Disarmament And Development: International Measures

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development created by the United Nations (UN) Member States highlights the importance of world community development through achieving prosperity and peace. Moreover, development requires overcoming poverty and inequality and preserving the environment. Conflicts, terrorism, and other threats associated with arms build-up are obstacles to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) globally. Following the Global Peace Index, in 2022, the peacefulness level fell to its lowest position in 15 years, the number of countries experiencing violent conflicts rose to 38, and the number of displaced people – to 88 million. With a current poverty rate of 8.6% within the global population, conflict in Ukraine may cause additional 75-95 million people to live in circumstances of extreme poverty. Disarmament involves the reduction or elimination of weapons of various types. This measure is required to reduce the threat to people over the world and ensure favorable circumstances for development. Reallocating 10% of global armament spending could contribute to significant progress toward the SDGs. Failure in disarmament prevents SDG 1. No poverty, SDG 2. Good health and well-being, SDG 8. Decent work and economic growth, SDG 13. Climate action, and SDG 16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions.

Internationally, the Security Council and General Assembly follow UN Charter in maintaining and achieving peace and addressing disarmament issues. These bodies, as well as The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), are engaged in promoting disarmament and supporting relevant bodies. Documents such as the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) are aimed at reducing the number of weapons of mass destruction of various types, their non-proliferation and the prohibition of tests. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) imposes bans and restrictions on applying conventional weapons. At the regional level, weapons use issues are regulated by Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). The European Union (EU) also seeks to support disarmament measures through technical and financial assistance as well as diplomatic efforts. The EU promotes the policy of “disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants (DDR),” which aims to build peace and encourage sustainable development. At the national level, the Italian Republic supports sustainable development efforts and has made progress towards several goals. In 2020, Italy adopted the National Action Plan (NAP), which encourages equal involvement of youth and women in peace issues, including disarmament. The country also has an Italian Peace and Disarmament Network supporting efforts to disarmament and promote non-violent defense.

To support disarmament efforts and commitment to SDGs, the Italian Republic offers the advocacy of multilateral measures. Actions include drawing attention to existing international treaties and resolutions and encouraging the fulfillment of obligations taken by contracting parties. Italy also proposes promoting standards and guides to involve youth and women in politics to consider more perspective on the existing problems and support equity. As future leaders, the younger generation has significant potential and opportunities to contribute to the peaceful resolution of conflicts, accelerate disarmament, and support sustainable development in the future. Recommendations and guidelines for the scientific development of countries are also needed to direct their resources to innovation, environmental protection, and overcoming social problems, instead of sponsoring weapons. It is also essential to inform the population about the identified disarmament and sustainable development issues since this measure is critical for involving more people in their solution.


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