Diffusion Of Water As The Important Factor In The Development Egypt And In United States Essay Best College Essay Help

1. The United States has been a country that was and is rapidly developing. There are several reasons for this. In the early days of the United States an important art in the development of the nation was Mississippi river. It provided a transportation avenue for companies and help united the people and America by keeping close communication through the river. It was also used by local farms for watering, as well as the land was extremely fertile.

The second reason how the United States became a rich country is its natural resources. The northern part of the US is an example of a highly industrialized area. Overall, oil production and coal mining are very important and it has proven beneficial for the United States in becoming one of the superpowers in the world.

2. Just as in the United Sates, water was one of the most important factors in the development of civilization in Egypt. The Nile was instrumental for settlements and cities to flourish and the proof of that is the distribution of the population and many peoples along the river valley.

Historically, it has changed its fullness and sometimes, course but nonetheless, remained a key resource for people in their survival and prosperity. Because there were also deposits of silt, this fact made the land that was close to the river very fertile which allowed for agricultural development and farming.

The Nile is known for its overflowing characteristics, as it happens annually. This occurrence deposited silt onto the close by land and led to fertilization. People were not the only ones in need of water, as domesticated animals were vital in the development of civilization. Their meat was used for trading and in order for animals to grow healthy they had to have abundant water. The Nile was also a method of transportation which gave rise to communication with other people and greatly increased trade.

3. The Egyptian culture and life had very much influenced Greece and its people. Previously, it was thought that there was no connection between the two and Egyptians never traveled to the area of Greece. Recently, it has been confirmed that they did and there is also evidence that many thinkers of Greece had their education in Egypt and were much affected by the culture.

It has been greatly argued that the historians have somewhat changed the recorded writings to make it seem that Greeks were the starters of philosophy and the higher teachings and beliefs. The modern researches propose that Egyptians had the higher knowledge and Greeks came to be taught by the thinkers of Egypt. One of the most known philosophers, Plato, has given rise to a belief that there is an afterlife and that people and animals were on a passage to another world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But the source for this sort of belief came from Egyptians who were practicing their beliefs in regards to death being a passage. Even certain names of cities and Gods in Greece came form the basis of the names of Egyptians. It is interesting that the connection between the two served as a form of separation, as different people and cultures clashed in their own race towards truth, history and traditions. In reality, the people of Egypt and Greece are very close and some even believe that they have same origins (Freeman, 2004).

Reference Freeman, C. (2004). Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

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Prison Term Policy Recommendation Proposal essay help free

Abstract The aim of this paper is to give legislators recommendation for the new bill that seeks to increase the term by double for criminals sentenced for armed robbery. Despite the state legislature argument that the bill is popular the prime question should be will the bill act as a deterrent to armed robberies? It is hard to conclude on the right recommendation in a society that believes on the adage that ‘’do the crime, do the time’’.

The effectiveness of the bill if it passes into law is hard to define if it will deter crime to offenders and potential offenders. Robbery is a crime of stealing by use of threats or force. It is also referred to as larceny. Where the offender uses a weapon inflicting injury on the victim the offender is charged as armed robbery or aggravated robbery (Schmalleger, 2012).

Armed robbery is rampant in the United States hence becoming a major concern for the society, legislature, and criminal justice system. Armed robbery is punished as a capital offense; however, sentencing is depended on several variables such as state laws and procedures, past crime record, if state has diversion program or even if there are any sentencing improvements.

This bill should seek to address crime reduction is the United States and not just a bill to deter crime. The bill will get to root cause of crime and project where crime is headed today in the United States of America. Research might bring secondary solutions that might help curb the situation and have outcomes that are more successful (Schmalleger, 2012).

In many states, the out practice has discouraged habitual crime but in others, it has had no effect. For instance, in Lincoln, Nebraska there are several inmates with more than five hundred arrests. In other states, habitual criminals spend years in prison only to get out and commit yet another crime ending up in prison again.

Although there is no warranty that this bill once passed into law will deter crime however, there are recommendations that once implemented can be of use to both society and criminals.

A strict code of conduct should be set for the convicted and those who follow and demonstrate ability to live by it once but there can be released. These procedures include behaviour modification, vocation training and education, counseling, work experience, proper nutrition and exercise. These procedures will ensure that convicts are rehabilitated rather than being incarcerated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rehabilitation methods to be proposed in this bill include behaviour modification, training, education and vocation, work experience and proper nutrition and exercise. In some places where rehabilitation has been implemented it had failed due to lack of cogent method of implementation.

Presently, many prisoners just eat, watch TV, lift weights, and do little work. Many spent their time in the cold cells. The question that remains in many people’s minds what is the fete of those who will eventually be released. What is the recidivism rate of the prisoners if convicted? This bill should address these major goals (Schmalleger, 2012).

To many citizens and members of the state legislature, the bill should pass the clean bill of health. In the society, robbery criminals should perish in prison cells without light of the day. However, the prime goal of every judicial system and prison system is to correct and rehabilitate the convicts into good citizens so that once they are out they can serve their country patriotically. The theory and adage that do crime more time is retrogressive and time barred.

The disparity in judicial sentencing in the judicial system. This disparity is variations and equities resulting when convicted of same crime are given different sentences whether in the same State or in a different state (Schmalleger, 2012).

This disparity is unfair. There should be equal sentence for same crime. The judicial system should thus create a scorecard that is to be used when delivering sentences. This score should cut across all states and all judges. In this respect, I would wish the bill to accommodate the recommendation that all crimes receive same punishment.

Probation is allows an offender to get another chance. It can be given in addition to the normal jail term. It allows an offender to join his community with supervision from his/her probation officer. The probation officer sets the terms such as classes, curfews, and monitoring.

This is a well thought out recommendation, as it is not every offender is a repeat offender (Schmalleger, 2012). We cannot lay a blanket judgement that all are capable of doing a repeat offense that is what this bill seeks to achieve. Where a first time offender gets double maximum prison term by just committing their first crime, this will seem like the system doesn’t want them o prove themselves. This is not a good point on part of the offender.

We will write a custom Proposal on Prison Term Policy Recommendation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parole is a recommendation where an offender sentenced to jail has the ability to get another chance of redeeming himself. It involves amnesty to those who have displayed good habits and frequently reports to the authority (Schmalleger, 2012).This recommendation will help in cutting down tax payers money spend on offenders besides giving offenders room for reformation and correction to patriotic citizens. In this regard, the bill should not pass the clean bill of health on the floor of the house.

Reference Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminology today: An integrative introduction. (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

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Biological Criminal Behaviour Essay best essay help: best essay help

Over the years, crime rate has been on the rise. The increase in crime rate has resulted in criminal behaviours becoming one of the world’s biggest challenges. Most governments have invested heavily in measures to combat crime, but at times, the investments resulted in no effect or have had little effect.

The failed efforts have prompted research about the root causes of criminal behaviours in hominids. The outcomes of the analytic studies have attributed criminal actions to genetics, psychology, and environmental factors.A child brought up in an environment with high crime cases may have his or her morals corrupted. Children living in a drug-infested zone tend to engage in drugs-related criminal actions because of peer influence (Alper, 1995).

The biological composition of an individual is also one of the major determinants of a person’s behaviour. In some families, the insanity has been identified to be hereditary and the genes causing insanity transfer along a family line. Some people also tend to be naturally antisocial so their intended thoughts or actions may be camouflaged. This poses a serious threat as they at times end up committing a crime without an indication (Alper, 1995).

In various cases, insanity has been used as a defence against criminal actions. This has also led to the intervention of psychiatrists, to determine the mental condition of criminals. In various federal states, the law postulates the mental status of a criminal or offender to be a cogitated factor in determining criminal responsibility. An example of such a law is the Anglo–American law, which avers that a lunatic cannot be held legally responsible for a crime committed while in an unstable mental state (Huckabee, 2000).

Initially, the insane plea laws had been lenient as the defendant just required to prove beyond doubt that at the time of the crime, he or she remained insane. Over time, the various standards and laws set to determine the sanity of an individual have been determined to have a loophole that has enabled criminals to go unpunished. This has cost many families their loved ones besides even the United States of America losing key leaders (Huckabee, 2000).

In a case study about the death of President Reagan, Hicnkley was acquitted of the shooting. This led to condemnation from the public, prompting a revision of the insanity plea edict to avoid criminals from avoiding punishment. The revisions of the law helped reduce criminal impunity.

Furthermore, the revision catered for the rights of those who killed unwillingly or because of insanity. A psychological disorder affecting John may have prompted him to shoot Reagan and the other officials. John later claimed to have done it as a way of expressing affection for Foster (Huckabee, 2000).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States of America government in combating these crimes introduced laws where one could be declared guilty but mentally ill thus have to receive mental treatment through institutionalisation. After institutionalisation, offenders are taken to a facility that helps them correct behaviour.

On the other hand, if a person is acquitted of insanity, he or she has to be released once it has been determined that he is of no harm to the public. Though factors like the environment and a person’s upbringing contributes to criminality, biological composition stands also as a key factor contributing to criminality. Individuals with genes that predispose them to crime should be treated through ways that discourage the replication of bad genes.

References Alper, J. S. (1995). Biological influences on criminal behaviour: How good is the evidence? British Medical Journal, 310(6975), 272-273.

Huckabee, H. M. (2000). Mental disability issues in the criminal justice system. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas Publishers Ltd.

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The Ways of Greenhouse Gases Reducing Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

List of References

Introduction Global warming is a global problem that has raised a lot of concern. This issue has attracted attention of many researchers with the aim of finding ways of address it. The environment is vital for human survival. Both plants and animals entirely depend on the environment for growth and development.

Casper (2010, p. 94) argues that since the days of industrial revolution, the environment and its resources have greatly been threatened. Industries have been reported to affect the environment at a very high rate. This is because of the high levels of greenhouse gases emitted from these industries. This situation is worsened by the fact that now many nations are developing and there is a rising level of industrialization.

The concentration of greenhouse gases in the environment is increasing on daily basis. Carbon sinks have been cleared with the increase of the high demanding population across nations. Epstein (1990, p. 121) points out that effects of global warming are evident and felt with serious damages to nations. For example, many nations are suffering from frequent floods, droughts, tornadoes, poor and unequal rainfall patterns, and many other effects resulting from global warming.

Among the developed nations, the United States and China lead in emission of the greenhouse gases and hence frequently suffer from the effect of the same. The developing countries are equally emitting high levels of greenhouse gases in their quest to develop. These emissions however produced from different nations have a global impact.

According to Ramseur and Yacobucci (2008, p. 112), the environment as said earlier is very useful for sustaining human life. For people to continue enjoying the environmental resources the environment should therefore be conserved and its resources harvested sustainably. This paper seeks to explore the ways in which greenhouse gases can be reduced to curb global warming.

Discussion With an effort to address global warming, many suggestions and ways have been raised to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gases and avoid global warming are not a one man’s or one nation’s duty. There is need for nations to collaborate.

A participatory approach where every member of the society is involved can be very effective. Many ways can be employed to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. The governments should enact and implement policies that are geared towards reducing emissions of the greenhouse gases. These policies should strictly encourage a Zero emission of greenhouse gases. If an industry has to emit either of the greenhouse gases, a fixed level of emission that is harmless to the environment should be stated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government should ensure that such industries, companies, and businesses report publicly on their carbon emissions. This will make the companies to be extra careful not to emit or exceed the required emission levels. Low- carbon technologies should be encouraged in all sectors to reduce greenhouse gases emission.

This may be achieved by the government offering some donations to its citizens to install low-carbon technologies like use of solar energy. A nation may also apply principles like the polluter pay principle where a company or an individual pays a certain fee for polluting the environment. Industries may be forced to pay equally to the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the environment.

This will help in making the companies and the public to be more responsible and careful in handling their emissions and other wastes. According to Casper (2010, p. 78), Carbon sinks such as forests have been cleared for agricultural purposes to provide for the needs of the daily increasing population.

Nations should create awareness to the public on the need to have small families. The importance of forests should as well be explained to communities. By so doing, these communities will consequently conserve the forests.

This will highly contribute in reducing the concentration levels for greenhouse gases. There is need for nations to encourage companies and people within the communities to practice recycling and re-use of items. Things like polythene bags may be recycled. This reduces the accumulation of such polythene bags into the environment thereby reducing the amount of emissions when they are burnt as wastes in the environment.

According to Ramseur and Yacobucci (2008, p. 78), there are many other ways although not put into consideration by many nations that can help in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases effectively.

These may include holding energy management awards, rewarding companies with zero or less emission, promoting carbon-trading, rewarding communities with well-conserved forests among others. These factors motivates companies and communities to work hard towards ensuring that they do not ,engage in ,activities that in any way leads to the emission of greenhouse gases. All these factors when applied results to a greenhouse gases free nation, thereby curbing global warming and its impacts.

We will write a custom Essay on The Ways of Greenhouse Gases Reducing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The discussion above clearly points out that environment is a source of livelihood for many lives. Reducing greenhouse gases is very important in ensuring that this environment is protected in order to ensure its sustainability. The greenhouse gases have serious negative consequences to the environment. The impact is long lasting and devastating. If not addressed properly, this issue may create a permanent negative impact on the environment.

List of References Casper, J 2010, Greenhouse gases: Worldwide Impacts, Facts on File, New York.

Epstein, J 1990, Controlling the greenhouse effect: Five global regimes compared, Brookings Institution, Washington.

Ramseur, J

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Analysis of Article: “Where is Culture in Cross Cultural Research?” Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Title of the article: Fischer, R. (2009). Where is culture in cross cultural research? An outline of a multilevel research process for measuring culture as a shared meaning system. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9(1), 25-49.

Summary of the article The article entails a comprehensive analysis on how firms’ management teams can measure culture in order to be effective in their cross cultural management practices. The author has achieved this by incorporating various multilevel approaches ( Fischer, 2009). The author has also outlined the various meaning of the word culture.

One of the dimensions that the author has focused on relates to the shared value system. Moreover, the author has outlined a research framework that HR managers can use in the process of measuring and assessing various cross cultural variables. The author has emphasized on the importance of considering culture as a collective construct.

In an effort to illustrate how culture can be measured, the author has integrated two main models which include the equivalence and organizational research models. Additionally, the author has emphasized on the importance HR managers undertaking a comprehensive analysis of culture both at an individual and national level. The author has highlighted the importance of cross cultural differences in enhancing organizational success.

For example, the article has illustrated how culture impacts the behavior and attitude of employees. Barak (2011) asserts that failure to manage cultural differences can hinder organizational sharing which is paramount in firms’ effort to attain the desired level of synergy (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf

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Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background information

Non-physical harm

Physical harm

Objections

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Self-defense abortion is a highly controversial moral issue that is open to different interpretations and definitions. It is unacceptable to Christians and pro-life activists. However, liberals and groups such as politicians and medical practitioners have different interpretations. Acceptance of self-defense abortion can be based on the doctrine of utilitarianism (Boonin 35).

Utilitarianism holds that individuals should make decisions that have beneficial outcomes and that do not promote suffering and pain (Shaw 64). As such, self-defense abortion is acceptable because it promotes the wellbeing of a mother who decides to abort. In addition, it protects the mother from danger and avoids exposing the unborn baby to future pain and suffering.

The practice has been debated for a long time among medical practitioners, religious leaders, law experts, and human rights activists. However, they have not reached a consensus. Self-defense abortion is moral and permissible because it protects mothers from risks of physical and non-physical harm.

Background information Self-defense abortion is performed when conception occurs due to rape or incest, when the health of a mother is in danger, or when a mother is not willing to deliver the baby because of possible emotional or traumatic experiences she might possibly experience after delivery (Boonin 37). According to the utilitarian doctrine, there is no absolute right or wrong. The moral value of an action or act is solely determined by the outcome (Shaw 68).

A proponent of utilitarianism would first consider the question whether abortion would result in favourable outcomes or not. According to the doctrine, abortion is right in case a mother’s life is in danger, the mother is unable to take care of the baby financially or if the baby is malformed (Shaw 71). In addition, it is acceptable in case a baby’s birth would endanger either the physical or the mental well-being of the mother. Abortion is also permissible if birth of a baby would cause conflict among family members.

Non-physical harm Abortion is moral and permissible if a fetus exposes the mother to risk of non-physical harm. Several situations validate acceptance of abortion as a necessary method of preserving the well-being of a mother. These include potential damage to the mother’s mental health, financial prospects, career, or family plans (Davis 177).

If birth of a child interferes with these aspects of a mother’s life, then abortion is permissible. Under these situations, self-defense abortion ignores arguments presented by religious leaders and biologists that a fetus has a right to live because even though small, it is a human being (Davis 178). It is unethical to allow a fetus to develop if a mother’s mental health is in danger.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mother’s health is priority and if birth of the child would affect her health or life quality, then abortion is permissible. Two utilitarian philosophers, Bentham and Stuart Mill, taught that by following the utilitarian doctrine, individuals should yearn for creation or increment of happiness (Shaw 78). Bentham provided a definition of happiness as presence of pleasure and absence of pain.

Emotional, psychological, and mental disturbances are common outcomes of pregnancies from rape or incest. Abortion is permissible in case of rape or incest because a woman would be unable to live with guilt and shame of raising an incestuous child or a child from a rape ordeal (Davis 183).

If a woman was forced to have a child against her will, then she has a right to abort. On the other hand, the woman may not want the child or may not have financial ability to care for the child. Therefore, the baby would suffer because it would lack motherly love and care. Instead of exposing the child to a harsh life without love and care, it is better to abort it.

Physical harm Abortion is also permissible if a fetus puts the mother in physical danger. For example, ectopic pregnancies put the mother’s life in danger of death if the fetus is not removed (Huffman 287). Ectopic pregnancy occurs when conception takes place in other places such as the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.

Medical practitioners usually recommend chemical abortions to women who experience ectopic pregnancies. Research has found out that those women who experience ectopic pregnancies usually die because of health complications that develop during development of the fetus (Huffman 288). Utilitarianism denies the argument that abortion is evil. Instead, it maintains that if an outcome is pleasurable or brings greater good, then it is justified (Shaw 76).

Utilitarianism holds that the end justifies the means. According to utilitarianism, a woman may abort under any circumstance or for any reason given that the outcome of the abortion brings happiness or promotes a greater good (Huffman 291). If self-defense abortion brings happiness to a woman, then a utilitarian would consider it justified and acceptable.

Objections Opponents argue that despite the life of a mother being in danger of physical or non-physical harm, self-defense abortion is immoral, unethical, and impermissible. Even though it aims to protect the mother, it kills the unborn baby. Opponents present several arguments to validate the immoral nature of abortion.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, they argue that a fetus is a human being that has a right to live (McDonagh 49). Therefore, killing a fetus to alleviate a mother’s future suffering contradicts values of compassion and respect for human life. Rape and incest are not good enough reasons to allow abortion.

In addition, abortion is associated with stigmatization that makes life difficult for mothers (McDonagh 50). It exposes women to risk of developing emotional and psychological complications because of discrimination in the society. In many societies, women who abort are considered evil and outcasts. It is difficult for such women to live with guilt of killing in communities where they are discriminated and segregated.

To avoid such consequences, self-defense abortion should not be allowed because it has severe consequences on mothers. However, consequences of allowing birth of an unwanted baby are more severe. Research has shown that women who abort willingly do not develop emotional or psychological disturbances later in life. In addition, unwanted children go through a lot of suffering and hardship because their mothers abandon them later in life (McDonagh 54).

Second, they argue that abortion has severe health consequences on involved women. It causes irreparable damages to the mother. Research has revealed that abortion can affect a woman’s ability to give birth after an abortion. Examples of long-term effects of abortion include miscarriages, stillbirths, low birth-weight babies, and infertility (McDonagh 57).

On the other hand, procedures carried out during abortion expose mothers to several health complications that risk their lives and well-being. These include tearing of the cervix, fever and peritonitis, uterus perforation, thrombosis, and risk of infection during blood transfusion (McDonagh 59).

Other risks include increased possibility of tubal pregnancy and death from hemorrhage. These complications have been reported in cases where unqualified individuals conducted abortion. Abortions that are conducted by certified and experienced practitioners are safe and few cases of complications have been reported. Opponent’s arguments are not strong enough to explain why a mother should be exposed to harm by failing to conduct an abortion.

Conclusion Abortion is a contemporary moral issue that is unacceptable in many societies. Self-defense abortion takes place in cases where birth of a child puts the life of the mother at risk of either physical or non-physical danger. In addition, it is acceptable in some societies on basis that a woman has a right to chose what is best for her. The utilitarianism doctrine holds that individuals should perform acts whose consequences result in beneficial outcomes.

From that definition, self-defense abortion is allowed if it results in gratifying outcomes that avoid painful consequences. It is permissible and ethical to save a mother from physical harm such as death, and non-physical harm such as mental, emotional, or psychological disturbances. Self-defense abortion saves many women from physical, emotional, and psychological suffering. Opponents argue that abortion is unacceptable and immoral.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They argue that self-defense abortion is murder and a fetus has a right to life. In addition, they argue that it exposes women to health complications such as sterility and miscarriages in future pregnancies. However, they ignore the fact that consequences of allowing birth of an unwanted baby are more severe than aborting it. Therefore, self-defense abortion is acceptable and permissible.

Works Cited Boonin, David. A defense of Abortion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.

Davis, Nancy. Abortion and Self-defense. Philosophy and Public Affairs 13.3 (2002): 175-207. Print.

Huffman, Tom. Abortion, Moral Responsibility, and Self-Defense. Public Affairs Quarterly 7.4 (2003): 287-302. Print.

McDonagh, Eileen. Breaking the Abortion Deadlock: From Choice to Consent. London: Oxford University press, 2004. Print.

Shaw, William. Contemporary Ethics: Taking Account of Utilitarianism. New York: John Wiley

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The Great Depression: A Diary Essay essay help

The Great Depression: A Diary is James Ledbetter’s and Daniel Roth’s edited version of Benjamin Roth’s personal diary that he wrote during the financial crisis of the 1930s. Being a lawyer with a wife and three kids, Roth experienced the major financial crisis of his life. Until today, historians have not wrapped their mind on matters that relate to the depression of 1930-1940, and why the crisis took that long.

As a lawyer, Roth documented the confessions from his clients and that of his friends to his journal for 10 years. According to these confessions, it is evident that everyone in all lines of businesses was struggling to earn a living (Ledbetter and Daniel 88). With the prices of everything going down, bank savings getting frozen, tenants being unable to pay rent, and just everyone struggling to survive, it is obvious that the economists of the 1930s had messed up some things along the way.

Having taken so long to retain the economic status of Ohio, it was Roth’s conclusion that neither the government nor the economists were any good. He had stopped believing in anything the government said; all he heard were depressing concerns from his clients, friends, and people around him. All businesses were getting worse; people had given up on the government in reviving the economic condition, and some people lost everything in their quest to look for safer forms of investment.

Given that his job depended on the financial stability of others, Roth was caught up in a crisis that would only be solved by venturing into other investments. Just like many people, he had ideas on how to invest safely, but had no money to do so. Though there are various theories mentioned that explains the cause of the crisis, Roth clearly insists on concerns about the war that was approaching as the major interruption that affected the intervention of the government in reviving the economy, and the stock market (Ledbetter and Daniel 201).

The book is an episode that entails the events that uncovered during the most fascinating era of the American history. For this, the book fails to entertain the readers as all the happenings documented are depressing. However, this was not the intention of Benjamin Roth as he only wrote this in his journal as a reminder of how hard times were, but it was his son Daniel who took it upon himself to published the diary as a book.

The book covers very little on the normal lifestyle of the people in Youngstown before the crisis; all that it documents are the hardships that describe Ohio as a hopeless place to live. With the current form of leadership, there are great lessons to be learnt from these events that took place decades ago. Having struggled for years to bring prosperity back, Roth understands how government policies and politics affect the future.

Having lived through this crisis, the book offers sincere and factual causes of the great depression, the hardships, and prices people had to pay to survive. The book is recommended for everyone as it documents events that took place in the 1930s that might be handy in getting ready for such crisis. It is an eye opener to those that are facing the current financial crisis as it holds a historic value that helps in avoiding the repetition of the mistakes that were made decades ago.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Ledbetter, James, and Daniel Roth. The Great Depression: A Diary. 1st ed. 2009. New York: Perseus Books Group. Print.

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A Discussion on Bureaucracy essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

In recent years, it is clear that the focus of many management scholars and managers have been to depict the concept of bureaucracy as unacceptable in modern-day environment.

Most notably, it is argued that bureaucracy is inflexible, reduces organizational efficiency, and is therefore completely unsuited to today’s rapidly shifting world (Grey 2013). The general trend, therefore, has been to replace bureaucracy with flexible organizations that are viewed as more suitable for our increasingly fast-changing business environment. The present paper purposes to assess this view, with the objective of demonstrating that bureaucracy is still relevant in modern-day environment.

One of the reasons proposed for adopting modern paradigms of management (post-bureaucracies) is that they stimulate creativity and innovation by allowing people to act on the basis of shared values than rules (Grey 2013).

While such a predisposition has borne fruits for companies such as Google and Yahoo, it cannot escape mention that lack of rigid rules in organizations was substantially to blame for financial crisis that rocked the world in 2008-2009, and also for the subsequent downfall of big corporations such as the Lehman Brothers, Enron and the Bank of Scotland.

A critical analysis demonstrates that non-hierarchical, personally focused and trust-based organizations reminiscent of post-bureaucracies played a substantial role in triggering the banking bubble that led to the financial crisis.

Another reason progressed by pundits of the post-bureaucracy paradigm is that the bureaucratic approach is dehumanizing and degrading to employees. In attempting to supplant bureaucracy, these pundits argue modern-day flexible organizations should always ensure that responsibilities are assigned on the basis of competence for tasks rather than hierarchy, and that employees should be treated fairly as individuals rather than impersonally (Grey 2013).

However, previous research done on companies such as Nippon CTV (utilizes new forms of management such as lean production, just-in-time approach etc) and ValleyCo (uses traditional practices) found substantial similarity between ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ forms of working in things such as employee treatment and participation, task assignment and hierarchy (Grey 2013). This evidence demonstrates that bureaucracy is still implemented in modern-day organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moving on, advocates of modern-day flexible firms argue that “post-bureaucracy does away with the turgid old nonsense about impersonality, yearly promotions and fixed salary scales in favor of individual treatment where reward is based on merit” (Grey 2013, p. 84). These are noble virtues for any organization, but implementing them boils down to the fact some rules must first be put in place to determine, for instance, how employees will be rewarded and which measure will be used.

Consequently, it is evident that bureaucracy must be present for flexible firms to be able to operate efficiently and effectively. If these so called flexible organizations fail to adopt bureaucracy to implement practices, they will certainly dysfunction as fairness, consistency and transparency will not be achieved (Grey 2013).

The last reason deals with change management. While it is evident that bureaucratic organizations have been overly accused of resisting change efforts, it should not escape mention that the so called flexible organizations equally resist change.

Indeed, there has been a misconceived perception that post-bureaucracies respond quickly to change and therefore are more efficient by virtue of being faster than bureaucracies. Another misconception is that change is a new concept and therefore modern organizations need to be flexible enough to deal with the fast-changing environment (Grey 2013).

However, the truth is that change has been there since time immemorial and organizations using the ‘old’ approaches encountered shifts in the environment in as much as modern-day organizations are encountering. To drive this point home, research demonstrates that over 70% of change efforts implemented by the so called flexible organizations result in failure (Grey 2013).

In conclusion, therefore, it can be said that bureaucracies are still relevant in modern-day environment and the solution for the increasingly fast-changing environment cannot be found in the adoption of flexible organizations. Rather, managers must adopt the technical efficiency provided by bureaucracy and then attempt to align their firms with factors both internal and external of the organization’s environment.

Reference Grey, C 2013, A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying organizations, 3rd edn, Sage, London

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How war is depicted in films of different generations Essay best college essay help

There is a sharp contrast in the manner in which war is portrayed when comparing old generation and new generation movies. These differences are attributed to changes in technology and the tactics employed to tackle war. The general perception of war has also contributed to this contrast, taking an example of the movies; “Top Gun” a war movie produced in 1960s and released in 1986, and “Taxi to the Dark Side” produced in 2003 and released in 2007, to illustrate these differences.

In the 1960s, war was depicted as a measure of sovereign might and power. In the “Top Gun”, Maverick, a naval aviator lieutenant, develops a reckless flying habit because he is angered by his father’s death during the Vietnam War (Top Gun 1965). He does this to prove he might and even differs from fellow military men. He also engages in combat with every person who differs with his personal opinion.

Although, Maverick is considered the finest fighter pilot in the world, he finally leaves the Navy and goes on to fight its top command. This causes a great rift between him and the Navy. Nevertheless, he is sought after later since he is the only person with the expertise to rescue a stricken communication ship. This justifies his course of war, and the indispensable powerful personality. This portrayal can be as a result of just having come from the World War II, where the most powerful nation was the one with the best military prowess (Taxi to the Dark Side 2007).

On the contrast, new generation war movies portray war as a justified action taken to protect its citizens or help fight a social vice as portrayed in “Taxi to the Dark Side”. An innocent taxi driver is tortured to death by the United States military personnel in their quest to extract valuable information about terrorists who had attacked the states. Although innocent, the military personnel take no heed to the driver’s cry of innocence. This depicts the extent to which the military is committed in rooting out terrorism.

They are determined to employ even the dirtiest tactic including assault and torture of detainees. These movies focus on the root cause of war unlike the earlier show of military supremacy, this change can be attributed to the establishment of human rights and civilian organizations which were not there in 1960s. The two generations are both against unwarranted wars between states which may expose innocent civilians to inhuman conditions and only advocate for war when there is a genuine threat to be eradicated (Top Gun).

A clear similarity between the two generations in the production of the war movies is that, in both cases, war is employed as the last resort of dispute resolution. In the earlier case, lieutenant Maverick only resorted to war when there was no amicable resolution to the disagreement between him and the Navy led by Lieutenant Tom “Iceman” Kasansky (Top Gun).

In the second case, the United States military resolves to war as the only available option to fight terrorists believed to be hiding in Afghanistan. The innocent taxi driver is tortured to death because he fails to cooperate with the military. In the two periods, war is also associated with the elite in society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The civil populations in both cases are innocently affected by the war as in the case of Charlie and the beautiful lady in Top Gun, who pass on when Maverick and Kasansky engage in battle and the innocent taxi driver who is tortured to death in The Taxi to the Dark Side (Taxi to the Dark Side).

Works Cited Taxi to the Dark Side. Dir. Alex Gibney. Perf. Alex Gibney, Brian Keith and Allen Moazzam. New York: THINKFILM, 2007. Film.

Top Gun. Dir. Tony Scott. Perf. Tom Cruise, Kelly McGillis, Val Kilmer, Antony Edwards and Tom Skerrritt. California: Paramount Pictures, 1965. Film.

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