Diffusion of innovation describes how a new idea, behavior, or item (an innovation) is disseminated to a population in a given period of time through specific avenues of communication (Rogers, 2003). Innovations are not always adopted even when they have obvious and clear-cut advantages and Rogers (2003) identifies four factors of diffusion: time, the social system, the innovation, and the communication channels.
For something to qualify as an innovation it does not have to be temporally recent as what matters is that people perceive it as new. An innovation therefore is that which is perceived as new regardless of its actual age. A communication channel refers to the course a message takes to get from a source to the receiver and examples are interpersonal communication and mass media.
Time is a factor when it comes to the rate of adoption of an innovation and it forms an imperative element in understanding diffusion of innovations. The social system can be viewed as people who jointly seek a common goal.
The decision to take up an innovation usually involves five steps: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. The knowledge stage is characterized by someone gaining initial information on what purpose the innovation serves and how it functions, albeit the information is sparse at this stage.
During the persuasion stage the person actively seeks information on the innovation and forms an independent opinion about the innovation. Rogers (2003) points out that persuasions are more affective than objective-they are based more on feelings than actual factual information. The decision stage marks the point at which someone decides whether or not to adopt an innovation for their own use.
In the implementation stage the person puts the innovation to actual practical use. Confirmation is the final stage and it involves the person making an evaluation of the decision to use the innovation. The stage is also marked by seeking of information that is of a bolstering nature in order to confirm their decision and keep using the innovation.
The success of an innovation is usually determined by five aspects: relative advantage, simplicity and ease of use, compatibility with existing values and practices, trialability and observability (Bennet and Bennet, 2003). Relative advantage is subjective to the users of an innovation and it is the perceived “betterness” of an innovation to its predecessor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Simplicity and ease of use determine the rate of an innovation’s diffusion in the sense that innovations that are easy to understand and use are likely to have a faster rate of adoption. The extent to which an innovation is consistent with current needs and is significant to its users determines the innovation’s compatibility with existing values and practices.
An innovation that is highly relevant to the social system is likely to have a higher rate of diffusion. Trialabilty is the degree to which an innovation can be tested by the potential user before the user adopts it e.g. a car that can be taken for a test drive has more trialability than the car which cannot. Observability is basically how perceptible the results of an innovation are.
Each social system can be broken down to five categories: innovators, early adopter, late adopters, and laggards depending on how quickly each group chooses to adopt an innovation. Innovators are the quickest and laggards the slowest to adopt an innovation. The graph below is a representation of how the groups’ frequencies are broken down in a population.
Figure 1. Frequency distribution of a population according to rate of innovation adoption. This figure illustrates how the five categories of innovation adoption according to time are spread in a population.
References Bennett, J.,
Discussion about diffusion of innovation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
It is just a few people who can comfortably discuss the topic “Diffusion of innovation”. Not many have even ever heard of it. Yet to those who have had the chance to know a little about it, it is a topic that left them yearning to have some more of the information. This has been the case for everyone who reads the work of the great author of Diffusion of Innovation who still, theorized the whole idea.
Everett M. Rogers lives everyone who reads his work wondering how genius he could be to have seen such reality. According to Robinson, Diffusion of Innovation seeks to make clear how innovations are spread in a society (Robinson, 2009, p.1).
It also shows how “other techniques and social organization principles are likely to spread along the same route” (Rodgers 1995, p.5). Innovation, on the other hand, refers to ideas, ways or methods of doing things or a product that are considered new in a society.
Diffusion of innovation offers insights on the factors which could make innovations spread faster, importance of understanding the needs of the various user segments and also peer-peer conversations and peer networks (Robinson, 2009, p.1).
Depending on the degree of perception, relative advantage, simplicity and ease of use, observable results, trial ability and compatibility with existing values and practices and observable results, all these qualities contribute immensely to the success of spread of any innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2).
The relative advantage is measured on the basis of tastes and preferences of the users while the compatibility with the existing values and practices is measured against past experiences and the values held by the users. On the other hand, simplicity and ease of use depends on the degree to which an innovation is perceived difficult to use.
Observable results refer to the efficiency of the innovation. Trial abilty refers to the ability of innovation to be tested (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2). However, Robinson argues that continuous improvement through reinventions is the key to spreading an innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everett argues that peer-peer conversations help in spreading innovations even more than advertisements and other similar interventions that are used in marketing. He argues that conversations alone can spread adoption since they help in risk management and also take care of any uncertainties.
Source: Mahajan, Muller and Bass (1990) as reproduced in Rogers, E.M. (2003) p210.
The graph above depicts a clear picture of how peer-peer communication becomes more influential in spreading an innovation and how mass communication becomes less influential over time.
To emphasize the need to understand the adopters, Rodgers categorized the adopters into five groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. He attached values or personalities to each group. These values were in consistence with his findings. The following graph is important in helping to clearly understand the concept different user segments. Rodgers viewed the innovators as learned personalities who were ready to take risks.
Source: Robinson (2009): A summary of diffusion of innovation
The society views them as the well connected (Rodgers, 1995, p.357). They spend a great deal of “their time, energy and creativity on new ideas and gadgets” (Robinson, 2009, p.5). They love talking about their new ideas and through this the diffusion of innovation begins.
The other group is the early adapters which entails local leaders, people of high social status or in general people of high prestige (Rodgers, 1995, p.357
Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice Essay best college essay help
Introduction The need to develop economic systems that reflect the needs of every community has pushed people to initiate strategies to effect necessary changes. Trading activities have become a backbone for the development of countries’ economies. Nations and their leaders are advocating for economic integrations expansions and innovations to develop their countries.
It is imperative to consider nations’ social and political aspects before adopting any economic stimulus project. In 1930’s people adopted Neoliberalism as an effective way of developing economies. However, the steps adopted were not as effective as they were supposed to be. This led to change of meaning of Neoliberalism.
Scope of Study This is a wide topic that involves many aspects of social, political and economic factors. Therefore, it is not easy to cover all this aspects in this discussion. However, the paper will explore significant social, political and economic aspects that are connected to Neo-liberalism. The study will focus on the impacts Neo-liberalism to the daily activities of human beings and their states.
Preposition The beginning of the 20th century was a significant period in the development of many nations. Most countries realized the need for economic integrations and corporations. This led to the formulation of policies that were aimed at governing economic relations among countries. As a result, there was the formulation of liberalist policies to unify trading activities among trading partners. These activities included the formation of trade blocks, treaties and production contracts.
However, these attempts failed to yield expected results leading to withdrawal of membership from trading blocks and disrespecting trade agreements. The result was the formation of Neo-liberalism movements to oppose integration attempts. The liberalization of trade activities among nations was a deliberate attempt to spread imperialism and advance the needs of powerful nations.
Objectives This essay explores various ways through which liberalization of trade activities was an attempt to propagate the interest of few countries at the expense of underdevelopment in other countries. The paper explores the initial intentions of liberalizing social, political and economic activities to reflect a uniform front.
In addition, this paper outlines key impacts of liberalism that led to the formation of Neo-liberalism. This is a one-on-one approach aimed at establishing the inefficiencies brought by liberalism and their resultant effects. It should be noted that liberalization of political and economic activities was anchored on uniting countries to help fight common problems. These problems existed due to differences in economic and political orientations exposing countries to significant challenges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Reviews This essay will discuss presentations made by Dan Schiller, Fernando Bermejo and E.R. Meehan. Their works are based on media liberalization, and how other factors affect them. In addition, this works for the basis of this discussion through exploring the significance of liberalization and Neo-liberalization to the society. In studying their work, it is imperative to seek answers to the following questions.
What are the consequences of Neo-liberalization of the media, in what way are these consequences revealed and how are the losers fighting back. In addition, this essay will address attempts to perpetuate liberalization. In this discussion, several aspects reveal the impacts of liberalization in society. The media is the society’s watchdog and plays vital roles in educating, informing and shaping public opinions regarding various issues.
World Communication in Today’s Age of Capital by Dan Schiller Schiller asserts much of his discussion on Eric Hobsbawm’s work done between 1840 and 1870. According to this work this period saw the world transformed from a geographical representation to operational activities. There was the need to have adequate capital to facilitate any operational activity.
Much of the world was undergoing infrastructural adjustments that necessitated the need to have adequate capital to finance such projects (Schiller 2001). He discusses these issues through analyzing the use of communication services like broadband and internet services and audiovisual and telecommunication services.
Modern Telecommunication This is the world’s fastest growing industry due to the need for people and companies to keep in touch with the rest of the world. Today, there are more than 900 million telephone lines and hundred million of wireless, mobile phones all over the world. This is in contrast with about 142 million landline telephones in the 1960s (Schiller 2001).
People and organizations have invested massive capital in this industry to warrant the untamed expansion of communication services. Multiple networking skills have amalgamated such capital investments towards telecommunications. This has also led to spread in the use of mobile phones among the middle class and thus facilitated communications.
The spread of telecommunication services has infiltrated all remote villages of the world making mobile phones a necessity (Schiller 2001). This has in turn led to the entry of many telecommunication companies to the market forcing prices of these servicers to slump backwards.
We will write a custom Essay on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competition has without doubt set in, and investors are trying all means possible to woe consumers to their services. This has led to reduced call rates and the provision of other cheap services. As a result, this is bound to cause significant discrimination against the poor especially those living in third world countries. Moreover, the entrance of many players in this field will without doubt stiffen unhealthy competitions among them (Schiller 2001).
This will result to the provision of cheap services that will eventually push unstable companies to closure. Those companies that operate on fixed budgets will have difficult times competing with well established multibillion companies. Therefore, they will wind up their operations after making continuous losses and having unsuccessful attempts of rescuing their investments.
Finally, the cut throat competition among service providers will result in reduced prices of services. This will in turn compromise the quality of service provided by these companies (Schiller 2001). The policies formulated to promote liberalization, privatization and specialization will only propel the interests of giant companies and their related operations while trampling on all attempts made by new entrants in the market.
Audiovisual Services Televisions are the most common way of audiovisual communication. The last decade saw the use of television sets multiply from 176 sets in 1965 to 1.16 billion sets in 1995. This means that there has been an addition of more than six billion television audiences (Schiller 2001). To date, the number has multiplied more than a thousand times with many countries importing cheap television sets from china.
This has increased the number of television viewers to hundreds of billions. The television networks operate using satellite companies that offer broadcasting services. Even though most state run broadcasting companies run their own satellite services most private broadcasters rely on other service providers (Schiller 2001).
For that reason, they purchase broadcasting space in many countries to ensure their services are offered in as many countries as possible. For instance, CNN and BBC have established their services in almost all nations, in the world (Schiller 2001). Another company like Viacom has collaborated with MGM to popularize and market some of their recent films (James Bond’s The World is not Enough).
These channels and broadcasting companies have expanded their operations, not as a result of an increase in the capital, but due to changes in consumer fashions and preferences. The companies provide consumer oriented services to make sales in advertising products during the airing of such interesting programs (Schiller 2001). To date, many broadcasting companies make profits through selling advertising space to companies.
Commercial advertisers have found televisions vital arenas for advertising their products and services. Majority of broadcasting services relies on commercial advertising as their main source of income. Without commercial advertisers, many broadcasting houses will close down their operations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same commercial advertisers benefit by making market penetrations to remote areas and selling their products all over the world (Schiller 2001). These are same companies that benefit from changes in communication systems. They are like leopards ready to pounce on any unsuspecting prey. The restructuring of television services is without doubt a business oriented service aimed at providing quality marketing and advertising services to consumers.
These attempts are geared towards capturing the audience interests in commercial advertising rather than providing quality broadcasting services to them (Schiller 2001). The broadcasters are not entirely to blame for this fault since they rely on commercial advertisers to make profits. However, most small scale businesses do not stand equal chances of competing with giant firms in purchasing advertisement space.
Just the way powerful politicians dominate media broadcasting so are giant companies. They are given prominence, and their advertisements are aired during prime hours compared to small scale business advertisements aired during off peak hours. Most companies have taken over the management of television houses like in the United States where moist companies are owned by foreign corporations like News Corporation, Seagram and Sony (Schiller 2001).
The fact that foreign companies dominate broadcasting g services in the United States shows the presence of involuntary penetration for self interest purposes. Even though, the United States tried to maintain its broadcasting identity after the first world wart by declining and resisting attempts to merge with Great Britain’s companies these attempts were futile. Since then the United States has relaxed most if its restrictions in broadcasting dominance by foreign firms (Schiller 2001).
This is without doubt an expression of America’s hidden interests in allowing foreign broadcasting companies to operate and dominate its television systems. The United States’ media transnationalization has given rise to other inevitable changes in the global media.
Sony and other companies have invested billions of capital in distributing systems to offer world entertainment services (Schiller 2001). On the other hand, the United States entertainment firms have established partnerships with foreign companies to offer entertainment services to Americans’ and other nationals in different countries.
This has led to the broadcasting of a historical advancement of America as a super power. This has also led to the propagation of American culture as a national culture for people residing in America despite their citizenship. These are some of the aspects the media is unable to control due to the impacts such advertisers have on the media’s economic gains.
Their global media systems pay attention to issues that propagate their commercial and corporate interests and ignore those that cannot accommodate their interests (Schiller 2001). Moreover, claims that the United States media content is at risk due to changes in the global media demands need to be clarified than is usually done.
There is a significant change in the content broadcasted to the world and America’s competitors are gaining ground. There is a considerable surge of United States based media companies as Europe continues to dominate the market as its balance of trade with United States has risen to 5.6 billion U.S. dollars in 1996 increasing their European share market to 78% from 56% (Schiller 2001).
In addition, giant European media firms support most local programs in many countries as was evident in the Global Television Market Annuals. This means Europe is gaining more grounds than America in global advertisements. Mexico is taking the world by storm by dominating most local channels in their endless Telenovelas. This is a clear indication of how poor countries are denied opportunities available only to rich countries.
Internet and Broadband Services Internet communication is growing in popularity and demand due to the challenges facing wire communications. There have been challenges that threaten communication due to weak channels and poor communication services. Internet and broadband services refer to the use of networking services to facilitate communication.
This involves the use of fiber and wireless communications (Schiller 2001). This has given rise to recent struggles for reclaiming media practices as the quest for democracy intensifies. There are considerable capitalist dominations as is evident in the recent internet developments. This is due to the fact that internet communications take place between companies and not companies and consumers.
Therefore, companies are trying their best to take hold of the volatile market through mergers and economic arrangements that will take care of their interests (Schiller 2001). Recent developments in the internet services are aimed at expanding business operations to high end consumers and not just any ordinary client. Companies are targeting consumers that will be motivated by product quality and not affordable prices.
Therefore, these efforts do not intend to establish or identify a liberalized consumer zone. These attempts are aimed at creating effective sales strategies that will target rich consumers. These attempts started in 1995 when WorldCom and other giant corporations got a lion share during privatization of internet services (Schiller 2001).
Secondly, the advertising community grasped the demand for internet marketing and made it mandatory for any advertiser to acquire an internet strategy as a board for advertising plans. Thirdly, there was the establishment of the vertical integration corporate regulations over internet services (Schiller 2001).
AOL is the best example of a capitalist approach to controlling internet services. The struggle to buy advertising space is motivated by capitalistic needs top acquire a large share of consumers’ attention. Internet service providers have taken advantage of this rush to offer other services to clients. This has resulted to partnering with other electronic companies to allow fast access and navigation to various sites.
As a result, this has pushed for integrations and mergers in internet related service providers (Schiller 2001). This has led to the establishment of broadband service providers that aim at providing high speed data communication services. The process of internet service provision is dominated by a handful of companies despite the provision of global communication services.
New Media and Society by Fernando Bermejo This discussion explores the literature produced by various scholars with regard to media influence in advancing capitalism. This is with regard to Smythe’s beliefs that communications are concurrently in their forms and involves their final stages of production where sales determine consumer satisfaction and production (Bermejo 2007).
The media ratings have lost their significance ion advertising due to proliferations of capitalists’ agendas in advertising. These ratings have existed to offer inclined public perceptions regarding the performance and production of the media. Even though, the work of media audience is purchasing advertised products, this has not always been true since the audience is also involved in typing and scanning through many internet pages.
Therefore, the audience plays significant roles in determining the direction and functions of advertising engines (Bermejo 2007). The presence of regular developments in media advertisements warrants the need to identify ways of analyzing their importance to the society. However, it is without doubt that all these developments are aimed at propagating the interests of capitalist institutions.
Bermejo argues that even though the development of new media is not a bad progress it must address consumer needs and contributions to shaping communication. Most media development aim at advancing the needs of their sponsors and not consumers.
The media fail to identify the roles of audiences as essential components of advertisements (Bermejo 2007). There is the need to incorporate consumers’ needs in media development to address liberalization as an essential part of the development. However, most media houses focus their attention on their sponsors since they provide the bulk of their capital.
Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies by E. R. Meehan Meehan argues that all deregulation policies are aimed at centralizing global and national economies within the last two decades. The policies allow subjects to decide what is good for them (Meehan 2003). This is without doubt an effective way of advancing capitalist approaches in business activities.
Companies have integrated their efforts by amalgamating and forming mergers that will facilitate the realization of their interests (Meehan 2003). These relationships are guided by capitalist interests of regulating supply and production to fit their preferences and advance the realization of their interests.
Major share holders in various industries have formed relationships and policies that threaten the existence of weak competitors. On the other hand, they have also controlled communication channels and systems to reflect their demands. The late 1970s saw liberal moves towards organizing communication systems to reflect their policies (Meehan 2003).
However, these attempts resulted in capitalism as they sought to advance their interests. The policies formulated served their interests and ignored weak competitors. Therefore, the attempts were not effective in liberalizing economic regimes.
Conclusion Neoliberalization efforts are justified in restoring democracy and equal playing grounds for all investors. Nations strive to develop their systems, but this is difficult in the presence of strings attached to service delivery by multinational companies. However, despite the presence of current struggles to retain capitalist policies there are a bright future that promises consumers and small scale producers of a democratic economy.
References Bermejo, F. (2007). The Internet Audience: Constitution and Measurement. New York: Peter Lang.
Meehan, E.R. (2003). Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Schiller, D. (2001). World Communications in Today’s Age of Capital. Emergencies Volume 11. San Diego: University of California Press.
Djoser and Imhotep Art History Essay essay help: essay help
Netjerikhet Djoser, also known as Zoser, was probably the famous King who ruled Egypt in the third Dynasty for 19 years.
His name means “the divine body” and he is remembered for commissioning the construction of step pyramid which was architectural work of Imhotep. Historical facts have revealed that the relation between Dsojer and Imhopet was cordial.
Imhotep was a highly respected Egyptian polymath, architect and a doctor who lived in Egypt between 2650 and 2600BC. He constructed the first Pyramid in Egypt which was commissioned by King Djoser.
Inscription in some statues describes Imhopet as “Chancellor of the king in lower Egypt”. Early history sources reveal that he may have been born in the Memphis while others suggest that he may have originated from Thebes and served under King Djoser who reigned between 2630 to 2611BC.
Historians still value his accomplishments which include the construction of Egypt’s first Pyramid that was a Djoser’s step pyramid in Saqqara.
His role in writing was mainly in medical texts. He is believed to have authored descriptions of over 90 anatomical terms and 50 injuries. He also founded a medical school in Memphis.
Evaluation realism in the Egyptian Arts Egyptian rules of art, sculpture, paintings, and relief carving were so diverse that did not depict the realities in life. Most paintings were religious and depicted numerous gods and goddesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because Egyptians observe law and order, complex rules for how Gods and humans were represented in paintings, carvings and sculpture were developed.
Figures in paintings and size of sculpture were calculated by the status of a person as opposed to normal rules of linear perspective which brings out a real image. For example, men statues were painted in darker color than the female ones.
Symbolism was a feature that was greatly used in paintings. Some colours had more than one meaning. For example, red symbolized power or strength as well as fire. Green was a symbol of new life, fertility and growth. Yellow was associated with kings and royals.
The same yellow color symbolized purity and eternity (Stokstad 138). Paintings in tombs are good examples of the Egyptian art that has no realism. The pictures depicted life after death. They would show pictures of boats, and birds transporting food to the deceased.
As paintings and sculptures did not depict realism, relief carving had some elements of it. Some surviving relief sculptures found in the tomb of Hesire at Saqqara have figures of men standing, or seated, that are carved proportionally to the convention of ideal manhood. These carvings had definite sizes in three dimensions.
Figures represented by relief carvings in a room had proper place with a defined shape and size which ensured that space is well used being an indication that these forms of art depicted realism.
Falcon and the Egyptian art Falcon represents Horus, the true Pharaoh, and the Sun God. He was a symbol of rising sun in Egypt. The ancient Egypt regarded the Sun and the Moon as great falcon Horus’ eyes. Falcon Horus was a deity with various functions.
We will write a custom Essay on Djoser and Imhotep Art History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He could fly and protect kings, had powers to guard and protect (Stokstad, 34). Other forms in which the Egyptian arts were represented were falcon headed Ra with sun disk along with Falcon mummy with gilt coffin.
Works Cited Stokstad, Marilyn. Art history. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorder Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Diagnosis of Anxiety disorder
Treatment of Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Anxiety disorder is a psychological problem in individuals who are known to worry too much and have fears that are unrealistic. These disorders have been known to cause diverse psychological and physical damage.
The classifications of anxiety disorder include the phobias, the generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Each of these disorders has different symptoms and treatment procedures.Research indicates that diagnosis of the disorders may be difficult since the symptoms overlap with other common ailments. However, various treatment interventions exist.
The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy such as the use of talk therapy is very effective. The therapist tries to unearth the causes of such anxieties and fears and helps the patient realize that it was exaggerated and unrealistic.
The use of medication such as the SSRIs is also effective. However, some have adverse side effects.
Research questions I. What is the diagnosis of anxiety disorder?
II. What treatment interventions are available for anxiety disorder?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides information about anxiety disorder as it relates to the course, Abnormal Psychology (Butcher, Mineria,