Autism is a disorder common in children and makes them unable to behave, communicate and hence socialize effectively. Such children usually have difficulties looking in the eyes of a person speaking to them.
They repeat sentences to calm themselves and flap their hands when they are happy or injure themselves with objects when they are angry.
Many of them, if not enrolled in any intervention program might never acquire the skill of communication through talking. If there is any remedy for the condition, the results are mild and victims usually live with the problem for the rest of their lives.
Some autism researchers describe autistic people as not having a self and not being able to reason about the minds of others and acknowledge that other people have desires, beliefs and intentions separate and different from theirs (Theory of Mind).
These researchers argue that autists do not have mental capability to understand states of mind like desires, beliefs, intention and hope. This mental retardness is brought about by mental disorders in early childhood which hinder normal development of communication skills.
Researchers have not been able to discover the exact cause of this condition but it is assumed that it comes as a result of abnormal chemical and biological interactions in the brain during the period of development of children in their mothers’ womb.
Research has also shown that autistic parents are more likely to have babies with autism and that identical twins are more likely to develop the problem than fraternal twins. This leads us to conclude that the disorder is genetically passed from parents to children (Baranek 405).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other causes like changes in the digestive system, diet, sensitivity to vaccines and inability of the body to utilize minerals and vitamins properly is also suspected to lead to autism although this has not been confirmed.
There are those researchers who claim that children with autism are able to reason about the mind of others. The argument is that every child or adult are engineered uniquely.
They say that, autism like any other human disorder can be treated or children with the disorder can be taught to live a normal life with the condition. Like many curative measures to disorders, treatment cannot guarantee total healing.
When they are trained properly, they can reason and adapt effectively to the surrounding. Intervention measures include behavioral training and/or medicine.
Among the two intervention measures however, behavioral methods are the most recommended by experts because they equip the patient with live survival skills which enables them to interpret feelings of other people by evaluating body movements, facial expressions and tone of the voice.
Patients who come out of the treatment process heal totally and can even be employed in adulthood (Mash 203).
Alternatively the child could be enrolled in an intensive training program where he/she learns closely with parents and other members of the family. A team of professionals are also involved in the program because they guide the training.
We will write a custom Essay on Diagnosis and Treatment for Autism Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The parents however play a bigger role in the program because they lead the training sessions. Behavioral program could take place at home, school or at a specialized center.
Other researchers have taken a totally different perspective to autism. They allege that they collected evidence to prove that indeed autists reason about mind of other people but have difficulties in communicating to other people what they are thinking.
They allege that like in all living things, growth and development varies in children. Even at maturity not all people can be able to put to use their mental capability to the maximum. Children with autism are therefore able to reason and even interpret the feelings of other people but the challenge is to communicate the response to other people.
They further say that this difficult varies even among autism children. Flapping of their arms, repeating sentences or hurting oneself with objects is away of releasing the frustration of inability to respond to other people’s feelings (Matson 71).
On the same note, researchers have also said that some children grow to mature out of autism. This maturity comes in later stages of development and if the person as a child was not enrolled in any training program they might not be mentally equivalent to their age mates who are normal.
Critics on the other hand have argued that children with autism can not be treated and neither can they reason about the mind of others.
They allege that the disorder attacks children in their earliest stage of development and the effects on the victims are irreversible. They argue that cases of children growing out of autism are false and can only be explained as a misdiagnosis.
They dismiss positive results of training and treatment as a misconception and some people dishonestly use them for marketing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Diagnosis and Treatment for Autism Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, only proper and comprehensive research can approve or disapprove autism researchers who describe autistic people as not having a self and not being able to reason about the minds of others and acknowledge that other people have desires, beliefs and intentions separate and different from theirs.
What exists currently is still disputed and requires extra empirical data to back it up.
Works Cited Baranek, Gilbert. “Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions in children with autism.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32.5(2002): 397–422. Print.
Mash, Barkley. Child Psychopathology, New York: The Guilford Press.2003. Print.
Matson, Sturmey. “International Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.” New York: Springer 25.7 (2011): 53–74. Print.
Employment Benefits Comparison Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Healthcare and welfare benefits
Retirement savings and planning benefits
Financial and compensation benefits
Other employment benefits
Introduction Employment benefits are the advantages which employees get from various organizations. These benefits act as incentives for workers to perform better for their own benefit and for the benefit of the organization.
Employments benefits differ from organization to organization and they change with time. Most of the benefits offered to workers in 1980’s and 1990’s are not the same as those offered today.
Some of the benefits offered to workers by their employers from the year 2000 up to now are almost the same or have not changed much.
Most benefits offered to employees by 1980’s have been completely eliminated by most governments and only few employment benefits offered over two decades ago are still being offered to workers today.
Various bills have been passed to protect the welfare of workers to make sure that organizations offer various benefits to workers.
These legislations include: The medical bill of 2003, Employee Retirement Income Security Act, Employees Retirement Income Security Act and Family and Medical Leave Act. Some of the employment benefits include: Health care and welfare benefits, Retirement and retrenchment benefits, family benefits, financial benefits, leave benefits, family benefits, flexible working benefits, housing and relocation benefits, employee service benefits and business travel benefits besides others.
Most of these benefits have been introduced recently and in 1980’s they were non-existent. Organizations in majority of countries offer these benefits to their workers and indeed the Organization for Economic Co-corporation and Development (OECD) countries are leading in ensuring that workers get their employment benefits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Healthcare and welfare benefits Healthcare and welfare benefits were offered by organizations in the 1980’s to help employee manage their healthcare and that of their dependents.
Most organizations today cover the full cost of healthcare of the employee while in some organizations the cost is shared between the organization and the employee.
Currently many healthcare benefits have emerged, for instance some organizations today offer healthcare and welfare benefits which focus on child wellbeing and fertility such as contraceptive coverage, infertility treatment and in-vitro fertilization and this could not happen in the 1980’s and 1990’s (2011 Employment Benefits, 2011).
In the1980’s, limited benefit indemnity medical plan and free of service plans were offered to employees. This allowed each employee to compare various providers of healthcare services and then choose the one they liked most.
But now very few organizations offer this kind of healthcare benefits to their workers. Currently, firms with high staff turnover or those with high number of part time workers are likely to offer mini-med-health plans to reduce the cost they are likely to incur in case an employee falls sick (2011 Employment Benefits, 2011).
Most employers these days offer benefits such as mental health coverage, accidental death insurance, long term care insurance, hospital insurance and intensive insurance to their employees.
A good employee-employer relationship is needed to attract and retain employee talent. Some of the benefits particularly these healthcare and welfare benefits are made to nurture such a productive relationship between employers and employees (2010 Employment Benefits, 2009).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Employment Benefits Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 2003, Medicare bill was enacted which led to the creation of Health Savings Accounts (OECD Employment Outlook, 2003).This bill helps employees to save money on a tax free basis for future qualified medical and retirement healthcare cost.
About one third of institutions, firms and companies offer these accounts to their workers. Contribution to these accounts is maybe by the employee, employer or both of them.
In addition 20% organizations today offer health reimbursement arrangements to their employees. This is aimed at contributing money to the health saving accounts so that the employees can use the money to pay for their health care services.
Retirement savings and planning benefits Every organization has its own retirement benefits which cover certain amount of years which are offered to help workers plan for their future lives. Retirement and retrenchment benefits became a common object in the 1980’s and up to now these benefits are offered by organizations across the globe.
There are various types of retirement plans offered to employees. Some of them include: Defined contribution retirement plans and Roth 401(K) retirement plan which are two common plans nowadays (2010 Employment Benefits, 2010).
Other retirement plans are the traditional defined benefit retirement pension plan and cash balance pension plans which were prevalent in the 1980’s and 1990’s (OECD Employment outlook, 1994).These two are not common in many organization these days.
Supplement executive retirement plans (SERPs) are non-qualified plans that offer benefits above those covered in other retirement plans. These SERPs are authorized under the Employees Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).
About ten years ago organizations offered financial planning benefits such as individual investment advices and retirement preparation advice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Benefits Comparison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although these programs do not contribute to employee’s income, they can help employees plan their retirement benefits wisely. However few organizations offer these programs today.
On the other hand, phase retirement program is currently offered to employees which involve reduction of schedule or responsibilities for workers who are about to retire.
This retirement plan helps employees to ease into retirement while passing on their valuable knowledge which they have accumulated over the years to other employees.
Although retirement savings, planning benefit and defined benefit pension plans are old retirement plans they are still offered today. Most of these retirement benefits have not changed very much since the year 2000(OECD Employment outlook, 1998).
Financial and compensation benefits Certain group of employees get financial and compensation benefits which help them deal with monetary transactions conveniently. Most of these benefits were non-existent in 1980’s but are common in many organizations today.
These benefits include: Membership in credit unions which offer low interest rates on loans, which offer loans for emergency and disaster assistance while others offer no-interest loans for non-emergency situations.
Provision of life insurance for dependents, accident insurance, accelerated death benefits, and assistance in case of terminal disease such as cancer are other benefits workers enjoy nowadays especially those in OECD countries (OECD Employment Outlook, 2003).
Commuter benefits are offered to offset the cost workers incur as they move from one play to other while carrying out operations of their companies. These include transport allowances, on-site parking, parking subsidies, carpool subsidies.
Other recent developments include some organization offering spending accounts, auto-insurance programs and company –owned vehicles to their employees.
Education assistance to employees such as career development benefits are important as they both benefit the employee and the employer since the employees have a chance to expound their knowledge and this leads to creation of a better workforce which is a benefit to the employer.
Undergraduate and graduate education assistance as well as education assistance to members of employees families are other benefits offered to workers (2010 Employment Benefits, 2010).
Most organizations offer monetary bonuses through various ways. Some lay out a criteria which when met by the employees, they will receive more compensation, incentive bonuses, promotions and this leads to high performance.
Other incentives include: sign-on bonuses for new workers, retentions bonus for workers who stay in the organization for a considerable period and lastly referral bonuses which are offered to workers who refer and encourage new members to be part of the organization.
In addition some organization recently have been able offer technology services and discounts to their employees such as business cell phones, personal computers, iPads and internet connections and these benefits helps employees cut down the associated costs of such services (2011 Employment Benefits, 2011).
Leave benefits Leave benefits include paid time off plan which includes traditional vacation time, sick leave or personal days. Paid vacation plans these days are offered by most organizations to full-time employees which can be inform of cash-out option or a paid vacation leave donation program.
Other leave benefits include paid personal leaves and floating holidays whereby employees receive payment on their leaves (2010 Employment Benefits, 2010). Personal days may be used as birthdays, for religion purposes or as mental health days.
Most companies now offer these leave benefits because they recognize that there is need for employees to have time-off work for purposes other than vacation and illness.
Floating holidays are recent development in the employee’s benefit list whereby workers are given certain amount of days of their choice during the year to use for holidays.
Other leaves include paid sick leave whereby employees who are sick are paid and this protects the employees from loss of income when they are sick.
Some organizations offer stand-alone sick leave plan while others provide a paid sick leave donation program to their employees. Family and Medical leave act of 1993 ensures that every employee has a 12 weeks unpaid job-protected leave for a year if the employee, his/her spouse or child has a serious medical condition.
Although the act doesn’t require the various public and private organizations to pay for the leave some organization pay for the leave (OECD Employment outlook, 1999)
Military leaves, leave for new parents, paid paternity and maternity leaves are other leaves which have been offered by various organizations since 1980’s. Indeed maternity and parental benefits were introduced in the 1980’s and the companies offering them have increased greatly since then.
However long-term parental benefits nowadays are restricted to the OECD countries (OECD Employment outlook, 2003).
A few organizations today are even able to offer paid adoption leaves to their employees, paid time-off to serve on board of a community group, paid time off for volunteering, paid and unpaid sabbatical program and paid time off for group vacation.
Other employment benefits Other employment benefits include family friendly benefits, flexible working benefits, employee service benefits, housing and relocation benefits and business travel benefits.
Under family friendly benefits, most organization nowadays are able to provide dependent care flexible accounts to their employees where money is set aside which can be used later to care for the employee’s dependants.
In addition some organizations offer child care benefits to their employees such as child care emergency, adoption or foster care assistance and child care referral services whereby a portion of companies today allow their workers to bring their babies to work on regular basis.
This reduces the cost which is incurred by employees when they access services such as non-subsidized child care or back up child care services.
Dependent care flexible account can be used by employees to offset cost of elder care. Other family friendly benefits include back up elder care benefits, geriatric counselling, assisted living assessments and elder care in-home assessment (2011 Employment Benefits, 2011).
Employee service benefits offered by companies include provision of language skills and work/life balance benefits. Globalization is happening fast in today’s world and has prompted people of diverse cultures to move from one part of the globe to another.
As a result workforce and customers of many organizations consist of people with various levels of language proficiency. Due to this many organization organize for foreign language classes for specific group of employees. On the other hand work/life balance benefits are also offered by organizations today in many OECD countries.
Many organizations provide quick access to food and beverages by having automatic vending machines near work place.
Banks and Post offices are likewise near workplace and this reduces time workers spend moving to use various services and this optimizes their performance for the benefit of the organization (2011 Employment Benefits, 2011).
Housing and relocation employment benefits have existed since time immemorial but recently they have been modified to suit the needs of workforce in many organizations today.
Most organizations offer one-time permanent relocation whereby companies offer one time simple relocation lump sum payment. Others offer local visit assistance or house hunting trips to employees, spouse relocation assistance, down payment assistance and temporary relocation assistance.
However housing and relocation assistance have declined over the last few years. Business travel benefits offered by companies today include travel expenses and additional pay to the employees involved in the travelling (2010 Employment Benefits, 2010).
Conclusion Employment benefits have changed over the years since 1980’s through 1990’s to the present day. Various employment benefits have declined and in some countries they have been completely eliminated.
For instance labour market leaves existed in some countries in the 1980’s such as Belgium but they declined in the following years and in Denmark they were eliminated by 1999 (OECD Employment Outlook,1999).
In most countries, employment benefits allocation in Human Resource budget is fixed or marginally flexible hence job seekers are selective in choosing their employers and are likely to work in those organizations which offer fringe employment benefits.
Employment benefits are meant to improve employee’s performance, attract new personnel to an organization and improve employer-employee relation for the benefit of any organization.
Governments of various states have passed various bills which act in favour of employees in both private and public organizations to make sure they get various employment benefits. Almost all organizations offer some kind benefit to their employees with big organizations offering more benefits to their employees.
The kind of employment benefits offered by organizations depends on their size and workforce. For example a company with high proportion of part-time workers will chose to offer benefits which are suitable for such kind of workforce to cut down the cost spend on employment benefits.
References 2010 Employee Benefits. (2010).Examining Employee Benefits in the midst of a recovering economy.pp.1-92.Retrieved from: https://www.shrm.org/
2011 Employee Benefits. (2011). Examining Employee Benefits Amidst Uncertainty, society for human resource management. pp.1-92, Retrieved from: https://www.shrm.org/
OECD Employment outlook. (1994).Work-force ageing in OECD countries. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/
OECD Employment outlook. (1998). Displacement and Job Loss: The workers concerned, pp.1-34, Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/
OECD Employment outlook. (1999).Recent labour market developments and prospects, Special focus on the quality of part-time jobs, pp.1-33, Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/
OECD Employment outlook. (2003). Towards More and Better Jobs Benefits and Employment, Friend or Foe? Interactions Between Passive and Active Social Programmes, pp.1-65, Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/
OECD Employment Outlook. (2009).Is work the best antidote for poverty?. pp.1-46. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/
Supporting Children’s Care Learning and Development Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The society highly values children. Childcare is currently a shared responsibility. Parents, teachers and all other stakeholders have a role to play in ensuring that a child grows up in an environment that is conducive for its growth. As Hansen (2007, p. 76) states, a child requires a lot of attention, especially at early stages of life because it is at this stage that a child starts to comprehend the immediate environment.
At an age of six to seven, a child would be learning a lot from the immediate environment and from the people he constantly interacts with. As Aristotle (1998, p. 89) notes, a child would try to practice what it sees the adult doing, or what it watches on movies. A parent therefore has a responsibility to regulate what a child consumes at this age.
The issue of childcare requires a collaboration of the parent, the teacher and the teaching assistant on a very close basis. The parent is always with the child in the evening, on weekends and other holidays. During this days, Nussbaum (2002, p. 56) observes that a parent has the best opportunity to monitor the behavior of the child and understand it better.
For this reason, he is in the best position to inform the teacher and the teaching assistant some peculiar behavior of the child or some important information that would help the teacher and the teaching assistant manage the child to the expectation of all the stakeholders. Zipes (1997, p. 67) says that the teacher and the teaching assistant has the opportunity of being with the child for the better part of the day.
They have the opportunity of monitoring the child closely, especially without its awareness. From this, they are able to detect the general behavior of the child that would be of concern. Leedy and Ormrod (2005, p. 89) say that this message should be communicated to the parent so that the parent knows his or her child better and therefore be in a better position to handle it when at home.
Learning at this stage is at its very basic level. The teaching assistant has the role of ensuring that these children learn the basics in various subjects like Science, Mathematics and Languages. According to Cogan and Webb (2002, p. 54), children at this age may not be able to learn things that require deep reasoning, for example irony.
They can only learn basic facts that can be observed within the immediate environment and be understood under such normal context (Ward 1999, p. 130). They may not comprehend why some natural things occur (for example death), or their importance. But they can understand basic logics like simple Mathematical calculation or language. As Bolman and Deal (1997, p. 31) state, learning at this stage can greatly be improved when teaching aids are used.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Teaching aids are items that can be used to show the learner the practical example of a learning experience. The researcher was involved in a practical session with students in a classroom set up and other outdoor learning activities. Various learning materials were used to help in this session. The session incorporated the teacher, the parent and the researcher, as the adults and knowledge imparters, and children as the knowledge receivers.
In this paper, the researcher reports on how he would have improved the learning process stated above.
The Childcare Center Activities As stated above, the teaching assistant was involved in a practical session with students in order to help in improving their learning. In this process, the teaching assistant, in junction with the teacher organized a forum where the learners were introduced to various teaching aids to help enhance various subjects.
Three subjects were involved in this research. In Mathematics, several aspects were put to test using various plastic materials (McCarthy
Social Networking Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages of Social Networking
Introduction In their quest to integrate with others, people develop various behaviors besides doing different things through which they create and maintain relationships and social networking being one of these. Social networking is the collection of people into various groups who have common interests and sometimes similar likes and dislikes.
It can also be defined as the creation of groups of people who want to share information and help each other in building relationships as it occurs in local villages and communities. It should be noted that, though social networking is possible and can easily be done in schools, villages and workplaces, it is rampant on the internet.
This is the case because unlike in the villages and schools where people might not want to share their information or personal views with one another, the internet has millions and probably billions of people who are ready to share information (Niciejewska 17).
This is also boosted by the fact that internet covers a relatively wide area and people want to get firsthand information from all parts of the world and therefore, find it more interesting to network online. However, though social networking has various advantages like enabling easy and first flow of information, it also has far reaching consequences including consuming time which could have been used for other productive activities.
Advantages of Social Networking Social networking is a common feature in the world nowadays and it is practically impossible for any person to say that the world can do without networking at any level. It is practiced from professional aspects to personal lives and by the old, the middle aged and the young generation a like. It has become more a way of life than it is a technological aspect of how people spend their leisure time which was the initial intention.
To begin with, social networking has decreased the costs of get in touch with people because the social networking sites that people use are mostly free. People seated in the comfort of their private rooms can easily communicate with different people in different continents within a minute at a cost that could have been used to communicate with one person.
On top of that, business people can easily learn the likes and dislikes as well as other behaviors of their target markets thus carrying a research at no cost and this enables them in designing their products according to the consumers’ need. In addition to that, people can easily advertise their goods and services on the social networking media for a negligible cost when they are networking (Rosenbloom 431).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, social networking helps in building confidence of people to one another. This is highly advantageous to business people who will want to create a good rapport with their customers so that they can maintain them for future purposes. Customers feel more confident if they interact with the business people both on professional and personal grounds and this makes them feel at easy.
It should also be noted that it is easy to get correct and objective information from the customers whom one interacts with both on professional and personal grounds than those with whom one interacts with on business reasons only (Smith and ze 338). On top of that, social networking has really improved the way people can offer after sale service since even if people are very far apart communication is easy and one can easily find his or her customers.
Moreover; social networking sites like facebook, twitter and others have increased the connections among people nowadays which have been advantageous in the long run. Many of the connections that started in the social networking sites have ended in face to face meetings and made longtime friends who help each other in many aspects of live.
In addition to that, social networking has increased the flow of knowledge from one person to another. Scientists, sociologists and people from other professions have been able to get information through the social networking sites therefore, increasing their knowledge base besides communicating their theories (Raje 76). This would have been impossible in other circumstances and some theories developed would have ended up being isolated and irrelevant.
In conjunction with that, social networking has also changed the way education is conducted and improved the interactions between teachers and students. Students have joined several social networking sites and teachers have embraced this technology therefore, making learning process more accommodating.
Extended classroom discussions, assignments, test and quizzes are found online nowadays and they can be accessed all day round making learning an interesting activity. On top of that, relationships between parents and teachers have been boosted by social networking sites whereby teachers and parents can communicate without having to meet face to face (Niciejewska 18). This not only saves time but also increases the chances of interaction between teachers and parents who most of the times are far apart.
On top of that, social networking has been used by various organizations to seek for support from the masses. It can be noted that nowadays, various political parts have successfully used social networking in their campaigns because it is cheap and reaches a huge number of people at the same time.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Networking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, social networking has been used by various groups to connect people seeking for employment with the available employment opportunities, thus increasing the employment rates in the community (Mason and Frank 7). This is common among college students who have even come up with their social networking site where the alumni give information to final year students about the employment opportunities that are available at the given time.
Disadvantages Despite the immense importance of social networking in the lives of people nowadays, it has brought about some very dire consequences which have not only cost people money but have also led to loss of lives. Social networking sites like facebook and twitter require that people provide their information concerning their age, gender, location and other important information.
This information most of the times reach people who are not known to the provider of information. Others use the information on social networking sites without the consent of the concerned people for their benefits (Harwood 64). In addition to that, it has been reported that criminals use social networking site to get information about their targets which has increased crime rates.
Additionally, social networking sites have become addictive and people spend a lot of their time either chatting in the social networking sites or trying to get new friends. This leads to various behavioral changes in a person and end up making people antisocial on personal grounds because they are consumed by the networking sites all the time and do not have time to socialize with their immediate neighbors.
On top of that, the time spent on social networking sites by people has been increasing exponentially since the discovery of the sites (DasGupta 159). This means that people have reduced the time spent on other issues to concentrate on social networking. Among the most affected time is the time people spend on work and this has led to loss of a lot of productive time thus, reducing efficiency in working places. This has made some organizations to prohibit their employees from visiting social networking sites during working hours.
When people are networking online, it is difficult to authenticate the information that they provide. Consequently, people have used this weakness of the internet to their advantage by giving false information about themselves to unsuspecting people in the social networking sites.
On top of that, children are also at risk of being misused especially by sex predators because they can easily access the children’s information from online sites and lure them into meeting face to face. In conjunction with that, the social networking sites make people to feel connected with the world while in actual sense they are not (Bradburne 193).
This has been proofed to increase the feeling of loneliness among people and thus leading to psychological and emotional trauma. In addition to that, there is no limit as to what people can post on the social networking sites and this has been a cause of concern as people have taken advantage of this to post provocative information and pictures which not only cause emotional trauma but also death.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Networking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Social networking is an inevitable aspect of human live because of the way that it has been incorporated in the day to day activities of people. People meet, connect, learn and do their business through social networking sites. With the advancement in technology, the importance of social networking is increasing and it is important that people learn how to deal with it given the adverse effects that it can have.
Works Cited Bradburne, Alan. Practical Rails Social Networking Sites. New York: Apress, 2007. Print.
DasGupta, Subhasish. Social Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Hershey: Idea Group, 2009. Print
Harwood, Mike. Security Strategies in Web Applications and Social Networking. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett, 2010. Print.
Mason, Robin, and Frank Rennie. E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook: Resources for Higher Education. London: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Niciejewska, Katharina. The Influence of Social Networks in Japanese Business-Kairetsu as a Japanese Network. Munchen: GRIN Verlag, 2007. Print.
Raje, Fiona. Negotiating the Transport System: User Contexts, Experiences and Needs. Farnham: Ashgate Publishers, 2007. Print.
Rosenbloom, Bert. Marketing Channels. Hoboken: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Smith, Peter, and Ze Zook. Marketing Communications: Integrating Offline and Online with Social Media. London: Kogan Page Publishers, 2011. Print.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Facebook Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages and Disadvantages of Facebook
Argument between the sources
Introduction Facebook is a social network site with several online users globally. Since its inception in 2004, it has enhanced social networking provisions between friends, families, and communities. Evidently, facebook has grown tremendously over the years. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg (a Harvard University scholar) who, before creating facebook, had intended to create an online blog where people could post their profiles, share their views, find friends, make announcements, and express their ethics (Ellis 269).
As a social networking system, facebook has gained considerable popularity with its impacts felt globally. On registration, it requires its users to be 13 years and above although some minors have been witnessed utilizing the site offensively. The site operates free of charge with users allowed to join and exit freely.
Financially, facebook generates bountiful revenues to its founders. It is used as an advertisement site where several companies (worldwide) post their ads at a considerable cost. On its use, provided one is computer literate, has a facebook account, and a reliable network, he or she can utilize the site. Precisely, facebook aims to be a globalized social networking system where individuals can intermingle online (Marshall 42).
Facebook equally offers some numerous provisions like hosting of images and videos to its users. It is important to agree that facebook is advantageous in various contexts due to its ability to enhance networking and relationships among individuals; nonetheless, it has bountiful disadvantages when considered critically.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Facebook It is critical to Interact, connect, and relate to other people through a credible online media. Contextually, the emergence of social networking sites has transfigured the world massively. Facebook helps in augmenting relationships, passing crucial information to people, knowing fresh products in the market, and granting instant chatting provisions among its users.
This indicates how facebook is an important innovation in the current world. Its use is widespread, a fact that helps in attracting more people to register while enhancing the use and viability of the site (Carter 60). Additionally, facebook gives its users opportunities to update their personal profiles, invite other friends and families as well as dispensing vital information to other users.
Evidently, it is possible to choose and invite friends of various kinds through the network. When registered users are many, there are substantial chances of finding desired individuals. Numerous parties must register in order to favor the process. Consequently, a network is created that accomplishes the facebook’s mandates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to agree that facebook is the most influential social media and a credible networking facility. As indicated earlier, one is able to connect to his or her family members, friends, colleagues, schoolmates, and new acquaintances. Facebook is free (no charges); thus, it creates an equal ground for all its users regardless of their respective financial status. It requires no periodic subscriptions evident in other social sites.
This is quite advantageous to those individuals who are financially challenged and would like to connect online. It is important to agree that facebook has revolutionized the world in the realms of communication and other relevant networking provisions. This is a critical phenomenon when considered critically. The site offers considerable interaction opportunities, a fact that has rendered the facebook quite purposeful in various contexts. Precisely, the site forms one of the best media used for online interaction capabilities.
Additionally, the use of facebook is hardly limited to regions, social classes, age differences, or any discriminative factors witnessed in other networks. Provided one has an account within the site, he or she can use it freely. The site is powered globally and accessible to anyone who has a computer or Smartphone with reliable network (Curtis 95). This is a considerable advantage to most of its users.
Another advantage is that the site has reliable privacy provisions that allow people to customize some of their personal details. This is applicable when one does not want other individuals to access some of his or her personal details (Lüsted 36). Consequently, it is imperative to agree that the security options offered by facebook are of some importance. Through facebook, it is possible to communicate safely with strangers.
Since everything is online, it becomes quite safer to transact information with strangers despite the security challenges. It is the mandate of the concerned user to scrutinize their chatting partners. Additionally, one can block other users from accessing his or her profile details. This is for integrity and security purposes.
Another advantage is that facebook is utilizable for dating purposes where individuals can date friends, attract new dates, and strengthen their current dates using the site. It is possible for one to find a perfect dating partner from facebook’s site due to availability of registered users (numerous) who possess similar interests.
Precisely, the site promotes initiation of new dating opportunities. Additionally, facebook offers remarkable business opportunities since organizations can advertise their products using the site exclusively. Concurrently, such commodities can attain a global limelight faster (Weintraub 92). This is helpful in the promotional aspects and other business provisions. Additionally, facebook has interesting online games, which are evidently popular, trendy, and addictive (Smith 63).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Advantage and Disadvantage of Facebook specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is crucial to consider various aspects of this provision in order to understand varying merits of social networking systems. Additionally, it is possible to use facebook as a site for hosting images and videos as indicated earlier. It provides a considerable storage space for each user. These photos and videos can be accessed anywhere. Other advantages include the use of facebook to build personal portfolios and as a source of information and news.
The demerits of facebook are equally bountiful. Firstly, the site is quite addictive to its users; hence, promoting time wastage. Some of the facebook users do not have time to engage in other constructive activities. Another disadvantage is the abuse of the site by some of its users.
Some people have posted obscene images and immoral videos that do not conform to the regulations governing the use of facebook (Bozarth 55). Concurrently, the site is abused by some minors despite the recent condemnations of the act. Additionally, the aspects of privacy might not apply if the user does not know how to set security provisions available on the site.
Unfortunately, the information intended to be private might go public unintentionally hence damaging reputations of the concerned parties. Additionally, the aspects of fake personal profiles are another concern in the facebook’s phenomenon. There is no verification criteria used to eradicate fake personal profiles; hence, some people might give misleading information. Additionally, the site labels every acquaintance as a friend, a fact that might be mistaken in case such acquaintances are of bad characters.
Argument between the sources Evidently, some sources support the emergence of facebook due to its merits in numerous instances; nonetheless, there are other sources, which argue strongly against this popular social networking site. There are advantages associated with the site as indicated earlier. This exhibits why facebook should be embraced as its use hurls globally.
The sources argue that the provisions set by facebook are considerable since its applicability is feasible in various contexts. The site is none discriminative and offers a substantial platform where people can interact, communicate, find friends, create portfolios, market their products, and attain numerous provisions helpful in life. For the sources that support facebook, it is evident that the site is innovative, significant, and helpful in various contexts.
Opposing sources equally front considerable arguments against the use of this popular site. The considerable impacts facebook poses to some of its users are behind this argument. Additionally, it is important to concur that facebook operates with novelty and practicality when scrutinized critically. It brings together the world’s communities with precision. Precisely, the studied sources differ considerably on their arguments either for or against the facebook’s phenomenon.
Conclusion The emergence of facebook has become a worldwide concern following its merits and other characterizing disadvantages. Being a social networking site, facebook has attracted numerous users globally indicating the popularity it has gained since its inception several years ago.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advantage and Disadvantage of Facebook by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It offers various opportunities to its users ranging from creation of personal profiles to interaction with friends and families. It also helps in meeting fresh acquaintances and reaching various personalities globally. These constitute its core advantages. Demerits incorporate time wastage, abuse by some users, addiction, fake profiles, and false reports posted by some ill-willed users. Precisely, facebook is both advantageous and disadvantageous.
Works Cited Bozarth, Jane. Social Media for Trainers: Techniques for Enhancing and Extending Learning. California, CA: Pfeiffer, 2010. Print.
Carter, Brian. The Like Economy: How Businesses Make Money with Facebook. Indianapolis, IN: Que Press, 2011. Print.
Curtis, Joan. The New Handshake: Sales Meets Social Media. California, CA: Praeger, 2010. Print.
Ellis, Dave. Becoming a Master Student. Massachusetts, MA: Wadsworth Cengage, 2010. Print.
Lüsted, Marcia. Mark Zuckerberg: Facebook Creator. Minnesota, MN: ABDO Pub, 2012. Print.
Marshall, Perry. Ultimate Guide to Facebook Advertising: How to Access 600 Million Customers in 10 Minutes. California, CA: Entrepreneur Press, 2011. Print.
Smith, Paul. Marketing Communications: Integrating Offline and Online with Social Media. Pennsylvania, PA: Kogan Page, 2011. Print.
Weintraub, Marty. Killer Facebook Ads: Master Cutting-Edge Facebook Advertising Techniques. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley
Skill development for young workers in Australia Essay essay help online: essay help online
Skill Development is an employment program that provides monetary support to qualified people, to help them acquire the skills training they require to go into the labor market. The program also offers financial support to suitable people who require skills development to get employment.
There are many problems and challenges that arise from this issue. For instance the working conditions of young workers pose a serious problem. Lack of training, harassment and lack of relaxing hours are problems being faced by numerous young workers all over the world. In Australia, the Australian Labor Party and the Australian council of Trade Unions say that the young workers get a “raw contract.”
The skill development for young workers in Australia is an issue that has caught the attention of many people. Shadow Minister for Employment and Training, Anthony Albanese, claims that young workers are exploited and used as cheap labor. He continues to say that the Federal Government has failed to act against employers who swindle young workers.
The skills development for Australian industry and young workers is one of the most serious issues facing the nation today (Ross 2002, p. 68). The Australian Council of Trade Unions compliance to the existing Senate Inquiry into present and future skills needs highlights the fundamental role that skill development plays to the community and the economy. There are problems with the outcomes and the quality of training delivery.
Training delivery is not at all times integrated with the industry needs, the skills development and the employment outcomes. Numerous young workers are disenfranchised from training and education and as a result they are experiencing marginalization in the labor-market. The needs of young workers for skills development and training are also not being addressed efficiently.
In the year 2001, only 80% of young workers in Australia attained a Year 12 or VET qualification. The relatively low level of skill development limits the chances of many young workers in Australia for economic independence and robs industry of inestimable abilities.
Australia needs to increase its skill development effort for the existing young workers. Numerous industries have low levels of skills development expenditure.The Australian Council of Trade Unions recommends that at least $350 million should to be allocated to a new workplace-based skill development fund that is more suitable for training existing young workers (Stinson 2005, p. 127).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This financial support is supposed to be applied in contracted target areas, including skill scarcities, upcoming and growth areas and organizations with low-rates of structured training.
Often, young people report problems at their place of work including, lack of information regarding terms and conditions of employment, bullying, maltreatment and sexual harassment. Skill development for young workers in Australia is crucial because young workers should acquire new skills due to the changing workplace and also to meet the requirements for the new and growing industries (Stinson 2005, p. 57).
Employers ought to be committed to establish skill development in their workforce and contribute substantially to the expenditure of structured workforce training. Skill development is valuable for young workers: they acquire the needed confidence to carry out their duties.
The government has come up with strategies in addressing this issue. For example, the New Apprenticeship project is offering opportunities for young workers to obtain skills training and development because the workplace is changing and the industries are growing. The government has also come up with laws that young workers in Australia against bullying, sexual harassment and maltreatment.
The employers are required to contribute significantly to the skill development costs and establish effective skill development projects (Stinson 2005, p. 97). Young workers are experiencing marginalization in the labor-market due to lack of inadequate skills training and development. The government is establishing structured training which ought to be undertaken in line with a contracted workplace training plan.
The ACTU proposes to implement a program with training representatives to encourage union members to undertake learning and training and to help young workers with learning difficulties by endorsing fundamental skills programs in the work-place.
The government is also raising awareness among young workers about the benefits of structured industry training and skill development (Stinson 2005, p. 67). This is being done through promoting negation between young workers and employers for the execution of workplace skill development plans, including mechanisms that enable appropriate account of the recognition of existing competencies.
We will write a custom Essay on Skill development for young workers in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government has also established an association between employees and bodies like industry advisory bodies and registered training agencies to support structured training and skill development at the workplace and enable young workers to participate effectually within workplace appraisals and skills, to develop and negotiate skills development plans and undertake workplace evaluation.
In 2011, the government of Australia came up with strategies to assist existing young workers to acquire skill development and career opportunities through acknowledgment of their existing skills and advancing their skills base (Stinson 2005, p. 45). They also ensured accessibility of quality nationally recognized skills training and qualifications for all young workers.
The government has established many employment agencies to address the issue of skill development for young workers in Australia because the future of rising industries depends on it. It has ensured increased support for young workers with disabilities in traineeships and apprenticeships. It has also increased the participation of Indigenous young people in the labor-market.
The greatest objective of the government is to fund the skill development programs in the country so that young workers can obtain skills training. Without adequate financial support, it is difficult to execute the structured skill training plans (Richardson 2000, p. 231). Even though the government has initiated different strategies to improve the issue concerning skill development, there are areas that require substantial attention.
For example, there are problems when it comes to the quality of skills training delivery and end results. Training delivery is not responsive to industry needs, work outcomes and skills development. As a result, the industries in Australia are continuing to experience skills shortages and retention difficulties. Quality training focusing on skills development ought to commence. Training should focus on developing the skills of young workers.
The government of Australia needs to increase its training effort in skill development for the current workforce. Numerous industries in the country have low levels of training expenses (Price 2011, p. 356). Only two in ten employers are presently training to address skills shortages.
Skills development for young people is very imperative because it is the future for the industries and the economy of Australia. Young people should be conversant with what is going on in the existing industries because the workplace is changing. Skill development for young workers is a critical issue facing Australia. Many young people need to be trained so that they can take part in developing the industries and the economy of their country.
Young workers are facing discrimination and bullying in the place of work and many employers have turned into swindlers. Many young workers are not economically independent because they do not have the required training. This is as a result depriving industries of valuable skills. There ought to be vocational training and effective work-based learning. Increase in skills training effort is also needed for the existing young laborforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Skill development for young workers in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Priority ought to be given to mutual planning covering industry sectors in areas of young workers hire, contracts and regular employment (Hunt 2005, p. 97). The government of Australia is dedicated to ensuring that young workers are taking part in making decisions that have an effect on their lives.
The youth action plan outlines the significance of ensuring the contribution of young workers in decision making and delivering quality services (Jimenez 2006, p. 123). Skill development agencies ought to come up with ways that attracts and retains young workers to facilitate laborforce sustainability and ensure that the services of the government are receptive to the needs of young workers.
The government has recognized young workers’ rights to contribute in the growth of skill development programs, policies and services. The government is building on young workers’ knowledge and skills, recognizing their diversity, their backgrounds and their situations.
The government plan is to ensure that young workers’ skills are well-developed and they are effectually utilized in the workforce (Ross 2002, p. 45). The office of youth in Australia has worked with young workers to develop an account that focuses on training, skill development and mobility.
The government agencies target on improving the situation of young workers in Australia and promoting the employment benefits in the public sector. The agencies are also identifying young workers in Australia; they give them an opportunity to develop their skills.
References Jimenez, E 2006, Australia reconstructed: ACTU/TDC Mission to Western Europe, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, Hobart.
Hunt, I 2005, The New Industrial Relations in Australia, Federation Press, Melbourne.
Price, R 2011, Young People and Work, Ashgate Publishing, Canberra.
Ross, L 2002, Works Councils in Australia: Future Prospects and Possibilities, Federation Press, New Castle.
Richardson, S 2000, Reshaping the Labour Market: Regulation, Efficiency and Equality in Australia, Cambridge University Press, New Castle.
Stinson, R 2005, Job Prospects Australia, Yorkcross Pty Ltd, Darwin.
Perils of Email Communication Essay college essay help near me
Communication is an exceptionally crucial thing in the well-being of any kind of creature. One can be tempted to believe that even animals have their own ways of passing information. Since humans are social, every individual at some point has needs they cannot satisfy on their own. This calls for effective communication.
Achieving effective communication is not an easy task. There have been cases of unattended businesses, improper execution of duties, unsuccessful meetings, and sour business deals resulting from unclear communication. This often results from the use of a wrong mode of communication or using the correct mode wrongly (Khosrowpour, 2002).
This problem becomes even worse for companies. A company is a setting in which a large number of people coexist and the effective operation of any given department heavily relies on the others. Delivery of the desired outstanding results by the company can be at stake if the people in charge of channeling the information inter-departmentally are not careful on the kind of communication modes they employ.
This problem will take different modes. For example, in a company, the kind of communication form used by the managers to contact their juniors can sour their relationship (Ahdoot, 2007). As in the case of emails, this can arise due to delayed decision-making, wrong impression, misinterpretation or even lose of message.
In an event where managers send emails while in the middle of something else, they are most prone to making one or two spelling mistakes. This could taint the image of the manager as a person incapable of effective communication. This may result in loss of respect, which may translate to decreased efficiency in the company’s operations and hence low profits if not losses.
Misinterpretation of the information in the email can lead to the recipient giving seriously wrong feedback (Dana, 2012). In business dealings, message misinterpretation may mean serious loss and marginal returns. A simple mistake in an email, say wrong stressing of words and improper diction, shows rudeness and may injure feelings of the other party, leading to pull out.
Delayed decision-making can mean wastage of many opportunities. This could be dangerous to the firms operations (Jimenez
Kinds of Cement Essay essay help online: essay help online
Cement refers to the powder that forms one of the key ingredients used to manufacture concrete. In the Roman Empire, where it originated, it served as an essential component in construction. The source of the modern cement is limestone, calcium and silicon. At times, aluminium and iron are included in its production.
Cement’s main use is to manufacture concrete inclusive of sand, gravel and water since the mixture strengthens after hardening. This resulting mixture can withstand high pressure due to its high compression strength (Mackie14). Additionally, before hardening, the mixture can undergo modelling to create various shapes.
Thus, with this understanding, it is necessary to distinguish the different types of cement, which can allow someone to make either porous or watertight models. Depending on the cement type, a variety of structures could demonstrate the features of cement.
Portland cement is one of the major kinds of cement mostly used in concrete. This type of cement originated from a British bricklayer, Joseph Aspdin, in1824. Occasionally, people misunderstand the name Portland as a brand name, but it originated from the colour of the natural limestone in the isle of Portland.
The other types of cement include the blended and the hydraulic cement (Hanson 28). Essentially, both the Portland and the hydraulic cements are hydraulic cements.
The hydraulic cement comprises of cements, which have a generic nature in the construction industry. Furthermore, it is associated to any cement mixable with water before hardening. Due to this significant feature, the modern construction often uses the hydraulic cement. Among the three types of cement, there exist different forms, which are magnificent in the construction industry.
The Portland cement is a form of hydraulic cement, but with its own unique components and types. This type of cement contains the hydraulic calcium silicates, which differentiate it from the other types of cement. Under the Portland cement, there exist eight different varieties which range from Type one to Type five (Ryall et al.16).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, within each type, there are two varieties, which portray the level of mixture of its components and the usage. Type one and Type one-A constitute of the Portland cement used for most of the basic construction.
Type two and Type two-A constitute of the cement made up of tricalcium aluminate, but does not exceed 8 percent of its input components. Thus, it is suitable for hot areas. Concerning this feature, this form of cement can withstand moderate heat of hydration nature.
Type three and Type three-A are finer despite exhibiting the characteristics of Type one cement. This aspect enables it to strengthen faster. Type four takes longer to strengthen, but once it has strengthened it lasts longer compared to the other types. Lastly, Type five is made from less than 5 percent of tricalcium that gives it the high resistance to sulphate.
Blended cement is a form of hydraulic cement, but is originates from a mixture of one type of cement material with another. The main materials used to make the blended cement include the slag cement and Portland cement. In addition to these components, there is silica fume, pozzolan, fly ash, calcined clay and hydrated lime.
Because of this mixture, there exist two types of blended cement. These include Type one-Y and Type two-Y (Mackie 81). Mixing Portland and slug in a furnace produces Type one-Y cement. On the other hand, the source of the Type two-Y is a mixture of Portland and pozzolan. In this case, the element Y represents the amount of the later material, which makes up the cement type.
The hydraulic cement hardened because of its mixture with water consists of six varieties. This form of categorisation entails its usage in the construction industry, components and resistance to sulphate. The six types of hydraulic cement include Type GU, Type HE, Type MS, Type HS, Type MH and Type LH (Gebhardt 48).
Type GU refers to the hydraulic cement made from both Portland and blended cement. It is usable for general purposes. Type HE entails the cement with a high early strength mostly used for construction purposes. Type MS refers to cement characterised by moderate resistance to sulphate.
We will write a custom Essay on Kinds of Cement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Type HS concerns cement with a high resistance to sulphate. Type MH refers to cement which can withstand moderate heat of hydration. For Type LH, it can withstand low heat of hydration. Considering these forms of cement, the derivation of any generic cement can relate to the need of its usage. This implies that a mixture of any of the above types could result in a new type of cement.
The categorisation of cement describes the different forms of cement use in the construction industry. Additionally, the categorisation demonstrates the different forms of cement manufactured in a variety of places based on the available components (Frohnsdorff 32). The attainment of flexibility is possible since the construction industries can use any type of cement according to the project.
After mastering the different types of cement, it is essential to understand various forms of cement mixtures used to make concrete. This art needs specialised individuals in order to achieve the desired outcome exhibited by the cement. Additionally, cement could facilitate various projects as long as its characteristics are easily accessible to the constructors.
Works Cited Frohnsdorff, Geoffrey. Blended cements: a symposium. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM, 1986. Print.
Gebhardt, Ronald F. Rapid methods for chemical analysis of hydraulic cement. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM, 1988. Print.
Hanson, Todd, and Ouyang Chengsheng. Evaluation of the Duggan test for concretes made of different types of cements. Ames, Iowa: Iowa Dept. of Transportation, 2000. Print.
Mackie, John. The cement of the universe; a study of causation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974. Print.
Ryall, Mark, Godwin Parke, and Edison Harding. The manual of bridge engineering. London: Thomas Telford, 2000. Print.
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Report on International Development – Syria Report argumentative essay help
Executive Summary The country of Syria “is an Asian country located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan and Palestine to the south, the Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon to the west (Benn 2010 p. 138). Some people like to refer to it as the Euphrates, famous from industrialization and civilization of Mesopotamia.
Syria is in the headlines currently for all the wrong reasons one may say. These reasons are based on the riots to demonstrate about the politics of the country and the struggle for ‘democracy’. Devlin indicates that, “The People and Their Culture Syria is a Muslim society, that is to say, six out of seven Syrians identify themselves as Muslims” (1983 p. 25).
And the “Syrians still resent the loss of so many lands and peoples formerly associated with their country. Syria’s people are mostly Arabs, and the major religion is Islam, although there are other ethnic and religious minorities” (Morrison and Woog, 2008 p. 16).
Once a revolution is experienced in a state, there may be many reasons for that to happen. One may be able to emancipate people from political tyranny or poor state of the country. Whichever the reasons are, this paper examines why Syria is classified as a developing country.
The World Bank definition of developing countries includes all low income and middle income countries (except economies with a population of less than 30000), including countries in transition (Ross and Harmsen, 2001 p.4). The question then should be, is Syria a developing economy country or is it developed? The paper tries to examine the situation in the country focusing mainly on the status of its economy and why the country is a developing country.
Statement of the Problem In the recent past, Syria has hit the headlines because of its security situation. The security situation became worse because of the uprising popularly known as the Arab uprising which hit countries like Libya, Morocco, Egypt and now Syria which are Arab countries. It is rare for the masses to rise against their governments in protest.
Uprising usually comes in when people realise they are being oppressed or have been made political slaves of a given family lineage. The situation in the Arab countries has been associated with long serving heads of state. With the world economy dwindling and food prices escalating, the masses have experienced inflation in their houses. Generally, people are facing extreme conditions and the gap between the rich and the poor is widening which may make people to revolt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the situation in Syria, what would be the state of the economy of Syria? Developing, underdeveloped and developed countries are the terms used to explain the economic status of a country. The characteristics which are common to these countries are specified by the definition itself. Poverty, income and accumulated capital backwardness in technique by the standards of North America, Western Europe and Australia.
But even with respect of these characteristics, there are big differences between the under developed countries and the rich under developed countries and is close to the poorest advanced country (Perthes, 2004 p.4). The state of the economy of one country as compared to the other determines whether it will trade competitively. The economic growth of a country as well depends mainly on the policies and legislation that encourages business activities while protecting the consumer.
The work of the Central Bank to control the flow of money and curbing of money crimes is also very important. With this information, the basis of this study is set and the main point is to analyse and conclude that Syria is a developing country. It will also be important to analyse the actual state of the economy of Syria. In summative phrase, the main theme is to prove that Syria is considered a developing country.
Objectives The main objective of this report is to explain why Syria is a developing country. To achieve this objective, it would be subdivided to more discrete objectives that can be quantified as follows:
To find out the indicators of underdevelopment
To find out the remedies put in place by the government in improving the state of the economy in Syria
To find out the problems preventing the moving out of underdevelopment in Syria and why are the remedies are not being effected effectively
What is the political will in the improvement of the economic status
What are factors contributing mainly to the state of the economy in Syria
As this report tries to sum up the objectives above, it is proper to state that in Syria, “a state agricultural policy also becomes more essential, now that the obstacles to expansion of the cultivated area have been removed by mechanization and water control it is time to think of better farming” (Taheri 2002 p. 22). Perhaps these statements that may have been made years ago would have made sense now that the economy is far from a developed country’s economy.
Ethical Considerations on the Report The work reported in this work is purely based on the available information from academic and credible internet sources. The report is a collection of information trying to analyse the state of the economy of Syrian as indicated by the scholarly and other peoples work. The report is none biased to the best of the ability of the writer. However, some of the information may not be verified but the sources of the information are credible.
Extreme care is to taken in giving fair reporting of the information and as accurate as possible. It would be awkward to imply religion, racial or even economic discrimination. The careful selection of the sources of information presented in this report gives it the credibility that may be desired.
We will write a custom Report on Report on International Development – Syria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other issues relating to copying someone else’s work without person is well taken care of by citation and actual request for information. Otherwise, all information relating to information rights were strictly adhered to. The work is also presented in a way that does not prejudice the Syrian people in any way.
The Economic Status as Indicated by World Bank Economy (2010)
GDP $59.4 billion Real growth rate (2010) 3.0%. Per capita GDP (2010) $2,893. Natural resources Petroleum, phosphates, iron, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower. Agriculture Products–wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets, and other fruits and vegetables; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, and other dairy products. Arable land–33%. Industry: Types–petroleum, textiles, pharmaceuticals, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seed extraction, and car assembly. Trade: Exports (2010 est.)–$12.84 billion: crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fibre, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat. Major markets (2007)–Italy 22%, France 11%, Saudi Arabia 10%, Iraq 5%, Egypt 4%, Jordan 4%. Imports (2008 est.)–$17.2 billion f.o.b.: machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, and paper. Major suppliers (2007)–Russia 10%, China 8%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Ukraine 6%, South Korea 5%, Turkey 4%. In 2010 the European Union (EU) was Syria’s biggest trading partner, accounting for 22.5% of Syrian trade, followed by Iraq (13.3%), Saudi Arabia (9%) and China (6.9%.) Turkey was in fifth place with 6.6% and Russia was ninth with 3%. *according to International Monetary Fund (IMF 2010) statistics
The data above shows the average transactions in terms of the economic activities being carried out by the Syrian people in income generation. These factors generally explain the state of the economy. The relationship between exports and economic growth, including the direction of causality between the two variables has been a subject of much debate in the international economics literature over the past two decades (Kaushik, Arbenser and Klein 2008 p. 155).
It is vividly clear that the relationship between imports and exports of a particular country mainly determines the state of the economy. Despite this fact, other players may come like the ability of the citizens to afford basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. From the above report of World Bank, it is clear that Syria is a developing country.
According to Benn (2010, p.8), “in its extreme form, it is characterized by lack of basic human needs such as adequate and nutritious food, clothing, clean water and health services.” Agba et al (2009, p. 1) believe that poverty is a state where people lack basic human commodities which are inadequate food, clothes and housing. If the poverty level of a country is that one that 20% or more people are living below the poverty line then, even if the country has a balanced importation versus exportation, it is terribly underdeveloped.
When we look at the economic indicators in comparison with the population, an assumption that one can make is that the country is a middle economy country. A middle economy country is a country that is developing at a very high rate per year. The Syria crisis could be a deterrence of the growth.
The installation of proper development policies that encourage investment both local and international would be a brilliant thing that any government must do. Another thing is that the government must be in a position to work ways of increasing exports in other goods other than petroleum products and tourism so as to encourage foreign income.
The World Bank (2012) classifies countries using some Criteria. According to World Bank (2012), “Economies are divided according to 2010 GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method.” The groups are classified as; low income, $1,005 or less; lower middle income, $1,006 – $3,975; upper middle income, $3,976 – $12,275; and high income, $12,276 or more (“Data” 2012). From the assumption, Syria is a developing economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Report on International Development – Syria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Array of Indicators
What would be the indicators of underdevelopment in Syria? A nation that is developing is defined as country whose cumulative average income is much below that of industrialised states. Such economies are characterised by low volumes of exports and traditional agricultural techniques.
Food supply in these countries does not meet the demands of the population. “Developing nations have also been called underdeveloped nations,” (Hirsch, Kett and Trefil 2102 pp. 316). Having this in mind, one can be able to list the indicators of Syria as a developing country. From the IMF classification, it is evident that Syria is a middle lower income country. According to Syria Agriculture (2012), the following indicators are listed: “
Farming methods are crude: The average farmer’s reliance on out dated and inefficient irrigation methods is a major obstacle to improving agricultural outputs. The introduction of drip, sprinkler, and subsurface irrigation methods is handicapped because of the limited amount of money available to the common farmer. Because of these shortcomings, Syria is susceptible to food shortages during long droughts.”
The decline of oil reserves, therefore, casts a shadow of uncertainty on the sustainability of the current Syrian economic program as oil revenues decline, the government could be faced with hard times (Cavendish 2006 pp. 280). This kind of economic activity is serious pegged on the amount of the reserves that are available for export. The economy mainly depends on the oil industry but it is affected by extremist activities and terrorism. Sometimes the country has been put under economic sanctions which are not healthy.
According to Sukkar (2006, p.33), “Al-Utri attributed the moderate performance of the Syrian economy to eight negative factors which will be explored more fully in the subsequent analysis:
Weakness in the performance of some economic sectors and low personal income
Population growth pressures
Dependency of export on declining oil production
Small return on investment
Low levels of national and foreign investments
Low productivity and growing unemployment
Low levels of wages and corresponding low levels of incentives
Poor technical standards in the production sectors.”
The indicators listed above are characteristics of an unstable middle economy of the state of Syria. It is clear that if there is a problem in any economy in its production and labour channels, then one can conclude that the economy is facing hard times in the economic development of the country.
With the facts presented, it is evident that the economy of this country needs a number of remedies in order to forge forward and move away from a low middle income economy to a higher middle income economy as the oil reserves are getting depleted. Therefore, one can conclude that Syria is a developing country (United Nations Development Program, 2012).
Remedies of the indicators of Underdevelopment
In every situation a country gets into, there are avenues through which it can forge its prosperity ahead. This purely depends on the political will and the workmanship of the people of the country. The policies that will be designed and followed to the later will enable the country to do great things in economic development. Syria put in place such remedies to the obstacles of development in the country and are examined below.
At times, the economic policies of a country do not rhyme with the demand of its local market thereby, going against each other. This in turn makes it difficult for the government to go beyond its boundaries to look for foreign markets (“AKDN” 2012). The country is using development partners in wealth creation and foreign investments to increase employment opportunities which are not enough for the ever growing population.
A high population may be a very good market for locally produced goods but if production is not sufficient, there is extreme pressure on the available products. That will cause an undesirable effect of high prices and occasional lack of commodities for sale. The increase in population should be looked at carefully and be controlled as much as possible with regard to the growth of the economy.
For instance, “the Aga Khan foundation introduced the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED) and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture which are proposing investments that will combine tourism development with conservation and re-use of landmark monuments, rehabilitation of historic areas, urban planning, and wide-ranging socio-economic development to boost living conditions in historic areas and create new opportunities for residents” (Aga Khan Development Network 2012). This may help in the improvement of the tourism sector which will increase employment opportunities in Syria.
Talking about policies that affect both international and local business in the country is a thing that the government has been trying to do in order to make the country sail ahead. Simmers et al (2008, p.67) stated that, “as indicated by the U.S. Library of Congress, spot shortages of basic commodities occurred frequently and industry operated far below capacity because of routine power outages.
Foreign exchange reserves plummeted, the trade deficit widened, and real gross domestic product (GDP) growth fell as economic difficulties compounded. Although the government instituted limited reforms to respond to the burgeoning crisis, Syria’s pressing economic problems required a radically restructured economic policy to improve future economic performance”.
It is clear that the policy makers and implementers have not thought of far reaching effects of the policies they make and try to implement. Its trade partners like Iraq have been in a series of crisis activities which have been making trade with its neighbours very difficult. It is recorded that Iraq that was under war had sanctions but since Syria is its neighbour, it was allowed to trade with it (Simmmers et al 2008, p.9).
As it engaged in the trade of essential commodities, the country helped Iraq to smuggle oil to other countries which was against the sanctions that were put. This made Syria to be charged at the United Nations Security council and later, Iraq was attached and it lost because the pipeline they purported they were trying was destroyed. These and many more instability issues affected largely its endeavours in economic policies hence, dragging it to be a developing economy (Aldosari 2002, p.6).
Modernisation theory, “sees economic development as a process by which traditional societies become more complex and differentiated, in order for economic development to take place, modernisation theory proposes that countries have to change their traditional attitudes, values and institutions” (Andersen and Taylor 2007 p. 252).
Syria however, did not embrace much change in its development. For instance, it did not open the internet services as fast and the telecommunication facilities were so much controlled by the government. If some of these ways of disseminating information cannot be liberalised so that people can communicate freely and effectively, a country may lag behind.
A number of Syrians are Muslim extremists which mean that they had to conserve some values that may not be good for economic development. An example perhaps could be the fact that Muslim women cannot work in a bar would really affect the tourism sector in one way or another.
Things like satellite TV, Facebook, twitter and other social networks were not allowed in the country. The information system was strictly controlled implying that there was no innovation or even copying from the outer world. However, since the effects of these restrictions were evident, the government allowed people to access social sites.
In February 2011, Syria announced on a Wednesday that it would reopen access to social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. For the first time since 2007, Syrians were able to access these sites freely without going through proxy servers abroad (“France 24”, 2011). As the news spread, the internet activity was evident because people who were under restriction and had devised mechanisms of manoeuvring around found using the facility very easy.
Some sites and blogs were never left open to the public. This may have been confused with westernisation which in their view is a bad thing. The hate of the so called Western Culture would have influenced the thinking. This in itself indicates signs of a developing country.
Analysis of the Alternative Perspectives
In any country, the dependency ratio is very critical in its economic status. If the economy’s population is largely containing working youth with less people depending on them, the growth of the economy may be fast.
The Age dependency ratio of the old (% of working age population) in Syria was last reported at 6.67% in 2010, and the age dependency ratio (% of working-age population) in Syria was last reported at 69.05 in 2010 according to a World Bank report released in 2011 (Trading Economics 2012).
This indicates the population that depends on the working population is very high hence, a slow growth in development. If this won’t change in a few years, then Syria may as well retard back to the low income economy rather than a developing economy that it is right now.
Chaitani’s goal is to show that the approaches to economic relations between Syria and Lebanon before and after independence did not necessarily follow the lines that one would have expected (2008 p. 268). He first lists three main groups of economic and political voices which are Syrian Arab nationalists, Lebanese Arab nationalists and Lebanese nationalists.
These divisions within the Syrian people did not work well for the economy of the country. Some of them were seen to be detrimental to the economy of the country because of the extremist’s activities within the Syrian economy. It is clear that a divided nation with political agitation is not healthy to economic development but scares aware investments.
In plain words, localism is the use of political philosophies which prioritize the local, that mainly support local production and consumption of goods, local control of government, and promotion of local history, local culture and local identity.
Clearly, this is something that can affect trade directly in the Syrian Republic. Trade is something that must involve exchange of goods and services. Syria has to be ready to buy goods from countries it sells oil to.
Hooks indicates that, “feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and exploitation” (2000 p. 1). For sure, the past was so blurred because any economic opportunity was mainly directed to men. This meant that women cannot do certain things in the society just because they are women.
This has remained an issue in Syria for quite long because of the traditional and religious beliefs. Country’s that embraced the feminism strategy surely realised changes in lifestyles because the number of dependants on the working was drastically reduced. For Syria, this is still a challenge.
Other factors that can affect the economy are things that people believe in and which define their way of life. Religion can be defined as the spiritual beliefs and practices of an individual (Simmers et al. 2008 p. 291). Religion obviously affects people’s way of life and their day to day activities. Some religious practices are backward whereas others enable people to practice moderation in all that they do which is a good thing. In Syria however, Islamic extremism has made the economy to have little or no progress at all.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is clear that Syria is a low middle economy country referred to as a developing country. With its numerous economic issues like unemployment, classify it as an underdeveloped country. Its economy solely depends on oil production, tourism and commerce.
Industrialisation is not coming out clearly. Another issue is that it has been in various political crises, its neighbours too have experienced political instabilities which has adversely affected its economy from time to time. Its implication of helping Iraq to smuggle oil outside the sanctions that had been put on them was a setback in its economic operations.
Reference List Agba, M., et al 2009, Poverty, Food Insecurity and the Rebranding Question in Nigeria, Canadian Social Science, Vol. 5, No. 6,Pp., Canadian Research
Strategic Planning Essay college admission essay help
Executive Summary and Recommendations Planning is one important factor that should be adhered to in every organization. A strategic plan should not be compared to the normal vision or mission statements. It is supposed to provide a structure for decision making in a competitive and dynamic environment.
In the current century, there have been rapid changes in the technological field. This has resulted into the need for updates in the structure of various organizations. Health organizations should have strategic tools for planning. These plans for the field of health are to be developed in local, regional and national level.
John Hopkins Hospital is one of the renowned hospitals that is claimed to be providing the best services in the health care and service sector. The main theme or plan for all their operations has been geared towards risk prevention.
This plan has been achieved by creation of a culture for safety. This safety culture covers patients, the public and the service providers who are the clinicians and doctors. Other major significant strategic issues are the adherence to information management systems and provision of quality care.
Recommendations The recommendations are as indicated below;
Hospitals should be institutions that give people an interface for recovery. For this reason, there should be a laid up strategy for monitoring patients improvement even if it means following up with the patients.
The hospitals should offer preventive visits. In addition, they should advocate for more health insurance coverage and public health programmes together with staff capacity building programmes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, there should be a medium for providing increased awareness on disease, on contraction of the disease, preventive measures and awareness on good nutrition practices. These recommendations could have been in the plans of the hospital but the achievements are the most appropriate step in attaining success in the health sector.
Internal Assessment This can be achieved by conducting a drill or just going through the management practices of the hospitals, also, one could have a look at the achievements. An internal assessment is good because it provides a basis for the functionality of an institution.
Following John Hopkins Hospital, this has been attained by assessing the following;
Safety and health
Innovation here refers to the access of technological resources. It should also involve the number of staff can utiliz the current technology during operation. In addition, innovation should also apply to customer training from time to time due to the dynamic effects of change in the health care system.
Customer satisfaction is very important and this is rated as highly important at John Hopkins. Factors that are considered are such as readmission of patients, the waiting time intervals, patient’s case cancellations, the length of stay by patients in the hospital, provision of complaints by patients on a week basis, emergency preparedness for example, a patient is triaged within the first fifteen minutes of arrival and the rate of discharge of patients by the hospital.
Productivity has also been adhered to towards the positive end. That is in terms of bed occupancy, the cost per produce, the ratio of resource utilization, the duration of activity or hour’s unit of activity and lastly the employee performance against contract.
Another internal factor is on the issue of health and safety. This is one significant point of success for John Hopkins as they have developed a form of safety culture for guidance. This is applied for both customers and the clinicians. This strategy is oriented to people and it involves various aspects.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, it is believed that harm is untenable and there should be ways to prevent it or see unto ways of working it out. Another factor is good listening capabilities. At times it is important to listen to the concern of colleague’s and even clients to be able to understand them.
In addition, everyone has the obligation to belong to a team and apply system approach in the health center to work out safety issues. These would prevent the issues of hazards that are uncalled for.
Quality measures are related to customer services and even provision of benefits to workers. At John Hopkins, this has been carefully looked into starting with customer satisfaction services. The patients are provided with good and quality health care services.
Customer satisfaction is significant because it will always attract other customers hence increase the revenue of the hospital or institution. This has been one of the strong points of John Hopkins hospital. Their ability to give a satisfying approach to their services has acted as a stepping stone to their fame. The hospital have been mentioned to be the best health service providers worldwide.
In addition, provision of quality healthcare has also been a result of effective management that is goal oriented. Having quality services means owning the best kind of technology in the world. It is only through innovation that success has become attainable.
The use of sophisticated machines results to extensive analysis and research in the health sector. In the current world, reliable research work and health systems have been accorded to institutions that have the most current technology. This has acted as a stepping stone for John Hopkins in achieving their strategic goals set.
Growth on the other hand cannot be explained in better words but by the use of advancement. The advancement in quality services have led to the increase in customers in the hospital. Consequently, the clients have brought about expansion which eventually has led to the growth of the hospital at large.
The cost of health services has been considerate for the purposes of reaching out in the community. Having high cost health services could result from use of highly sophisticated equipments, but this is not the case at John Hopkins because to be able to reach out for people with great health needs, it meant that the cost had to be made favorable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Planning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This plan to provide affordable services was also a plan to help the institution reach out for the goals outlined in the strategic plan.
External Environment The external environment is more of a business initiative. The John Hopkins Hospital had just suffered low patient turn up in the hospital in a period of two years. This was a form of threat to the institutions. This is because their sources of clientele were the patients.
This is not to say that they wanted more people to fall ill, but it was a loss to the institution. The low turnout of patients was caused by poor management. In the event of reviving the institution’s fame, the managing director then sought to check on what could act as an opportunity for business in the hospital. This initiative was called the business continuity initiative.
Its main aim was to start patient admission and intake procedures. This was to help the administration and other departments to live in an environment that is prepared health wise. Some of the initiatives included; achieving recovery of objectives by preventing interruptive healthcare, education on medical care, customer service and research.
A form of opportunity was on training the clinicians on knowledge of how they can respond to mass casualty incidences. This involves disaster management and prevention.
This would give the hospital an upper hand in being accredited with universal standardization marks. This had also been covered in the event of readiness.
These external factors can be adhered to when follow up is done. Patients follow up would require commitment whether there is a large number of patients or just few of them. In addition, improving on disaster management and customer service would be helpful when the staff is fully armed with capacity building strategies and training is also important.
Lastly, helping patients to acquire health insurance coverage would be a commendable step. This is mainly for those patients with manageable diseases and all other patients who could find it hard to raise fee for medication once.
Strategic Objective To provide Safety to Patients
This strategy is significant to the hospital. It should take place for a period of about three to five years. The main responsibilities involved include; creating a safe environment for communication so as to attend to the concerns of the patient, focusing on team work, engaging families and friends on safety care process and plan for the resources that would be used in ensuring that safety measures are adhered to.
In addition, there is a good possibility to reduce complexities in safety matters and ensure that all stakeholders involved such as family, clinician, and the community work hand in hand to form a team.
Team work is great because it engages an individual to the feel of the social aspect which is very important to an individual who is or has recuperated. This strategy on safety is significant because a clinician is able to monitor a patient’s journey to good and great health.
It is more satisfying to see the effort placed in such an amazing way which can be very rewarding when adhered to and followed properly with discipline.
To do Review on Diseases that are communicable in Public Health
Communicable diseases are one of the most interesting diseases. They are quite challenging because they are community based. The review is to involve working in the grass roots level to identify factors that predispose people to such diseases.
The review is to account for the following; planning a control programme that will ensure settings organized for emergency. Another plan is on how to control the spread and contraction of such diseases. This would be through awareness campaigns in the streets and every place where there are residential homes and suburbs.
The awareness campaign is also to include ways of managing such a disease once a person has contracted it. As long as the disease is not deadly, it can be managed by the members of the community themselves.
The timing of these procedures should be on short term basis. This is because such diseases also take a short while to spread. Therefore, using the best gadgets, it is possible to put up preventive measures and also to be able to manage the disease as long as there is constant cooperation.
A solution should also be given out after monitoring and evaluating the communicable disease. The evaluation plans should discuss the clinical features, the risk factors and management of the diseases.
Important also is the review of the possibility of the resurgence of communicable diseases that could have caused havoc in the past. This approach merged with operational planning could help manage and prevent the spread of the diseases and even alleviate them from the face of the earth.
To practice continual staff Training Practices
This is rather expensive in relation to the latest forms of change. Of late, the technological advancement has been taking place at a much rapid state. This calls for rapid measures that would ensure that no institution is left behind. Training is to be done on a frequent basis.
This includes new employees training. For instance, fresh graduates who are always absorbed in many institutions need prior experience. As they are being trained, the older employees should also be able to get review of the newest components in the market.
Good communication capabilities would ensure good transfer of knowledge and skill. John Hopkins hospital has this lined up. Having flow of residents from time to time has provided the basis for the strategic goal, but there is a need to fully incorporate other old employees in the practice.
All these objectives could take a while but the fact that they have been implemented is commendable.
Conclusion Committed and goal oriented individuals are able to accomplish these objectives. Success only requires a change of mind towards the positive.
John Hopkins having a vast encounter with great health achievements can in no way fail to achieve the objectives if focus when favorable health policies are put in place. Therefore, with dedication towards a positive and visionary future, anything is achievable.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and Gulf Oil International (GOI) Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Multi National Companies Gulf Oil International (GOI) and Abu Dhabi National Oil Company ((ADNOC) are two well known companies in the global industry of oil and gas. These are major multinational corporations which have specialization in the fields of oil exploration, oil production, oil supportive services, gas processing, oil refining, petrochemicals and other chemicals, refined oil products, maritime transportation as well as distribution of oil products (Hudson 367).
Gulf Oil International was formed way back in 1901 when oil was being discovered in quite a number of regions for instance at the Texas spindle top (Hudson 367). As it stands now, Gulf Oil International (GOI) is a well established oil and gas marketing company operating in many countries across the world.
The company has built its brand in the oil market as a leading dealer in oil and gas related products. Research has shown that the Gulf Oil International is envisioned with a sole mission of improving its oil brand and service delivery to all of its major markets across the world in a bid to have a sizeable share of the oil market (Bednar and lynn 59).
However, it is imperative to note that there has been tough competition in the oil and gas industry and subsequently, this has led to stiff competition. On the other hand, it is worth noting that the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) was started in 1971 with a prime objective of nourishing itself in the gas and oil areas of the United Arab Emirates (Hudson 366).
Policy formulation, implementation as well as general overseeing of the Abu Dhabi oil companies are done by the leader who is in charge of Abu Dhabi. In addition, other key regulators of the oil and gas industry in United Arab Emirates include the Supreme Petroleum Council (SPC) and the UAE president (Hudson 367).
In order to saturate the vast UAE region with its products, ADNOC has established numerous subsidiary companies which operate under its umbrella from different destinations. These subsidiary companies include the Al Hosn Gas, Elixier , ADNOC Distribution, ADNATCO-NGSCO, BOROUGE, FERTIL, FERTIL, ESNAAD, IRSHAD, TAKREER, NDC, TAKREER, NDC, ADMA-OPCO, GASCO as well as ADCO (Maloney 129).
This paper is a detailed research finding done on industrial employment relations of the two aforementioned companies. It analyzes and makes a comparative study of the employee treatment in these two corporations namely the Gulf oil international and the Abu Dhabi National Oil Companies in relation to governments’ policies and rules in the United Arab Emirates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kay (137) describes industrial relations as a broad field that studies the relationships between employers and employees in myriads of ways. In addition, industrial relations can also be termed as employment relations since it keenly deals with employment. This field deals with three aspects of employment contracts.
These are ethics, solving problems in addition to social health. It seeks to improve the employment relationship between or among the concerned parties. Moreover, it instills policies and strategies to ensure high quality normative principles in the industrial and corporate sector (Seznec 100).
Different organizations have different and diverse working arrangements that shape their employment relationship such as from structural attributes to employee communicating mechanisms at the work place. On the same note, formulation and implementation of company and national policies in regards to various places of work against the safety of employees also form integral part industrial relations. Mohammed and Ingo outline that employment relationships are greatly affected by employees’ nationalities (36).
They point out that in most cases; foreign employees are not treated well as it is the case is with domestic employees (Mohammed and Ingo 364). Studies reveal that in certain nations, foreign workers are treated as lower citizens by the respective governments. They are forced to work without forming or joining unions that can champion for their rights.
As a result, they are directly denied many civil liberties. Different multinational and local corporations have various ways and means of treating their workers. Bryant and Trevor posit that in the United Arab Emirates, there are several organizations which are characterized by employee discrimination (450).
The authors are quite categorical that some workers who have foreign origins tend to suffer from abused terms of tenure while others are tormented by poor remuneration despite the fact that they work with successful companies (Bryant and Trevor 451).
Every government has a role of ensuring that there are good employment terms for all employees who work in any nation. The respective governments of countries which have full mandate on the labor force are supposed to cooperate to ensure that there are peaceful industrial relations among foreign employees (Bryant and Trevor 470).
We will write a custom Essay on Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and Gulf Oil International (GOI) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As Bryant and Trevor point out, a government should make regulations that are realistic, monitor and enforce policies to propel ethical and universally acceptable relations between all employers and employees (449).
In terms of employee treatment at Gulf Oil International (GOI), Amatucci and Grant explain that multinational companies need to ensure that they put undivided efforts in ensuring that employees from other countries are not discriminated (100).
Research has shown that governments of UAE have embarked on ensuring that there are favorable job terms for all people from other countries as their numbers have continued to extrapolate (Amatucci and Grant 100). It is worth noting that so far, there have been no reported cases of abuse among laborers especially those who have foreign origin.
The management team at GOI has been keen in treating all its employees equally. The company strives to keep all promises made to workers. In addition, they have established a chamber for all international workers to champion for their rights. This international union of gulf employees has the autonomy of operations and creates annual forums for employees to air their grievances to the company (Amatucci and Grant 100).
Moreover, the leading oil and gas company revises the employment terms of tenure upon an application done by an employee through respective regional offices. All employees of GOI enjoy permanency of employment and are entitled to reviews of salary which are done at different times in different regions where the company operates.
The company has been lauded for understanding the demerits of a high employee turnover. Therefore, it has embarked in the process of offers its employees training and a chance to improve their skills (Abdalla 875). This multinational company has an integrated health insurance scheme for all its employees.
This covers both domestic workers and employees from other countries. The scheme caters for employees in all levels of the organization namely the managerial, technical, consultancy, low income earners and part timers.
In general, just like one of the managers explained, GOI values all its employees and all the traces of foreign worker poor relations are being eliminated through the use of special committees. Seznec points out that if multinationals have to achieve success within and outside the United Arab Emirates, then they have to treat their invaluable foreign labor force with extreme professionalism (105).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and Gulf Oil International (GOI) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Abu Dhabi National oil company (ADNOC), it was found out that the company has a department of employee welfare. This wing of the company is a special tool for ensuring that all the employees can communicate easily and comfortably with their employer in all matters regarding the state of their employment.
Throughout the United Arab Emirates, the company has employee welfare units which are controlled by the subsidiary companies. All employees in this company enjoy quite a number of liberties regardless of their countries of origin. They have an opportunity to get credit services from any financial institution which recognizes their employer.
The company makes arrangements and pays the employees loans as it remits their salaries into their respective bank accounts. This research has revealed that Abu Dhabi Oil Company has an office that oversees the movement of all its workers who come from foreign countries. This office organizes and necessitates the flexibility of employee travel arrangements like flights in and out of the United Arab Emirates.
This is achieved by the issue of special identification which is recognized by all relevant government authorities. As Abdalla (876) pointed out, every commercial company has a prime role of ensuring that its employees are catered for in the health system, Abu Dhabi has a nationwide insurance scheme that covers the health risks of all its employees.
This health insurance plan has two broad branches namely the domestic policy for all people with an Arab origin and secondly, the international policy which caters for the workers from other nations and regions. The terms of tenure in Abu Dhabi are clearly outlined in the company’s policies for employees regardless of where they come from.
All engineers, chief executive officers, managers and company consultants have permanent jobs and enjoy retirement benefits. The company has a good and standardized remuneration scheme which functions according to the legislations of the United Arab Emirates territory.
In comparison, Bednar and Lynn depict that both the Gulf Oil International and the Abu Dhabi National Oil companies have put in place provisions to ensure that their employees are comfortable during their employment tenure (59). These companies are sensitive to the issue of immigrant employee discrimination.
Although studies prove that some nations treat foreign workers as second class citizens, these two companies have established special mechanisms to detect and eliminate employee discrimination (Seznec 105). The employees of GOI and ADNOC are treated with respect since the companies have an understanding of the fact that human resource is the most unique and important of the six major elements of a production system (Raven 134).
These companies provided worker welfare programs. These includes arrangement of travel for foreign employees, setting of accommodation destinations, tracking the health conditions of all employees and have departments which ensure that employees operate in clean and safe conditions.
On a modern technological note, Gulf Oil International and the Abu Dhabi National Oil Companies have online quality assessment which involves the participation of all employees. This site is attached to the respective websites of the organizations and enables employees to make input in the area of industrial relations.
It is a lee way for employees from all levels of employment to directly communicate to the executive boards. It is a government requirement that human civil rights and liberties should be respected irrespective of the location of an individual (Seznec 105).
The international community has instructed that all companies operating in different parts of the world should treat all employees in the most acceptable way (Seznec 105). Gulf Oil International and the Abu Dhabi National Oil companies are both lenient and portray optimal flexibility when dealing with immigrant employees.
In terms of the roles governments play in setting ethical policies and rules, Seznec (105) points out that all forms of corrupt practices hikes the overall cost of production and leads to wastage of too much time as companies and government officials make efforts to normalize situations.
All governments have a duty of setting procedures that promote the respect of the rule of law all over the world (Maloney 129). They should set well established bodies for ensuring efficiency and integrity in organizations. The United Arab Emirates community upholds the respect of employment terms and calls for competitive wages for all its workers.
Governments also have a duty of encouraging all civil servants and citizens at large to participate in the fight against corrupt actions in the corporate world. The governments in the United Arab Emirates have established authorities which have oversight duties of monitoring all forms of policy breaches and proposing appellate solutions to problems in its economy (Seznec 98). These authorities have been protecting foreign workers from any form of mistreatment.
In monitoring and enforcing policies and ethical regulations in UAE, governments have committees and special officers who enforce ethical standards and embody a sense of national trusteeship in the industrial society. They have a duty of receiving and analyzing all complaints from the members of the public in order to be able to assist them accordingly.
The international community stipulates that governments should work directly in the business world in order to make it possible for it to smoothly monitor the enforcement of employment ethical policies and regulations (Kay 137). A government is supposed to be the demonstrator of the standard code of ethics that should be upheld in all industries.
The government therefore should take all initial actions of protecting all employees from the policies and terms set by their employers. In order to enforce order and morality at work places, governments should influence enterprises without allowing them to influence them backwards.
Abdalla identified the fact that some large organizations manage to manipulate the functioning of government (877). This happens in cases where there are biased civil officials who seek their own financial gains at the expense of the nation. Some offices give licenses which benefit some organizations over others. It is a government duty to identify and get rid of such flawed ways of doing work.
In pointing out distinguishing and common characteristics and practices, it was found out that in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), there are several attributes and practices that make the big brand which has been achieved by the Abu Dhabi Oil Company. The company has undivided focus on being a leading service and goods provider in the oil and gas industry. This company has an aim of stimulating economic growth.
This is being pursued through the pioneering of educational and research instructions in different parts of the region it operates. The company has established numerous institutions across the United Arab Emirates (Hudson 368). The company is also known for a culture of doing operations in a standard order which outsmarts other competing companies. They use a management style which has reengineered hard work across all subsidiary companies in the Middle East (Bednar and Lynn 59).
In Gulf Oil International (GOI), Maloney (129) elaborates that Gulf oil international has fostered success and exemplary stability in the global oil and gas industry due to several factors. He points out that the culture of displaying international business agility by the organization has a great influence of the excellence and success it has so far recorded (Maloney 129).
The organization is well endorsed with the top and famous engineers and professors of the industrial exploration, harvesting, production of oil, gas and other petroleum products. On top of all these, Gulf oil international has portrayed efficient use of modern information technology in all the nations they inhabit. The company has bought Maloney’s (129) idea that information is the key to commercial success in today’s digital age.
These two companies have several common characteristics and practices In adherence to the international labor laws, both the Gulf Oil International and the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company have put in place policies to cater for the welfare of their employees. Studies prove that international employers in UAE have become more sensitive to the demands of their migrant workers (Maloney 129).
The two companies have periodical revisions and reviews of their employee’s salaries. They cater for the primary employment needs of each and every individual foreign worker (Maloney 129). The Gulf Oil International has constructed special residential places for its employees while Abu Dhabi on the other hand has agents which arrange for the accommodation of its workers. Both Gulf Oil International Company and the Abu Dhabi National Oil company have prioritized the wellbeing of all employees they work with.
They have a chief goal of keeping their workforce mentally, physically and psychologically fit in order to obtain optimum services from them. These multinationals have intentionally set forums for workers to bring out their compliments, complaints and recommendations. An open and healthy relationship between employer and employee is the fuel needed for the efficiency and profitability of a company to be profitable (Mohammed and Ingo 364).
These oil and gas companies have a lot of foreign workers. They have developed a culture of executing random investigations and evaluations to gauge the state of how different offices treat all employees. All the claims of exploitation and discrimination are abruptly done away with through professional resolution of all misunderstandings at the work place.
In conclusion, this theoretical research study brings out a clear picture on how GOI and ADNOC operate as multi nationals in the oil and gas industry. It is quite evident that these two companies have done relatively well as far as immigrant employee treatment is concerned. They have incorporated the governments’ specified standards of industrial employment relations. This has been a key factor for the success they have attained.
Works Cited Abdalla, Kathleen. “The changing structure of the international oil industry: Implications for OPEC.” Energy Policy 23.10 (1995): 871-877. Print.
Amatucci, Frances and John, Grant. “Eight strategic decisions that weakened Gulf Oil.” Long Range Planning 26.1 (1993): 98-110. Print.
Bednar, Deborah and Godkin, Lynn. “An Exploratory, Longitudinal Study of Factors Influencing Development of a Networked Company.” Information Resources Management Journal 22.3 (2009): 40-63. Print.
Bryant, Murray and Hunter, Trevor. “BP and public issues (mis)management.” Ivey Business Journal Online (2010): 400-467. Print.
Kay, Gilbert. “Promises and practices: job evaluation and equal pay forty years on!” Industrial Relations Journal 43.2 (2012): 137- 151. Print.
Hudson, Michael. “The Middle East in Flux.” Current History 110.740 (2011): 364- 369. Print.
Raven, John. “Emiratizing the education sector in the UAE: contextualization and challenges.” Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues 4.2 (2011): 134-149. Print.
Maloney, Suzanne. “The Gulf’s Renewed Oil Wealth: Getting it Right This Time?” Survival 50.6 (2008): 129-145. Print.
Mohammed, Al-Waqfi and Forstenlechner, Ingo. “Stereotyping of citizens in an expatriate-dominated labour market :Implications for workforce localisation policy. ” Employee Relations 32.4 (2010): 360-381. Print.
Seznec, Jean. “The gulf sovereign wealth funds: myths and reality.” Middle East Policy 15.2 (2008): 97-110. Print.
Finnish Bookstore Case Report writing essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The Finnish Bookstore had employed a number of sales-training programs, these intended at improving the sales skills of the different employees, as the sales department plays an important role in the success of any venture. Particular attention was given to the customer care skills of the sales team, as deficiencies in customer attendance and care could cost the Bookstore greatly.
In cultivating the customer care proficiency of the sales team, the Bookstore employed a training program to improve different proficiency areas. These included approaching clients, taking orders and managing counterarguments as well as the closure of sale deals. The program also sought to enhance the areas of evaluating their prior experience in dealing with customers – from their previous practices and enhance team work among the different workers.
The simulation program was an effective training course, as it offered insights – both to the workers as well as the management, regarding the failure points of the different workers. This is evidenced form the working of the program, which can turn-down the responses made by the sales team; in the case they are ineffective as per the expected direction of argument.
In assessing the development needs of the staff, competitiveness and dynamics of the sales environment are given central importance – as these determine the aptitude of the workers. After identifying the development needs of the company, the intervention will take the levels of assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation – towards evaluating the job-based proficiency auditing.
Customer service will be evaluated on the basis of a current proficiency assessment model, while interpersonal skills will be evaluated using the proficiency resulting from real-work trends. In developing leadership skills, gap analysis evaluation will be used, while the evaluation of the interventions will involve a during-study and an after-study evaluation, so as to evaluate the skills improvement realized from the training exercise.
Background The Finnish Bookstore under discussion wanted to improve the service skills of their sales force – as most of the employees had been taught, only generic sales skills, during a two-day training and another routine training. The employees of the Bookstore were also taken through classroom instruction sessions, especially the sales personnel – for a period of over ten years. With the help of a digital solutions expert, the store has created a simulation-based program, designed to engage the parties in solving real-life sales issues.
The program engaged a live coach and a group of peers, over an online platform – with the option of continuing the practice at own time. The model was designed to impart practical skills, and not information – as the previous programs did. The focus of the training was to develop skills of approaching customers, choosing satisfactory responses to their inquiries, and cultivating their need and positioning the commodity in question.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second phase of the training was designed to improve the skills of managing counter arguments, taking orders, and closing sale deals. The program assisted participants evaluate their prior experiences, establish understanding – before discussing their experiences with their colleagues, and thus cultivate the development of these skills, even after the training program.
From the different training programs, the sales teams at the Bookstore have been exposed to enough insights – on the area of sales and marketing, thus, the best training or program to be used for them, would involve a follow-up and restructure of the ideas taught before (Buchan 2004, p. 6; Watad
Eating Disorders Among Teenage Girls Proposal online essay help: online essay help
Introduction (clarification on the purpose of the study) An eating disorder is a type of illness that causes severe disturbances to the everyday diet : an individual can consume to much food, or, on the contrary, eat very little; consequently, it causes distress or concern about boy weight.
Common eating disorders include Anorexia, Nervosa, Bulimia nervosa and Binge – eating disorders.
It is characterized by the symptoms that follow:
Intense fear of gaining weight
Lack of menstruation among girls and women
Extremely restricted eating
Bulimia Nervosa disorder
It has the following characteristics:
Frequent episode of unusual eating large amount of food.
Swollen salivary glands (Myers, 2009)
Dinge – eating disorder
It occurs as a result of over eating and therefore has the following symptoms:-
A person losses control over his weight.
Regular periods of eating are not followed.
A research has shown that all mentioned disorders affect girls and women mostly. (Beins, 2004)
Population of Internet
Teenage girls and women who are still young adults are the best targets for the survey. A research has shown that women all over the world are affected by mass media mostly (Mcneill, and Chapman, 2009). Millions of people, especially our youngsters, forget their own make up. They begin to perceive themselves as substandard over time and they need to be reminded that each person is beautiful in his/her own way. Therefore they should avoid duplication of pictures in television shows.
Assess resources Research has indicated that most teen girls mostly budget on their boy shapes and design. In the long-run, they end – up in heavy weight problems which is not healthy. Similarly, it is found that most of them have acquired personal facilities such as :-
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Computers (Laptops and Ipads)
Digital phones and cameras
The above facilities have enabled them to access the Internet everywhere, even while on their journeys. Consequently, this has facilitated adoption of the life styles they want.
Images of women on body weight
Research has clearly indicated that most women are adversely affected by media adverts, television productions and major motion pictures alike. They will therefore begin to practice different lifestyles while abandoning that of their own. (Eysenck, 2004).
During questionnaire filling of the research, a researcher posted the following questions.
How many teens can feel free to express themselves/ and how many teens can become a critical viewer?
How many teens and young women perceive themselves as substandard? And how many teens will like to depend on mass media advertisements and television productions to adopt new eating habits.
The results between options (a) and (b) shocked the researcher in that option (a) was rejected by majority of teens while option (b) was selected to be most appropriate by majority of the teens. This indicated that the vision of women and teenagers of eating habits and body weight gain or loss clearly comes from external sources. That is, if it is being acquired from the media and television productions. (Pastorino, and Doyle-Portillo, 2008).
The research further indicated that youngsters don’t care much of their body weights. In addition, most teenagers ignore exercises in the sense of their life.
Media effect on body weight According to recent research conducted, mass media has affected most teens negatively in the following ways:
We will write a custom Proposal on Eating Disorders Among Teenage Girls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Media Version of physical beauty
The teens are not mindful of the fact that the messages that they are bombed with are finally adapted by them.
The messages sent to teens through mass media affect them adversely. But they still don’t keep them real with themselves and do not recognize the difference between reality and fiction. (James, 2001)
All mass media events are simple construction in that they are meticulously designed to send specific messages to the masses. But most teenagers are not creative enough to realize this. What they do is adopting whatever is thrown to them.
Teenagers have not trained their minds to “see” beyond the obvious. But they are only capable of seeing what a given advertisement has intended for them. (James, 2007).
Most teenagers are not capable of deciding for themselves what is of their best interest, according to research, and how they will, or will not be affected by what they see on television or in magazines.
Sometimes, a given advertisements is found to be in conflict with what they have dictated, finally they are defeated to ignore that message.
Freedom of expression
Most advertisers are found to force feed youngsters. But the teens are defeated to boycott these products and services or even increase public awareness of offensive and inconsiderate advertisements. (Cohen and Morrison, 2007).
Most women and youngsters are not capable of making a habit of talking back to negative advertisers. Finally, this affects them negatively since they allow it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Eating Disorders Among Teenage Girls by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Results and interpretation By taking into consideration the role of the media and its effects, it clearly indicates that teenager girls are less concerned with their body weight and consequently, with their health in general. This is so because
They are not able to make a habit of talking back to negative advertises.
They do not know their best interest.
They cannot remember that television shows and movies are filled with advertisements.
They cannot get creative with their thoughts and realize that all media events are simply constructions.
They cannot become critical viewers
They cannot realize that media version of physical beauty is narrow and very limited.
Taking action The research shows that teen girls should be mindful about the media events they explore when teens make themselves aware of fictitious nature of the advertisements that they are exposed to.
They should empower themselves not to be affected by the media advertisements again (Trochim and Donnelly, 2006). Just like that, media will lose their power of false adverts.
If there is something that makes you doubt in anything that is shown in the TV shows and advertisements then there are really positive element of your person that help you rise above advertising falsities. (Myers, 2009)
Familiarizing yourself with proper deity of your own and avoiding reacting and under eating prevents eating disorders such as anorexia and Binge-eating disorder respectively.
Teenagers should engage themselves in vigorous exercises as recommended by a physician to prevent Cardiac muscular infectious which might eventually lead to heart failure and consequently to death.
According to research findings, changes that were found to be more important to teenage girls, like taking keen interest on media adverts, were taken into consideration immediately.
The research conducted also found that parents should take quick actions with regard to their teenagers by en-lighting them on various health codes and behaviors so that girl teen should not suffer a lot.
In relation to dietary, the research also found that teen girls should avoid food components with a lot of carbohydrates since this was the major cause of weight gain.
According to previous research, most teens decided not to eat properly in favor of weight gain. The present research found this conduct and practice to be unethical to teenage girls who practiced it. Since under eating means starving which consequently leads to generation of some harmful disorders such as Bulimia nervosa and Anorexia. Consequently, most girls at the teen ages were found to be having irregular menstruation cycles while others were missing it completely.
Research has found that most young women and teen girls do not dare much on weight gain and weight loss. They think this is a life style thus take it as a fashion of what men want.
The research also found that teens think that weight loss and weight gain are a social discovery. Therefore they opted for its adoption.
Similarly, the research showed that gender sensitivity has given women and teen girls an opportunity not to take advice from men concerning their body weight. This head teen concerning, their body weight. This led teen girls to make decisions, whether there are negative or positive outcomes. (Nairnei, 2010)
The research indicated that death rate of women to men is very high. Almost at the age of 35 years, most women and teen girls die according to the research.
Date Collection The researcher preferred mostly the use of face to face interactions since most teenagers in the whole world are comfortable to participate in discussion. This is because teenagers were found to be having more relevant information on the topic of study regardless it was on their side.
The researcher found this important as this ensured high integrity of the information which has few errors or not biased at all.
The researcher also used telephone conversation method during data collection. This was successful since most teens eat during telephone conversations and almost every teen nowadays is possessing at least two mobile phones. Therefore the researcher was able to communicate with them everywhere at any time of the day (day time and night time were both appropriate) (Nevid, 2007)
Conclusion In conclusion it should be mentioned that according to the research survey, teenage girls should remember that all of them are individuals and they also should understand that media cannot have any power or influence over them (teenage girl) But this may be reversed only if you allow the media to take control over your idea.
Similarly, the researcher recorded that a period of Binge-eating was followed by most girl teenagers. This situation made them to become obese and thus have a high risk of developing cardiac vascular problem and high blood pressure.
They also experience guilt whenever they interacted with their fellow teenagers and experienced distress about their binge -eating which led them (teenage girls) to isolate themselves from others. (Beins, 2004).
References Beins, B. (2004). Research Methods: A tool for life. Michigan: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. Washington D.C: Routledge.
Eysenck, M. W. (2004). Psychology research. New York: Psychology Press.
James, W. (2001). Psychology: The briefer course. New York: Courier Dover Publications.
James, W. (2007). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Cosimo.
Mcneill, P. and Chapman, S. (2009). Research Methods (3rd ed.). Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Myers, D. G. (2009). Psychology In Modules. New York: Worth Publishers.
Nairnei, J. S. (2010). Psychology. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Nevid, J. S. (2007). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Pastorino, E. E. and Doyle-Portillo, S. M. (2008). What Is Psychology? Essentials. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Trochim, W. M. K., and Donnelly, J. P. (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Weiten, W. (2010). Psychology: Themes and Variations. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
“Military Rule in Latin America” by Karen Remmer Essay (Book Review) best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Synopsis of the Book
Analysis of the Book
Introduction Military dictators ruled Latin America and other parts of the world such as Africa AND Middle East before the 21st century. However, some parts of Latin America are still ruled by military Juntas (a committee consisting of military generals). One major reason that inspired this form of governance is the fact that the armed forces had more cohesion and a good structure as opposed to many civil institutions.
In many cases, military dictatorships are established through coup d’états, whereby a civilian government is overthrown by the military. Military Juntas justify their actions as one way of restoring political stability, especially when the state faces economic and social hardships.
Karen Remmer is one of the scholars that have written extensive to express their views regarding the actions of military rule. This paper describes her views and goes a notch higher to analyze her main points in the book. The paper gives a conclusion whereby a SWOT analysis is performed on her views.
Synopsis of the Book The author wrote the book at the time when the international system was bi-polar in nature. In many parts of the world, tension, conflicts, mistrust, and brutality were the order of the day. In Latin America, the US was keen to ensure that communism did not spread to other states other than Cuba. In this case, the two superpowers tried as much as possible to convince the Latin American states adopt their policies. Due to this fact, scholars interpreted the genesis of military rule differently.
Remmer (1991) questions these interpretations. He book is divided into two major parts. The first part talks about the broad overview of the state of affairs in the Latin America. In this part, she questions the credibility of the claims that military rule can only be understood by analyzing their origins. In this case, she tries to challenge the various interpretations offered by scholars of political science as regards to military rule in Latin America.
In her part, military regimes come about due to weakness in government. Usually, government institutions are too weak in developing countries, which give room to the emergence of military rule. Some leaders might be elected democratically but they take advantage of weak institutions to unleash terror to innocent citizens.
Citizens are therefore subjected to repressive laws, which affect their socio-economic lives. In this case, citizens are denied their civil liberties, which, according many scholars, are inseparable from an individual. Military rulers take advantage of weak institutions such as the police and the courts to fulfill their interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The police force for instance was used to silence any form of opposition in Chile. To silence the public, the military Juntas, according to Remmer (1991), employ some tactics. One of the tactics is that they make the state ungovernable. Those considered enemies of the state are forced to operate outside the state boundaries.
The author gives an example of Chile under Pinochet regime. Military Juntas may also invite hostilities from other states so that local tension and resistance is diverted.
In her view, military regimes are unnecessarily aggressive, meaning that they can easily take a state to war without the consulting the public. Furthermore, the regimes espousing military tactics usually spend many resources in rearmament processes. Resources means meant for development are channeled to military reconstruction, which leaves the state in a devastated condition.
Undertake section of military rule explanation, the scholar also analyzes the roles of various state actors. In a state, many actors come together to formulate policies. Both domestic and foreign policies are carefully negotiated in order to achieve greatness for the state. In the military rule, the executive arm of government controls everything, including the bureaucracy.
In this respect, lethargy is likely to prevail since leaders tend to be negative towards bureaucracy. Institutions such as the legislature and judiciary are used for rubber-stamping important policies. Never are they involved in serious discussions during policy formulation.
In the second part, she gives a detailed case study of Chile, whereby the Pinochet regime exercised military rule. Chile was under military rule from 1973 when Pinochet took over power to 1990 when he was forced by the international community to quit. During Pinochet regime, political opposition was prohibited and those found guilty were sentenced to death or life imprisonment. In fact, the scholar terms Chile as a police state under Pinochet.
The military ruler ensured that people observed hi laws and that any opposition against his laws would amount to serious consequences, including death. During his regime, crime rates increased, illegal trade was popular and assassinations were the order of the day. Even after losing power in 1988 through a referendum, the government continued to exercise power.
We will write a custom Book Review on “Military Rule in Latin America” by Karen Remmer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the conclusion section, the scholar outlines some of the challenges that would be experienced by leaders as they attempted to change from autocratic to democratic regimes. For instance, she doubts whether her works would help leaders in any way since they were too scholarly. In her conclusion, democracy was the only way to go in case sustainable development was to be realized.
Analysis of the Book The book talks about many things, among them the definition of military rule, effects of military rule and the major causes of military rule. The scholar succeeds in outlining the major causes of military rule in many parts of the world. She also succeeds in giving the respondent the state of affairs in military regimes that is, institutional structure and relationships between various organs of government. However, she does not talk about the external environment.
In analyzing public and international policy, it is always prudent to consider the global environment. Military rulers existed because the international climate gave them room. In this decade, it is very difficult to exercise military rule due to globalization, which has reduced distances. Even in late 1980s and early 1990s, the international system was different.
Pinochet was able to harass members of the public mainly because the international system was bi-polar, meaning that the US supported his actions. In case the US condemned his actions, he would have embraced communism, where he could have supported to keep away any form of opposition.
After the Cold War, leaders were held responsible for their actions, whereby they were supposed to open up the society by embracing liberalism. Many leaders could not cope with hence forcing them to quit power. To show how the international system is important, leaders ensured that the international law is amended to cater for their interests. The scholar does not talk about the importance of the foreign actors. Amnesty was extended to retiring leaders to ensure that they continued living peacefully.
Conclusion Therefore, it can be concluded that variables at the international level such as anarchy, polarity and the status of the international law affect the behavior of states in the international system. Military rulers were able to suppress and oppress members of the public since there was no clear law. Furthermore, polarity affected the behavior of leaders. Currently, power cannot be coercive since there is a strong law that governs states internationally. The ICC has been keen on ensuring that justice prevails.
Reference Remmer, K. (1991). Military Rule in Latin America. New York: Westview.
Transition to democracy Essay best essay help
Introduction The political regimes are a set of partisan structure that makes up a nation such as a political system or a ruler in a political system. They are simple mechanisms through which the most powerful actors make collective verdicts and regulate the processes taking place in the country (Mayer et al., 2009, p. 422).
The decisions made by rulers are based upon the calculations completed by the actors for balancing particular interests and constraints when making every single choice. This essay will discuss the concept of regime trajectories and the main influential factors affecting them from the point of view of structuralist and process-oriented theoreticians.
Regime trajectories are the pattern of problem solving activities repeated and determined by a pattern (Mayer et al., 2009, p. 415). According to the structuralist approaches, the concentration of political power in the form of political leadership did not have any significant impact upon the changes of political regimes.
The main arguments offered by this camp are that the distribution of economic power thrives under political regime and its leadership. For example, Luebbert, who was one of the representatives of the structuralist camp, admitted that labor-repressive agriculture played a critical role in promoting fascism in the twentieth century (Mayer et al., 2009, p. 424).
However, the counterargument that can be used to criticize this hypothesis is that Belgium and the Netherlands, that were highly dependent upon agricultural sector as well, did not establish hegemonic liberalism before the beginning of the World War I.
Therefore, according the structuralist theoreticians provide weighty arguments to assume that the changes in political regimes, the regime trajectories, were dependent upon the influence of the leaders of economic power, but the distribution of economical power in its turn depended upon the regime.
In contrast to the structuralist approach, the process-oriented scholars emphasized the importance of the mass consciousness affecting the changes in the political regimes. The process-oriented theoreticians assumed that the society and collective opinions are more important than the segmental division of labor and economics. In addition, the mass consciousness could have affected the distribution of economic resources discussed by the structuralist theoreticians as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concepts of mass following and mobilization of psychological resources played a critical role in establishing the fraternal regimes in Italy, Germany and Japan in the early twentieth century (Mayer et al., 2009, p. 430). The successful development of fraternalism in these three countries required favorable conditions.
According to the process-oriented theories, these were neither Hitler’s guidance nor German agricultural sector and economics, but the mass consciousness of individual German citizens that played a critical role in the establishment of the Nazi regime in Germany.
The process-oriented theories assume that after weighing all pros and cons of the Nazi regime, the Germans concluded that it would be preferable for them as compared to democracy. Importantly, this decision was common for the vast majority of Germans. Thus, when explaining the regime transitions, the process-oriented scholars emphasized the national beliefs and the processes taking place in the mass consciousness.
In conclusion, it can be stated that the structuralist and process-oriented theoreticians used different approaches to explaining the underlying processes affecting the regime trajectories. Both approaches denied the impact of political leadership.
At the same time, the structuralist scholars emphasized the importance of the distribution of economic resources within the country, but the process-oriented scholars focused on the influence of mass consciousness and citizens’ common preferences upon the decision making processes.
In my opinion, these two approaches can be connected because the mass consciousness emphasized by the process-oriented approach could affect the distribution of economic resources which are emphasized by structuralists. I do not agree with the timing factor of industrialization, whether it took place earlier or later, can be proclaimed as one of the most influential factors contributing to the foundation of authoritarianism in the country. In my opinion, the timing of industrialization depended upon the citizens’ rights.
Reference Mayer, L., Patterson, D.,
Analyzing the Inculturation Process of Specific Historical Moments in the Development of the Christian Faith Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Inculturation is still a new term in many theological sectors around the globe despite the fact that it came into existence in early seventies. Inculturation refers to the process of going against the culture or societal values in the process of developing faith. Christianity is a relatively new belief in many societies around the world. The founder of Christianity, Jesus Christ, found the society where he was born practicing some cultural values.
He was forced to undergo some of the cultural values of this society such as circumcision stage. He grew up in this society as a human being and therefore adopted this culture. When he began his evangelistic work, the society found his teachings somewhat strange.
He was treated as the son of Joseph. The society saw him grow as other children. His teachings, which somewhat challenged the normal societal values, were strange and not easily acceptable.
One main way through which inculturation can be expressed is by challenging the power from which such culture draws authority. In so doing, the culture would lose its very foundation, which would make it fall easily. This is what Jesus did in most of his teachings. Currently, many theologians have not managed to separate culture from religion.
As Johnston (87) notes, culture has been a major impediment in the development of the Christian faith. Christianity as a faith can be accepted in any culture because its teachings are meant to ensure that the society lives in peace, love and unity. These values are desirable in any society in the world regardless of one’s cultural values.
However, when intertwined with a specific cultural value, it becomes a challenge for other entrenched cultures to accommodate the faith. This paper seeks to analyze the inculturation process of specific historical moments in the development of the Christian faith
The History of the Christian Church and Its Interaction with Culture The Christian faith that dominates the world currently traces its roots from Jerusalem in Israel. Jesus Christ, who was the founder of this religion, was a Jew by birth. His teachings and values gained popularity among a section of both the Jews and gentiles. Seen as royal, he was able to go against the expected values of Jews, which were oppressive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He identified himself with both the rich, such as Zachariah who was a tax collector, and the poor beggars such as Bartimaeus. This was a little too strange for both groups. The rich wanted Jesus, who had gained fame due to his miracles, to behave as a royal person who could not associate himself with the poor.
He was expected to uphold the Jewish cultural values. On the other hand, the poor, who were the greatest beneficiaries of His miracles, did not expect Jesus to associate himself with such oppressive rich individuals like the infamous tax collectors. He remained a strange person to both people. There were many instances when Jesus interacted with cultural values in his mission of spreading the word in both Israel and other neighboring countries around Asia. This can be analyzed as below.
Christ against Culture
Jesus Christ acted in a manner that challenged the culture in many ways. He was a Jew by birth and therefore expected to behave as such. One such important cultural value was that a Jew would not interact with non-Jews, especially their Samaritan neighbors whom they considered unholy.
Men were also not expected to get into a discussion with strange women who were unknown to them. However, Jesus broke all these cultural values when He met the Samaritan woman at the river. He struck of a conversation with the woman by asking for water. In so doing, Jesus was breaking two main values, which were the one barring Jews from interacting with gentiles and the one that prohibited men from talking to strange women.
Even his disciples were amazed upon the realization that their master had engaged a Samaritan woman in such a discussion and even offered her salvation. When he allowed his disciples to eat without washing their hands, it was another sign of disregarding culture.
By challenging men who were determined to stone the adulterous woman, he was going against culturally accepted practice. There are many other instances where he broke cultural values. This is a sign that both culture and religion are there to make a man’s life easy and not oppressive.
Christ in Support of Culture
There are a number of occasions where Jesus Christ showed respect to culture. As was culturally demanded, Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day after birth. He also made trips to various temples within his hometown and other Jewish cities with his parents.
We will write a custom Essay on Analyzing the Inculturation Process of Specific Historical Moments in the Development of the Christian Faith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although one would argue that he was too young to make a decision concerning this, we are not told of any incident where he rebuked such practices in his teachings. When challenged by the Pharisees on the issue of tax collection, he simply said ‘give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar. This is a sign that he respected some cultural practices, as long as they were practiced with decorum.
Christ above Culture
In many occasions, Jesus showed that he was above culture through his actions. The Sabbath was a very important day to the Jews. They did not work and neither did they let any of their slaves work on this particular day. However, one particular day, he healed the sick on a Sabbath day, a crime which would attract a severe punishment if found guilty. When confronted by authorities to explain why he did this, He challenged his aggressors who were left with no option but to accept the fact.
Christ and Culture in Paradox
In some occasions, Christ and culture seem to exhibit paradoxical relationship. Jesus was considered a religious leader. He had managed to amass huge support from many of Jews through his teachings. He was a leader and his followers were like his servants.
He would send them to perform some errands and they would perform various duties as was expected of any servant. In this regard, he was acting within the cultural expectation where the servant would be at the service of the master.
However, when he washed the feet of his disciples, it sharply contradicted with what he was expected to do as a master. The last thing that the society, even the disciples themselves expected of him, was the washing of the disciple’s feet. This was too paradoxical.
Christ the Transformer of Culture
Christ comes out strongly as a transformer. During this time, the Jewish society had a well-laid down structure based on one’s level of income. It was rare to find that an individual rose from one level to another, though the society was a capitalist one. Those of higher statuses, who were able to hire servants such as Jesus, were not supposed to associate with individuals holding lower statuses.
The only relationship that was expected between them was based on issuing instructions. However, Jesus went against this when he associated freely with the poor, always healing them.
He was telling the society that before God, all are equal and as such, this equality should be practiced on earth. By protecting the adulterous woman, he was also transforming the culture that tolerated partial justice. He was telling the society that if it is about justice, then let justice be seen to be affecting each individual equally.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analyzing the Inculturation Process of Specific Historical Moments in the Development of the Christian Faith by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Growth of Christian Belief and its Structure Upon the death of Jesus Christ, the disciples took the word to the gentiles. Within f the Jewish society, a number of people accepted the new belief that was advocated for by Jesus. Jesus did not disrupt the initial beliefs that the society held about God. He affirmed that God was the one that the Israelites had been serving all the years and that the laws of Moses were not wrong in entirety.
He only pointed out that some were meant to guide Israelites in the wilderness and therefore was archaic in their settled structure. He also insisted that some of the religious leaders were hypocrites who never practiced what they preached. He preached peace, unity and above all, selflessness.
This was a belief that many found very relevant, especially the gentiles. However, most of the Jews could not let their belief to varnish. They still believed that one day their messiah (not Jesus Christ) would come directly from heaven in form of mosses or Elijah. The gentiles on the other hand received this belief and this was the inception of the Christian religion (Johnston 34).
Among the faithful, they were taught to observe the values that Jesus Christ had given the gentiles and others. The main issue that was taught to the Christian was to believe in one God and one Savior. Many societies accepted this teaching because it was not challenging their culture adversely.
Upon critical analysis, many societies realized that Christianity brought with it many benefits and when adopted, it would ensure harmony in society.
However, its principle of equality was not acceptable by many in the higher social statuses, who believed that this religion was focused on challenging their prestigious positions in society. This saw many of them persecuted by various governments, including the Roman Empire.
Having realized that this religion was too strong to be suppressed, the Roman Empire decided to turn this into a state religion, but with the original cultural values. Johnston (56) says that the Roman government decided to marry culture and the new Christian beliefs. Through the support of government, a number of churches were built within Rome.
The more the new faith was accepted, the more the government took its leadership through the appointment of individuals who were their puppets. This saw the inception of Catholic Church, with its headquarters in Rome, Italy and pope as its head.
Development of Major Western Church Tradition The Catholic Church was a Christian faith as taught by Jesus Christ but deeply rooted in the Roman culture. It became almost impossible to separate the Roman culture from the beliefs and practices of the church. As religion spread and people became more intelligent and more aware of the Christ’s teachings, the more they came to realize that religion as it was had some problems that were contrary to the original teachings. Many cultures could not fit in the religion, as was advocated for by the Catholic Church (Gonzalez 57).
This saw the need for inculturation of the Christian belief. As it is, Christianity only shuns habits that are retrogressive in the sense that they harm a section of societal members unjustly and that it breeds hatred and separatism, as opposed to love and unity. In England, the king, together with other local leaders who felt that catholic was too much of Roman culture, started the Anglican Church.
This was a direct inculturation from what the society had embraced. They took Jesus’ teachings, incorporated them with their culture, which was good enough to match the teachings of Jesus, and embraced the new faith as Christianity.
This spirit entered the American society. They also developed the urge to embrace this religion, which they realized was good but in the context of the American culture. The spirit of inculturation was so strong in the American culture to an extent that each section had its own interpretation, giving rise to numerous churches, each with its own beliefs and cultural practices.
In America, the members of society were more aware of their rights to an extent that blackmailing them was impossible. Up to date, there are so many churches in America as compared to other places around the world.
Works Cited Gonzalez, Justo. The Story of Christianity, New York: HarperCollins, 2010. Print.
Johnston, William. Recent Reference Books in Religion: A Guide for Students, Scholars, Researchers, Buyers,
The Roma Problems and the Causes of Racism Research Paper argumentative essay help
The Roma’s origins were for a long time both a mystery and an excuse for their marginalization and mistreatment. Today they are generally accepted to have originated in the Indian subcontinent, based on linguistic and genetic evidence 1. The resulting history of their contact with Europeans is almost uniformly negative.
In most communities today, the Roma survive in a persistent condition of poverty that resists many of the usual strategies for addressing social ills. This, at least to some degree, arises from the complex, confused, and often conflicting ways they are regarded and regard themselves. They have never been seen as full-fledged members of the communities in which they reside, despite having, in some cases, lived there for centuries.
They have in many cases not regarded themselves as members of the communities where they reside, retaining their Roma identity as their primary identity2. Of these, none necessarily are congruent with the self-definition of identity of the Roma’s neighbors, who consider themselves “native” to a region or nation.
The view that the “self-identified” natives hold of the Roma has been consistently pejorative over the millennium during which they have been in contact with Europeans. It is not difficult to understand why. Differences in language, religious traditions, skin color, and customs, and a nomadic way of life all contributed to the Roma’s appearance of ‘otherness’.
Added to these disturbing features has been the threatening nature of the internal “code” attributed to the Roma.3 Is it any wonder that the insular, superstitious, monolithically Catholic or Orthodox communities of Europe and Eastern Europe, eager to recapture the civil order and peace of the golden age of the Roman Empire 4 have unfortunately regarded the “the Roma as a kind of natural disaster from which they must protect themselves”? Their response was to exclude, marginalize, isolate, exploit, or attempt to annihilate the Roma.
There seems to have been a brief remission in practical economic discrimination during the Soviet’s state-controlled universal employment. When this ended, the Roma were first fired, and ancient bigotries re-emerged. Today, measures from a de facto withholding of medical treatment from anyone without proper papers , to a literal wall, attempt to keep the Roma separate from non-Roma.
While the non-Roma often can point to specific behaviors or characteristics that they attribute to the Roma which would make them undesirable neighbors, the response of the non-Roma is so powerful and pervasive that another set of reasons needs to be invoked to explain it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may be the human aversion to the ‘Other’. In many human societies, there is a duality: us versus them, family versus non-family, people one marries versus people one fights with, tribe versus enemy, native versus foreign-born, and many other possible alternatives. In Bauman’s formulation, the “Other’ in the modern state is anyone that is ambiguous, or self-defining, or resisting the definition imposed by the state, and who fits in neither the category of friend or of foe .
Such individuals or groups occupy a mental space that makes people feel uncomfortable, queasy, and uncertain. They are neither one thing nor another, and resist categorization, therefore they defy expectations. The Roma are a quintessentially self-defining group, who in many respects fulfill this formulation of the ‘Other’.
Consider: They come from elsewhere, but have done so, in many cases, so long ago that the arrival is a forgotten event, and yet they remain visibly ‘not from here’. They have resisted the usual routes of assimilation into a host population.
For example, they have intermarried to some extent, but only with great resistance and disapproval by their own community. They have in some cases elected not to remain in one place, even when this was legal, and on the other hand, they have settled in places where they have no rights of tenure.
All these characteristics, and more, are in conflict with the modern state, according to Bauman. The state in modern times can be construed to be organized specifically to “eliminate ambivalence” . The Roma are the ultimate ambivalent group: to move or stay, to work or to receive the dole, for example. Thus, both individuals and communities, as well as the government, have bases for ambiguous attitudes towards the Roma, as the ‘Other’.
Then, there is the mythology of the Roma as criminal. 19th century pseudo-science, such as phrenology, suggested that they were inevitably and uniformly liable to engage in criminal behavior. On the other hand as Goodwin notes, the experience of the criminal justice system itself can cause people to become criminal in their behavior . It is also possible that attitudes towards the Roma become self-fulfilling.
Because the Roma lack an effective transnational cultural identity that can rally them to advocate for themselves, they face particular challenges. The issue of space and location is particularly important for them. Unlike more recent refugee populations, they have nowhere to return to, not even symbolically, and no welcoming organizations to care for them in Europe.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Roma Problems and the Causes of Racism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have chosen and/or been forced to occupy spaces historically external to communities, but which acquire visibility and value over time, causing conflict over use and control. Because they have been labeled as transient (even after centuries of residence), ownership of their homes has been unresolved, leading to every sort of problem of infrastructure, transfer of deed, risk of eviction, and other such issues.
Roma families often appear to be excluding themselves from what would seem to be helpful resources such as, to take just one example, school. This may reflect complex concerns, for example, that schools impose local, non-Roma norms on their kids, and risk deracinating the Roma tradition5.
This has a knock-on effect on employment readiness, and reinforces local reluctance to hire Roma. Whenever Roma activities intersect with non-Romas’ lives, the response is to exclude; socially, legally, physically. The celebration of diversity by European communities seems honored only by exception and in isolation rather than reflexively or consistently throughout society.
These case studies highlight the complexity of addressing Roma problems and the causes, which lie in racism and ethnic bigotry, as well as insularity. “No 6 Segregation of Romani Communities” addresses land tenure issues, and a wall built to keep Roma out. “Urban Planning and the Delimitation of Diversity” describes an attempt to incorporate the differences of the Roma into a positive image of a diverse neighborhood. “Locating ‘The Gypsy Problem’” discusses the problems with political voice that the Roma camps create for the Roma themselves.
Works Cited Bauman, Zygmunt. “Modernity and Ambivalence.” Theory Culture Society 7.143 (1990 ). Web.
Bilefsky, Dan. “Walls, Real and Imagined, Surround the Roma.” New York Times (April). Web.
Drangsland, Kari Anne Klovholt and Håvard Haarstad. “Urban Planning and the Delimitation: Roma as ‘In Place’ and ‘Out of Place’ in Jungbusch, Mannheim.” International Planning Studies, 14.2 (2009): 14:2, 125-140. Web.
European Roma Rights Centre. “Standards Do Not Apply: Report of the European Roma Rights Centre: Inadequate Housing in Romani Communities.” December 2012. ERRC. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Roma Problems and the Causes of Racism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Goodwin, George. Criminal man. New York: G. Brazille, 1957. Web.
Gresham, David, et al. “Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies).” American Journal Human Genetics 2001: 1314–1331. Web.
Heinschink, Mozes F. and Michael Teichmann. “Taboo and shame (ladž) in Roma communities.” 2012. ROMBASE. Web.
Kemény, István and Béla Janky. “HISTORY OF ROMA IN HUNGARY.” Social Science Monographs. Ed. István Kemény. Boulder: Columbia University Press, 2012. Web.
Mondavi Center. “Gypsy Spirit: Journey of the Roma.” 2004. UC Davis. Web.
Oprea, Alexandra. Child Marriage a Cultural Problem, Educational Access a Race Issue? Deconstructing Uni-Dimensional Understanding of Romani Oppression. 2005. Web.
Sigona, Nando. “Locating ‘The Gypsy Problem’. The Roma in Italy: Stereotyping, Labelling and ‘Nomad Camps’.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.4 (2005): 741-756. Web.
Sikovska, Ljatifa. Breaking the chains of poverty for Roma: Sikovska, Ljatifa – Advocate for Roma rights ECCARO. 2012. Web.
Footnotes 1 They began appearing in the Byzantine Empire from the Indian subcontinent in the 1200s, presumably having moved to avoid the incursions of Islam. Some, at least, were from groups that were nomadic rather than settled agriculturalists .
The movement of Roma from the Balkans into Western Europe was likely accomplished by the 1500s, but their movements were in some areas limited by their enslavement by local feudal landowners. After the practice of enslavement of the Roma was outlawed in Romania at the end of the 19th century, migrations occurred again.
Roma moved out of Yugoslavia in the 1960s, and again after the fall of the Berlin wall, when, as a final indignity, their citizenship was revoked or explicitly disallowed in some countries, for example, in Macedonia, due to their not having identity cards.
2 This self-defined identity is composed of, potentially, some combination of the following: their professional occupation, possibly also an affiliation related to the caste that their group was traditionally believed to have belonged to back in India, the geographic region from which they traditionally believed themselves to originate, their degree of Romanipen (or adherence to Roma tradition), their religious affiliation, their language(s), and sometimes lastly, the nation or region in which they reside.
3 This is reputed to include the notion that harming another Roma is nearly unforgiveable, but that harming those outside the Roma community is permitted. However, it is possible that the Roma notion of shame (lads), which applied only to relations within the Roma community, may have been misunderstood to suggest that doing wrong to outsiders was permitted .
4 In fact, some groups of Roma who first appeared in Europe presented letters of safe passage purported to be from the Holy Roman Emperor, Christendom’s answer to the glory that was Rome.
5 Some communities deliberately place Roma children in schools or classes for those with disabilities, even when there is no evidence that they have any such disability .
Adopting Alternative Fuels Essay essay help
Since the discovery of fossil fuels, man has made significant strides in the industrial revolution. So far, fossils fuels have provided the much-needed energy to run industries, households, cars, and institutions. It is beyond any reasonable doubt that fossil fuels have enabled the technological and mechanical progress witnessed in the world today.
However, uncontrolled use of fossil fuels has resulted in grave consequences, which require urgent attention. The world has been reluctant in finding suitable alternatives to fossil fuels for centuries resulting in wide spread environmental degradation.
Perhaps the latest cases of tornados, increased desertification, lose of arctic ice and marine life, and catastrophic storms, all attributed to global warming resulting from excessive use of fossil fuels, should act as a warning to humanity. The best solution to these problems is the adoption of alternative fuels. Despite the controversy surrounding the adoption of alternative fuels, they provide the best alternative for human survival.
Alternative fuels are substances such as bioalcohol, biodiesel, nuclear reactors, hydrogen, vegetable oil, chemically stored electricity, and compressed natural gases, which can provide energy other than the known conventional fossil fuels.
Biofuels, for instance, are an excellent silver bullet that provides humanity with an opportunity to continue enjoying the use of trains, cars, and planes without harming the environment.
Biofuels harnessed from crops provide an opportunity for farmers to earn a decent income and should be encouraged. Despite the hard work and commitment to feeding the world, farmers have earned little credit and appreciation, and should be paid back by adopting biofuels.
Alternative fuels are effective. Compressed natural gas, for instance, offers an exceptionally clean burning alternative and produces power that is equivalent to fossil fuels. Nuclei reactors also fall in this category, as they produce immense power and emit no harmful gases in the atmosphere. It would be understandable to sideline alternative fuel sources if they were ineffective, but that is not the case.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternative fuels also provide an opportunity to save money in the long run. Pump prices always seem cheap for many people. However, this may not be true in the end, as their use destroy engines fast leading to a need for replacement or frequent services. Many alternative fuels are “friendly” on engines, which leads to longer service life.
Most importantly, alternative fuels are renewable unlike fossil fuels, which cannot be renewed. In fact, this in itself is an adequate reason to adopt them as the principal energy source for powering the world’s economy. Fossil fuels are almost exhausted due to over exploitation. As such, considering alternative fuels is inevitable. Failing to harness the power of alternative fuel sources is planning to fail.
Our responsibility to our future grand children demands that we adopt alternative fuels. By taking small and decisive steps today, we may help save future generations from destruction. Fossil fuels have evidently destroyed the world’s ecosystem. Therefore, continued use of these fuels is an outright refusal to heed the future generation’s need for a safer environment.
Alternative fuel sources may be expensive to harness, but the promise of a safer and healthier world is a reason enough to adopt their use. We should not stand to be blamed by future generations for failing to take a step that is not beyond our capabilities. Adopting alternative fuels is not a case of our morals, but a show of our responsibility. Without any further hesitation, the world should act now and do what is right, adopting alternative fuels.
Men and Women as Consumers Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Comparison
This paper examines the similarities and differences that exist between men and women in their consumer role. It looks at how the different sexes view shopping, consume different products and think about their prices.
Comparison Both men and women love shopping either in supermarkets or shopping malls. However, men are rare shoppers than women when it comes to home appliances. This can be attributed to the fact that women are caretakers of the family hence their shopping will always revolve around domestic products. Only bachelors are likely to consider buying home appliances. Even so, they would only buy a few things at a time.
Both men and women are great consumers of electronics; however, there exist a differing trend in their style of shopping. While men are attracted to electronics for prestige and fun, women’s motive is always to make work easier. Nevertheless, consumption of ICT products has seen women also joining men in the purchase of laptops, iphones, and flat screen TVs among others (NBC 33 TV par. 1-4).
Both men and women are great consumers of media services. Even though they watch and listen to different programs, their listenership and viewership are almost equal explaining why the media practitioners have to take care of both of gender needs.
Men have been found to consume products such as perfumes that were traditionally associated with women. Even beauty products and hair styles are now being associated with men contrary to the traditional stereotype that considered things such as perfumes, expensive body lotions and creams and sophisticated hair styles feminine (Odell par. 1).
Another new trend in consumption is recorded in the purchase of motors vehicles. While men were traditionally considered great consumers of vehicles, women now own cars at almost the same rate as men (Szustek par. 8). This is because of the important role vehicles play in movement as more women become increasingly involvement in white collar jobs.
Differences Unlike women, men are less likely to be concerned about prices or bargains. Men are likely to complete their shopping within the shortest possible time compared to women who are usually conversant with the prices and are more likely to be found bargaining.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many women do impulse buying as compared to men since women are often window shopping and are thus easily lured by attractive products. Women like doing their shopping slowly comparing prices and qualities whereas men just go for what they came for; they mind less about the prices or quality as long as they have found what they want.
There also exists a differing pattern in consumption of certain products. When it comes to consumption of beauty products like deodorants, men are more likely to do without them during hard economic times. On the other hand, men are greater consumers of alcohol than women.
This is because women are usually concerned about their health and how they spend their money. When it comes to water consumption, men will take more water than women due to the nature of their bodies or due to the amount of work done as men are likely to be involved in physical activities.
Conclusion This essay has managed to compare and contrast the role of men and women as consumers. It has emerged from the essay that neither side of the gender is a better consumer than the other, but their consumption patterns are rather influenced by their gender roles. Traditional shopping stereotypes are, however, being broken as shopping patterns change with technological advancement and modernization.
Works Cited NBC 33 TV. “Studies show that more and more women are buying consumer electronics.” NBC33 News, January 28, 2012-3:00 pm. Web.
Odell, Amy. Men Increasingly Ravenous for Fine Beauty Products. New York Fashion, 2009. Web.
Szustek, Anne. “5 Marketing Myths About Women Debunked.” Business Insider, Inc., 2012. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Men and Women as Consumers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Building workplace equality Report essay help
Executive Summary Today, due to the technological advancements, companies prefer expanding their business across the globe. As a result, all global companies have employees from around the world. Hiring employees is not that tough a job as to retain them. Efficient people, irrespective of their ethnicity, caste, creed, colour, nationality, and gender, are always in demand.
Companies try to impress efficient employees of other companies by offering them higher wages and perks. Due to this incessant growth in competition in the global business scenario, it has become crucial for worldwide business houses to adopt certain policies so that their global employees don’t feel disregarded.
For this assignment we have chosen IBM as the company on which the report shall be based. IBM is an Information Technology company based in the United States of America. We have chosen this company because of its commendable strategy regarding its workforce diversity.
The company has bagged several awards and accolades for its workforce diversity policies. The company won the ‘Top Organization for Multicultural Business Opportunities’ in 2012 and the second position in ‘Top Global Diversity Companies List’ in 2009, among other coveted awards and accolades.
Introduction Diversity management is one such field which, if followed, can be beneficial for organizations but on the contrary, if organizations don’t pay much attention it can lead to great financial and other losses. Other losses means loss of workforce, reputation etc. Why will a person work in an organization that is not concerned about the wellbeing of its employees? So if an organization wants to prosper, it should give due importance to the diversity management policies.
Importance of managing workforce diversity for today’s managers Diversity, when defined, is a very simple term. It relates to the dissimilarities between human beings. But it’s a vast topic and of crucial importance to multinational organizations. If a company follows proper diversity management policy there are very bright chances of its’ achieving success. On the contrary, disregarding the diversity management may lead to heavy losses; financial and otherwise.
There are certain benefits that come automatically when diversity management policy is formulated and followed religiously. Such benefits are:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having diversity in an organization is very beneficial. In today’s business environment where companies are going global, diversity recruitment becomes all the more crucial. Managers have to tackle their diverse subordinates in a very delicate and professional manner. Companies have to do buying and selling throughout the world. It is human tendency to favour people of the same ethnicity and culture. In such a scenario, if organizations have employees from various ethnicities and cultures, it will be easy for them to do their business. Suppose if a British Company has business interests in India and has Indian sales personnel, it will be easy to convince the Indian buyers. Moreover, the Indian sales personnel will have the idea of the mentality of Indians and will have the tactics to convince them. This particular aspect will become all the more important in the ensuing years when companies, due to saturation at home markets, will expand their business to other countries.
By creating a harmonious work atmosphere where diversity is irrelevant, managers can augment their company’s repute in the placement market. This will help the company in catching the attention of qualified and efficient workers. In the long run such diverse employees may prove to be beneficial for the company.
If the managers are efficient and if they follow the company’s diversity management policy, they can generate such a work atmosphere where all the employees would feel themselves to be important and valued. Rewarding the better performers, irrespective of their diversity, will further infuse motivation among the employees and as a result, they will work more enthusiastically and will involve themselves more.
Managing the diverse workforce properly makes the task of managers easier since it “leads to reduced turnover. A 2008 study by Gallup Management Group in the United States revealed that engaged employees had 51% lower turnover on average” (MOM).
Impact of workforce diversity management on human resources As discussed earlier, diverse workforce is an asset to any organization. In absence of workers from around the world, organizations may find it tough to penetrate foreign markets. “Managers who acknowledge they face strong legal and social mandates for diversity may conclude that accommodating racial diversity provides a better fit with organizational circumstances than resisting it.
This implies that the best approach to diversity management is particular rather than universal” (Dass
Organizational Communication Process Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lessons to Learn
Introduction In any company, effective communication is very important because it ensures smooth running of the day to day affairs. Transmission of positive information is majorly not an issue because people are always receptive of good message, and the channels of communication are not strained in delivering the message.
However, it is not always that the company will be in harmony of each person’s actions, and a time will come when a negative message has to be passed on to one or more employees. Negative messages spread faster than positive messages therefore; every company should take control of its communication channels to ensure that information is released procedurally and to the right people only.
This is because if the wrong people get the information then the reputation as well as performance of the company will be at jeopardy. In this regard, PC has to incorporate communication channels that would not give their competitors a competitive advantage and threaten their command in the market.
Problem Statement There has been a communication breakdown between the sales manager, Leslie Jones, and the sales agents in Melbourne as regards the delay of the order that Coverpoint had placed. The weakness of communication channels is also manifested by the time that it takes to for the sales manager to discover that the order has not yet been delivered, as well as the direction from which the information of non-delivery is coming from.
It is expected that Leslie should discover that the order has not been delivered before his boss discovers so, but in this case the sales manager learns the problem from his boss. On top of that, Leslie needs to have direct contacts with at least major customers so that he can facilitate their transactions given that the company operates in a very competitive environment.
But in this case, Sam is not able to reach Derek, the sales agent, on phone while at the same time he cannot reach Leslie because it is not indicated that he has direct contact with him. Communication is also supposed to be inclusive and if there is any employee who is going to be affected, then the employee should be the first one to be informed before any other person gets the information (Adair 2011).
But in the case of PC Le Mary gets the information first before Derek and it is Derek who is directly affected. In addition to that, it is depicted that employees are not able to communicate their problems to the management such that action could be taken to prevent possible losses that may be imminent due to reduction in performance of the troubled employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective Approaches Communication is paramount and the channels of communication play a key role not only in times of crisis, but also in all activities of the company. It is therefore important that any situation be cautiously handled bearing in mind that the mode of communication makes the employees, customers and competitors interpret the message differently (Woodside 2001).
PC had several problems which needed to be addressed and communication was important. To begin with, the information that an order for coverpoint had delayed is emanating from an associate contrary to the expectation that Leslie should have the information. In this regard, Sam needed an assurance that PC treasures him and they were committed on solving the problem while assuring him that the same would not happen again.
On top of that, the expectation of Sam from PC needed to be increased if his loyalty to PC was to be sustained. The theory of sense making insists that, during crisis management needs to show that it is committed and able to tackle the situation (Maitlis
Extent and Implication of Organizational Culture Management Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Managing organization culture
Organization culture and organization success
Introduction Organization culture is collective behaviors that are exercised by existing members within an organization (Cameron, 2005). Employees in workplace commonly state the term culture often, and few of them know what it entails. Culture is paramount as it enables the organization to achieve its goals effectively (Hofstede, 2010).
When an individual want to manage organization culture one must first define it. This is not an easy task since, despite general agreements about culture components, there are diverse disagreements about several factors, which include: can culture of a certain organization be adequately described, can management of organization culture be fully described and whether there are management strategies, which best manage culture.
It is believed that culture management is mostly influenced by change agents or organization managers (Cameron, 2005). This essay objective is to discuss the extent to which organization culture can be managed as well as an implication of for organization culture management. Moreover, this paper will discuss whether culture is critical to organization successes.
Managing organization culture Organization culture is not static, and several factors make it keep on changing. Organization culture is defined and transformed by new employees as well as new and old features of organization external factors such as new professional ethics do influence organization culture too (Bunt, 2000). Within an organization structure, command and control system as well as operation norms contribute to transformation and management of culture (Madu, 2007).
Organization culture is considered as attributes of organization that can be manipulated making it possible to change and manage the organization culture. Organization culture is believed to emerge from things shared among employees in the organization. This entails shared beliefs, norms of behavior, attitudes and values (Willmott, 1993). This makes organization culture to be well managed because employees already know the norms followed in the organization (Scott, 2003).
Total change of organization existing culture should not be done. The management if they need to manage culture well they should first ensure the existing culture has been improved to meet the desired results expected (Schabracq, 2007). Therefore, this calls for caution for management to be selective with an aim of continuity and renewal of culture in the organization. Researches have been conducted to come up with ways to manage culture.
Since organization culture is diverse, there is a need to manage this cultural diverse. These strategies include determine which culture should dominate others within an organization (Cameron, 2005). The other strategy is to allow sub cultures in the organization to continue independently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When cultures are emerged together, there is harmonious working and organization employees work as a team leading to uniformity (Mark, 2005). Culture can be managed by providing incentives to employees. This is done by making employees who adhere to set culture are recognized and given incentives (Luecke, 2003). Those who violate organization culture may be denied some incentives.
The other way culture can be managed is by employee training. Employees are trained new skills, which will auger well with organization culture. Some scholars argue that organization culture is part of the organization. They state that the extent to which culture can be managed is through managers (Bunt, 2000).
Managers are empowered to manage culture by communicating to employees, providing incentives and sanctions. They emphasize that management of culture lies on managers rather than employees. They argue that leaders have roles to change, maintain and manage culture within an organization (Luecke, 2003).
For one to deal with management of organization culture, it is paramount to attributes, which lead to existing and new target culture, which include myths, symbols and assumptions that underpin the culture. This attributes include recruitment, selection and replacement. It is believed that culture management can be affected by ensuring employee appointments strengthen existing culture or support a culture shift. Employee removal and replacement can bring new culture in the organization (Bunt, 2000).
Performance management can be utilized to maintain desired culture in the organization. Behaviors, which management needs to discard, can be communicated to employees, and they are discouraged to condone them. This will lead to management of organization culture in a good way (Schabracq, 2007).
When all people within an organization are encouraged to participate fully in culture management of an organization, it will be easy to manage culture effectively. The other factor involves satisfying interpersonal relationship as this do much in supporting already existing culture ands welcomes new comers into the culture (Kotter, 2002).
There are several factors that hinder management of organization culture. These factors include situations when managers speak ill of their colleagues. This leads to need for revenge and leads to managerial immaturity (Luecke, 2003). Managers avoiding working with each other may also lead to unacceptable culture management.
We will write a custom Essay on Extent and Implication of Organizational Culture Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because when managers avoid working with each other everyone propels his culture making it hard to integrate organization culture into one (Haneberg, 2009). Managers who have bright prospects but fails to integrate these prospects with existing culture may lead to difficult in culture management (Willcoxson
Agrarian Reforms in the Countries of Latin America Essay essay help
The twentieth century was the period of many significant agrarian reforms in the countries of Latin America. In spite of the fact these reforms were developed in order to address the interests of peasants and landless rural population, in most cases the definite results of these reforms were not associated with the social and economic aspects, but reflected the peculiarities of the political situation in the countries.
However, to have the opportunity to make certain conclusions about the phenomenon of agrarian reforms in Latin America, it is necessary to concentrate on its peculiar features. This paper will focus on the examination of the positive and negative results of the agrarian reforms for the rural population in the countries of Latin America because each process or phenomenon always has two sides of its representation.
Positive Effects of Agrarian Reforms The period of agrarian reforms started in Latin America with the Mexican revolution which was developed at the beginning of the twentieth century and ceased with the progress of neoliberal policies in the territories. Providing agrarian reforms, governments were inclined to attract the rural masses and contribute to their political goals.
That is why the question of the agrarian reforms’ positive effects for all the social classes is rather controversial. The poor peasantry was not discussed as the potential force for the progress in the field of the countries’ economy and agriculture. All the accents were made on the capitalist farmers. Their activity was connected with the income distribution. Thus, the opportunities to invest in agriculture and to develop the land market appeared (Gwynne
Affirmative Action Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The initiative for an affirmative action was to ensure equality in educational, contracting, and employment opportunities across all races and gender. Therefore, it was a means through which minority groups and women would gain equal chances to compete in the aforementioned opportunities.
As a result of this, the affirmative action has played a key role in ridding America of discrimination against minority groups. However, its converse effect, “reverse discrimination” against the white has led to the development of alternative forms to address racial discrimination and ensure that all individuals are treated fairly.
The affirmative action used in Executive Order 10295 (1961) for the first time in the United States and was a wakeup call for federal contractors to treat all job seekers equally notwithstanding colour, sex, race, national origin, or religion (Dhami, Squires,
Methodology of data collection Report a level english language essay help
Introduction This section focuses on various aspects of data collection. It includes methods of data collection, analysis and presentation. Every research project applies a certain research method to achieve its objectives depending on its goals. In this research, the researchers were interested in gathering information about issues related to bullying.
The researchers interviewed sampled respondents in three different companies; large companies, middle sized and small companies. This was important in ensuring that the data gathered was free from bias. The researchers interviewed the managers of these firms and the employees in order to have views from both sides. This would enhance validity (Crotty 2003, p. 76).
The questionnaire were very important in this research because it was the tool through which relevant data was gathered from the research population. Different groups were assigned different roles. The first group of two individuals formulated the questionnaires while the other members formed another group for data collection.During data collection process, members were assigned different roles in different groups.
In each group, there would be an indivdual who would be interviewing the respondents, another would be recording the response, while the third person would observe non verbal cues from the respondents that would be useful in data analysis. These groups were asssigned regions where they would colletct data.
Hypothesis H0. There is no relatiohsip between poor service delivery and bullying in the organization.
There is one major methods used to gather information in this report. Data was gathered through the questionaire, which was administered physically by the group member the staff of the three different companies. It is attached to this document. The questionaire sought to capture various attutudes of staff at the three different companies regarding their performance attitude towards bullying.
Open ended questions were used because they give respondents more time to figure out their opinions, which would make them volunteer more information related to felings, outlooks and comprehension of the subject (Leedy
Culture of Design Essay college application essay help
Brand vs. identity A brand refers to the functional associations that the customers attribute to the product depending on their expectations of its performance. The brand is concerned with the attributes that make the product to appear unique from the customer’s perception (Adrian 2000).
Once the customer identifies a certain brand, he or she can then be able to make his or her purchase decisions faster than someone who does not have a specific brand. The customer can develop an emotional attachment to the brand if he or she perceives it to be satisfying his or her needs. The designer of the brand should design it in such a ways that it connects with the customer and not just the product (Kotler 2006).
Identity on the other hand, is concerned with the image of the company. This image can be portrayed by the brand made by the company. The type of marketing collateral, the messages communicated by the company and other visuals displayed present the whole aspect of identity. Other features found in the brand identity may include the product name, the sound invoked by the name, trade dress and the brand’s personality.
For a brand name to be effective it should suggest the products and services that it offers, it should also be easily recognized or pronounced and distinctive from other brands.
In order to create a sense of belonging, there should be ad good design and discourse. Whatever is said in the visual context should be related to the appropriate narration that gives meaning to it. For example in the designs presented over the TV, they must be related to the real experiences that the consumers find on the use of the brand ensures some sense of modernity.
Sometimes a visual language can be effectively used to convey some messages to the consumer as they can be associated with a certain meaning. For example, Joan’s visual language had been used to advertise market freedom instead of being used as symbol for political emancipation (Julier 1997).
Development of a good brand may be very costly but can also result in increased sales as long as it is able to meet the customer requirements. It requires marketing research to be done specifically in the market segments so that the customers are able to give their views on various ways in which they want the product to be designed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between consumer and product There is a very strong relationship between a consumer and the product depending on how well the product is able to meet the customer’s specifications. For example, the most loyal consumers of a specific product tend to make repeat purchases from the product due to the continued satisfaction that they get from the use of the brand.
Under the just in time method, the products made by the manufacturer depend on the customer’s specification. They are only made after the customer has made an order or a demand. There are no goods left in stock since all the goods made are delivered immediately to the customer. This may reduce the costs involved in holding these products in the warehouse as they can be delivered to the consumers as soon as they are complete.
The designer of any given product only acts as an agent of ideology and therefore may not fully control the needs the consumers who have purchased the product. He may try his best to suit their needs but he may not be able to control the interpretations made by these consumers. However, this does not mean that the designer should make his products in such a way that they do not meet the customer’s specifications.
Consumers do make their own choices on the use of various products and therefore there is individualism in the use of these products. Every consumer has his or her own tastes and preferences. This may not apply to the case of a public good as it is more concerned with many users than specifications of a particular consumer.
Consumption entails what happens in the market, this makes it difficult to meet the specifications of the consumer since the consumer is unknown by the time the product is being manufactured. If it does not meet one consumer’s expectations, then it can be bought by a different consumer with different needs (Landa 1997).
Most of the products designed by the manufacturer may only appear to be unique in terms of appearance, but can attract many consumers if well designed. This is what the brand should provide to the customers so that they can be loyal to the products.
Buying into an idea – being part of a group by purchasing certain products Most consumers are normally influenced to make their purchase decisions after seeing an advertisement over the media e.g. TV or magazines. Through the strategy of obsolescence, a product may become unfashionable with time if not well advertised so that the customers can continue purchasing the product.
We will write a custom Essay on Culture of Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even if some consumers fail to purchase a particular brand, they can still buy brands of the same manufacturer as long as the brand is able to meet their expectations. Others may be influenced to purchase in order to associate themselves with a larger group of users of a given brand.
The Sony Company had to do a survey on the users of TV and the frequency of watching the various channels available. After the survey, they were then able to design a portable TV in order to meet the customers’ needs and preferences (Julier 2007). This was contrary to the Electric Company which did not understand the customers’ expectations. From a large group of consumers, the manufacture can understand the various patterns of behavior which can be effectively implemented to increase the sale of products in the market. Once the consumers have seen other users of the portable TVs, they can also buy the idea and start using the same products as well. Therefore, design consultants should perform a market research in the consumer markets so that to design the products strategically to meet the customers’ expectations.
However, Slater views that consumption is based on the economic systems that may be different depending on the distribution of wealth within the society.
Identification through consumption A designer of a given project should have an understanding of the project before undertaking it. For example, Norman Foster who had been assigned to design the buildings of a stadium and a tower in the Leeds city, had first invited the City Council, which was one of his clients, to visit the city of Barcelona through the images presented (Julier 2007).
The design for a given brand should be able to meet the expectations of the consumer and therefore the customer’s preference is very crucial. If the manufacturer is able to redesign the products in order to change some specifications as required by the consumers, then the customers are likely to be loyal to the consumption of the brand.
According to the manipulation theory, it is important for a company to redesign its products in order to avoid losing customers to its competitors. The satisfaction of the consumer is the ultimate goal of any manufacturer who wants to be successive.
The various acts of consumption may involve the smelling, feeling or touching that is experienced by the consumers of a given product. Due to the constant expansion of consumer demand for various products, consumer culture has been created and therefore the manufacturer has to understand the customers’ needs in order to ensure that the products made are able to satisfy them.
Similarly, the need for a given product can be taken to be based on the individual or customer because the wants are often bound up with his unique needs or desires that are self evident (Slater 1997).Some of these self evident needs includes such products like food and health which are among the basic goods.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Culture of Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the post traditional society, the consumers are able to identify themselves through consumption. However, this relationship may change from time to time depending on the codes of reading the identities. The goods used by the customer can be used to convey their identity as there is a strong relationship between the identity and consumption.
Sometimes, customization is very crucial in some products that are specifically designed to meet the customer’s expectations. Some of these products may include bicycles, clothes and soft wares. Such products are very sensitive to the customer’s requirements.
Status and symbol in society Many consumers are known to believe that the quality of a given products is influenced by the status of their political economy or their social class. Those from high class society have unique design requirements for the products that they consume. Such products are highly valued if they meet their specifications.
They are able to buy the products even at very high prices due to their high purchasing power. This is true because consumption is used to express the power of the consumer or the freedom of choice. Consumers who are not loyal to the company’s products have many options to buy from and therefore the manufacturer has to find out what they actually need and provide it according to the specifications.
If the manufacturer fails to satisfy them, they are not likely to buy any product from the manufacturer. For the lower class society, the consumers may continue purchasing the product as long as it is affordable to them without necessarily meeting the values expected from it.
The loyal customers may continue using the product for some time even if it does not meet their specifications but not for too long. He may end up in buying from the competitors who may be producing products that are able to satisfy the customers’ demands.
There should be a vigorous understanding of the users of a given brand so that whatever value is promised by the brand, meets the customer’s demand. For example, the users of a Mercedes Benz expect that the high price that has been paid for the car means that they shall obtain a higher value from the use of the car. If it does not meet such specifications, then the customers are likely to shift their demand to other brand of cars.
The epochal changes in the consumer culture had led to a new era of a ‘disorganized capitalism’ (Slater 1997). This has ensured that the products being produced have a very strong relationship with the status and symbol that it represents.
Slater explains that the cultural reproduction requires the use of symbolic power which has been the basic way in which the consumer culture has been developed over time. This is contrary to the perception by Julier who explains that consumer culture can be influenced by other factors like societal trends in the use of the product and technology.
Slater also observes that the objects of consumption can also be used to reproduce particular social identities of the consumers of the products. In the design of any products, the manufacturers should differentiate the various markets into segments that can be easily served according to their specific requirements (Slater 1997).
This enables the differentiation of products in terms of design, appearance and prices to be effectively implemented in the market. Some of the costly products can be priced at a premium to ensure that the manufacturer is able to cover the costs incurred.
The appropriate symbol perceived on the product is a very sensitive issue that should be observed from time to time as it can change. Many authors have different views but most topics on the consumer culture are related and therefore the different views are very crucial to the designers of various products. This is the only way of being able to satisfy consumers.
References Adrian, F 2000, Objects of desire: Design and society since 1750, Thames and Hudson, London.
Julier, G 2007, The culture of design, Sage Publications Limited, London.
Kotler, P 2006, Marketing management, Harper, London.
Landa, M 1997, 1000 Years of nonlinear history, Swerve Editions, New York.
Slater, D 1997, Consumer culture and modernity, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Climate Change and Renewable Energy Options Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction There is a lack of access to energy in most of the world states. This has for quite a long time been the problem to economic development in these world countries. Statistics show that only 31 percent of the Sub-Saharan countries use electricity, with only 10 percent in the rural areas.
Besides the energy access challenges, the “traditional biomass” only supplies 85percent of the energy and only 80percent is used in some Asian countries1. With lack of energy access becoming a major concern in the world, there has been concern for the development of required energy security and coming up with ways to supply the energy.
The need to adapt to change in climate has been another challenge for sustainable development in the world. Research shows that Asia contributes about 5percent of the “global GHG emissions” but this is however tampered by variations in climate change such as food security, water supply, biodiversity, and diseases brought about by climate2.
These challenges of energy and climate change are related and therefore there is concern on the methods which society uses to produce energy, distribute and consume it. Policies related to attain the energy goals through “sustainable” means and through methods that do not consume more carbon are important.
Coming up with renewable energy policies and implementing them can be of great help in access to “clean” energy3. Methods of energy production such as coal and fossil emit more carbon other methods such as hydro, bio-energy, wind, PV technology, and solar thermal offer the most available options.
The energy and climate policy makers should put more emphasis on doing away with the challenges to renewable energy development through methods such as the ones above. Other methods such as “net metering”, “feed-in tariff”, and “renewable energy portfolio” are put forward to promote less carbon energy consumption ways4.
Therefore with more concern in the world on sustainable development, there is need to develop the energy sector and putting more emphasis on renewable energy. Moreover, the policy makers need to know that the relationship between energy security and climate change and methods that are aimed at producing less carbon vital.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key Drivers of Climate Change Most of the problems experienced in climate change are largely as a result of what happens outside the “sector”5. Factors such as the increase in population, the increase in the human beings’ purchasing power and increase in international trade are putting more pressure on forests.
The rise on road networking development has acted as a way to attract more investors in agricultural development and bringing into place new trends in the rural area economic developments. The high demand of forest products and the need for investment in new species of plants have changed the natural sceneries in the rural areas and the general landscape.
The rise in deforestation has been accelerated by low wages among the world population, rich soils that encourage other forms of agriculture, and the rise in agricultural prices that encourage people to do away with forests in favour of crops. There is however a need for good governance and clear policies regarding land tenure as these has eased the problem of climate change.
However, research shows that even in areas where there is good governance and good policies regarding forestation, the problem of tree cutting in favour of other forms of agriculture has been on the rise.
The existence of various classes of world economies in the rural setting and the rise of the middle class economies has put more pressure on environmental services that are highly demanded and the use of forests. In curbing the current trends, the institutions that are concerned with development are playing important roles in such climate change situations.
Since policies are often led by “hidden hands” that have seen the rise on the call “economic and social” justice proper allocation of land and creating other forms of employment that can remove the pressure on forests that are as a result of the low income of the world population6. This kind of effect can be helpful than the direct efforts to deal with such problem.
The culture of a society also affects the way forests are treated by its people. Changes in the culture of the societies have been beneficial in the rural developments and brought more changes in forestry. They have been interacting with other communities such as the organizations, environmental NGO’s, the governments and other private sectors in encouraging environmental awareness.
We will write a custom Essay on Climate Change and Renewable Energy Options specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Demographic Changes There is an increase in the rate of rural to urban migration in recent years due to high level of socioeconomic development, and this has brought about industrialization. However, more people are now employed in the urban towns that make them more
Stable and avoid a lot of tree cutting in the rural areas. The rate of population growth in urban areas is expected to rise and this will put more pressure on forests.
Rural depopulation is likely to affect climate change in various ways because of the increase in economic “downturn”. Even though most of the people are leaving for the urban centres, there are those that have remained and are low income earners that may be forced to cut down the resources.
Moreover, lack of efficient land-tenure systems in the rural areas may motivate the people to cut down the forests. Changes in agriculture due to increase in technology that have paved way for large scale commercial agriculture may lead to clearance of forests and increase of population around the agricultural areas may imply that there would be more clearing of forests.
The consequences of climate change as a result of the rural population growth will be dependent on the rural development policy and the form of governance in existence. In cases where there are no proper policies and poor governance, there is the possibility that there will be more clearance of the forest resources. However, there have been cases where high populations have been motivated to invest in forest resources.
Nevertheless, factors such as population growth, local migration and the rise of urbanization, and “out migration” have eased rural development changes. These factors have acted in a way that it is easy to manage forests in the rural areas since the pressure on land is reduced being used for agriculture is reduced.
Strategies Climate change has become a serious problem in the world today. Even though most countries shall focus on reducing emissions and putting more emphasis on mitigation efforts, there have been more climate change scenarios that are as a result of human beings. There have been concerns in reducing the “greenhouse” gas emissions, and several strategies are in place to help in dealing with the problem of climate change.
Addressing the problem of Conversion of forests to other land uses
Most countries are now dealing with the problem of conversion of most of their land to other agricultural uses. Most people have for long been forced to clear forests in favour of agricultural use because of the economic crisis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Climate Change and Renewable Energy Options by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There have been measures in place to control this problem and the countries have emphasized and encouraged her citizens that even though achieving food and energy security might be a major concern for most of the people, it is important for the people to know that investing in forests is as important too.
This has however, forced many countries to adopt an “integrated” landscape approach in expecting their policies. This ensure that the use of land should not only be for agricultural purposes but considering other values such as the value of other goods and services that come as a result of forest and tree conservation. Clearly, one of the main reasons for forest conversion to agricultural use is for “bio-fuels”. Some governments provide incentives that are adequate to the farmers and this has reduced the problem of conversion of land forests into agricultural purposes.
Various National Forest Monitoring Systems
The Food Agricultural Organization has put in place a system that monitors, collects, analyses and gives a comprehensive report on the uses of forests in the member countries. This is aimed at managing forests in the most efficient manner. This system is important since it can assess the status of the forests over a period of time so that the organization can know on the way forward regarding the sustainable management of the forests.
The statistics provided by this system is vital in knowing how important the forests are to the particular country and their contribution to the countries in achieving their goals and coming up with the required “climate change adoption strategies”7.
Alleviating Poverty as proposed by REDD
This organization emphasizes on the need to reduce poverty in the world states, improving the leadership in regard to forest conservation, conserving “biodiversity” and the need to provide other services related to the environment. The rate of clearing trees has been on the rise because of the poor economy where people are aiming at using the forest land for agricultural purposes instead of investing in trees for future use which do not seem to come.
The organization has encouraged governments that should they control poverty, then the rate of tree clearance shall be minimal. The organization moreover, delivers low emission costs for products at a short time. Therefore in sustainable development the organization has encouraged the countries to be aware that this should start from controlling the way people are living in terms of their economic status.
Stressing on the Importance of Forests
Forests are important just like investing in the agricultural sector. Some countries are involved in monitoring and care for the forests, have come up with policies that are aimed at rewarding the conservation bodies. There are organizations in various countries that monitor the forests to ensure that are in good health and to see if there is any harm by pets and other diseases. Moreover, countries have ways to implement fire control measures. This ensure that the forests are not tampered with at any point.
Several measures related to forest can be understood through “SFM” and the measures insist on the importance of curbing climate change. The measures that are also provided by REDD help in monitoring the forests. Monitoring of forests ensures that the required “interventions” are put in place for the safety of the forests.
Low Carbon Growth Increased pressure in the Atmosphere
The issue of carbon dioxide cut makes it a problem for the upper atmosphere to “absorb” the greenhouse gases. This is a problem since it cannot be possible to absorb the greenhouse gases without tampering with the ecosystem. The ecosystem is essential for the health of all the human beings and their “welfare”8.
Even though the use of technology has enabled human beings to get the resources in the most efficient manner, through the emissions from the greenhouses into the atmosphere but the same technology has not provided the best way to clean up such gases in the atmosphere.
The use of natural resources is becoming a major problem in the world and more over the increase of the greenhouse gases because of low carbon dioxide emissions has affected the ecosystem greatly and puts the human life in danger.
Energy Conservation Options and Renewable Energy Changing to the renewable energy as an alternative to more efficient energy use is vital. This increases energy efficiency for most industries. Nevertheless, the concept of “source conversion” is important. This concept involves using other sources of fossil fuel consumption that do not pollute the environment and are more cost effective. Moreover, the idea of bio-mass that uses the “agricultural” waste products and wood chips is becoming important and tries to protect the environment9.
Energy conservation is an expensive task and therefore encouraging human beings to use electricity in the most efficient manner is important. The concept of turning off lighting systems when they are not needed helps conserve energy. Technology has been on the forefront in addressing the problem of energy conservation and help to deliver the most cost effective energy.
The wood chips that come from the process of making timber can be used as a source of energy. Other sources such as cow manure can be important in replacing the fossil fuel. Using local resources such as wind, sun, and river flow most organizations can turn away from the use of fossil fuel that is more costly and adds the problem of environmental pollution.
To conserve energy, there are a variety of bio-fuels such as corn, soy diesel, dairy methane, wood chips that have taken the place of gasoline and diesel fuel and are being used in operating vehicles and “heating oil” that is fundament to the vehicle’s equipment operation. Clearly, bio-fuels have an added advantage of not only polluting the environment but also consume less energy.
These give the farmers and the foresters an advantage of using a cost-effective product for their routine jobs while being assured of a profit for their daily operation. Through this, they help in improving their lifestyle that further improves the national economy and eradicating the problem of climate change.
Renewable energy cannot be exhausted at any point in the process of the human development cycle. These resources further are long lasting and can be “regenerated” through agricultural practices. Moreover, they are environmental friendly, and help in controlling climate change by reducing carbon emissions into the environment.
Emissions Trading Scheme The emissions trading scheme is not working at the moment because this is not a real market scenario. The system failed in the first phase because the member states had to allocate the “auctioning” rights free of charge to companies10. Most of the companies that took more permits than they needed sold them for a profit instead. However, this system can be made to work as the objective of this system is to “impose” a given amount of cost on those companies that emit carbon that is enough to invest in new technologies.
A stronger commission is needed for the system to work because of the need for low pollution and this should be shown by giving permits to only a small number of companies. This system is still the most widely renowned system that is considered cost-effective by economists and the best way to do away with greenhouse emissions.
Since many companies have objected to the trading schemes is a demonstration that this is the best way to achieve the low carbon economy. The current problems associated with this system are such they can be “reformed” and the problems that are coming up make the system to realize its flaws.
The current system is made in a way that there are no “auctioning”. If the permits are given to companies and not auctioned then the system cannot be of any importance. The system needs to be reformed in a way that all the permits are auctioned in the process. Nevertheless, at the moment there are “small installations” in the system. This show that the cost of including such installations could be more costly and make the benefits less. The system needs to be reformed by increasing the “threshold” of such installations11.
It is vital for the policy makers to get the exact price allocation since the current economic situation is dynamic. Therefore making several assumptions about the future economic growth would be vital, the future price changes, and the ever dynamic technology over several years would make the system realize its goals.
At the moment, the trading system does not cover the big industries involved in the production of chemicals, aluminium and minerals, coal, natural gas leaks and the system need to be reformed to cover all the economies that it does not cover at the moment. Some sections of the economy such as the household sector, the transportation sector, agriculture are not all covered by the system and this makes it not realize its goals.
Unlike some of the alternative policies in reducing emissions, the system would be in a serious problem if the price of carbon was traded at a certain level. This is because most companies can opt to trade outside the EU and in the process avoid the system and this would make the system not attain its goal. The System needs to cover such problem.
Conclusion With the world seeking ways in which it can handle the energy challenges and dealing with the problem of climate change, technology has been important in offering the alternatives.
Clear guidelines on the climate change should be in place for policy makers in the process of enabling the world have access to energy in a cost effective manner and dealing with the problem of climate change. Therefore having clear targets regarding energy development and managing the environment will be important for the future. Renewable energies offer the best solution for energy conservation.
The governments also need to design and make sure that the renewable energy development strategies are followed. It is however, clear that most emissions have a direct relationship with energy generation and consumption more so in households and transportation sectors that have not been considered in trying to deal with this problem.
Generally, to reduce the emissions it calls for having standards that define given levels of emission that encourage “cleaner” energy supply from the renewable sources12. This would be an important policy especially in African countries.
The technological standards are the ones that have been relied relatively to control emissions from the transport sector. This would include increasing the vehicle “mileage” and in the types of fuels. Therefore other environmental policies in place then the problem of climate change would be a problem of the past13.
Bibliography Deisendorf, M, “Greenhouse Solutions”: Sustainable Energy, NY, UNSW Press, 2007
Diesendorf, M, Sustainable Energy Futures for Australia in Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, UNSW Press, NY, 2007.
Diesendorf, M, Greenhouse response in the Energy Sector, NY, Unwin Publishers, 1997.
Management Report of Wal-Mart Report writing essay help
Executive summary A number of business enterprises have adopted diversity management in a bid to increase the productivity of the firm and, consequently, the market share. This report provides an analysis of managing workforce diversity by delving into a case study of Wal-Mart Company.
Through a review of literature, the report underscores the benefits of managing diverse workforce, the challenges faced by the company during the implementation process, and the management strategies put in place by the Walmart Company in managing workforce diversity.
The findings obtained show the even though the company has managed to implement a managerial diversity program known as leadership development program, the company needs to implement a training program that includes both the subordinates and the management staff.
More so, it is apparent that the training program cannot achieve substantial results if the company does not adopt diversity management skills rather than dwelling on awareness. This report brings to light the rationale behind effective strategies of managing workforce diversity, and then sheds light on how the process can be improved by offering recommendations.
Introduction Managing workforce diversity encompasses recruiting, retaining, as well as promoting a peaceful coexistence of all workers by taking into account the need for equality despite the differences between them (Hankin 2004, p. 67). These differences may range from gender, age, race, religion, nationality, values, nationality, and sexual orientation, among other differences.
Diversity management can be articulated through a number of theories that mainly emphasize on employees’ motivation as well as human resources management. The purpose of this report is to give a critical analysis of diversity management at the Wal-Mart company in a bid to establish the authenticity of its effectiveness.
A review of current literature Benefits of managing workforce diversity on employee
A company can achieve a competitive advantage when it takes the approach of managing diversity using a critical approach. If the workforce is managed effectively, the company gets into a position of creating competitive products/ services, and thus increasing its market share locally as well as globally (Mor 2011, p.3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is, however, important to note that diversity management results in competitive advantage only when it is characterized by innovation, which can only be achieved through motivation (Wrench 2007, p. 16).
Motivation in organization that embraces diversity can only be effected through identification of unique values of each member of the staff. As such, the organization gets into a position of increasing its market share and gaining international competitiveness (Griffin 2007, p. 209).
Workforce diversity can be managed by recruiting diverse employees, as this offers them with an opportunity of contributing better decisions to the company (Mor 2011, p. 9). This stems from the fact that the workforce is in a position of brainstorming a wide range of ideas that enhance employees’ motivation towards performance achievement.
More so, a company that has a good diversity management contributes positively towards helping the employees work with a common objective, and this, in turn, contributes positively to performance achievement (Bond 2007, p. 164). Diversity management has a positive contribution to an increased market share because the company creates a better image to the community.
For case in point, when a company recruits the disabled population with a view of promoting them even to higher positions, the approach facilitates a good relationship with the community because the community becomes aware that the company is interested in the welfare of the community.
And with the high increase in globalization, managing workforce diversity plays a critical role towards foreign market entry, as it creates an avenue for increased flexibility, making it possible for the company to adopt organizational changes effectively (Bond 2007, p. 165).
Problems faced by organizations when workforce diversity is not managed
However, a number of studies have indicated that even though diversity is regarded as a strategy of improving productivity, it has an adverse effect when the company is characterized with high levels of diversity (Deresky 2011, p. 82). These adverse effects stem from the fact that the management may be unable to make policies that suits each employee with regard to equal opportunities, human rights legislation, as well as employment equity within the organization (Kundu 2003).
We will write a custom Report on Management Report of Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For case in point, given that the Western management styles are different from Asian management style, a multinational company may face challenges when it comes to handling its entire managerial practices to the Asian countries simply because this may lead to a change of the company’s culture.
This may also result in low levels of motivation, given that the Asians may perceive centralization as being self-centered. It is, therefore, imperative to note that if a company fails to adopt an effective workforce diversity management, it is bound to experience a number of problems, especially in the human resource management.
Thus, workplace diversity management can be effectively achieved when the practice takes center stage in the human resource management practices. If not well managed, the organization can be faced with disunity among the workers stemming from fears that come with working with people who are bound to change the organizational culture (Kundu 2003).
As a result, the human resource is bound to experience an increase in overhead costs due to increased levels of seminars aimed at promoting diversity.To prevent this vice, the human resources should take the initiative of linking diversity management to recruitment, job placement, rewards management, as well as succession planning to the human resource management (Kundu 2003).
This kind of approach should address the needs of all employees in order to facilitate a peaceful coexistence. More so, the human resource should be in a position of coming up with a performance standard, which should be communicated and implemented without bias procedures.
Failure to this, the management will be unable to identify the undesirable behavior that emanate from diverse workforce, as well as to encourage on the positive behaviors emanating from the diverse workforce.
Thus, diversity management is based on the strength of the human resource as well as the organizational culture. As such, it is the responsibility of the human resource management to understand the organization’s culture that would facilitate implementation of policies that in line with the needs of every worker.
The human resource can improve diversity dilemmas though training and talent development programs (Deresky 2011, p. 83). This should involve providing the employees with the concepts involved in workforce diversity, as well as the rationale behind managing workforce diversity within an organization’s setting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Report of Wal-Mart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Failure to this, the management becomes unaware of the expectation of the employees on both individual and group level, as it cannot assess the work values and leadership assumption of the employees. Additionally, the levels of discrimination cannot be reduced if the human resource fails to adopt an approach that is geared towards creating formal as well as informal support systems of language development that would enhance standardizing organizational terms.
Ineffective training programs on diversity, which do not address skills for the social changes emanating from an increase in demographics, lead to unqualified goals and the objectives of the program (Kundu 2003). Thus, a high degree of cooperation between the senior managers, the line managers, and the employees should be called for to ascertain that the program achieves its goals.
This should include asking the employees to elaborate on the areas they have been sidelined, as this creates an opportunity for personalizing the program. Failure to adopt this approach, the company becomes unable to influence the required behavioral change that adds value to workforce management (Deresky 2011, p. 85).
An effective diversity management should compel the management to carry out a reconciling exercise aimed at reconciling competing goals, address the needs of the minority, act when there is a balance of resources amongst all cultural groups, as well as implement solutions when the workers have unanimously agreed or understood a particular issue (Rice 2010, p. 258).
Failure to do so often leads to conflict emanating ethnocentrism as well as stereotyping some employees. This negative trend is detrimental to a company’s productivity, as it results into a high rate of workers turnover (Kundu 2003). Thus, the human resource should find ways that involve all the employees in the decision making process in order to avoid conflicts , which make none of the employees exploit his/her full potential.
Types of workforce diversity that exist at wal-mart company Critical analysis of the benefits diversity offers in the organisation
Wal-Mart Company is a big company that is ranked as one of the best performing companies globally. Its headquarters is in Arkansas, United States, and has many other branches across the globe. Thus, the company has expanded its market share to a number of countries that depict a completely different cultural background from its headquarters.
These countries include China, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and the U.K, among other counties. Moreover, the company has recruited over two million associates, all who come from diverse workforce (Wal-Mart Stores, 2011) According to Wal-Mart (2011), recruiting a workforce from different ethnic communities has resulted into a number of benefits for the company.
Thus, the company upholds the diversity management with regard to the notion that a company that recruits employees from diverse cultural backgrounds is bound to be innovative due to presence of diverse skills emanating from people with different talent (Deresky 2011, p. 86).
More so, the company has attained a competitive advantage through recruiting workforce from diverse ethnic groups, as this has created a positive self-image to the communities, who now perceive that the company does not only aim at making profits from the community, but it addresses the immediate needs of the community.
Additionally, by embracing diversity, the company portrays an organizational culture that is derived from full participation of diverse employees through the stakeholders from diverse ethnic groups, thus helping to create different values derived from people with diverse cultural backgrounds within the organization (Walmart 2011).
This approach is critical because considering values and ethics from people with different cultural backgrounds form the basis of excellent leadership (Rice 2010, p. 248). More so, the company understands that managing workforce through opinions from the diverse workforce benefits the company on both the short and long-term basis.
It is from this idea that the Wal-Mart Company has taken the approach of paying close attention to the organizational behavior that is likely to bear positive fruits with regard to vision building of the Company.
Thus, diversity management has provided the Wal-Mart company with an opportunity of viewing company’s policies in a broader manner, assess the level of support that should be provided to the diverse workforce, and evaluate whether the motivation program adopted by the company can accommodate workers from diverse cultural backgrounds (Rice 2010, p. 251).
Critical analysis of the problems diversity offers in the organisation
However, a number of problems also characterize diversity management within the Wal-Mart company when it comes to putting the theory into practice. This stems from the fact that different cultures depict different opinions with regard to theories employed in the organization structure.
For example, the Muslim community has raised concerns over acts of discrimination following a denial of a prayer break (Abernethy, 2010). In this regard, the management has been unable to make policies that suit each employee with regard to equal opportunities in terms of religious affiliation. This depicts that the Wal-Mart company engages in a number of diversity training programs that are only easy to practice in theory, thus posing a threat at the recruitment practice of the company (Bleijenbergh, Peters,
Country Report on Brazil Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Management in Brazil compared to China
Introduction Brazil is located in Latin America and is the number one in terms of geographical size and population. Its people speak Portuguese, and it is the only country in the South America where people speak Portuguese. It is fifth in the world among the countries in terms of population and land size.
It is a founding member of many unions across the world, for example, the G20 and is among the countries that are classified under the BRIC. It is a mega diverse country (one of the few in the world) with a variety of natural features, wildlife and habitat (Wagley 2003). Its total area is 8,514,877 km2, and its population is 191,376,496 (a 2011 estimate).
Economy It is number six in the list of the world’s largest economies in terms of nominal GDP and number seven in terms of purchasing power parity. This is according to an analysis done for 2011; it is among the world’s economies, which are developing at a fast rate. According to a 2011 estimate of the purchasing power parity, the total GDP is 2,294 trillion dollars, and GDP per capita is 11,796 dollars.
According to another estimate of 2011 for nominal GDP, the total GDP is 2,493 trillion dollars, and GDP per capita is 12,788 dollars. It has many sectors which are developed and sizeable like manufacture, agriculture, mining and service. The large population provides a ready pool of labor which helps in driving forward the economy of the country.
It is one of the major exporters in the world, and this sector is rapidly growing due to the large foreign demand for their products. They mainly export food products (like coffee), textiles, metals (like iron ore), electrical appliances, vehicles, and aircrafts. It is number three in the list of exporters of agricultural products. Investment into the country from foreign entities is growing and is expected to continue soaring, thus, lifting the economy further.
Mergers and acquisitions are common things in Brazil and are seen to be the norm among big and expanding enterprises. The economy has a variety of sectors providing diverse products and services to its population. It is number ten among the countries which are large consumers of energy. It is indicative of its economic growth which translates to increased demand for energy. This energy is from both renewable and non renewable sources.
Among the renewable sources are ethanol and hydroelectricity, and the non renewable source is primarily oil (Schneyer, 2011). Recent discoveries of oil which are in huge amounts are projected to make it a major producer and exporter of the product in the coming years. Over the past thirty years, the economy has grown to make it a major part of the world market (Bradford, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Culture The Brazilian culture has been influenced by Portuguese who colonized them. They were introduced to their colonial power’s language, religion and architecture. There are also other cultures and traditions which greatly shaped the current Brazilian culture like the indigenous traditions.
The landing of the Europeans, Japanese and Arabs on the land also played a role in the outcome of their existing culture. The cuisine and language were impacted greatly by the Africans and indigenous people (Amerindians); the religion, music and dance were shaped by the Africans. Samba is among Brazil’s most popular styles of music together with brega and maracatu.
Each region has its own unique cuisine stressing on varieties of population who inhabit the land. Football is the most common and popular sport; their team is top ten in the world rankings of national teams. There are other common sports which are practiced like martial arts and volleyball (Fausto, 2009).
Politics Their Government is made of three spheres: the states, the federal district, and the union. Three entities being political ones, form a union which is Brazilian Federation. These entities are the Federal District, the municipalities, and the states; this union cannot be dissolved.
The constitution is the foundation for the three arms of Government that exist, namely, legislative, executive, judicial. It is a multi party democracy which has existed for many years; this allows for representation that is equal and proportional. Those who are literate and are between the age of 18 and 70.
There are four mina political parties in the country: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, Worker’s Party, Democrats, and Brazilian Social Democratic Party (Wagley 2003). The Government utilizes Presidential system where the president heads both the Government and the state.
The presidential term is four years and the president can run for re-election for the maximum of two terms. The law of the country has its origin in the Roman-German laws. The civil law is the primary law that is practiced in the country, which is codified. The Federal Constitution, which was brought into action in 1988, is the foundation of the legal system.
We will write a custom Report on Country Report on Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the ranking of the courts, the one on top is the Supreme Federal Court; there are other existing courts which are specialized like the electoral courts. In South America, it is a powerhouse and a leader in terms of politics, does not intervene in other country’s affairs. The Brazilian armed forces have three branches which are the Brazilian Navy, Brazilian Army, and Brazilian Air Force. They are the biggest in terms of numbers in South America (Martinez-Lara, 2005).
Management in Brazil compared to China There are different types of management styles existing which are applied differently in these two countries. In Brazil the person who is a manager is looked at as the one being of utmost importance. According to its culture, Brazilians highly value relationships striving to foster good and strong ones.
The manager or head is willing to be in good terms with the subordinates to ensure trust and respect among the team. Instructions which come from the top of the hierarchy are expected to be followed without too much questioning. When there is any question or argument raised, it is expected to be done in private to avoid any public displays of disagreement.
Decisions are made, therefore, by those who are ranked the highest. Advice that is helpful to a manager in Brazil is to be clear, comprehensive and accurate when instructing the subordinates. When tasks are still not done after asking for this, the manager should begin by analyzing where they made a mistake. This will help identify any vagueness or lack of clarity that was there when giving the instructions.
When incomplete instructions are provided to the subordinates, they only do what they were instructed to do and no more. This is because it is a hierarchical system and subordinates see doing more than they are asked of might be a disobedience to the manager. I would follow this advice to ensure a healthy relationship is created between me and my subordinates. This will be in addition to allowing them to air their views and ask questions where instructions are not clear, or they do not agree with the decisions.
In China, the style of management takes after the Confucian philosophy. Relationships are not valued, and people are not equal, the status quo is, therefore, expected to be respected by the ethical behaviors displayed. The younger people by default show respect to the older, while the junior to the senior (Edward, 2009).
Empowerment and equal access to any information is scorned by Chinese who view it as being Western. Management is directed downwards with the senior passing directives. Juniors are not allowed to question decisions made by managers. According to the management style employed in China, an important advice to learn is that a manager should portray the image of a father figure who asks and gets obedience and loyalty from coworkers.
The manager should reciprocate this by ensuring the well being of the coworkers, this will mutually benefit both these parties. Usually the Communist party keeps close ties with managers and influence many decisions made concerning these businesses. They are seen as the ones who control these businesses behind the scenes. It is thought that quality, experienced managers are lacking in China partly because it is a fast growing economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Country Report on Brazil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The few who are available are too costly; this makes the recruitment and retention process difficult. As a manager, I will avoid outside influence from members of the Communist party to ensure there is no conflict in running the business, and in the relationship with my subordinates. I will also follow the advice above and look after the well being of my coworkers to build a beneficial mutual relationship.
References Bradford, EB 2003, A History of Brazil, Columbia University Press, New York.
Edward, L 2009, Management Styles: U.S., Europe, Japan, China, India, Brazil, Russia, Journal of Management, vol. 5, pp. 112-115.
Fausto, B 2009, A Concise History of Brazi, CUP, Cambridge.
Martinez-Lara, J 2005, Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change, Macmillan, UK.
Schneyer, J 2011, “Brazil, the New Oil Superpower”, Business Journal, vol. 4, pp. 118-124.
Wagley, C 2003, An Introduction to Brazil, Columbia University Press, New York.
Long-Run Effects of Fiscal Consolidation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effect on demand
Introduction Fiscal consolidation is a policy that is designed targeting the reduction of a national crisis. It works towards reducing the debts that are incurred by a particular nation as much as possible. The success of any fiscal consolidation policy depends largely on how the policy is designed and also on how it is implemented.
Fiscal consolidation can have both short term and long term effects. The policy is designed and directed towards achievement of positive results, although sometimes negative effects can result.
In order to achieve long term benefits, the policy must incorporate strategies that can freely adapt to various economies of the world. Some of the long run benefits of the fiscal consolidation are highlighted below.
Effect on demand The fiscal consolidation policy has a positive long run impact on demand. This occurs when the government of a nation uses the consumption expenditure strategy in order to achieve the fiscal consolidation.
An increase in demand is usually achieved since savings of the government are generally improved, meaning that the overall savings of the nation also improve.
With improved savings, the real interest rates go down (Rother, Schuknecht
Global Strategy tripod Essay college essay help online
Strengths of considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy for foreign market entry
There are various strengths that are related to considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy for foreign market entry. In view of this, Peng (358) believed that the state and the society are entities in the environment that are concerned with crafting policies govern all players in their jurisdiction. Therefore, it is beneficial that these policies are considered by foreign market entrants in order to avoid penalties emanating from them.
In addition, according to Peng (49), it is beneficial for a firm since societies and states differ from one environment to another. Peng goes ahead and alludes that low income consumers in these societies are usually price sensitive. For that case it is beneficial for organizations to formulate its strategies with this in mind since it must forge good competitive strategies.
Strengths of considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy of corporate social responsibility
On the other hand, there are various strengths of considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy of corporate social responsibility.
According to Peng (354), this is the case since strategy formulation prioritizes corporate social responsibility whereby issues that goes beyond economic, legal and technical requirements of the organization are factored in so as to achieve economic gains that the organization seeks. Moreover, this is so since the state and the society are the major determinants of how businesses are conducted in the environment.
In relation to this, Peng (359) provides an example of the major three car manufacturers in the US which lobbied politician to change climatic policies. This resulted to increase in rivalries which in turn became difficult for the companies to conduct their businesses.
Therefore, it is imperative that firms should consider the impacts of state and society when crafting strategy of corporate social responsibility. This so since whatever measure that is taken by the state or the society might be disastrous or be beneficial to their strategies.
Weaknesses of considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy for foreign market entry
However, there are various weaknesses of considering influences of the state and the society in crafting strategy for foreign market entry. For instance, these firms are considered by the same state and society as outsiders in their business environment. Moreover, in most cases, these firms also have limited control of the infrastructure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses of considering influences of the state and society in crafting strategy of corporate social responsibility
Nonetheless, despite having various strengths of considering state and society in crafting strategy of corporate social responsibility, there are various weaknesses that are associated with this approach. According to Peng (194), one of the drawbacks is that the state and society usually require their collaboration with local partners who may turn out to be of mismatch. When this happens, it becomes economically expensive for their businesses.
Lastly, Peng (371) opines that in the event when a firm’s economic status may not allow for corporate social responsibility engagement, it is usually criticized by both the state and the society. As a result, it impact negatively on their cordial relationship.
Conclusion In conclusion, according to Peng (368), firms are tasked with the need of coming up with proactive, reactive, accommodative and defensive strategies in order to meaningfully operate in a competitive environment. For that case, institution based view to the formulation and implementation of a firm’s own global strategy have potential contributions that caters for forces affecting the firm in its business environment. This approach makes it to be proactive and reactive to all issues emanating from the operating environment.
Works Cited Peng, Mike. Global Strategy, USA: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Peregrine Trucking Company Report online essay help: online essay help
Organizations in different economic sectors are increasingly facing challenges emanating from the dynamic nature of the business environment. As a result, it is paramount for firms’ management teams to consider ways of enhancing their competitive advantage. To achieve this, firms have to consider a number of issues such as increasing their capacity utilization. It is also important for firms to integrate strategies that will contribute towards reduction of their operating cost.
Some of the cost variables that firms management team should consider relate to fuel and material costs. Currently, the global rise in fuel price is affecting firms in different economic sectors. However, firms which largely depend on petroleum as their source of energy are the most affected. An example of such firms is Peregrine Trucking Company which operates within the US transport industry.
In addition to rising fuel cost, transportation companies are also facing a challenge as a result of the high rate of climate change. Environmental conscious groups are increasingly becoming concerned on the contribution of the transport sector to climate change. The transport sector is rated as one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are the major causes of climate change (Meyer, Green, Corbett, Mas
India’s Economic growth Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction China and India are recognized as the world’s most important developing countries. While the per-capita incomes for citizens of both countries still remains quite low, the two countries have risen considerably with rapid economic growth in recent decades1.
India in particular has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world after China and the country shows signs of maintaining the growth momentum in a sustainable manner.
The fact that India’s economy continued to grow even during the global financial meltdown of 2008-2009 has led many to favorably compare this growing economy with rising china. A number of advantages unique to India have positively affected its economic growth.
Even so, India has some disadvantages which impede on its economic well being. This paper will set out to articulate India’s advantages and disadvantages in the economic growth context. Suggestion of how the country can achieve a balance of these factors so as to continue enjoying sustained economic growth will also be made.
India’s Advantages Arguably the greatest advantage that has contributed to India’s economic prosperity is its democratic political system. The democratic system has had and promises to have a stabilizing effect on the country. As a result of the economic growth experienced by the country, there have emerged some inequalities between the rich and the poor.
Communities have also begun making increasing demands for a share in the country’s prosperity. Democracy in India has acted as a mechanism for diffusing the smoldering tensions among the country’s disparate population groups2.
This is in sharp contrast to the communist rule in china where the government is increasingly finding it hard to politically manage conflicts. As a result of the political system adopted by China, the gap between the rich and the poor has in the past three decades grown excessively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Income distribution in china is unequal which has led to high social discontent especially among villagers from central China. Academic analysts assert that this rural discontent threatens Chinese stability and hence Future Chinese prosperity is not guaranteed3.
In India, the poorest people are the strongest supporters of the country’s democratic process. India therefore has a diverse source of stabilizing legitimization of its political system hence guaranteeing the countries future.
The economic growth experienced in India has been fairly uniform compared to that of China’s. While the Chinese government has made monumental investments in infrastructure, its economic development has been mostly focused on coastal areas4.
Other regions have therefore suffered from budget cuts as more money is channeled to these high priority areas. India’s investments have been uniformly distributed among all states since there is representation by the state members in the parliament. India therefore has an advantage since the entire country is experiencing growth while China’s growth is only concentrated in a few key cities.
The entrepreneurial instincts of Indian business and the support of the government for entrepreneurs have led to India’s growth. While the Chinese economy is largely propelled by government-owned companies, the Indian economy is driven primarily by its domestic private sector5.
The government of India gives the private sector a relatively free hand which has led to economic growth. The period from 1969 and 1974 was characterized by stringent regulation by the government of private and foreign companies which led to low levels of growth and productivity6.
Private sector oriented liberalization in India comprised of gradually removing the controls that the state had previously had over private enterprise. The gradual liberalization of the economy favoring the private sector between 1975 and 1990 resulted in a significant change in this trend7.
We will write a custom Essay on India’s Economic growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More India’s private sector was freed from significant state control and the subsequent boom by this sector is associated with high levels of economic growth in India. In addition to this, the political structure of India has encouraged people to work hard so as to amass wealth.
The democratically inspired economic policies of India encourage competition and individual enterprise as individuals pursue their self-interest of survival and wealth accumulation8. This eventually leads to increased profits for the businesses and overall economic development for the country.
The political freedom afforded to the people of India has resulted in huge gains in the information age. India has emerged as a world leader in information technology software while China has continued to lag behind in this ever increasing key aspect of any modern economy9.
In China, the fear by the Communist Party of its own people has resulted in tight controls over Web access; a factor that has constrained information technology growth. Indians have the economic opportunities that the Chinese people are denied by the dictatorial system.
India’s young population is also an advantage in the country’s economic prosperity. Compared to China, India’s population is younger while china is an ageing country with big cities like Beijing having a significant population of old people10.
An older population means that China will have a decreasing labor force in the near future. Contrary to this, India will still have an increase in their labor force due to its rising population. Studies document that by 2045, India will have the world’s largest population.
India’s Disadvantages In spite of all of India’s advantages, China has emerged as the power to reckon with in the recent India. Some researchers of comparative studies of the world’s two most populous nations have even concluded that china is a success and India is a failure11.
India has been unable to banish illiteracy among its people with a 2001 census noting that illiteracy levels were as high as 40. This has been blamed on many factors one of which is that the social elite governing the Indian state have tolerated child labor which has fueled factories at the cost of depriving millions of children an education or a decent living.
Not sure if you can write a paper on India’s Economic growth by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While steps have been made to increase literally levels in the country, India continues to lag behind in secondary school enrolment when compared to other in East and South East Asia countries13.
Research further indicates that human development in areas such as primary education and health have not been impressive14. Without investing in its human capital, India will not be able to sustain its economic growth which relies heavily on the county’s labor force.
India’s poor infrastructure is one of the significant setbacks faced by the country since infrastructure plays a major role in a country’s economic growth. Infrastructure development contributes to overall economic development by; creating production facilities and stimulating economic activities, reducing transaction and trade costs hence improving competitiveness, and providing employment opportunities and physical and social infrastructure to the poor15.
India and China both suffered from poor infrastructure for decades but there has been increased government investment in infrastructure so as to fuel development. While India has done a spectacular job in reforming its telecommunications sector, airlines, and banks, it has failed to achieve the same levels of success in its ports, airports, and highways.
The Chinese government has made significant efforts by investing huge amounts of money to transport and communication infrastructure in the country16. To be globally competitive with developed countries such as the US, India must improve on its infrastructure and especially its transportation facilities.
India’s considerable population growth in recent years may prove to be a setback to its economic development. While both China and India have experienced population increases in the past two decades, India’s growth has been more pronounced.
The United Nations reported that between 1989 and 2005, India’s population grew at almost twice the average annual rate of China’s17. China’s relatively lower growth rate is attributed to its strict family planning policies which limit a couple to only one child.
Studies indicate that India is yet to solve the many social problems that are associated with its rapidly growing population. High population has meant that a significant portion of Indians still live in absolute poverty18.
In spite of India’s democratic stance, the country has adopted nationalism which has been a hindrance to its economic growth. Indian nationalism has traditionally been based on the rejection of openness which was seen as a dependency on imperialism. India therefore sought to be self reliance; producing shoddy goods and rejecting an opening to world markets that rapidly expanded wealth in East and Southeast Asia19.
Nationalism has also resulted in patronage and a tradition of corruption especially within government offices. India’s corruption levels especially in the government are still significantly high.
The Global Corruption Report 2006 fixed India’s Corruption Perception Index at 2.9 which made it position 97 of the 159 countries surveyed. China performed better with a Corruption Perception Index of 3.2 and ranking at 78. Corruption deters investors from coming into the country and it is also detrimental to the country’s economic well being.
India’s manufacturing industry faces major regulatory bottlenecks which impede on the ability of this sector to perform optimally. This is especially the case in the domestic market where Indian companies are unable to function with efficiency due to bureaucracy and stringent regulations20.
In spite of the progress made by private Indian firms as a result of liberalization, there is still strong state and central control of firms and Indian firms need to get the government’s permission before making investments.
Such regulations act as bottlenecks for firms that seek a speedy and judicious clearance of their investment proposals. A report by the World Business Environment Survey in 2004 indicated that management in India spends about 16 percent of its time dealing with public officials on regulations and administration21.
China on the other hand has removed most logistical and regulatory bottlenecks for her domestic industries to as to make them competitive both locally and on an international platform.
India has not promoted a developmental, transparent, and investment friendly democracy. As it currently stands, there are many regulations that deter foreign investors from making investments in India since the country is not an easy place to begin business especially in manufacturing22.
China has managed to attract foreign investment to the country by setting up laws that are favorable to investors. China has also adopted a policy of attracting expatriates to return home and invest in the country.
India has been unable to do the same with its vast number of expatriates who could improve the country’s economy significantly if they decided to invest in it. India needs to improve its investment climate so as to drive growth by creating an attractive business environment.
Discussion The rapid economic growth experienced by India has been the result of the various advantages articulated in this paper. The shift of the Indian economy from being under a government-controlled environment to responding to a market-based environment led to significant economic growth for the country.
While economic change in India has been more difficult in India than in China, it is more stable since it has been the result of a social and political consensus that favored change. This is in contrast to the authoritarian political system in China which is predicted to lead to destabilization.
The impressive growth records of China compared to India have been used to argue that authoritarian forms of government are more efficient at achieving economic growth, welfare, and equality than democratic forms of government.
As it currently stands, China has been able to achieve high rates of economic growth despite the absence of democracy. However, this paper has suggested that this growth may not be sustainable due to the tension building up among Chinese citizens and the prospects of future instability. India on the other hand is certain to enjoy future growth due to its democratic form of governance.
Even so, there are some disadvantages that pose a threat to India’s future growth and therefore reduce the chances of India reaching and even exceeding the level of China. Slow progress in human development in areas such as education will make it more difficult for India to grow in the long run.
Growth in human capital results in an improvement of the ability of workmanship as well as productivity; both of which result in economic growth. Massive improvements in public health and education are therefore required to give India a competitive edge over China.
In order for India to maintain its growth momentum, it is imperative that the infrastructure facilities be strengthened. Investment climate surveys on doing business in India repeatedly show that poor quality of infrastructure facilities act as a major hindrance to business growth in India.
Conclusion This paper set out to highlight India’s advantages and disadvantages in the economic growth context in comparison to China. From the arguments presented, it is clear that India can compete favorably with China due to the many advantages that are as a result of the country’s political system, government policy, and population.
Even so, there are a number of major hindrances to economic growth that must be addressed if India is to keep up its impressive economic growth. As it currently stands, Chinese economy has been more successful at providing for the needs of the population. If India can overcome the negative factors highlighted in this paper, her economic growth can rise to levels equaling and even rivaling those currently enjoyed by china.
Bibliography Anil, Lal and Clement, Ronald. “Economic development in India: the role of individual enterprise.” Asia-Pacific Development Journal 12, no. 2 (2005): 82-99.
Dash, Ranjan and Sahoo, Pravakar. “Economic growth in India: the role of physical and social infrastructure.” Journal of Economic Policy Reform 13, no. 4 (2010): 373–385.
Friedman, Edward. “Is China a Success while India is a Failure?” World Affairs 167, no.2 (2004): 59-70.
Kunal, Sen. “What a long, strange trip it’s been: reflections on the causes of India’s growth miracle”. Contemporary South Asia 17, no. 4 (2009): 363–377.
Mukherji, Rahuj. “The State, economic growth, and development in India.” India Review 8, no. 1 (2009): 81–106.
Pogge, Thomas. “Growth and Inequality Understanding Recent Trends and Political Choices.” Dissent 54, no. 2 (2008): 66-75.
Prater, Edmund and Patricia, Swafford. “Emerging Economies: Operational Issues in China and India.” Journal of Marketing Channels 16, no.3 (2009): 169–187.
Pucher, John et al. “Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth.” Transport Reviews 27, No. 4 (2007): 379–410.
Ruisheng Cheng. “Reflections from China.” Journal of International Affairs 62, no. 2 (2011): 213-219.
Siggle, Eckhard. “Poverty alleviation and economic reforms in India.” Progress in Development Studies 10, no.3 (2010): 247-259.
Footnotes 1 John Pucher, “Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth,” Transport Reviews 27, no. 4 (2007): 379.
2 Thomas Pogge, “Growth and Inequality Understanding Recent Trends and Political Choices,” Dissent 54, no. (2008): 67.
3 Edward Friedman, “Is China a Success while India is a Failure?” World Affairs 167, no.2 (2004): 65.
4 John, 380.
5 Rahuj Mukherji, “The State, Economic Growth, and Development in India,” India Review 8, no. 1 (2009): 94.
6 Rahuj, 83.
7 Sen Kunal, “What a long, strange trip it’s been: reflections on the causes of India’s growth miracle”, Contemporary South Asia 17, no. 4 (2009): 366.
8 Lal Anil and Clement Ronald, “Economic development in India: the role of individual enterprise,” Asia-Pacific Development Journal 12, no. 2 (2005): 82.
9 Edward, 67.
10 Cheng Ruisheng, “Reflections from China: An Interview with Cheng Ruisheng,” Journal of International Affairs 62, no. 2 (2011): 214.
11 Edward, 59.
12 Rahuj, 99.
13 Ranjan Dash and Sahoo Pravakar, “Economic growth in India: the role of physical and social infrastructure,” Journal of Economic Policy Reform 13, no. 4 (2010), 375.
14 Rahuj, 97.
15 Ranjan and Sahoo, 373.
16 John, 381.
17 John, 382.
18 Eckhard Siggle, “Poverty alleviation and economic reforms in India,” Progress in Development Studies 10, no.3 (2010): 250.
19 Edward, 66.
20 Rahuj, 94.
21 Edmund Prater and Patricia Swafford, “Emerging Economies: Operational Issues in China and India,” Journal of Marketing Channels 16, no.3 (2009): 182.
22 Rahuj, 98.
Benefits and Application of Database Packages Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Database in Firms’ Business Operations
Introduction The aim of this paper is to reflect on the benefits of Database processes in business operations. Actually, database refers to data collection that is prepared and arranged in computer systems in order to choose quickly preferred items. The effective use of database is enhanced by the manner in which information is organized orderly in ascending documentation.
Indeed, manual recording has been faced with many shortcomings, for example it is complicated process thus ineffective. This paper also examines how database packages can be applied in business processes. Surely, database systems are invented to enable businessmen to manage and restore information (data collection) in an ordered way.
Importance of Database in Firms’ Business Operations Database process is beneficial to businessmen when it comes to processing, collecting and storing information (Solove, 2001). For example, business operation will be more effective when businessmen know their suppliers, competitors and consumers. According to Mukherjee
Global Strategies in International Business Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The industry based view of strategy explains how industry attributes affect the performance of companies. According to Peng et al., the industry specific attributes relate to factors in the external environment of a company (1). These are factors that are determined by many players in the market and not just an operating company.
This means that the company in question does not have full control over how it performs in the market because of the power of external factors. This approach to strategy formation brings out that managers should consider external factors that affect their operations. The manager should not just consider internal characteristics of his company but also those of competitors and other market stakeholders.
Even though businesses operate independently in markets, their activities are affected by those of other similar businesses in the same industry. Many markets are perfectly competitive and so prices and the level of output produced are determined by many parties.
The business level model of global competitive dynamics brings out how different organizational functions enable companies to compete in the global market.
Businesses must make use of different functions such as production, accounts and marketing so as to create competitive advantage. Since profits are what keep businesses in operation, all activities must be competitive so that the organization gains advantage over its rivals in the global market.
The industry based view of strategy works well with the business level model of entrepreneurship since the two factors are inter-related. Managers must develop strategies in relation to industry factors. When this is done, the strategies become practical and realistic in relation to the market.
This approach enables managers to consider how industry factors affect individual business functions and the demand and supply of their products so that pricing and product strategies can be effective in creating profits. The industry based approach however neglects the firm’s internal capabilities of dealing with challenges. At times the resources and skills possessed internally are enough to meet the needs of the market while industry factors complicate what could have been solved easily.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate-level model of multinational strategy, structure, and learning looks at the firm as a corporate body. This means that all activities are interrelated so that the organization moves in one direction. In the global arena, organizations need to develop strategies that create harmony and cooperation between individual departments. Corporate strategies also determine organizational activities, structure and acquisition of knowledge.
The industry based approach to strategy formulation puts the focus of managers on industry factors. When managers consider the impact of industry forces on the firm’s activities, they are able to develop strategies that can overcome challenges from the external environment.
When global strategies are based on the industry view, organizations gain the advantage of being in touch with the actual situation in the market. The industry based view however does not optimize on available resources within the organization such as manpower, time, finances and skills since its focus is on the industry factors.
In conclusion, the industry based view on strategy has both advantages and disadvantages in relation to the business-level model of global competitive dynamics and the corporate-level model of multinational strategy, structure, and learning. The industry specific factors affect corporate strategies especially in the global business environment.
Strategy formulation and implementation should be based on the global perspective of markets. Global strategies therefore have to consider industry factors and how these affect the operations of individual businesses. Managers are faced with the task of ensuring that their organizations remain competitive so that they gain advantage over their competitors.
Bibliography Peng Mike W, Wang Denis Y and Jiang Yi. “An institution-based view of international business strategy: a focus on Emerging economies”. Journal of International Business Studies. 39(2008): 920–936. Web.
Why Do People Switch Careers? Essay college essay help near me
Today there are a lot of people who can be considered in society as having multiple careers or various career experiences. Thus, it is possible to speak about the tendency to switch careers under the influence of a number of factors. These significant factors are actively discussed by the psychologists and sociologists.
It is typical to state that the fact of changing the person’s career is often a result of the individual’s intention to reach definite goals and realize the opportunity for the personal growth. Thus, this decision is affected by the personal factors. However, in her article “Changing Careers: The Effect of Social Context”, Monica Higgins provides the idea that the individual’s decision to switch careers is in many cases influenced by certain interpersonal relations which form the social context for the individual.
Although people usually decide to switch their career because of a range of subjective and personal factors, the social context and the role of advisors can be considered as influential aspects of the person’s final decision to change the career because they acquire the necessary informational and emotional support for realizing the idea of changing the job.
The dissatisfactory situation at the workplace and such factors as the conflicts with coworkers, the lack of interest in work, and the lack of the work success or recognition provoke the development of the idea about possible changing the career as a way to solve the definite difficulties, and this idea becomes the personal intention when the individual receives the emotional support and begins to see the perspectives and the opportunities for his or her further career progress at the other place.
Thus, “current dissatisfaction, attractive alternatives, obstacles, confidence to overcome obstacles” can stimulate the development of the idea that it is necessary to change the career in order to use the opportunities for the development and not to follow the stream (Higgins, 2001, p. 597).
However, the person can only think over the idea without realizing it till those people close to this person provide the emotional or psychological support and encourage the individual to make a decision. According to Higgins, these people are discussed as “advice networks” and form the social context (Higgins, 2001).
The decision to change the career is usually affected by a combination of subjective and objective factors. As it was stated, in many cases people decide to switch their careers in order to complete their professional goals. That is why “a career change occurs when an individual changes jobs and employers, objective aspects of one’s career, and when an individual perceives that such changes in his or her career constitute a career change” (Higgins, 2001, p. 596).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, this process is very important for the person and to decide to switch the career, he or she should analyze all the advantages and disadvantages of this decision. In this situation the informational support of the advisors can be discussed as the key factor for making the final decision and forming the full picture of the further perspectives.
Therefore, people switch careers when they have a strong intrinsic motivation and intentions to reach the professional aims in the other sphere or in another company, and they are affected by the social context.
Having the permanent interpersonal contacts with “advice networks”, individuals evaluate their possibilities with references to the factual information about the career opportunities provided by their friends, relatives, and acquaintances (Higgins, 2001). Such interconnections help the person pay attention to the situation in the market, to assess his or her individual abilities, and to receive the psychological support.
In spite of the fact the personal inner motives were considered as the most influential factors for changing the career during a long period of time, today the impact of the social context is also discussed as a significant cause for the person’s focusing on the information provided by the public. Moreover, the factor of the emotional support contributes to the growth of the individual’s self-esteem and confidence which can lead to changing the career for achieving the professional goals.
Reference Higgins, M. C. (2001). Changing careers: The effects of social context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(6), 595-618. doi: 10.1002/job.104
Hawthorn and Collingwood Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Event organization can be seen broadly as a subject whose lessons are highly practical in application since there is an environment that may largely require these services. A number of things must be incorporated into the analysis of an event or events especially regarding the overall gain that results from effective application of event management skills.
Groundbreaking observation on this subject would be that the skills learnt are almost entirely dependent on application in the real world for them to be sharpened.
Thus, one must develop a keen eye for observation and analysis to be able to point out areas of strength and those that need improvement. This paper will be greatly informed by observations made during various sports events and in particular the match between Hawthorn and Collingwood at Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG).
The success of any sport event, regardless of the level or the environment in which it is to be held, is by far and large dependent on how well the event is organized. Event organization is the faceless actor that many fans who attend memorable sporting functions do not quite often give much a thought.
In fact, many of them will most likely think of the organization bit of the event if and when something goes wrong. This can be seen as a natural reaction since their central aim of attending a sporting event is to get as much entertainment as the sporting activity can provide (Pritchard
The ‘Peopling’ Process of Australia since 1788 with Influence of Racism Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
After the arrival of the British colony in 1788, there has been a significant increase in the size of immigrants to Australia. In this regard, the statement that racism has dominated the “peopling” process of Australia is fair. The fact that the European law stipulated that a founder could claim any unused land enhances this reasoning.
The British arrival led to an increase in the conflicts between the original inhabitants, aborigines, and immigrants. The aborigines’ families occupying the land had their own system of traditional governance that was contrary to the British law. With these forms of differences that resulted from the arrival of immigrants, racism arose in the manner of governance and resource distribution in the country (Vasta
Qantas Airways Company Service Marketing Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
List of References
Introduction Qantas Airways has been in operation since 1920 when the airline was founded in Australia. The airline is well known for its comfortable and entertaining services.
Passengers who have traveled using Qantas Airways have had the experience of a lifetime given that the company has been awarded many times for its in flight entertainment facilities. The airline operates in 40 countries while serving 140 destinations (Qantas Airways 2012).
The airline has popularized the Sydney hub since it connects many destinations between North America and Australia. The company is also recognized for practicing excellence in the air transport business.
Qantas Airways is hence recognized for its design, excellence and innovation in entertainment. Customers of Qantas Airlines nonetheless face certain risks when they interact with the company. These are elaborated in this paper.
Financial risks Passengers of Qantas Airways face the risk of financial losses if they fail to make it on time for their flights. This is the same case as for all major airlines which have strict policies to counter lateness. There is always the threat of loss of belongings if passengers are not vigilant while traveling.
Passengers can lose valuable belongings and even money if they are careless while in the middle of strangers. Even though the company is doing well in terms of prestige and flight operations, shareholders are always prone to losses because of uncertainties in the stock markets (Laroche 2003).
For instance, there was a workers strike in 2011 that crippled the airline’s operations. The stock prices of the airline can be affected by such occurrences which affect investor confidence. Flight travel also involves many unanticipated expenses such as entertainment (newspapers/ magazines), extra food and drinks, unknown taxes and cargo charges to and from an airport.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Functional risks Passengers of Qantas Airways face many functional risks. Passengers who pay for flights are assured of excellent services but the quality of these activities is as per the criteria set by the airline. What the managers consider quality might not please customers and so excellence is never guarantee.
For instance, the entertainment facilities installed in the airline in the form of movies and music might appeal to the youth but appear irrelevant to older passengers. Passengers of Qantas Airways carry plastic money in the form of credit cards (MasterCard/ Visa). These do not guarantee successful completion of transactions because some service operators do not accept them in their business facilities. Currency problems also affect many passengers and they may not be able to carry out certain transactions in various locations.
Passengers cannot be certain that their flights will all arrive in time so that they can get to their destinations at the desired time. Some of the functional risks are related to external factors such as unfavorable weather and violence in some regions. These affect the airline’s ability to deliver its services to the customers (Bennett and McColl-Kennedy 2003).
When these situations occur, customers get their flights delayed and they end up arriving late at their destinations. Customers are always liable to suffer from temporal risks involving long queues in airports at certain seasons (Bitran and Mondschein 1997). The airline industry operates on seasons which are described as either high season or low season. During the high season such as around Christmas time, passengers face overcrowding and long queues when boarding flights or booking for air tickets.
Psychological risks Passengers who are not complacent with international languages such as English, French, Spanish or Chinese might not be able to communicate effectively with flight attendants. This makes it difficult for them to ask for snacks or directions to the bathroom. Psychological factors affect how customers perceive certain situations (Shemwell and Cronin 1994).
Since Qantas Airways is based in Sydney, some passengers might not want to be associated with it. People from conservative regions such as India and the Middle East might only want to travel with Arabian or Indian airlines such as Qatar and Emirates Airlines.
They might fear that their friends and relatives might not approve of their decisions to travel in an airline that offers secular music and movies for entertainment. Business clients might also fear that their prestige might be lowered if they do not travel with airlines such as Emirates, Virgin Atlantic of KLM.
We will write a custom Essay on Qantas Airways Company Service Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The safety and comfort of passengers traveling on Qantas Airways might be affected psychologically by the sitting arrangement. For instance, those seated at the back seats might experience smells from the bathroom while those seated where the wing of the plane is might not be able to look outside and view features through the window.
Conclusion Qantas Airways tries to reduce the impact of these risks by elevating the quality of their services to world class standards. Likewise, the airline offers the same services offered by other prestigious airlines. The airline can however strategize on how to how to get sources of entertainment from every region or allow customers to carry their own materials while on the plane.
List of References Bennett, R
Motorola’s Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Motorola is a Chicago based firm that was started in 1928 as the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. It is a top producer of handheld cell phones and markets wireless web devices. In 2003, phone gadgets contributed to 40% of the revenue and 60% of Motorola’s operating profits. Motorola is good in communication and technology creativity.
This has been possible through its strong branding and technological innovation. The firm strives to achieve breakthroughs in technology and to emerge at the top of its competitors (Hitt, Ireland,
Viverra Motors Company Operations Management Report cheap essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Purchasing and inventory management differences
Possible solutions to the problems
Executive Summary Operation management is a branch of management which deals with purchasing and inventory management. It also touches on design and overseeing various business operations. It is concerned with the steps that are necessary to supply chain management.
Viverra Motors is a company that had committed some essential business operation errors. In order to circumvent these challenges the company’s purchasing and inventory systems should be adjusted. These adjustments will have far reaching effects on the future development of the company.
The recommendations that will be provided in this paper include improving transportation and logistics, purchasing and inventory management. However, first of all, the company should reduce new acquisitions.
In order to do this, the company should identify areas of competency and pay more attention to these areas. The company can also outsource the services that other companies can offer without compromising on quality.
Introduction Operation management is a branch of business that deals with the movement of products through the production chain. It also deals with the processes involved in the acquisition of raw materials, as well as the processes that are involved into production of the end products.
Major levels of operation management are strategic, tactical, and operational. Strategic level deals with all activities and decisions that go into production chains. It involves decisions concerning size and location of plants.
Purchasing and inventory management differences Each dealership is supplied by a different supplier and deals with different suppliers in the process of car production. Each dealership should therefore be strengthened to make decisions might have a positive effect on the process of car production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each supplier has its own strengths and weaknesses and the company’s dealerships should deal with the suppliers on an individual basis. As a consequence, each dealership of a company should design a unique supply chain management system to fit its current position (Cooper
Social Class Status Essay cheap essay help
Social class is the status of the society in which individuals are classified on basis of political, economic and cultural perspectives. Wealth, income and occupation are the major aspects of economic social classification.
Political social class is characterized by Status and power, while the cultural group is determined by peoples’ lifestyle, education, values and beliefs (Bernstein 126). The economic, political and social classes can further be categorized in to subcategories of upper, middle, working and lower classes depending on one’s position in society.
It is quite essential for each individual in the society to understand the social position in which one belongs to (Bronfenbrenner 412). This will not only help in addressing the different issues that arise in life but also help in building a strong understanding of the societal needs.
Proper understanding of one’s class helps individuals to get fully prepared in facing challenges that come along in tackling daily activities. People who discern their social environment at an early stage in life constantly keep rising from one class to another.
It’s quite clear that social classes bring about inequalities in resources and life expectations. For instance, individuals with power have direct access to material resources compared to their followers.
Such differences cause economic gap between the different groups and may lead to the low group engaging in unethical means such as theft and corruption in order to bridge the gap (Bernstein 127). On the other hand, individuals endorsed with power may also look for alternatives of fighting in order to remain in power as a means of maintaining their status quo.
In understanding the social classes’ one should be keen in noting that; people in the lower social classes are involved in risky, lowly paid jobs which do not have any form of security unlike their counterparts in upper classes who enjoy better paid, secured jobs with access to medical cover (Bronfenbrenne 411).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most instances, people in the lower class categories provide labor to the upper class; they do so by working as gardeners’ cleaners or any other odd jobs.
Low class individuals in the society lack adequate opportunities to exploit their talents. However, highly motivated individuals can rise to the other classes although they do so with a lot of difficulties (Davis 60).
Education is one way of shifting from one social class to another; children from upper classes have access to good schools and education and as result are able to maintain their class later in life. An educated individual is able to secure a well paying job, accumulate wealth and use the resources he has to gain political power.
The social class also determines the society’s demographics. Many low income earners are likely to stay in proximity to industries (Marshal 30). They reside in poorly constructed houses within noisy environment since they cannot afford better lifestyles (Bronfenbrenne 412).
On the other hand, upper social class individuals prefer to live in private, cool and sparsely populated areas. In addition, people from the low class are more prone to high crime related risks as a result of lack of opportunities and over population. This happens because many of them are unemployed hence hopelessly engage into alcohol and drugs.
Social class also has a very big impact on health status of an individual. Good medical care is only accessed by those who are willing to spend big. The lower class people suffer most because of their inability to access good medical care because of inadequate funds (Krieger 79).
Poor health contributes to low productivity of workers hence poor employment. However, the wealthy and rich are likely to suffer from conditions like obesity and cancer because of the kind of lifestyles they lead. Stress due to low pays, divorce and or conflicts may lead to death.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Class Status specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences in cultures, education levels, wealth, income and other aspects of social class in most instances cause discrimination (Marshall 30). For instance, one may be denied an opportunity as a result of being associated to a certain social class. This has given rise to massive corruption in the society and consequent moral degradation.
In social classes, informal and formal groups arise. The groups are mostly created to cultivate value in their groups and work in cooperation to maintain their status (Dahrendorf 12).
The groups also educate members on the opportunities and threats in the environment in addition to providing financial support to each other. Examples of these groups include Sacco’s which arise in the economic class, political parties and cultural groups.
In conclusion, social class differences create competition among different members in the society. Individuals within the lowest social class always work hard to maneuver their way to the next level. Individuals within the highest social classes have a feeling of having made it in life.
It would be crucial for anyone teaching on social classes to keenly study the economic, political and cultural backgrounds of the learners (Bronfenbrenner 420). This is a very sensitive area which needs serious research in order to avoid creating differences among the learners.
Works Cited Bernstein, Benim. “A sociolinguistic approach to socialization: With some reference to educability.” Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. 12.6(1972):125-126.
Bronfenbrenner, Uenice. “Socialization and social class through time and space.” Readings in 12.5(1958):400-425.print
Dahrendorf, Real. Class and class conflict in industrial society.Stanford: Stanford University Press Stanford,1959.print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Class Status by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Davis, Alvis. “Social-class influences upon learning.” social psychology 15.8(1948):56 89.print.
Krieger, Rowley. “Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine78.7(1993):67-90.print.
Marshall, Timao. “Citizenship and social class.” Cambridge 12.2(1950):28-29.print.
Improving Organizational Performance: Comparison between Wal-Mart and Target Corporation Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Origins and Growth of the Two Corporations
Finance and Management
Philanthropy and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Introduction Wal-Mart is the trading name or more simply the brand name for Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated which is an American public multinational corporation. The Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated has interests in large discount stores and warehouse or depots all over the United States of America. Several Wal-Mart stores are also coming up in other countries with economic stability such as those countries in Europe, China and even South Africa.
The authoritative Forbes 2000 List ranked Wal-Mart as the 18th largest public owned corporation in the world. This ranking was based on revenues the company had amassed last year. In addition, Wal-Mart was ranked as the largest private employer in the world having over two million directly employed and indirectly employed people.
Target Store is the trading name for Target Corporation headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Target Corporation has business interests in the American discount retail market and runs a chain of retail superstores all over the United States of America and in some other countries too. The Target Corporation was in 2010 ranked at position 30 by the Fortune 500 and is considered to be the second largest retail discount trader after the Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
This paper seeks to compare and contrast these two corporations namely the Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated and the Target Corporation. In comparing and contrasting the two corporations, this paper seeks to show the nature of these organizations and how they have strived to ensure organizational performance is improved.
Origins and Growth of the Two Corporations The Wal-Mart Stores Inc was founded by Sam Walton in the year 1962 in Rogers Arkansas. Walton is reported by Walton
The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Diversity changes in the organization
Ethical practices aimed at managing diversity
Consequences of ignoring diversity in the workplace
Executive Summary Diversity has been an issue of concern to most organizations. Due to human activities associated with globalization, such as migrations, even the domestic organizations are not exceptional. Diversity in an organization is an asset that can be harnessed to become a competitive advantage to the organization.
To manage cultural diversity in the workplace effectively, human resource practitioners are supposed to encourage integrative activities such as teamwork, enhance communication channels between the workers, invest a lot of efforts in the best problem solving methods, as well as employ effective means when dealing with varying perspectives, which are portrayed by workers from different cultures.
Ethical practices such as ensuring equality in the workplace, and ensuring fairness in the recruitment and promotion programs contribute to the effective management of cultural diversity in the workplace. The consequences of neglecting diversity include decline in organizational productivity as conflicts and lack of motivation, among the workforce engulf the organization.
Investing in mentoring programs, embracing global diversity as a competitive advantage, and employing motivational approaches that will ensure increased productivity from the workers, as well as organization of talent, are some strategic recommendations for an organization to manage the concept of diversity.
In conclusion, cultural and ethical diversities should be managed effectively if an organization is to achieve efficiency and high levels of productivity. Even in the domestic organizations, these practices should be emphasized as diversity has become a reality in all organizations irrespective of their scope.
Introduction In order to transform global diversity into an organizational asset strategically, human resource practitioners must manage it effectively. Several research studies in the discipline positions both global diversity and inclusion as the source of competitive advantage, which an organization cannot overlook in the ever-competitive global market.
The concept of diversity in human resource management transcends national boundaries. The growing importance of globalization, global mobility and competition and demographic shifts in the labour market broaden the definition of diversity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Domestic organizations that were initially not adversely affected by diversity are not exceptional anymore. This is due to the global mobility in the form of migrations.
Organizations are uniformly faced with problems that are related to ethical and cultural diversities that they have to consider in their strategic planning and policymaking (Morrison 1992, p.306).
The “Think Global, Act Local” approach might be helpful to any human resource manager faced with such responsibility of managing diversity. This report evaluates the key issues related to culture and ethics, which should be put into consideration when developing strategic HRM plans and policies, in diverse organizations.
Diversity changes in the organization Diversity can be defined as the variety of perspectives, experiences, and opinions that arise as differences brought about by factors such as race, culture, ethics, gender identity, and other characteristics (Lynch 2002, p.209).
These dimensions have differing effects on organizational performance, motivation, interaction of employees in the organization as well as the overall success or failure of the organization’s efforts to meet its objectives or goals.
When formulating organizational policies and also organizational strategic planning, the practices and institutions in the organization that present hindrance due to diversity should be examined, analyzed and then removed before the effects become more profound.
Diversity management Diversity management concentrates on checking that different workers’ abilities are harnessed to contribute optimally towards the realization of an organization’s goals and objectives, and this underscores its differences from affirmative action.
We will write a custom Report on The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Affirmative action, on the other hand, “focuses on specified groups of people in the workforce because of several aspects such as historical discrimination…affirmative action, as opposed to managing diversity, is concerned with emphasizing the legal and social responsibility of the organization while managing diversity mostly focuses on business necessity” (Lynch 2002, p.211).
In order to meet effectively manage diversity in any organization, it is essential to consider the changes that should be effected to satisfy the needs of a diverse workforce in terms of culture, ethnicity or otherwise as a way of maximizing the potential of all employees.
The Human resources practitioner has the duty of ensuring that the organizational culture that does not effectively cater for the needs brought about by diversity in the organization is replaced with a culture that does so (Hofstede 1996, p.101).
Since this cannot be implemented at a go, several practices that shape the organizational culture of any given company should be re-evaluated, and those that contradict these effects are done obviated. These practices include aspects such as language.
Cultural diversity Every organization can attest to the truth that globalization is entirely changing things in the workplace. Migrations due to various reasons have led to the creation of multicultural societies in which organizations look for workers. Even the domestic organizations have been caught up in this situation where they have been faced with the challenge of coping with cultural diversity (Morrison 1992, p.306).
The fact that different people come from diverse backgrounds is evidence that they view things from a remarkably different vantage points. The simple reason that, a person views things differently cannot be assumed that the person is wrong (Danley et al. 1991, p.6).
Their different cultural backgrounds may be forcing them to view things in ways that are different from those of the other people. In order to manage cultural diversity in the organization, several practices should be employed in the human resources management ventures.
These include the following; Communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, as well as mentoring and dealing with the differing perspectives that come because of cultural diversity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Communication
Human resources managers should ensure that the communication channels, which are employed in the organizations, are considerate of diversity issues and do not discriminate against people in one way or the other.
For instance, if a given organization recognized certain languages or employed certain practices that are considered as discriminative, such practices and the rules that dictate them should be reviewed to ensure that the system becomes all-inclusive to explore the potentials of the workers and consequently contribute towards organizational success (Lynch 2002, p.202).
Communication channels, which bring the workers together by dissolving any differences that block these channels, should be encouraged to ensure that the workers communicate effectively, and are considerate of each other in their communications.
Stereotyping, based on cultural differences, should be handled to ensure that such acts are discouraged, and the human resources department takes quick measure to impose punitive measures on those proven to indulge in the acts (Greenwood 2002, p.261).
Teamwork is particularly crucial in diverse organizations as it provides opportunities, for the different people involved, to interact and appreciate each other uniqueness. This uniqueness is, therefore, used to the benefit of others and in the process, the group gains the collection of skills, and diverse talents required to work towards the benefit of the company (Lynch 2002, p.202).
Activities, which encourage teamwork in a diverse work place, should be put into consideration when a human resources manager or practitioner is engaged in strategic planning or formulation of organizational policies, aimed at managing cultural diversity.
An organization’s workforce is comprised of diverse talents that exist in a culturally diverse resource pool (Peters
The Strategy Tripod Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The resource based view of strategy explains that the performance of companies is impacted by the available resources and capabilities. This approach to strategy is advantageous to the firm as it enables managers to prioritize and effectively use the available organizational resources.
It is indeed true that resources are scarce and limited. Organizations therefore have to use what is available according to the importance of tasks. This view of strategy enables managers to examine the order of importance of various organizational activities. Based on this list, the manager is able to offer the most important activities the opportunity to utilize resources first.
Resources vary from equipment, money, time, personnel and skills. The resource based view forces the managers to strategize on how best these resources can be put to use in their companies.
According to the business-level model of entrepreneurship, optimization of resources is very important. Optimization is defined as making the best use of what is available. The purpose of businesses is to make profits (Morris, Schindehutte and Allen 727). Profitability usually depends on the ability of companies to use their resources well. Resources such as time should be managed using schedules and plans of action.
Personnel and skills can be managed by human resource management techniques and proper leadership. Equipment on the other hand can be managed through optimization whereby the most important activities are accorded the first chance to use them. This approach increases profitability by increasing effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources.
The resource based approach however undermines the firm’s ability to adapt to change. This approach was developed and widely used many years ago. There are newer challenges in the business environment that make it difficult for managers to achieve profitability simply by properly allocating resources.
The corporate-level-model of diversification looks at the interests of the company as a whole on matters such as stability and growth (Rasheed 3). There are many aspects of an organization as a corporate. For instance, professionalism, code of ethics, organizational culture and communication channels are factors that describe the character of corporations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate-level-model of diversification describes how organizations have had to broaden their view on business. There has been the need to diversify the approach to management and use of resources in the current world. Despite this, the resource based view of strategy enables managers to make the best use of what is available despite the hard business environment in which they operate.
It is important that resources are allocated to the most important activities so that all crucial matters are taken care of first. This approach however does not react to the changes that occur regularly. Since the environment of today has unique challenges and diversification needs, strategy development should be based on more changeable methods.
The resource method limits strategy development to what is available and capabilities that are already there. The current world requires strategies that seek acquisition of new resources and addition of skills and capabilities.
In summary, the resource based view should be considered by all managers since all organizations utilize what is available so as to achieve their goals. The resource based view can also help in development of the global strategy. This is because even in the global markets, there is scarcity of resources.
Funds limit the ability of organizations to enter new markets, create products and acquire other companies. Implementation of global strategies depends on a company’s ability to optimize on their available resources. Efficiency in the use of resources determines whether a company will successfully implement its global strategies.
Works Cited Rasheed, Howard S. “Growth or retrenchment strategy choices for declining Entrepreneurial firms: The effects of performance and resources”. Journal of Business and Entrerpreneurship. 1-20. Web.
Morris Michael, Schindehutte Minet and Allen Jeffrey. “The entrepreneur’s business model: toward a unified perspective”. Journal of Business Research. 58(2005): 726–735. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/1002583/The_entrepreneurs_business_model_toward_a_unified_perspective
We will write a custom Essay on The Strategy Tripod specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Socio Economic Impacts of the “Enclave Tourism” Development Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Mbaiwa (2005) describes enclave tourism as type of tourism that majorly focuses on maximizing the positive aspects of tourism within a given locale, geographical area or enclave while ensuring that limiting influences from the surrounding environment are dealt with or avoided.1
In most instances, these enclaves come in form of coastal areas that offer touristic attractions such as golfing, horse-riding, tennis, and swimming, among many other amenities. Since enclaves are typically self-contained, tourists who stay in such areas are normally not obliged to get out of their residences to go searching for food or drinks as these are normally provided by their resorts.2
Over the recent times, there have been an increased number of enclaves being created around the world with several cities and countries striving to ensure that their visitors get to enjoy themselves without having to necessarily move from one place to another or even travel long distances just to get the important amenities that they need.3 In essence, several factors contribute variably to the progress or advancement of enclave tourism.
Needless to state, enclave tourism, just like many other financially-oriented industry, has had its fair share of challenges and limitations including: terrorist attacks in countries, limited or total lack of cooperation amongst its stakeholders and shareholders, negative human activity on ecosystems (for example; over cultivation, poaching or even deforestation), internal and external wars in countries, and the unchecked growth of technologies and related facets like globalization.4
As a result, a good number of regions, countries or cities have not been able to maximize their potentialities and achieve full efficacy in their enclave tourism endeavors.
Socio-economic Impacts of Enclave Tourism Indeed, there are several socio-economic impacts of enclave tourism. Some of the main socio-economic impacts of enclave tourism are detailed below.
Firstly, enclave tourism makes it easy for tourists to concentrate on enjoying themselves since the resorts that they stay in are self contained. Having many social amenities in one place also offers a myriad of enjoyment options. As a result, the tourists can engage in as many activities as they want depending on their preferences.5
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, enclave tourism encourages the maximization of tourism amenities and resources in the enclaves such as rainforest, coastal areas, mountains and rivers, among many others.
Thirdly, and very crucially, enclave tourism has been repeatedly said to provide a viable means for making money from the endeavor of tourism.6 For example, to locals, this form of tourism creates an opportunity for people to sell their products and services to visitors at the enclaves which, in effect, makes them some substantial amount of money.
Others can also be employed as tour guides or even guards for some delicate touristic attractions. All these eventually total to some pay, which is a key way of sustaining tourism while ensuring that there is an overall economic uplift of the country/region where such people make their money.7
Fourthly, enclave tourism provides a contextual learning forum for students and researchers. For example, by focusing on a specific enclave, these learners can discover ways in which our ecosystems can be conserved or even bettered Lindsay (2003)8 supports this by saying that “revenues from safari expeditions, for instance, may go to protecting the animals from poaching, while the entry fees from visiting a village may go to supporting education and health care for the local children.” In effect, this greatly helps in poverty alleviation while facilitating the continuity and sustainability of tourism in that particular enclave, and the world, at large.9
Fifthly, enclave tourism acts as a source of pride for enclaves that are endowed with touristic attractions. This is very important in giving national or regional identities which not only boost the morale of the locals to preserve and be proud of their environment; but it also helps in ensuring good rankings in the international arena.
As a matter of fact, most countries with good policies and systems of enclave tourism, more often than not, have relatively stable economic outputs compared to those with poor governance of their enclave tourism industries.10
Sixthly, most enclaves, especially those that are in third world countries, are highly associated with the 4-S tourism (sex, sea, sand and sun). Good examples here include countries in the Caribbean like Cuba.11 On one hand, this is seen as a positive thing based on the self-contained nature of amenities.
We will write a custom Essay on Socio Economic Impacts of the “Enclave Tourism” Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, it is viewed as some form of customization or manipulation of people to engage in certain endeavors. In some enclaves, the tourists are restricted from intermingling with other individuals or even bringing things like “outside” food in the resort promises. Even in the occasions that the amenities at the resort are not of your liking; you have no option but to accept.12
In relations to the above point, Mbaiwa says that in enclave tourism, there is limited interaction between the visitors and hosts.13 Also, since most locals tend to get barred from reaching the enclave resorts; trading endeavors are limited. In effect, only the corporate owners in the enclaves get to profit hugely while the locals get the short end of the stick that has very little to offer to them.
Challenges of Enclave Tourism To begin with, natural disasters have, for a very long time, been the primary challenge faced by tourism destination marketers. In the category of natural disasters, we have events such as typhoons, floods, droughts, famine and earthquakes among others.
Examples here include the Tsunami in Japan (2011), Hurricane Katrina on the north central Gulf Coast of USA (2005), and Tsunami in Indian Ocean (2004) which affected the tourism industries in Thailand, Maldives, Andaman
Production and Operations Management (POM) Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Operations at Hudson’s
Introduction Production management “deals with decision making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or services are produced according to specifications, in the right amount and by the schedule demanded and out of minimum cost”.
Thus, POM is concerned with designing, redesigning and supervising business operations that facilitate production of goods, as well as, services. POM ensures efficiency and effectiveness in production. Efficiency involves economical use of resources while effectiveness is concerned with meeting customer’s needs.
In this context, POM can be defined as the area of management “concerned with managing and directing the technical functions of a firm, particularly, those relating to development, production and manufacturing”.
POM functions include but not limited to plant management, production control, systems analysis, and cost controls. This paper argues for the premise that using different production methods on the same plant and equipment lowers production efficiency. The relevance of this premise will be illustrated by analyzing the operations issues affecting Hudson’s Alpine Furniture.
Operations at Hudson’s Hudson’s Alpine Furniture specializes in the production of custom-made pieces of furniture which are sold to owners of ski lodges and operators of holiday cabins. However, the company has since ventured into the production of more standardized furniture for commercial ski lodge operators.
As a manufacturing firm, Hudson’s depends on its production systems to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Production system refers to the “manufacturing subsystems that include all functions required for designing, producing, distributing and servicing a manufactured product”.
Hudson’s uses the job-shop production system to manufacture its products. A job shop production system involves manufacturing small quantities of products according to the specifications of the customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The specifications, in this context, include the cost, quality, delivery time and quantity. The job shop system suites Hudson’s because the firm serves a specific market with different furniture needs.
The job shop system used at Hudson’s is based on the following factors. Concentrating in the production of custom furniture necessitates production of a variety of products. Each customer gives unique specifications on how his or her furniture is to be manufactured. For instance, the customers normally choose the quality or type of wood to be used for their furniture. Consequently, each order tends to differ from the rest.
Besides, each type of furniture is produced in low volumes since they are meant for specific customers and not the mass market. The uniqueness of each order, however, may require a lot of time in production using the Job shop method (Chakhlevitch, Keller and Glass, 2011, pp. 39-47). Additionally, the uniqueness of each order discourages automation.
Production of a wide variety of products requires great flexibility in the production system. The flexibility enables the firm to adapt its production system to the quality and design expectations of the customers. Hudson’s has ensured flexibility by adopting the use of general purpose equipment.
This type of equipment can be used to produce different types of furniture. However, flexibility comes at a high cost due to the frequent set-up changes associated with it (Chakhlevitch, Keller and Glass, 2011, pp. 39-47).
Producing a variety of products using the job shop system requires detailed planning. The manufacturing department must properly sequence the needs of each product in order to meet the quality specifications. There must also be proper scheduling of production so that products can be manufactured in time and in order of importance.
Consequently, Hudson’s production department has focused on planning for both capacity and production inputs. The firm operates a single production plant in which all pieces of furniture are produced. Equipments within the factory are arranged according to their functions.
We will write a custom Essay on Production and Operations Management (POM) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This promotes efficient transition from one function to the other. Operating a single production plant has the advantage of reducing transportation costs associated with moving work-in-progress and raw materials from one plant to the other.
Much of the raw materials used by the firm are obtained locally, thereby reducing shipment costs. Hudson’s also uses batch production system in order to achieve economies of scale in the manufacture of commercial ski furniture. However, the expected economies of scale have not been achieved since the cost of producing the commercial ski furniture continues to rise.
The high cost is, perhaps, a reflection of the complex planning and control associated with batch production. In most cases, batch production involves irregular and longer work flows which complicate the process of handling materials. Additionally, batch production involves long and costly down-time.
The company’s decision to venture into the production of commercial ski furniture seems to be the root cause of its production problems. The new orders for commercial ski furniture are not only increasing the production costs but are also causing production bottlenecks.
Production management aims at achieving four objectives namely, “right quality, right quantity, right time and right manufacturing costs” (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474). However, the rise in orders for commercial ski furniture prevents Hudson’s form achieving these objectives. Ideally, the right quality should be based on the customer’s specification.
In reality, however, the right quality depends on cost of production, as well as, the technical requirements for producing the product. The high cost of producing commercial ski furniture limits the firm’s ability to invest in technical operations that can enhance product quality.
Since the market for commercial ski furniture consists of price sensitive buyers, premium prices can not be charged for the commercial orders. This translates into reduced revenues and constrained investment in quality production.
The stringent delivery requirements imposed by commercial buyers coupled with the increase in demand for commercial ski furniture limit the company’s ability to meet time and quantity objectives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Production and Operations Management (POM) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two lines of product have to compete for production time. Since the production capacity is limited, the lead time in production has significantly increased. This means that the furniture can not be produced and delivered in time as required by customers.
Timeliness in production and delivery is an important indicator of the effectiveness of the production plant. An effective production plant should facilitate production and delivery of goods within the set deadlines. An ineffective production plant on the other hand will take a longer time to produce goods.
Thus, the high lead time means that Hudson’s production plant is no longer effective. As the lead time increase, the stock of work-in-progress also increases. The company has also been forced to hold a very large amount of raw materials and finished products.
The resulting increase in warehousing costs is a reflection of the firm’s inability to hold the optimal or right quantity of inventory. The high cost of holding the excess inventory is also an indication of uneconomical use of resources. This illustrates the reduction in the efficiency of the production plant. In a nutshell, the increase in commercial orders has resulted into serious capacity constraints at Hudson’s Alpine Furniture.
The current capacity constrain has strategic implications for the operations of Hudson’s. In particular, the capacity constrain directly impacts planning, organizing and controlling activities. Additionally, it affects the behavior of managers, as well as, the firm’s business model.
Planning involves defining objectives that guide the operation subsystems of the firm. It also involves formulating the policies and identifying the procedures which can be used to realize the objectives. In the case of Hudson’s, planning activities focus on trade-offs that ensure effective use of the existing capacity.
Implementing the trade-offs requires proper organization. For instance, the production manager must make decisions on role structures, as well as, flow of information in order to coordinate the production of both commercial and custom furniture.
In order to realize the planned production target, control must be exercised over the production process. This involves comparing actual and planned output. Thus, decisions must be made concerning the acceptable costs, quality, as well as, production schedules.
The process of planning, organizing and controlling the production process in order to optimize the limited capacity is quite challenging. In most cases, managers adopt a planning model such as aggregate planning to enhance optimization of existing capacities.
Regardless of the model chosen, the management at Hudson’s must make the following decisions in order to optimize the limited production capacity.
First, the operations manager will have to make a decision on the product to produce. Currently, decisions on which product to give priority in production depends on expected profits. Thus, custom-made pieces of furniture are give priority since they are more profitable.
The management will also have to decide on the level of product quality to maintain. Since capacity constrain can affect quality negatively, the management must identify the quality standards it can achieve under the existing capacity.
Since the two product lines compete for production time, the management must decide on the quantities of each product to produce on a daily basis in order to meet the delivery deadlines. Second, the operations manager will have to make decisions on plant utilization.
Decisions in this area will focus on the time required to operate the plant, productivity of the plant, as well as, reliability of equipment. The duration for running the plant impacts directly on its productivity, mechanical condition and safety standards. Thus, deciding on the expected maintenance costs and safety standards become apparent.
Third, capacity constrain necessitates changes in production process. When production capacity is fixed, output can only be increased in the short-run by changing the production method or adopting several production methods.
For instance, Hudson’s is currently using both job shop and batch production methods. Each production method requires different skills, and is associated with different production costs and safety standards (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474).
Hence, decisions must be made concerning skill requirement. In this case, the management might decide to introduce new training programs or hire new employees in order to access the required skills.
Finally, effectiveness in production is contingent on workers whose skills and motivation vary. Under constrained or fixed capacities, employees are normally over-worked in order to achieve production targets. Thus, the main workers-related decisions that need to be made at Hudson’s include the following.
The management must decide on the wages and salaries that will motivate the workers to increase their productivity. Acceptable work conditions such as safety standards and ability to join unions are decisions which should be made. Lastly and most importantly, the management must decide on the communication channel to be used in the firm.
This is because communication facilitates most production activities such as planning, scheduling and ensuring team work. Thus, a wrong decision on the communication channel to be used by the employees might have serious negative effects on productivity in the firm.
The operations problems created by the move to produce commercial furniture are likely to have significant effects on Hudson’s financial structure. Financial structure refers to the “mixture of long-term debt and equity that a company uses to finance its operations”.
The financial structure determines the percentage of the firm’s cash flow that will be paid to creditors and the percentage that will go to stakeholders. As discussed earlier, the move to produce commercial furniture has resulted into high costs and constrained capacity.
The main financial implication of these problems is that the profits of the firm are likely to reduce significantly if production can not be increased in the short-run to cover the rising costs. Other implications include lose of customers and reputation in the market.
This will happen if the firm is not able to fulfill the orders within the set deadlines and according to the customers’ quality and quantity specifications. In this case, customers will leave the company and source their furniture from efficient producers.
Consequently, Hudson’s market share and sales will reduce. Attempts to solve the operations problems, thus, are likely to focus on either cost cutting measures or expanding the production capacity.
Any restructuring initiative aimed at solving the current operations crisis will require significant amount of financial resources. For instance, expanding the existing capacity will require heavy investment in plant and equipment.
Similarly, changing the layout of the factory in order to create more space will require significant investment in consultancy and engineering services. Cost cutting measures such as outsourcing and lean production also require a lot of money for implementation (Vinod and Rich, 2011, pp. 127-146).
For instance, outsourcing activities such as transportation, might lead to laying-off workers in the transport department. Hence, the firm will incur high costs as it pays terminal benefits to the laid-off workers.
Given the fact that profits have not met the expectations of the management, the firm might not be able to raise enough money to finance its restructuring program. Consequently, the firm might opt for alternative sources of funding such as bank loans. In this case, Hudson’s will have a high debt-equity ratio, especially, if a lot of money is borrowed from financial institutions.
A high debt-equity ratio can adversely affect profits, especially, in the short-run due to the following reasons. First, debts are normally obtained at interest rates which might be very high. Thus, paying for the interest rates represents additional cost to the firm.
Second, expansion programs normally take a long time due to the required construction works. This implies that, there might be no immediate payoffs from capacity expansion initiatives. Therefore, the likely scenario is that a better part of the firm’s earnings, especially, in the short-run will go to the creditors.
In the long-run, the firm is likely to benefit from an expanded production capacity. A larger production capacity will enable the firm to produce more furniture. Hence, the firm’s revenues and profits will increase.
Conclusion The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that using different production methods on the same plant and equipment lowers production efficiency. Hudson’s initially focused on the production of custom-made furniture. Consequently, the firm adopted a job shop production method. This production method allowed the firm to produce the right quantity and quality of furniture.
Besides, the firm was able to meet its production deadlines and operate within acceptable costs. The move to produce furniture for the commercial buyers necessitated the use of batch production method. The objective of using batch production was to achieve economies of scale in producing commercial furniture.
However, this objective was not achieved since job shop production and batch production involves different procedures. Job shop production requires a lot of time. This led to an increase in lead time since production of custom furniture was prioritized.
Additionally, production costs increased due to the fact that both job shop and batch production involve frequent set-up changes. Batch production requires automation in order to promote efficiency (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474). However, this could not be achieved since production of custom furniture was based on job production which discourages automation.
Finally, unlike job shop production, batch production involves long down time which led to high production and storage costs. Besides, a lot of money was tied up in inventory and work in progress. The resulting capacity constrain led to severe reduction in efficiency. This leads to the conclusion that using different production methods on the same plant reduces efficiency.
References Blecker, T., 2005. Changes in Operations Management due to Internet Based Productions Concepts. Economia, Seria Management, 8(1), pp.169-175.
Chakhlevitch, K., Keller, H., and Glass, C., 2011. Batch Machine Production with Perishable Time Window and Limited Batch Size. European Journal of Operational Research, 210(1), pp. 39-47.
Dura, C., 2010. Possibilities of Increasing Effeciency within Serial Production Management. European Journal of Operational Research, 10(2), pp. 125-136.
Hameri, P., 2011. Production Flow Analysis: Cases from Manufacturing and Service Industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), pp. 233-241.
Huang, R., 2010. Multi-Ojective Job-Shop Scheduling with Lot-Spliting Production. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(1), pp. 206-213.
Murthy, R., 2007. Production and Operations Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rastagi, M., 2010. Production and Operations Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stefaneska, R., 2006. The Production Operational Management Concept. Economia, Seria Managemnt, 4(1), pp. 204-208.
Vinod, V., and Rich, S., 2011. Simulation Modelling and Analysis of Due-Date Assignment Methods and Scheduling Decision Rules in a Dynamic Job Shop Production System. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(1), pp. 127-146.
Wang, X., Li, D., and O’brien, C., 2010. A Production Planning Model to Reduce Risk and Improve Operations Management. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(2), pp. 463-474.
Industry-Based View of Strategy Essay essay help: essay help
The strengths and weaknesses of the statement that the firm performance is fundamentally determined by industry-specific attributes in light of the business-level model of global competitive dynamics
When an organization follows the business-level model it usually focuses on the development of the company in the context of a single market with paying much attention to the positions of the competitors.
Thus, the peculiarities of using the business-level model depend on creating the conditions of the rivalry between the competitors in the industry (Peng). That is why to get the leading positions in the market, it is necessary for the company to focus on determining the advantages of its product in order to accentuate them while presenting the product or service to the customer.
The orientation on the customer and his needs is one of the most significant peculiarities of this strategy. The success within customers emphasizes the higher positions within the industry.
The quite narrow perspective for the competition and realizing the company’s potential requires focusing on the details of the industry’s development and on the product’s features (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). According to this point of view, industry-specific attributes plays the decisive role in determining the strategy for the company’s progress and the effective competition within the industry.
The phenomenon of global competitive dynamics accentuates the necessity of concentration on providing the difference between the company and its competitors’ positions within the industry market which will help to reveal the advantages of the product or service (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). Thus, the business-level model is oriented on the strengths of the industry-based view of strategy.
The strengths and weaknesses of the statement that the firm performance is fundamentally determined by industry-specific attributes in light of the corporate-level model of multinational strategy
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate-level model provided by companies is oriented on the development of the multimarket activities (Peng). Thus, the strategic scope determined for the company with the help of this strategy is wider in comparison with the business-level model and involves different markets and different geographical regions where it is possible to present the product or service.
Thus, the main concept provided by the strategy is the principle of market diversification (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). Following this model, the company pays attention not only to the strategic activities within the market but also to the economic and industrial environment.
That is why it is also necessary to focus on the industry-specific attributes, but they are not so influential at the global economic level as in the situation with the business-level model (Peng). Therefore, this statement has definite weaknesses in relation to the corporate-level model.
The potential contributions of the industry-based view to the formulation and implementation of a firm’s own global strategy
To develop and implement the effective strategy for the definite company, it is necessary to concentrate on the industry-specific attributes while following the business-level model as well as using the corporate-level model. In the first case, the industry-based view is necessary for providing the successful competition within the industry and its market.
In the case of the corporate-level model, the industry-based view is significant for determining the advantages of the company and its products and services in the context of the industry market with references to the possibilities of realizing the company’s effective multimarket activities in the future (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson).
The firm performance within a definite industry is meaningless without paying attention to the industry-based attributes which influence the peculiarities of the industry’s development. That is why the industry-based view can be considered as effective for contributing to the company’s forming the global strategy and to its progress.
Works Cited Hitt, Michael, Duane Ireland and Robert Hoskisson. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization, Concepts. USA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Industry-Based View of Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Peng, Mike W. Global Strategy. USA: South-Western College Pub, 2008. Print.
Grass roots Vs. Elite Sports Report (Assessment) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Sporting is a very important activity for Australia as a nation. Previously, sporting activities have been funded through a ‘top down’ approach that is now inadequate for the maintenance of the nation’s sporting glory (Houhlias, 2011). The ‘top down’ practice has led to widespread claims of imbalance between funding of the elite and grassroots sports (Antaris, 2010).
This paper seeks to outline and critique the key arguments in relation to the direction of Australian sport. The paper will specifically address the arguments for and against funding priorities to support sports either at the grassroots or the elite level. The approaches will be analyzed in relation to the extant Australian sport policy and funding approaches. The paper will then give recommendations in regard to the present implications and future expectations.
Main Arguments There has been a lot of debate concerning the delegation of money for sporting activities in Australia. The media has been particularly consistent with reports on funding inequalities between the grass roots and the elite level.
To underscore this inequality, David Crawford, the head of independent sports panel, released a report in 2009 that questioned the rationale for allocating more funds towards elite sporting activities (Earle, 2010). In the report, it was recommended that more funds should be set aside to support sports at the grassroots level in the country.
Those who think that more resources should be set aside for grass roots sports activities argue that grass roots sports are critical for the overall health of Australians other than developing talent for elite sports. Thus by supporting grass roots sports today, the country is in effect developing elite athletes for tomorrow and at the same time keeping its citizens in good health. Proponents of more funds for grass roots sports fail to see why majority of the sports funds are allocated to elite sports that have low participation compared to the grass roots sports that have high participation(Houlihan
Millennium development Goals Report college essay help online
A Report on the MDG Progress The contemporary world is faced with a lot of challenges and difficulties. As an organization that was formed to combat crises globally, UN has to ensure that these challenges are being tackled. The Millennium Development Goals were formed in 1990 to try and meet the needs that cannot be met by a member country on its own.
Based on six goals, this paper will give a detailed report on the international community’s progress towards meeting the targets Goals chosen and why The following are the goals that have been chosen for review on their progress internationally: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
These goals have been selected due to their urgency. According to Bojo and Chandra (9), hunger, disease, poor education systems and gender inequality are the most dominant challenges that are facing many countries. Apart from that, the rate at which they affect humanity reduces the rate of social, economic and political growth (Bojo and Chandra 9).
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger According to the UN Report (6), the first target of this goal is to cut by half the number of people whose daily income is below $ 1 between 1990 and 2015. The second target is to accomplish productive and decent employment for all people. Within the same period, this goal is also supposed to reduce the number of people suffering from hunger (Devarajan, Miller and Swanson 18).
Most of these problems, as Devarajan, Miller and Swanson (18) assert, have been caused by the economic dwindling experienced throughout the world, especially the developing nations. Measures are being implemented to meet this goal. Firstly, the number of people living in poverty has reduced from 1.8 billion to 1.4 billion between 1990 and 2005.The percentage of people living in extreme poverty has fallen down from 46 to 27 also.
The developing world is meeting this target in that, the number of underweight children has fallen down. The UNESCO Report of 2010 also shows that most African countries, especially Kenya and Namibia are implementing hunger policies (“Education Counts: Towards the Millennium Development Goals” 44).
African governments are putting aside extreme amounts of funds in their budgets to solve the hunger, poverty and unemployment challenges. By 2015, things ought to have improved and the targets met fully. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education This goal targets to achieve help poor countries make improvements in offering education to their people. The most targeted region is Sub-Saharan Africa, where most children are out of school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the MDG Report of 2010, inequality between boys and girls in developing countries is also supposed to be done away with to make universal education possible by 2015 (“Assesing progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals” 51). There is good advancement in meeting this target because by 2008, there was a 6% increment in the primary school enrolment from 83% in 2000.
This has been realized through efforts in most developing countries to abolish school fees. Children in Kenya, Nepal, Tanzania and Burundi no longer pay fees for their education. According to UN Report, children in these countries are provided with free meals, water and even sanitation towels to help increase the numbers.
As much as there is a little improvement, the rate at which things are progressing is too slow to meet the target by 2015. According to the UNESCO Report of 2010, 69 million school-age children are out of school and half of them are from Sub-Saharan Africa. 18 million of the number is in Southern Asia.
By 2015, things will have improved but the target will not be met. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women This target of the goal is to eradicate gender inequality in both secondary and primary education by 2005 and in all levels of education by 2015. Poverty and traditional beliefs remain to be the major factors hindering girl education in developing countries. Job allocation and salary payment still remain high for men.
The World Bank Report of 2003 shows that, women can only access informal jobs that do not pay (“Getting serious about meeting the Millennium Development Goals: A comprehensive Development Framework Progress Report.” 12). The realization and progress of this goal is proved by the improvement in school enrolment for girls in developing countries. The number of girl enrolment in school was 96 when that of boys was 100 in developing countries.
In terms of employment, men are still enjoying the higher notch even thought there has been a slight improvement in terms of gender balance. According to UN Report, women empowerment politically in Africa has improved greatly as the number of women in parliaments has gone up. Although it is evident that there is progress in meeting this goal, the rate of its advancement still shows that, it will still be far from reality by 2015.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality This goal targets to decrease the rate of under-five child mortality rate by two thirds come 2015. Many children in the developing nations die due to unavailability of vaccines and proper medication. As much as this might be a threat, progress has been shown because the number of “children death reduced from 100 to 72 per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2008” (Quoted from UN Report, p. 31).
We will write a custom Report on Millennium development Goals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this goal is not being met as expected. The World Bank Report 2002 shows that, the number of children still dying from poor medical attention is still high in many developing countries (“Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: Policy Challenges and Opportunities” 21). Only 10 countries out of 67 are strictly following the convention to meet this goal. This is far from meeting its target and by 2015, things might not be any better.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health This goal targets to cut down the number of maternal deaths by ¾.Giving birth in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan countries is very risky. Skilled midwives are few, forcing many women to give births using traditional means, which are risky. Another target is to realize universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Poor education in proper hygiene during pregnancy leaves many mothers at risk.
Poverty, according to the MDG Report 2010, is another hindrance to the practice of good pregnancy hygiene for most mothers in Asian and African countries (“Millennium Development Goals Report” 51). There is Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality (CARMMA) in most African countries including Nigeria and Rwanda. However, these targets are not being met fully and this still leaves pregnancy or childbirths risky.
The UN Report of 2010 indicates that, “more than 350,000 women die every year during pregnancy or childbirth” (31). Developing countries suffer more of this because out of 30, 1 woman dies during pregnancy or childbirth. This is high as compared to developed countries, where the ratio is 1: 5,600 (“The Millenium Development Goals Report” 60).
The progress of things shows that this goal might not meet the deadline. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases By 2015, this goal is needed to have accomplished stopping HIV/AIDS and embarked on the reversal of its spread. Many young people lack the necessary skills to control and combat HIV/AIDS.
This goal also targets to make accessible universal treatment to all the HIV victims. Apart from that, the goal is aimed at stopping malaria and other major diseases by 2015 and then embarking on its reversal. This goal is being realized because the number of HIV infections is reducing steadily. According to the UN Report of 2010, there has been a steady fall in the number of HIV infections from 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. Funds are being directed to fight this pandemic in many countries across the globe, especially African states.
Young people are being educated on how to fight HIV and in Botswana and Kenya, free antiretroviral treatment is being provided (47). The campaign against malaria in India and most African countries is also on its highest toll (“Millennium Development Goals Report” 41). Conclusion From the report, it can be deduced that efforts are being done to meet most of these goals. However, some goals still lag far much behind and by 2015, their targets will not have been met.
The efforts to reduce poverty and hunger by providing self sustainability to most poor people are helping greatly. Provision of universal education and introduction of measures to curb HIV/AIDS and malaria is also progressing well but the rate at which things are happening is still too low. Realizing gender equality, maternal health for women and reduction of child mortality rates should be stepped up in order to meet the targeted results. Generally, there are efforts to achieve these targets but countries should put more efforts to meet the deadline.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Millennium development Goals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Assesing progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Bojo, Jan and Rama Chandra. Poverty reduction strategies and the Millenium Development Goal on Environmental Sustainability: Opportunity for alignment. Web.
Devarajan, Shantayanan, Margeret Miller and Eric Swanson. The costs of attaining Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Education Counts: Towards the Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Getting serious about meeting the Millennium Development Goals: A comprehensive Development Framework Progress Report. Web.
Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: Policy Challenges and Opportunities. Web.
Millennium Development Goals Report. Web.
The Millenium Development Goals Report. Web.
UFV Bookstore Marketing Plan Recommendations Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Curriculum The curriculum gives attention for requirements in 2015 to be based on protecting the core mission and tasks of the college store. It is designed to offer all the fundamentals needed for the learners to complete study. This core mission of curriculum is to support the instructive procedure and campus lifestyle of scholars in all dimensions.
It is not merely the storeroom for textbook, school equipments, T-shirts, giftwares or snacks. This indicates that one among the foundational offers of the storeroom in the college is the curriculum.
Scholars will need access to numerous kinds of material for the completion of the course which include traditional kinds of test books a part from new kinds of books based on new capacities, digital interactivity and technology modernization of college students.
Curriculums also have an opportunity to give many alternatives to scholars. College stores must get ready for 2015, by preparing for offers and various curriculum-based services that view every type of curriculum as opportunities to meet the core consumers’ requirements qualitatively rather than viewing these latest formats as rivals to the textbooks’ offer.
The curriculum must be capable to buy, borrow, rent or sell all the course materials required for the students. In addition, this must act as the guiding principle in meeting all the requirements of the student. One of the recommendations to improve the curriculum of the college store room is that it must focus on the collection of items and materials required foe the specific area of study.
All the basic items such as folders, notebooks, backpacks, are to be maintained by the curriculum of the college store. Curriculum must also add e-sales book through website and rental books. It must also be capable of installing sale print-on-demand in affiliation with Xerox.
UFV bookstore strives to be an area of learning that identifies respects and consists of indigenous methods of knowing. It is big enough to recommend variety of learning, and however very small class sizes permit scholars to get to recognize their teachers and learn in hands-on surroundings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More UFV bookstore can be a home for all the graduation information because it is filled completely with helpful information. UFV is division of a worldwide network of all the universities, which consists of higher education organizations in South America, North America and Europe.
And also it defines itself as global and open university stimulated by Catholic values. UFV is open to public, for the reason that no one is barred on the basis of their social or cultural environment, or fiscal means. So it called as a home for all the information.
Accusation of Note Wagon in the college store, that assists to facilitate learning through peer-to-peer. It is an online academic resource permits learners to exchange content of course through the selling and buying of classrooms notes in the course of incentives and tokens.
A. Organize educational resources more successfully and professionally to
enhances the percentage of learners graduating in four years,
generate a way for learners to complete the course,
Create more successful employ of faculty resources, and
Preserve or improve the learner’s experience.
Maintain or develop the experiences of the learners particularly in times of resource limitations in the course of events planned to get rid of redundant course-taking.
B. Conduct various programs during the vacation times
Frequency One of the key challenges for the storerooms in college is that storeroom traffic will naturally shirk off due to numerous factors like-
Fewer scholar campus visits.
Smaller amount of “book buying” journeys. (As more course supplies are purchased through online or not purchased at all).
Student storeroom must construct frequency drivers into every facet of the offer. To diminish the traffic tendencies in college stores, the process must enable scholars to visit the storeroom on a more recurrent basis.
We will write a custom Term Paper on UFV Bookstore Marketing Plan Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stores in college can do so in part by executing various thoughts already presented, connected to construction of business model abilities for the period of 2015 (e.g., generating appropriate and inspiring marketing/promotions).
These frequency drivers of the student store vary from fresh foodstuff and beverages to other regularly consumed foodstuffs to store experience rudiments, for example spaces for scholars to eat, read and mingle.
The Frequent Buyers program is the one of the main promotional program for the students; it is a type rewards program for all those book lovers. Reward for the students helps for coming back repeatedly.
Rewards program of the bookstore in the colleges must include discount for the members on various types of services. This program works tremendously well with storerooms whose clients shop frequently for the particular kinds of products.
Recommendations 2015, college stores frequency offers must deliberately speak to each of the classes, at least to some amount, as dictated by obtainable storeroom space, college- inflicted limitations on foodservice and various types of limiting factors:
Expediency grab-and-go fresh and new grocery.
Eat-now food outlets such as snack bar, coffee bar, coffee shop, café etc.
Various types of personal care and beauty care items must be maintained
Collecting space for eating, reading and mingling with other people.
Work space of the student store room must be arranged with tables and chairs.
A variety of fresh and expediency groceries must be maintained.
Provide various promotional means to the students.
Give various types of frequency buyer rewards program for the students.
The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 Case Study writing essay help
The two key sectors that take the blame for the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 are the financial sector and the real estate industry. The financial sector generally receives blame for its activities, which included high risk lending, and high-risk investment in derivatives.
The real estate sector on the other hand bore the brunt of the activities of the financial sector because when people started defaulting on loans, banks and other mortgage financiers foreclosed homes, and repossessed properties whose owners defaulted.
Soon, there were too many properties in the market against the prospects of dwindling demand, eventually leading to a collapse of the property markets.
Other sectors that receive blame for the crisis include regulators, and legislators. On one hand, regulators seem to have failed to offer direction for the finance sector until it was too late.
One count is the ease with which lenders offered credit without due diligence because of their excessive capitalization, and demands by government to provide cheap credit. People who did not have the capacity to pay back loans took them anyway and there was no one to stop them.
Legislators created this situation by repealing of the Glass Steagall Act in 1999, which many people consider “to be one of the more critical regulatory changes that played a role in the financial crisis”. This act originally prohibited one institution from acting as a commercial and an investment bank, or as a banker and an insurer.
The key issues that the case presents include the role of government in industry, the effectiveness of regulation in industry, human behavior versus market forces, and the question of institutional learning. The traditional role of government in industry, especially in capitalist economies is regulatory in nature.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government creates the rules within which all parties play and creates institutions to enforce those laws. When the government intervenes in industry such as through the bailouts the Federal Government gave to the big banks, then it means that there is a widespread systemic failure.
On the other hand, too much regulation stifles business. The government must find some sort of balance as it creates the laws to govern industry, and as it enforces regulations.
The next question is that of human behavior versus market forces. Human behavior in this context refers to the values and activities of both consumers and industry players. The western world is very materialistic. Success and status in society comes from the kind of things a person owns.
Therefore, there is a very big motivation for consumers to keep looking for more things even if they are beyond their means. Industry players on the other hand typically respond to demand in order to make profit.
Therefore, when there is demand for something, industry will strive to provide it to turn a profit in the process. However, when industry makes profit the super aching goal despite values, then the result is a financial crisis. There ought to be some kind of value-based system for industry to operate within if the economy will have balance.
Institutional learning is important for the prevention of the recurrence of challenges that an institution undergoes. This seems to be sorely lacking in the financial sector in America. The repealing of the Glass Steagall Act of 1929 showed that the legislative arm of government did not appreciate the consequences of its actions.
In this sense, repealing the law reset the economy to pre-1929 days, which was “the last time the level of debt was 100% of GDP”, hence the exposure.
We will write a custom Case Study on The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the executive has not instituted stronger regulatory measures that can allow for the documentation of crisis in the same way as engineering or medical associations do. The lessons simply do not stick long enough because there is no institution to collate them.
There are a number of options available to prevent the recurrence of the events of 2008-2009. They include nationalization, stronger regulation, and self-regulation within a stronger legislative framework. Nationalization is the least popular way of handling economic problems in a capitalist system.
The main argument against it is that the government is not supposed to be a market player because of its multiplicity of concerns. Government is also very slow to innovate and slow to adapt hence the sector will stagnate if the government runs it.
If the government chooses to nationalize any bank, “it is important to ensure that the bank returns to the hands of private investors after the liquidity crisis is over by giving the bank the ability to call back or repurchase the equity it issued to the government”.
On the other hand, it means that the sector will not be profit driven hence it will not have the same appetite for risk compared to that of the private sector. In addition, the government can afford to bail itself out in case of any problems without involving the entire economy.
Another practical solution is simply limiting the size of financial institutions. This will make sure that if one of them is in trouble, then the normal systems for dealing with the problem can follow without affecting the entire economy. The current size of banks gives them undue influence on policy and their collapse has a huge impact on the economy.
The other side is that this will be against the capitalist ideals. It means that the system will punish the most innovative and hardworking participants in the industry. In addition, enforcement will be difficult because companies will simply divest and have independent companies under a single umbrella.
The third way is to strengthen “banking supervision and regulation” through relevant institutions and legislation . This option will more or less allow financial institutions to carry on with their duties but with more scrutiny and under stricter rules. The scrutiny should aim at identifying trouble before if turns into a catastrophe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It may have been possible to halt the forces that led to the financial meltdown if there was some consistent source of information regarding the operations of the financial sector. Stricter rules do not also mean limited operations. It just means that the things financial institutions should do must be clear just as what they should not do.
The recommended way of approaching this issue is by using stronger legislative and regulatory measures. This approach will ensure that there is the least government interference in the running of the private sector. In addition, the government will play its more accepted role as a regulator and arbiter industry.
The market forces should do the rest of the work in ensuring that consumers get the best level of service within the broader framework defined by government. As compared to the other options, it actually utilizes less resources and already established institutions.
The process of nationalization would require so many people and the government simply do not have the experience to run financial institutions.
The industry will suffer as a result. Limiting the size of financial institutions will send capital away to places that do not have similar restrictions. The overall impact on the economy will be negative. In conclusion, the best way to stem the recurrence of these events is regulation.
Reference List Black, K. (2009). Business Statistics: Contemporary Decision Making. John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY.
Chacko, G., Sjoman, A., Gunawan, H.,
Analysis of Setting, Character Development, and Symbolism in the Play A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen. Essay essay help: essay help
At a glance, Ibsen’s Doll’s House recounts a story about the place of women in society, as well as marriage stereotypes and norms accepted in the 19th century. Further considerations of the text connotations, setting, characters description, and symbolism reveal the contrary beliefs.
Certainly, the story focuses on the relationships between males and females and underlines the role of hierarchy, but these aspects fall into the background, since the central focus is made on the problem of deceitful appearances and concept of humanity.
The main heroine, Nora Helmer is compared to a doll who is manipulated by all other characters, including her husband, dearest friends, and relatives. However, this pressure is not tolerable for human because each person has the right to self-expression and individualism.
In this respect, Ibsen underscores the right of humans to freedom and independence from other decisions irrespective of gender affiliation, social positions, and accepted beliefs. All these aspects are explicitly revealed through describing setting, character development, and symbolism depicted in the play.
In the play, the author creates the unity of setting so as to underscore the feeling that the main heroine Nora is the prisoner of her life. Thus, the setting for action remains the same throughout the play which frames the environment in a simple and conventional fashion.
At the same time, the setting contributes to a sense of limits imposed by society and surrounding people, whereas its conventionality reveals the emphasis placed on respectability and image. While describing the setting, the author applies such words as “comfortably and tastefully” (Ibsen 7).
Most importantly, the description of the Helmers’ apartment provides a standard vision of a 19th century house where all requisites of traditional life are present. Aside from place characteristics embracing stereotypical visions of the house, there are typical time characteristics uncovering the norms and standards of social standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the play represents within a short period of time, which also imposes certain limits on characters’ actions and development. Importantly, while describing the setting Ibsen applies to the parallel situations to highlight the central predicament of the main heroine.
Judging from the description of furnishing and design, it is possible to judge about conventions of furniture layout, which corresponds to the accepted traditions. Once again, the setting provides the frames and restrictions enhancing the established conventions and norms within society.
Just like the standard design of an apartment, the main heroine takes the standard place of a model wife and hostess in the house, as it was required by the societal norms. At the beginning of the play, Nora enjoys her role of bourgeois wife and encourages her husband giving her different pet names.
She seems reluctant to understand the reality and follows the rules established by the surrounding people, including her husband, Torvald, her friend Christina, lawyer’s Krogstag, and Dr. Rank. By taking different roles imposed by others, Nora forgets about herself as a personality with personal wishes, goals, and desires.
Her husband gives her different names that are usually given to animals or inanimate objects, such as “my little skylark”, “my squirrel”, “my little lark” “little Nora” (Ibsen 11, 13). By adding the epithet “little” to names, Torvald as if neglects Nora’s personality and rejects her right to choose and decide.
However, further development of the play reveals Nora’s self-evaluation and apprehension of husband’s real intents and goals. She becomes more aware of the reality and of what is going outside the apartment.
Hence, while reading the final conversation between Nora and her husband, it is possible to trace the changes occurred to the heroine in terms of her attitude to marriage and relations.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Setting, Character Development, and Symbolism in the Play A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She suddenly realizes that the house she lives in “…has never been anything but a playroom” and that she has never “…exchanged a serious word on a serious subject” (Ibsen 99). At the end, the discussion of her position and role reveals an intelligence that has made her understand the uncomfortable reality of restricted moral and ethical codes that are represented by Torvald.
The play contains elements of symbolism proving Nora’s insignificant position with regard to other people manipulating her. The author draws the parallels between the heroine and the Christmas tree, that is a beautiful addition to the overall decoration of the house; at the same, it is considered as useless thing, merely an element of traditional design.
While analyzing author’s descriptions of the tree, one can find similar traits in Nora’s character: “the Christmas is….stripped of its ornaments and with burnt-down candle-ends on its disheveled branches” (Ibsen 49). Once again, the author compares the main heroine with inanimate object serving as an additional elements in the apartment interior.
In conclusion, the author provides criticism of social order in the 19th century, when society imposed social and moral restriction on people and limited their human rights.
Nora, the main heroine, is the victim of the settled stereotypes about marriage norms and relations between a wife and a husband. By following these norms, she loses the sense of identity and forgets about her right to be an independent personality.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henric. A Doll’s House. US: Arc Manor LLC. 2009. Print.
Biological Underpinnings behind Child Abuse Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Infants at the period between birth and one year and toddlers between one and two year old normally grow very first with their physical or bodies changing in a intense and quick manner. Bodily growth is normally taken to refer to changes in biological structure that is experienced in children as time continues to pass.
Among the vital and very critical elements that determine the development of bodily growth in toddlerhood and infancy are brain and bodily adjustments; expansion of reflexes, feelings, motor skills, sensitivities and learning abilities; and health matters.
The period between birth and the fourth week is normally known as the “postnatal period”. The majorities of babies weighs around 5.5 to 10 pounds, and are around 17 to 22 inches long. With male infants, they are a little bit longer and heavier compared to their female counterparts.
Babies who are delivered either two or more weeks after their supposed date are termed as post mature babies. Both post mature and premature infants are normally critically prone to complications such as illness, mental or brain damage, or even transience, than when they are fully developed babies (Achenbach
Bill Clinton Leadership Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Leadership of Bill Clinton
Introduction Bill Clinton is one of the most famous politicians in the History of the United States of America. He served as the governor of Arkansas and later on became the president of the United States of America serving between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 325).
It is during his reign as the president that USA exhibited the concept of effective leadership. This was achieved through the leadership of President Bill Clinton. This essay shall therefore focus on Bill Clintons leadership qualities, styles and the success that he achieved as president.
To achieve this, the essay shall focus on the qualities that Clinton had and the impacts of his administration during the two terms that he served as president.
Leadership of Bill Clinton For an individual to be an effective leader, he/she needs to possess several qualities. Such an individual needs to be visionary, understanding, rational, conscious of the culture, team player, ambitious, reliable, possess communication and social skills, humble, able to influence masses and be knowledgeable (Cohen 8).
Bill Clinton possessed most of these qualities. This may have contributed greatly into developing him into a successful and effective leader.
In the process of his leadership, Bill Clinton experienced ups and downs. An example is his demise was his scandal with Monica Lewinsky. It should be noted that during the time when Clinton was facing this scandal, he remained confident and charismatic.
He was not destructed and performed his duty as the president of the United States to the best. This showed that he had empathy; a factor that enabled him to maintain a positive public figure. Giving the United States priority at this time proved that Clinton was an effective leader (Mas 327).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More USA, like many other nations all around the world has always been striving for social, political and economic sustainability.
Despite the fact that the nation has always been regarded as one of the best in terms of socio-political and economic sustainability, it is during the reign of Bill Clinton that USA experienced much of its economic growth. Through his leadership practices and policies, USA experienced a tremendous growth in its economy from 1993-2001.
An effective leader is one who keeps the promises that he has made to his people. During his presidential campaign, Bill Clinton made several promises to the people. He vowed that he would improve the economy of the United States.
Clinton became the president of USA just after the end of the Cold War, a period that USA spent a lot of money in the race for arms supremacy. As a result, the nations economy was in a deficit. Thus, as a result of this economic recession, USA required strong economic strategies that would lead to economic recovery.
To achieve this, Clinton came up with a combination of economic, fiscal and economic policies with an aim of modernizing the government of the United States (Stewart 15). This made the government to be entrepreneur oriented.
As a result, much of the powers that were concentrated on the central government were distributed to federal and local governments. This resulted to an increase in the government efficiency and a reduction of the size of the central government hence incurring lower costs as compared to the expenditure of previous regimes.
Clinton came up with tight monetary policies that reduced the expenditure of governmental institutions (Stewart 17). For instance, Clinton implemented the tight monetary proponents. This implementation had an effect of stabilizing and reducing the consumer price index.
We will write a custom Essay on Bill Clinton Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, goods and services within the nation became more affordable to a larger proportion of the population. Clinton also implemented several monetary policies. In 1997, Clinton passed the Taxpayer Relief Act into law that reduced the tax rate on capital investments from 28% to 20% (Stewart 18).
This increased the rate at which individuals made in investments within the nation. It also increased the rate of foreign investments hence boosting the economy.
The employment rate in USA during the Clinton administration also increased. Increasing the employment rate was one of the promises that Clinton made to the people during his 1992 campaigns. To deliver his promise, Clinton through his administration managed to create over 22 million jobs.
This tremendously increased the GDP of USA between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 326). Clinton also managed to reduce the national deficit that had accumulated as a result of the arms race during the cold war. Before Clinton became the president, USA had a trade deficit of -90.500 USDs. When Clinton left office, the trade deficit was roughly above -400,000 USDs (Stewart 14).
To ensure that this economy is maintained, Clinton embarked on a trade expansion activity. It is during this time that he developed warm diplomatic relations with countries such as Mexico and China. With the desirable relationship that these nations developed, trade between then also improved especially after the free trade deal was passed (Robinson 470).
Conclusion Bill Clinton is one of the renowned and leaders in the history of the United States as a result of the role that he played in reviving the national economy amongst other things. During his reign, he also managed to achieve social and political sustainability. He also possessed desirable leadership qualities that made him to be an effective leader. This made him to an effective leader.
Works Cited Cohen, Simon. “Effective Global Leadership Requires a Global Mindset.” Industrial and Commercial Training 4.2 (2010): 3-10. Print.
Mas, Andrew. “Racial Bias in USA Presidential Election.” American Economic Review 99.2 (2010): 323-29. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bill Clinton Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robinson, Allan. “Global Leadership in a Cultural Diverse World.” Management Decision 46.3 (2008): 466-80. Print.
Stewart, Benjamin. “Race, Region, and Vote Choice in the US Elections: Implications for the Future of the Voting Rights Act.” Harvard Law Review 3.2 (2010): 11-18. Print.
Concepts to Consider as Marketing Manager Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Employing concept of ROMI
Data that should be collected
Recommendations (Micro view)
Recommendations (Macro view)
Employing concept of ROMI Return on Marketing Investment is the revenue acquired from the increased sales of the company that have resulted from the marketing done by the company. Viewing marketing as an investment will necessitate the urge to get returns from it. It is calculated as ROMI=Increased Revenue-market expense.
NB: Where the increased revenue is the amount of extra money received as a result of the advertising. It is calculated as, Revenue after Marketing-Revenue before Marketing.
Marketing should be viewed as an investment and money spent on it should be expected back. The first step would be to invest a considerable amount of money in marketing with an aim of improving the sales of Alta Moda. This will be done by first assessing the current sales of Alta Moda and the revenue generated from the same, we would then invest in marketing through advertising in the media and women magazines (Arnold 2010).
In the magazines, we would portray Alta Moda products as something the lady’s really need to have, we (as a marketing department under my leadership)would engage in roadside promotion which is meant to answer any concerns from the clients about the our products (Barro, 2008).
Data that should be collected To calculate the ROMI we will need to collect certain pieces of information that will facilitate the computation. The first thing to do would be to have a record of how much revenue the company receives and what level of sales is made without the marketing(Increased Revenue). This is going to give us the sales baseline for the company.
We then need to have a very clear data and enough information from the budgeting carried out on how much we are likely to spend on the marketing of the Alta Moda products (Marketing expenses). Any incremental in the expenditure on the marketing and promotion activities should be recorded for the purposes of assessment on the success of the marketing (Arnold 2010).
Dashboard The dashboard indicates the projection that as a marketing department we would be spending during the year in both promotion and advertising activities. The different months will have different expenditure. This shows that different periods will need different costs in the expenditure. As shown below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Column1 Jan Feb March April May June July August September October November December Promotion $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 Advertising $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 Other executives in the company will follow the lead of the marketing department and assist in the promotion and advertising of the products as the success of the company will help all of the company.
Recommendations (Micro view) Improving the sales for the store will need more of promotion hence the promotion activities in the dashboard. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improving the return on investment (ROMI). Such ideas will also reduce on the marketing expenses since such promotions strategies tend to reduce expenses as compared to their advertising counterparts.
Recommendations (Macro view) Extensive and creative advertising should be aired. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improve the return on investment. The putting up of a creativity department will ensure there are creative adverts being aired which is what the company wants in order to attract more clients to the stores of the company. While advertising, several factors should be considered:
The products should be portrayed as superior to the competitors
The clients of the company should be portrayed as of superior character
Conclusion It is only through creativity and employment of the above ways that the marketing department can gain considerable return on the money spent in the marketing of its products. Reduction of the marketing expenses while at the same time ensuring a high gain from it in order to increase the revenue earned as a result of the marketing. This will award the company handsomely insofar as ROMI is concerned (Barro, 2008).
References Arnold, RA. 2010. Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning: Chicago.
Barro, RJ. 2008. Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach: Cengage Learning. Chicago.
The Tool Box Project Report college admission essay help
Design fundamentals: The tool box “ The product selected was based on concepts such as productivity, uniqueness and ability to meet the specified requirements and JAG requirements. The tool box was designed to satisfy various user needs, including the ability to hold tools of various natures, from large industrial tools to small hand held tools. The tool boxes have a few features incorporated based on their specific use.
For instance, a tool box in a vehicle comprises a rubber matting to prevent movement, and another anti vibration mat that reduces noise and clashing of rattling tools. Other designs of the tool box include the slanted tool box, lock-in-tray, under ute tray and the LPG cylinder storage box.
The product was designed to satisfy various functional requirements such as security and wear resistance, as well as non-functional requirements such as durability, portability and the use of environmental friendly materials in fabrication. Other than these, there were design requirements by JAG Corporation, which controlled the selling price, construction tools and the construction process.
The project involved two markets: the primary market, comprising retailers whose purchasing price was set at $90; and the secondary market that included distributor such as construction companies. The latter were expected to buy in bulk for their workers, hence the selling price of $80.
These prices were according to the JAG requirements, which set the maximum price at $100, and limited marketing to trade persons and construction companies. The product proposed is viable, since the project concept involves various components that collectively address various requirements that make it profitable and competitive within the market.
Surveys conducted on the potential customers indicated that the target market is about half of the customers, who were dissatisfied with their current storage products due to their locks, corrosion, water leakage and inability to carry heavy loads.
Out of the dissatisfied customers, most of them were especially keen to have their heavy duty tools organized better for equipment in their vehicles. In addition to that, they indicated their need for tool boxes that provided security from theft and weather, to avoid delays during work, or replacements and repair costs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The customers were also looking for heavy duty toolboxes with hooks at their four edges, so that they could be connected to the ute tray, making them more stable when driving, and increasing safety of their tools and equipment.
The price of the product was satisfactory to most of the customers, since 65% were willing to pay an amount above $70, provided they satisfied their primary concerns, which included heavy withstanding, water resistance and secure locks. The surveyed customers did not have any concerns regarding additional features or material that the product was made from, and just required it to be a tool box that could cater for their needs.
The products dimensions are 120cmx60cmx50cm to be a reasonable fit a ute tray or the back of a van. The product may include hooks to allow a better restriction of the product as responders requested. For the convenient storage of small tools, the storage box has been divided into compartments and installed along the top shelf to increase accessibility.
This will make it easier for the user to locate, retrieve, place and store items which are used on a regular basis. As for larger tools, the tools box has an easy access compartment at the base, made possible by a sliding door. To maintain durability, the prototype will be constructed out of steel as to prolong is lifetime use. The product will assist the tradesperson in making good use of storage space in their vehicle or garage.
Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng Essay a level english language essay help
Wu Cheng’en’s best known novel Journey to the West, which is also translated as Monkey: A Folk Novel of China, provides an account on the pilgrimage of the Buddhist monk, along with his disciples, to save the sutra on transcendence and good will and rescue China from moral digression.
Aside from sophisticated account of the adventure of the four, the novel reflects a historical and religious background of late imperial China during the reign of Ming Dynasty.
In particular, Monkey is an allegorical representation of the three religious practices enhancing the concept of moral lesson that the Chinese people should learn.
Drawing the parallels between the story and the historical background, Cheng’en attempts to represent the synthesis of three religions as the moral foundation for the Mind China people to adhere. Among the moral principles, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism complement the existing practices introduced by Ming Taizu.
In this respect, to uphold the moral and religious beliefs of the Chinese society, Wu Cheng’en puts Buddhism over the other two religions and considers its philosophy as the main way to salvation.
At the same time, the author represents other religious movements – Confucianism and Daoism – that complement the ideological foundation of beliefs and attitudes in the time of the Ming Dynasty.
By highlighting the pantheon of Buddhist streams in the form of bodhisattvas, Wu Cheng-en attempts to reflect some philosophical and religious beliefs of the Chinese society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buddhism, as the core stream in the novel, is strictly observed by the protagonist of the story Tripitaka who became the central figure in legendary adventures. His major accent on Buddhism school of thought is strongly associated with moral concerns, specifically with the necessity to direct people through the path of salvation and reconciliation.
At this point, the protagonist proclaims, “a priest…should be ready to die rather than commit acts of violence” (Cheng-en 133). In this respect, even those people who surpassed the moral conduct of Buddhism had the right to salvation through penance.
Similar to the story revealing the utmost Buddhist beliefs, the historical evidence highlights the transformation of the Ming dynasty to “a national moral crusade” (Theodore De Bary et al. 780).
Projecting this outlook on Cheng’en’s story, it should be stressed that the emphasis on Buddhism should be made to rescue the Ming China from sins and introduce new moral codes that would control and guide people’s behavior.
One of the Tripitaka’s disciples – the Monkey called Sun Wukong – personifies the Confucian tendencies by pursuing the practices of Taoism. Adhering to these teachings, the Monkey firmly beliefs in the natural foundation of the world and, therefore, he harmonizes himself with primordial essence of the world creation.
Being part of the nature, Sun Wukong asserts that the principle of “The Five Elements” is the basic condition for achieving immortality (Cheng-en 24).
Moreover, the Monkey, upholding all three religious teachings as the primary attributes for achieving moral and religious harmony, Wukong, along with Tripitaka, begins his path to reconciliation through Taoism to cognize the main pillars of Buddhism. In other words, Confucianism shapes the principal foundation for the other two teachings.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of the novel, we see Monkey as the one who embodies wisdom and intelligence. As per the policies and trends in the Ming Dynasty period, Taizu also saw Confucianism at the core of all religious teachings. At this point, though emperor expands on the necessity of introducing three religious teachings in combination, he still places Confucian visions on the first place.
Synergy of the Three Teaching is brightly revealed in the novel, and pertains directly the main protagonist of the story. Their searching for the original morale, as well as for individual harmony brings all the characters to one conclusion that the moral conduct should be premised on the three pillars – Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism.
At this point, Taizu’s teaching also led to similar outcomes. Specifically, the emperor agrees with the idea that “the Three Teachings contain things that are abstruse and vital [in substance], yet solidly efficacious when put into practice” (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). The necessity to favor all three religions is grounded on different nature of people who have different beliefs, goals, and concerns in their life.
A complicated mixture of beliefs makes reliance solely on one religion meaningless because it cannot provide a universal policy for people to acknowledge their sins and enter upon the path of wisdom and humility. Taizu’s views are congruent with the ones declared in Cheng’en’s story.
At this point, Monkey argues that all three religious teachings allow him to become immortal (Cheng’en 24). Using the power of the five elements, monkey gradually refers to the study of Daoism and Buddhism to achieve wisdom and relieve himself from mortal sins.
Judging from the above-presented assumptions, each character of the novel possesses both virtues and vices that should be either enhanced or conquered on their way to enlightenment. In this respect, the monkey possesses intelligence and courage by means of which he manages to break the past boundaries and discover the “new land” of knowledge.
Tripitaka is a human who demonstrates humbleness and modesty, yet lack of faith prevents him from overcoming the obstacles. As a result, Tripitaka advocated the Buddhist concept of filial piety while being on the search for the Buddhist sutras. Finally, other characters – Pigsy, Sandy, and Dragon – represent the utmost sins and vices of society which should be exterminated.
They fall under the guidance of Tripitaka to change their moral and religious positions and seek enlightenment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Notably, all three disciples, except for the only human, represent supernatural powers, which are typical of Buddhism and Daoism, but they are confined to nothingness and vacuity when being represented apart from Confucianism (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). In such a manner, Cheng’en reasons the presence of all “The Three Calamities” (24).
As all the pilgrims seek to uncover new knowledge and reveal themselves from boundaries and restrictions, Xu Guangqi, an acknowledged scholar and mathematician living in the Ming China, believed that learning new ways of cognition beyond the traditional visions was possible through learning more about Christianity.
According to the scientist, Christianity preached similar views on the idea of personal virtues, as well as the necessity to cultivate wisdom and intelligence, which was the only condition to serve Heaven and realize Heaven’s care for people. Moreover, Xu Guangqi proclaims, “the protection and the salvation of the soul are grand essentials; fidelity, filial piety, compassion, and love are to be universally exercised” (Xu Guangqi n. p.).
While analyzing this position in the light of Cheng’en’s Journey to the West, one can notice a strong association between the Christian visions observed by the Xu Guangqi and the beliefs pursued by Tripitaka who also chooses a path of salvation through penance and compassion.
While deliberating on the concept of Buddhism and its dependence on Confucianism and Daoism, it is purposeful to compare the presentation of the governmental hierarchy in a historical context with the one reproduced in the novel.
At this point, Taizu applies to the principles of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to eradicate the past order and introduce new ideological foundation. Making people believe in supernatural powers, as well as divine origin of the emperors allowed Taizu to control people and place them within strict moral frames where Confucianism cannot be a sole ideological basis.
Similar views were upheld by Cheng’en who introduced Confucian principles in Heaven’s hierarchical structure with the Jade Emperor to be at the head of it. With the authorities of Buddhism and Taoism reporting to the Emperor, the author rigidly criticizes tyranny of the Chinese imperial system. Consequently, Heaven reflects the Chinese bureaucratic system since there is there is no place for equality and good is as dominating as evil.
The attitudes expressed in the narration reflect the practice and purpose of religion in the times of Ming China. To begin with, the text attains to the historical period of Zhue Yuanzhang’s legacy, which has a potent impact on decision-making, and has specific views on the role of religion.
In particular, religion was beneficial because it imposed positive social outcomes on the Chinese society and, as a result, Zhu’s decision reveales that all the three teaching should be synthesized and equally observed by people to deliver social benefits.
During the reign of Wang Yangming, the three practices played a significant role in harmonizing all spheres of social life, including educational system, family institutions, and politics. Advocating self-cultivation and sage was at the core of ideologies of that historical period because it increased competition among people, as well as their aspiration to enrich their knowledge.
Looking through this perspective, Cheng’en was also congruent with the idea that each individual is responsible for his/her future and personal development, irrespective of the mistakes he/she had made in the past.
In conclusion, it should be stated, that the story represents an allegorical journey of the Chinese society on the way to salvation and penance.
Because Monkey provides a picture of human character transformation, with all its weaknesses and strengths, it is strongly associated with the transformations occurred to the Chinese people during the reign of the Ming Dynasty.
Cheng’en firmly believes that despite the evil nature of people, they have the right to redemption by committing themselves to good actions and aspiration for enlightenment. Therefore, the characters involved into the religious pilgrimage endeavor challenges, obstacles, and dangers and, despite these difficulties, they manage to find their ways.
In this respect, the author perceives religion as a sophisticated mixture of several teachings shaping the basis of moral conduct. The story becomes philosophical because it provides an insight into the new Buddhist philosophy.
At the end, Cheng’s states, “never again follow false doctrines nor follow foolish courses, but know that Three Religions are one” (249). Overall, the narration is an important historical source representing important historical events as well as visualizing the problems and constraints in the times of the Mind Dynasty.
Works Cited Cheng’en, Wu. Monkey: Folk Novel of China. Grove Press. 1984. Print.
Kuang-chi, Hsu. Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617. Fordham University. 1998. Web. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1617hsukuang.asp
Theodore De Bary, William, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan, Joseph Adler, and Richard Lufrano. Sources of Chinese Tradition. US: Columbia University Press. 2000. Print.
African American Literature and Parody Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
“African American Literature is a thematically arranged, comprehensive survey of African American literature” (Gilyard 1). Gilyard notes that “the unique thematic organization of the anthology allows for a concise and coherent assessment of African American literature” (1).
An important tactic of African American literature is parody, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition, and modify them with subversive intent.
This tactic has been employed by Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed to parody the work or earlier writers thus, making important cultural points. This paper examines how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes a difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37). Parody utilizes two ironic versions that include trans-contextualization and inversion, in its formal operatives.
Pragmatic ethos of parody ranges from scornful ridicule to reverential homage (Hutcheon 37). On the other hand, the English Oxford dictionary (1182) defines parody as “a composition in prose or verse in which the characteristic turns of thought and phrase in an author or class of authors are imitated in such a way as to make them appear ridiculous, especially by applying them to ludicrously inappropriate subjects; an imitation of work more or less closely modeled on the original, but so tuned as to produce a ridiculous effect”.
“A critical distance is implied between the original text being parodied and the new in cooperating work; a distance usually signaled by irony” (32). The pleasure of parody’s irony comes not from humor in particular but from the degree of engagement of the reader in the intertextual bouncing between complicity and distance (as cited in Foster).
Thus, parody is an imitative work written to comment upon the original work, trivialize or mock at it. Humorous, ironic and satiric imitations are used in a parody. Parody is an important tactic of African American literature, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition and modify them with subversive intent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bright examples of parody may be observed in the works written by Ralph Ellison namely “Invisible Man” and “Mumbo Jumbo” written by Ishmael Reed. It should be noted that the parody used in Reed’s and Ellison’s works is primarily parodic narration or internal polemic.
Through reviewing Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”, this paper demonstrates the general peculiarities of African American literature where parody is skillfully used and plays an important role. The review of secondary sources allows for a deeper understanding of the peculiar characteristics of Reed’s and Ellison’s parody by black writers.
In his book titled “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, Gates Henry takes into account the parody in African American literature. Gates argues that at the time when the study of literature is characterized by what many scholars feel to be undue concern with literal theory, parody should not lead to a drift from the original text.
He suggests that the primary aim of parody should be elaborative. Gates quotes the Russian scholar, Mikhail Bakhtin, who observes the use of parody through double-voiced discourse subdivided in parodic narration and internal polemic. These two types of double-voiced discourse are merged together in Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”.
The author points out the correlation or as he calls them “the direct black lines” which connect Ishmael Reed with Ralph Ellison, Hurston and Toni Morrison (Gates, 111). Reed uses two autonomous narrative voices, which is the parody of two simultaneous stories of detective narration. The narrative of the past bears an ironic relation to the narrative of the present.
Criticism of the text is a sort of self-parody which is extensively used in Reed’s works. In addition, Reed imitates the dualism used by Ralph Ellison in his “Invisible Man”.
Gates notes that novelists such as Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed created texts that are double voiced in the sense that their literally antecedents are both black and white novels, but also modes of figuration lifted from the black vernacular tradition.
We will write a custom Essay on African American Literature and Parody specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gates further argues that black tests are “mulattoes’, with a two toned heritage. These two texts speak in standard Romance or Germanic languages or literally structures.
Thus, to locate and then theorize about, these formal differences are to utilize certain tools of close reading that facilitate explication. Gates notes that the black tradition has theorized about itself, explicitly.
Whereas Reed seems to be about the clearing of space of narration, Walker seems to be intent on underscoring the relation of her text to Huston’s in a joyous proclamation of antecedent and descendant texts.
Benard Bell in his book entitled “The Contemporary African American Novel: Its Folk Roots and Modern Literary Branches” critically analyzes the works of African American writers including Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed.
Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
These ethnic forms of speech are used by a number of black novelists such as Charles W. Chestnut, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Ishmael Reed, John O. Killens and others.
Benard wonders whether race class or gender is the dominant issues in Afrocentric, Eurocentric and Americentric cultural theories. Bell agrees with many black African feminists who contend that race, class and gender are inseparable matrix (13).
Bell argues that in practice the social, cultural and literal criticism of popular black feminists like Bell Hooks, invariably privileges the empowerment of women over the two. Benard Bell agrees with Bell Hooks’ idea that patriarchy is the arch enemy of social systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Literature and Parody by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bell also agrees with his peers including Reed and Ellison that race, ethnicity, class and gender are intimately linked. However, Benard Bell stresses ethnicity and race over class and gender for three reasons.
First, Benard Bell questions the authority of post colonial discourse on immigrant groups crossing boundaries and assimilating into a nation that misleadingly stresses surface similarities over historical, geographical and cultural differences.
Second, Benard Bell challenges the authority of agency of the implied authors, narrators and characters who believe that man corrupts everything and that the feminization of men is the panacea of patriarchy as system of male domination.
Third, Benard Bell feels compelled to respond to narratives and discourses by black feminists, critics and pundits that reinforce and perpetuate negative images of black males. Such black feminists see black males as drug addicts, domestic abusers, moral degenerates, sex-crazed dogs and dead-beat dads. Ellison narration shows how he had hated his grand father.
He believed that his misfortunes were caused by the grandfather. Bell seems to parody Ellison’s work by distancing himself from ‘tainting’ the image of black men as he puts it. Benard Bell puts it clear that his neither an Africanist nor Egyptologist and that he is not concerned with the African discourse on the ancient civilianization during pre-colonial, African past.
Instead, he is concerned with renewing and reinvigorating discourse on the liberating impact of cultural and literally production by Americans of African origin (Bell14).
Page is another author who points out the role of parody in the development of African-American literature. In his book titled “Icons of African American Literature: The Black Literary World”, Page uses parody in evaluating various authors of African American literature.
Apart from this, the book is devoted to the bright representatives of African American literature who have influenced the history of this literature. Ralph Ellison’s works are observed particularly, namely “Invisible Man”. Ellison uses the background voices of various strains of Black Nationalists, Marxists, and religious leaders in his “Invisible Man”.
Page provides basic motifs covered in African American literature and the use of parody to reinforce the actuality of these topics. Page argues that iconic authors like Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed and their works, have played a significant role in the canonization of African American Literature.
Page argues that although Ellison was given a National Book Award, he could not escape from the fact that in many circles, he was a black writer who had written what many considered another facet of the black experience. In fact, white publications and publishers’ sought Ellison’s pronouncements, on the latest black novel. However, Ellison invariably refused to do so.
Page indicates that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers should stay away from racial polemic. This opinion has been seconded by Page. Page notes that the literary legacy of Ralph Ellison continues as successive generations have evaluated and reevaluated the breath and scope of his literal intellect.
Page appreciates the recognition that Ralph’s work gets. Every year, a new perspective of the Invisible Man in the form of dissertations and critical essays and a scholarly appreciation of Ellison’s work essays on Jazz and African American Culture occurs. Page clarifies that biographer Rampersad also analyzed Ellison’s work.
Rampersad notes that Ellison pointed antipathy directed towards the emergence African American female writers during the 1970s. The African American female writers severely criticized the depiction of black women in the Invisible Man especially his depiction of the wife and daughter of the incestuous sharecropper, and the Mummy like figure of Mary Rambo.
Page argues that Invisible Man, perhaps, makes more sense today than it did in 1952 because its scope and structure were an unknown territory for African American writing. Page notes that although the work has been hailed as an exploration universal modern man, it is unmistakably black in its use of signification, African American folks and musicality (34).
On the other hand, Bruce and Zemliansky argue that the most controversial and innovated novelist of African American literature is Ishmael Reed. The two writers parody nine novels written by Ishmael Reed.
They observe Reed’s Neo Hoodoo aesthetic, which combines parody and satire, fantasy and comedy, myths, history, African and American religions, and other forms of culture. They observe double-voiced discourse in reed’s works and its role in passing to the reader the main ideas.
Observing the parody used by Reed in his works, the authors highlight how the use of parody is important in the African American literature. Bruce and Zemliansky argue that Reed has emerged as the most innovative and controversial African American writer despite his belief that he and other black male writers have been misinterpreted and virtually ignored in the press (2).
In addition, Nadel Alan points out the role of parody in Ellison’s works in his book titled ‘Ralph Ellison and American canon: invisible criticism’. Ellison employs modernist techniques such as the use of parody to establish his ethnic identity and the more we examine his text as a modernist one, the more it reveals that black American identity.
Nadel refers Ralph Ellison to the American literature canon demonstrating that allusions from “Invisible Man” changed readings of such American writers as Twain, Emerson and Melville (4). Ellison uses the parody, which does not mock at other literary works, but he imitates the style of writing of many writers of the American canon.
Nadel argues that the issue of canon formation has elicited a great deal of attention, a phenomenon not incidental to the influence of literary study of post structuralism, feminism and, ethnic consciousness. These approaches mandate modes of thinking which urge distance and skepticism.
Applying such modes to the realm of literature makes it hard to take it for granted the great authority canons have wielded over the last century. Nadel notes that the problem of speaking form invisibility and making the absence visible pertains not only to the public functions, but also to the speech itself.
Nadel points out that Ellison demonstrates this memorably when his invisible and nameless narrator speaks to an invisible and nameless audience, attempting to uncover in their shared otherness the voice which had encoded into silence, excised from the canon. Nadel narrates that the aim of the Ellison’s work, Invisible Man, is deeply informed and framed by the issue of canonicity.
The phenomenon enables a writer to speak to, and through tradition without sacrificing the speaker’s voice or denying the tradition it tries to engage. Nadel argues that this engagement with tradition is necessitated by a complicated interaction of historical and critical events which affected the erasure of the black’s role in the crucial parts of American history and literary history (1).
According to Nadel, Ellison used allusion, consistently and effectively to engage the issue of canonicity. In Nadel’s parody of Ellison’s work of the Invisible Man, the systematic use allusion exploits literal critical potential and creates a coherent subtext of literal criticism.
The subtext created by Ellison is one that engages the issues of marginality and decentering, of ethno- and logo centrism. This allows for encoding and interpretation in ways which anticipate much more contemporary European theory, and much American ‘rehistoricizing’ in regard to the role of the black in the American canon as the sense of canonicity itself (2).
Moreover, Braman parody of reeds work suggests that in Mumbo Jumbo, there are fundamentally two sides of humanity. One side is familiar to any reader and is, in essence, the society in which one lives.
Characterized by organized, serious, characteristically white people, this side of humanity populates most schools, governments and industries. Those who live in a controlled society habitually go through life as if it were a business transaction. As the title, Controlled Society suggests, people who survive this way are very controlled as well as petty.
Rarely happy, these people believe in absolute truths that lack an innate, humanistic foundation. This was the life style of the black community in the pre-colonial period (Braman 1). Brahman argues that this phenomenon has been illustrated by Ishmael Reed’s Mumbo Jumbo. Thus, organized and monotheistic religions reign absolutely.
They are untrue to themselves and contain their genuine emotions, wants and needs. It seems that people who live under a controlled society voluntarily sacrifice their human natures for the ‘greater good,’ but it becomes apparent that they are simply unable to have a human nature in the first place. These people treat art as they would treat a religion; they are happy to be simply in its presence.
This lack of depth is represented in Mumbo Jumbo’s art heist, and supports John Locke’s theory in Two Treatises of Government that people who comprise a society voluntarily forfeit a portion of their freedom to maintain a common public authority (Braman 1). They do not live, they merely subsist.
Ishmael Reed’s and Ralph Ellison’s lists of published, stirring works are impressive and their stylistic, fervid writing has become a critic’s reverie. Not only Reed and Ellison are notorious authors, but their proficiency of professing their knowledge is known in various schools like Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth.
What their students do not know is that most of Reed’s and Ellison’s novels and poetry are brimming with satirical representations of American religion and government, calling to question the ideals that existed in America hundreds of years ago.
Conclusion The paper has elaborated the importance of parody as a tactic in African American literature. The paper has discussed how the parody of Reed’s and Ellison’s top work has been used to make important cultural pints.
The paper has used Hutcheon’s definition of parody. Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37).
The paper first examined “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, in which Gates Henry parodied African American literature. Gates pointed out parody should not lead to a drift from the original text. The paper then examined Benard Bell’s book entitled “The Contemporary African America.
Bell argued that Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
The paper also examined Page’s book titled “Icons of African American Literature: the Black Literary World”, in which the author indicated that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers had to stay away from racial polemic.
The paper also illustrated how Bruce, Zemliansky and Nadel parody Ellison’s and Reed’s work in their books titled “The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed’ and Political Philosophy of John Locke respectively. Moreover, it concluded by examining Braman’s parody of Reed’s top creativity as illustrated in Mumbo Jumbo. This paper has demonstrated how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Works Cited Bell, Benard. The Contemporary African American Novel: Its folk roots and literary branches. Massachussets: Massachussets University Press, 2004. Print.
Braman, C. Political Philosophy of John Locke. Chuck Braman 1996. Web.
Bruce, Dick and Zemliansky, P. The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed. California: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.
English Oxford Dictionary. Parody. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Gilyard, K. African American Literature. New York: Longman, 2004.
Hutcheon, Linda. A theory of parody: the teachings of twentienth century art forms. London: Routledge, 1985.
Nadel, Alan. Ralph Ellison and the American Canon: Invisible Criticism. Iowa: Iowa University Press, 1988. Print.
Page, Yolanda. Icons of African American Literature: the black literary world. Washington: Libray of Congress Publishing, 2011. Print.
Problems with International rights Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Executive summary Human rights refer to the basic rights and freedoms that every person across the globe is entitled to. The recognition and implementation of these rights by the states is the foundation of freedom and ultimately result in justice and peace all around the world.
The violation of these rights has led to barbarous acts which have led to disastrous consequences and impacted negatively on the relationship between countries.
The rights this report will focus on are women’s rights that have not been well implemented and those that have been neglected. It will focus on human rights and state sovereignty. It will also focus on the question of who is liable as well as western influence in the policy making and implementation of human rights.
The states should agree and unite as one to implement with no compromise or prejudice stricter policies all across the globe. No rights should be neglected and a form of liability should be evident once ones rights are violated.
All groups should be considered in the implementation of human rights and the task of policy making and implementation of human rights should be left to a neutral structure that runs without external interference.
Context and importance of the problem These problems impact negatively on global activities and international relations.
Rights that are based on gender
The universal notion of human rights does not fully focus on the problems that women face. Though some articles in the various human rights declarations and conventions try to push for a woman’s place in the family and workplace positively, some factors are still suppressing these policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rights of women are hard to implement while some are being ignored (Wight, 2006, p. 38). Poor salaries and working conditions are some of the problems women are discriminated against in the work place. In some countries they are isolated and labeled as “home workers”.
There are a lot of cases of mistreatment and harm to women. These include sexual abuse and rape as a tool in times of war. There are incidences of forced motherhood in Ireland. Domestic violence as part of the honor code is done in Brazil and Italy. Such cases are not protected against by the human rights conventions.
Women and children bodies have also lobbied against activities like the sex workers market for tourists found in countries like Philippines and Barbados and the use of sex workers to serve the American armies at their bases as well as the use of prostitutes from Eastern Europe in Western Europe using force by the mafia gangs.
Some equality rights although made for good, are left out, hence, making their implementation hard e.g. equal employment rights (Wendt, 1999, p. 36). Though this right is really important, some factors like transformation in maternal arrangements should be put in place so as to facilitate it.
Claim liability at times is not clear
In some cases, it is not clear against who a specific claim is made and to what extent the claim can be made. Individual rights are meant to be made against the state, but in some cases it is hard to make claims as the state may not recognize the claim or even the party that has violated a human right.
Such cases make it very hard for an individual to lay claim. An example is the case of the claims that were being made against the Nigerian Oil company Shell which is a body.
The influence of the west
The west exercises a lot of power when it comes to the making and implementation of human rights. The rights are shaped as per the western perspective. This makes their application in other areas of the world hard.
We will write a custom Assessment on Problems with International rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A further contradiction is the fact that some rights are neglected in the west. Some Muslim groups feel that the west objectifies women and that the thriving porn industry is an indicator of the neglect of the rights.
The west also has a tendency of politicizing aid terms to the developing countries, hence, increasing their control and influence, instead of just aiding the countries.
Individual rights and state sovereignty
Rights are neglected in cases where a state does not recognize them (Waltz, 2001, p. 82). This leaves some states to carry out some barbaric acts without fear of consequence or consideration of morals. These cases are evident in the Rwandan genocide and Kosovo crisis where the rights were neglected.
Critique of policy options
The policy that advocates for gender equality does not lay consideration to the fact that this policy cannot stand on its own. Equality in the work place should also amend other policies like maternal leave so as to accommodate the needs of women, hence, giving them a better chance of competing.
These rights are there but they are not implemented, hence, some people take advantage of this and strip the rights and freedoms of women.
Though the UN charter states that claims should be made on the state, some states do not even recognize these rights. For this reason, it becomes hard for the individuals to claim. Some rights are violated by bodies of which there is no clear guideline on how to make claims against such organizations.
The west offers aid to developing countries as per the policies of the UN but at the same time they tie the countries down with terms and conditions which eventually increases their control and dominance over them.
Some sovereign states do not implement the conditions of the UN; hence, they neglect the consequences of human rights violation (Drezner, 2011, p. 88). This has resulted in mass killings and other barbaric acts as the individuals are not prosecuted by the state and in some cases they are even protected by the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems with International rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy recommendations
The policies put in place to aid women should also be backed up with policies that will boost them. The policies should focus on every detail that may disrupt implementation, e.g., in terms of equality in the workplace.
Policies should also be put in place to support it in this case a maternity period should be granted and should entail things like paid leave and job security in order to avoid unnecessary penalties.
Policies should also be put in place to cover all the problems women face thus leaving no loop holes. States should also implement stricter policies so as to discourage people from violating them. This could be in the form of increased sentences and penalties.
States should be encouraged to recognize vital rights so that the citizens can be able to lay claim in case ones right is violated. This will be achieved through the states recognition and implementation of the right. Policies should be put in place as per the states laws to be able to prosecute bodies in case they violate an individual’s rights.
A structure free from political interference and national self-interest should be put in place to make policies relating to human rights. It should consider the fact that different countries have different ideologies based on their beliefs and practices. The policies should consider the difference in religions, tribes and cultures.
Aid given to the developing countries should not have any terms attached to the agreement, hence leaving the countries free from western control. The countries in the west should also be pushed to implement the policies that they have advocated for.
States should be encouraged to give high priority to human rights. A strict agreement should be put in place to deal with cases like those of national rights violation, and it should have stricter policies that outline the consequences of state violations or protection of human rights violators. These policies could be stricter sanctions and cut off in relations with other countries (Weber, 2009, p. 51).
Conclusion A neutral structure based solely on morals should be put in place to ensure an unbiased implementation of human rights. States should prioritize human rights. Rights consideration should be made in reference to the differences across borders.
The rights of women should be prioritized and states should put strict measures to ensure their implementation, hence ensuring that women are protected. The implementation of these policies will greatly boost the global perception of human rights, leading to freedom, justice and peace.
References Drezner, D W 2011, Theories of international politics and zombies, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
Waltz, K N 2001, Man, the state, and war: a theoretical analysis, Columbia University Press, New York.
Weber, C 2009, International relations theory: a critical introduction, Taylor
Consumer Behavior: How, Why and When Consumers Buy Goods? Report essay help online: essay help online
Discussion Consumer behavior can be described as how consumers buy and consume goods and services. Consumer bahaviour is basically concerned with studying the various consumers purchasing and consumption patterns. Consumer behavior will address the fundamental questions of how, why and when consumers buy goods.
It is also concerned with how consumers consume goods and later dispose them. It looks at the various reasons why consumers buy a certain bundle of goods. Consumer behavior is also concerned with the time period when consumers buy certain types of goods and services (Schiffman, 2010).
Consumer behavior varies from place to place and also among individuals. This variation can be attributed the following reasons: variations in cultures and beliefs, variation in consumer tastes and preferences and the purchasing powers of consumers. Consumers have different tastes and preferences.
These varied tastes and preferences largely determine how consumers are going to buy certain goods and services. For example, consumers in china have different tastes and preferences compared to those in another country like France (Schiffman, 2005).
Also, consumer cultural practices have an impact on how consumers behave with regards to product purchase and consumption. The cultural and religious practices have a positive correlation to consumer’s preferences.
For example, in most parts of Africa, some religious practices forbid the use of some animal products. Such a generation is likely to consume less meat products which in turn affect the consumption pattern in that area.
Consumer behavior is also largely affected by consumer purchasing power. This is determined by the availability of capital or money a consumer has for purchasing goods and services. If consumers have a lot of cash, then they are likely going to spend more and purchase more goods and services (Schiffman, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, if consumers have less money, then they are going to have a low purchasing power which will eventually affect their purchase behaviours. For example, in most developed countries, there is a high level of consumption of goods and services.
This is attributed to the fact that, the economy of such countries is stable and most consumers have enough money to spend on consumption. On the other hand, in most parts of the developing countries, consumers, on average, have low purchasing power which reduces their consumption trends.
Consumers in such countries have less cash at their disposal hence they cannot afford most of the goods and services (Tyagi
An Analysis of UK’s and China’s pharmaceutical markets Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Many firms are trying to improve their sales revenue by expanding into new markets. In this case, globalization plays a crucial role in helping the firms to achieve their set goals. In their assessment of the international theory of globalization, Johanson and Vahlne (1990) have identified three distinct phases of globalization.
During the first phase of globalization, the firm tries to establish itself in the local market. During the second phase of globalization, the firm launches its operations in the neighbouring countries.
Usually, neighbouring markets have similar characteristics and as such, the experience of the firm with the domestic market is crucial. In the final stage of globalization, a firm launches its operations in the international market.
Before a firm can decide to introduce its products or services into a new market, there are several factors that it needs to consider. For example, a Canadian pharmaceutical firm wishes to introduce a new type of painkillers in either China or the United Kingdom.
Before the firm can decide on the most appropriate market, several factors have to be put into consideration. The paper therefore focuses on the factors that the Canadian company should take into account before venturing into either the UK or Chinese market. It offers a critical analysis of benefits and shortcomings of each market.
Discussion Approaches to globalization
Before introducing the new drug to the international market, the Canadian company can choose between using a direct approach and entering into a strategic partnership with another firm that has already established itself in the desired market.
Under the direct approach, a company sets up the premises from where it will distribute the drug. A strategic partnership would involve the use of local partners for purposes of distributing the drug. Goldstein (2005) observes that China is one of the fastest growing markets with an average annual growth rate of 8%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the Canadian company may require a local partner because the Chinese market is large with a diverse culture. Although identifying and contracting a reliable local partner would be a costly undertaking, there are several advantages associated such an approach.
For example, international partners may rely on the experience of the local firm in the market. On the other hand, the UK’s pharmaceutical industry is still reeling from the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. The pharmaceutical market in the UK is expected to grow at an annual rate of 0.4% (Epsicom n. d.)
In addition, the National Health Service is expected to implement budgetary cuts, and this would effectively reduce its expenditure on new drugs. This would affect the pharmaceutical industry greatly and also derail efforts by the Canadian company to breakeven.
Competition and Market Share
China’s healthcare system is run by the socialist government whose aim is to provide quality healthcare to all its citizens. The government has implemented several policies aimed at improving the healthcare system (KPMG 2010). Among the proposed policies is the upgrade of health facilities and enlarging insurance coverage to include the rural population in China.
In China, small-scale firms account for 80 % of the pharmaceutical market (KPMG 2010). Plafker (2011) states that small companies have room for growth in China’s expansive market. On the other hand, the UK pharmaceutical market is dominated by international pharmaceutical giants.
The major players in the UK pharmaceutical industry include GlaxoSmithKline, Merce
How Do Genetic and Environmental Factors Contribute To The Expression of Depression? Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Statement of Question
Description of Neurochemistry or Functional Neuroanatomy
Limitations and suggested future research
Abstract Depression affects very many individuals in the world and results in reduced productivity in the workplace. Depressed individuals experience feelings of hopelessness and helplessness which makes them have negative perceptions about their immediate environment and some even develop suicidal thoughts.
This paper will look at the link between genetic factors and the environment on expression of depression. Some research studies that have been carried out have shown that some individuals might be predisposed to depression more than others. Such individuals might have body systems that either produces excess stress hormones or neurotransmitters that are not as balanced as they should.
The result is that an individual’s mood is affected which might affect their work and relationship with their family and friends. People who are predisposed to depression should avoid excessively stressful situations to avoid imbalance of the endocrine or nervous system. The paper will also look at methods, results and recommend areas that can be further researched on concerning the area of depression.
Introduction Depression is a clinical condition that affects the way an individual thinks or acts. Depression has been mentioned to result to sadness, feelings of stress and hopelessness about situations in an individual’s life. Depression affects physical functioning, thoughts, mood, behavior and communication.
Often, depression is mistaken with sadness but it should be noted that sadness usually goes on for too long. Depression usually results in a change in an individual’s life in a negative manner. Depression does not dictate on gender, age or race. Depression affects about 9.5% of adults in the United States of America (Ebert
The Facility Management in the Tourism Industry Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Opportunities challenges and trends
Technology and facility management
Drivers of change
Introduction It is doubtless that advancement in technology is one the achievements of the 21st century. From office motivation to online marketing, many firms around the world have embarked on incorporating technological ideas into business in order to promote performance and profit making (Cotts, Roper
Mao Zedong’s Rise to Power Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Historians provide various explanations for Mao Zedong’s rise to power. This person can be regarded as a skillful political strategist and tactician who could manipulate, forestall, and coerce his opponents into defeat. Yet, he can also be considered as an opportunist always able to take advantage of various circumstances, even those ones when he made obvious mistakes.
Thus, it is necessary to show how modern scholars describe and assess Mao Zedong. In particular, we can compare Maurice Meisner’s evaluation of Mao with the assessment offered by David Apter and Tony Saich. To some degree, the works of these historians represent opposing views on Mao Zedong political struggles.
Meisner emphasizes his efforts to appeal to various social classes. He shows what Mao Zedong gained the trust of his potential supporters. In turn, Apter and Saich attach greater importance to his rivalry with various people who could undermine his authority.
First, it should be mentioned that these scholars pursue a similar objective; in particular, they strive to explain how Mao Zedong gained supremacy in the Communist Party, and became a symbol of a leader for the Chinese people. Yet, these texts differ greatly in the style of presentation.
In his work Maurice Meisner looks at Mao’s succession to power from a strictly chronological standpoint. He discusses a series of events that contributed to Mao’s ascendance to power. His attention is focused on the Long March, the Japanese invasion of China, the establishment of Red Capital in Yan’an and so forth.
He shows how these events helped to gain the support of people with “proletariat consciousness” (Meisner, 45). In their turn, Apter and Saich discuss separate strategies and tactics that Mao employed to overpower his opponents among politicians, intellectuals, administrators and military.
Additionally, it is important to compare the data that these scholars analyze. For instance, Maurice Meisner discusses quantitative demographic data that shows how many people supported Mao and many people lost their lives because of his initiatives. Still, he also gives preference to quantitative research methods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He focuses on Mao’s description and perceptions of his successes and failures. The data that this historian discusses mostly comes from primary sources such as Mao’s books, articles, and interviews conducted with this political leader.
He also uses secondary sources, especially, the books published by other historians and journalists. In contrast, Apter and Saich don’t use quantitative data. They give preference to qualitative data that allows the reader to understand the opinions of Mao and his opponents. Their data come from primary sources such as letters, diaries, pamphlets, and books published during that period.
There are some similarities in conclusions that these authors arrive at. One of his arguments is that Mao was able to transform his failed initiatives into victories. For example, the Long March which resulted in thousands of casualties, was later transformed into a symbol of “will, spirit, and revolutionary consciousness” (Meisner, 34).
Mao understood that this March could have been ruinous for the Communist Party, but he never admitted his errors and attributed them to his political rivals.
This idea is shared by David Apter and Tony Saich who also think that Mao Zedong was good at “turning defeats into lessons, and lessons into claims to truth” (Apter and Saich, 37). Overall, the authors agree that he was able to shift the blame for his failures on others.
However, these scholars have different perspectives on Mao Zedong’s strategy. For instance, David Apter and Tony Saich focus on the so-called “four struggles” of Mao (Apter and Saich, 35). This term describes Mao’s attempts to win military, ideological, intellectual, and administrative leadership in China (Apter
Multiculturalism Should Continue To Be Promoted In Canada Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Multiculturalism and Culture
Racism and Employment
Multiculturalism at workplace
Introduction The freedom of the people would be hindered if they were contained only in a certain cultural society by natural birth or language. Thus, it is important that every person in Canada, irrespective of their race or cultural origin, is provided with an opportunity to be exposed and learn any other language from countries in which Canada cooperates with in terms of business, politics, and other issues.
Multiculturalism policy inside a bilingual background has been seen by the government as a highly appropriate way of guaranteeing the freedom of culture within people of Canada (Tierney 6). This policy should further be supported since it has helped break down discriminatory thoughts and hatred among cultures.
Natural unity, whether it is to signify something in the totally individual sense, have to be established on self-assurance in one’s own personal character. Through this, everybody would generate respect to the other people and readiness to share thoughts, suggestions, and ideas.
Multiculturalism and Culture A strong multiculturalism policy will aid make this first self-reliance and it can create the foundation of a society that is derived from fairness for everybody. Additionally, multiculturalism informs people about other people or society origins and anyone in Canada can be informed about various cultures.
Because of the multiculturalism which is there in Canada, everybody can have an opportunity to learn about Greek, China, and African food in Vancouver without being in these countries. People can also learn about various fashions and religions in a community which is multicultural and it will also introduce different languages in Canada.
If a person desires to learn the second language, it will be easy to get a native speaker (Mooney 251). This will help then get a native speaker who can teach them to speak a certain language with appropriate pronunciation and accent. Therefore, the idea of multiculturalism enables various cultures and societies to learn from each other.
The government should maintain and promote different ethnic and culture clusters which provide liveliness and arrangement to societies in Canada. They should be promoted to share their cultural idioms and values with the rest of Canadians and as a result will add to a better-off life for everybody (Parada
Manager’s Role in Change Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The management roles that are easily observed in organizations include: directing navigating and interpreting. The directing and navigating roles involve the manager imposing the vision upon the members of staff.
This is an authoritative approach whereby the manager controls the operations of the organization since he or she is the final decision maker and interpreter of the vision. The interpreting role involves the CEO being the only party that is relied upon for interpretation of the vision.
This role places the CEO at the heart and central location of the organization given that without this person, operations would not run smoothly.
I am most comfortable with these management roles since they maintain power at the top thereby allowing managers to practice their leadership styles effectively. When the power to impose directives is held by the managers, change management is halfway guaranteed.
The directing role has the benefits of ensuring that organizational activities are controllable. Since the manager directs personnel on what to do and what to avoid it becomes easier to direct organizational activities towards the achievement of the vision.
When this approach is used indiscipline is easily dealt with and the manager can lead to creation of a reputable organizational culture. Directing however does not foster participative leadership which s the best method to influence behavior.
The navigating role also involves the manager controlling organizational activities but being subject to external factors which affect the outcome of change. The benefit of this approach is that there is room for the organization to be dynamic so as to adapt to changing needs of the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however does not provide certainty about achievement of successful change management. The interpreting role had the advantage of avoiding confusion within the organization since all directives come from the CEO who also interprets the vision.
If many parties are allowed to interpret the vision, this will lead to confusion and lack of a common purpose. However this approach is dictatorial in nature and it leads to overdependence on the CEO or centralization of power.
The nurturing, coaching and caretaking approaches have several shortcomings. These roles involve the manager consulting with employees before decisions involving the organization are made.
This creates a barrier towards organizational effectiveness since employees do not always require to be consulted. Where the manager seeks to shape the change process by influencing behavior of individuals, a strong stand should still be maintained so that there is no deviation from the vision.
It becomes difficult for the manager to work towards a vision when consultations always have to be made with the personnel who are being coached or taken care of.
I have been in an organization that concentrates on the nurturing and coaching approach. In this organization employees were always consulted whenever there was something to be done.
The end result was that the decision making process was too long. At times the consultations ended in stalemates and there was no mutual decision that was arrived at. The lack of consensus during consultations made the manager unable to direct the organizational activities since he could not impose decisions upon the employees.
We will write a custom Essay on Manager’s Role in Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strategy that can be used to overcome these shortcomings would be to allow the leader to be the final decision maker even after consultations have taken place since this would allow for exercising of effective leadership skills.
Report on Local Acts New Information System Report college essay help
Explanation of SDLC Steps Required for Developing the System Preliminary analysis
The scope of organization is to ensure successful coordination between the managers at all levels and minimize the cases of the delays of the event preparation and completion. The problem lies in overloaded e-mails and indirect transfer of information between the managers, which decreases the reliability and efficiency of the system.
Using online self-service venue booking system can allow all the managers to view the booking arrangements, as well as all information attached. The book manager, along with the venue managers and facility managers should made corrections to the events and introduce all possible updates, which can be viewed by others.
In order to introduce this system, it is necessary to prescribe new instructions for all the employees. Specifically, each employee participating in the event should have an access to the database to track the updates and carry out the assigned duties.
Similar approaches will be presented to introduce online sales for advertising packages. The only difference is that they will be available for the top managers and the clients who will receive a specific identification code to view the variants and choose the most appropriate one.
The database will have different request forms where all the duties and systematic instructions will be posted for each employee to be aware of their responsibilities. The system design will include a set of information system on one website.
The access to each department (booking, payment, venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement) will be available to each employee in accordance to the responsibilities he/she performs. For instance, the Booking Manager will have an access to all the items, the Venue Manager can access venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement.
All these issues will be regularly updated so that each manager should keep track of those changes. The Facility Manager will have facilities arrangement and venue preparation at his/her disposal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As soon as the project is put into effect, the manager can view all the details of the preparation. Finally, each employee can view the request forms with regard to the project. Their names and surnames, along with other important information, will be attached to specific project data.
An important part of program implementation is test data generation. This procession implies creating a set of information for testing the efficiency and adequacy of software applications.
To carry out the test, it purposeful to fill out the order request in accordance with the above-presented categories to check whether all updates and processes can be viewed and analyzed by other departments.
The second step will be introducing a path model composed of three steps – software control flaw chart construction, path choice, and test data generation.
Introducing a new information system will significantly improve the internal information flow and the will regulate the coordinate both at virtual and horizontal levels. In this respect, employees can report to top managers online and inform them about the shifts and processes they accomplish.
The manager can access the results and introduce the corresponding changes. In such a manner, it is possible to foster time management approaches and significantly facilitate the overall process of order arrangements. Because automated steps deprive the managers of certain steps of operation, they can be more concentrated on the project accomplishment.
Moreover, online availability of the project can attract more clients and increase the number of orders. As a result, the director of the agency will receive maximum benefits will reduce the amount of employees needed for the venture. This is also a great possibility to expand the number of the venues and introduce more services.
We will write a custom Report on Report on Local Acts New Information System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Possible Effects of Project Failure In order to identify the possible pitfall of the information system work, it is necessary to split all the steps of implementation into smaller components. It will help define the degree of failure and damage that might occur if the software fails. For instance, the first level will include the actual information data posed online.
In case the system is arranged according to the principle of cloud of computing, the threats of invasion will be minimized. However, if there is a possibility of breaking the system. All information preserved on the online self-service system will be lost. However, similar outcomes can occur to the old system of e-mail exchange.
In this respect, the system should have additional hardware preserving all information. This electronic storage should be updated at least once a week to be able to preserve as much information as possible.
If the failure occurs to the second level of the information processing, namely the input and output of information between employees and their top managers, there will be a high probability of the event preparation failure. As a result, the calculation can lead to the loss of money and reduction of revenues.
Besides, it can negatively contribute to the organization culture, as well as the policy of employee retention. Second, insufficient training of employees can lead to the misinformation and late delivery of the final projects, which can also minimize the chances for success.
Centralising the Treasury Operations Essay college essay help: college essay help
The treasury in a business environment is the unit in charge of the management of the funds’ flow. Usually, the treasury fulfils its roles through cash flow and liquidity management. In addition, it controls the management of all the financial risks in an institution.
Globally, treasury managers in international banks encounter immense challenges concerning the overseeing of transactions across vast geographical locations and different time zones (Bragg 2010, P.34). Centralisation enhances an organisation’s management, assessment, and transparency.
By 1990, the redevelopment of the first sharing services had occurred in the US. The centers’ obligations were to increase and maximise the American corporations’ investment returns by employing project-planning solutions.
Afterwards, the multinational organisations and banks realised the outcome and importance of consolidating their treasury. In this regard, these organisations could merge and process numerous tasks and information in one central location.
Moreover, the organisations realised that centralisation enabled them to deliver efficient and transparent services while attracting qualified expertise.
Apart from its financial advantages, centralisation offers a chance for organisations to streamline their control and administrative procedures at the treasury level.
Likewise, the reengineering and rebuilding of an organisation’s processes enhances effective control. Therefore, multinational firms must redesign their structure to benefit from centralisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methods of treasury centralisation Banks and organisations must consider several factors before settling on the centralisation of their treasuries. As a bank expands, its treasury expands too. This creates the need for the selection of an appropriate model of operation.
Therefore, banks must consider the major aspects affecting their operations. These include the scale of the broadened operations and intricacy of the treasury desired. These aspects correlate to form a basic decision matrix tool for any treasury model.
The process of centralisation should reflect the growth and nature of the treasury’s tasks. Additionally, it is crucial to reflect the disparity in the execution of corporate finances as well as the cash flow activities.
With the technological advancements and improved financial markets, the financial support and prevarication management from a central location has become a possibility (Hudson 1994, 256). With cheap and efficient management practices, multinational banks and companies can utilise highly trained personnel to execute and manage their transactions.
Centralised treasury management Banks and organisations should centralise their treasury as per the cultural and geographical setup of their business tasks. Organisations employ appropriate database systems to run their management activities in different parts of the world.
In this regard, the organisations gain economies of scale as well as reduced operational costs, which result in improved returns and the creation of a favorable environment for business growth.
Additionally, the treasury’s centralisation allows affiliate companies to demonstrate their value adding processes to an organisation. Therefore, in this regard, banks achieve reduced costs and financial risks, increased investment returns, and the acquisition of qualified expertise.
We will write a custom Essay on Centralising the Treasury Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Outsourcing For the international banks to attain additional economic gains, they must embrace outsourcing and through centralisation. Banks’ treasuries often encounter numerous challenges such as the need to globalise treasuries and the attainment of efficient cash flow management systems in the ever-changing markets.
A combination of these forces and the limited resources and infrastructure has compelled treasuries to adopt outsourcing. Working with several outsourcing partners, banks can provide their workforce and clients with flexible and efficient services.
More so, through outsourcing, banks can allow their treasuries to tackle domestic and regional challenges. Currently international banks and organisations setups require treasuries that are more dynamic. Thus, several middle level companies have resorted to outsourcing part of their treasury to the international banks.
Similarly, companies with regional treasury can exploit the benefits of outsourcing when setting up new branches in new territories without investing more on their treasury budget.
This approach enables the treasury units to allow the treasury administration to focus on the vital aspects of its work while letting the service providers handle the operational related issues.
The impacts of globalisation on centralisation With more corporations and international banks increasing their operations worldwide, ethics, principles and payment procedures in the international market need regulation and standardisation. The centralisation of the international banks’ treasuries tackles these challenges as the banks have the capability to cater for both the domestic and regional treasury issues.
Regional treasury centers When deciding on the location for a new treasury organisation, the selected location should be central and its legal and tax policies should concur with the companies’ tax policies. By so doing, a company will significantly minimise its cost while expanding its investments.
For instance, Nokia chose Singapore over Australia, Malaysia, and Hong Kong in setting up its centralised treasury because Singapore’s tax systems were more favorable (Greuning 2009, P. 234). In this regard, it is important that banks do not solely major on returns and corporate tax, but also focus on their revenue contribution to the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Centralising the Treasury Operations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Phases of the treasury centralisation Normally, there are three phases of centralising the treasury (Greuning 2009, P. 254). The initial phase is the creation of a central treasury unit. The unit aims at dealing with the risk management and interest rates of an organisation.
The central treasury units can further be sub-divided into multicurrency cores and in-house banks. In-house banks provide organisations with the needed banking services in the subsidiary levels. Within the In-house banks, the central treasury can obtain information regarding the cash level.
The second phase of the treasury centralisation comprises the centralisation of money and liquidity administration. The creation of a regional multicurrency pooling system within the local banks enables the achievement of this cause.
This process is referred to as cash concentration. International banks are required to have several cash balances on diverse bank accounts in different currencies across different banks worldwide.
This enables the banks’ treasury management to concentrate their extra cash balances on a single account in one location facilitating the maximum control of the liquidity position as oppose to the case of a global spread (Greuning 2009, P. 255).
Thus, multinational banks have established complex strategies to concentrate their offsets and renovate their cash scales to achieve a single balance stand through the year.
The third phase of centralisation comprises the centralising of all the transaction processes within an organisation. This achieved by centralising the incoming, outgoing, and documentary payments.
By establishing new consolidated entities referred to as payment factories, banks and other organisations can achieve this objective. With these payment factories in place, an international bank can centralise the standard accounts from its subsidiaries enabling a single payment distribution to banks (Greuning 2009, P. 157).
The risk of treasury decentralisation In a decentralised setup, banks allow their subsidiaries to control and manage their own payment procedures. Each bank relies on its own staff and infrastructure to run its operations. In this regard, flexibility is achieved.
However, the system results in a weak visibility of monetary and high interest rate risks due to the absence of pooling methods. Consequently, the lack of standardisation and automation in the banks’ treasury can present transaction risks caused by the erroneous outgoings and data dismissals.
Decentralised banks can only benefit from their ability to manage all the factors within their business setups. Thus, the managers of such banks should be convinced to adopt centralisation to improve on their tax returns and attain effective treasuries.
In the end, such banks will benefit from the improved profits and a highly qualified workforce upon the adoption of centralisation.
Near shoring In Europe, this term refers to all the shared services between various companies. The system has thrived in Hungary and Czech Republic because both countries have no legal restrictions on the treasury centralisation leading to advanced skills within their banks’ workforce (Greuning 2009, P. 257).
In addition, the location of these countries has significantly benefited them since they are nearer to the manufacturing facilities, which provide them with a large market.
Conclusion Currently, multinational banks are encountering significant challenges concerning the creation of firm and effective treasury infrastructures to cater for the ever-evolving market demands. To achieve this objective, they should focus on the reduction of their operational costs and develop viable operations that enhance their growth in the market.
Furthermore, the banks should remain conscious of the international payments standards that are subject to change (Hostetler 1989, P.123). Despite the benefits of the treasury centralisation, many organisations’ treasuries encounter several setbacks due to their incomplete control and utilisation of centralisation.
Furthermore, small banks and organisations lack the proper infrastructure and technology to implement this system. These setbacks affect the treasury departments negatively.
Although there is immense pressurisation on several multinational companies to adopt the appropriate treasury structures such as centralisation, the treasury discipline as a whole is still immature compared to other financial and accounting disciplines.
Therefore, to optimize on this system, increased research and academic attention need to be directed on the treasury management in order to realise effective treasury operations in the international banks.
References Bragg, S. M. (2010). Treasury management the practitioner’s guide. John Wiley: Hoboken, N.J.
Greuning, H. v.,
Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
It is undeniable that IT plays a significant role in contemporary life. The fact that most people do not comprehend the machinations behind flicking on the TV, reading e-mail, buying things using credit cards clearly defines the transparency of IT among its casual users and its ubiquitous nature.
Private and public companies invest huge sums of money every year to update their IT infrastructure in order to remain technologically informed.
In the education sector, universities experience constant pressure to maintain their technology savvy image in order to attract new students who anticipate wireless internet all over the school premises, technically knowledgeable lecturers and online course resources.
Since IT is around the people and invisible to the eyes, individuals must watch the technology they use carefully in order to determine its impact on their self identity.
Coupland’s MicroSerfs is a novel that revolves around a group of information technology workers of mid-1990s whose residence is the Eastern suburbs of Seattle in Washington. The novel loosely tells the real life experiences of Microsoft employees and precisely captures the lives of individuals of the dot com era.
Their identity is affected by the invention of computers since they can blindly spend so many hours in a day blindly staring at their computer screens. Most of the characters in Coupland’s novel exhibit an almost religious devotion to IT.
Their personal identity is completely subsumed under their all inclusive desire to work in the Information technology industry. Some say that without their computers they are useless (Coupland, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the characters in the novel, technology is central in the development of personal values and self identity. It has the potential to pose significant challenges both in the religious and social realms. The characters strife to master their computers the same way they master their lives.
Coupland explains how dehumanizing life is at Microsoft which is one of the most technological enterprises in the world. In the novel, Michael who is the most outstanding programmer in the group receives an email from the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates that criticizes his work.
The email traumatizes him such that he decides to keep to himself in his office as he refuses to get in touch with the rest of the world. Daniel who is the narrator points out that with the main focus of dominating the IT and software industry, the life of individuals in the IT industry revolves around work only.
The identity of workers disappears as evidenced by Michael who locks himself up in the office and refuses to eat, simply because his work in the IT industry is been criticized by the president of Microsoft (Coupland, 2008).
As a result of technology, the Microserfs are always stressed in addition to the low salaries they are paid. Apart from their work in the IT industry, their lives have minimal satisfaction. Some of them admit that their world consists of Microsoft, home and Costco.
The working environment in the IT industry does not give them a chance to establish relationships hence most of them remain single even when they are supposed to be married. They start relationships but they are soon taken over by their works.
Having families is an integral part of reinforcing the identity of individuals but the IT industry disrupts their identity since it denies them a chance to establish their families.
We will write a custom Essay on Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stress associated with the efforts to construct technology sometimes causes isolation as opposed to the connection which supposed to be achieved. Coupland says that workers stay close to each other yet they do not visit each others office as is the case with Daniel and Karla, who have never gained access to the office opposite theirs.
The workers only get to engage in a genuine conversation for the first time outside their work station when they get a break. The interpersonal gaps occasioned by technology cannot even be bridged by emails since once they are send, they is no chance of connecting with the people.
This clearly portrays how technology disrupts identity. It makes it difficult for people to identify themselves with their friends or colleagues at work because they either do not have time to interact or because they can simply connect by using technology (Coupland, 2008).
Coupland relates the emptiness caused by technology and how it disrupts identity to the specific Microsoft conditions. As the characters in the novel embark on a mission of reinventing and rediscovering their humanity, their attempts seem to be defiance against the dehumanizing and depriving effects of technology at Microsoft.
The rather complicated reevaluation of identity and humanity in the novel comes out strongly as the novel comes to an end. Daniel’s mother suffers a stroke, prompting the interiority community to surround her, remaining with her and willing to support her go over the unfortunate condition.
After trying to assist her for two weeks, an idea strike, that they should provide a computer keyboard for her to type messages for them to read. Michael assists her to move her fingers and through that method, they are able to communicate with her once again.
Reference Coupland, D. (2008). Microserfs. New York: HarperCollins.
Impact of online social media in conflict situations Essay online essay help
The internet has been credited by the United States of America’s Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as one of the most powerful forces for the advancement of freedom and political change. Clinton has called for consideration of internet based technologies such as twitter for the Noble Peace Prize.
Clinton’s remarks come at a time of heightened social media activities in conflict situations. While this raises the question of impacts of social media in conflict situations, the sobering reality however, is that it is quite impossible to enumerate the exact impacts. Nevertheless, social media has had both positive and negative impacts that have in one way or another shaped conflict dynamics.
A study commissioned by The George Washington University indicates that determining the actual effects of the new media in conflict situations is cumbersome due to methodological challenges and the newness of the subject.
The use of the term new media within the study refers to nontraditional media especially social media tools such social networks, blogs and mini blogs, wikis and others. Regardless of the aforementioned challenges, the study expose sufficient evidence which indicates that new media has significant positive effects in conflict situations.
The study reveals that in most of the conflict situations, the new media has emphatically changed people’s perceptions and actions with regard to issues in contention. With time recurrent activism gains popularity; followers are able to join and follow such activism at the click of the mouse.
As a result it becomes easier to facilitate collective action and thus spur mass movement (Aday, Farrell, Lynch, Sides, Kelly and Zuckerman 2010).
Aday et al.’s (2010) work indicates that the new media impacts conflict situations in four broad based areas. These include exposing individuals to new information flows such that an individual gains new competencies. The new media also improves how groups relate, thus improving inter and intergroup communication channels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By affecting group activities, social media enables such groups to form mass movements in politically charged conflicts (Eltantawy and Wiest 2011). Lastly, conflict situations easily gain international attention with the help of mass media tool such Facebook, twitter and blogs.
This has effectively led to social media to be referred to as the “magic bullet”. The phrase “magic bullet” is particularly used with reference to the impacts of twitter in spreading the Green Movement philosophy and the calls of political change in Iran (Aday et al. 2010; Esfandiari 2010).
The impact of social media goes beyond increasing the participation of the people in conflict situations. The dawn of social media has also given rise to new avenues through which peace, conflict prevention and resolution is attained.
Social media tools especially social network sites such as Facebook as well as blogs and mini blogging site such as twitter have had significant impacts in the search for peace, justice and conflict prevention in conflict zones. It is imperative to note that social media in itself cannot prevent or solve a conflict; neither can it ensure that justice prevails.
Nevertheless, these tools offer new and effective possibilities through which the avoidance and prevention of conflict occurs. One such example is the 2007/2008 post election violence in Kenya.
Through Facebook and popular blogs such as “Ushahidi”, Kenyans were able to report the occurrence of sporadic acts of violence which conflict prevention and resolution was attained. People used reports from social media to not only evade conflict but also intensified calls for end to the violence.
Additionally, heightened calls for justice through “Ushahidi”, underlines the usefulness of social media in conflict resolution (Goldstein and Rotich 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of online social media in conflict situations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assertion made by Goldstein and Rotich (2008) indicate that in conflict situations social media has also helped to push the boundaries of journalism. As reported by Communication for Social Change Consortium social media has come in handy in countries where access to traditional media is limited (Monzani 2010).
While Monzani (2010) cites countries such as Iraq, Burma and Gaza as some of which social media has helped to highlight the nature of conflict, Aday et al. (2010) survey indicate that Iran also falls under this category.
Social media tools have given the rise of citizen journalism thus helping to eliminate or counter biased reporting by the mainstream media, which in most cases is usually under the tutelage of authoritarian regimes. While citizen journalism significantly lowers the quality of professional journalism, it nevertheless enables direct involvement citizens in conflict zones.
Citizens communicate with the outside world through social media news feeds. Such communication impacts the conflict situation in two major ways; it counters biased reporting from the mainstream media is as well as giving the citizens opportunities to voice their afflictions.
In the Syria protesters, realizing the need to back up activism with sufficient evidence, have turned to social media tools especially YouTube. According to Rafif Jouejati, the Syria opposition wing spokeswoman “Social media has became a powerful tool in getting the word out” (Sterling 2012).
YouTube is thus being used to smuggle news about the atrocities committed by President Bashar al-Assad’s regime, to the international community.
The assertion made above are likely to indicate that social media as inalienable from the successes achieved in successful conflict situations. It is therefore imperative to state that social media impact in conflict situations is exaggerated. In some situations, social media has had no effects at all while in others social media activities have exacerbated the conflict.
Aday et al. (2010) note that oppressive regimes have learned to use social media effectively to quell dissent form the experiences of other regimes. Aday et al. (2010) cites China’s example where, anticipating the Uighur protests, the Chinese government blocked twitter after the “Twitter revolution” in Iran.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of online social media in conflict situations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But this is not the most negative use of social media by oppressive regimes. Stepanova (2011) notes that the Iranian government used social media tools such as twitter to institute oppressive countermeasures during the 2009 green movement revolution. Social media enabled Iranian authorities to trace and arrest protesters.
In resolving any conflict, Friedman, Tidd, Currall and Tsai (2000) assert that focusing on the interest of other parties involved in the conflict necessitates effective conflict resolution. The use of social media has effectively led to generating social capital necessary for mounting successful revolution in countries such as Libya and Egypt (Howard and Hussain 2011).
However, in most of these situations social media activism is largely uncoordinated and driven by self interest. Most of the social media activists seem to have concealed self interest. As a result social media activism obscures the real issues on the ground while propagating populist propaganda.
For instance, in Iran the while the revolution was based on political change much of the social media activism called for regime change since it was driven by selfish interest. Thus, in Iran social media activism largely ignored genuine interests from all stakeholders (Aday et al. 2010). This is perceived as one of the reason why the revolution was unsuccessful.
While social media is largely credited with positive impacts in conflict situations, the failure in Iran raises doubts about its actual effectiveness. Scholars from The George Washington University hypothesize that the use of social media fails to create the necessary vertical hierarchies to mount a genuine revolution.
As such the use of social media in conflict situations alters the political structures such that a lot of international attention is gained at the expense of shaping internal revolutionary activities. Thus, within the physical border of the conflict zones, social media activities are merely passive and largely fail to save the victims of the conflict.
For instance in the southern Sudan conflict, the “Save Darfur Movement”, while attracting enormous sympathy from the international community failed to generate any positive effects on the ground. Similarly, the twitter revolution in Iran failed because is seemed to have been designed for the international community, while the Iranians government continued unabated to oppress protesters (Aday et al. 2010).
The use of social media has had significant impacts in conflict situations. Heightened social media activities increase participation of individuals, empower groups to share crucial information and increase awareness by the international community.
This has had mixed impacts in different conflict situations. In Egypt, Lybia and Tunisia social media activities has largely mediated in toppling oppressive regimes, while in Kenya blogging supported the avoidance of conflict as well as the search of peace and justice.
While the failures in Iran, Syria and Sudan blot an otherwise positive record, it is nevertheless worth to note that social media activities have positively shaped the outcomes in conflict situations.
List of References Aday, S., Farrell,H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., Kelly, J. and Zuckerman, E. 2010. Blogs and bullets: New media in contentious politics. Web.
Eltantawy, N and Wiest, J. 2011. The Arab Spring| social media in the Egyptian revolution: reconsidering resource mobilization theory. International Journal of Communication. Web.
Esfandiari G. 2010. The twitter devolution. Foreign Policy. Web.
Friedman, R., Tidd, S., Currall, S. and Tsai, J. 2000. What goes around comes around: the impact of personal conflict style on work conflict and stress. The International Journal of Conflict Management 11(1).
Goldstein, J. and Rotich, J. 2008. Digitally networked technology in Kenya’s 2007–2008 post-election crisis, internet and democracy case study series. Harvard business Review. Web.
Howard, P. and Hussain, M. 2011. The Role of Digital Media, Journal of Democracy 22(3).
Monzani, B. 2010. Media in conflict prevention and peace building: an opportunity for E.U. Leadership. Web.
Stepanova, E. 2011. The role of information communication technologies in The “Arab Spring”: implications beyond the region. Web.
Sterling, J. 2012. For Syrian activists, YouTube is a sword and shield. CNN. Web.
The Australian superannuation industry Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive Summary The Australian superannuation industry is one of the largest companies both in financial assets and members in the country.
As a result, there are a number of companies that offer these services in the market which offers a wide pool of potential clients as the pension scheme is mandatory to all Australian citizens.
Consequently, there is competition among industry players as they try to control a larger section of the market and thereby increase its profitability. For any company to survive, it has to adopt strategies which will ensure that its products sell more, at a premium and developed using the least cost.
There are a number of strategies that a company can adopt to ensure that it meets its target. The choice of strategy will depend on the market position of the company, its objective and asset base and future objectives nevertheless; expansion of the market ought to be a key issue to any superannuation company keen to weed out competition.
In order to achieve new market segments, companies ought to come up with new and innovative products while at the same time minimizing on their production costs. Thus in order to achieve this, this paper has critically analyzed the superannuation industry in Australia.
It takes into account porters theories on competitive advantage how those theories affect the day to day running of the Australian superannuation industry.
In addition, it takes a closer look at one of Australia’s leading Superannuation companies, Perpetual Limited. Perpetual limited offers a broader and more personal analysis on how the company has maintained its competitive edge against rivals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the paper offers recommendation which both the Australian superannuation industry and Perpetual limited ought to take account in ensuring that the industry remains lucrative and companies continue maintaining a competitive edge.
Industry Overview The superannuation industry in Australia is a program that caters for the provision of a pension fund scheme for Australians. It’s therefore compulsory under the Australian law that all citizens be part of the program as it caters for their welfare once they retire.
Under the program, registered employers are required to submit a given percentage of employees income based on a given proportion to a given superannuation fund.
The need for the industry was given by the projected analysis that, with time, the Australian demographic map was changing drastically with more aged citizens increasing thus putting a strain on the government and national economy as it would seize to be economically feasible to support the retirement program.
Over time, the Government has come up with additional policy changes meant for ensuring the scheme is up to date with the current market and demographic changes (Pelham, 1999 40; Cartwright, 1993 55).
Key risks As the Industry is liberalized with many players, negative practices have increased in the last decade with players engaging in unethical practices.
In addition, there isn’t a robust framework which the custodians of the scheme can effectively use to control the vast players in the industry. As a result, the industry players don’t take into account the regulations that the custodians call for.
We will write a custom Report on The Australian superannuation industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political and Legal There has been a strong political will to control the superannuation industry to ensure that the interests of all stakeholders are taken care of without bias and exploitation (Conner
High Ethical Standards in Business Essay college essay help online
Introduction Ethics refers to the “conscious reflection on our moral beliefs and attitudes through the use of normative ethical theories and principles” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 11). Ethical principles describe the generally accepted human obligations and the normative ethical systems. In the context of business, ethics refers to the accepted code of conduct that guides the behavior of all stakeholders of a firm.
Thus, the behavior of all stakeholders in a business is expected to conform to the accepted ethical standards. Adhering to the ethical standards enables businesses to avoid breaking laws. Thus, businesses that uphold high ethical standards are able to avoid the costs associated with breaking the law. Additionally, a business is likely to be more competitive if it upholds high ethical standards.
Engaging in ethical activities or behavior enables businesses to protect the interest of their customers and employees, and this improves their competitiveness. This paper focuses on business ethics by analyzing two articles. The ethical issues in the articles will be highlighted and discussed. Additionally, recommendations on how the ethical issues can be addressed will be suggested.
Article 1 Title: Anger at Goldman Still Simmers
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Date: Published on March 25th 2012
Overview of the Article
Following the 2008/2009 financial crisis, Copper River made unexpected losses and collapsed. Copper River was a successful hedge fund with assets worth over $1.5 billion before the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The owners of Copper River argued that the collapse of their firm was mainly caused by the actions of Goldman Sachs, rather than the financial crisis. Goldman Sachs was the main brokerage firm that conducted Copper River’s trades.
Copper River relied on Goldman Sachs to conduct its short sales as required by the law. According to securities trade regulations, shares must be borrowed before a short sale can be conducted. Consequently, Copper River paid Goldman nearly one hundred million for the purpose of borrowing shares.
Copper River was likely to make heavy losses if the shares were not borrowed while Goldman Sachs was likely to be investigated by the regulators. According to Copper River’s owners, Goldman Sachs did not borrow the shares as required. Overstock.com which is an internet-based retailer also accused Goldman Sachs of failing to borrow shares to facilitate short sale.
Attempts by the owners of Copper River to save their company failed when Goldman Sachs refused to allow Copper River’s short positions to be transferred to BNP Paribas bank. Goldman Sachs also thwarted the decision to have Copper River’s positions taken over by Farallon Capital.
The failure by Goldman Sachs to borrow shares to facilitate short sales eventually caused the losses that led to the closure of Copper River. After the collapse of Copper River, another firm, S.C.E also accused Goldman of willfully failing to pre-borrow shares before making a short sale.
A former employee of Goldman Sachs also complained that the firm pursued its interests at the expense of its clients. For instance, Goldman Sachs established a mortgage firm, Abacus, which was financially weak. However, the firm sold Abacus to its clients without disclosing its financial position.
The ethical issues that can be identified in this article include the following. First, failing to borrow shares on behalf of a client in order to facilitate a short sale is an unethical behavior. According to the regulations governing securities trade “failing to borrow shares on behalf of customers is illegal because of concerns about market manipulation”.
We will write a custom Essay on High Ethical Standards in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The customers are also likely to be exposed to rising prices if the shares are not borrowed. Hence, the cost of trading in the shares would be very high. Second, Goldman did not disclose the financial position of Abacas before selling it. Instead, Goldman took advantage of its clients’ ignorance and sold a company that was already in financial distress.
This is unethical since Goldman Sachs intended to make a profit illegitimately and at the expense of its clients. Third, the decision by Goldman Sachs to stop the transfer of Copper River’s short positions was unethical.
Goldman Sachs prevented the transfer of the shares so that it could avoid being questioned by the regulator for failing to pre-borrow shares. However, preventing the transfer denied the owners of Copper River the opportunity to save their company.
Discussion of the Ethical Issues
According to the theory of utilitarian ethics, the outcomes of behavior should be based on the principles of “achieving the greatest good for the greatest number” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 76) for both the firm, as well as, its clients. This implies that the behavior or actions taken by a business must benefit the business and its clients. Additionally, such actions must result into the greatest benefit for both parties.
In this context, businesses must consider their customers an end in themselves rather than a means to an end (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 77). However, the failure by Goldman Sachs to pre-borrow shares did not benefit the clients. While Goldman Sachs made profits by trading in its clients’ shares without pre-borrowing the shares, the clients incurred heavy losses.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were not right since they did not result into as much good as complying with the law. This is explained by the fact that the accusations labeled against Goldman Sachs had a negative impact on its image. Copper Rivers and other clients considered Goldman Sachs a racketeering firm that does not care about the effects of its actions.
Additionally, Goldman Sachs was placed under regulatory scrutiny, and was also forced to compensate some of its clients due to its fraudulent actions. The firm could have avoided all these risks and expenses if it had chosen to comply with the law. The principle of consequences requires businesses to assess their actions based on the expected positive and negative outcomes (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 91).
Goldman Sachs seems to have focused only on how its actions would benefit it. According to the harm principle, businesses or industries must be regulated so that their actions do not harm the clients and the society in general. Hence, Goldman Sachs had to be put under regulatory scrutiny.
Not sure if you can write a paper on High Ethical Standards in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the theory of contract ethics, businesses must behave in accordance to the contracts that govern their relationships with the customers (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 95). Hence, Goldman Sachs, as a brokerage firm, was expected to honor the contractual agreements with its clients.
However, Goldman Sachs did not honor the contracts due to the following reasons. First, Goldman Sachs infringed its customers’ right to information when selling Abacus. The principle of justice asserts that clients have a right to information in order to make informed decisions (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 97).
Second, Goldman Sachs obtained illegitimate advantage overt its competitors by failing to pre-borrow shares and preventing the transfer of Copper River’s short positions. For instance, both BNP Paribas Bank and Farallon capital could not benefit from Copper River’s short position since the transfers had been stopped. Additionally, the owners of Copper River missed the opportunity to strengthen their business.
Hence, Goldman Sachs’ decision to block the transfer of Copper River’s positions contradicted the principle of opportunity. According to the principle of opportunity, competing businesses must have equal access to existing opportunities (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). Thus, illegal business practices should not be used to overcome competition or to make profits.
Goldman Sachs denied all accusations of fraud by highlighting the weaknesses of the arguments of its clients. In the case of Abacus, Goldman was forced by the regulators to pay $550 million as compensation to the clients. In the case of S.E.C, Goldman Sachs agreed to pay $450,000 but refused to admit or deny the accusation of failing to pre-borrow shares.
These actions contradict the principle of openness which requires businesses to be open to opposing views. Goldman Sachs refused to accept the view that its actions were wrong. Consequently, it continued to defraud other firms after the collapse of Copper River.
The dispute between Copper River and Goldman Sachs remained unresolved. Mr. Cohodes who was one of the main shareholders at Copper River did not sue Goldman Sachs for damages. Additionally, Mr. Cohodes abandoned the securities business. Copper River’s owners should have sued Goldman Sachs due to the following reasons.
First, Copper River could have been compensated for the losses it incurred as a result of Goldman Sach’s failure to pre-borrow shares on its behalf. The compensations could have enabled the firm to continue in business or to refund the investors’ capital at the time of the firm’s closure.
Second, Copper River’s owners were not under any obligation to accept losses resulting from the actions of their agent, Goldman Sachs. The principle of “rationality asserts that legitimate actions must be supported by generally accepted reasons” (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). However, the decision by owners of Copper River to accept losses that they were not responsible for seems to be irrational.
The fraudulent actions of firms such as Goldman Sachs can also be prevented through effective regulation of the securities market. The rules or regulations governing trade in securities should not have loopholes that can be used by firms to engage in unethical behavior.
The rules should be based on the principle of impartiality so that all parties to a dispute can have equal access to justice. Reasonable penalties such as fines and compensations should also be used against firms that engage in unethical behavior. For instance, a fine could have discouraged Goldman Sachs from consistently failing to pre-borrow shares on behalf of its customers prior to making a short sale.
Finally, the clients should have exercised their right to information while dealing with Goldman Sachs. Upon suspecting that Goldman Sachs was not borrowing shares as required; the owners of Copper River should have demanded for information about their securities that were sold by Goldman Sachs.
Consequently, Copper River could have identified the irregularities and taken timely action. Additionally, the clients who bought Abacus could have avoided losses if they obtained all information about the firm’s financial position.
The affected stakeholders include Goldman Sachs and its clients such as Copper River and S.E.C. Ltd. Additionally the customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs were affected. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways.
The immediate effect on Goldman Sachs was the compensations it was forced to pay to its customers. In particular, the compensations required a lot of financial resources. Hence, paying out the compensations had a negative effect on Goldman Sachs’ revenues.
The accusations also had a negative effect on the image or reputation of Goldman Sachs in the market. In the future, clients are not likely to use Goldman Sachs as their stock broker. This is because Goldman Sachs is associated with fraud and unethical behavior. Hence, Goldman Sachs’ revenue and profits are likely to reduce in future.
The immediate effect on the clients was the loss of revenue as a result of Goldman Sachs failure to pre-borrow shares. In the case of Copper River, the investors lost their capital since the business collapsed. The losses are likely to prevent the clients from expanding their businesses due to insufficiency of financial resources.
The customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs also incurred losses. This is because the funds managed by companies such as Copper River, essentially, belong to individual investors/customers. Thus, if the firm makes losses, its customers also share the losses.
Therefore, the affected customers are not likely to realize the expected returns on their investments in future. Additionally, the investors may have to look for alternative companies to invest in the future.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were unethical since they were meant to benefit the firm at the expense of its clients. In particular, Goldman Sachs failed to pre-borrow shares prior to conducting a short sale on behalf of its customers. Pre-borrowing shares is a requirement that is meant to cushion investors from the risks of market manipulation and stock price fluctuations.
The collapse of Copper River is partly attributed to the unethical behavior or actions of Goldman Sachs. Goldman Sachs was able to engage in unethical behavior due to the weaknesses of the regulatory framework of the securities market. Goldman Sachs was able to evade the rules that govern trading in securities. Even though Goldman Sachs benefited financially from its unethical behavior, it also lost its reputation in the market. Consequently, businesses should follow the utilitarian principles of ethics in order to remain competitive.
Article 2 Title: Ex-advisor Tells Court he gave Inside Tips
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Data: Published on March19th 2012
Overview of the Article
An investment adviser named Scott Allen was found guilty of providing classified business information to his friend. The information was about the sale of a drug company worth $ 2.6 million. Mr. Allen admitted that he illegally shared information about the acquisition of Massachusetts-based biotech firm referred to as Millennium Pharmaceuticals.
The pharmaceutical company was to be acquired in 2008 by a Japanese firm referred to as Takeda Pharmaceuticals. In 2009, Mr. Allen also illegally shared information about the acquisition of the American drug manufacturer, Sepracor. The American drug manufacturer was to be acquired by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharmaceutical Company which is based in Japan.
Mr. Allen told a “United States Court in Manhattan that he had” discussed with his personal friend the details of the companies which were to be sold. Consequently, his friend used the information to trade on the shares of the companies which were to be acquired.
Mr. Allen further admitted that he gave the information for financial gain, as well as, for the purpose of their friendship. Mr. Allen who worked for Mercer L.L.C was found guilty of securities fraud, as well as, conspiracy to engage in or commit securities fraud.
Mr. Allen also confirmed that he knew his actions were illegal and regretted his decision to disclose the classified information. The court freed Mr. Allen on a bond of $ 500,000 as he awaits his sentencing which is scheduled for August.
The process of acquiring a company involves the transfer of the shares of that company from one shareholder to the other. In the context of a publicly traded company, change of ownership is likely to affect the prices of the company’s shares in securities markets. Investors in securities markets usually make their decisions based on the available information.
The relevant information, in this case, should give insights on the firm’s future performance. In most cases, those involved in the management of the firm or the consultants involved in the sale of the firm have more information about the firm than the investors.
Consequently, the parties with more information about the company are prohibited by the law from using such information for their personal gains. Additionally, they are not allowed to share the information with a person who can use it for personal gain.
Disclosing the classified information is not allowed since it benefits those who have it at the expense of those who do not have it. Additionally, it can lead to manipulation of securities markets. It is against this backdrop that Mr. Allen’s actions are considered unethical and illegal.
The principle of double effect asserts that, “an act with intended and otherwise not reasonably attainable good effect and an unintended yet foreseen evil effect” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 88), is licit as long as there is a justified balance between the intended benefit/ good and the accepted evil.
However, an ethical dilemma arises when a person is obliged to avoid evil by abstaining from a good action (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 89).
In this context, Mr. Allen was also in a dilemma since he had to choose between keeping the classified information and losing his friendship and the expected financial gain. Under such circumstances, the actions of the agent (Mr. Allen) should be guided by the following principles.
First, the object or essence of the act should not be contradictory to the agent’s fundamental commitment to his neighbor (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 57). This means that the action should conform to the regulations of the securities market.
However, Mr. Allen’s actions were intrinsically contradictory to his commitment to his employers and their clients. He knew that disclosing the information about the acquisition of the firms was illegal and had the potential of distorting share prices. Nonetheless, he failed to avoid evil by sharing the information.
Second, the direct intentions of the agent should aim at achieving beneficial effects, as well as, avoiding foreseen harmful effects.
This means that the agent should not willfully cause harm to others. Contrary to this principle, Mr. Allen’s intentions were meant to create harmful effects. Even though he could have benefited financially by sharing the information, other investors could have been negatively affected.
Third, the foreseen or expected beneficial effects should equal or exceed the expected or foreseen harmful effects. In Allen’s case, only two people were to benefit at the expense of all other investors. Thus, the foreseen benefits were less than the expected harmful effects.
Finally, the expected beneficial effects should not be attained “by the means of the foreseen harmful effects” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 62). Thus, Mr. Allen and his friend were not expected to take advantage of other investors’ ignorance to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired. This leads to the conclusion that Mr. Allen’s actions were unethical.
The theory of contract ethics asserts that the relationship between businesses should be based on mutuality and reciprocity (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 71). Mercer L.L.C had been entrusted with the task of handling the sale of the American companies.
Hence, it was expected to reciprocate by restricting access to information about the transactions. This was not achieved since Mercer’s employee, Mr. Allen, disclosed the information. According to the principle of opportunity, investors should have equal access to transaction information. Thus, non-public information should be inaccessible to all investors.
Mr. Allen’s unethical behavior or act can be avoided through the following measures. First, the management of Mercer L.L.C should focus on selecting the right employees. The human resources department should identify a set of attributes that must be exhibited by potential employees (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
For example, financial advisors should be able to keep classified information and uphold high ethical standards. The identified attributes should then be used to screen applicants during the selection process (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). Hence, the company will be able to select and employ people of integrity or individuals who understand the importance of business ethics.
Second, the employees should be sensitized on the importance of engaging in ethical behaviors. This can be achieved through on-the-job training programs. The trainings should enable the employees to differentiate between ethical and unethical behavior (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
Additionally, the training program should enable the employees to understand the consequences of engaging in ethical or unethical behavior. In this context, the employees should learn the beneficial effects of ethical behavior and the harmful effects of unethical behavior.
The training programs should be reinforced with mentorship programs. The mentorship programs should involve the senior and junior employees so that ethics become part of the organization’s culture (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). The mentorship programs will also enable the employees to identify with the ethics that guide their company.
Third, disciplinary action should be taken against employees who deliberately fail to respect and follow the company’s ethical standards (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Besides, employees who make an effort to follow the prescribed ethical standards should be rewarded.
Disciplinary action will discourage employees from engaging in unethical behavior. The rewards, on the other hand, will encourage employees to engage in ethical behavior (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Finally, access to classified information should be restricted.
Sensitive information should not be accessed by unauthorized employees. For example, passwords can be used to restrict access to files and databases that contain important information.
The affected stakeholders include Mr. Allen and his friend, Mercer L.L.C and the investors who were interested in the shares of the companies which were to be purchased. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways. Mr. Allen incurred high costs in terms of legal fees and the bond he had to pay in order to be freed as he awaits his sentencing.
These costs, possibly, had negative effects on Mr. Allen’s personal investments. In future, Mr. Allen is not likely to get a job as a financial advisor due to the following reasons. Currently, he is 45 years old and the offence he committed attracts a penalty of up to 20 years in jail.
Thus, by the time he completes his jail term he shall have also reached the retirement age of 65 years. He is also not likely to be employed due to his criminal record. Most American companies prefer to employ individuals with no criminal records.
Mr. Allen’s friend enjoyed the beneficial effects of the unethical behavior. In particular, he is likely to have gained financially, by using inside tips to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired.
The immediate negative effects on Mercer include the loss of their employee, Mr. Allen, as well as, a bad reputation in the industry. Mercer had to incur the costs of employing a new advisor as Allen goes to jail. Additionally, the company is likely to be associated with unethical behavior.
Thus, investors are not likely to use Mercer L.L.C as their financial advisor in future. The resulting effect will be a reduction in profits and market share. The investors who held shares of the companies which were to be sold are likely to have incurred losses. This is because the information shared by Mr. Allen is likely to have negatively affected the share prices.
Mr. Allen was found guilty of committing securities fraud by illegally sharing with his friend inside tips concerning the sale of two companies. His behavior was unethical since it did not conform to ethical principles. In particular, his behavior was meant to benefit him and his friend at the expense of other investors.
His behavior also had negative effects on the reputation of his employer, Mercer L.L.C. Above all sharing inside tips with third parties for the purpose of financial gains is prohibited by the laws that govern trading in securities.
Mercer can avoid such unethical behaviors by verifying the integrity of its employees during the employee selection process. The company can also sensitize its employees on the importance of ethical behavior. In conclusion, unethical behaviors normally have adverse effects on the stakeholders of a firm. Thus, all businesses must encourage ethical behavior in order to remain competitive.
References Bloomberg News., 2012. Ex-Advisor Tells Court He gave Inside Tips. New York Times, 19 March, pp. 21.
Crane, A., and Malten, D., 2007. Business Ethics. New York: Cengage Learning.
Djurkovic, J., and Maric, R., 2010. The Influence of Human Resource Management in Imporvement of Business Ethics. Perspectives of Innovation, Economics and Business,4(1), pp.410-430.
Ferrell, O., and Fraedrich, J., 2011. Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jones, C., and Parker, M., 2005. For Business Ethics. New York: Routledge.
Morgenson, G., 2012. Anger at Goldman Still Simmers. New York Times, 25 March, pp. 45-48.
Schmidt, R. 2010. Microfinance, Commercialization and Ethics. Povert and Public Policy, 2(1), pp.6-7.
Shaw, W., 2010. Business Ethics. New York: Cengage Learning.
Trifu, A., 2011. Approach Regarding the Influence of Business Ethcis on Corporate Governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(1), pp.73-77.
Vitell, S., Ramos, E., and Nishishara, C., 2010. The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilty in Organizational Success: A Spanish Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(4), pp.467-483