to operate. Connection and configuration of these headphones to a phone will take a few minutes and it will ensure that the individual can be able to use it easily.
The sale of these headphones target athletes from around the globe. Therefore, they will offer a wide market for H2pro Company. H2pro is offering them at competitive prices although they are a little more expensive than wired headphones.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wireless Headphones from H2pro Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their price is unmatchable with the efficiency and comfort its user will enjoy as they use them. On the other hand, cash flow that takes place within athletics competition is targeted by this company. What the company has not been able to achieve by now is popularity of these headphones.
However with the work done by the sales team, it is predictable that H2pro wireless headphones will not be a new thing in the mind of many athletes all over the world by the end of the first year.
H2pro Company is organized in terms of the owner of the company who is the chairman of the administrative team and the CEO.
There are departmental managers who include sales and marketing manager, who oversees marketing unit of H2pro Company; human resource manager, who is involved with acquisition of employees to the company; innovations and invention manager, who lead the innovation and creativity team, and is also the chief coordinator of any usability test in the company; and public relations manager, who represent the company in various forums in the country and outside the country, this manager is also the general manager to the company and a chief decision maker in any of the other departments.
These lie in the second rank of H2pro Company organisation. They lead project supervisors who oversee execution of plans of H2pro Company. The lowest rank in H2pro Company is the employees.
Employees are categorized into two groups i.e. permanent and those who are contracted when work increases. Of this rank, the permanent employees are ranked higher than the contractual employees.
Nike Dumps Lance Armstrong Essay argumentative essay help
The article discusses the fate of Lance Armstrong, a world champion cyclist accused of using drugs to enhance performance. Several companies that used Armstrong in commercials to promote their brand ended their partnerships.
These companies include Nike, RadioShack corporation, Trek Bicycle Corporation, FRS Company and Anheuser-Busch (Albergotti et al par1). Among these companies, Nike was the harshest stating that the evidence presented against Armstrong by USADA was overwhelming.
Despite ending the partnership, Nike maintained that it would continue to sponsor Armstrong’s Livestrong Foundation that supports cancer patients.
Owing to the doping allegations that he denies, Armstrong resigned from the foundation’s leadership. Nike has in the past stood by Armstrong when similar allegations of doping were brought against him.
These companies manufactured the things that Armstrong used in his cycling career including helmets, bicycles, sunglasses and clothes (Albergotti et al par4). The allegations have tarnished Armstrong’s image, and his ratings as a favorite among companies have declined greatly.
Oakley Inc. maintained that it was reviewing the allegations and would determine the fate of their relationship with Armstrong after a verdict by the International Cycling Union. Unlike Tiger Woods, Kobe Bryant and Michael Vick who Nike strongly supported even after their scandalous accusations, Nike has disowned Armstrong even though they maintain that they believe he did not use drugs to enhance performance (Albergotti et al par10).
The action taken by the companies of distancing themselves from Armstrong is understandable because he risks tarnishing their image too. In addition, the allegations presented by USADA give these companies a reason to end their relationship with Armstrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their actions have protected their corporate image because they have presented themselves as responsible companies that do not support the use of drugs. The decision by Nike to continue sponsoring Livestrong foundation is commendable because it is a gesture of their corporate social responsibility (Park par9).
In addition, the decision by Oakley Inc. await the verdict of the International Cycling Union is fair because the allegations may be false. Armstrong’s decision not to appeal makes him appear guilty against the allegations of using and distributing performance enhancement drugs (Park par1).
However, the cancellation of his endorsements by these companies is very harsh. They do not have any other evidence to prove that Armstrong doped part from the USADA report. In addition, the decision by the witnesses to testify against Armstrong is unfair because they agreed after finding out that he had decided not to appeal.
The incongruence in the affidavits of the witnesses is also an indication of Armstrong’s unfair treatment by USADA and the companies. Armstrong’s doctor has denied administering drugs to Armstrong (Mitchell par3).
The law firm that handles USADA’s legal matters may have a grudge against Armstrong because he fights laws that encourage tobacco use, which the firm supports. The decision by Nike to end its partnership with Armstrong is unfair because of two main reasons. First, they are relying on USADA’s report that they cannot verify whether it is true or false.
Their action further tarnishes Armstrong’s image despite the charitable work he has done (Pearson par6). Secondly, they continued to support Tiger Woods and Kobe Bryant who had scandals that tarnished their images.
It is ironical and unfair for Nike to end their partnership with Armstrong because they maintain that they believe Armstrong did not use performance enhancement drugs (Mitchell par8).
We will write a custom Essay on Nike Dumps Lance Armstrong specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nike and the other companies should have waited for the verdict of the International Cycling union before deciding to distance themselves from Armstrong. In addition, they should have conducted research to find the truth and use it to decide who is right between Armstrong and USADA.
References Albergotti, Reed, O’Connell, Vanessa, and Vranica, Suzanne. Lance Armstrong Gets Dumped. Web.
Mitchell, Houston. Lance Armstrong’s Former Physician Denies All Doping Allegations. Web.
Park, Alice. Which Drug is Lance Armstrong Accused of Taking? Web.
Pearson, Michael. Lance Armstrong’s Legacy May Withstand Accusations. Web.
Maple Leaf Shoes: Case Study essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of Alternatives
Introduction The modern business environment is characterized by rapid technological advances, globalization and growing competition among organizations. This situation, in turn, requires that only those organizations that are able to develop an edge for sustainable competitive advantage advance their business objectives when adequately meeting them.
Within the circle of strategists, there is a common believe that there is a need to view human resources as an asset rather than a cost. Thus, it made organizations focus on human capital as a source of competitive advantage. Organizations are currently paying special attention to knowledge, skills and attitudes of their employees with the hope to enhance the productivity of the employees and ultimately improve organizational productivity.
Training is an important factor and one of the means that organizations can implement to achieving a hands-on, flexible and qualified productive workforce. Most organizations view training to have a major impact on employee performance. For both new and existing employees, training is an important contribution to enhancing the quality of work and output.
Indeed, skill enhancement and training are considered to be the core components required for transforming ordinary organizations into high performance work organizations. Organizations that invest in training are able to impart better decision making, teamwork, problem-solving and interpersonal skills to their workforce.
There are many benefits accrued to training and there are guaranteed returns on money and effort invested. Better decision making can lead to very innovative ideas coming from employees that can make fortunes to the company. In addition, employees are not only able to make better and quick decisions but they are also more accountable for their work.
This results in profitability for the firm due to faster and better decisions as well as reduces costs by eliminating wastages and mistakes. Good interpersonal skills, on the one hand, mean that employees are able to understand each other and work together to achieve common goals. When this happens, it results into great teamwork, enhanced productivity and quality output. In addition, better work relationships results into a flexible and productive workforce.
Case background Maple Leaf Shoes is a large group of a shoes manufacturing firm. It comprises various manufacturing divisions with a centralized administration. The whole issue of training was raised during a convention of shoes manufacturers. The firm’s vice-president who was in charge of one of the largest manufacturing divisions got a chance to interact with other industry stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was surprised to learn that some of the shoe producers were very cost efficient in their production. He also noted that, although they had no notable differences in wages with his firm, other manufacturers, especially from Italy and France, were able to contain their labor costs.
It was due to the fact that their workers’ productivity was significantly higher in comparison with Maple Leaf Shoes. Thus he learned that it could be made possible if they pay significant attention and heavily invest in training their workforce.
Thus, he immediately understood the necessity to implement the same strategies and began working on the ways to implement them in his organization. Particularly, he was interested in knowing the kind of training program that could be introduced to the firm to make the greatest impact on his staff productivity.
The challenge was thrown to Jane Reynolds, who was the special assistant in the personnel department. In the near past, Reynolds noted that firm had never really played any special attention to training neither was it among items of its highest priority in its agenda. Training was considered as an unnecessary and expensive undertaking.
The firm had largely relied on poaching from other firms whenever they were in need of skilled workers. They would also quickly conduct a quick on-the-job training whenever they were not able to meet their needs through poaching. Now, with the VP’s challenge, Reynolds must come up with an effective training plan that will be suitable for improving the level of skills of Maple Leaf shoes staff. Reynolds notes that this is an important undertaking for her and the firm.
Although she is ably trained and qualified to carry out such an undertaking, she feels that her contribution alone cannot sufficiently enable her to come up with the best plan. It is on this note that she contacts Russ Summers, the manager in charge of cutting operation to constitute a committee of first-line supervisors with her as the chair, to assist her in developing the program.
Problem statement It is without doubt that training is an important variable towards enhancing employee productivity. However, training has to effective in order to attain this goal. An effective training should be able to take into account employee needs, organizational needs, as well as the strategic direction of the organization.
We will write a custom Case Study on Maple Leaf Shoes: specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In an organizational context, training is only deemed effective if it is designed in such a way that it is able to claw back most of what is learned to the job. An effective training program is one way of ensuring that this agenda is achieved. What then should be taken into account to develop an effective training program for Maple Leaf shoes? This analytical paper looks at the various alternatives available for Maple Leaf shoes to come up with recommendations and implementation tips.
Analysis of Alternatives Maple Leaf Shoes has multiple alternatives that can be chosen from in order to solve the problem. In order to create an efficient training program, the company can pick one or multiple of the following alternatives:
No training program. If the company decides the program is too costly, they can skip making a program altogether. However, this is neither practical nor advisable.
An orientation program can be put in place. For the initial work period, employees can cover the basics and learn necessary knowledge for the job, providing a basis for the time before work actually starts.
A computer course that involves power point slides, videos, and applied knowledge can be implemented in the program. This course could be a brief lesson, or an in depth learning experience, depending on the company’s preference.
If the orientation program is implemented, it would also be wise to implement a testing or evaluation component. Before the orientation begins, a brief test can be given to see how much knowledge the employees have on the necessary points. The results of this test can give indication of the amount of training required, and which aspects must be focused on. The test results, however, must only be used as a benchmark – training will always be necessary regardless of the scores employees get (on job training in particular).
A “buddy” system, where new employees are paired with veteran employees, could be utilized. This will provide on the job experience, and the veteran employee can help the new employee with any problems/ questions they may have.
It may also be advisable to have continuous training, given at intervals of weeks, months, or even years. This will allow all employees of all experience levels to learn new skills at all times.
Recommendations There would be a couple of recommendations to help Maple Leaf Shoes be more efficient and effective in their training of employees. Firstly, there would be to have an orientation program in place. This would be a brief seminar to welcome all new employees to the business.
These orientations would give the employees a basic overview of the company, as well as show employees how to do their jobs (the basics), as well as help them start in the organization.
During this course, a short test can be given to gauge the employee’s current knowledge, and give insight to areas that should be focused on for the training. For the inaugural orientation program, it may be wise to take employees with less than 3 (or so) years’ experience, to add to their learning as well. The next recommendation would be have a buddy system in place.
This would involve the first week (or more) of employment. The employer will have a highly trained worker help the new employee. The trained worker can train the employee to the best of his or her knowledge in this time. After the week (or more), the employee will have access to the trained worker to ask questions.
This is a good way to start the employee off on the right track. Also, the company should have an accessible computer course that all employees can take if they have any further questions. This can greatly help productivity. Lastly, it would be a good idea to have continuous training.
The company can have further orientations to inform employees of new technology, and ways to use it (for all employees, not just new ones). In conjunction with the inaugural tests, these continuous orientations can also have tests in order to compare the results. This will give insight to if the training is actually effective. These recommendations should help effectiveness, efficiency, as well as productivity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Maple Leaf Shoes: by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implementation The first thing to implement is the orientation program. First, it is important to work with the owners of the company to get some background information. This would be put into a PowerPoint presentation. Also included would be the work required to do the job. This would be given by a supervisor, and employees that have worked on the job for numerous years. This helpful information will also be included in the orientation.
At first, the new employees (and the 3 year employees) will be given a paid hour presentation during work time of the presentation. This then can be used for all new employees every six months (or so, depending on company preference). Secondly – implementing the buddy system.
The company will have employees that are highly skilled at their jobs. Some of these people will be paid to just teach new employees the ropes. For example, a floor supervisor, or other long term employees, can be chosen for this. They can do this job part or full time. This should not be too difficult to implement.
All that is needed is the willing employees. More work will get done because the new employee will always know what they need to do. After the week (or more) they will have gained vital experience and be more efficient. Next would be to have someone that is experienced in the job available for questions. A supervisor, or another employee should be made available as well as the “buddy” for any questions or concerns.
Also, an accessible computer with information found in the course/orientation should be available at all times. The company will need to get a computer designer to collaborate with a highly skilled worker to put helpful answers to frequently asked questions onto the computer.
Lastly is the continuous training. Similar to the initial orientation, have supervisors make presentations of new technology that can be shown to employees. Also, have other information to tell the current workers. Also the tests should be given yearly to make sure people are learning from the training.
Macroeconomic issues related to Government spending, the Federal Deficit and the National Debt Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects of deficits on short-run output
Effects of deficit on Unemployment
Effects of deficit on inflation
Introduction The US economy has been rated the largest economy in the world. In 2011, its nominal gross domestic product was stipulated to be worth $15 trillion. This figure was approximated to be a quarter of the nominal gross domestic product globally. Currently, the government of the United States is working on expanding the opportunities for economic growth, an initiative expected to take two years.
It takes into account the challenges faced by recent fiscal budget, aiming at reducing government spending and elimination of loopholes. In addition, it aims at reducing unnecessary spending by few wealthier Americans and giant corporations.
Although the Senate Budget is working on improving the situation, the Americans are losing hope with their government. However, the Senate is proposing for a strategic plan of laying down a strong economic foundation, which would see job creation, replacement of sequestration, and tackling of debt and deficits responsibly.
According to Congressional Budget Office (CBO ) (1), the economy will grow at a slow pace due to the current changes in the budget. However, as projected by the CBO (3), the rate of unemployment will still stand at 7 percent through out this year. If this does not improve in 2014, then it will be longest period that labor force will be in crisis in the past seven decades.
A nation is termed to be economically stable if it is capable of sustaining its people in all aspects of growth ranging from employment, capital investments and provision of basic amenities.
The US economy has maintained a stable, overall growth rate, high research levels and investments as well as moderate rates of unemployment (Mitchell 1). Economic growth is termed as the wealth increase of a nation’s economy. This is achieved through capitalization growth and overall nation’s production. In addition, this can be affected by the government economic policies and expenditure.
In the last few decades, the world has been experiencing a credit crunch. This has resulted to financial crisis, forcing various reserve banks and governments interventions with an aim of curbing the economic turmoil. Credit crunch refers to a state where interest rates are high resulting to a constrain lending to the customers and businesses because of limited availability of cash. Credit crunch over a period follows a recession, which may stifle the economic growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This happens because of a reduced capital liquidity, which in turn limits the chances of borrowing especially from the productive sector. Inability to borrow reduces the expansion chances leading to business stagnation. In extreme cases, it can lead to bankruptcies and close of businesses. This eventually results to detrimental effects on the economy and increases the rate of unemployment. Through this, people lose their homes, assets and financial institutions collapse, prompting central bank and government to intervene for a solution.
As noted by the CBO(4), current laws governing the federal spending and taxes do not change but it is estimated that in 2013, there will be a shrink in budget deficit to about $850 billion which is equivalent to 5.3 percent Gross Domestic Product. It is also postulated that deficits will have a downward move in the few years ahead and in 2015; the GDP will have fallen to 2.4 percent.
Although deficits are expected to have an upward trend in a decade’s time, there are worries of maintaining the ever-rising health costs of the aging population, increase in federal financial support to the health insurance and increasing interests on the federal debts (Mitchell 1). This is an indication of the federal debt remaining at a relative high rate in comparison with the economy size of the coming years. Such debts impacts the economy negatively as increase in interest rates raises the interest of payments on the government spending. In addition, government-borrowing causes a reduction in savings hence contributes to a decline in total income and capital stock.
As observed by the CBO (p.2
The Role of ERP Systems in Managing Global Businesses Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The linkage between Global businesses
Global business units can achieve global visibility
Managing global performance
Introduction ERP systems are computer applications and management systems that integrate various business aspects and are used to manage resources, data, and functions (Buckley
Fear and Trembling Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents The selected passage
A contextualization of the passage
An exposition of the meaning of passage
The significance of the passage
The selected passage “Pity has a strange dialectic, at one moment it requires guilt, the next moment it will not have it, and so it is that to be predestinated to pity is more and more dreadful the more the individual’s misfortune is in the direction of the spiritual. But Sarah had no blame attaching to her, she is cast forth as a prey to every suffering and in addition to this has to endure the torture of pity–for even I who admire her more than Tobias loved her, even I cannot mention her name without saying, “Poor girl” (Kierkegaard unpaged).
A contextualization of the passage The passage is taken from Problem 3 which is supposed to illustrate the experiences of Abraham who intends to kill his son in order to demonstrate his devotion to God. In this particular section of the book, the writer intends to speak about such a concept as pity from an aesthetic viewpoint. It should be noted that Kierkegaard pays close attention to this notion because he needs to discuss such a character as Sarah who suffered a great number of misfortunes in the course of her life.
More importantly, Kierkegaard wants to determine whether this feeling can be applicable to this person and what kind of effects this feeling can produce on an individual, his/her self-esteem, and attitude toward others. Thus, it is important to show how exactly Kierkegaard approaches this question in his discussion and how he applies his arguments toward Biblical and literary characters. The selected passage can throw a new light on the ideas of Kierkegaard, and his attitude toward many ethical issues.
An exposition of the meaning of passage First, it should be noted that this passage illustrates the conflicting nature of pity and the reasons the influence of this feeling should be reassessed. To a great extent, the argument of Kierkegaard is supposed to highlight the idea that pity usually requires some feeling of guilt from a person.
One of the arguments that the philosopher makes is that this feeling is intolerable to an individual. To a great extent, this feeling belittles a human being, and in the long term, this emotion can only lead to the bitterness of the individual who is a subject of pity.
This is one of the reasons why later Kierkegaard wants to speak about the detrimental effects of pity by looking at Richard III who was eloquently described by William Shakespeare. This cruelty of this person can be largely explained by the fact that other people felt only pity for him, but paid no attention to other qualities of this person. This example is vital for understanding the ideas of Kierkegaard and his opinions on ethics and art.
The most important element that should be taken into consideration is that the author focuses on the so-called predestination for pity which means that the compassion is the only feeling that some person evokes. This concept is important for describing such a character as Sarah. In his opinion, this predestination can only harm an individual because he/she can be obsessed with the feeling of his/her worthlessness. In the long term, he/she can become even more alienated from other people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As it has been said before, this experience can only embitter a person or make him/her make more miserable. This opinion is important for Kierkegaard who wants to readers to evaluate the impacts of pity on a person. To a great extent, Kierkegaard believes that this feeling only highlights the weaknesses of an individual.
This is one of the main conclusions that can be drawn from this particular passage. As it has been said before, Kierkegaard wants the readers to look at various situations describes in the Bible from an aesthetic viewpoint, and such an approach can lead to the re-assessment of various ethical principles and norms that are usually deemed to be conventional by many people.
It seems that this discussion is important for explaining the ideas of Kierkegaard who tried to present a re-evaluation of various questions related to philosophy, theology, and literature.
The significance of the passage It seems that this passage is important for understanding the many views that Kierkegaard could have held on art, ethics, or religion. It can help readers gain deeper insights into other questions that this philosopher examines in his book. To a great extent, he wishes to show that an individual should first try to display respect for another person, rather than only pity because in this way one can better empower an individual.
The ideas of this philosopher contradict the ethical principles according to which a pity is critical for the morality of a person and his/her interactions with other individuals. Nevertheless, one should keep in mind that Kierkegaard looks at Biblical characters from an aesthetic perspective. This is one of the reasons why he presents a dramatically different discussion of many ethical norms. This is one of the reasons why this passage should not be disregarded by people who study the works of Kierkegaard, his ethical and aesthetic views.
Works Cited Kierkegaard, Soren 1999. Fear and Trembling. Web.
Fractures of the Thoracic Spine: Article Review and Discussion Report (Assessment) best college essay help
Introduction: The Significance of the Article Diagnosing fractures on a thoracic spine is extremely hard; given the fact that a patient’s life often depends on the results clarity and correctness, it is crucial to figure out which method is the best. Moreover, the issue of radiation and the associated health problems should be raised. Hence, it can be concluded that the given article is of high significance.
Objectives: What Had to be Done The key purpose of the research was to figure out which of the specified methods for diagnosing fractures on a thoracic spine is more accurate and less harmful for the patient, the MDCT, or biplane radiography.
Concepts and Their Definition: The Key Issues Karul et al. introduce several basic concepts required to handle the issue professionally. Among them, MDCT, biplane radiography and sagittal reformation must be mentioned. Though Karul et al. do not provide the definitions for the terms, they offer an extensive description of the first two.
Central Argument: MDCT vs. the Biplane Radiography As one might have guessed, the key argument of the paper revolves around the necessity to conduct both the biplane radiography and the MDCT tests in diagnosing the patients in case of fractures in thoracic spine. Because of the associated difficulties, it is considered preferable to use both methods; however, due to high radiation level, the outcomes can be deplorable. Therefore, the key argument is that the MDCT is the most efficient method.
Methodology: The Power of Flat Detector Direct Digital System To the researchers’ credit, one must admit that the methodology is almost impeccable. Applying several (seven, to be exact, i.e., experimental group analysis, biplane radiography analysis, comparison of the two methods, dose calculation, image analysis and statistical analysis) methods at the same time, Karul et al. have managed to provide objective results.
The Provided Evidence: Experimental Group Results According to Karul et al., out of 107 patients, 65 (60.7%) have been diagnosed with thoracic vertebral fractures. In its turn, the biplane radiography proved efficient only in 32 cases out of 107. The authors also offer extensive statistical data concerning the efficiency of the two diagnostic methods.
Generally speaking, the provided evidence seems adequate and all-embracing. However, it would also be desirable that the authors should also provide the patients’ body mass indices, since the latter, according to Karul et al., seem to have had a tangible influence on the outcome of the research: “The wide variation in DLP (1.9–97.8 on biplane radiography/80.2–871 on MDCT) was primarily due to the varying body mass index of the patients” (Karul et al., 2013, 3–4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Value Positions and Their Clarity: Concerning the Veracity It is especially important that the research also offers numerical value positions to prove the point. While there is no major statistical data, which would have been desirable for the paper comparing two diagnostic methods, it is still important that
Literature: Defining the Place in the Medical Hall of Fame Karul et al. are not the only ones to handle the issue of MDCT vs. biplane radiography. The researches concerning the reasonability of the radiation of spine have been conducted by Berry et al. (2005), Brown, Antveil, Sise
The understanding of what has happened in Great Britain’s economy over the last two years Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The Great Britain has experienced one of the most devastating crises since 2007 following the famous economic catastrophe that hit the entire Europe. The crisis has come to be known as the European crisis since has affected most of the countries that lie within the euro zone.
Since the United Kingdom is one of such countries, it has also been affected by the disaster. Researchers have indicated that the root of this financial crisis is the inability of most of the European countries to repay their financial debts. With such a calamity, countries must be bailed out through the help of third parties.
Great Britain has enacted various economic policies to emancipate itself from the crisis. The Bank of England has also enacted various economic pacts in an effort to get Britain and other European nations out of the crisis. The European crisis emanates from both the government and the private sectors’ inability to repay their debts. Both the British government and the Bank of England have been trying to revive this economy but with little success.
However, the crisis is not yet solved. In fact, over the last two years, the Great Britain has experienced a double recession. Therefore, the paper seeks to discuss the question of whether the British government and the Bank of England have been successful in running the economy over the last two years. The paper also endeavours to describe and evaluate the main macroeconomic policies that have been used by the British Government and the Bank of England over the last two years.
The Extent of Success of the British Government and the Bank of England in Running the British Economy over the last two Years
The British government and the Bank of England have not been successful in running the British government in the last two years. Although the British economy has experienced a recession since the year 2007, this downturn has doubled in the past two years. In fact, within the last three years, this economy has sunk twice.
Worse still, the rate of unemployment has increased especially in the financial and construction quarters. The beginning of the crisis in England was in 2007. In this year, government and private sectors’ debt started rising very fast because of the increased levels of private and government debts in the world and the downgrading of debts owed by government in various states in Europe. Because of the increase in property bubble, the private sector easily became autonomous.
This impact was also attributed to bailouts by various banks in Europe including the Bank of England. The Bank of England was responding to instructions from the government of England in reaction to stopping the post bubbles effects of the economy. At this point, individual states in Europe have begun to tackle the problem individually. Consequently, the crisis has threatened to split the European Union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Surprisingly, the Bank of England being one of the most established banks in Europe has contributed to the current recession problem facing its country. This bank helped Greece to cover its financial position for a long duration leading to the worsening of the crisis, which still affects the United Kingdom today. The inability to sustain the wages and pensions by the government of Greece led to accumulation of debt.
This debt crisis has negatively affected the United Kingdom over the last two years. However, Greece tried to conceal its fiscal position through the aid of major well-established banks in Europe.
Some banking institutions benefited from this action although it was short lasted since the crisis soon became so glaring. Since the Bank of England is one of the largest banks in Europe, it had a hand in the formation of this crisis. For this reason, its efforts to solve this crisis over the last two years have not born any fruits. The crisis continues to grow from bad to worse.
The government of the United Kingdom has been trying to end this crisis with no success. The greatest hindrance has been the use of a single legal tender by the whole European Union. Since the euro zone uses one currency though with a variation in taxation and public pension system, the government of England cannot respond to this crisis with competence.
The Bank of England has been struggling to clear its debts over the last two years. Most banks in the European region have big debts, which make them have their solvency questioned. This issue has influenced more negatively on the economy of England. The rate of inflation has doubled followed by a cut in tax limitation meaning that the two have not been successful.
It is also clear that the government of England and the Bank of England have not been successful in their efforts to end the economic crisis facing their nation in the last two years. In fact, the two have contributed to the worsening of the crisis witnessed in the last two years. According to Deirdre (2008), in 2008, the Bank of England experienced a decline in mortgage up to the 70% mark. It was only in 2010, 2011 followed by 2013 that the economic crisis in Europe grew from bad to worse.
The European countries including the United Kingdom are therefore trying various intervention methods though they have not yet succeeded. Such methods include the creation of European financial stability facility, banks writing off 53.3% debts from individual creditors, and the creation of European fiscal compact.
We will write a custom Essay on The understanding of what has happened in Great Britain’s economy over the last two years specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the countries that were worst affected by the European crisis were Greece and Portugal. However, the United Kingdom has also been affected by this crisis. The bank of England has been spearheading efforts to bail out various banks in Europe in a bid to end the European crisis (Gore, 2010).
Today, the government of England is still working out policies to ensure that European countries work together towards ending the financial crisis. The government is doing so by working out plans to integrate the European Union banking administration with an all-inclusive oversight and insurance in an effort to save the collapsing banks. The Bank of England is also working in tandem with the central bank of the European Union.
As Gary points out, the European Union’s central bank is also checking on money flows through the provision of lower rates of interest (2009). This bank is also working hard to salvage the impact of the crisis. Over the last two years, this effort has been done by giving the failing banks cheap loans.
The government of England just like other governments in Europe has also begun implementing the Euro plus Pact. This strategy shows that the government of England is dedicated and committed to see the success of the pact. Therefore, the government has been working hard to end the current financial crisis in England. This pact aims at changing the political standing, the monetary position, and the competitive ability of the European region.
The government of England through its economists has also advised that the country should embark on addition on investments on the public and levying of friendly taxes that consider growth especially on wealth, property, private sector, and financial institutions. This strategy has been implemented over the last two years although there is no tangible positive effect from it so far. The European crisis threatens the unity of the European Union.
The government of Europe has also been advocating for increase in European Investment bank funds. Such political-economic decisions have also influenced politics and leadership in some European countries, for example, Greece, Ireland, and France. One can therefore deduce that the government of England and the bank of England have invested in methods of ensuring that their nation gets out of the European crisis. However, their efforts have not been effective. It is even predicted that this recession may continue up to 2014.
The Main Macroeconomic Policies used by the British Government and the Bank of England over the Last Two Years There are various macroeconomic policies that have been used by the British Government and the Bank of England over the last two years to address the issue at hand. The policies are based on the premise that product market and labour keep on changing implying that the recession that England is facing is temporary. The economy of Britain may have remained in recession since 2007 due to the rigidity of prices and wages.
These two facets can make the economy stagnate below its full potential for a long time. According to Fried (2012, p.100), the major drawback to enactment and implementation of policies geared towards economy recovery are reduction of nominal wages and prices. For example, every trade union will completely go against the reduction of wages while employing companies would celebrate wage reduction in order to cut on cost.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The understanding of what has happened in Great Britain’s economy over the last two years by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government of England has enacted policies to ensure consumer confidence in the economy by encouraging consumers to spend their disposable income. This policy also involves consumer protection, which regulates consumer financial services and products to attain similar standards. The consumer protection agency also ensures that accurate information is disseminated to the consumers concerning products and even services.
This strategy will protect customers from hidden charges, deception, and abusive conditions during the exchange of goods and services. Should consumers put confidence in their economy, the rate of recession would decrease. The government has also put measures to reduce the amount of income tax available for disposal thus increasing buyers’ confidence to spend their income rather than to save it.
The second policy being implemented by the bank is the formulation and execution of monetary policies. The Bank of England has cut the interest rates severally over the last two years aiming at stimulating the demand for loans by consumers or borrowers. When the interest rates are reduced, people will develop the confidence to borrow and spend their income.
According to Conway (2008), the heavy borrowing has led to a huge economic deficit impact in Great Britain. People also gain confidence to invest in the economy. This policy is also used to ensure that England develops at the same level with other members of the European Union.
The other policy that has been enacted by England’s government is the fiscal policy. The government has come up with fiscal policies that expand on the previous policies because such policies can help an economy get out of recession. Fiscal policies also involve correction of key aspects of the regulatory framework that control elements like accounting standards, capital rules, and credit controlling agencies.
The policies also help in solving the question of unemployment. Unemployment resulted from inability of the governments in England to repay their debts hence reducing the available income to pay employees. However, regardless of these policies, this problem still affects England. Through such fiscal policies, governments are able to reduce crowding in the economy because the policies make the government spend its funds as a way of reducing the amount spent by those in private investments as applied by the British government.
The government of England has also worked very hard to control deflation through price regulation across the country. It is important to manage depreciation since customers will withhold their money when they realise that prices of various goods are likely to go down in the future.
This situation can retard the economy. To avoid it, the government enacts micro-prudential supervision, which will supervise and regulate thrifts, banks, holding companies, and the non-bank institutions. This strategy majorly covers the financial organisations and utilities of financial markets.
The government of England has also enacted policies to guard its economy against supply shocks under the premise that, when the prices of supplies hike very much, prices of goods and services shift. Hence, there is a reduced economic growth and increased inflation. This policy also includes the enactment of Macro-prudential supervision where countries create financial stability oversight councils to identify the risks that may threaten the financial wellbeing of the nations or promote market discipline and communication.
For example, this supervision has provided the economy with a financial cushion from losses of both non-financial and financial institutions in case of a crisis. It has helped to heighten response to threats that may emerge in the financial wellbeing of the countries.
Conclusion In conclusion, the United Kingdom has faced economic recession since 2007 because of the wider European crisis that has been ongoing. The European crisis is the economic crisis that has affected most countries in the European zone since they become unable to re-finance their debts without the intervention of third parties. Efforts by the Government of the United Kingdom and the Bank of England have not been able to overcome the menace.
Although the bank has intervened severally in a bid to cut down the interest rates, the recession has grown to worse. This crisis has made the Bank of England unable to pay its wage bills and or even control its lending rates. Out of the credit boom initiated by big banks, global equities and real estate resulted in a dangerous lending behaviour across Europe (Foldvary, 2008). It has also reduced profits in many financial institutions in England.
In England, the government has taken various measures in the form of policies in a bid to ensure that it cushions its nation from the effects of this recession in the form of macroeconomic developments in the country’s economy. The government of England has also enacted policies to guard its economy against supply shocks. The government of England has also worked very hard to control deflation. The other policy that has been enacted by England’s government is the fiscal policy as discussed amongst other policies.
References Conway, E 2008, Gordon Brown policies ‘piling up budget deficit, viewed on https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/2795798/Gordon-Brown-policies-piling-up-budget-deficit.html
Deirdre, H 2008, ‘Nationwide warns of recession as house price drop doubles’, The Times, 11 Aug., p. 5.
Foldvary, F 2007, The Depression of 2008 , The Gutenberg Press, London.
Fried, J 2012, Who Really Drove the Economy Into the Ditch, Algora Publishing, New York.
Gary, D 2009, ‘Bank ‘prints’ £75bn and cuts interest rates in half’, The Times, 5 March, p. 4.
Gore, C 2010, The global recession of 2009 in a long-term development perspective’, Journal of International Development, vol. 22 no. 6, pp. 714-38.
Television and Children Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Watching television occupies most of children time. Watching television comes second after sleeping in most of children’s lives (Nary, 2004). Research has also showed that television influences significantly the growth and development of children. The main areas that are significantly affected are the morals and lifestyle of the children.
It is due to this effect that researchers have established theories to explain the influence of television viewing on children. The first theory that the researchers came up with is the stimulation hypothesis. According to Nary (2004), this theory emphasizes that if children watch well-structured programs, the programs may help them to grow well and achieve success in their studies.
The second theory that the researchers came up with is the reduction hypothesis theory that emphasizes that television can act as a medium that limits children’s achievement in their education and social life. The effects however depend on the amount of regulation i.e. how the parents of the children regulate TV watching.
Thesis Statement It is therefore evident that watching television has different impacts on children as they grow. The effects may be either positive or negative as illustrated from the above theories.
Being the primary regulators, parents are at a dilemma on how much is too much television and how much is enough or too little. To be able to deal with the situation, it is vital to conduct a study that may help in identifying the impact of television viewing on children. This paper will therefore examine the effects that the television has on children and how they can be mitigated.
Positive Impacts According to Worthington (2010), watching the television helps some students to develop language skills. By watching and listening, the children are able to develop their language skills if they were not coherent. Research also indicates that children who watch well structured content on the television perform well in their studies. It is however subject to how much “destructive content” they are exposed to while watching the television.
This is because most of the children tend to watch harmful material as compared to useful content. This therefore calls for parental control. The second notable benefit is that watching television helps to improve the brain muscles of children. This is due to the visual experience that is created while watching television.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the children struggle to remember what they watched on television, their brain memory power improves significantly. If this process continues for a period, the resulting effect will be that the child will have excellent brain control especially with regard to remembering.
Some programs aired on television helps children to relax and educate them as well. For instance, some programs aired on Disney channel, expose children to new content that helps them to improve academically while at the same time relaxing. Some programs aired by some channels also provide useful tips on matters such as health, religion and education.
These tips may help the children positively if they implement them in their lives. Moreover, some careers may be modeled through watching television. For instance, a child may decide to become a news anchor or actor by watching their favorite news anchor or actor on television. By continuously watching what their favorite person is doing on television, the child may do it even better if given a chance to try the same.
Negative Impacts Failure by parents to control the content children watch on television may expose them to harmful content. Harmful content in this case may refer to pornographic content , content with violence or programs which encourage drug use and or abuse. Some of the effects of watching such content detailed below;
Violence and aggressive behavior Most of the content aired on most television channels is suitable for viewing by adults only. These programs are not be suitable for viewing by children since they may contain average to high level of violence. A typical movie or program revolves around a ‘good guy or guys’ taking on the villains.
Continuous watching of such movies creates an illusion that violence is the excellent means to solve a problem. The resulting effect is violence as evidenced by the increasing number of violence cases in schools especially in the United States of America. This is worsened by the fact that children tend to like aggressive characters that unfortunately in this case; are extremely violent.
Daytime sleepiness As indicated earlier, watching television is the second highest consumer of children’s time after sleep. This means that most children at night will prefer to sleep or watch a television program rather than do their homework. The effect of spending too much time watching television at night leads to attention difficulties during the day especially when in class.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Television and Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The combination of lack of sleep and the emotional stress resulting from watching some programs results in sleeping disorders characterized by nightmares i.e. if the children manage to sleep. Attention disorders are the major causes of poor grades among school going children. Parents should therefore attempt to control the amount of time children spend on television sets at night. They should set the maximum number of hours to be spent by the children on television.
Sexual Influence Children being adventurous creatures, they will rarely watch children programs the whole day and they consider news as boring. This leads them to watch music videos, soap operas and action movies that unfortunately, contain high sexual content. Watching the content leads them to get the urge to try what they have watched.
Most of them will try whatever they were watching if the situation is worsened by the fact that most of parents rarely talk about sex with their children. Sex among teenagers is dangerous as it may lead to early pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. These consequences may have adverse effects on the education of the teenagers (Evra, 2008).
School Performance Sleep is critical especially to school going children. School performance is severely affected if the children spend most of their time watching television at night. Furthermore, if children become television fanatics, they will spend most of their time at school thinking or discussing their favorite television program. Parents should mitigate this by regulating the amount of time children spend watching television (Evert, 2011).
Health Too much television increases the chances of children developing obesity and couch potato syndrome (Worthington, 2010). This occurs when they spend most of their time watching television especially during holidays. This is done at the expense of playing which is vital to their health.
Furthermore, the body systems get used to the indolent nature resulting in the children becoming inactive in sports and other activities. Too much time on the screen also causes eye disorders that may be either temporary or permanent (Pecora, Murray
Responding to the Problems of the English Wine Producers: the Steps That Must be Undertaken Essay essay help
Introduction: The 2013 Concerns and the Wine Promotion Campaign According to the recent records, the English Wine Producers are going to promote their wine not only to the residents of the United Kingdom, but also to the tourists. Moreover, as soon as the company succeeds in its beginnings, it can be expected that the English Wine Producers will start selling their products worldwide.
Thesis statement: despite the lack of available information, the English Wine Producers can succeed in the European wine market by using their key assets and improving their knowledge management system.
The Analysis of the State of Affairs: What Needs to Be Done Like any other company, the English Wine Producers have their own advantages and downsides. Learning to use the former and hide the latter will help the company succeed.
The strengths of the English Wine Producers: putting the emphasis on the quality
To win the battle, the company will have to lay the emphasis on its assets so that the potential clientele could see these advantages as well. Therefore, the strategy must be aimed at finding the way to stress an outstanding quality of the English wine. Perhaps, combining a well-known stereotype of English people always clinging to their traditions, one can come up with an alluring advertizing concept.
The weaknesses of the English Wine Producers: when it comes to information availability
Sadly enough, there is a lack of cooperation between the English Wine Producers affiliates. However introducing the system of knowledge sharing, one can expect a better information processing.
Looking for the Solutions of the Problems: Flexible Measurement System and Awareness Campaign Needless to say, a good advertizing campaign makes the bulk of a company success. Therefore, every single element of the campaign must be well thought out.
Technological advances as the key means to inform the potential customers
Utilizing the latest technological advances will help considerably in promoting the company. E.g., a blogosphere can be used to attract even more clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective advertizing campaign: let the whole wide world know about English wine
To make the advertizing campaign as impressive as possible, different types of media must be used. Starting from advertisements in newspaper and TV commercials to direct marketing (e.g., sending e-mail invitations and newsletters), the commercials have to aim at the clients.
Rethinking the Budget Issues: One Hundred Bottles of Wine on the Wall With the help of a 100,000 pounds budget, the English Wine producers will be able to promote its wine efficiently.
The costs that cannot be avoided: promotion campaign
A good promotion campaign must drive people’s attention towards the goods and make them feel like trying these goods. Therefore, the following costs can be expected:
Costs Amount (£) Designing the awareness campaign 10,000 Creating an online site 5,000 Promoting the wine via commercials (TV and Internet) 5,000 Using other means to place a commercial (e.g., billboards, city transport, etc.) 15,000 Organizing an event (presentation of the new trademark) 15,000 Offering the visitors free samples of wine Offering discounts to the VIP clients 10,000 Renting premises for the company office 15,000 Renting premises for shops 15,000 Developing an HRM strategy for hiring competent staff to work in newly established shops 5,000 Unforeseen costs and how to deal with them
It is also necessary to keep at least £5,000 for the possible unforeseen costs, such as broken/stolen goods, etc. In addition, it is necessary to keep in mind that the English Wine Producers will also have to provide the clients with an opportunity to try the wine for free as a part of the promotion campaign to attract even more people.
Conclusion: Reconsidering the Current Action Plan Though there might be other possible obstacles for the English Wine Producers, it still must be admitted that the given plan is rather viable. Creating effective commercials that emphasize the positive aspects of the English wine, one can expect a surge of clientele and impressive revenues.
“Letter to John Adams”. Ideological Review Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online
In the book “Letter to John Adams” by Adams, one of the most ideological quotes I find is “Women’s rights”. I believe that points derived in this quotation suffice to be regarded as most ideological significance.
Therefore my main reason for selecting this quotation is primarily based on points that Adams articulates about the plight of women in the society. In this context, she clearly gives distinctive roles to American women. She does not undermine the roles women which majors on their responsibilities in society (Dolbeare
Nature vs. Nurture Essay essay help
There is an assumption that individual’s intellectual and physical characteristics are, first of all, predetermined by their nature. Innate skills point to genetic code that a person inherits from his/her relatives. However, experience that an individual gains in the course of life shapes his behavior, outlook, and life position.
The new socially constructed patterns constantly change over time as soon as a new experience is obtained. Therefore, innate qualities could be modified to develop new perspectives and visions on various aspects of life, including health. Indeed, there are serious debates on to what extent heredity and environment influence our health and physical wellbeing.
On the one hand, heredity can affect our future endeavors and possibilities in life while considering such aspects as genetic history and predispositions for various diseases. On the other hand, individuals’ decision to smoke, eat vegetarian food, or go in for sports also change their health condition.
The nature side of the discussion focuses on innate characteristics and emphasizes how humans reveal biological qualities. At this point, genes can provide a solid foundation for individual’s aptitude to stand various diseases, such as heart problems, cancer, or allergy to various external stimuli. For example, multiple studies on obesity and predisposition prove the genetic heredity has a direct impact on obesity development (Li et al., 2011; Shengxu et al. 2010).
Specifically, Li et al (2011) assert that genetic information relates to the development of obesity and its influence on other disorders, such as type 2 diabetes. Additionally, Shengxu et al. (2010) examine the genetic susceptibility in relation to obesity to define that the physical exercises can attenuate the disorder.
From the nurture perspective, health conditions largely depend on external factors, including ecological situation, individual’s occupation, and his/her life habits. For instance, a person who smokes has an increased risk of lung cancer whereas a person who goes in sport will have a stronger physical fitness.
At this point, Kelsey et al (2012) insist that health conditions are largely predetermined by environment, public relations, and activities in which an individual is involved. Additionally, Yang, Matthews, and Shoff (2011) suggest that individual’s health can be significantly improved as soon as recent health care systems are rebuilt. As a result, people should be more concerned with the external environment possibilities to change their previous health conditions for the better.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Health disparities among races and nationalities are important issues that undermine the nurture side of the debate. Bar-Haim et al. (2008) focus on the relation between race characteristics and health conditions.
The scholars explain that Caucasians living in an alien environment experience challenges in terms of cultural and society, which leads to the assumption that own-race environment is preferable for comfortable existence of one race. To support the issue, Fotaki (2011) reveals that both genetic information and external environment are equally important for individual’s physical and mental wellbeing.
In conclusion, the debates on nature versus nurture reveal that both innate health conditions and external factors shape the outcomes for physical and mental wellbeing of an individual. Specifically, genetic heredity predetermines the initial conditions under which a person react to an environment whereas nurture issue defines further actions that can help an individual to adapt to a new setting and develop new aptitudes. Therefore, it is highly important to strike the balance between these two driving forces.
References Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D.,
Between Discipline and Profession Essay (Book Review) college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Use of Historical Context in Computer Engineering
Persistent instability in Computer Engineering
Introduction Michael Mahoney explores position of computer engineering between disciplinary and professional domains. He starts by giving a detailed history of persistent instability in computer engineering. Mahoney also utilizes historical approach to explore trajectory and origin of computer engineering.
However, he focuses his research on findings from the United States. He specifically tackles computer engineering as a domain of professional and disciplinary activity. In this regard, he tries to explore what counts as practice and knowledge in computer engineering. He also tries to define a computer engineer with respect to profession and discipline. Furthermore, he looks into timelines, locations, groups, and actors in computer engineering.
Mahoney explores sociotechnical boundaries that have continued to separate computer engineering from its adjacent fields. These fields include computer science and electrical engineering, among others. This paper will review Mahoney’s dissertation to explore position of computer engineering between discipline and profession (Mahoney, 2006).
Use of Historical Context in Computer Engineering Mahoney looks at industrial sphere and professional societies from which computer engineering originate. He uses various academic sources ranging from primary to secondary sources with an aim of striking establishing position of computer engineering.
He includes variety of documents such as curriculum reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and trade magazines, among others to achieve a credible outcome. He begins by describing pre-historic events on computer engineering and early historical events. Chapter two to chapter four covers years between 1940 and 1960.
Here, Mahoney finds that computer engineering gained its distinct identity as a partially distinct professional through professional societies and industries. Through this, it is observable that computer engineering was mostly professional given overwhelming support it received from professional societies and from industrial fields.
Throughout the second chapter, Mahoney accounts for emergence of computer engineering. He begins with emergence of electrical engineering to that of computer engineering. He also defines boundaries that emerged around computer engineering (Mahoney, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, Mahoney looks at historical context of computer engineering between 1960 and 1990. Here, Mahoney reveals extent of change as it occurred in the field of computer engineering. For instance, he documents that computer engineering took a distinct disciplinary identity and a partially distinctive sociotechnical settlement identity.
Apart from dominance of professional societies, academic context also emerged in this period. This showed that computer-engineering field was translating from a highly professional domain into a disciplinary domain. This period reveals debate on computer engineering’s position of persistent instability. These instabilities are discussed in depth with special attention given to domains of computer engineering (Mahoney, 2006).
Mahoney reviews extensively on recent developments associated with computer engineering in educational arena. These are aimed at highlighting continued instabilities within disciplinary domain of computing. Also, he provides basis for renewed call for establishment of a distinct professional and disciplinary identity of computer engineering as a field. In this regard, he calls for a review of historical context of software/hardware co-design movement.
He also agrees that historical development in field of computer engineering has involved both social and technical negotiation (sociotechnical context) to achieve development. Of great concern was on how to define responsibilities of a computer engineer and a computer scientist. It was quite challenging to establish a frontier between science and engineering, software and hardware and theory and design (Mahoney, 2006).
Defining such a frontier was significant in revealing important insights on past, present and future of computing. Mahoney tries to analysis these difficulties to define computer engineering. In essence, cause for concern is whether to categorize computer engineering as a branch of engineering (which makes it a professional domain) or categorize it as an independent discipline.
These conflicting questions have continually contributed to persistent instability. Besides, Mahoney considers Paul Edward’s work (The Closed World) inspirational in his analysis of professional and disciplinary development, which focuses beyond sociotechnical factors.
However, he departs from Edward’s theory when he considers that computer engineering is a significant facet of professional and disciplinary development. This diversion is caused by Edward’s belief that computer engineering is constructed from a discourse of sociotechnical elements. Mahoney claims that a profession must have capability of bringing heterogeneous elements into alignment in order to establish stability (Mahoney, 2006).
We will write a custom Book Review on Between Discipline and Profession specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methodology Mahoney utilizes research papers and documents from texts and persons with close links to the field of computer engineering to conduct his research. This is important in ensuring relevancy on topic of discussion. It is also necessary in verifying credibility of sources used in developing this dissertation.
In essence, Mahoney’s goal of drawing information that emphasizes views of computer engineers is achieved. However, he avoids being monolithic by bringing views from various standpoints within the field of computer engineering. This is important in minimizing biased outcomes or lenient results.
In essence, Mahoney ensures that his dissertation is not infiltrated with biased views. That is, he integrates multiplicity of viewing platforms that have been contributed in this field over decades. However, given his objective of the unbiased outcome, Mahoney has also integrated information from adjacent areas. Nonetheless, he emphasizes on views of computer engineers on that information. This is important in bringing up credible results based on related stakeholders (Mahoney, 2006).
However, it should also be noted that Mahoney confines his research to development of computer engineering in the United States. In this sense, outcome is more related to factors in that country than in other parts of the world. In essence, his research is denied a global perspective it needs.
However, it is also necessary to note that this scope of research is increasingly easy to manage since it covers a small area of development as compared to a large scope. However, this restricts his research to be distinct to America. In alluding to this, Mahoney agrees that he would consider studying people’s perspectives on computer engineering in other parts of the world. Also, Mahoney defends his approach in research by establishing credibility of his resources (Mahoney, 2006).
Mahoney concurs that debate on sociotechnical boundaries has been in existence before. He agrees that it will continue to give rise to numerous discussions with far-reaching complications. He gives an in-depth account of transition from engineers, through computing, to computer engineering.
He gives a detailed account of historical negotiations that occurred in historical timelines of computer engineering. He also refers to various sociotechnical settlements that have so far been reached concerning computer engineering. In this regard, he includes various talks and mediation that took place in order to achieve present predicaments.
However, he still alludes to the fact that computer engineering has continued to experience persistent instability. He adds that there is amplified turbulence due to increasing calls for redefining discipline of computer engineering (Mahoney, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Between Discipline and Profession by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mahoney also talks of overwhelming response from various scholars and agencies to bridge gap between computer science and computer engineering. In this regard, he talks of Computer Society’s move to influence computer education. It describes steps that have been taken to develop a curriculum in computer science and computer engineering.
Furthermore, it has tried to contribute to integration of computer science in engineering fields like electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and civil engineering, among others. In this regard, it has worked to support reform of curricular in electrical engineering training. Still, agencies such as ACM, among others have been forefront in ensuring hybridization of software and hardware engineering. Engineers have also taken steps to refine CSE education.
Mahoney revisits all these developments in detail with a view to striking a balance between computer engineering as a domain of profession or discipline. Consequently, Mahoney discusses relationship between software and hardware engineering in an inclusive manner.
He argues that developments observed in computer field as a whole are constantly changing direction in which computer engineering as a domain takes. In essence, emergence of fields such as informatics, computer science, and computing, among others raise debate in categorization of computer engineering (Mahoney, 2006).
Persistent instability in Computer Engineering Mahoney also looks into divergent pathways of computing curricula and co-design. He recounts how computer engineering was embraced as (CSE) computer science and engineering as a unified intellectual discipline. This culminated in drafting of curriculum for computer engineering.
However, this report dedicated computer engineering as a domain of disciplinary and professional distinct. Also, it was noted that scope of computing had expanded so much that it could not be contained as a single discipline. This led to five new curricula in computing namely information Systems (CCIS), Information technology (CCIT), Computer Science (CCCS), Software Engineering (CCSE), and Computer Engineering.
Still, as late as in 2004, computer engineering was considered a distinct professional and disciplinary domain. Proponents of computer engineering as a discipline argued that it evolved from discipline soft computer science and electrical engineering.
Also, since computer engineering was also divided into other programs such as Computer Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Systems Engineering, they supported the fact that computer engineering was an independent discipline.
They also argue that since computer engineering was drawn from computer science, it evolved from body of knowledge, which was considered a discipline (Mahoney, 2006).
However, proponents of computer engineering as a professional domain argue that computer engineers have that ability to design computer systems (hardware and software), possess breadth of knowledge in both engineering sciences and mathematics, and are prepared for professional practice in engineering. In essence, they argue that these characteristics place computer engineers as both disciplinary and professional domains.
However, Mahoney notes that recent studies have seen both computer scientists and computer engineers working side by side despite arguments concerning their domains. Mahoney believes that one reason for this is a continued blurring of boundaries between software and hardware.
Mahoney explores the historical context of software-hardware boundary debate. He realizes that both are intertwined like social and technical cultures. However, he believes that further research on boundary between hardware and software would raise thorny questions that surround engineering and science (Mahoney, 2006).
Conclusion Mahoney reveals major concerns in computer engineering. This includes its history of persistent instability, which has transpired between 1951 and 2006. From chapter two, he explains professional domain of computer engineering. From chapter six, he explores disciplinary domain of computer engineering.
He goes on to relate this debate to studies on software and hardware. Finally, he acknowledges that boundary between engineering and science is getting close because of blurring of frontier between software and hardware. In essence, computer engineering is a distinct disciplinary and professional domain.
Reference Mahoney, M. (2006). Between Discipline and Profession: A History of Persistent Instability in the Field of Computer Engineering, circa 1951-2006. (Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI Number: DP19901)
Women’s Rights – Contribution of E. Cady Stanton and S.B. Anthony Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
The fight for women’s rights has come a long way and it has taken many years and efforts for women activists. The first significant and most important move was made by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. They have initialized the changes in society towards women’s rights, freedom and equality.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were united by the same idea but came towards the idea in very different ways. Elizabeth Stanton was born and grew up in a wealthy family. Her father has had four sons but they all died and as women had no rights at the time, he lost all hopes that someone will take his place as the leader of the family.
Elizabeth Stanton wanted to please him very much and acted according to her father’s words, which were: “I wish you were a boy” (Barnes, 1999). When the time came for her to continue education and she very much wanted to, both social rules and her father did not support her.
When she met and married Henry Brewster Stanton, she received support from him, as he was also a revolutionist and supported slavery abolition. When they were attending the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott who was a feminist and a great supporter of rights of women. Lucretia Mott has very much influenced Elisabeth’s views and goals in the fight for women’s equality (Barnes, 1999).
Susan B. Anthony, on the other hand, was born in a Quaker family and her father was also quite a successful man. The difference was that he supported his daughter and her want to get educated. He pulled her from a public school and educated her himself. Later Susan B. Anthony finished her education and became a teacher herself.
She was very intelligent and organized, as well as tactical. She became a good teacher and was given a head position. During the 4 years of teaching, she had many opportunities to get married, as there were several suitors. Instead, she chose to be independent, she did not want to belong to anyone, as this was the predominant view of society, that women were a man’s property.
She returned home and her father placed her in charge of his farm. This was the place where a lot of revolutionaries and human rights activists would meet and she realized that she wants to be a “full time reformist” (Barnes, 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were introduced to each other in 1851, they joined their forces in the temperance movement (Isecke, 2011). They have started their lives in different surroundings but were united by the same goal. As mentioned in the video titled “Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Medicare and Medicaid in California Essay writing essay help
Introduction The need to get better health care services is a mandatory requirement by all citizens irrespective of their age, race, tribe or political affiliations. Nations have developed their health institutions to ensure everybody gets quality health services that are also affordable. The state of California and other states have programs that ensure all people get health services without struggling.
They have established the Medicaid and Medicare services that ensure all citizens are guaranteed proper medical services. This essay explores how these programs have been incorporated in California’s healthcare systems to ensure people get quality services.
Medicaid This program was established to ensure all people who have financial difficulties access medical services without constraining their budgets. This means that this program offers subsidized services for all poor people and those that are disadvantaged in the society. It is crucial to state that this program is not offered to everybody except those that have limited sources of income and are low income earners. This means that people earning above the average pay are not allowed to subscribe to this program.
This program gives direct qualification to anyone who receives CalWORKs, foster care assistants and those that are entitled to receive Supplementary Security Income. Another group of people who can get this service includes those that have physical disabilities like the blind, pregnant, people aged less than 21 and those aged more than 65 years. People operating child care centers and nursing homes are eligible to this program since they take care of children aged 21 years.
This favor is also given to foster parents and those living and taking care of children aged below 21 years. The California Department of Health Care Services (CDHCS) administers this program by offering an identification card that contains all the details of the beneficiary and the provisions under this program. The following are also observed before consent is granted to a person to enroll in this program. A person must have assets not exceeding $2000 or if the person is married their total should not be more than $3000.
Medicare This program exists to take care of the old people in California. This means they must have attained 65 years of age or more to qualify for it. It ensures that all old and retired people continue to get quality medical services through subsidizing their health expenses. They are allowed various privileges provided they have their membership cards. The federal government offers this insurance scheme to ensure that all young people with various physical disabilities.
This provision favors most people who already have disability insurance benefits and social security retirement advantages. In California this service is offered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. They ensure they have all the details of their clients concerning their hospital and medical insurances and when they began.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most people have both Medicaid and Medicare and use them to help pay for their health care needs. In this case Medicare precedes Medicaid since it has more rooms to accommodate various conditions. Beneficiaries are always advised to present both cards when seeking medical services to ensure they get maximum services.
There are various health insurance providers and people are advised to seek services from providers that accept these two cards. This ensures that there will never be delays or useless expenses when seeking medical assistance.
Yoga and its separation from tradition Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Yoga is a rather controversial and questionable concept in the minds of many. For some, it leads to enlightenment and relaxation and for others, it is a pointless waste of time. The disconnection between traditional practices and outcomes is evident, in that disbelief and inability to concentrate and practice overtake the benefits and positives of yoga. Yoga has always been closely connected to traditional practice and beliefs of select people.
It has become a part of life and a division of philosophy that helps and guides through the challenges that people face. But even though it has had close encounters with people’s thoughts and hearts, it is also seen as a separate entity, being of different world and space. Yoga can be traced to the ancient times and has become a part of society.
Many people view it as a way of life, even a religion. The fact that it is so unique also distances it from many people. There is a limited number of individuals that can master the true skill of yoga and develop the technique that will be beneficial to them. Societies view yoga as physical exercises and not as a religion (Anderson 3).
Yoga opens up a lot of controversy, where people of different religions can be blamed for taking part in other religious beliefs through its practice. The age of yoga and the methods of Hindu monks contribute to the disbelief people attribute to the truth of yoga and its sincerity towards other religions. People are said to participate in a form of a ritual and thus, are practicing a different religion from their own.
Presently, there are numerous discussions about yoga and its true nature. Many people say that it is not connected to religion and is a process that can only lead to negative things. The argument about this point of view is that there is only one true way to reach salvation and it is God.
As most of the world believes in God that is a single entity, it is unclear, to the believers, how yoga can help find true peace and understanding. An interesting point about yoga is that it has no end and there is no God on the way or anywhere. It is meant to practice self knowledge and reach understanding that is far from human regular thoughts and feelings.
This can be seen as blasphemous because religion is thought to be one of the strongest points of humanity. If it does not contain God, it is said to be evil. The ways of attaining true knowledge and understanding are unique to everyone but religion encourages everyone to use the same ways. Yoga is said to be very similar to religion, in the fact that everyone has a chance to practice it and there are same techniques in finding the true meaning of one’s life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But the modern world has added another perspective to the comprehension of religion. The search for the self has become a very individual and private practice that cannot be attained through going to churches, praying and believing. Yoga has somewhat separated itself from regular beliefs because traditionally, people have had a certain criteria to abide by, to follow rules and regulations that were set by their ancestors.
The origins of yoga are also traditional and set up by previous generations but the difference is in the process itself. It uses seemingly old methods but they lead to an understanding that is new, different and unique from the previous ones. Every person has an individuality that is never repeated in anyone else.
It cannot be quantified and divided into pieces, thus it is impossible to duplicate. Religion has become weaved into human society so much that anything different is thought to be wrong.
Yoga is often said to lead to the gates of heaven and peace but this is a direct contradiction with what religion teaches. God is the only path and people should swear their allegiance to Him only. Yoga contradicts beliefs that most people have, setting the division between regularity and strangeness.
Just as there is a connection to the common public and unity of all people, yoga is a search for the self, as previously mentioned. Patanjali writes about yoga in the following terms: “Even though proper moral action in the world is not the goal of yoga, a great vow to live by the universal principles of nonviolence, truthfulness, avoidance of stealing, celibacy, and poverty is specified as a precognition for further yogic practice” (Patanjali2).
This statement shows how private yoga can be and how different it is from the goals of the population. But the opposite is also true, as the laws and rules of the modern world are directed at the same thing-preservation of peace, absence of violence and moral rights and freedoms.
The difference is that the goals of many people—society, are much different from the individuals’. Family, closest relatives and person’s own well-being are the primary care for anyone. Yoga teaches inner goodness and peace with the self and the surrounding environment, which is Nature.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Yoga and its separation from tradition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But, for some reason, people are sometimes thought to be apart from Nature. The violent and selfish acts that are often attributed to humanity and are true, cannot be united with peace and love. Yoga has the connection to natural being but the spiritual path that leads to salvation can be seen as “too spiritual”, not of this world.
People have been raised to believe in limits and ends. The Earth has certain physical boundaries that people cannot overtake. Yoga takes a step away from these traditional beliefs and promises people things of a world much different from this one. The regular duties and responsibilities that are taught since childhood, are service to the country and community. Anyone who moves away from this line of thinking is thought of as deviant.
Even though some people have changed their predisposed way of thinking, anything different from normality is thought to be immoral and strange. Yoga follows the same path, as people who practice it are not traditional, they are said to be following something that is ancient and not modern.
Those who follow regular rules and beliefs are surprised when they learn that someone is practicing yoga. People without specific knowledge about yoga are not sure what it really is and consider it very different from the regular life (Rosen 20). Everyone is familiar that it is also spiritual but the disbelief that the end goals and states of yoga are exaggerated is quite strong. The society lives by one standard and the individual by another.
The majority believes that there is happiness and it is attainable but not with ease and quick solutions. Yoga does not provide quick solutions either but it promises happiness and salvation. It is true that this is exactly what people strive towards but at the same time, there are doubts and disbelief that it is possible to achieve.
It becomes almost “unwanted” because then there will be nothing to work towards. Everyone wants to be happy but is afraid to be happy. It is a contradiction in and of itself, due to the fact that it is an eternal goal, something that cannot be accomplished in this lifetime.
Yoga is much different from God, as it makes an individual path, a way for everyone to find their own true meaning but it is God-like also since it is the search for one’s soul and happiness. This is usually found through pain and suffering, loss and limits. But as always, perspective differs true meaning: “A “thug” in American newspapers is an armed robber.
But the name is derived from a North Indian community of the last century, whose members not only gained a livelihood through armed robbery but considered it a religious duty” (Behanan 3). Who is to say what is right and wrong? People believe that in order to receive something great, they must earn it by bleeding and fighting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Yoga and its separation from tradition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Yoga offers a practical method to love and joy without significant stress or pain. This is not very traditional because people were led to believe otherwise. Years of human history and grandparents’ stories have taught people that accomplishments are not easy to come by.
The general belief is that salvation is only attainable by a select few and these people must be special and unique. Yoga creates a possibility for everyone who has some form of will power and determination. For the majority of people, this goes against their beliefs and traditions. It is humorous that the simplest solution is the obvious and closest one but this fact is still disbelieved and negated by many.
Yoga is not given the much deserved attention; it is mostly treated as an exercise routine that is meant to physically strengthen the body. It is possible to suppose that it is an excuse people make for themselves because the path itself is hard and long. Yoga is not a quick solution to the problem; it is a way of life that must be absolved in its every aspect. “A true aspirant has to conform strictly with all the rules set down by yoga discipline” (Rajarshi 8).
This is a hard criterion for most to follow and so, yoga is disregarded as something strange and different from reality. People are used to things that are easy, quick solutions and material things. Yoga parts with the spiritual and divine, which is so unfamiliar to most. Religion has become a part of life because it is much easier.
The majorities go to church, contribute financially and pray when things go bad but religion is much more. Those who truly believe know the sacrifices and battles with the self that true belief requires. The same can be said about yoga and its truth is exactly what sets it far from the regular traditions that people possess.
Yoga has been around for ages, many people practice it but less understand the true meaning and power of yoga. The fact that people know about it, does mean acceptance into the society and regular living conditions. Yoga’s age has not been a determinant in people’s relationship towards it; it has stayed strange and unknown for most.
Works Cited Anderson, Sandra. Yoga: Mastering the Basics. Honesdale, United States: Himalayan Institute Press, 2000. Print.
Behanan, Kovoor. Yoga: Its Scientific Basis. Toronto, Canada: Courier Dover Publications, 1937. Print.
Patanjali. Yoga: Discipline of Freedom. Los Angeles, United States: University of California Press, 1996. Print.
Rajarshi. Awakening the Life Force. St. Paul, United States: Llewellyn Worldwide, 2001. Print.
Rosen, Richard. Original Yoga: Rediscovering Traditional Practices of Hatha Yoga. Boston, United States: Shambhala Publications, 2012. Print.
The War-prone and Chaotic 21st Century Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Weapons and Mass Destruction
The Gap between the South and the North
Introduction A number of challenges, ranging from economic, political to social, characterize the 21st century. The main problems that confront all states in the global system are the preservation of sovereignty and promotion of national interests. In fact, states are concerned more with the promotion of national security.
Research shows that states would do everything within their power to protect their national borders. The emergence of global problems is indeed the main issue that threatens human life. The security of many states is at stake due to terrorism and the spread of weapons of mass destruction.
Powerful states are threatened just as the weak states because terrorism does not spare any state. Moreover, there is always tension between the developed and the developing countries because of issues surrounding resource distribution.This article looks at some of the factors that have contributed to the prevalence of problems in the 21st century. The article invokes a number of theories and incorporates the views of international relations scholars.
Terrorism In the current international system, terrorism is the major threat facing all states. Countries are faced with both internal and external threats, but terrorism remains the major threat. Terrorism is a problem that cannot be resolved unless states delve into its origins.
Terrorists use violence to frustrate governments, irrespective of whether the country is developed or poor. In other words, no country or individual is spared by the heinous acts of terrorists. In the modern international system, there are various categories of terrorists, each with its own mode of operation.
Some terrorists threaten to use weapons of mass destruction while others resort to suicide bombing1. Scholars argue that terrorism is a result of depression, melancholy, hopelessness, helplessness, and defeat. Before the Cold War era, terrorism was not a big issue in the international system because extremist organizations were under the control of the US and the Soviet Union.
The hostilities between the US and the Soviet Union could not give room to terrorism. In fact, countries that were suspected to support terrorism were constantly frustrated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should be noted that there is no Leviathan in the international system, which is compared to the centralized government. This gives state and non-state actors an opportunity to act in a manner that is beneficial to them.
Moreover, there are weak and powerful states in the international system. Powerful states are well off in terms of military technology and development. In this regard, weak states feel threatened, which inspires them to develop some of the sophisticated weapons to counter the influence of powerful states.
Weapons and Mass Destruction Availability of weapons of mass destruction is another threat to the world security in the current international system, which has made the 21st century the most disordered century in the human history. It is upon this that the Atomic Agency was created to supervise the production and distribution of weapons of mass destruction.
Before the Cold War, only powerful states, such as Russia and the US, had the capability of manufacturing weapons of mass destruction. However, these weapons could not be used to destroy life and property. In fact, the superpowers wanted to prove to each other that they were technologically competent.
They could not engage in war because they were mutually assured of destruction. Currently, a number of states have the ability to produce weapons of mass destruction. For instance, countries such as India and Pakistan have the ability to produce nuclear energy. This is very dangerous to the world security, especially when such weapons get into the hands of terrorism.
The ideas of Mearsheimer support the fact that the international system exists according to the Hobbestian state of nature meaning that life is short-lived, anarchic, brutal, and nasty2. This implies that each state is concerned with its national security. States would do everything to ensure that they achieve their national interests.
The Gap between the South and the North The third problem facing the world in the 21st century is the increasing economic gap between poor and rich states. Studies show that the gap between the south and the north is always in the increase. The problems facing countries of the south is how to initiate development projects.
We will write a custom Essay on The War-prone and Chaotic 21st Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, scholars blame colonialism for the problems that are currently facing developing countries, particularly in Africa. The effects of neocolonialism are severe in the 21st century meaning that even the few available solutions are inapplicable. For instance, the issue of anger and insecurity cannot be resolved through provision of aid and monetary assistance.
Neocolonialists focus so much on establishing a cash economy by emphasizing on cash crops such as coffee and tea. This has always affected the agricultural policies of developing countries. Moreover, the infrastructural development was tempered with during colonialism, which is now haunting poor states in the 21st century3.
This explains the reasons why weak states attempt to acquire nuclear energy. In the third assumption, Mearsheimer was of the view that states would always suspect the actions of each other because one state will never understand the intentions of the other. Due to this, states try as much as possible to match the policies of their counterparts in terms of economic and military development.
Since powerful states struggle to maintain their influence globally, they always apply repressive rules, which force weak states to repel. This has even complicated the situation in the 21st century because weak states are forced to adopt policies that do not support their domestic economic policies.
Conclusion Mearsheimer seems to agree with the ideas of liberalist scholars such as Aart Scholte and Brent Steele because actors in the international system are rational actors meaning that they understand the external environment. This view is misplaced because states cooperate only to achieve their national interests.
Steele suggests that states respect the internationally recognized laws. This view is actually inaccurate because powerful states are not even members of the internationally established organizations such as the International Criminal Court4. Scholte analyzed the role of global civil societies in the 21st century.
Similarly, his analysis was misplaced because the activities of the civil groups are not always similar in all societies. Globalization is a political concept that is used to suppress and dictate policies to the poor states in the international system. This means that globalization benefits only the rich states.
Bibliography Mearsheimer, John. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: Norton
Urban Sprawl and Motorization Essay best college essay help
Emergence of urban centers is the major cause of the increase in emissions that affect the ozone layer. The effects of global warming are also attributed to the urban sprawl and motorization. The urban sprawl affects the environment in diverse ways.
The effects range from high level of energy consumption and use of transportation, cooling and heating facilities up to the sustenance of social thriving of urban neighborhoods. Meanwhile, to meet growth of motorization, developing countries have used a lot of natural resources to deal with infrastructure construction. However, there is adverse mass impact on motorized urban sprawl, which is solved by using technologies as claimed by business groups.
This essay will analyze three main situations caused by urban sprawl, and argue that these problems can be solved by environmental and technological means. This essay is primarily based on air pollution, social polarization and loss of farm land ( Gleria and Jaeger 65). One of the greatest effects of urban sprawl and motorization is air pollution.
Air pollution is emission of unwanted or unclean gases into the atmosphere. These gases are end result of the used fuels. Emitted gases lead to massive destruction of the environment. For instance, gases such as carbon dioxide if emitted into the atmosphere in large volumes gradually deplete the ozone layer.
As a result of depletion of ozone layer, occur such effects as climate change. Climate change adversely affects both human and vegetative lives. As a result of climate change, we can observe unreliability of weather conditions, thus lowering rainfall rate. Droughts and extinctions of many plants and animal species occur.
Air pollution leads to greenhouse effect. Greenhouse effect is formed due to emission of such gases as carbon dioxide that largely contributes to depletion of the ozone layer. As a result of this, direct radiation occurs, thus causing droughts and water loss in the atmosphere.
Other effects of air pollution include cancer to human and animals. For instance, dissolved gases form an acidic media when it rains, thereby causing consumption of acidified water. Gonzales states that rates of gaseous emission are more pronounced in urban areas rather than in rural areas. This is due to the fact that most people in urban areas own cars, and the rate of motorist’s activities is higher than in rural areas. This means more consumption of fossil fuels and eventual emission of gases into the atmosphere (Gonzales, 211).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different solutions to control the widespread of greenhouse gases emission into the atmosphere are provided. Government provides solutions to these problems. Technological approach advocates for inventing electric cars. They argue that with the coming of electric cars, the rate of consumption of fossil fuels will be cut drastically.
Therefore this will mean that emission of fossil gases reduces, thus no more global warming. The next approach for preventing emission of gases into the atmosphere is through government intervention through formulation of policies like public transport and land management policies. These policies are effective if properly followed. For instance, legislation to lower the number of vehicles possessed in any town ensures cut downs in fossil fuel usage (McCartney n. p.).
Gonzales, however, strongly advocates for technological approach, and explains that it provides an adequate measure to end emission of fossil gases. This is due to the fact that government legislations have more discrepancies than technological measures. Therefore technological approach is the best solution. Urban sprawl and motorization have caused polarization into the society.
Polarization is environmentally unfriendly since it leads to replacement of neighborhood by infrastructures. Displaced persons have no alternatives thus leading to environmental constraints. For instance, poor people become homeless since they cannot afford good houses in the cities (Mario and Jaeger 46).
Martin further suggests that transport injustice is one of the greatest social issues in the society. This is due to the fact that as a result of technology, the society is left homeless, and landless. Gonzales, on the other hand, suggests that by creating high transport rate; people resort to other means that are cheaper and environmental friendly.
However, technology explains that construction of dual carriage highway is not recommended, instead bypasses and underpasses that minimizes measure of land used are more rational. The government provides solutions by securing alternative lands to the displaced persons. Therefore the Government solution is more preferable than the technological one, because both underpasses and bypasses are costly to build and manage (Gonzales 123).
Finally, motorization and urban sprawl lead to loss of farm lands. It happens when productive agricultural land is used to build roads. Martin explains that utilization of farmland for infrastructural construction leads to reduced food production, loss of farm land, and eco-social problems.
We will write a custom Essay on Urban Sprawl and Motorization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, government should compensate farmers for the land used through its policies, as well as provide an alternative productive land (Martin 69). Technology should intensify search for other free lands where construction would be made. Therefore technology provides the most effective means of controlling the social effects motorization and urban sprawl.
In conclusion, government through its stakeholders should formulate legislations that control consequences of such phenomena as urban sprawl and motorization. Measures discussed, especially air pollution, adversely affect ecosystem, and should be controlled (Gonzales 78).
Works Cited Gonzales, George. “Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization.” Environmental politics. 14.3 (2005): 34-362. Print.
Mario, Gleria and Roger Jaeger. Phosphazenes: A Worldwide Insight. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004. Print.
Martin, George. “Motorization, Social ecology and China.” Area. 39.1 (2007):66-73. Print.
McCartney, Danielle. “From Urban Sprawl to Sustainable Urban Village.” The Fifth Estate, 10 Aug. 2009. Web. .
Indigenous Australians Policy Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
The article examined the position and relevance of Aboriginal imagery and policy in Australia before independence. Aboriginal imagery was used to justify activities of the colonial government. Later on, various writers used native Australian policy to support their demand for independence.
The Aborigines were portrayed as primitive people incapable of self rule. In several instances native Australians were portrayed as primitive and violent savages. Their land was referred to as a barren wilderness. The native Australians were dispossessed of their land. Right to own land was transferred to white settlers.
The imagery was intended to portray both the colonial government and white settlers as progressive and civilized. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, destruction of native Australians way of life (past, present and future) was justified using images of uncivilized past and promise of a progressive future. Aboriginal people served as a reference point for the colonial government. Writers at the time portrayed pre-colonial Australia as a backward society.
When democracy became a preferred method of governance in New South Wales, candidates often used Aboriginal imagery to portray their opponents as non-progressive. The future relevance of native Australians in the new dispensation was deliberately ignored. Democracy was a preserve of the white male.
The annihilation of the Aborigines was seen as a natural consequence of modernization. The colonialists treated Aborigines with contempt. They often viewed them as an inconvenience. Native Australians were viewed as non-progressive people. Their place in the politics of New South Wales was not examined.
When New South Wales was demanding for self governance, Aboriginal imagery was used to advance this course. It was used to show how a failed colony would look like. Proponents of independence argued that continued rule by Britain would certainly cause New South Wales to fall back to savagery (Mitchell, 2009).
Lack of Aboriginal policy was discussed in the context of attaining independence from Britain. Worries about Aboriginal destruction were not genuine. It was only used to emphasize the idea that a native white person was better suited to rule New South Wales.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The writer makes an observation that Aboriginal imagery was used to justify the dispossession of native Australians. This observation is accurate. The colonialists needed to portray aboriginal people as primitive savages to justify their continued occupation of the land. The imagery helped to advance the notion that the British government was progressive. It advanced the narrative that colonialists had managed to transform a wilderness into a successful economy.
The writer is also accurate in her observation that concern for Aboriginal people was not genuine. Aboriginal policy was used to advance a desire for independence. If the concerns had been genuinely concerned, they would have discussed the topic in detail. It would have been discussed separately. In this case, it appeared in a different discussion. The political future of the Aborigines was not discussed by the writers. The writers appeared to support their governments stand on this issue.
The writer observes that ignorance of aboriginal issues may not have been intentional. However, she is quick to point out that this cannot be forgiven. This is a valid argument considering the influence writers had on society. If the writers had criticized the government and the settlers, mistreatment of native Australians would not have continued. The British government would have responded promptly as this was a potentially embarrassing situation.
Reference Mitchell, J. (2009). ‘Are we in Danger of a Hostile Visit from the Aborigines?’ Dispossession and the Rise of Self-Government in New South Wales. Australian Historical Studies, 40(3), 294-30. doi: 10.1080/10314610903105191.
Geography and the Analysis of Public Property Essay custom essay help
Geography facilitates the evaluation of land in terms of its use and planning by providing a framework for the analysis of history, laws and practices relating to both the private and public land. Data on the history and legal aspects of land determines the impacts of various factors such as government’s regulations that influence patterns of land development.
Thus, geography is a crucial tool in the determination of outcomes relating to the struggles on public property. The use of geographic techniques in the analysis of public property provides a clear overview on matters of land planning, regional planning and strategic planning in the scope of economic development, infrastructure, human services and law enforcement.
The location of business entities depends on the availability of major resources. In this regard, a geographer can help to create a distinction between the ownership of land and associated buildings thus mitigating instances of firms and individuals manipulating the use of land (Blomley, 2007).
The lack of proper distinction on various forms of utilization of public property limits the scope of analyzing the use of public property. The designation of geographic space ensures that various forms of land utilization do not infringe on the interests of members of the public. Planning ensures that business premises do not curtail opportunities essential to members of the public.
The regulation of the construction and expansion of businesses entities and residential communities through zoning ensures that all development activities adhere to land boundaries. Zoning protects public facilities from encroachment by prohibiting investments in the protected areas. Furthermore, zoning maintains the distinction on residential, commercial and industrial areas. In this regard, private developers cannot establish business premises in other areas apart from the commercial and industrial areas.
When decisions on land utilization require consent by the state administration, entrepreneurs and citizens, patterns of land development adhere to the efficient utilization of resources. A geographer can regulate parties interested in various development projects to work within a framework that demands all parties to have access to the information regarding a proposed development project (Blomley, 2007).
In this regard, government, entrepreneurs and citizens have enough time to analyze the scope of investment intentions and determine the effects of the proposed investments. Legal tussle relating to land utilization arise due to lack of records that describe geographical spaces during planning of land and its associated buildings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, improper geographical documentation creates loopholes for individuals and groups to encroach on public property. Details on geographic spaces create awareness on designated public areas and thus eliminate the tendency to use public utilities for personal gains.
A geographer can ensure that a development project is subject to a referendum that incorporates the decisions of all concerned parties. By making records on geographical space available to the public, the geographer limits individuals and groups from manipulating public property to serve their personal interests.
In this regard, the use of public property to serve personal interests will become unattainable due to opposition from members of the public. Furthermore, geography ensures proper documentation of plans on utilization of public property so that the state administration, entrepreneurs and citizens have a proper understanding of the impacts of proposed investments.
Inadequate information on public property creates ambiguity regarding designated residential, commercial and industrial areas. In this regard, a business enterprise may expand into a public property without attracting concerns from members of the public. Proper documentation of geographical space ensures that entities remain within their designated area.
Any attempts to expand must incorporate the consent of the state administration and citizens. The role of a geographer in protecting public property includes the sustenance of access routes. The documentation of roads leading to areas such as public parks ensures that commercial and industrial projects do not cut off access to any public property.
Geography plays a key role in the implementation of laws relating to the use of public property. The jury decides on cases regarding land-use depending on the details of the geographical space of interest. In this regard, adequate information on a geographical space ensures that legal restrictions can rebuff any encroachment attempts. However, the failure to document a geographical space increases vulnerability of public property to encroachment.
The implementation of zoning laws grants geographical spaces an aspect of legality so that attempts to manipulate a zoned area have legal consequences. Once the court recognizes an area depending on its designated use, attempts to manipulate the legal framework on assertions that putting a public property under commercial use will benefit an area in terms of economic benefits will be futile.
We will write a custom Essay on Geography and the Analysis of Public Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A geographer promotes the democratic use of public property by creating a framework that ensures there is no prioritization of access to utilities such as recreational parks based on individuals’ socioeconomic status. In this regard, geography eliminates the control of public property by individuals or groups with personal interests. Planning on land utilization ensures that decisions on geographical areas require collaborative efforts that incorporate the views and concerns of the state administration, entrepreneurs and citizens.
References Blomley, N. (2007). Legal Geographies—Kelo, Contradiction, And Capitalism1. Urban Geography, 28(2), 198–205.
Blomley, N. (2007). Civil Rights Meet Civil Engineering: Urban Public Space and Traffic Logic. Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 22(2), 55-72.
The United Nation’s response to climate change Analytical Essay college essay help online
Introduction After years of releasing harmful gases into the atmosphere, the global climatic trends have been disrupted leading to a rise in incidents of undesirable conditions like drought (Marsh and Henrik 2000).
Climate change has reached alarming levels and, over time, countries have come out to declare their intention to deal with the issues. This essay seeks to evaluate the United Nation’s response to the issue of climate change.
The United Nation’s Response to climate change The Kyoto Protocol and the Bali Action Plan
In 1992, countries came together in an international treaty dubbed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (US National Research Council 2008). The primary goal of this treaty was to try and come up with methods of cutting back the global temperature rise and the subsequent climate change.
The treaty also aimed at coming up with measures to deal with the impact of the climate change (Edwards and Miller 2001). The talks continued for the next three years and, in 1995, it was agreed that climate change was an issue that could only be addressed from a global perspective.
This led to the adoption of Kyoto Protocol two years later (International Energy Agency 2011). The Kyoto Protocol was a legal agreement that any signatory country had to ensure that their toxic missions were significantly reduced. In 2007, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in the Indonesia.
Out of the conference 187 countries committed to continue with talks aimed at giving strength to the process of global warming reduction (Government of Japan 2008).
The eventual action plan, title the Bali Action Plan, aimed at ascertaining the global response to climate change through the following four key objectives: mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing (Government of Japan 2008). The section below shall briefly explain the proposed strategies for the attainment of the four items of the Bali Action Plan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mitigation
In order to effectively deal with the climate change issue, it was decided that countries set up measures to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This would be achieved through the following methods:
Reduction commitments-Most of the nations in the developed world agreed to put measures in place to help reduce emissions by the year 2020 (Pash 2010).
Emission reduction-Some of the measures that were proposed for helping in the reduction of greenhouse gases included a reduction in demand for goods and services whose production involved a heavy discharge of emissions (Pash 2010).
The utilization of low-carbon technology and the embracement of renewable energy were also pointed out as one of the ways to help reduce the discharge of emissions (Ekardt and von Hövel 2009).
Emission absorption-The establishment of absorption receptors for carbon dioxide was pointed out as one way of helping reduce the amount already in the atmosphere. Some of these receptors include forests and peat bogs (Now, up to and beyond 2012 2012).
Unlike mitigation, which focuses on the causes of climate change, adaptation primary tackles its effects. Adaptation involves making preparations for tackling the effects of climate change, realizing that it cannot be completely avoided (Pash 2010).
Some of the adaptation measures that were proposed in Bali, included the construction of water reservoirs and practicing environmentally-friendly agricultural practices such as crop rotation.
We will write a custom Essay on The United Nation’s response to climate change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technology
In the process of reducing global warming, the usage of energy techniques which emit fewer gases was pointed out as one of the best supportive techniques to implement (William 2005).
These clean energy techniques include solar and wind power. It was declared that industrialized countries will provide the developing countries with the necessary financial and technological support to meet this objective.
In order to meet the objectives outlined by the other blocks of the Bali Action Plan, proper financing measures had to be taken (McKibben 2011). To raise the necessary amount of money to help deal with the issue of climate change, it was decided that both public and private methods of fundraising be used.
It was also agreed that countries, particularly those in the developing world, receive grants periodically, to help them effectively contribute to the process of global warming control.
The Cancun Agreements
In 2010, the Climate Change Conference was held in Mexico and in its conclusion decisions had been made to further enhance the process of emission reduction in all countries including the provision of support for climate change intervention in developing countries (The Cancun Agreements 2012).
This was the Cancun Agreement, named after the city of Cancun, where the discussions were held.
The Durban Platform and the Bonn conference
In 2011, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Durban South Africa, and it was decided that states should adopt a common legal agreement on the climate change before 2015 (United Nations 2010).
In May 2012, governments that took place in the 2011 Durban Conference met in Bonn, where the progress that had been made was outlined. It was concluded that the process of dealing with climate change should move to the implementation stage (United Nations 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The United Nation’s response to climate change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the meeting, it was announced that the construction of Climate Technology Center, proposed in the 2010 Cancun Conference, would start expeditiously (United Nations 2010). It was also decided that developing countries be given the necessary financial and technological support needed to get them to embrace the reduction of greenhouse emissions.
This was to be achieved through the Green Climate Fund which is expected to become operational in 2013. In terms of long-term financing, the countries voted for the ignition of processes needed to raise a total of $100billion per year by the year 2020, to go into the cause (United Nations 2010).
An adaptation committee was also established and mandated to kick-off adaptation efforts. Governments also agreed to put measures in place to help in the recognition of slow-onset events, such as the rise of sea levels, most of which ended up causing loss and damage.
Strengths and limitations
The United Nations has responded to climate change by holding various conferences to discuss the techniques that can be used to help deal with issue. The first conference was held in 2002 and since then a few more have been held, each analyzing whether the plans to tackle the challenge are still on.
Even though, the time taken in discussions appears to be on the higher side, the process of dealing with climate change will be more effective if more time is taken in planning, fundraising and the drafting of legislation to help make the implementation process more fluid.
It would take a committed effort from each country in the world to help deal with the global issue of climate change and adequate preparations have to be made. However, if the process takes too long to kick-off and a lot of money is spent in holding conventions, the initial focus may be lost, while the situation continues to worsen.
Conclusion This essay had set out to establish the steps taken by the United Nations (UN) to deal with the global issue of climate change. It has been discovered that the UN has had a number of conferences to lay the ground-work for tackling the issue, with the first committed step coming with the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. It has also been concluded that care needs to be taken to ensure that practical control steps are taken before it is too late.
References Edwards, G
Comparative Analysis of Hilton Hotel and Marriot International Hotels Report essay help: essay help
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of two leading companies in the hospitality industry- Hilton Hotels and Marriot international. The aim of this analysis is to identify the major factors affecting their strategic direction and predict their future performances and possibility of existence in a rapidly developing and highly dynamic industry.
Comparative SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis of Hilton Hotel International
Hilton Hotel international is a global leader in the industry, being the world’s second largest group of hotels after Marriot International1. This means that the company has an advantage of size and global presence, which allows it to maximize its profitability2.
The company has a diversified corporate portfolio, with a wide range of products based on both price and service3. In fact, the company has about nine different brands- the Hilton, Waldorf-Astoria Collection, Conrad Hotels and Resorts, Embassy Suites, Hilton Grand Vacations, Hilton Garden Inn, Hampton Inn and Suites, the Doubletree and Homewood Suites by Hilton4.
Thirdly, the company ha a focused development that allows it enter into and consolidate new markets. The company has been pursuing its growth strategy with aggressiveness with an aim of consolidating its presence throughout the world. In addition, it aims at capitalizing on the dynamic and booming hotel, travel and tourism industry as well as the emergent world markets such as India, Brazil and China. For instance, the company announced a major plan of building more then 300 outlets in the Asian Pacific region alone beginning 2008.5
A loyalty program, the “Hilton HHonours” established at the company is one of its major advantages and strengths6. With this program, the company has become a well-recognized partner in the travel and tourism industry. In 2007, the company announced its plans to extend this loyalty program to include Experience Rewards, which aims at offering its more then 17 million customers with personalized and experience-oriented options as a reward and appreciation7. In addition, the company extended its blackout dates in 2008, which made it more valuable in the eyes of its customers throughout the world. From an analysis of the company, it is worth noting that a strong loyalty program is important in retaining its customer and crating brand loyalty among the new customers in order to boost its revenues in the future.
A focus on domestic market is actually a problem at the company. For instance, the company’s presence in the United States accounts for more than 80% of the company’s entire hotels8. In fact, poor diversification of presence seems to be a problem because it makes it vulnerable to any economic crisis that may hit the American market.
Secondly, the company has been quite late and slow in its international expansion. In fact, the company started late in expanding into other markets, first concentrating on its American presence and giving its rivals a smooth time for operating and investing in foreign markets9. Due to its lateness, the company is finding its difficult to penetrate foreign markets, especially where its rivals have consolidated and invested widely prior to its entry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also worth noting that the cost of real estate investment is hurting the presence of Hilton Hotels in various parts of the world such as China, India and Russia. Due to its lateness in entering these new markets, the company is finding it hard to establish itself due to increasing cost of real estates, especially because these areas are hot spots for investment due to the good economic progress demonstrated by these countries.
Single ownership is another weakness affecting Hilton Hotels. As a privately owned corporation, the company is susceptible to any problem associated with poor decision-making and corporate handling.
The dynamism of market growth in emerging economies such as India, China, Brazil, Russia and South Africa provides the company with an opportunity to expand its foreign presence and take the advantage of low presence of foreign companies in these areas. Secondly, the presence of Luxury brands provides Hilton Hotels with an opportunity of redefining its brand and expanding its portfolio.
Technological dynamism and revolution provides Hilton Hotel with an opportunity to take the advantage by developing unique global brands to compete with its rivals in the industry.
The presence of individual consumer price has increased the demand for unique lodging experience, which is in turn driving towards the establishment of independent hotels. This is common in the United States, which presents a major threat to Hilton that operates as a chain of hotels.
Secondly, the company is threatened by a major downturn in business travel, especially after the world economic crisis of 2007-2010 and its aftermath. Moreover, the invention of e-commerce and internet technology has greatly reduced the need for business travelling, which in turn affects hotel companies.
SWOT analysis of Marriot International Strengths
Marriot International Inc is a global leader in hotel and travel industry, taking more than 5% value share as at 2010. It is the largest company with a wide geographical presence in the world. Unlike Hilton Hotels, Marriot has an unhampered hotel ownership, owning less then 1% of its portfolio. This means that it has the capacity to avoid price and market fluctuations as well as major and minor economic crisis in a given region.
We will write a custom Report on Comparative Analysis of Hilton Hotel and Marriot International Hotels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Like Hilton, the company has a focused pipeline development, where it is pursuing a growth strategy to consolidate its presence in the emerging world markets and to capitalize on the dynamically booming hotel, travel and tourism industries. It is also worth noting that the company has taken the advantage of the internet technology, with a strong and effective website that guarantees a good online trading, advertisement and communication with its customers.
Like Hilton Hotels, Marriot International Inc is likely to suffer an economic blow due to its heavy presence on the American market. In fact, it has a strong focus on domestic market. Secondly, the company’s focus on luxury brands leaves it vulnerable to any potential global economic crisis.
In addition, it is evident that the company’s focus on Courtyard Brand is a major weakness because the brand is losing its core customers, with experts arguing that business revitalization is not enough to lure the company’s customers back because there is already a fierce competition in the industry. it is also worth noting that the company lacks a low-cost lifestyle brand, instead, it focuses on luxury brands. This leaves the company les popular among the low and middle-income earners and the most common and largest group of customers.
The presence of emerging markets in Asia, South America and Africa means that companies like Marriot are set to use their massive resources to enter these markets and lock out smaller companies. Secondly, technological advancement places companies with massive resources at a better position to use new technologies as a competitive advantage over upcoming corporations with less resources.
Consumer confidence is a general threat to companies like Marriott due to its impact on the income levels of the potential customers. In addition, credit crunch remains a threat to multinational companies like Marriot.
Comparative PEST analysis Political: The two companies share a common political environment, especially because they are located in the United States. However, the wider geographical presence of Marriot over Hilton means that it has diversified its risks associated with localized political threats.
Economic: The two companies have invested heavily in their international presence, thus diversifying their ability to cope with economic hurdles in various nations10. However, Marriot’s wider presence means that it beats Hilton on this ground.
Social factors: social aspects of world population are likely to affect the companies both positively and negatively11. Population growth in foreign markets is likely to favor Marriot due to its heavy presence in foreign markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparative Analysis of Hilton Hotel and Marriot International Hotels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Technological: Internet technology seems to favor Marriot because of its heavy presence on the internet and a focus on e-commerce.
Environmental: Both companies experience similar economic effects in their business due to similarity in location and operation.
Legal factors: in the United States and Europe, the two companies share a common legal environment. However, in some foreign markets, they differ sue to their differences in locations.
Conclusion From the comparative analysis, it is evident that the two companies have a better future in terms of their performance. However, Marriot seems to have a number of advantages over Hilton, which means its future is much better then than of Hilton.
Bibliography Abraham, P, International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 2011.
Armstrong, M, A, Handbook of Personnel Management Practice, 8th edn, Kogan Page, Milford, 2010.
Natural gas, oil, coal, and Uranium in Russia Report scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Russia’s mineral fuel
Introduction Russia’s economy is ranked 9th in the world in terms of GDP, 6th in terms of purchasing power and 3rd in terms of military spending. The country’s GDP was estimated at around 2.4 trillion dollars (FYE 2011) and a per capita income of 16 736 dollars (Index Mundi, 2012).
According to the 2012 estimates, the Russian population is believed to be over 140 million with an unemployment rate of 6 percent. An average Russia earns approximately over 640 dollars a month. Mineral fuel, oil, metals and timber represents over 80 percent of the country’s exports.
Despite of the increased energy prices, mineral fuel and oil only contributes 4 percent of the country’s GDP and the government expects a further drop in this figure (Index Mundi, 2012).
Russia is not only the largest county in the world but also the richest in terms of mineral resources. The country covers over 75 percent of the former Soviet Union territory. The country holds the largest natural gas reserves and is among the top ten in terms of crude oil reserves.
In addition, Russia is the fifth producer and the third largest exporter of coal in the world. In terms of coal reserves, the country is second only to the United State of America. Russia’s mineral fuels also include uranium which is used in the local nuclear power plant (Grama, 2012, p. 82).
Russia’s mineral fuel According to the U.S department of energy, Russia’s natural gas reserve is about 50 trillion cubic meters. Most of the country’s gas reserves are located in West Siberia. However, Orenburg region and Komi Republic in the North also produces significant amounts of natural gas.
Russia is the second largest producer and exporter of natural gas in the world, contributing more than a third of the global natural gas export. Local consumption of the natural gas is about 70 percent. Therefore, local demand still allows for export. The country’s natural gas is mainly exported to Europe and Central Asia (Grama, 2012, p. 83).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Three natural gas fields, Yamburg and Urengoi and Orenburg, accounts for more than 79 percent of the country’s production. Natural gas production is mainly under the control of Gazprom Company. The Russian government is the main shareholder of the company with 39.89 percent ownership (Grama, 2012, p. 85).
With the discovery of new gas fields and increased capacity, Russia’s natural gas production is expected to increase by 890 cubic meters in 2020. The rising trend of natural gas production has enabled the country to meet its domestic demand and increase export (Levine, 2001, p. 11).
According to the U.S energy department, Russia’s oil reserve is about 7 billion metric tons. Major oil reserves are also based in the West Siberia basin (Tomsk, Tyumen and another 300 field), Ural basin (Volga field) and Pechora Basin (Timam field) (Matthews, 2008, p. 372).
In 1980s U.S.S.R was the leading global producer of oil, with Russia accounting for more than 95 percent of the overall production. However, the fall of the Soviet Union and other economic factors including unstable oil prices in the global market and the dominance of U.S dollar saw a sharp decline in the country’s oil production (Grama, 2012, p. 85).
Currently, Russia produces about 500 million tons oil per year and some experts argue that the country can afford to maintain the same capacity up to 2050 given their potential reserves. The country’s petroleum export is mainly crude oil. Russia crude oil export was estimated to be about 8.4 million barrels/day in 2011.
Major importers of Russia’s crude oil come from central Asia (China and Japan), Europe (former members of the Soviet Union) and North America (U.S and Canada).
The country’s total coal reserve is estimated to about 150 billion metric tons which is mostly brown and hard coal. There was a massive decline in coal production in the late 80s and 90s but the situation changed since 2000.The growth of coal production has surpassed the growth of petroleum and natural gas production.
We will write a custom Report on Natural gas, oil, coal, and Uranium in Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike oil and gas whose local consumption is over 70 percent, over half of the coal produced is exported. Ninety percent of Russia’s coal exports go to the European markets (Lawson, 2002, p. 8). Coal production is expected to increase with the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves in the future.
Even though the country has more than 20 coal basins, most of the coal produced comes from 7 basins. The country’s 7 major basins are Donetskii basin, Moscow basin, Pechora basin, Kansk-Achinsk basin, Irkutsk basin, Kuznetski basin, and South Yakutsk basin. The country’s coal is transported through railroad and sea (Rosner, 2010, p. 3).
Russia’s nuclear fuel is principally Uranium. However, the country also produces plutonium but in small quantity. According to the London Uranium institute, the country has over 200000 tons of Uranium reserves.
The country has only one uranium mining project and all of it is consumed locally. In other words, Russia does not export Uranium instead it imports more. The country has nine nuclear power plants with over 20 million kilowatt capacity (Levine, 2001, p. 9).
Russia-Canada trade The bilateral relationship between Russia and Canada has increased significantly over the last decade (Government of Canada, 2012). Canadian exports to Russia have increased by 154.3 percent since 1998. The figure increased from 180 million dollars to over 1.58 billion dollars in 2011.
Most of the Canada’s exports to Russia include automobiles and parts, machineries, aircrafts and parts, and processed food. On the other hand, Russia’s export to Canada totaled about 1.35 billion dollars in 2011. Canada’s imports from Russia mostly include mineral fuels and oil, metals, gem stones, rubber and inorganic chemicals.
The trade relationship between these countries also includes service exchange. In 2011, Russia received 500 million dollars for services rendered and spent 260 million dollars for services received (Government of Canada, 2012).
According to Khondaker (2008, p. 2), Russia and Canada have become significant trade partners, even though trade between these two countries is still low compared with other countries. Russia imports largely manufactured goods from Canada.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Natural gas, oil, coal, and Uranium in Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, its exports are mainly coal, crude oil and natural gas. According to Khondaker (2008), if not for mineral fuels, Canada would have registered a surplus of more than 700 million dollars in 2008 (p. 3). Mineral fuel represents 16 percent of the whole Canada’s exports from Russia.
Over the last ten years Canada has registered a trade deficit with Russia. The deficit was estimated to be about 1.25 billion dollars in 2008 (Khondaker, 2008, p. 4; Matthews, 2008, p. 372).
Conclusion Russia is among the top global producers of petroleum, natural gas, and coal. The country’s mineral fuel and oil reserves are in billions of metric tons. The bilateral trade relations between Russia and Canada have considerably grown over the last one decade.
Russia import mainly manufactured goods from Canada and exports mineral fuel and crude oil. The trade balance between these two countries tends to favor Russia. However, mineral fuel and oil only contributes less than ten percent to the GDP.
References Government of Canada. (2012). Canada Russia Relations. Web.
Grama, Y. (2012). The Analysis of Russian Oil and Gas Reserves. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 2 (2), 82-91.
Index Mundi. (2012). Russia Economy Profile 2012. Web.
Khondaker, J. (2008). Canada’s Trade with Russia: 1998 to 2007. Canadian Trade Highlights, ISBN: 978-0-662-43652-2. Web.
Levine, R.M. (2001). The Mineral Industry of Russia. Journal of Geological Survey, 4 (1), 5-30.
Matthews, M.J. (2008). Energy competition and international relations, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 29 (4), 371-376.
Lawson, P. (2002). An Introduction to the Russian Coal Industry. Charleston, West Virginia: Marshall Miller and Associates.
Rosner, K. (2010). Russian Coal: Europe’s New Energy Challenge. Climate
Society Ethics in Modern War Technology Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The world is moving forward, and it is currently changing from the industrial age to the age of information technology. Technology is constantly changing at a fast rate. The United States of America is the leader in technological advancement in relation to military activities. The military has seen transformations in the weaponry and machinery use.
These aspects are getting sophisticated, effective and efficient through the use of microprocessors. Good examples of these advances are smart weapons, fly by wire aircraft systems and smart ships. This improvement in technology has reduced the number of deaths and destruction common in military excursions. The military aims at attacking the right targets without endangering the lives of innocent civilians. With the current advancements in technology, this has been achieved. In fact, the United States of America has achieved some of these objectives. This has ensured that ethical conduct is followed in the battle field.
War in the common society is normally associated with deaths, killings and wanton destruction. In most cultures, killing is considered unethical (Carroll, 53). However, there are exceptions in relation to this in many parts of the world. For instance, there are societies that offer human beings as sacrifice.
Besides, a person would be given a death sentence. It is sad that war is inevitable in society. It forms part of the human life in the society. A person is quick to state that justification of a war is valid when all means of diplomacy fail between warring parties. A war is considered ethical and moral when based on legal, ethical and moral gauges.
The use of guided missile has proved to be the proverbial water shade in military technology. This has seen the evolution of war machinery at a quick pace. Ancient war techniques are no longer viable because the face of war is changing and it only favors parties with modern technology.
A good example of the evolution of war machinery involves dropping of bombs. In the World War II, about 108 bomber planes would drop 650 bombs to annihilate a single target while, in the Vietnam War, the number of bombs decreased sharply to 180 for a single target. Nowadays, it requires about three laser guided missiles to destroy a single target.
The American society views the development of smart technology as unethical because it has taken away the human element in war. Lack of human judgment in the smart weapons eliminates the mercy factor. Secondly, research required for smart weapons takes a lot of money. Besides, it requires skilled personnel to successful complete War related projects. Funds used for the above project come from taxes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At times, innocent lives of civilians are lost in the battle field. Furthermore, innocent people are subjected to suffering (Carroll, 57). In World War II, a lot of civilians died. Besides, destruction occurred in places that were not targets of the military.
This wordplay is vital in advocating for ethically right practices in relation to military activities. Virtue ethics is the trait of a moral beacon. A good example is the collateral damage reduction policies enacted by the United States of America. America has the responsibility of manufacturing precise weapons to spare civilians in the battle field. Further, this would prevent excessive use of force in the battle field.
Critics of the advanced military technology are arguing that these technologies have a dehumanizing effect in relation to war because the enemy is an image in a surveillance camera. This argument is valid, but this technology is protecting the lives of many soldiers and improving efficiency in dealing with military targets.
American military has been on the forefront in enacting the Law of Proportionality. It seeks to determine the legally acceptable level of military activity that a soldier can perform in a foreign territory. It enhances the accomplishment of military objectives. This means that, the military personnel seek to destroy strategic military targets. This legislation encompasses the ethical stand the American military is trying to adopt to make wars humane and not destructive like in the past. This also disallows inhuman practices by military personnel (Kassimeris and John, 15). Soldiers found to have violated this law are charged in a court of law.
An exception to this ethical law is when the legitimate military incursion puts the lives of civilians at risk. This situation arises due to proximity of civilians to the battle fields. In such a situation, an acceptable number of civilian casualties are tolerable. This number of casualties is to be reasonably low to check the activities of the war. This exception is the rule of double effect.
Another crucial talking point is the issue of spending large sums of money in research and acquisition of military technology while other pressing issues are ignored. This amount is exceedingly large especially when the United States of America is considered. America has been spending about $ 61.8 billion annually on research and development of military weapons and machinery.
This amount is large in relation to the money spent on developing clean energy systems. However, other sectors of the economy receive little funds for their activities. This portrays a serious fault in all the ethical arguments that the United States of America proposes.
We will write a custom Essay on Society Ethics in Modern War Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, governments are always finding ways of outsmarting one another. This has facilitated the shift from the era of dumb bombs to smart bombs and less human casualties in military operations. For instance, in 1945, a single target would be bombed using over 600 bombs. A reduction of this number to 180 in the Vietnam War was evident because of greater accuracy.
This trend has further been improved to a few guided missiles to destroy a similar target. Technology is still evolving, and pilotless drones have been manufactured. It aims at reducing the number of personnel involved in the battle field. It is a way of reducing human causalities in relation to wars.
All these advancements are meant to minimize risks in war. These risks encompass civilian casualties, unnecessary destruction of non-strategic targets in the war zone and injuries to the military personnel. All these advancements are good examples of the constant quest for the reduction of risks associated with war. It is hypocritical for one to create all these rules and be the largest manufacturer of weapons.
Thus, the United States needs to reduce its military activities. Besides, it should allocate a considerable amount of funds for the same. The other option is to enact regulations that would avert wars. Funds that would have been used for the same should be donated to developing countries. This would be a sign of a noble action.
Works Cited Carroll, Archie B. Business
The effect of marriage on crime rate Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
This paper endeavors to find peer reviewed journal articles, which analyze the relationship between crime rates and criminals who are single or those who have a family. A study conducted by Sampson, Laub, and Wimer (2006) aimed at evaluating whether marriage reduces crime.
These researchers argue that marriage significantly influences adult outcomes but the current information on this phenomenon is limited due to the lack of experimental evidence. According to the literature review conducted by Sampson, Laub, and Wimer (2006), it can be noted that numerous scholarly works have studied the effect of marriage on crime rate.
In their study, Sampson, Laub, and Wimer (2006) reveal that a former delinquent aged 70 and married fro 49 years, admits that if he had not met his wife, then he could be dead by now. The responded states that “If I had not met my wife at the time I did, I’d probably be dead… it changed my whole life…that is my turning point” (Sampson, Laub,
What can we learn about human nature from our relatives, the chimpanzees? Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Lessons from Chimpanzees
Introduction Human beings represent the most evolved primates and their brains are the most developed among the mammals of the order Primate. Through millenniums of evolution, human beings have developed complex cultures and behavioral traits that characterize humans. However, primatologists have suggested that characteristics of human nature might not be limited to humans and primates such as the chimpanzee might share some of these features.
Chimpanzees are unique among the primate group since they are man’s closest living relatives. Anthropologists believe that by studying these primates, we can gain insight into human behavior. Renowned primatologists such as Frans de Waal declare that the behavior of chimpanzees can provide important clues about human nature. With this in mind, this paper will engage in an in-depth analysis of what we can learn about human nature from our relatives, the chimpanzees.
Lessons from Chimpanzees Social Life
Human social life can be informed by studying the chimpanzees. Specifically, chimpanzees demonstrate that primates thrive better in a communal setting than they do in isolation. Chimpanzees normally live in colonies, which are made up of males, females, and the young ones.
While all the members of the colony engage in activities such as foraging and hunting, to sustain themselves, the group stays together as a community. The importance of social interactions in promoting peace is highlighted by studying chimpanzees. When groups of chimpanzees exist live together, they engage in activity such as mutual grooming, which reinforces the relationships between them. Because of this reinforced relationship, a social bond is created among the members of the group.
The bond helps to promote peace and foster reconciliation when conflicts arise. In the same way, human beings are likely to coexist peacefully if they engage in activities that foster social bonds. People who engage in communal activities that strengthen social bonds are unlikely to act aggressively against each other.
Self-interest is natural and it helps in the creation of behavior that is beneficial for all. In chimpanzee communities, many animals live together and act in a cooperative manner to ensure their survival. Due to self-interest, individuals avoid engaging in behavior that would lead to the collapse of the troop.
The young ones in the groups are taken care of by their mothers and the rest of the group. Kupperman contends that the self-interest of human beings led to the formation of agreements that create constraints on various forms of harmful behavior (101). People therefore act in a cooperative manner out of self-interest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ability of human beings to adapt themselves to their environment can be learnt from chimpanzees. The main distinguishing factor of human beings from other primates is their ability to adapt to their environment and use tools to increase efficiency. This ability is not confined to humans and chimpanzees demonstrate their adaptively in the wild.
Chimpanzees have been observed to use stone tools to crack hard nuts and sticks to assist in the gathering of food. While this actions are very primitive compared to the ability that human beings possess, they demonstrate that it is in human nature to adapt to the environment.
Studies on chimpanzees explain the sense of property observed in humans. Of all the primates, human beings have the most complex system of ownership and succession with laws being in place to protect ownership. People have an intuitive understanding of “mine” and “your” and a series of social norms and governance structures are in place to manage the relationship that exists because of property.
However, this sense of property is not restricted to humans and other primates have at least elements of ownership (Brosnan 10). When chimpanzees encounter food that is held by another member, they show the behavior of begging or sharing of food instead of taking it by force, therefore suggesting that these primates understand the concept of ownership.
The chimpanzees show respect for objects possessed by others and they do not try to take these objects even if the possessor is smaller and unable to defend his property through force. This suggests that “respect for possession” is not a product of human culture and civilization but rather a product of nature.
Chimpanzees offer insight on the ways through which humans control each other’s behavior in the community. These primates demonstrate that ostracizing, as a way of encouraging conformity in order to increase social cohesion, is a natural concept. Ostracism, which is the practice of rejecting or excluding certain individuals, is deeply embedded in human society.
However, this practice is discouraged in modern society since it can undermine the legal system in place and promote rejection of minority groups such as gays and lesbians. However, studies on chimpanzees show that ostracism is natural and bears positive outcomes. In chimpanzee communities, social order is maintained by the habit of shunning and isolating individuals who act in a defiant manner.
We will write a custom Research Paper on What can we learn about human nature from our relatives, the chimpanzees? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ostracizing therefore plays an integral role in ensuring that the group cohesion is maintained and conforming behavior is encouraged among the members. Human beings also practice ostracism as a form of punishment for non-conforming or deviant behavior of individuals in society. Studies on the behavior of chimpanzees show that using ostracizing is an effective method of maintaining social order. Ostracizing helps to encourage conformity to group norms and therefore foster good relationships among individuals.
Development of culture has been assumed to be a strictly human function. However, primatologists demonstrate that culture exists in chimpanzee colonies. Chimpanzees that come from different geographical locations exhibit varying cultures.
As such, these primates display multiple cultural traits in the same way that human beings do. From this, we can learn that human culture is a product of nature. This should lead to an appreciation of the fact that different communities exhibit different languages, eating habits, traditions, dressing, and so on.
We can gain an understanding about the human learning process by observing how chimpanzees learn from each other and pass down behavior from the older to the younger generations. Older members of the colony show young ones how to behave and teach new skills on them.
This active teaching increases the chances of survival for the chimpanzees as the knowledge necessary for survival is acquired and used by the young ones. Learning and cognition is therefore natural for primates including human beings. From studying chimpanzees, it is evident that human beings are naturally inclined to learn from others and pass down information and knowledge from one generation to the next.
Insight into communicative patterns by human beings can be gained from observing chimpanzees. Specifically, clues about nonverbal communication can be seen from these primates.
Communication is an integral part of human life and communication has played a major role in the advancement of human civilization. In addition to the verbal communication, humans make use of gestures many non-verbal cues. Frans de Waal suggests that nonverbal communication is a natural form of communication since gestures are used by most primates (22).
War and Aggression
It has long been assumed that violence is an inherent part of human nature. This assumption has been reinforced by the many instances of war and aggression carried out by human beings for centuries. Research on chimpanzees indicates that violence might be an innate attribute of primates.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What can we learn about human nature from our relatives, the chimpanzees? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Groups of chimpanzees engage in aggressive behavior and violence against outsiders and sometimes against members of their own colony. However, these primates tend to avoid aggression and instead coexist peacefully if they can. This behavior is similar to that of humans who are prone to acts of aggression against others.
In addition to this, chimpanzees form coalitions in order to strengthen their attacks. Chimpanzees are likely to engage in coalitional aggression where a number of chimpanzees gang up to attack a common enemy. This strategy is preferred since it results in a high likelihood of winning while minimizing the costs of aggression to the individual. Human beings are also in the habit of forming coalitions with each other in order to strengthen their attack.
Another lesson on aggression from chimpanzees is that it is mostly confined to males. Frans de Waal observes that males were likely to gang up against out-group males and initiate attacks against them (80). Male aggressions are also more likely to escalate into deadly attacks. On the other hand, females are unlikely to engage in coalitional aggression and their conflicts rarely escalate to deadly levels. This is similar to human beings where men are more aggressive and play a bigger role in the proliferation of war compared to women.
Some issues of human sexuality can be learnt from observing chimpanzees. Human beings regard incest as a taboo and all societies refrain from this practice. However, there are doubts as to whether this taboo is a purely cultural product or a product of nature.
The study of chimpanzees suggests that the incest taboo is a law of nature that has permeated all cultures. Primatologists document that chimpanzees avoid incest on their own accord and young females are strongly attracted to unfamiliar males whom they seek outside their own community (Frans de Waal 22).
Some lessons on human behavior concerning sex can be learnt from chimpanzees. While chimpanzees are not monogamous, their sex life is not completely promiscuous. Frans de Waal states that the sexual intercourse among chimpanzees is subject to clearly defined rules (22).
In some cases, males are keen to demonstrate their sexual dominance and protect their sexual partners. The dominant male will chase away the other males in the colony who try to mate with his females. This can be compared to the family unity where the male guards all sexual rights and privileges in the institute.
Conclusion Chimpanzees are commonly used for comparison with humans to understand some issues on human nature. This paper has engaged in a discussion of the lessons on human nature that can be learnt from chimpanzees. It has demonstrated that there are great similarities between the social life of humans and chimpanzees.
Both perform better in communal settings and individuals cooperate with each other for mutual interest. Concepts such as respect for property and social cohesion are common in both primates. The paper has shown that violence is a part of human nature and males are the greater aggressors. The common sexual conducts have also been highlighted. Through this exploration of chimpanzee nature, the natural basis of some human behavior can be recognized.
Works Cited Brosnan, Sarah. “Property in nonhuman primates”. Origins of ownership of property. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 132.1 (2011): 9–22. Web.
Frans de Waal, Frans. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes. NY: JHU Press, 2007. Print.
Kupperman, Joel. Theories of Human Nature. Boston: Hackett Publishing, 2010. Print.
Marketing Research Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Introductory Paragraphs
Marketing is a crucial part of a firm, business or financial institution. It determines the number of customers using services from the entity. As a result, it determines the profits that the business entity makes per unit time. Consequently, it determines the solvency and prosperity of the whole business.
The firms, in turn, struggle to improve their marketing and advertising strategies in their system. The strategies must compete favorably with other firms that offer similar products. It must aim at adopting a strategy that leads to customers and client satisfaction. This ensures that the firms maintain their customers and gain more customers than their competitors (Kotler, 1986).
In marketing, public relation officers carry out researches which aim at getting preferences from the customers. In these researches, they collect data on the perceptions and opinions of the customers. This helps the business entities to provide new services and improve the quality of current goods and services.
Consequently, they retain their customer and attract others. The demand and profit margin rise simultaneously. This paper will focus on designing a research that aims at collecting opinions of the customers. Particularly, it will design a research on a restaurant offering fast food. Specifically, it will use McDonald’s restaurant for the research.
McDonald’s restaurant is found in USA offering fast food. It was started in the year 1940 by Maurice and Richard at San Bernardino. In 1948, the restaurant improvised a speed serving system which increased efficiency and gained more customers than earlier. The company changed administrative bodies of management severally.
In addition, it has changed the logo for a number of times due to marketing and advertisement. The restaurant operates in 119 countries around the world. In the countries, it has thirty four thousand restaurants that operate under the headquarters in Illinois. The restaurant offers sandwiches, breakfast, soft drinks and desserts. The restaurants in other countries deviate from the standard menu fitting the countries culture.
For example, china serves soup while the Indian restaurants refrain from serving beef. This is due to the religious taboos that exist in the country. They have the outdoor and indoor serving that fits the customer’s choices and decisions. Therefore, the restaurant is an all-inclusive restaurant that fits every social class.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statement of Problem
The restaurant has grown rapidly in accordance to history. However, various criticisms have been directed to fast food. The critics target the menu, practices of business and the expansion of the business. For example, Morris group had designed leaflets which aimed at criticizing the health status of the restaurants. In 2004, a documentary called Super-Size blamed the company for increased cases of obesity.
The criticisms that revolve around fast foods have affected growth of the restaurant. For the last two years, the restaurant has been progressing in a slower pace than the previous years. This has posed a serious challenge to the overall profitability and the solvency of the company. As a result, this problem needs to be addressed with urgency.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to solve this financial and economic crisis existing in the restaurant. The research aims at involving the customers in improving financial status and services. It seeks to use the outside-in strategy to solve the internal challenges. In addition, the study will enable the restaurant to make additional inputs in the current menu. Lastly, it will help the management to add attractive and useful services in the restaurant. This will be fulfilled through various objectives.
Objective of the study
To understand their customers in details
To collect the relevant information pertaining to customer’s preferences
To make relevant recommendations and conclusions for improvement
In this research, we seek to understand the perceptions and opinions of the customers towards the products and services offered. As a result, we need a query that will form the basis and foundation of the research. Therefore, we might seek to know whether restaurants perceive a negative change in the quality of the products and services offered.
Do restaurants perceive declines in the quality of products and services?
This is a broad question that allows the development and design of the research. It provides sufficient space to get the opinions of the customers towards the improvements of products. It is a question which can form the methodological center of departure for the entire research.
Although there is the research question, it is essential to speculate and make predictions before the actual research. Therefore, we could assume that there is no decline in the quality of the products offered by the restaurant. However, this hypothesis cannot be tested. We cannot carry out a research for the purpose of scrutiny. Scientifically, it is called the null hypothesis.
We could assume that there is a decline in the quality of food offered in the restaurant. The hypothesis will, therefore, state that restaurants perceive declines in the quality of products and services. The hypothesis could be broken down into sub-hypotheses to state that McDonald restaurant perceives declines in the quality of services.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is, also, possible to research on the hypothesis stating that restaurants rarely perceive declines in the quality of products and services. All these could form alternative hypotheses. However, there is no research that dwells on more than one hypothesis simultaneously. Therefore, this research will dwell on the alternative hypothesis about McDonald restaurant. A research can be carried out to determine the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, the research will revolve around this hypothesis.
Background Literature Review
The company has been offering products that have high calorie. The calorie products have been the target of criticism from many communities. Therefore, most customers feel that they should take food with fewer calories than the restaurant offers in the menu. Most of the current customers are aware of the dangers that the food bring to them. These dangers include obesity, high blood pressure and gaining unnecessary weight.
In addition, the restaurant does not offer bitter drinks that help in breaking down the fats they consume. The customers get cautious of this situation and prefer making food at home rather than visiting the restaurant. Employment of young staff has deterred the companies’ reputation.
The company was sued for the allegations of propagating child labor. Customers feel uncomfortable when they are served by staff members who are underage. The management has been overwhelming the staff for decreasing their efficiency during serving. Complains show dissatisfaction of service by the staff. This has been a crucial point of failure.
Definitions of terms
Qualitative analysis- This is an analysis that uses subjective reasoning on non-quantifiable data or information.
Qualitative analysis- It refers to the analysis of quantifiable data by mathematical calculations and deductions.
Sampling- Sampling refers to tactical selection of data sets from the target population
Methodology- This refers to the strategies that are used to collect records and represent data for analysis.
Instrumentation- Instrumentation focuses on the instruments used in the collection analysis of information.
The population is comprised of the customers’ visit to the restaurant for the meals. It includes customers from the 119 countries around the world in 34,000 restaurants. The total number of customers served by the restaurants is approximately sixty eight million per day. This is a huge population that makes it difficult to reach all customers. Therefore, the research cannot consider the whole population of customers. For the purpose of data collection, sampling will be carried out.
During sampling, two data sets will be considered for the collection of views. The two data sets will include customers who make regular visits and those visiting the restaurant occasionally. Regular customers visit the restaurant for three meals daily. On the other hand, occasional customers visit the restaurant for one meal only.
On this sampling, the sample is not carried out in a manner that favors a desired outcome (Strauss, 1992). Therefore, the outcomes will be credible. The sample will randomize the respondent across gender, age and origin of the customers. Therefore, it will become extremely reliable and credible.
The most crucial instrument of this research will be the questionnaires which will contain several questions aiming at understanding the perceptions of the customers. On this light, the following questions will be included in the questionnaires.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How many times do you visit the restaurant daily?
What is your most preferred food product in this restaurant?
What is your most preferred drink in the restaurant?
What do you think is omitted in the menu?
What should we add in the menu to suite the eating habit?
How do you rate the service by the staff in this restaurant?
Does the waiting time coincide with your time management?
Does the cost of products match with their quality?
What is your opinion regarding the health of the food you take on the restaurant?
Customers will be given the questionnaires to fill when they visit the restaurant. Therefore, the questionnaire should have a few questions. This ensures that the questionnaire does not consume much of the respondents time. Otherwise, it would lead to incomplete or unreliable formation.
On this light, the questionnaires should be flexible. They should be designed in a manner that allows modification. This implies that it can be modified to include arising themes during the research. In addition, it allows the removal of any questions that are irrelevant to the study. These modifications arise during the actual research.
A Facebook and Twitter account will be opened for the research. People will be invited to like the page and make their contributions. The questions will be posted on the page and customers invited to answer the questions. This will be a technological extension for the questionnaires. It will capture the customers who are in the social networks. As a result, the number of people considered will be sufficient to make conclusions.
The children will be interviewed orally by the selected staff from the restaurant. The staffs will record the information on the questionnaire for analysis. However, the interview will be recorded using audio recorders. The audio recorders will ensure that the information that is omitted in the questionnaires is captured. Video recorders will be used where visual presentation of information is required.
For example, a child who does not know the real name of certain food will tend to point at the food. The video recorder or camera will be used to capture the information. As a result, all the information that is required for analysis will be available. Therefore, the research will be all-inclusive and reliable. Consequently, the recommendations, conclusions, and solutions derived from the research will be credible.
A suggestion box will be used for the purpose of the research. For the period of research, a small advert will be hanged beside the box. It will urge customers to drop any opinions on the box. The opinions will be incorporated in the analysis. This will widen the scope of the research.
Procedures and Time Frames
The most significant procedure of data collection will be filling in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will have the nine questions. This will take a maximum of three minutes to answer the questionnaires. The questionnaire will have a section which will seek to capture additional information and opinions from the customers. This section might take about two minutes to write and express ideas. In total, a single respondent might take five minutes to fill in the questionnaire.
The oral research for the children might take a little bit longer. Each question might take a maximum of 1 minute. On the other hand, they might take one minute to give an opinion about their experience in the hotel. A child might take a maximum of ten minutes to interview and get information that can be used for analysis.
Analysis can either be qualitative or quantitative according to the data being collected (Strauss, 1987). In this research, qualitative analysis will be used to analyze data. During the research, the collection of data and analysis will be done simultaneously. The simultaneous operations will ensure that the questionnaires are changed and altered to accommodate new themes rising during the research.
The data between the mature customers and the children will be done separately. In addition, the data between occasional customers and regular customers will be separated. This allows comparison between the two data sets. It ensures that the existing similarities are reconciled, and the differences appearing in the opinions are retained. The diversity of the opinions in those data sets makes the results reliable and credible.
Reliability and Validity of the Research
Reliability and credibility in this research cannot be ignored. The consideration of the two factors is mandatory and paramount. Violating the reliability of research makes it biased and incredible. For this reason, the research has employed various factors to ensure the validity and reliability of the results. First, sampling will be done randomly. This implies that the research is not biased or inclined to a desired outcome.
Secondly, the use of various data sets ensures that there is sufficient variation among the respondents. The variation occurs in reference to age, gender and level of regularity to the restaurant. Lastly, the use of flexible questionnaires, which allowed the incorporation of the arising themes, ensured the capture of much information. Also, it ensured that the research focused on the relevant information only. The three measures ensure full credibility, validity, and reliability of the information collected from the respondents.
Conclusions This research will be a positive step towards solving the financial crisis that is facing the restaurant of McDonald’s. It will provide the necessary information which can be used to make recommendations and conclusions. The research described every step and detail that will be followed in collecting, recording, and analyzing the data and information. Consequently, it can be described as an all-inclusive research. In fact, it will be a crucial step towards solving the challenges that have been posed to the company.
Works Cited Kotler, Philip. Principles of marketing. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986. Print.
Strauss, Anselm L. Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.
Thompson, Steven K.. Sampling. New York: Wiley, 1992. Print.
Roles of a Leader Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Empowerment, Trust and Ethical Leadership
A leader has been defined as a person who has authority to influence the social behavior of other people with an aim of accomplishing common tasks or established targets1.
A good leader is one who recognizes the importance and value of other people in the organization, is ready to share information with others, has characters that are unquestioned within the organization, uses his or her good traits for the better of others, is well skilled and competent, visionary, and is ever accessible, accountable, and approachable2.
As far as creating and communicating organization vision is concerned, a leader has a very important role to play. In creating the vision, the leader should influence others to come up with possible ways that will achieve the primary goals of the organization3.
This will help the organization to come up with an inspiring practical vision that has shared values. In communicating the vision, the leader should lead by example in pursuing the change implied in the vision, demonstrate high confidence in the vision and encourage a down up approach to decision making in the organization.
Shared values are values practiced in an organization that engenders trust in the organization and encourages a good interpersonal relationship. It is a unique identity that brings out a clear difference between one organization and another. These values should incorporate both individual and corporate objectives4.
In communicating organization vision, the leader should lead the changes implied in the vision but not managing the changes. A leader should have well thought out strategies that will lead the organization to practical breakthrough, be in position to manage the organization moods, and always inform people on the progress.
To achieve all these attributes, the leader should lead by example. Leading by example is the only approach that leaders use to influence other people. Using this approach will enable the leader to practically demonstrate confidence in the vision. The confidence in the leader will convince other people to have trust in the communicated vision5.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To give a good illustration where leadership principle has both worked well and poorly, the author analyzed two Apple Inc. CEOs namely Steve Jobs and Timothy Cook. Under the leadership of Steve Jobs, Apple Inc. recorded good performance, which was reflected in the rapid growth of Apple franchise6.
Until his death, the author learned from his profile that it is important for a leader to be charismatic, flexible and posses a good sense of direction. These traits enabled him to lead the company by example and thus through his leadership, the company came up with different mobile phone models such as Xerox PARC and Apple Lisa.
On the other hand, Timothy Cook, the current CEO who replaced Jobs, has been branded more of a manager than a leader. Having analyzed his recent speeches, the author learned that he rarely embraced the shared values as was the case with his predecessor.
This has contributed to most of the current employees losing confidence in his leadership style hence reduced morale. No wonder the company has performed poorly during the first few years of his leadership. In fact, ‘Cook’ factor is one of the challenges facing the company7.
Empowerment, Trust and Ethical Leadership Empowerment is an act of building up the capacity of an individual or a group to make sustainable decisions or choices and to transform the choice or decision into desired outcomes. A key issue to empowerment is the action that builds either individual or group assets, and building up the efficiency of the institution or organization’s context that monitors the utilization of the asset.
On the other hand, trust is having confidence or reliance in the strength, integrity, ability, or surerity that through the chosen means of action, the targeted results will be achieved efficiently and effectively.
Ethical leadership refers to a leadership that respects an organization’s appropriate anddesirable morals and values subject to what the society expects from it. In a broader approach, ethics dictate the purity and intentions of an individual. It guides leaders in deteriming what is good or bad in a given scenario8.
We will write a custom Essay on Roles of a Leader specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethical leadership encourages fainess in treatment and equality within an organization. In so doing, the organization wins employees trust and empowers them to exploit their talents and expertise in their workplaces. Although leaders expect positive impacts from empowering and trusting their employees, there are several negative impacts that they are exposed to.
Other than encouragingcreativity, job satisfaction, job loyalty and rational or idealized decision making, empowering employees has several negative impacts9.
These includes the increased arrogance attributed to a rise in confidence, serious security risks due to trust, lack of experience, and promotion of poor interpersonal relationship amongst the work force10. To explore more, below are candid illustrations of both negative and positive impacts of empowering and trusting employees.
Several researchers have conducted studies on employee empowerment in Multinational Companies (MNC). In these studies, they have pointed out that most companies, if not all, have come to recognize that employee empowerment and trust remains paramount11. This is because most organizations view it as a very important predictor to good performance.
They go ahead to reveal that the sample companies they studied had realized several benefits from employee empowerment12. These include quick decision making, employee confidence, employee loyalty, faster attainment of goals.
On the other hand, empowering and trusting their employees has led to several negative impacts. These include unethical behaviors such as theft, security breaches, and underperformance by some employees13.
Bibliography Anaejionu, R. Why empowerment of employees is becoming important in organizations. Web.
Acceptable Use Policy Essay college essay help
Acceptable Use Policy is (UAP) is a written document based on agreement between or among the users of computer in a community for a common good. They also have to promise that they will not violate those rules. This document stipulates on the use including the malpractices or unacceptable uses and the consequences for non-compliance. UAP is mostly used when one is registering intranet.
The users may include internet providers in universities, schools, businesses or corporations. However, web owners use this policy to restrict the use of their network. The owners are the website providers, network managers or large computer systems. Owners have the authority to change the policies regarding the use of the internet or intranet (Jahankhani, Ali
Muslim perceptions on Islam Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Islam: Beliefs and Practices
Five Pillars of Islam
Interpretations of the Islamic teachings across the world
Introduction Muslims are the second largest religious community in the world after the Catholics (Saenz, 2005). Even though they are racially and ethnically diverse, they have taken on to themselves various connotations and there have been various perceptions regarding how Muslims are viewed across the world.
In the same respect, it is also evident that different Muslims in different countries behave differently depending on the cultural practices surrounding them. This therefore means that they perceive the Islamic teachings differently and that the practice is not the same all Muslims. In some countries for example, it is mandatory for women to wear a veil while in other countries, this is not compulsory (Curtis, 2006).
Going by the foregoing arguments, in spite of them being deeply rooted in their faith, Muslims from different parts of the world view Islam differently. This does not however mean that their practices are dwindling; it only illustrates that faith and religion are as good as one’s beliefs and perceptions.
As such, the essay below is an attempt to analyze the teachings of Islam and thereafter, illustrate how they are interpreted and perceived by different Muslims from different countries.
Islam: Beliefs and Practices The Islamic religion is characterized by many beliefs and practices that have to be adhered to by members of this religious group. According to Saenz (2005), there are over one billion Muslims living in the European countries and in other continents like Asia and North Africa. In addition, there are approximately 40 Muslim dominated countries in the world (Saenz, 2005).
Even though the various practices of Islam are different from one country to another, nonetheless, we do have basic fundamental elements and teaching that they all look up to. The basic teachings of Islam revolve around Prophet Muhammad as the teachings were first revealed to him in the (Saenz, 2005).
Prophet Muhammad later collected these teachings that he had received and compiled them into the Holy Quran. In order to get guidance and teachings in their day- to- day lives, the Quran is a very important asset of the Muslim faithful since they rely on it as a basis for leading an Islamic way of life, according to the teachings of Allah, though Prophet Muhammad.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides being a prophet who role was to gather the materials in the Quran, Prophet Muhammad lived a life that was exemplary and that deserves to be emulated by all the Muslims.
Five Pillars of Islam Every Muslim is required to adhere to the Islamic teachings which require that they follow the five pillars of Islam. The first of these pillars states that every Muslim has to confess his/her faith. In this case, all Muslims supposed to declare that besides Allah, there are no other gods (Esposito, 1998). This means that the Muslims are required to declare and acknowledge the monopolistic nature of the religion.
Under the teachings of Islam, Muslims have to observe the second pillar of Islam which is prayer. In this case, they are required and instructed to pray at certain times of the day and in total, ensure that they pray at least five times a day. The sequence of the prayer guideline begins with the azan prayer which is a call for all Muslims to come together and pray.
They are then required to follow an order in the recitation and proclaiming of messages in the Quran (Esposito, 1998). This entails taking successive bows while facing towards the city of Mecca, the holy land. In addition, Muslims are also to offer an amount of tax which is the equivalent of an offering that is dedicated for the poor and the needy among the Muslim members of the society.
This particular pillar is compulsory to all Muslims, as opposed to being voluntary. The fourth pillar is observing the Holy Month of Ramadan through fasting from sunrise to sunset, based on the sayings of the lunar calendar. During this period, Muslims area also required to reflect on their lives in regards to the wealth they have attained or the health that they have been endowed with.
They are then required to look out for the less fortunate in the society (Esposito, 1998). The last pillar that the Muslim faithful are supposed to observe according to their teachings is the pillar of pilgrimage where they are required to visit the holy city of Mecca in pilgrimage at least once in their entire lifetime.
Interpretations of the Islamic teachings across the world The above teachings have however been interpreted differently by Muslims from different countries thus forming different sects in the Muslim community. This means that the practices by each sect differ vastly from those of other sects. Some of the different sects that have emerged in Islam include the Sunni and Shiite Muslims. The Sunni Muslims are the majority in the Muslim world (Armstrong, 2000).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Muslim perceptions on Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the Shia are a group of Muslims who practice a more decentralized type of Islam than the Sunni.The Sunni are of the view that it is not necessary to have one authoritarian religious leader but deem it important to rely on scholars that have been widely educated and on the profound religious texts (Denny, 2006).
With regard to the interpretation of the Quran, the Sunni are more literal in comparison with the Shia. On the other hand, the Shia rely too much on their religious leaders and view them as people that have been divinely elected by God to help them in their spiritual growth especially in the analysis of the Quran. In the same regard, their views on Islamic teachings are more authoritarian than communitarian.
In countries like the United States can be categorized as being liberal not in the sense that they do not observes the Islamic teachings but due to the fact they are entirely the type that do not need guidance or constant contact with their religious leaders in order to know what is required of them (Denny, 2006).
The same applies to other developed countries like the United Kingdom, Russia and Germany. However, in countries like Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Nigeria, the Muslims are more intertwined with their leaders and this is reflected even in their religious practices and in their conservative nature. They tend to keenly uphold the prayer times with constant visits to the mosques for spiritual nourishment.
Another sect that has emerged in the same aspect is the Sufi’s who are deemed to be a different group of Muslims that perceive Islamic teachings in a different manner. They interpret the Islamic teachings as symbols and allegories and thus practice very mystic religious activities as compared to the latter groups (Denny, 2006).
In order to meet the qualities and characteristics that Muhammad showcased during his time, the Sufi’s have chosen to neglect their natural being by not recognizing material wealth and in order for them to be more committed on the love and meditation of God.
In a survey that was recently conducted in the Muslim community on how they view Islam and how they practice it in their lives, the results were varied especially when compared with Muslims from other countries (Saenz, 2005).
In spite of the fact that all the participants agreed on the core commitment to God, nonetheless, they differed in their level of commitment, openness to certain Islam teachings and interpretations in regards to their faith and in acceptance of the above sects as mentioned earlier. In the Middle East and the North African countries there was a very high belief in God and the prophet Muhammad followed by the Asian countries (Saenz, 2005).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Muslim perceptions on Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Central Asia and sub-Saharan Africa were ranked fourth and fifth respectively with Europe being the last of the group with 85%. Through the survey, it emerged that most of the Muslims in the countries where Islam was ranked as first and second largest religion regarded it as a very important aspect of faith and by extension, their lives.
However, in the United States, Only 69% of the Muslims regarded their faith very important to them (Saenz, 2005). Nonetheless, in some nations that have only recently emerged communism like Russia, Muslims have very little concerns as regards their teachings and what their religion requires of them.
It was noted in the survey that not more than half of the Muslims in the county quoted religion as important to their lives. The same characteristic was also predominant in the Balkans. However, 67% of the Muslims who took part in the survey in Turkey stated that to them religion was very important (Saenz, 2005).
These religious differences as highlighted above were also mainly characterized by the difference in age groups with those who are older being more deeply rooted in their religion than those that are younger. It was also noted that there was gender disparity on how the Islamic faith and teachings were perceived among the different countries.
In central and south Asia, majority of the women have been quoted to have never attended a mosque. It was also noted that in countries where there is strict compliance with the Muslim teachings and laws like in Saudi Arabia , Morocco, and majority of the countries in the Middle East and northern Africa, there have been very poor statistics of women attending prayers at the mosque(Nasr, 2003).
This is especially due to the fact that the cultural norms of the people in these countries do not permit women to be liberal in certain religious activities. However, women still actively participate in the daily rituals or prayers required of them though not in the limelight as men do.
Regarding the element of holy war as a teaching in the Islamic faith, there is a very wide disparity on the level of disagreement. While majority of the Muslims in the Middle East countries and part of northern Africa are strong believers in the holy war, their counterparts in countries like the United States and the United Kingdom seem to be against it (Nasr, 2003).
They state that in most cases the holy war end up affecting innocent civilians other than those it was aimed at fighting. As such, it is not fair and rightly targeted (Curtis, 2006).
On the other hand, Muslims from Saudi Arabia and Morocco are strong advocates for the jihad war, stating that the holy war is aimed at helping to salvage the requirements of the Islamic faith. However, it is also clearly depicted that holy war is not terrorism.To most of the Muslims however, holy war is acceptable.
In contrast, Muslims from the south and central Asian countries like India are characterized by low levels of commitment to their religion in terms of the practices that they are obligated to fulfill (Bloom
Indoor Air Quality in Schools Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of poor indoor air quality
Rate of schools with poor indoor air quality
Addressing the problem
Introduction Indoor air quality in schools has a significant effect on students’ health. Schools offer a key indoor environment for students away or besides their home environment since they spend over ten hours per day at school. Since students spend many hours in schools, the issue of indoor air quality is of great significance and it should be handled with care (Daisey et al., 2003).
Indoor air pollution might lead to students suffering from long and short-term health complications. Besides, it might degrade the learning environment and affect the students’ performance. A research proved that “poor indoor air quality contributes to asthma attacks, absenteeism, and more illness” (Salleh et al., 2011, p.419).
Researches done in the United States proved that good indoor air quality influences the trend of school attendance among the students. Indeed majority of the students suffer from respiratory diseases, skin and eye irritation, fatigue, sneezing, coughing, and nausea due to poor indoor air quality (Daisey et al., 2003).
This paper will focus on poor indoor air quality in schools in the United States, its causes as well as the health problems associated with poor indoor air quality.
Causes of poor indoor air quality Many factors contribute to poor indoor air quality. The factors include “poor ventilation, availability of contaminant sources like building materials, indoor temperature and humidity, and maintenance activities…the contaminants may range from particles, formaldehyde, radon, bacteria, fungi, to nitrogen oxides” (Salleh et al., 2011, p.419).
At times, the level of contaminants in indoors increases relative to the concentration outdoors. The concentration of contaminants in the indoor air may lead to the occupants experiencing a range of health symptoms and discomfort. Daisey et al. (2003) posit, “It is hard to identify the cause of discomfort due to the presence of both indoor contaminants and other indoor environmental factors” (p.62).
Generally, water damage and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the major causes of poor indoor air quality. Malfunctioning HVAC systems lead to accumulation of carbon dioxide and indoor air pollutants in classes subjecting the students to health problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More HVAC systems that do not regulate the level of humidity in the buildings might lead to growth of mold and bacteria, which cause illnesses like coughing and breathing problems.
Other causes of “poor indoor air quality include choice of the building materials, poor site selection, roof design, and improper installation among other causes” (Salleh et al., 2011, p.420). The site where a building is located contributes to indoor air quality. Schools located in regions with high humidity are prone to growth of mold if they do not have proper heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (Godwin
Business Plan college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Executive Summary Business Identification
The name of the business to be created is Locker Laundry, which is a drop-and-go dry cleaning service venture. The concept of the business is drop off and pick up laundry storefront. However, all cleaning is sub-contracted to established dry cleaners. The company will set aside a special place where customers can drop their dirty laundry and only pick it up when clean.
The main operating system will be similar to the one used in post offices. Clients will not have a direct contact with the management. In the building that the business enterprise will be located, lockers will be located at the front where clients will drop off the laundry. The store will initially be leased while the locker rooms will be located on the front where the public can access them quickly and easily.
However, due to the relative openness of the enterprise, security for the clients’ items will be guaranteed by the use of pin-code entry. Customers who will have signed up for credit/debit payments will be registered in the computer POS, which is a personal six-digit code, which will ensure the security of the transactions since the system will only be open to the customers and the handler.
Once the customers have dropped off the dirty laundry in their respective lockers, they will then be taken for cleaning to another laundry that will be sub-contracted. After the cleaning, customers will then get the laundry in the lockers after a stated period depending on the time of delivery to the company.
Mission, Goals and Objectives
For any business to reach a point of boasting of having achieved, it must have a mission, goal, and objectives. These three requirements act as a guide to the business. The mission defines what the business is established to do not only to the benefit of the owner, but also to the employees and the public at large.
Goals are like indicators of the far the business wishes to be after a specified period in terms of achieving its set objectives. Objectives on the other hand define the key deliverables that measure the business’ achievement. All objectives need to narrow down to the business’ vision and mission statement.
The mission of the company is to provide convenient and efficient laundry services for the general population. The first goal of the company is to be the leading laundry shop in the country in a period of ten years. The company is relatively new with the idea being conceived recently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The capital is not large enough to provide the necessary means of achieving the objective. However, with the projected opportunity and growth, the business will most likely achieve it. Another goal is to provide efficient and reliable services to the working class people at their own convenience.
Since this group of people is often too busy, the company realizes the need to create a personalized laundry system where they can do it at their own convenient time. The third goal of the company is to provide employment opportunities to the young entrepreneurs in the area.
With the large number of unemployed people around, the company hopes to employ a sizeable number when more branches are opened. The fourth goal of the company is to be a profit making institution with exponential growth over the next five years.
Keys to Success
The business incorporates a new mode of doing laundry that has not been largely exploited in the area. This presents as one of the factors that is likely to see the business succeed due to the relative absence of competition. The business will also rely on the cleaning culture in the area, as a large number of individuals prefer commercial laundry operations.
The business will also be located on a largely populous area. The market will therefore be available meaning that people can easily access it. As such, competition from other already established cleaners will be insignificant.
This section describes the history of the origins of the business with the industry being described. It will also define the ownership framework of the business by describing whether it will be a sole proprietorship, a partnership, an organization with public ownership, or other forms of ownership.
The business will operate in the service industry with the aim of providing cleaning services at an affordable and reliable rate. The dry cleaning industry in the area is dedicated towards delivery of services to the local people. It has been doing so over the last decades. The industry is driven by the reason that the people around the area are hardworking and do not let the cleaning get in their way.
We will write a custom Case Study on Business Plan
The Role of the Arctic in Increasing the Effect of Global Warming Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
How climate is changing in the Arctic
Causes of warming in the Arctic
Effects of Arctic warming
Effect of Arctic warming on reflection of solar radiation
Effect of Arctic warming on ocean currents
Effect of warming on greenhouse emissions
Introduction The global climate is changing rapidly especially in the Arctic. Climatic changes in the Arctic are characterized by melting permafrost, receding glaciers, and disappearing sea ice (Singh 2008). Research scientists have revealed that these changes affect both local communities and the world because they are contributing factors towards increasing the effects of global warming.
There have been significant climate changes in the Arctic and more changes are expected in future. The changes are projected to increase the effects of global warming considerably. Global temperatures have surpassed the known natural climate degree. For example, the average temperatures of the Arctic have doubled in the recent past at a speed that is twice that of the rest of the world (Science Daily 2012).
This has contributed to the intense climate that is now experienced in the region. Changes in climatic conditions in the Arctic affect the rest of the world because they increase global warming and contribute to the rising of the sea level (Screen et al 2012). Global warming in the Arctic is mainly caused by human activities that destroy the environment.
Climate changes pose several challenges to human populations and natural ecosystems. The factors that contribute to these changes include overpopulation, rapid depletion of natural resources, and extensive pollution of air and water. The Arctic increases the effects of global warming by changing the pattern of ocean currents movement, increasing the amount of greenhouse emissions, and reducing reflection of solar energy.
How climate is changing in the Arctic Several factors provide evidence of recent cases of increased warming in the Arctic. These include rising sea levels, disappearance of sea ice, and melting of permafrost and glaciers (The Economist 2012). For example, in the western region of Canada, research has shown that winter temperatures are rising gradually and are projected to surpass summer temperatures.
Temperatures are expected to increase rapidly due to the effects of various human activities that are contributing to global warming. In the Arctic, temperatures are expected to increase at a higher rate than in other parts of the globe. In addition, sea ice is expected to continue melting.
This will result in less reflection of solar radiation thereby increasing global temperatures, which have a direct effect on global warming (Freedman 2012). There are projections that precipitation might increase by approximately 10-20% and the region covered by snow might reduce by approximately 15-20%. On the other hand, glaciers will continue to melt and decrease in size (GreenFacts 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These occurrences are projected to increase warming in the Arctic gradually. However, the rate of warming will depend on the rate of melting of sea ice and glaciers. The climate of the Arctic is influenced by many factors that include varying amounts of solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, and human activities (Goldstein 2009).
A large portion of the arctic is covered in sea ice. However, this ice is currently melting at a high rate, thus leading to reduction of the amount of sea ice. Reduction of sea ice mass leads to climate changes because it leads to changes in water temperature, changes in ocean currents, and changes in rates of evaporation (Haldar 2011).
Causes of warming in the Arctic The amount of sea ice in the Arctic has declined considerably in the past few years. If this trend continues, projections indicate that in a period of 100 years, sea ice will have disappeared completely. High rates of evaporation are leading to high rates of precipitation thus increasing the rate of warming (Hassol 2004).
In addition, decline of the amount of sea ice has led to a decline in the rate of solar energy reflection by sea ice. This has led to increased rates of solar radiation absorption by the sea surface and reduced rates of reflection by sea ice thus causing warming of the Arctic (Hassol 2004).
Effects of Arctic warming The warming of the Arctic has severe consequences on the rest of the world. Climate changes in the Arctic increase global warming through three main ways. These include interfering with the reflection of solar energy, changing pattern of flow of ocean currents, and increasing greenhouse emissions. The three mechanisms increase global warming in different ways.
Effect of Arctic warming on reflection of solar radiation One of the reasons why the Arctic is so cold is because of reflection of solar energy by sea ice and snow (Johansson 2011). Sea ice and snow are white. Therefore, they reflect solar energy back to space. Increase in air temperatures discourages presence of snow and ice. Therefore, snow and ice are formed during the close of autumn season and melt during the start of spring.
This means that a large part of land is covered by snow and ice for most part of the year. This results in warming of the land surface, which results in a “positive feedback loop” which is responsible for increase in the rate of warming (Houghton 2004). This explains why climate change is more rapid in the Arctic than in other parts of the globe.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Arctic in Increasing the Effect of Global Warming specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Warming of the Arctic consequently leads to expansion of forests towards the north covering regions that currently comprise tundra (Johansson 2011). Forests are usually dense and mask the snow that is present on the ground. This reduces the rate of sunlight reflection thus increasing warming.
However, the increasing rate of warming may be moderated by the ability of forests to absorb a large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The tundra region reflects more solar energy than forests. Therefore, replacement of tundra by forests reduces reflection of solar energy.
Reduction in reflectivity of solar energy increases global warming because more solar energy is retained on the earth surface instead of being reflected back to space (Houghton 2004). In addition, soot that covers snow and ice in the Arctic reduces their ability to reflect solar energy. Some soot is also found in the atmosphere and absorbs some solar energy thus increasing warming.
Effect of Arctic warming on ocean currents Ocean currents increase the effects of global warming significantly. The Arctic has contributed in increasing the effects of global warming by altering the pattern of ocean currents movement (Keskitalo 2012). The movement of ocean waters is one of the ways through which solar energy is deflected towards the poles.
This movement is regulated by changes in heat and salt content of water through a process known as thermopile circulation. The Gulf Stream current is responsible for most of the moisture content that forms precipitate in the northwestern regions of Europe.
Climate change in the Arctic leads to movement of freshwater to the Arctic due to reduction of sea ice and melting of glaciers (Keskitalo 2012). This slows down the process of thermopile circulation, which has adverse effects on global climate.
It facilitates the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to long-lasting effects of global warming (Saddleback 2009). In addition, it causes a rise of the sea level due to high rates of thermal expansion (Lemke
Abortion as a Health Ethics Issue Term Paper custom essay help
Debates on abortion have been ongoing in every society. Recently, several people have questioned whether it is ethical for governments to legalize abortions. While others consider access to abortion as women’s rights, critics argue that abortion is always wrong and that it should be prohibited.
According to some individuals, abortion should only be permitted under certain conditions (Batchelor, 2002). This paper focuses on abortions related theories and a case study with the aim of bringing into light abortion as a health ethic issue.
According to Don Marquis, it would be morally wrong for Sarah to terminate her pregnancy. In the article Why Abortion is Immoral, Marquis asserts that abortion should only be permitted when a rape case is involved, within the first 2 weeks, and when the pregnancy has been proved to be endangering the life of the mother (Marquis, 1989).
Based on Marquis’ arguments, Sarah would be acting unethically if she terminates her pregnancy given that her fetus is 5 weeks and that it does not endanger her life. According to Marquis, abortion cases should be treated as murder cases except under the situations he outlined above.
He asserts that taking a life of a fetus is unethical just as it is morally wrong to take a life of an adult. All through his article, he argues that the killing of a fetus should be understood from analyzing the effects of death to an adult person. He believes that abortion dispossess a fetus’ valued life.
Even though the pregnancy will interfere with her studies, she should note that the fetus’ future life is more valuable than the time lost in her studies. Equally, she can continue with her studies after giving birth. Given the consequences and risks associated with abortion, it would be wrong for her to terminate her pregnancy.
Unlike Marquis, Susan Sherwin argues that every woman should be allowed to access an abortion. In this perspective, Sarah is morally correct to terminate her pregnancy. According to her, abortion issues should be treated as other issues such as inequality and other social issues that undermine the welfare of women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She argues that fetuses should not be considered as people since they have not developed sufficiently in social affiliations. To avoid cases of abortion, Sherwin suggests that government and other relevant bodies should empower women so that they do not opt for abortion. She believes that if poverty is tackled by ensuring that women access equal employment opportunities, very few incidences of abortion would be reported.
Though fetuses are not fully developed as adults, Sherwin should note that fetuses are the foundations of our future generations. Therefore, just as we struggle to eliminate the challenges that endanger our future lives we should also struggle to tackle issues that endanger fetuses’ future lives.
From the two theories analyzed above and Kantianism, Utilitarianism, and Care Ethics theories, it is apparent that the abortion issue will remain a controversial issue both in our societies and in the healthcare contexts.
Despite the controversies, I believe that Marquis rather than Sherwin’s arguments are appropriate. Unlike Marquis, Sherwin believes that abortion should only be limited to instances where the fetus endangers the life of a mother or instances where rape cases were involved.
References Batchelor, E. (2002). Abortion, the moral issues. New York: Pilgrim Press.
Marquis, D. (1989). Why Abortion is Immoral. Journal of Philosophy, 86. (1), 183-202.
Born Red – The Chinese Cultural Revolution Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction On October 1, 1949, the recently formed People’s Republic of China encountered the main problem of securing power over an extensive mainland and executing the socialist ideas it supported. The main problem to the process of governmental and ideological restructuring of China was the hesitant ideological nature of China’s academia.
Extraordinary measures had to be adopted by the Communist government to deal with the unambiguous and covert problem of non-Marxian thinking and bourgeois principles among its brilliant and knowledgeable class.
The crusade propagated by the Communists to convert the intelligentsia was not stimulated by enthusiasm towards the previous owners of the means of production, but by the Communist pledge for a cohesive ideological front.
The actions of the learned and the Chinese administration from the start of the People’s Republic to the Hundred Flowers Bloom era in 1956 were characterized by a certain trend, which included the division among the class rather than joining hands due to counter the ideals of the Communists (Lu 20).
Many historians noted down the effects of the Chinese Communist Party, both positive and negative effects. Born Red is one of the writings that talks about the nature of life under the CCP regime. Gao Yuan gives a personal experience in this piece of writing, showing how the CCP regime affected the lives of ordinary citizens.
This paper talks about the effects of the CCP regime. The paper further analyzes the effects of Cultural Revolution on traditional culture and social institutions. In this regard, the paper reviews the impacts of the Cultural Revolution on the lives of many Chinese.
The Effects of CCP Victory on Gao’s Family
In early 1949, the general position of scholars toward the forthcoming political change was one of reticent backing. The Chinese Communists had made substantive progress in their efforts towards the subjugation of the state. The universal sense was that the serving Nationalist administration was destined to lose the Chinese Civil War.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the learned came to the realization that the Nationalist regime they formerly backed was a misplaced government, most of them were ready to offer their support to the Communists since it was considered the lesser between the two evils.
Executive guiding principle of the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) and the Chinese administration during the epoch following the declaration of the People’s Republic of China was characterized by prudence and self-control. The Communists never wished to cause panic among citizens with ideological debate and political affairs.
The Chinese citizens at the time were more interested in tranquility and the termination of civil discord. Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong talked about the formation of a well-built state power and the financial overhaul of the state.
As Gao suggests in his book, the new policies had great impacts to the lives of many people, including his own family. Gao’s family was affected due to the policies implemented by the Chinese Communist Party (Clark 32).
The Chinese Communist Party introduced policies that brought about land reforms. The communist party had proposed these reforms in 1920, but they were implemented later in early 1950s. Those targeted were mainly the property owners since they owned huge tracts of land yet the poor languished in great poverty.
The communist party suggested that land was to be redistributed since the poor could not be left to suffer in the hands of the proprietors. Proprietors had introduced policies that ensured that peasants paid rent, which was sometimes exorbitant. The issue of landlordism has so ingrained in the Chinese society to an extent that the peasants existed at their mercy.
Mao was determined to end this type of relationship between peasants and proprietors. Gao’s family benefited from this reform since it could no longer pay rent to their proprietor. Life was better partially because the funds obtained through hard labor could be utilized in acquiring other forms of goods.
We will write a custom Essay on Born Red – The Chinese Cultural Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reforms were conducted ruthlessly since proprietors were literary forced to surrender their land, which was then shared equally among the poor. Those who refused to surrender land were tried in the local courts and some were even executed.
Tenants who owned land without title deeds were granted land certificates showing the genuine ownership. Mao was sending a political statement implying that he was acting in the interests of the poor. Gao’s family took advantage of the land reforms to assert its position in society. It can be said that this was one of the positive effects of the Chinese Communist Party under Mao.
The Chinese Communist Party took control of the economy in 1950, forcing traders to seek the permission of the government before engaging in certain businesses. However, this policy had a tremendous effect to the family of Gao since it brought about inflation. The policy propagated corruption and misappropriation of public funds since public officials engaged in business instead of serving the people who pay them.
The party officials, as well as their allies controlled all major businesses in the country. Investors shied away since they could not operate under an economy that was controlled by a regime. The currency of the country was valueless meaning that traders encountered problems importing goods. Locally, goods lacked markets because sellers were many as compared to buyers.
At one instance, Gao explains that his brother was unable to dispose a used sweater because people were struggling to provide food for their families (Gao 14). The Grandpa advised that people could not buy the second hand sweater at a price seven times higher than the valued chain made in the medieval era.
Inflation was too high to extent of forcing Gao’s mother to resume work in order to supplement the family budget. The regime’s policies affected the life of Gao’s family in many ways. It should be noted that most of the effects were negative.
The regime was reluctant to consult the people before making policies. In other words, a totalitarian leader who cared little about the lives of people ran the government. His main aim was to disorganize the social structure in his favor. All reach individuals were weakened economically and socially, including Gao’s grandpa who was demoted as the party’s county representative.
Gao’s grandpa was respected because of his strong leadership skills. He always consulted the locals before making critical decisions that would affect. However, the communist party never tolerated consultations, but instead it demanded that all party officials subscribe to the ideas made at the top.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Born Red – The Chinese Cultural Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gao’s grandpa became the victim of the party’s ideals since he was sacked after refusing to follow the party directives. Gao’s family life changed because grandpa could now rely on the factory for critical funds to provide the basic needs. Gao claims that the earnings of the family reduced from 280 to just less than one hundred. His mother was forced to start working as a local clerk to support the family.
The Extent at Which Cultural Revolution Strengthen or Destroyed Traditional Culture and Social Institutions
Cultural Revolution was against the traditional beliefs, principles, values, and cultures. The main aim of the revolution was to restore the original Chinese culture that valued the efforts of the Chinese people. All works of art that represented foreign culture were destroyed. These included churches, temples, shrines, and beautiful gardens.
The government, while supporting the revolution, banned all foreign music and culture. Anyone found practicing foreign culture was to be subjected to the arm of law. The wife to the leader of the Chinese Communist Party, Jiang Mao, was the one responsible of destroying traditional culture. Her main aim was to ensure that any culture that existed before Cultural Revolution was destroyed.
She later became the Gang of Four that tried to seize power after the death of her husband, Mao. Cultural Revolution was used as a political tool to ensure that the power of the party leader was unchallenged. Any attempt to question the credibility of the Red Guards was interpreted to mean resistance or opposition. Leaders of the Cultural Revolution would always deal with an individual that challenged their authority.
Various social institutions such as the media, family, religion, polity, the school were interfered with seriously. Children were taught to obey the leaders and praise them always. They were forced to believe that Cultural Revolution was the strongest in the world since it catered for the interests of the poor in China.
The polity was affected because the powers of the central government were no more (Lee 28). Moreover, the economy, as an important social institution, could not operate since the revolution affected its activities. Teachers were believed to be against the leadership of the revolution. In this regard, schools and colleges were closed for a period of two years.
The Chinese Communist Party was not spared since it was unable to operate as well. All major ranks in the People’s Liberation Army were done away with since the revolution was against them. The activities of the revolution led to chaos and violence in various parts of the country. In this case, the institution of the family was affected since family members were forced to part ways to safeguard their lives.
Long-term Effects of Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution affected the lives of Chinese people for over ten years, even though the revolution ended in 1969. The struggles witnessed after the revolution are perceived to be some of the effects of the revolution since the antagonists based their ideas on Cultural Revolution.
The leaders of Cultural Revolution achieved their objectives after the death of Mao since all policies that he had introduced were stopped. However, the problems that the revolution brought are still felt in the modern day Chinese society. The Gang of Four was arrested after Mao’s death, but the new party leader advocated for Mao’s ideas secretly.
Cultural Revolution divided the country into reformers and non-reformers who are still struggling to acquire governmental power. In 1980, there were some developments in the party since the party leadership changed hands. China has been able to emerge as the world leading economy due to the struggles witnessed during the Cultural Revolution (Yan 89).
Works Cited Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print.
Gao, Yuan. Born Red: Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1987. Internet resource.
Lee, Hong Y. The Politics of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: A Case Study. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Print.
Lu, Xing. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press, 2004. Print.
Yan, Jiaqi, and Gao, Gao. Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai’i Press, 1996. Print.
Do Air Pollution in Schools Influence Student Performance? Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Prevalence of Poor IAQ in Schools
IAQ and Student Health
Abstract This paper set out to review the relationship between poor indoor air quality and student health. The paper begins by noting that schools are prone to indoor pollutants and thermal conditions due to the lack of proper funding for good building maintenance practices and the lack of government regulations on building IAQ standards.
By critically reviewing evidence presented by researchers in the field of indoor air, the paper demonstrates that poor indoor air has adverse impacts on the health of students. Specifically, the paper reveals that there is a direct association between poor IAQ and incidents of asthma, allergic reactions, and bacterial infections.
Evidence also links poor IAQ to long-term lung infections caused by the small particles that are prevalent in buildings with poor IAQ. Poor air conditions also lead to headaches and skin in problems by the students.
The paper concludes by asserting that parents, school administrators and policy makers should take steps to improve the IAQ in schools in order to mitigate the negative health outcomes that students face.
Introduction Indoor air (which is the air breathed within a building environment) is an acknowledged source of pollutants. For this reason, the government has established standards for most buildings to ensure that air quality is observed. However, the stringent air quality standards required for most commercial buildings are not applied to the school environment.
With few states regulating indoor school environments, this matter is left to the discretion of the school board. Indoor air quality is an important issue since students are exposed to indoor air for a majority of their time in school since they spend most time in school buildings.
Mendell and Heath (2005) document that students spend up to 90% of their days indoors thus making any effects of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) more pronounced in them. In addition to this, the bodies of the students are undergoing development, which makes them more vulnerable to environmental perils.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will set out to demonstrate that poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has direct negative impacts on the health of students. To reinforce this assertion, the paper will review literature on the effects of poor IAQ in schools.
Prevalence of Poor IAQ in Schools While poor indoor environments exist in residential places and commercial buildings, schools are of particular public concern for a number of reasons. To begin with, most schools experience a shortage of funding and this leads to inadequate maintenance services (Mendell
The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion Essay essay help
Introduction U2, the Irish Rock Band, has been under the guidance of the songster called Bono since 1980s. During most nationalized prayers particularly the February 2006 Washington, DC state mealtime payers, Bono offered a crucial speech concerning religious issues.
The affair was planned by the evangelical Christian charity and was attended by various world leaders, congress members, George Bush, and over three thousand people across the world. Before this crowd, Bono admitted that there could be something inappropriate or something deviant a propos the rock stars going to the podiums and starting to preach at the world leaders.
According to Bono sermon virtues, instead of preaching to the presidents, the rock stars should give aid to the poor Africans and the sick. With reference to the universal higher bylaws, Bono on behalf of U2 implored global elected officials to go past religion since it usually obstructs God’s ways. In fact, politicians are requested by Bono to hold the grace period that instigated with the Jubilee year, which is the new millennium.
The speeches offered by Bono during most mealtime prayers have made fanatics as well as the popular press associates to label Bono as the Messiah of Roll and Rock. Whereas since 1980s this songster has been infusing opinionated and theological teachings in the U2 lyrics, Bono transformed songs discourses into persistent political actions (Lofton, 2006).
In fact, Bono united with Pope Paul John 2 together with others in the waive debt drive. The songster invoked the Jubilee period as noted in the customs of Leviticus when most arrears were waived devoid of penalties. Songster, as a manager of DATA, spiritual and U2 pop group organizer has habitually been rising to the arena to sermonize to elected official and states heads.
The procedures and promotion schemes used by the songster are akin to those utilized by the present-day American renaissance evangelists that scholars idealized. Similar to Billy and Moody, who are the United States of America evangelical complements, the songster travelled the universe to urge the developed nations to waive the arrears poor nations owe them.
Bono via advocating for the Africans debt waiving fuses the revival strands and the American roll and rock in the politics of religion. The backing of the inclusive politics by the songster serves as an image of what various sociological practitioners dubbed the internationalization of dogmas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, to take part in the modern world politics, Casanova claims that social artists should accept the modernity commands that accrue from the desire. This is particularly factual for the religious conviction according to Casanova.
In fact, Bono asserts that, just the religions that have included as their personal enlightenment religion critique, the central aspects affecting poor nations stand a chance of playing the optimistic responsibilities in advancing the realistic rationalization progression (Lealand, 1994).
Bono and the U2 Irish Band act as religious brokers and the negation techniques used to advocate for the African debt waiving materialize to be religious. The data foundation, which is a poor state construction venture initiated by the songster in support of U2 pop group is both a wholeheartedly spiritual observer as well as an indisputably material undertaking.
Advocating for poor nations basically demonstrates what Asad Talal tentatively argued concerning the secular conception claiming that the practice can hardly happen devoid of the religious notion (Lofton, 2006). Through advocating for the poor African nations, the U2 Irish band songster preaches the secularized soteriology.
This emerges to be the communal fiscal and spiritual prescription for deliverance unrestrained by the religious organizations. Whilst committed to the saintly behaviors as mature and material activism which incorporates the undertakings of creed, the U2 pop group has upheld the West overall diplomatic status with eschatological prospects and gospel sparkles.
This paper illustrates the Irish Rock band U2 as a critique of modern religion. The salvation messages asserted by Bono as Max Weber indebted are incorporated in the paper.
For instance, by linking the personal deliverance soteriology lyrics to the opinionated direction on what poor nations ought to undertake to be salvated, the analysis of Bono and U2 band works in this paper symbolizes the three features of Max Weber soteriology hypothetical accounts. The first section claims that social agents may not receive deliverance or salvation devoid a rational global reflection offered by the prevailing humanity.
We will write a custom Essay on The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Part two utilizes Marxist designs on simplified conceptions or the humankind theodicy to elucidate the Almighty’s folklore. The last section asserts what Max Weber claimed that some theodicy sufferings instigate from the deliverance hope.
The Irish Rock Band U2 and global politicians The songster and U2 pop group move athwart capital avenues to pastoral mountains, athwart ecological milieus, chronological architects, gaps, and era, to the Western nations from Ireland. Bono in this lyrical image depicts the true American image that is tangled up. In fact, U2 and Bono snatched a limelight intended to shine the blue-sky bullet that darkened the stage.
Throughout the lyrics, Bono and U2 band lament about the capitalism evils, but through highlighting and advocating against the capitalists ideas, Bono shades light across the board. Bono blames Americans for ignoring the African AIDS disaster through hoarding wealth (Finney, 2003).
The U2 band praised the Beastie Boys, the UN representatives, and Bill Clinton for the humanitarian responsibilities assumed, though Bono requested them to give out additional aid to the developing nations and fund research studies conducted on AIDS.
Bono manages to blend the political convictions with religious renderings by calling on the Americans religious commitment. The devout backwoods for the songster could be developed nations and U2 pop group perceives America as a terrain of opinionated leeway and pious assurances. When compared to the bands political messages, the divine passion of Bono are somehow unstructured (Trachtenberg, 2008).
Throughout Bono’s speaking engagements, concert performances, and references lyrics, Bono portrays the bands religious thoughts. During public religious politics performances, the Irish Rock Band U2 undertakes the communal theologians’ responsibilities.
Despite his liking of America, Bono and U2 band claim that American has been consuming various poor nations. In fact, America is Bono and the U2 band pulpit, but the songster tells the graduating populace that in the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God, loving thy neighbors’ residing in the universal villages is convenient. Thus, Bono calls upon developed nations to waive the debts given to the third world nations.
The Irish Rock Band U2 in ‘pop’, the most non-judgmental album, claims that not everything can be reached, grubbed, nor forced, and they cannot be religiously grabbed given they can hardly be connected to love. Bono and U2 avows that just the passion for can help in rattling the Iron cage. In the popular lyrical song, ‘Blue-sky-bullet’, the songster is correlated to the Israel’s holy bible fantasy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Irish Rock Band U2 as a Modern Critique of Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, the unfolding in first book of the bible emphasizes that Israel clashed with the Almighty’s correspondent in the darkness (Lealand, 1994). Acting as Jacob, the Irish Rock Band U2 under the guidance of Bono emblematically tussled with the U.S. and the Almighty.
Actually, Bono has a clear understanding of the Americans and the Almighty and claims that both ought to be conquered. According to Bono and the U2, the United State of America acts as the prospective envoy for the Almighty kindness, or Deity’s loveliness that should be emulated in the America’s capacity to waive debts.
Resembling the Almighty’s representative in the holy bible, the Western nations possess the supremacy to surname, classify general countries, and bestow commands. Therefore, via DATA, the Irish Rock Band U2 and Bono have frequently been recognizing such commands held by the U.S., and they call upon America to offer support for the people of God.
As a matter of fact, Bono and U2 demands for grace having been jerked by the Americans during the day (Lofton, 2006). Using the Almighty as the reference point, Bono and U2 has been requesting for the new fangled pledge of equality at the financial possibilities frame.
Conquering religious conviction
While the Irish Rock Band U2 toured Vertigo, the songster, Bono, wore a diadem during most stage performances. The headband had numerous symbols portraying the pictures of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Some of the symbols included the Cross-, the David’s Star, and a Crescent written within the ‘Coexist’ phrase.
Also dubbed as the ‘Rock Messiah Bandana’, Bono diadem was sometimes reserved for special occasions. For instance, Bono wore the headband all through the ‘Else, or Peace and Love’ concerts while reserved it for some melodies such as ‘could there be the primary communion moment?
A song sung for Miss Sarajevo, and ‘do we spare instances to go to the synagogue?’ or ‘do people have occasions spared to visit the exquisiteness emperor facing God, Mecca? In concluding, Bono and U2 ask whether there special moments meant for the shared principles and fighting for rights of fellow citizens (Lealand, 1994).
When performing the ‘Blue-Sky Bullet’, Bono slipped the so called the messiah crown to cover his eyeballs and consequently knelt downward while putting his arms on the skull. Most people referred the activities as all of us belong to father Abraham’s descendants.
However, after the sermon, Bono and U2 band explained the diadem importance to the fanatics by naming every sign whilst delivering in rhythm. The symbols denoted Muhammad, Jew, and Jesus all of whom are children of God and Abraham’s sons (Lofton, 2006).
With the occurrence of the September 11 2001 terrorists’ attack of the world trade center, Bono blamed the incidence as a spiritual transcendence. During the Vertigo tour, U2 band under Bono control delivered various religious messages but in all cases, the messages seemed packaged, reproduced and proffered in a restructured approach.
Whilst delivering the messages, the U2 band could alter the lyrical contents yet maintaining the methods utilized. Under chock-full sports ground that stymied the faint illumination, the songster utilized torches to burnish the arena. Furthermore, Bono tore the messiah crown and invited the elected officials who attended the show but remained sited in the luxurious boxes (Trachtenberg, 2008).
While entertaining the guests and fans, the Irish Rock U2 members and Bono ran about the heart fashioned podium. Despite emerging, as the modus operandi of the lyrical concerts, the techniques applied by Bono and the U2 band resembled the contemporary revitalization methods initiated and idealized by the American evangelists of the 19th century.
The Second Great Awakening between the fiscal 1780’s and 1830’s is denoted by the Finney revivals as claimed by Mathews. The creation of a mutual world experience by establishing several analogous local institutions enables the revivals to geologically consolidate discrete groups of persons into a national body. The utmost achievement of the awakening was the American democratization of Christianity.
Through church according to Hatch Nathan, revival brought to individuals self-determination, independence, and democratic standards. Accompanied with gospel music, the flames of religious ecstasy were fanned into popular culture by the ministers during that time (Lofton, 2006). As a result, Nathan correlated the opinionated efforts of the songster to the Western nations’ revivalist spiritual vocation
Bono’s application has comparable net special effects to those of American revivalist as it echoes their revival drudgery. In fact, the principles of Second Great Awakening that was distributed gets support from Bono’s talking engagements, preaching concerts, and working with DATA.
Besides, Bono’s rhetorical tropes, antics in concert, conversation policies, and distribution methods are comparable to other later evangelists (Lealand, 1994). For instance while in United Kingdom Bono said, ‘Provide you’re already converted, you don’t need me preaching at you.
Though I must say I take pleasure in it addressing the conference of Labour Party. The songster possesses his own techniques of conversion just like other philosophers including Finney. Bono’s conversion strategies would leave a fresh revival with a scorching and gentle love for enemies, relations, and friends souls.
Political conversion enabled Bono to convert Helms Jesse who was for a lengthy period served with a staunch conservatism as a Senator in North Carolina. In reality, after personally meeting Bono and moving to tear in the U2 concert, Helm turned into a resilient fighter against African AIDS (Lofton, 2006).
Finney tempted alteration and atonement to the listeners planning to make them surrender their lives to the Deity. Comparable to Finney, Bono established a parallel kind of dispensationalist zeal in working for the radical apprehension of biblical Jubilee.
The religious signs and messages conveyed by Bono in mystical concerts are similar to those of revivalist such as Moody Dwight approaches. In their revivals, Dwight Moody and others included gospel singing. Otherwise, in the course of his nomadic tours, Dwight was often escorted by Sankey Ira who was a song frontrunner. In fact, these nomadic tours initially covered Great Britain and thereafter all over US.
Sankey worked on ‘Moody and Sankey Hymn book’ that was his own songbook in this trip. This was the best ever published worshipping script according to the journalist of New York Times who was present at the concert in the fiscal 1875 (Lofton, 2006).
Actually an individual can sing the verses in this song just after a single audible range. It is possible as its lyrics are affirmative in character, filled with gospel, simple, and the melodies express the purpose they are lined up for.
Even though a number of U2 songs are simple and straight forward, not all of them are entirely positive. Indeed, certain volumes recorded by Harlem gospel choir that is, ‘I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For’ or the ‘Pride’ a version bestowed to King Martin Luther Junior as an anthem were like gospel.
During the performance alongside Bono, the whole spectators could as well sing and only a few individuals could dispute this. The songster materializes to be dirt free claiming that U2 pop group lyrics vocalizes deity besides claiming that honor and adoration songs are secondary but undeviating progenies of inspired religious account (Finney, 2003).
On the contrary, the songster accentuates whilst dialoguing the biblical conception premise as a godly of expected manifestation asserting that U2 pop group lyrics have their unambiguous affirmations about deity. Normally, various shows portrayed the songster like a roll and rock star in one given that Bono recurrently offered binary guiding tasks involving evangelists as well as religious melody favorite.
The sustained efforts to overcome religion mark the utmost remarkable similarities amid American revivalists and Bono. Otherwise, Bono operated on rhetorical and musical ways and means. In the fiscal 2006 mealtime plea, the songster uttered the band’s commotion that faith is repetitively obstructing Almighty.
Learnt examples from developing in the hands of Catholic females along with Protestant dads in Ireland proffer the songster’s analysis on Bono struggle with religious conviction. U2 pop group’s Irish frameworks advanced its stance in regard to structured creed at particular theaters.
Nonetheless, U2 pop group begged off to be part of the Irish scuffle amid Catholic devotees and churches full of Protestants. Thus, Bono’s evangelical mood relates to his strength of character of working separate form religious organizations (Lealand, 1994).
U2 pop group was fundamentally drawn in dynamically in the Almighty’s evangelical huddles bar for Clayton. This involvement was so committal that it emerged to be a band’s issue. At a particular moment, an argument of whether to take on Christian pursuit more explicitly or to remain in rock ‘n’ roll ascended between Edge, Junior, Mullen Larry, and Bono.
Obviously they chose to continue in the rock ‘n’ roll. In fact, such resolutions hardly ended the patent evangelical craze. Within the Messiah roll and rock lyrics, U2 pop group asserts that creed have repetitively thrilled some pious stars.
Moreover, what additionally makes the songster analogous to the western sacred revivalists is the prominence on private affinity to the heavenly figures and this makes the leader the correct pious model for sanctity (Finney, 2003). U2 pop group proffered an oration on personage devotion significance over directorial reparation identical to the revivalists.
U2 pop group equally disapprove quite the reverse of the ecclesiastics that gawk through the orbits in the Protestants’ approaches. The libretto offered by Sunday Billy, ‘conviction in Almighty rescues beings, not devotion in worship places’ echoed the mistrust of U2 on structured creed.
For all intents and purposes Jesus I the only way according to Billy. In contrary, it is the responsibility of everybody to seek individual faith for the soul and that Jesus is his way according to Bono. U2 band asserts that the position for deliverance is dutiful personage and hardly the cathedral institutes hence designing the soteriological remedies to emerge material.
Through the office charisma but not the specific person, Eucharist is made sacred as actual manifestation (Trachtenberg, 2008). For this reason, through the apostolic series ministers possess power due to their rapport with the ecclesiastical. This makes Bono to go for an individual select over the obligation of the organization by objecting the authority of church pastors.
U2 pop group skillfully prepared a say ‘Approved, we might crack bucks and lilac proviso churches exist for us’ in the band’s Achtung child lyrics in the acrobatic folder. Nonetheless, the appraisals of Finney that beings are gratis decent instruments are hearkened via U2 pop group’s rhythmical doggedness on special fortitude, personage autonomy, or the incomparability of character authorization.
Comparable to Jones Sam, Bono’s attitude as regards the Eucharist unusually look similar (Lofton, 2006). Jones supposedly inquired ‘things that ought to be carried out to receive salvation in the resurgence oration. Jones could inform people to obtain the reparation of the Almighty’s evening meal.
Sam moreover answered that, this is one of the sacraments of the ecclesiastical of God. Jones moreover assumed that he spotted the manner in which individuals could expire and be mislaid, keep consuming the divine spiritual union, and groups that could repeatedly consume sacraments.
Based on Jones claims, priestly atonement can hardly reject a character from being mislaid in the vulnerability of anguish inferno but moderate devotion in the charm of Almighty could shield superstars. U2 pop group might hardly distribute the analysis of Jones that freedom is simply emancipation from aberrant battles yet not lyrics.
Nonetheless, U2 pop group tries to allocate such judgment on the rebuff of reparation recovery in evangelism. The messages of Bono give an impression of secularized soteriology due to rejection of sacramental salvation and his emphasis on the moral freedom of individuals (Finney, 2003).
Definitely, Bono has given a sermon on the message of personal salvation devoid of the intercession from house of worship just like Sam and Finney the American revivalists did. Bono has as well by means of employing the revival techniques to mete out this message of salvation.
Internationalization and developing nations The Irish Rock Band U2 and Bono consistently requested for the well-being Africa and other poor nations. For instance, Bono in the Blue-Sky Bullet lyrics touched on the dark America sides although not every homily lingered on such points. However, other songs sung by this band praise America for being positive and responsible.
For instance, Bono uncovered various wrongdoings although the U2 band rapidly recovered the evildoers with God’s grace. In the Irish Rock Band U2 album named ‘Everything that can hardly be left behind’, Bono was somehow very frank and positive.
Lyrics specifically the ‘fine-looking moments’, ‘refinement’ and ‘serenity on globe’ were drawn on by U2 pop group and Bono to reveal the leeway and soul compromises. Whereas Bono used the ‘peace on earth’ lyrics often as his utopian plea and prayer, the songster’s moral mantra was the ‘grace’ song.
Conclusion The Irish Rock band U2 is amongst the major critiques of modern religion. The salvation messages asserted by Bono are some of the tactics used by the U2 band to make most leaders not just to pursue their dreams, but to ensure that such leaders take part in helping the poor nations who are their neighbors. Bono justifies the need to help neighbors by quoting some phrases from the biblical teachings.
Bono and U2 band linked personal deliverance soteriology lyrics to the opinionated direction on what poor nations ought to undertake to be salvated. Bono and U2 band claim that social agents may not receive deliverance or salvation devoid a rational global reflection offered by the prevailing humanity.
Moreover, the U2 pop group uses Max’s imageries on restructured conceptions or the intact humanity theodicy to enlighten the liberators’ folklore. In conclusion, the U 2 pop group asserts what Max alleges that various theodicy miseries initiates from the relief anticipation.
References Finney, C. (2003). A revival is not a miracle: In a documentary history of religion in America to 1877. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Lealand, G. (1994). American popular culture and emerging nationalism in New Zealand. National Forum: The Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 74(4), 34-7.
Lofton, K. (2006). Practicing Oprah or the prescriptive compulsion of a spiritual capitalism. The Journal of Popular Culture, 39(4), 599–622.
Lofton, K. (2006). The preacher paradigm: Promotional biographies and the modern-made evangelist. Religion and American Culture, 16 (1), 95-123.
Trachtenberg, M. (2008). Bono: Rock star activist. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc.
Key Global Warming Issues Expository Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need to Address the Subject of Global Warming
Global Warming: Differing Viewpoints
Introduction The subject of the truth behind global warming remains controversial. While opponents of the subject have declared it a myth that has no scientific basis, proponents of it have given their stand based on facts that global warming is indeed a scientific fact that needs to be addressed to people. As the paper reveals, this claim seems valid based on the things that people need to be aware of as far as global warming is concerned.
The Need to Address the Subject of Global Warming There is a need for the world to know the mystery behind the rising temperatures. As of the end of 19th century, there has been an increase in the normal temperature of the atmosphere of the globe and the oceans. The cause is believed to be global warming. Scientists are certain that the cause of global warming is mainly human activities.
Therefore, the world needs to know the activities that bring the rise so that they can be reduced or curbed. According to Wong (2007), “at least 20 scientific associations and all science academies in addition to all the national science academies of the G8 states have proven that the average air temperature of the earth increased by 0.56-0.92 degrees from its surface, 100 years ago”.
Issar (2010) suggests that climatic changes pose a dangerous impact to the individuals who have settled and or live next to the shores of the oceans and those who already face problems of famine, flooding, and poverty.
Further conclusions from the IPCC show that between 1990 and 2100, the temperatures of the earth will most probably increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degrees with a temperature range because of the utilization of fluctuating situations of fluctuating degrees of climate responsiveness.
There is also need to address the contributions of global warming to nature, for instance, the rising in sea levels and alternations in the quantity and pattern of rainfall. Additionally, there may be extra frequent and strong weather conditions ranging from stronger hurricanes, tsunamis, and thunderstorms.
According to Gupta (2005), negative effects caused by global warming have also been witnessed in the “yields of agriculture, for instance, species exterminations, glacier retreat, the rise of diseases and decreased summer watercourse flows” (25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The raised levels of carbon dioxide and other conservatory gases discharged by the smoldering of remnant fuels, deforestation, and other behavior undertaken by people are the key contributors of poor farm yields and hence poverty. Therefore, the world needs to be taught or given equipment that have limited carbon dioxide emissions.
A number of researchers wonder whether there could anything good that could be associated or expected from global warming. However, as mentioned by Farrar (2008), many of them agree that, even if positive effects are witnessed, the negative effects will seriously outweigh them.
The anticipated changes in climate because of global warming comprise the possibility to seriously and permanently alter the climate, which will have permanent negative impacts on virtually every living thing.
Global Warming: Differing Viewpoints It is crucial to bring on board the views of those who view global warming as a myth that need not to be addressed. According to them, global warming is a myth based on credible scientific facts. For instance, in his book Global Warming: Opposing Viewpoints, James Haley argues that one of the skeptics of global warming (Fred Singer) believes that the world should not pay attention to concerns of global warming.
According him, “global warming is not scientifically credible and not worth paying attention to” (Haley, 2001, p.57). Singer is inclined to the perspective that media, politicians, and governmental agencies overemphasize the subject of global warming in the effort to advance their own individualistic gains.
In this extent, Singer treats global warming issues as propaganda. On the other hand, experts working in the US department of energy argue that global warming is an imaginary issue that governments need not to focus on or take any stance measure, as proponents of global warming do, through enactment of policies to minimize greenhouse gas emissions (Haley, 2001, p.10).
The experts further argue the cost of remedying the problems of greenhouse gas emissions now would be the same in the next coming 20 years. Therefore, according to them, global warming has no share in problems of greenhouse emissions and hence a myth.
We will write a custom Essay on Key Global Warming Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Therefore, unless these key global warming issues are addressed, the world will keep on engaging in their day-to-day activities. They will suffer the consequences of activities with no information on how they link with global warming. Once they are aware of global warming, decisive measures will be put to practice especially errors that are under human control and hence a secure present and future.
Reference List Farrar, A. (2008). Global Warming. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.
Gupta, R. (2005). Encyclopedia of Environment. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers
Southwest Airlines Case Study custom essay help
Background information Southwest Airlines operates in the US airline industry as a passenger carrier having been incorporated in 1967. Since its inception, the firm has been focused at profit maximization. Consequently, it has integrated expansion as one of its strategic management practices in its quest to stimulate high growth rate.
By 31st December 2011, the airline operated in 72 US cities and transported approximately 106 million passengers. Its average annual revenue at the beginning of 2012 amounted to $15 billion. The firm’s adoption and continued sustenance of the low cost structure has enabled it to sustain its success (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 3).
Mission statement: Southwest Airline intends to offer its customers the highest level of customer service, which will result to the creation of a friendly and warm environment. Southwest Airline holds that such an environment will result in development of individual pride and enhanced company spirit.
Southwest airline is committed towards the creation of a conducive and stable work environment that provides all employees with an equal opportunity for personal growth and learning. The firm encourages its employees to be creative and innovative in its quest to attain high effectiveness and efficiency in its operation.
In the quest to attain a high level of employee retention and public image, the airline is focused at ensuring that its customers are treated with respect and caring attitude(Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 3)..
Analysis of the external business environment Porters’ five forces
Rivalry: Currently, the US airline industry is characterized by intense competition and a high degree of volatility. Additionally, the industry is extremely technology and capital intensive, heavily regulated, and taxed hence reducing the profit margins of domestic firms.
Over the past decade, firms in the industry have experienced a conundrum emanating from the increment in cost of operation. Rise in the cost of fuel is one of the major challenges that the firms have faced in the past. From 2000, the cost of fuel has risen with over 300% hence making it a challenge for firms to operate (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry: Despite the rise in cost of fuel, Southwest Airline is grappling with a high degree of industry concentration. The concentration has emanated from an influx in the number of new entrants. Deregulation Act of 1978 has provided a window for foreign companies to venture into the industry.
Minimal differentiation in the industry is another major hurdle that Southwest Airline is currently facing. Price has become the main market variable that firms in the industry are hedging their competitiveness against in their operations.
Therefore, firms in the industry are continuously experiencing a significant reduction in their profit margins. However, the threat of entry is currently minimal due to the high startup and operational cost and the intense competition from incumbents. New entrants into the industry usually fail while those that survival will take a considerable duration to position themselves as credible competitors (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 13).
Threat of substitute: Over the past decade, the industry has been experiencing an increment in the number of substitute due to the development of alternative means of transport such as car, train, and bus (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 65).
Most individuals prefer these means of transport when travelling for a short distance, which is a major challenge for Southwest Airline as it focuses on short hauls. Emergence of intercity railroads also presents a major threat to the firm’s future survival. The high cost of fuel and an increment in baggage fees in the US airline industry are pushing consumers to train transportation hence making it a viable substitute.
The pressure on the US government to upgrade the country’s rail system and develop high-speed rails is a major threat that Southwest Airlines will have to deal with in the future. In a bid to counter the threat of substitute, Southwest Airline has integrated an effective reservation system that makes customers to prefer the firm as their travel alternative (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 14).
Supplier power: The primary sources of supplier bargaining power in the airline industry include labor, jet-fuel, and aircrafts (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 15). Over the past few years, jet-fuel has become a major source of supplier bargaining power in the US industry. However, Southwest Airlines has effectively addressed the threat of high supplier power by adopting a hedging strategy.
We will write a custom Case Study on Southwest Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This adequately shields the firm from experiencing enormous swing in its operating expenses (Carter, Rogers, and Simkins 3). Aircraft manufacturers have a relatively high bargaining power, which emanates from a high switching cost. The main aircraft manufacturers, which include Airbus and Boeing, can increase the price.
In its operation, Southwest Airline solely procures aircrafts from Boeing, and it might be affected in the future in the event of Boeing increasing the price of its airplanes (Hawkins, Misra, and Tang 14). Labor costs also form a significant proportion of supplier power.
The US airline industry has experienced an increment in the number of unions seeking for premium wages over the recent years. However, this trend is changing constantly due to increased bankruptcies in the industry.
Consequently, most airline companies are cancelling their pension plans hence diminishing the threat of supplier bargaining power. Additionally, firms in the industry are reviewing their employee compensation policies.
Buyer power: the buyer power in the US airline industry is minimal. The low bargaining power has emanated from the prevailing price wars amongst industry players in the quest to remain competitive. Consequently, buyers are unable to push the price down.
SWOT analysis Strengths
Incorporation of point-to-point route strategy has provided the firm with flexibility with regard to selecting the most profitable routes.
The firm mainly relies on secondary airports located in major cities thus resulting into improved on-time reliability.
Short turnaround duration enable the firm to utilize its aircrafts optimally.
Effective customer relations leading to high level of customer satisfaction
Integration of strong marketing campaign hence leading to improved customer reputation
The firm’s rapid growth presents a major challenge with regard to sustenance of its reliability in offering services. The firm’s on-time performance has continuously dwindled. In 2011, its on-time performance in Alaska increased to 88.2% from 87.6% in 2011 and 81.3% in 2010 (Stevens Para. 3). The acquisition of AirTran in 2011 is likely to worsen the situation.
The firm also faces a challenge emanating from increasing its fleet by incorporating 88 Boeing 717s. The firm did not have such type of planes.
The firm’s acquisition of AirTran presents a unique opportunity for the firm to grow by increasing the number its routes and venturing into new markets.
The firm can improve its customer base by integrating internet technology such as WiFi. This will attract customers.
In 2013, Southwest Airline started to offer customers onboard. With live television and satellite-enabled WiFi Internet technology through its contract with Row 44 (“FierceWireless” Para. 1)
The firm is experiencing intense competition from other major industry players such as EasyJet and Jetblue. If the firm does not focus on improving its competitiveness, it might experience a reduction in its growth.
The firm is also facing a major threat emanating from increment in cases of terrorism.
Increase in the cost of operation if not addressed may result in a decline in the firm’s level of profitability. The firm is currently facing a major threat emanating from the fuel price volatility.
Changes in the legal environment for example institution of environmental sustainability rules and regulations may limit the firm’s ability to compete with regard to price.
Occurrence of another economic recession such as the one that occurred in 2008 may adversely affect the firm’s operation
Conclusion From the above analysis, it is evident that Southwest Airline is facing a dynamic business environment. The competitive nature of the US airline industry is a major challenge that the firm has to deal with in its operations. Therefore, to sustain its growth, Southwest Airlines will be required to formulate and implement effective business and corporate level strategies.
This move will enable the firm to sustain its competitive advantage. Additionally, the firm’s management team will also be required to deal with external challenges such as rise in oil prices, economic recessions, and terrorism, which are some of the major challenges facing the industry.
Works Cited Carter, David, Daniel Rogers, and Betty Simkins. “Hedging and value in the US airline industry.” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance18.4 (2006): 1-33.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Southwest Airlines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More FierceWireless: Southwest Airlines and Row 44 announce milestones in WiFi partnership 2013. Web.
Hawkins, Owen, Rahul Misra, and Hao Tang 2012. Southwest Airline Company. PDF file. Web.
Hitt, Michael, Duane Ireland, and Robert Hoskisson. Strategic management: Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and globalization, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.
Stevens, Suzanne. Alaska, Southwest Airlines rank high in quality, 2012. Web.
2009: The airline ventures into new domestic routes by unveiling the Boston Logan, Reno/Tahoe and Denver routes.
2010: The airline decides to increase its fleet size by incorporating the Boeing 737-800.
2011: Acquisition of AirTran Airlines.
2012: The airline company enters into a deal with Row 44 for the firm to offer baseball and football games to customers onboard through WiFi.
2013: Completion of satellite enabled WiFi internet technology and live-TV on 400 Southwest Aircrafts.
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach
Introduction The business sector has undergone tremendous changes due to the emergence of new technologies and the globalization effect. Change management is therefore very essential in ensuring that companies maintain professionalism and a competitive advantage over its competitors.
Companies can only become effective through proper planning when implementing organizational change (Silverman, 1996). Internal and external changes are very necessary when a company wants to improve its present and future state. A company can only remain relevant in a competitive market by involving all the stakeholders in the change process (Silverman, 1996).
Companies should always have a realistic plan regardless of the scope of changes it intents to undertake. Organizational change managers have a difficult task of convincing everyone within the organization to embrace change. The change process should involve specialists for a comprehensive execution of all the change projects (Silverman, 1996).
The external and internal forces that drive change should be detected as early as possible for a company to benefit from the available opportunities and at the same time control impending market threats.
This paper will highlight the use of Kotter’s 8-step approach in implementing organizational change in companies like Microsoft Corporation. Effective implementation of organizational change is essential in the present and future success of an organization.
Company Overview Microsoft Corporation is a multinational company in America that designs and sells computer software. The company’s headquarters are stationed in Redmond, Washington and is among the best companies in the world when it comes to manufacturing and licensing of computer products and services (Hill, 2007). The company was founded in April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and his long-term friend known as Paul Allen.
Microsoft enjoys high revenues because of its reputation in software making. Microsoft has continued to dominate the software market since mid-1980s. Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS are among the most popular operating systems from Microsoft (Hill, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has been involved in a number of corporate acquisitions as a way of diversifying its business. In addition to operating systems, the company has created quite a number of application products such as Microsoft Office, video games and other digital products (Hill, 2007).
Microsoft has undergone tremendous expansion since it was founded with the company having up to five product divisions by 2010 (Hill, 2007). Microsoft is a publicly traded company under the leadership of a board of directors whose members are elected during the annual general meeting by the company shareholders.
In addition to the board of directors, the company has five committees within the board that carry out specific functions within the company (Hill, 2007). Microsoft Corporation went public for the first time in 1986 when it launched its initial public offering but offered a dividend for the first time in 2003. The company has been sued several times because of its use of unfair business tactics that extinguish competition.
Microsoft believes in creating unique features that meet customer needs. The value of Microsoft’s assets is approximately $ 41 billion with a corporate bond of $ 2.25 billion (Hill, 2007). The year 2011 was not good for Microsoft because its quarterly profits went down. The decline in revenues was brought about low sales in personal computer sales and Microsoft’s Online Services Division.
The emergence of Apple Inc. and some costly acquisitions are among the reasons why Microsoft has been incurring losses in the last two years (Hill, 2007). The decision by Microsoft to acquire an advertising company known as aQuantive in 2007 was the beginning of Microsoft’s financial woes because the acquired company had a lot of problems.
Diagnosis Despite the tremendous success that Microsoft has enjoyed over the years, the company has its fare share of challenges. The value of Microsoft’s stock has been slipping since 2004 because there is stiff competition from other industry players such as Linux, Apple and Google (Hill, 2007).
New versions of application software such as Office and Windows have recorded small amount of sales in the last five years and this has reduced the company’s revenues.
We will write a custom Essay on Kotter’s 8-Step Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A thorough diagnosis of Microsoft shows some of the areas that need to undergo organizational change for the company to recover from the current crisis (Hill, 2007). To begin with, Microsoft is a company that needs to have a business model that promotes innovation. Microsoft has a huge bureaucracy that has continued to hamper innovation at the company.
Innovation teams should be given the power to work on their products from the beginning to the end without interference and in-fighting. Microsoft does not have a clear definition of what the company does and this has left some customers very confused (Hill, 2007).
Every product and service is associated with Microsoft is branded by Windows and Office which makes the company appear as if it does not have any kind of diversity. The monopoly tag makes it difficult for Microsoft to reclaim the support of its customers. The company should adopt a strategy where each product or service has its own unique brand (Hill, 2007).
Microsoft as a company no longer exhibits the innovation spark it used to have even with the development of the Surface tablet (Hill, 2007). The company is no longer a market leader when it comes to innovation and has been surpassed by companies such as Apple Inc. and Google.
As a company that has been in existence for quite some time, people should always be waiting for Microsoft’s next innovation. Microsoft is not coming up with new concepts to encourage hardware manufacturers to continue using the company’s software. Microsoft’s CEO Steve Ballmer spends most of his time engaging in meaningless verbal wars with Apple rather than focusing on improving the quality of Microsoft’s products.
Microsoft Corporation lacks a visionary leader who can pick up from where Bill Gates left it after resigning from the position of the company’s Chief Executive Officer (Hill, 2007).
Most of Microsoft’s products are not compatible and therefore makes it difficult to install more than one of its products on the same personal computer due to bloat problems. Microsoft underestimated its competitors and that is the reason why the company’s fortunes have been dwindling in recent years (Hill, 2007).
Kotter’s 8-Step Approach Kotter’s 8-step change model is one of the best approaches when it comes to the successful implementation of organizational change (Kotter, 1996). A company such as Microsoft needs to introduce organizational change for it to remain relevant in the software market. The process of introducing organizational change is not always an easy one regardless of whether the changes are small-scale or large-scale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kotter’s 8-Step Approach by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kotter was a change expert whose eight-step change process is regarded as one of the best in leading and managing organizational change (Kotter, 1996). The first step in Kotter’s approach is to create a sense of urgency by making sure that all the stakeholders within the organization understand the need for change.
Urgency can be created when leaders take the initiative of having honest discussions with everyone about the threats and opportunities that the company faces (Kotter, 1996). According to Kotter, 75 percent of a company’s top leadership should agree with the concept of organizational change for the process to be successful.
It is also important for a company to prepare well for the change process to avoid further loses. A company like Microsoft is in bad state and therefore its leaders should show some urgency when it comes to changing certain aspects of their business (Kotter, 1996).
The second step of Kotter’s model involves forming a coalition of change within the organization (Kotter, 1996). All the key people in the organization must be involved in the change process through strong and effective leadership. The coalition of change should involve influential leaders within the organization to continue creating the sense of urgency needed for change.
Team building is also done during the second step to bring out the best from the leaders in the change coalition (Kotter, 1996). It is always important for change leaders to work as a team. A change coalition should include members from different departments within the organization to demonstrate inclusiveness (Kotter, 1996).
All the weak areas within the change process should be identified and corrected as soon as possible before the process of implementing organizational change begins.
The third step in Kotter’s approach of change implementation encourages change leaders to come up with a clear vision for change (Kotter, 1996). All the ideas generated by members of the change coalition should be harmonized to come with an overall vision that all the stakeholders within the organization can be able to understand.
A change leader should ensure that all the people involved in change implementation have a clear vision of what the company is trying to achieve. Organizational change should be guided by specific values that the company intents to promote (Kotter, 1996).
The change coalition should then come up with a strategy that will help it to convert its vision into actual change. Every member in the change coalition should be upbeat about change for them to inspire the rest of the people.
The fourth step is for the leaders to communicate their vision for change to other members of the organization (Kotter, 1996). The success of an organization depends on what the leaders do with their vision. The change message should be communicated on a regular basis and powerfully until the moment when all the activities done within the organization reflect its vision.
The managers should be able to make important decisions based on the company’s vision (Kotter, 1996). Every person within the organization should be reminded about the company’s vision on a daily basis so that the vision sticks in everyone’s minds. At this stage, the change leaders should address all the fears and anxieties that some members may be having concerning change.
The change vision should be applied in all the operations in the organization especially those regarding training and performance (Kotter, 1996). The most important thing is for the leaders in the coalition to show a good example to the rest of the people on all the issues regarding organizational change. The fifth step in Kotter’s approach involves the removal of the change obstacles from the way.
The obstacles may be those people who are resisting change or the old structures and processes. The change leaders should put new structures and processes in place and eliminate all the change barriers (Kotter, 1996).
The management can encourage employees to participate in the change process by rewarding those who have been exemplary in promoting change within the organization. At this stage, it is also necessary to hire people with the ability to foster change. The change leaders should encourage those resisting change and help them understand the need for change (Kotter, 1996).
The sixth step in Kotter’s model of implementing change is to create short-term wins that can motivate the staff (Kotter, 1996). The staff should see the immediate results of change to erase any kind of negative thoughts from their minds. All the stakeholders should experience the fruits of change as soon as possible for it to be justified. Critics of change can only be silenced when the organization enjoys a taste of victory.
This can only be achieved through the creation of short-term goals which are achievable. Change leaders should work hard to ensure that all the short-term goals are achieved within the required time. The short-term projects should be accomplished without the help of the change critics as a way of challenging them.
Change leaders should also avoid expensive projects during the initial stages of change implementation in order to effectively justify all the initial investments (Kotter, 1996).
The change initiative can be messed up if the first goal fails. It is therefore important to critically analyze targets to determine whether they can be reached or not. The people who help the leadership to reach the change targets should constantly be rewarded as an appreciation of their efforts to promote change (Kotter, 1996).
The seventh step in Kottler’s approach is to build on the change that has already been achieved during the initial stages (Kotter, 1996). Change leaders should not make the mistake of declaring victory before the entire process is complete. According to Kotter, change projects are likely to fail if change leaders become complacent after initial victories.
Change is a long-term process that requires patience and determination until all the projects are accomplished (Kotter, 1996). Initial victories should only serve as a platform for accomplishing other projects. Change is a gradual process and any victory should be a learning experience for all the people involved in the change process.
The change momentum should be maintained through continuous improvement on all the areas that have a weakness. Change agents should be recruited where necessary to bring in fresh ideas that can facilitate change (Kotter, 1996). The eighth and final step of Kotter’s model of change implementation is anchoring the changes in corporate culture.
All the aspects of the organization should reflect all the values brought about by change. Change should be part of the organizational culture and should remain sustainable even if the change leaders leave the company.
Conclusion Organizations whose performance is not impressive should adopt organizational change as a means of revival. The approach used to implement change determines how successful the change process will be. Kotter’s eight-step approach is among the most effective models of implementing change.
A company like Microsoft that is not performing well at the moment needs to implement some changes in its functions and operations for it to bounce back.
The company needs some radical changes to be able to compete with companies like Apple. Microsoft needs to adopt some changes when it comes to innovation and marketing in order to regain its former glory. Kotter’s model is the most suitable for a multinational company like Microsoft.
References Hill, C. (2007). Strategic management: An integrated approach. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Siverman, D. (1996). Facilitating organizational change. New York, NY: University Press of America.
Importance of employee motivation Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Spray diagram The diagram is used to represent various aspects of employee motivation as applied by J.D Wetherspoon Company. Key central word focuses on “Wetherspoon employee motivation” and is addressed using various theories and practical aspects. The following diagram is used for the purposes of providing better understanding on various aspects applied by the company which makes their employees work with such vigor.
Such ideas and the concepts as expressed are categorized according to importance within areas of critical challenges. As shown various aspects are branched to their specific sections focusing on one idea at a time, hence allowing for creativity (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
In most instances employees are considers as vital elements within any organization. The nature of their efforts largely determines extent of success an organization can achieve. This can be explained from various perspectives which incorporates technological aspects, nature of competition, nature of work force within the organization as well as economic set-up within the market place.
Employee contributions lead to overall development of organizations. Ata the same time, for the purposes of sustainable competitive advantage, employees should be motivated based on their nature of input within the company.
Description of what is meant by motivation, and why does it matter to have a motivated workforce
Employee motivation is a concept used to describe actions and status of employees within defined work boundaries. It is always important for management to apply appropriate strategies capable of making employees to be self-driven towards excellent work performance which far much exceeds management standards.
Therefore, employee motivation based on status determines the extent to which management succeeds. However, the degree of motivation varies depending on competing ideas and type of rewards derived from various jobs which can either bring extrinsic or intrinsic rewards.
Intrinsic rewards are associated with the level of satisfaction obtained from performing the work itself. Such aspects entail learning of valuable skills as well as the feeling of being successful amongst other satisfaction levels. At the same time, extrinsic rewards are associated with processes involved in performing the work which at times are indirectly considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such rewards entail financial compensation amongst other benefits such as health insurance. Having motivated workforce may lead to constant flow of creative ideas from employees. Such aspects on motivation drive away fear from employees’ hence encouraging creativity and innovation.
Pushing power to create down the ranks within an organization enables empowerment of employees hence granting them capability of using their ideas to improve defined product or service as well as their jobs. Such power to create leads to employee motivation and ultimately benefits organization, assisting in the creation of more flexible work force and at the same time increases exchange of ideas and information amongst employees within various departments (Gerhart and Milkovich,1990).
Providing motivation based on monetary incentive might involve sharing of company’s profits with employees. Such action gives incentives to employees enabling them to produce quality products.
At the same time, it enables unleashing of quality services, hence leading to overall improvement on processes within the company. Motivation aspects also assist in generation of cost savings and at the same time reduces rate of absenteeism amongst employees. However, monetary motivation works effectively in conjunction with other non-monetary incentives (Gerhart and Milkovich,1990).
Analysis of Management’s practices and motivational policies, assessment of theories applied by the firm and their effectiveness using examples from the case
J D Wetherspoon as described in the case study, owns and operates a number of pubs across United Kingdom. The company’s provisions are based on quality food and drink at affordable prices. They also focus on recruiting well trained employees with friendly attitude towards customers. The management offers customers conducive environment capable of promoting free conversion amongst individuals.
The current status of the company can be attributed to availability of qualified, friendly and motivated staff capable of providing high standard customer services. Management of Wetherspoon encourages employees to contribute their ideas through challenging existing company practices. Such open culture encourages employees hence motivating them towards identifying best practices within their various jobs in the organization.
In terms of communication various departments within Wetherspoon are encouraged to suggest appropriate ways through which services can be improved. This includes improvement in kind of food offered, kind of products appropriate for promotion amongst others. Waiters and waitresses are endowed with such responsibility since they interact with customers on daily basis. This makes them encouraged to communicate various ideas for improvement to line managers. At the same time there are frequent meetings held after every two weeks.
We will write a custom Case Study on Importance of employee motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The meetings are usually attended by individuals from every department and category of employment and involve detailed decision making on operational and strategic plans. Inclusion of employees in the decision making process has contributed towards high level of employee commitment. The company believes on open approach towards management based on high level belief and understanding of human motivation.
Consequently, Wetherspoon encourages employees’ self-esteem by giving them valued and recognized job descriptions. The company also considers cognitive needs by providing individual employees with high level skills and knowledge enabling them to climb up the hierarchy ladder within same organization. This is in line with Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs which divides human needs into higher and lower-levels.
At the same time the company uses high pay rates compared to that of their competitors. This is considered a likely motivator towards employees’ commitment since they are paid more than the minimum required. However, some theorists provide the idea that financial benefit has less to do with the motivation in employees rather than design of the job position itself. One of the most appropriate tools of motivation within such scenario is extrinsic motivation.
This is since Wetherspoon employees are considered as professional within hospitality industry hence intrinsically may feel no more room for exploration within other sectors calling for need on external factors enabling performance for satisfaction.
Provision of external factors always ensures that employees develop an attitude of performance towards their duties. This ensures that they diligently prove their worth for such high payment rates. Consequently when such conditions are met they will strive for self satisfaction within their various duties of which intrinsic factors will be part of them.
Assess the role of power within organizations, communication, active listening and conflict management on employee performance and motivation (300)
Active listening is considered as one of the most important aspects required for active conducting of business. The level of listening skills within an organization determines the process of problem solving and interpersonal skills amongst frontline and top management. Poor listening skills majorly results into loss of time and revenue and at the same time affects smooth operations within organizations. Additionally, poor listening skills may result into poor inter- or intra-departmental communications.
Active listening and communication usually contributes towards positive outcome within various company departments. Several benefits are associated with active listening which includes; increased level of productivity, reduced conflict with customers, improvement in teamwork and morale amongst employees.
Conflict management is considered an important phenomenon within organizational behavior. Conflicts can be intra-, inter-organizational and have the potential of structurally affecting normal operations within organization. Conflicts occur in various forms which include vertical conflicts, horizontal conflict as well as role conflict.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of employee motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vertical conflict involves hierarchical levels where command is received from senior to junior employee while horizontal conflict is experienced between employees within same rank. This can be due to reasons such as differences in ideas, decisions on resource distribution. Role conflicts usually arise due to misconception of the assignment given to employees at particular moments.
Communications play a crucial role in increasing understanding and reducing risks in the process of discharging organizational duties. Communication is used in solving conflicts based on various functions such as familiarization with employees within the organization. It also contributes towards development of consistent relationship based on individual social reality.
Benefits of applying the systems approach to running an organization and assess the extent to which and how this approach is applied at Wetherspoon
Wetherspoon Company considers to a larger extent improvement on physical aspects within all its pubs around UK. Such attributes includes focusing wages increments, excellent working environment as well as job security. Various employee needs are considered essential for the purposes of boosting morale amongst the staff. Such aspects are extended to encompass other needs including secondary needs (Schultz
The United States in the Aftermath of 1860-1870’s Civil War Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
The United States in the aftermath of 1860-1870’s American Civil War In order to reconstruct the United States in the aftermath of 1860-1870’s American Civil War, an analysis that would take a holistic approach addressing the root causes of the war ought to have been scrutinized. Following the events preceding the war several factors can be seen to have staked a claim in stimulating the same.
Among them include efforts fronted by the Northern states to make a Union (United States), and concerted efforts geared towards ending slavery typified by the southern states otherwise ‘confederacy’ that was threatening secession.
Basically, the core of the war has a bearing on the slavery which built a rift between the two factions (the Northern Union and the Southern Confederacy). Thus, in order to reconstruct the United States then abolishment of slavery in the entire states would have been a rational way to commence from (Foner 53).
In order to implement the reconstruction process, both the Democrats and the Republicans in the congress ought to have pulled strings towards one direction. Vitally, the Southern whites ought to have been given civic education demonizing slavery as an ‘evil’ practice. This would have ensured an end to slavery that threatened to tear apart the US.
In the aftermath of American Civil War, the US had remained divided momentarily into two factions following the declaration of Emancipation Proclamation issued by the then president, Lincoln. As such, segregation within social, economic and governmental institutions was popular.
To this end, the institutions that needed change in the wake of reconstruction included churches which were segregated along different ideologies regarding slavery, industrialization had to trickle down the South to discourage slavery, judicial system needed change and, republican form of government had to be implemented to the southern states (Jones 45).
The Western states The Western states depicted a war-torn region contested by both the Union forces and the Southern Confederacy. The economic activities of these states are skewed towards cotton farming. As such, as a farmer ready to settle in this area upon visiting a departmental store I would purchase farm inputs since agriculture forms the backbone of this economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, since this region is unstable politically then the main challenge in transporting these items by road would be interference by wars that happen occasionally between the antagonistic groups. To conclude the transaction, the payment through a cheque would be the safest mode, and given a chance I would purchase an arm for defensive purposes (Jone 13).
Nativism Plainly put, nativism means an opposing stand taken by the inhabitants against immigrants whom are believed to be the reason for diluted cultural values. Basically, nativism is common in many countries owing to different nationalism, religion and cultural identities.
In the ancient America, the aftermath of nativism which resulted in warfare and forced assimilation led to the extinction of Indians by the European immigrants. Basically, nativism in America was typified by anti-European, anti-Catholic, anti-German and anti-Chinese movements.
In recent history, nativism still had a role to play in preserving or modifying natives’ cultural values. That was mostly evident along religious lines. For instant, in the early 21st century, the president of France, Nicolas Sarkozy, was opposed to Hijab wearing by French female but Muslim students in class.
Also, some cultural values of Africans are still intact hitherto long after European colonization. This includes polygamy among others (Deloria and Salisbury 23)
Works Cited Deloria, Philip and Salisbury Neal. A companion to American Indian history. Logan: Utah State UP, 2004. Print.
Foner, Eric. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. Boston: Allyn, 1980. Print.
We will write a custom Assessment on The United States in the Aftermath of 1860-1870’s Civil War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Howard. Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War. Denver: MacMurray, 1999. Print.
Strengthening Todays Soldiers through Positive Psychology and Resiliency Factors Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Positive Psychology Defined
Positive Psychology and resilience
Applying Positive Psychology and resilience to the Military
Abstract The media has been constantly focusing on the cognitive impairments as well as on the mental health conditions which affect a large number of military officers participating in wars. Positive psychology and resilience play a very major role in assisting soldiers as well as their families from war to cope up with their situation.
Positive psychology serves to improve the mental state of the soldiers as well as their families after they have gone through stress. Resilience is applicable in enabling soldiers to recover from the stress they go through during and after the war. Programs have been set up in this regard, in order to assist soldiers.
These two concepts are very much similar. There is need to put in place more programs that promote these in order to continue strengthening the soldiers as more wars are expected in the future.
Introduction The media has been increasingly focusing on the cognitive impairments as well as on the mental health conditions which affect a large number of military officers participating in wars. A larger number of soldiers do not come back home from wars having the “invisible wounds” (Tanielian
Philosophy essay help online free
The idea of psychological archetypes has an important connection with the portrayal of mythology. This concept is mainly in agreement with Joseph Campbell’s suggestions of mythology in regard to the hero archetype. Campbell claims that the power of mythology lies in the fact that myths reflect realistic and valid archetypes.
Since the ancient time, myths have been the main way of explaining battles, major life events and people’s behavior. There is always a hero in such stories or myths, who faces a struggle that acts as the basis of the story’s plot.
With a lot of strength, talent, as well as admiration, the hero upholds the most precious thing to the audience, heroism. However, as time goes, the role of the hero remains indistinguishable from any other character (Mitchell 1).
A myth about Gilgamesh describes the main hero as a person that beholds different heroic characteristics seen in many stories. At the beginning of the myth, Gilgamesh decides to conquer the jungle’s beast, Humbaba. Gilgamesh sets this goal for himself. Every hero must set a certain aim.
Otherwise, there would be nothing to accomplish or tell in a myth. After Gilgamesh defeats the Humbaba, he loses Enkidu, his best friend, which is a great loss and challenge to any hero. In his mourning, Gilgamesh goes through a transformation making him appear like Enkidu.
The hero appears in tatters and puts on animal skins. This makes Gilgamesh the opposite to Enkidu. Civilization influences the appearance of Enkidu like that of Gilgamesh. In this case, the hero becomes more savage. Changing appearance is a way of keeping Enkidu alive by appearing like him (Mitchell 11).
Gilgamesh finds it hard to believe Enkidu is dead and is in denial of the idea of his death. However, after seeing a worm coming out of Enkidu’s body, Gilgamesh accepts the fact that his friend is no more alive. He realizes that he is not immortal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes Gilgamesh seek a way to cheat death. Gilgamesh chooses to look for Utnapishtin, thus he goes to Mashu. He encounters lions on his way and seeks the protection of Sin. These adventures are presented as a dream and actual encounters. In some cases, Gilgamesh is scared even though it is not clear whom the hero faces (Mitchell 1).
As Gilgamesh reaches Mashu, at the mountain’s entrance, he walks into darkness. This is a common feature in most heroic myths. Gilgamesh faces a terrifying encounter as he meets Hunbaba. This proves Gilgamesh’s heroism.
As a hero, Gilgamesh must go through this experience alone. The whole place is dark, and Gilgamesh can see neither front nor behind. Gilgamesh cannot escape his solitude. Literally, there is nowhere for Gilgamesh to go. There is also nobody to turn to for assistance. In the literal sense, the darkness symbolizes Gilgamesh’s solitude.
After challenging Hunbaba, Gilgamesh arrives at the other part of the mountain. He enters beautiful gardens filled with brightly colored flowers and fruits. Gilgamesh can see the sea beyond the garden. Gilgamesh is now in a new world. The passage through darkness symbolizes the process of birth. Gilgamesh’s emergence in the new world symbolizes his rebirth.
In his mourning for Enkidu, Gilgamesh is actually seeking to have his own salvation. Even though Gilgamesh believes these problems can be solved by immortality, he discovers that there are different forms of salvation.
Joseph Campbell suggests that the power of mythology is that myths are reflection of psychologically realistic and valid archetypes. The heroes’ behavior in the myth is similar to the stereotype human conduct. Just as seen in the case of Gilgamesh, every hero goes through various stages of progression.
These include the hero being introduced to the ordinary world, being called for adventure, being reluctant at first and then being encouraged by a wise man or a woman. After Gilgamesh goes through the first threshold, he faces various tests as well as meets friends ready to help him.
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Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre Expository Essay college application essay help
Definitions What is Art?
Scholarly work indicates that art originated from the time man learnt to paint in caves, dance around the fire, decorate and narrate stories (Laban, 2006). In its broad sense, art comprises of three important elements. These are Music, Dance and Theatre.
Therefore, a distinct definition of art does not exist in scholarly world, but it is agreed that art is actually a concept that embraces all human activities and allows people to exchange information, ideas and to express themselves.
In fact, art is a concept that allows people to connect with space and time, body and spirit, emotions and intellect and event and experiences. By passing information from one generation to another, art plays an important role in offering interpretations for new as well as familiar ideas (Fazenda, 2002).
It provides people with their own way of perceiving their world, own habits and state of thinking. Finally, art is a concept that defines the culture, traditions and values of a given society or group of people within a given society.
What is music?
Although a specific definition of music does not exist, it is agreed that music itself is a form of art that involves arrangement of tones in an orderly manner or sequence in order to achieve a continuous or unified composition of tones, which conveys some meaning.
However, music conveys different meanings depending on differences between groups of people. Music has the following characteristics – pitch, rhythm, timbre, texture and dynamics. Music is created for the purpose of entertaining, communication and expression.
What is dance?
According to Laban (2006), dance is a part of arts that involves body movements in a rhythmic manner, often following the rhythms of a given piece of music. In fact, dance is a form of expression and communication. Dance in a given culture has the role of providing a means of emotional expression, interaction and connection between the people with their past, their culture, future and their spiritual world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is theatre?
Theatre is a form of arts with an emphasis on performance, where live performers present the information to be conveyed to the viewers. The event presented on the stage might be real or imaginary, but communicates experience through a combination of other forms of arts such as dance, music and narration.
National standards for arts National standards for music
The National Standard for Arts Education has established a set of guidelines for teaching music in elementary schools. First, it emphasizes the singing alone (and with others) as a varied repertoire of music. Secondly, it compels using musical instruments when performing.
Here, it requires that the learners use these instruments individually and in a group as another repertoire of music education. In addition, it requires improvising of variations, melodies and accompaniments. Finally, it requires students to participate actively in reading as well as notating music.
National standards for dance
Dance has seven standards as developed by the national standards for arts. First, it singles out the identification and demonstration of elements and skills of movement while performing. Secondly, it requires the students to understand the principles, processes as well as structures of choreography.
Thirdly, it puts emphasis on teaching the students to appreciate dance as a way of adding meaning to communication. It further emphasizes the application and demonstration of critical as well as creative thinking skills when performing dance. The sixth standard requires establishing the connection between dance and healthy living. Finally, there must be connection between dance and other fields of study.
National standards for Theatre
The first standard puts emphasis on script writing through improvising refined scripts based on imagination, history, literature and heritage. The second standard emphasizes acting by developing and communicating characters that must also be sustained.
Scholarly application of teaching skills in art In teaching visual and performance arts, it is very important to put emphasis on the subject matter.
We will write a custom Essay on Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Example 1: In Arts
According to Campbel (2005), student’s ability to acquire knowledge in music education is dependent on their ability to know the specific subject. The teacher ought to ask himself or herself one major question “what is the connection between the specific task and the content being studied? Here, the teacher must consider the connection between the subject matter and nature (Gelineau, 2004).
Example 2: In Music
According to Ratey (2001), student’s ability to grasp things in class relies on how frequently a given topic is repeated. Rauscher at al (2004) confirms that repetition is critical to teaching music.
Specific academic skill: students will be able to comprehend the topic in folk music “Miss Susie”. They will be able to identify the role of “telephones” and “telephone” operators in their society.
Example 3: In dance
Moreover, Moser and McKay (2005) argue that the students’ ability to develop interest in arts depends on how frequently they take practical sessions. It is crucial to know how the subject area relates to the real life as well as life-long learning. It is important that the students attend art classes and learn well what they are taught there. They need to understand how important such knowledge is in their life and future career.
Specific academic skill: in the dance “Ring Around the Rosie”, the students will learn the impact of death in human lives. They will learn how people in old times cremated their dead ones. Here, they will connect with the idea of life and death.
Example 4: In theatre
In theatre arts, the audience is an important factor. According to Moser and McKay (2005), it is critical for the students to learn how to determine the type and nature of the audience in order for the performance to be successful.
The main purpose of performing is to ensure the message is communicated to the audience. As such, the students must understand the audience in front of them and learn to attract and hold the attention of the audience.
Specific learning skills: In the children Theatre “”Little Red Riding Hood”, the students will be able to learn the need to be cautious when dealing with strangers. They will be able to identify the “good” the “ill” of the society. By acting the theatre, the students will be able to connect their emotions, actions and body signs with the imaginary tale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Arts Education: Music, Dance and Theatre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Campbell, P. S. (2005). Teaching Music Globally. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Fazenda, M. J. (2002). Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano.
Gelineau, R. P. (2004). Integrating the arts across the elementary school curriculum. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Laban, R. V. (2006). The language of movement: a guidebook to choreutics. Boston: Plays.
Corporate Social Responsibility Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Recycling resources and environmental conservation
Introduction Environmental conservation is the new trend that organizations are taking as their corporate social responsibility. Corporate social responsibility is a method which organizations use to be self regulating to prevent the firm from adversely affecting the environment or the society which they are operating. It ensures that the firm obeys the law, maintains ethical standards and has a positive impact on the society. Many multinational firms have taken up this to ensure that their activities do not harm the environment (Harding, 2012).
Panasonic is the firm I will focus on because of its many initiatives in maintaining the environment. Panasonic is a leading producer of electronic devices around the world having begun its operations in 1918. The firm has branches around the world producing electrical appliances and semiconductors.
Panasonic is placed fifth in terms of production of its electronics. It is ranked ninth in terms of environmental conservation among its rivals around the world. This ranking was done by Green peace guide to greener electronics organization. This is a ranking of electronic manufacturers who have policies and practices that are aimed at reducing impact on climate. It shows the firms which produce green products that make their operations sustainable to the environment.
Panasonic is one of the firms that produce green products. These products have a good life cycle and have a reduced quantity of polyvinyl chloride plastic in them. Its products especially TVs are energy efficient and consume lower than the level of energy conservation needed (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
In their plan to reduce the green house effects of the manufacture of its products Panasonic has come up with various initiatives. These initiatives are presented as corporate social responsibilities by the firm. Panasonic has developed an environmental strategy that will see it achieve the goals it.
The strategies cover ways to reduce Carbon dioxide emissions, recycling resources and proper manufacturing processes. The main policy is recycling oriented manufacturing. This has an impact of making a lasting effect on the environment and is in line with the laws that were developed in the world forums on environment. Many competitors also implement policies that are environmental friendly (Harding, 2012).
Recycling resources and environmental conservation The firm has ensured production of products that have zero emission levels. These products have an efficient energy performance. These two factors reduce the energy consumed. The firm ensures that there is energy recreation and storage. The products being developed are eco-conscious and offer all ways of conserving energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One strategy that Panasonic has adopted is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions both in its products and when manufacturing the products. This is in line with the world set standard of reducing green house gasses emissions by 50% by the year 2050. This strategy has been set for attainment by 2018. Panasonic will have been able to reduce emission of green house gasses in its manufacturing activities and in the use of its products.
The main way that the firm has adopted is to recycle the resources. Recycling ensures reduction in dumping of electronic waste in many countries. There is increased exploitation of resources around the world in the many manufacturing branches of the firm. The increased exploitation deteriorates the environment. When getting the resources there is a lot of emission of green house gasses.
The aim by Panasonic is to reduce the exploitation by recycling the existing resources. The exploitation of minerals and natural resources will lead to depletion of the resources on the earth. Panasonic began an initiative to recycle these resources to prevent depletion. The firm benefits from the initiatives by reducing costs of materials (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
The strategy is to develop a Recycling oriented manufacturing concept. Under this strategy Panasonic has managed to minimize the amount of resources used and maximize the recycled resources. This is also in line with the zero waste emissions policy that Panasonic has adopted. The firm has been making the products smaller in order to reduce the amount of resources used.
The firm has also adopted the use of modern technologies in order to collect more materials to recycle and effectively use these recycled materials. They have reduced the amount of wastes at the factories by recycling. The waste sent to damps is reduced to almost zero due to this. The firm also offers the recycled materials to the members of the society who engage in manufacture of products that can use these resources.
The main aim of the recycling oriented manufacturing is to ensure reduction of total resources used and promote recycling. The firm recycles iron and other metals, plastic, papers, cardboards and wooden materials. The firm has put measures in place to ensure that their system is effective. They have control mechanisms that establish how effective the recycling and resource reduction process is.
In the year 2012 the firm developed a full factory that manufactures all it products firm recycled parts. The entire Panasonic manufacturing entity is set to make a transition to full recycled resource use. This will help Panasonic attain its zero waste emission policy in line with the global standards (Kun-min Zhango 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Panasonic has taken an initiative to ensure the spread of environmental conservation activities by the stakeholders. This is an initiative that has seen the firm participate in activities that educate the stakeholders on environmental conservation. They educate the stakeholders on their activities that they are doing to conserve the environment in an easy manner.
The main stakeholders who they collaborate with are the suppliers in the supply chain. Panasonic urges its suppliers to provide materials that are environmental friendly. Panasonic also partners with its consumers to ensure they use the products and promote a green environment by using the products efficiently (Cengel
Impacts on Liquidity Essay a level english language essay help
Liquidity is defined in simple terms as the monetary supply in the financial market in a specific period of time. The manipulation of open market operations affects the level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). It is not advisable to ignore the kind of impact of open-market operations on the level of liquidity.
It is not easy to determine the most suitable level of liquidity required by financial markets without careful analysis. It is necessary for a financial market to have some level of liquidity because lack of it leads to severe economic consequences (Hubbard, 2008).
A financial market without liquidity will definitely experience less market transactions and high interest rates which are not good for economic growth. A financial market with an excessive amount of liquidity is bound to experience high inflation rates (Graham, 2001).
The size of a budget deficit affects the level of liquidity in the financial market The falling over of the Federal government budget deficit weakens the argument that there is too much liquidity in the financial market (Graham, 2001). The economic growth of a country depends on its level of deficit spending. The Federal government budget deficit fall means that deficit spending goes down.
The level of liquidity in the financial market can only rise with an increase in deficit spending. Deficit spending is therefore very critical in an economic recession (Graham, 2001). The level of liquidity in the financial market entirely depends on the Federal government budget deficit. A large budget deficit means that most of the government spending will depend on borrowed money in order to cover the deficit.
This normally leads to a high level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). A very small budget deficit means that the level of deficit spending goes down. Deficit spending leads to economic growth because the borrowed money is used to increase production and at the same time create employment opportunities.
The Federal government can decide to pump money into the economy as a way of covering its budget deficit (Hubbard, 2008). This increases the level of liquidity in the financial market and promotes economic growth. The falling over of the Federal government budget deficit means that the national income and consumption goes down.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The level of national income and consumption reflects the level of liquidity in the financial market (Hubbard, 2008). A decline in deficit spending leads to lack of liquidity in the financial market. All forms of deficit financing increases the level of monetary supply with a possible risk of inflation. A fall in the budget deficit means that the Federal government will rely on income from taxes to finance its operations.
A fall in the Federal government budget deficit leads to an increase in currency demand which in turn drains liquidity (Hubbard, 2008). Financial institutions such as banks are normally forced to demand for their reserves from the central bank due to lack of liquidity in the financial market.
The credit potential of banks is normally reduced by the demand for excess reserves. Budget deficit spending enables the public to be in a better position to save money and in the process reduce currency demand (Hubbard, 2008). The level of liquidity goes down with an increase in currency demand.
A lower budget deficit reduces government spending on infrastructure and other social services hence making it impossible for the financial market to have enough liquidity (Graham, 2001). The Federal government can decide to reduce its spending in order to have a low budget deficit but this affects economic growth.
A low budget deficit may seem good in the initial stages but it affects the monetary supply in the financial market. There is no way that the level of liquidity in the financial market can increase with a falling budget deficit (Graham, 2001). The main argument is that a falling Federal government budget deficit is not good for the economy.
An economy that is doing well depends on deficit spending. Deficit spending stimulates economic growth through tax cuts and creation of employment opportunities (Graham, 2001). The Federal government can have the incentive to overspend in an economic recession because of a reasonable budget deficit. The need to have enough liquidity in the financial market is the reason why the U.S government has been overspending.
In conclusion, a falling Federal government budget deficit does not in any way increase the level of liquidity in the financial market. Deficit spending ensures that there is enough monetary supply and in the process stimulates economic growth (Hubbard, 2008). A budget deficit that is falling over tends to restrict government spending.
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts on Liquidity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The resulting effect of a low budget deficit is an increase in currency demand due to lack of liquidity. A falling budget deficit leads to high interest rates and less financial transaction (Hubbard, 2008). The two effects of a low budget deficit are responsible for the low liquidity level in the financial market. Federal governments overspend intentionally for economic sustainability (Hubbard, 2008). There is a very strong correlation between budget deficits and the level of liquidity in a financial market.
References Graham, J. (2001). Firm value and optimal levels of liquidity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hubbard, R.G. (2008). Money, the financial system, and the economy (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley.
Cross-Cultural Management Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Cross- cultural management is a vital skill which all managers need for them to be effective in their duties. A manager who has cross-cultural skills is able to work in a variety of workplace settings without any problems. Attachments which people have to their cultural backgrounds influence the way they interact with one another.
Organizations which have embraced multi-culturalism are willing to transact business with customers from different cultural backgrounds. Managers need to be aware of underlying cultural values which influence the way employees perform duties assigned to them.
A manager who understands diverse cultural backgrounds of his employees is likely to relate with them better than a manager who does not. This report will show the role of culture in an organization and how cross cultural managers need to adapt to different work environments to achieve good results (Young).
Young reveals that cross- cultural skills help expatriates to fit in foreign environments where they have been hired to work easily. It is necessary for managers and other senior workers who work in foreign work stations to familiarize themselves with cultural values and attitudes which are dominant in their new work locations.
This knowledge helps managers improve their communication skills to help them interact well with other people there. Managers who are contracted to work in foreign work stations need to be willing to learn new ideas and attitudes which will help them adapt to their new locations.
They also need to learn cultural norms and ways of life which are practiced in those locations. Managers need to have a foresight on challenges which they will encounter while working with people in their new work stations who come from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
Managers need to nurture their soft skills to be effective in cross-cultural work settings. They need to improve their communication skills and learn proper social etiquette for them to be effective in their new roles. It is necessary for managers willing to serve as expatriates in other countries to improve their language skills to enable them interact well with other people in their new organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, managers who intend to work in Brazil need to improve their knowledge in Portuguese which is the country’s official language. A manager who does not understand the language commonly spoken in his new work location may not be able to perform his duties effectively. This is because he may not be able to articulate himself to his subordinates effectively. Young reveals that managers need to learn how to display courtesy and humility through their actions as this will help them break cultural and language barriers easily.
Business managers need to learn meanings of commonly used non-verbal signs to understand how people in their new work locations react to different issues. The ability to understand different signs commonly used in a foreign work station helps a manager to understand people’s emotional reactions to different issues..
Some signs and gestures send different signals and messages in different locations. In some countries, hugging is frowned upon because their cultures do not condone unnecessary body contact.
For instance, in several countries in the Middle East, handshakes between men and women are frowned upon yet in other parts of the world, this is considered as a normal way of greeting (Young). It is important for expatriates to understand modes of interaction in societies where they will be working for them to have proper knowledge on how to conduct themselves.
Managers need to take time to reflect on their own cultural backgrounds and how they affect their personalities and behavior. This will help expatriates to understand themselves and what they need to do to adapt to a different cultural environment. Managers who are globally exposed understand management systems used in different countries and regions.
It is important for managers who seek to be competent in their duties to learn how to interact with employees at the workplace. This will help them to come up with an effective approach to make employees serving under them perform their duties diligently to obtain positive results.
For instance, in China, business leaders are more authoritarian compared to Germany where managers consult their subordinates before they make important decisions. A manager who is used to the ‘German’ way of doing things needs to adapt quickly to the new corporate environment in China, if he gets transferred there (Young).
We will write a custom Report on Cross-Cultural Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary for professionals that seek to make an impact globally to be flexible in the manner they approach work tasks. They should be ready to adapt to different workplace practices in their new work locations. They need to take time to understand commonly used business styles and how they are applied for them to make positive impacts in their new locations.
Likewise, managers who seek to improve their cross cultural skills need to learn about dominant social systems in their new locations and their relevance to communities which live there (Young). There are different social functions which are deeply revered in different countries which managers need to be aware about. This will help such managers to understand their employees and clients well enough so as to satisfy their expectations effectively (Young).
Effective cross-cultural skills help managers to manage diverse teams of employees more effectively. Managers must not try to introduce new concepts without taking time to understand how they will be implemented. They need to understand the cultural contexts their organizations operate in and how change management approaches are used.
A manager who fails to understand these situations will face resistance from employees in lower levels of the organization who have worked there for a longer period. Some managers undergo various stages of “culture shock” when they are deployed to work in foreign locations.
Such managers may find it difficult to adapt to their new locations because they do not understand the organizational behavior of employees in their new places of work (Young). Such managers may make unfavorable comparisons between their foreign work stations to their previous work stations where they were more familiar with the organizational behavior.
Expatriates should not go overboard in an effort to show they are adapting to new cultures in their foreign work locations. They should try and understand the culture first before displaying their affection to it to ensure they are not treated as objects of ridicule. In their quest to fit in, expatriates need to subdue their excitement to acceptable levels, to help them focus on tasks which need to be performed.
Expatriate professionals can be more comfortable in their new work locations if they have an open mind. This will help them to avoid being influenced by personal negative prejudices towards foreign cultures which they are adapting to. They need to be more accommodating to divergent views and opinions shared by employees and other people they work with.
Managers need to have strong conflict resolution skills to help them resolve any disagreements which are likely to occur in their new work locations. Expatriate professionals may be singled out for unfair criticism due to some political, social or economic issues which exist in their countries of origin. They need to understand how to avoid unnecessary conflicts which may have a negative impact on their reputation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross-Cultural Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Managers who try to initiate changes in new organizations where they work may face a lot of resistance from employees which is likely to result in workplace conflicts. It is necessary for managers to be ready to compromise with their employees to ensure crucial work procedures do not stop due to unresolved conflicts (Young).
Young opines that managers who seek to be acquire cross cultural skills need to be adaptable and tolerant. They should accommodate other people’s divergent views, opinions and practices in locations they are going to work. They should not be quick to take offense when derogatory remarks are made by clients and other people during important business undertakings.
Managers who are not able to control their temper are likely to face difficulties when working in a foreign business environment. Young advises managers to be more patient and understanding so as to excel in their new work stations. Expatriates need to change the way they think about certain issues to enable them adapt easily to their foreign work stations. They need to strengthen their multi-cultural skills for them to be competitive in different global work environments.
Works Cited Young, Rudolph. “Cross-Cultural Skills: Essential for Expatriate Success.” The Chronicle of Higher Learning, 23 Aug. 2011. Web.
Technology and Its Future Development Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The development of technology has drastically changed the world. It is a good thing because it will help develop mechanisms and further advancements to help humanity on individual and social levels.
The article “Singularity” talks about a great rate of development in technology and that it might lead to technology becoming self efficient. This is a possibility out of fiction movies such as “Blade Runner” and “Gattaca” and literary works like “Frankenstein”.
The article specifies that the development of atom size technology will advance self evolution of intelligence of machine and eventually, it will become superior to humans and overtake the world. It is clear that technology is starting to become smaller but it is to the benefit of people and with careful control will not evolve into a great evil.
The movie “Blade Runner” illustrates a future where people gained an ability to create clones which are used for work on planets other than Earth. Eventually, these half-humans half-machines start a war against people. This sort of scenario seems very unlikely because modern people would be able to control the conditions of evolution.
They would notice that machines have the potential to self-evolve and get out of control, and actions would be taken to prevent this. Another movie “Gattaca”, tells a story of DNA modification and discrimination where people are outcast due to their genes and biological make-up.
This sort of technology is slowly developing where scientists are able to do experiments with DNA but discriminating people due to their genetics is highly improbable. There are laws today that are becoming world-wide which prevent any type of discrimination, especially if it is in-born. A story of “Frankenstein” is another example of a futuristic case, where a person is created in a laboratory.
The story uses a semi-scientific method in the creation and coming alive of a “person” but he is attributed human qualities and a life where the development according to society is illustrated. This can somewhat be aligned with technology helping people who are extremely ill. A technology like that would also be beneficial, even though making someone come back to life has little chance of happening.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Futuristic movies and short stories portray a grim future where machines take over humanity and people have to fight their own creations. People are the ones that give these mechanisms an idea, which is manifested through their ability to function. Of course, there is always a possibility of a malfunction in the mechanism, as can sometimes be observed today.
Computer viruses and system breakdowns are very common and this is an example of the detrimental factors of technology. People must take into account all outcomes, as well as machines gaining their own “understanding” and functioning. The article makes it clear how technology can be used for the benefit of humanity. “Biorobotic” limbs can find very useful application in the population.
Cell technologies can reach great potential in preventing the spread and outbreak of diseases. Nanotechnology can allow for smaller devices to be used both mechanically and biologically. The fact that technology is becoming smaller increases the ways it can be implemented into people’s lives.
Technology and its advancement have seen a great jump forward in the last years but it does not mean that it will be the catalyst in destroying humanity. With careful usage and controlled environment it will serve for the benefit of people for years to come.
Is Social Media A Useful Tool For Brand Promotion? Research Paper college admissions essay help
Background and need of study The time is going through the era of the Information Technology that changed the regular lives of humankind as well as business by the way of free flow of information and communication and provided the opportunity of e-commerce for the business communities where social media is a powerful tool for brand promotion.
Odhiambo (2012) pointed out that social media is more effective than the other traditional advertising media, but it would not put into practice as an isolated scheme devoid of enhanced alignment with traditional advertising media; the repercussion of the social media would not able to generate brand awareness as well as business development without integration with the existing media.
The social medias are the new experience to connect people from all over the world through online presence, it turned into a charismatic feature of the marketing mix by modernising the technique of the companies to interact with their customers, rather than traditional media of advertising the companies are significantly turning to the social media.
Under the concurrent recessionary economy almost every business look for cost effective solution for their brand promotion and marketing mix, social media is the approach that facilitated the business communities to promote brand loyalty, thus it is emergence to conduct a research to investigate the social media and its application for brand promotion.
Aims and objectives In the modern corporate world, integration of social media has turned as the most significant feature of marketing mix in order to transform the technique companies adopt to connect with customers, which is a new area of research where the literature of brand promotion striving to adjust in a most scientific method.
The traditional marketing literature required to having enough scientific evidence and data to attain a perfect fit with the social media that is still in scarcity, on the other hand the existing research with lack of sufficient industry data hinders the emergence of recognising the social media as a right alternative to the mainstream advertising media.
Thus, the objective of this study is to present social media and its greater significance for brand promotion supported by enough literature along with most favourable industry data found from the real life practice of different companies presented in the case study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the social capital mostly consigns the resources gathering by the way of utilising relationships among the individuals where social media contributes a platform to build strong association through the network of large members of that media in order to ensure right use of social capital.
At the same time, the wider application of the Internet has provided ‘vaunted ubiquitous connectivity’ to connect each other whether it expected or unexpected by the user, the unexpected information are identified as sperm that negatively influence the people where social media could generate a stopple for sperms (Wellman, Haase and Hampton 2002).
In this context, the aim of this study is to identify the contribution of social media how brand promotion could fit its customers to overcome the hindrance of sperm assigning ‘like’ or ‘follow’ in the social media pages.
Hassan and Bashir (2012) mentioned that largest social media Facebook has 500 million of active users with 100 billion clicks per day, while other social media platforms have almost bulky user’s data that provide large engagement of people, the business always put its attention where people gather, so it’s right place for marketers to keep marketing efforts and brand promotion.
The recent economic downturn and its consequential recessionary economy has generated continuous pressure on the corporate world to adopt cost cutting strategy in order to sustain with crisis, thus, another vital objective of this study is to examine how social media could assist to reduce investment for brand promotion.
Brown (2010) added that to reduce business risk of the traditional media, most of the companies are designing social media strategies pointing to the growing sales, the shifting attributes of customers illustrate that they are changing their TV channel while the corporate advertisement starts, it occurs due to lack of understanding the diverse customers attitude.
In case of social media, there are huge applicable tools to address each individual customer’s liking choice and queries, this study also aimed to provide a well understanding with the associated tools of social media those have great contribution to generate a communication and marketing strategy by the way of brand promotion.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Social Media A Useful Tool For Brand Promotion? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Defining social media The history social media can be traced back from 1980, such as first dial-up BBC stared to develop from the very beginning of its operation (Hershey 2010, p.5; and Morrison
“Shrek” as a Popular Broadway Show Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The musicals have been around for a long time and “Shrek” has become a popular Broadway show. But an important aspect of a musical is to stay real and make the audience feel the special atmosphere.
The musical “Shrek” is very much different from the animated films and the difference is not a positive one. Shrek wears a costume that is somewhat disproportional. The body seems extremely large, compared to the head and the head itself has a strange form. Also, the general behavior and movement is very unnatural.
The walk does not simulate the way an ogre walks. It is known that the actor is really a person but it is possible to get into the character more and make it animal like and unfamiliar. The way lines are said and words enunciated, does not represent the comical and sarcastic nature of the ogre.
The character is unnatural due to the way he looks and behaves. Donkey is very much unlike the one people are used to seeing in the film. It is obvious that the person playing donkey tries very hard to be like Eddie Murphy but this is a mistake. The lines seem forced and the actor gets lost, trying to parody another person. This can only be done sarcastically, for comic affect, which would be pointless in a musical.
Also, it seems a major let down that he walks on his back legs, instead like a real donkey. It is understandable that it would be difficult for an actor to accomplish this but it must be as much as the original performance of characters. The dance moves are jagged and separate the character from Donkey even more.
Princess Fiona looks like the original one but the charm and atmosphere is not present. In the film, even when the princess turned into an ogre, there was femininity and pleasantness about her. In the musical, the actress does not look relaxed and does not seem to “believe” that she is Princess Fiona.
The actor must become one with their character, so that the audience believes the performance. When the setting of the stage changes and the dancers come out, their dancing technique is well performed but their faces look very firm. The smiles do not look natural and so, the dance looks like a well practiced stepping routine, instead of a happy celebration. When Prince Charming appears on stage, it is somewhat unexpected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The scene is not made to lead into his entrance. His costume is very original but the movements are not smooth. The audience understands that the actor stands on his knees but the effect would be more comical if he was crouching down. He would be freer in his movements and so, the dancing and walking around would be more real. The singing part also needs work.
When he ends with a high pitched sound it is humorous but the majority of signing is loud and should be made less intense. The stage does not transfer over the atmosphere of a castle or a “magical land”. There need to be more decorations and details. Trees, grass and better scenery in a form of drapes or decorations would add to the effect, creating depth and distance. Musicals based on animated films would be acceptable for children but adults are more demanding, expecting a well thought out performance and actor’s play.
“Restoration Comedy” – English Play of 17-18th Centuries Essay college essay help online
This play is a comedy that seeks to show the author’s opposition to susceptibility of women in the Restoration society. This play seeks to show how the female characters play prominent roles. Further, it portrays them as strong and independent.
The play extensively focuses on three women Hellena, Florinda, and Angelica. The fates of nunnery, marriage, and well-paid prostitution bind these women respectively. Further, this play shows how the women’s determination and strong will help them escape from their fates (Sneider and Douglas 7).
This play outlines the standard treatment of women by men. It emphasizes that men treat women according to the way the women behave. If a woman has character and position, she commands dignity and respect from men. Conversely, if a woman lacks character men treat her with less respect and dignity.
This play portrays Hellana as a quality woman masquerading as a courtesan and Florinda as a philanderer who only stops this behavior when Belvile falls in love with her. The sisters, Hellena and Florinda discuss on how to explore their love. Hellena the younger sister wants to discover love before her brother Don Pedro sends her off to the convent.
On the other hand, Florinda the elder sister wants to marry the man she loves rather than the man her brother and father choose. The two women decide to explore their independence. The women want to do this before their planned futures choke their independence.
The two decide to go to a carnival dressed as gypsies where they meet three English nobles, Belvile, Blunt, Fredrick, and a sailor, Willmore. The sisters change the men’s choices using their disguises. In addition, the play focuses on Angelica a Courtesan new in Naples who is also at the carnival. Different men pursue Angelica for courtesan services, but Angelica chooses Willmore (Behn and Russell 10).
Encounters at the carnival trigger conflicts between the men prompting them to engage in fights over the women. At the end, women are free from their fates. Willmore agrees to marry Hellena and the two get Don Pedro’s approval for the marriage. Florinda marries the man of her choice, Belvile while Angelica sets Willmore free and leaves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second scene of the second act takes place in Angelica’s bedchambers. Willmore removes angelica’s Portrait from the wall. Angellica wants to know why He had removed the portrait. Willmore argues out that the portrait was there to tempt him and justifies why he had to take it down. In spite of Willmore awareness of Angelica’s high price, he tries to convince her to sleep with him free.
He says that he will join forces and finances with the other merchants to gain time with angelica. Willmore says that he repulses the idea of individuals’ selling their bodies. In addition, he says that his passion for Angelica’s divine powers allows him to pay for the services. Angelica ignores Morettas advice not to listen to Willmore. Angelica agrees to Willmore’s demands claiming she has fallen in love with him.
This scene is significant to this play in theme development. It contains many aspects that help to create themes for the entire play. Themes that come include prostitution, courtship, love, exploitation, among other themes.
The author brings out the theme of prostitution in this scene. Willmore points out that he repulses the idea of Angelica selling her body. In addition, he goes one to show his commitment in joining forces with other merchants so he can afford to enjoy time with Angelica.
Evidently, the theme of love and courtship come out in this scene. Angelica agrees to Willmore’s demand of sleeping with him for free claiming she has fallen in love with him. Willmore shows intentions of courtship when he says that he wants to have Angelica forever.
In addition, the author develops the theme of exploitation in this play. Willmore brings this out when he tries to exploit Angelica. Despite of him knowing that Angelica is a courtesan, he wants Angelica to offer him free services.
The author brings out the role of each character well. He portrays Angelica as a woman who is independent and strong. Angelica plays the prominent role of being a courtesan. Despite of this, she goes on to show her independence by doing as she pleases. She agrees to sleep with Willmore for free as she is in love with him. Further, the author portrays Willmore as a man who exploits women as he does with angelica.
We will write a custom Essay on “Restoration Comedy” – English Play of 17-18th Centuries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, this scene helps the author to develop the main plot of this play. She brings out the female characters as strong and independent and gives them prominent roles. Further, the author shows the society their actions and the extent to which those actions put women in compromising situations forcing them to disregard the society rules.
This leads women to lose status and position. The author’s view on position of women shows double standard of liberation in both public and legal spheres. The author manages to influence viewers to evaluate women’s roles in this new age by mocking and exposing constraints imposed on women in the restoration society.
Works Cited Behn, Aphra and Anne Russell. The Rover, 2nd ed. Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. Print.
Sneider, Maja-Lisan and Douglas Canfield. The Broadview Anthology of Restoration and Early Eighteenth-Century Drama. Ontario: Broadview Press, 2001. Print.