Definitions Of Discipline And Punishment Essay Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Dangers of Punishment to the Child


Reference List

Introduction Discipline can be defined in various ways but as parents, we define discipline as a way of teaching a child how to be self controlled, identify tolerable limits and act in accordance with the rules on the ground. If a child fails to recognize the limits, he/she is trying to ignore them. The more the child ignores the rules, the difficult it is for him to identify the boundaries set in future. This becomes even harder to change child behaviors after attaining teenage age.

Punishment may be defined as outcome of undesired behaviors. Punishment can be classified into two major sets; positive and negative punishment. Positive punishment involves giving something unwanted in response to the act. For example, a child may be given a task of cleaning the house. Negative punishment is where something that a person likes most is withdrawn from him/her (Graziano, 2008), for instance, a parent may prohibit a child to play a certain game.

There are four major styles that parents apply when bringing up a child, they include; authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting, and uninvolved parenting (Redekop, 2007). Among the four styles, there are those that correlate to discipline and other punishment.

Authoritarian parenting correlates to the punishment because parent establishes strict rules and direct the children to follow them. If a child fails to follow this, thorough punishment is accorded to him/her. Parents with this style usually fail to explain the reasons for setting those rules but tend to claim that it is because they said so. Those parents normally demand so much from their kid and are mostly irresponsible. They are status oriented and just need their orders to be followed without prior reasons.

Authoritative parenting operates along with discipline by the fact that the parents normally set rules and guidelines to be followed by their children. This style is not so strict and the parents tend to be responsible to their children. Parents with this style usually take time to answer children’s questions (Redekop, 2007). When the children fail to meet the guidelines, the parent may sometimes forgive the children rather than punishing them. They tend to impart the desired standards to these children and support them up to the end.

Dangers of Punishment to the Child In long run punishment has negative effects in the life of kids. The more the child is punished the more they become violent to their siblings and other children. Other antisocial behavior also occurs such as high level of alcoholism, depression, and suicidal ideation later in life. Some parents who punish their children most likely abuse them physically.

These kids usually tend to commit crimes on other non-family members after growing up but those who are not spanked live peacefully. The children who grow under the heavily restricted conditions replicate this as revenge to the community and turn out to be criminals. Other harsh punishments have made the children to run away from their homes and subsequently become street children (Graziano, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although punishment may affect the kid in future, parents have decided to continue punishing their children by believing that it is the only way to maintain discipline in a child. They think that unpunished children, becomes crooks in school and even drop from school. Other reasons are to mold their children conducts, enhancement of their public relations and to help them be responsible parent in future.

Conclusion Parents should apply the necessary guidelines to maintain the discipline of their children. It is important for any parent to be responsible and time to time spare sometime to share basic knowledge with their children. They should show their children how to conduct themselves in various fields instead of dictating the rules, which are of no help.

Parent must also refrain from according harsh punishment, which might harm their children physically. Discipline is a basic requirement for any child but better methods of maintaining it should be practiced and by so doing parent-child relation will prevail all the time.

Reference List Graziano, A. (2008). Behavior Therapy with Children. Chicago: Transaction Publishers.

Redekop, P. (2007). Changing Paradigms: Punishment and Restorative Discipline. Winnipeg: Herald Press.


Roles and Responsibilities of a Project Manager Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Fundamental Responsibilities and Duties



Reference List

Introduction The position of project manager requires someone with skills in coordinating and implementation of various projects. The position holder normally performs duties, such as, proposal coordination, project coordination, and management. It is a challenging post and the manager should be able to prove his/her ability in developing and sustaining close client relationship as well as facilitation of large pool of workforce that will attract more customers.

The position demand strong personality in directing and meeting the customers’ requirements as well as collaborating with other departments in the organization to achieve company’s goals. It also involves system configuration and supporting of customers’ training as well as ensuring the final product is of desired quality. The major role is to guide the workforce on matters relating to customers’ satisfaction so as to establish new work and opportunities.

Fundamental Responsibilities and Duties There exist numerous duties that a proficient project manager should carry out, they include;

Supervise project execution that is necessary in accomplishing financial and procedural delivery as well as utilization, supervision, and integration. A major part is to ensure that there is strong collaboration between client and the workforce so that product preparation and delivery is ascertained (Barkley, 2007).

This assist the company to identify the clients’ demand and make the company to direct its operations toward customers’ needs and desires. In return the company produces high quality products and secures long term customers who maintain its growth.

Ensuring that contracts are implemented at the right time and also maintaining high level of workers knowledge regarding customers needs and company’s policies. The manager also ensures that client desires are fulfilled and correct configuration of project requirements observed (Barkley, 2007). He develops the agenda and organise meeting, which facilitate discussion of emerging issues that arise from time to time and establishing the solutions.

The project manager organises and troubleshoots the numerous problems arising from development of multifaceted projects and client end user data. He avails all relevant information in timely manner if required by other subordinate staff (Winch, 2010). This makes the work of the auditors easy, when the company is preparing the financial records.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is also entitled to maintain good and strong partnership of company and external firms and thus enabling the company to establish external markets (Barkley, 2007). The project manager should not only establish good relations within the company but also with eternal firms. Finally, he should ensure that customer survey is conducted to evaluate the market demand of the company.

Challenges The major challenges that are encountered by a project manager include lack of transparency in the scope of work. Once the scope statement is completed, it turns out to be company’s vision, which should be attained within the set time. The document sets a ground for a concord between the project team and the customers, by recognizing both the project target and project deliverables.

Lack of clarity in the scope of project arises due to complexity of activities in the initial stages, such as, piles of documents, files, and so on. If the project is not moving smoothly the manager need to revisit the scope and define it as well as gain an apparent understanding of the client needs (Wirick, 2009). This is done through better planning, controlling, and minimizing of changes. The success of the project is identified if all the requirements are attained and changes made.

Shifting organization priorities is another challenge encountered by the project manager. This is due to economic changes from time to time and also new organization policies that create uncertainty. Managers get a hard time in managing such organizations during implementation stages (Wirick, 2009).

These changes affect the project operation and also management. The changes usually occur due to several reasons, such as, hiring new company’s president or even department manager, reorganization of company structure, and also introduction of new innovations by the management.

Lack of project management skills is a major challenge that affects the project; some managers lack the desired skills to coordinate the organization effectively. Most of the training that exists in several organizations concentrates on training organization’s own methodology, this make the staff to lack adverse skills (Winch, 2010). Managers should have extra skills gathered from other organizations and incorporate the same in their project.

Training of sponsors in the organization is a prerequisite to enhance proper understanding of the project scope of work and how it can be attained (Wirick, 2009). When the sponsors are being trained, the resources are normally allocated in accordance with the project demand. This issue of resource allocation becomes a challenge to many project managers for the reason that the scope’s statement fails to identify this.

We will write a custom Essay on Roles and Responsibilities of a Project Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is evident that organizations need to encompass corporate strategies in the project scope of work and also engage the project sponsors in thorough training. This will make the project to survive from shifting its priorities, which mostly affect the organization. Project managers should understand how various projects would trigger the realization of future goals through proper planning strategies. The managers should be prepared to tackle the challenges that arise within the organization.

Reference List Barkley, B. (2007). Project Management in New Product Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional

Winch, G.M. (2010). Managing Construction Projects, 2nd Edition. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell publishing Ltd.

Wirick, D. (2009). Public-Sector Project Management: Meeting the Challenges and Achieving Results. Southern Gate: John Wiley and Sons publishers


Morality and Justice Essay essay help free

Introduction: Animal Liberationists and Environmentalists Animal liberationists are groups of people who oppose the use of animals in medical, biological or chemical research work. Animal liberationists fall under the animal liberation movement which is a global animal rights movement that operates under three major components; legal development, direct action and philosophical debate.

The animal rights movement seeks an end to the status of animals as property as well as end the legal distinction that exists between human and non human living beings. Animal liberationists believe that all non human animals deserve protection from harmful activities that are meant to benefit human beings (Cahn and Markie 825).

Animal liberationists share the believe that the basic interests of non-human animals should be observed and protected and that the legal world should confer these animals legal rights to protect them from any harm or injustice. Animal liberationists differ from utilitarian liberationists who believe that animals do not possess any moral rights.

Utilitarian liberationists argue that moral decisions are based on the happiness of the majority number since animals have the ability to withstand suffering and this suffering is usually taken into account in moral decisions. Animal liberationists believe that animals lack the ability to withstand any form of suffering and they therefore advocate that animals should be accorded similar rights to human beings (Cahn and Markie 589).

Environmentalists on the other hand believe in environmental conservation and the reduction of environmental pollution to improve the state of the environment. Environmentalism is deemed to have a social movement that advocates for the conservation of the environment through lobbying, activism and education. Environmentalists speak out about the various environmental issues around the world and what people can do to protect the natural resources and ecosystems in the environment.

Environmentalists also advocate for the introduction of public policies that will reduce the amount of green house emissions and pollution that takes place in the environment. Environmentalists and environmental organizations in general seek to make the world a greener and safer place to live (Gottlieb 389).

Theoretical Perspectives of Animal Liberationists and Environmentalists According to various researchers such as J. Baird Callicott, animal liberationists and environmentalists share distinct and inconsistent theoretical perspectives. Callicott was of the opinion that animals did not deserve any form of rights and he termed animal liberationists to be incoherent when they spoke of animal’s natural behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Callicott noted that it was impossible to liberate domesticated animals and that the animal liberationists were betraying the value commitments of the social human movement. With regards to environmentalists, Callicott noted that they were more holistic and real than the animal liberationists since they allocated moral values to the natural ecosystems and resources of the environment (Jamieson 197).

Callicott provides an example of some bacteria which might be of greater value to the natural environment and economy than domesticated animals such as dogs, cats or rabbits. This meant that such bacteria or natural resources deserved more value commitment and recognition than the domesticated or non human animals. This meant that Callicott supported the views and beliefs of environmentalists instead of those of animal liberationists.

The theoretical perspective of the land ethic proposes that inanimate entities such as mountains, forests, oceans and lakes are assigned a greater value than the animate objects which include wild and domesticated animals. Callicott further argues that animal liberationists fail to meet the criterion of measuring whether animal ethics meet the environmental land ethics. This is because animal liberationists have more in common with anthropocentric ethics than they do with environmental land ethics (Jamieson 198).

The idea that environmentalism and animal liberation have distinct concepts and qualities is a fact that has come as a surprise to many who view these two concepts to be similar in purpose and meaning. This is mostly because these two concepts share the same enemies such as air and water polluters who negatively affect the survival and existence of animals in their natural habitats or loggers and lumberjacks who destroy the natural ecosystems of birds and wild animals that reside in forests.

Also the historic background of the environmental movement shows that most environmentalists advocated for the end of animal suffering by showing concern to how animals are treated in their domesticated or wild environments (Carter 42).

The modern environmentalists and animal liberationists that are in existence today have their foundation from the post World War II era where social movements opposed the use of nuclear weapons to eliminate the war threats and a culture that viewed human beings and other animals to be commodities that could easily be replaced.

These social movements came to form the modern environmental and animal liberation movements that are in existence today. Environmentalists today are more than likely to be concerned with the rights and health of animals than they would be with the health of old forests and other natural resources (Carter 42).

We will write a custom Essay on Morality and Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While many people are members of both the environmental and animal liberation movements, there are several differences that exist between the two concepts. For example animal liberationists are viewed to have a lot more in common with conventional morality than with environmentalism and environmentalist ethical standards.

Jamieson (198) in his thesis focuses on the differences that exist amongst these two groups and also how they are able to share a consistent theoretical perspective. These differences emerged during the counter-culture period of the 1960s that promoted the use of drugs and the opposition of the government as a moral obligation.

The differences that emerged between the environmentalists and animal liberationists were the elimination of wild animals that were deemed to be dangerous to the environment so that fewer of these animals would suffer and die and the conversion of wilderness areas into places where animals could be domesticated and taken care.

Callicott in his 1980 article further noted that differences existed between animal liberationists and environmentalists and this article was used in influencing the environmental community during the 80s. Mark Sagoff, who agreed with Callicott’s views, noted that animal liberationists if given the power would incorporate anti-environmentalist policies that would eliminate the need of destroying animals that were harmful to environmental conservation efforts (Jamieson 200).

The distinction between the two concepts became more distinct in the early 1980s where environmentalists had to embrace newer values that involved the view of natural ecosystems and resources as having a more significant value than land or conventional moral ethics. Environmentalists differed from animal liberationists in that they viewed value commitment to be independent from conscious beings and other aspects of nature that were inherently valuable.

Once this distinction was made, most animal liberationists sought to separate themselves from environmentalists because they opposed the notion that human and non human animals deserved to be sacrificed to achieve a greater biotic good. It therefore became difficult to assert the rights of human beings in such lines of thinking which led to a greater division between the animal liberalists and the environmentalists (Jamieson 201).

Despite his rhetorical 1980 essay, Callicott sought to bridge the divide that existed between these two groups in his 1989 article where he stated that animal liberalists and environmentalists could be united under a common theoretical perspective. He noted that animal liberationists could protect vegetarian animals from their carnivorous predators and that environmentalists had the ability to protect carnivorous animals from environmental degradation and destruction of their natural habitats and ecosystems.

Jamieson (203) noted that plausible and conventional ethics should address the various concerns that existed about animals and the natural environment. He noted that the issues that affected animals also affected the environment and that these two concepts could not continue to operate separately without having a direct impact on the other.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Morality and Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moral theory of Animal Liberationists and Environmentalists Jamieson (203) notes that animal liberationists and environmentalists can be able to share the same theoretical perspectives and moralistic theories. This is because human beings in general have placed a lot of emphasis on the protection of the environment and the animal habitat.

Since animal liberalists value the natural animal habitat to have a significant value, they can also embrace the environmental values that environmentalists prescribe to. Animal liberation is viewed to be an environmental ethical issue which means that it can be used to create awareness and empower environmentalists and environmental movements. Jamieson (210) argues that there is a great deal of evidence that exists in the theoretical convergence between animal liberationists and environmentalists.

Both groups have political leverage and wealth to change the masses views on their causes and beliefs. Environmental and animal issues play an important role in the choices that people make everyday. What people wear or eat every day is usually determined by the current environmental and animal issues. If an individual refrains from eating meat, they are part of a social movement rather than a vegetarian Jamieson (211).

Jamieson (204) proposes that several theoretical perspectives can be used for these two concepts which are primary and derivative values as well as intrinsic and non intrinsic values. Primary and derivative values argue that animals are able to withstand suffering and their lives can move from better or worse based on their primary environments and natural habitats. Jamieson notes that non sentient entities do not have a perspective on whether their lives can go from better or worse.

The value of their lives will therefore depend on how the adapt to sentient beings. Intrinsic and non-intrinsic values state that an animal’s life can go from better to worse where such properties are intrinsic to the animal. According to Jamieson (205), whether a creature lives or dies will depend on how they relate with the environment. This means that animals and the natural environment can be valued to be intrinsic and non intrinsic at different times and within different context Jamieson (206).

Conclusion This essay has focused on whether animal liberationists and environmentalists can be able to share a consistent theoretical perspective. The essay has revealed that these two groups have differences despite sharing the same goals and dealing with similar issues.

The essay has shown that animal liberation movements and environmental groups have a common purpose which is to ensure the safety of animals and the protection of the environment. Despite sharing several differences and distinctions, these two concepts share the same theoretical perspectives as they serve to protect animals and the natural environments in which these animals live in.

In general, animal liberalists protect animals by trying to conserve their natural ecosystems while environmentalists protect natural ecosystems and animal habitats by conserving the environment in which these animals live in. This means that these two concepts can be able to share a similar theoretical perspective.

Works Cited Cahn, Steven and Peter Markie. Ethics: history, theory and contemporary issues, 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

Carter, Neil. The politics of the environment: ideas, activism, policy, 4th Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.

Gottlieb, Robert. Forcing the spring: the transformation of the American environmental movement. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005. Print.

Jamieson, Dale. Morality’s progress: essays on humans, other animals and the rest of nature. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 2006. Print.


History of John F. Kennedy Assassination Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States of America who was inaugurated into power in 1961. However, he was assassinated two years later on September 22, 1963 at around noon. He met his untimely death while he had taken a ride with his wife in one of the presidential motorcade. He was brutally shot by undistinguished persons. The bullet is supposed to have gone through his back and shattered a rib before exiting via his chest, striking his right wrist and being side tracked into his left thigh.

Other eye witnesses hold that the bullet entered through the throat and not the back as it has been alleged. It was later confirmed that JFK was murdered by Lee Harvey Oswald who was latter killed by Jack Ruby even before trial.

When the Oliver Stone picture, JFK, was released in 1991, it generated enormous interest in the possibility that elements of the federal government and the military-industrial complex, including the CIA, might have been behind the assassination, perhaps with financing from wealthy oil men and the collusion of the Mob.

I am of the opinion that the investigation concerning the death of JFK be closed since every new investigation comes up with new evidence. It does not make sense proceeding with an investigation that has hit a deadlock. It is now more than 40 years since the assassination took place and the court has failed to prove and to hold responsible the person(s) who was responsible for the murder.

This fantastic two demented gunmen scenario had the effect of highlighting one of the glaring weaknesses of the Warren report, which was its utter failure to establish a rational motive for Lee Harvey Oswald to have wanted to kill John F. Kennedy.

This is the genius of the description of the gunman as demented. Since an insane person may act from irrational motives, the actions of an insane person cannot be expected to be cogent. While the Warren commission never actually maintained that Oswald was insane, its report strongly suggested that he was unstable citing various aspects of his personal history.

There have been intermittent indications that Oswald was not demented. According to the commission there was enough evidence that Oswald was an undercover agent for the FBI, right up to the day of the assassination. Immediately after the assassination, a Dallas police officer was killed some few minutes after the murder of Kennedy. An eyewitness by the name Johnny Brewer stated that he saw Oswald standing about one mile from where the officer had been shot and that he acted suspicious.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He further said that he saw Oswald walk towards the Jefferson Avenue after hearing the police sirens. This was enough evidence to convict Oswald although he did not even go for trial since he was killed earlier. This complicated investigation and if up until now the court has not been able to convict any person related to the murder then it is clear that no further investigation will be able to achieve the expected results.

It was one thing for a single demented gunman to have attempted to assassinate the president in Dealey plaza and quite another for two or more demented gunmen to have done the same. If there was more than one assassin, then they must have had their reasons. The second government report on the assassination of President Kennedy thus exposed a major defect with the first.

Many books have been written about the assassination with the authors focusing on medical evidence, suggesting that it might hold the key to understanding what took place in Dealey plaza. The autopsy report, X-rays, and photographs, for instance, are usually taken to be the best evidence in a murder case.

There has been many controversies regarding the incidents and the techniques used to authenticate the findings seem to be weak. The assassination of JFK however, is not a usual case, and the authenticity of the autopsy X-rays and photographs has been challenged by many members of the commission.

The problems in this case are remarkable, for the reason that the autopsy X-rays and photographs do not appear to be consistent with the autopsy report or even with each other. The medical substantiation also come outs to be contradictory with reports of several bystanders, (including medical doctors and non-physicians) who examined the president’s body at Bethesda as well as at parkland.

The inconsistency between the eyewitness reports and other evidence was dispatched in the case of the House Committee by accepting the autopsy X-rays and photographs as authentic, which permitted the members of the Committee to disregard, discount, or discard the eyewitnesses especially those who reported a massive wound to the back of JFK’s head.

The situation has remained in an uncomfortable state of semi-resolution, creating a national sensation that enormously stimulated interest in the assassination. If new Investigations are opened for this case; it means that it may take another 30 years to come up with a concrete conclusion.

We will write a custom Essay on History of John F. Kennedy Assassination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Majority of the Americans are of the opinion that the case be dismissed since it is long overdue although there are some who are of the opposite view. A lot of time and resources would be saved if the case is dismissed which can be used for other constructive work. By looking at the findings that have been reached this far, it is more clear that the murder was more of a government conspiracy.

If the government continue or does not continue with the investigation, the citizens will not be affected in any way only that the tax payers’ money will be used in this undertaking. As we all know, in most cases where the government is involved, the jury never reaches a conclusion and even if he does, it is always biased.

So, I believe that the government should close all investigations related to the incidents because it is likely that it will never come to an end. I am of the opinion that Kennedy’s assassination puzzle will never be definitively solved. A lot of facts were pretty solid back when they first happened in that nobody ever really put it together into one crossword puzzle. There were facts from the left and from the right, which have never been brought together in one format. It is even hard to figure out why Kennedy was assassinated.

It is believed that Kennedy was going to end the cold war and sign a nuclear treaty with the soviets; he would not have gone to war in Southeast Asia. He was starting a backdoor negotiation with Castro. Many people are still wondering why there is still so much conflict over the evidence in finding out how and why Kennedy was murdered considering that he was not one of the major presidents.

The genesis of the cover-up in the JFK at the national level lies with the FBI. Mountains of material were developed with many man-hours, and we are grateful for the agency. The faults of any bureaucracy are often great, and agencies come with built-in flaws that often mitigate against achieving the very thing that their mission dictates.

In this case, it was impossible for the FBI to do its job properly because the high command was rotten to the core, and its director J. Edgar Hover was not just seriously corrupt, but part of the conspiracy to overthrow the Administration. In addition, there were men in the Dallas office that covered up. They manufactured evidence, distorted evidence, and omitted evidence. Some authors have argued that this is the root of the so-called cover-up in the JFK case; the bureaucracies did it because they had to hide their own mistakes.

That really isn’t what happened. They covered up because they didn’t just blow it; there were radical conspirators among them who were paving the way for the overthrow of Kennedy. The catastrophe that flowed from this was that the Warren Commission was almost completely dependent upon what the FBI gave them.

The investigation was doomed and the history was doomed to a massive lie. The Warren report, later, bore little or no relationship to the evidence they actually had. In other words, it was a deliberate and massive lie. Not unless the investigations are conducted by another body apart from the Warren commission, it would be useless to launch a new investigation.

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A Good Man is Hard to Find Essay essay help online

Introduction A Good Man is Hard to Find is one of the most successful works written by Flannery O’Connor. The short story was written in 1953 and published together with other works she had done earlier under the same title. This short story best epitomizes O’Connor’s work, her themes, and her style of writing. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how A Good Man is Hard to Find best brings out themes and styles that characterize O’Connor’s writings.

Discussion A Good Man is Hard to Find portrays a disparity of violent action with hilarious and carefully created characters and a philosophy that underlines her staunch Roman Catholic faith. The short story is disturbing and entertaining at the same time- a feature that characterizes most of O’Connor’s writings, notably Wise Blood. The story begins on a naïve perspective, but instantly changes when O’Connor introduces a character known as Misfit, a convict who broke out of jail.

More about This Topic What Are the Main Characters in a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 17 What is the Short Story A Good Man Is Hard to Find about? 5 10 A Good Man Is Hard to Find: What Does the Ending Mean? 5 16 What Role Does the Setting Play in A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 9 Through Misfit, the author examines the Christian perception of grace- that true forgiveness from God can be received just by asking. The Grandmother, a main character in the story, is a petty, bad tempered, and imperious, but receives God’s grace before she dies. Despite her mainly negative traits, she treats Misfit as one of her own children. For O’Connor, God’s pardon is an energy not controlled by a person, something unmerited, or a moment of revelation.

Styles Grace

In A Good Man is Hard to Find, O’Connor explores the theme of grace through her two characters: Misfit and Grandmother. The most observable point on this theme in the story is when Misfit and the Grandmother both receive God’s grace despite their many faults, sins, and limitations. Christian theology teaches that God’s gifts are given even to the person least likely to receive them, forgiveness is among these gifts.

Looking at the characters, none of them is worthy of God’s grace. Grandmother deceives her children, controls her son, and whines frequently about the inadequacy of the current and seems unaware of the world around her. She believes that she is superior and is the most appropriate person to judge others, for instance, she orders Misfit to pray yet she cannot even come up with an articulate prayer. Misfit, for his part, is a convicted murderer who escaped from prison.

Despite the two characters’ flaws, God grants them forgiveness, signifying that even persons with similar traits as Misfit and Grandmother can receive God’s salvation.


O’Connor’s was raised in a Roman Catholic background and she has reflected this upbringing in most of her writings, frequently drawing a lot of debate due to her callous representation of religion. Although her works are frequently violent in nature, they are based on her conviction and divinity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, her characters frequently face violent of ruthless situations that force them into actions that awaken or change their faith, such as Grandmother in A Good Man is Hard to Find. For O’Connor, writing was a way of expressing her Christian faith on paper. We observe Misfit and Grandmother undergo a moment of grace and are their sins are pardoned; this is precisely what the roman catholic teaches, or Christianity in general.


Many of the writings by O’Connor contain scenes of epiphany, a moment when a character receives pardon, or God’s forgiveness. This style is evident in her writings such as Good Country People and A Good Man is Hard to Find. Throughout this story, O’Connor expresses how hard it can be for a non-Christian to change his/her ways. The moment of grace (epiphany) takes place when “The Grandmother’s head cleared for an instant” and she “saw Misfit’s face twisted close to her own as if he were going to cry” (O’Connor, pp. 374-375).

More about This Topic Who is the protagonist in A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 26 What Is the Main Conflict of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 22 What Is the Tone of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 26 What Is the Point of View of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 21 She was moved with Misfit’s desire to be assured of actions that Jesus did and those he did not do, and realized that she was responsible for him. She tells her “Why you’re one of my babies. You’re one of my own children” (O’Connor, pp. 375). Grandmother demonstrates a moment of grace, despite her earlier acts of meanness, and receives God’s grace.

Styles Symbolism

Symbolism is a style that O’Connor uses in most of her stories. As a writer of fiction, combined with her Catholic background, she preferred to use symbols to express her faith and beliefs through her characters. A number of works such as Good Country People make use of symbolism. In A Good Man is Hard to Find, there are a number of symbols. The Misfit’s portrait of Jesus and Grandmother’s epiphany are representations of her religious beliefs.

Grandmother has a hat that she frequently wears to show that she is a woman, however, this hat represents her distorted moral principles. While preparing for the journey with other family members, she wears her tie so that in case of an accident, it would be known that she was a woman. She is very indifferent to the fact that she will be dead by then and other persons, including her three grandchildren, would possibly be dead. Her only concern is her position as a woman, an absurd reason that exposes her meanness and distorted moral codes.


Irony is a common feature in Flannery O’Connor’s works, and A Good Man is Hard to Find is no exception. For example, Bailey’s mother pictures herself as an upright woman, but her actions prove otherwise. She dresses excessively, is deceitful, uses racist terms, and resents America’s positive contribution to Europe after war.

In fact, she foolishly utters that she knows Misfit. We only know her true picture when the story takes a disastrous turn. Eventually, she is killed by Misfit, whom she had claimed to know, even though she dies after redeeming herself by reaching out to her killer.

We will write a custom Essay on A Good Man is Hard to Find specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Violence

O’Connor’s writings are frequently characterized by extreme use of violence and this has led critics to question her Christian background. Most instances of violent are normally carried out by narcissistic characters with depressing lives. A Good Man is Hard to Find portrays many scenes of extreme violence and these are committed by Misfit, the murderer who escaped from prison.

Misfit shoots Grandmother as well as Bailey’s mother. However, the violence serves a role: it makes Grandmother and Bailey’s mother to realize how vile their mean behavior towards others was. Ultimately, we see both women changing their behavior before their deaths, moreover, Grandmother’s epiphany forms the climax of the story.

Works Cited O’Connor, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Stories. California: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.


ASPA Code of Ethics Research Paper a level english language essay help

The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) explains it ethical standards well. The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) outlines it ethical standards well. Its first standard focuses maintaining the public’s interest. The focus of the ethical standards include exercising discretion to boost the public’s trust, incorporating the public’s inputs in decision–making, and helping the public in their government dealings.

Second, the ethical standards focus on respecting the constitution and all laws of the nation. Third ethical standards focus on the workers’ display of one’s integrity. Fourth, the ethical standards focus on strengthening of ethics –based groups. Last, the ethical standards focus on striving for excellence one’s professional endeavors (Geuras, 2005). The ASPA ethical standards will serve as a guide to ensure better public services.

According to James Bowman, there is an increase in the acceptance and enthusiastic implementation of ASPA’s ethical standards. The ASDA and the American Political Science Association (APSA) have joined hands to persuade all sectors of both society to embrace ethical standards as a guide for daily business, government, and personal dealings.

The ASPA’s successful activities include a national conference held in 1989 as well as countless materials written by respected ethics authors like Bowman and Lewis. ASPA also held well attended conferences for university community such as a 1991 conference held in Park City, Utah and a 1995 conference in Tampa, Florida.

The University activities were earmarked to inculcate in the minds and hears of the students the importance of ethical standards in elevating the all transactions to a morality–inspired level. A survey conducted among the university conferences showed that 87% of 55% of the school that emphasize the importance of ethics include regular seminars and verbal encouragement (Bowman, 1998).

The ASPA focuses on ensuring that all persons, especially those working in public companies should adhere to moral judgment, ethical reasoning, or moral thinking in their daily activities. Ethics is based on the principle that a person must do what is right or good and avoid what is wrong or bad when faced with alternative choices. Most of the public administrators within the 50 states adhere to ASDA’s ethical standards. Specifically, the administrators come from most of the municipal, federal, and state levels.

Further, a research conducted on 1,000 persons who were randomly-selected from the 11,18ASPA members show that 93.8% were white and 67 percent were male. The mean if the samples show an average age of 48 years. In addition, 87 percent were college graduates. In addition, 31 percent work in municipal offices as top level or middle managers. In addition, 14 percent of the respondents were teachers, and 1 percent of the samples were students (Ghere, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mendel also discovered that the implementation of the ASPA ethics code increases the probability of people, especially those working within a public environment, behaving in an ethically –compliant manner in their dealings with the public. However, the ASPA code does not take away the person’s own moral standards, when in conflict.

The ASPA code does not intend to remove a person’s ability to defend one’s action or inaction. Most importantly, the ASPA code fills the person with the pride of belonging to a well –accepted group or job specification (Menzel, 2007).

In terms of conflict of interest, the ASPA standards emphasize that one should best exemplify promoting the public’s interest over and above one’s personal interest. In 2004, a Pentagon officer was charged and convicted for ensuring personal financial interest over the public’s ethical interest (Geuras, 2005).

Further, accepting bribes from a group or individual in exchange for awarding of public contracts would violate the ASPA’s conflict of interest provisions. In a related literature, the Code of Ethical Principles of the Association of Fundraising Professionals state that its members should not receive compensation based on a percent of contributions raised (Richter, 2007).

In terms of analytical impression, the above discussion shows that the ASPA code of ethics and conflict of interest provisions are excellent guides for public service workers to study, emphasize, and implement, without reservation. In terms of behavior, the organization’s ethics statements will clear the public servants’ doubts in terms of ASPA’s sincerity in placing the public’s interest over the individual public servant’s personal interests.

Further, the ASPA’s policies will place a strong unwavering impact on the public employees, customers, and members of the ASPA organization in the performance of their government responsibilities. Consequently, the general public will have an enhanced perception that bribes or connections are not needed to get better public services.

BRIEFLY, the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) explains it ethical standards well. The standard focuses on prioritizing the public’s interest over the public servants’ own financial interest. The standards also focus on respecting the U.S. laws and strengthening ethics –based organization.

We will write a custom Research Paper on ASPA Code of Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is an increasing acceptance of the ASPA’s ethical standards. In terms of conflict of interest, ASPA standards states that one should best promote the public’s interest over and above one’s personal interest. In terms of analytical impression, the ASPA code of ethics and conflict of interest provisions are excellent benchmarks for public service workers to implement. Indeed, the ASPA ethical standards will ensure better public services.

References Bowman, J. (1998). Teaching Ethics and Values in Public Administration Programs. New York: SUNY Press.

Geuras, D. (2005). Practical Ethics in Public Administration. New York: Management Concepts Press.

Ghere, R. (2005). Ethics in Public Management. New York: M Sharpe Press.

Menzel, D. (2007). Ethics Management for Public Administrators. New York: M Sharpe Press.

Richter, W. (2007). Combatting Corruption, Encouraging Ethics. New Yord: Rowman


Legal Concepts in Healthcare Essay essay help online: essay help online

The field of medicine is very sensitive since it involves dealing with human beings. Precautionary measures should be taken so as not to violate the fundamental rights of individuals/clients. Some actions in the course of interaction between the medical professionals and their clients may be so gross as to call for stern reaction in order to redress them.

There are some instances where the clients have been mistreated by physicians and just like any other criminal case, legal actions are pursued (Sharpe, 2005). The essay discusses two common legal concepts; gross negligence, negligence, and malpractice and unintentional versus intentional torts and how they may apply in a health care setting.

Gross negligence as used in legal terms refers to a misconduct exhibited as a result of being obviously reckless or careless that even an ordinary person with no legal background can tell (Westrick


An investigation on the factors that drive demand for Ryanair travel services Research Paper writing essay help

Aims and Context of the study Introduction

Ryanair is a low cost airline that operates in most parts of Europe and Morocco. Its head office is based at Dublin Airport in Ireland. Ryanair has in operation 254 Boeing 737-800 aircrafts in its 43 bases around Europe and Morocco (British Airways Annual Report, 2006, para. 1-3). It offers its customers the lowest air travel charges and has had successful growth in its operation since 1997 due to deregulation that occurred in the aviation industry.

As a result, Ryanair has gained recognition as the largest low cost carrier in Europe. In addition, it is the second largest in handling large numbers of travelers in Europe and also the largest airline in dealing with high numbers of international passengers. Ryanair invests heavily in ensuring modern aircrafts which are fuel efficient and friendly to the environment by reduction of air pollution.

At present, it is an industrial leader in environmental efficiency. Due to handling of large number of travelers, Ryanair airline has faced problems in ensuring customer satisfaction to its services. Many clients have complained of flight delays, long queues and even loss of their luggage. This research will attempt to focus on the factors that influence demand for Ryanair services with an aim of improving these factors so as to enhance passengers’ satisfaction.

Purpose and Scope of the Research

The general goal of this research will be to assess and design demand factors in order to promote Ryanair air transport services. This is meant to enable the industry to be able to increase its revenue ratio in comparison to its main competitors in the industries. Moreover, this impetus to promote Ryanair air travel services follows an evaluation of the travelers’ needs and an inclination to be able to device a marketing strategy that could aid in the promotion of Ryanair air services.

Even though Ryanair operates under the framework of initially assessing the market demand, and then goes ahead to devising innovative solutions in order to meet up with the market demands, this proposal looks out on ways in which the airline can increase the demand for its services. In this case, the researcher will propose a demand creation mechanism coupled with market assessment strategy.

Specific Objectives

To determine the needs of the current users of Ryanair air services.

To examine the factors that influence demand for air services by Ryanair.

To examine the consumers’ level of satisfaction regarding Ryanair air services.

To recommend an effective strategy for addressing the passengers’ needs

Research Contribution Contribution to Knowledge

This research will be vital for those interested in understanding deeply the factors that affect consumer demand in any line of industry. Therefore, as a response to the overwhelming role played by Ryanair, especially with regard to its social responsibility, various economic theories regarding demand provide lucid explanations as to the role a number of factors play in influencing consumer demand.

Many industrial organizations seem to be constrained by the changing environment of demand (Matt, 2003, p. 45). The recommendations of this study will provide an important tool that can be applied by Ryanair and other airlines for improvement of their services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Significance

By carrying out this research, the researcher will offer a critical perspective on the various demand factors and their overall contribution to the prevailing demands for Ryanair air travel services. This will be aimed at formulating effective strategies for improving its services in order to boost passenger satisfaction and hence loyalty (Philip, 2006, p. 34). In addition, by boosting its passenger numbers, a lot of jobs will be created and their profit margins will be increased.

Literature Review Demand has been believed to co-exist with supply. This concept has been addressed across history starting with scholars like John Locke who came up with earlier definitions regarding this vital concept in terms of the relationship that exists between the demand and supply (Locke, 1691, p.75). Moreover, it was James Denham-Steuart who first used these two terms that is, demand and supply (Humphrey, 1992, p. 79).

Economists have largely concurred on the role of various variables on demand as well as consumption. However, for many economists, price was the main determinant in influencing demand having the principle of ceteris Paribas in place. However, in the current changing environment, price can never be the only factor that can influence demand.

Other factors play a significant role, such as the availability as well as price of substitute goods (Fao, n d, para. 5). This has been owed to the influence these factor has on the elasticity of demand. However, regarding the suitability of the goods or services under consideration, knowledge and availability plays crucial role.

Another factor that has been considered by many marketing professionals is the issue of tastes and preferences. Accordingly, people have been believed to shift in their tastes and preferences volatilely, and therefore, this should be taken into consideration when coming up with a marketing analysis. Moreover, according to Cherie, the volatility in the business environment is continuous, and it always affects demand, which consequently affects supply (Ang, 2007, para. 2-4).

Furthermore, Cherie argues that it is in looking at the various factors influencing demand that one will be able to manage the changes that take place in the environment (Ang, para. 3). In other words, demand must always be looked at in relation to the environmental volatility. Furthermore, the process of managing demand should be regulated by the policies of the company and its requirements (neoIT, 2007, p.3).

Research Design and Methodology Methodology

The study will employ qualitative methodology to meet the objectives of the study. A qualitative study deals more with theoretical analysis of data, but does not pay more attention to the quantities of samples and data. In this case, the researcher will utilize the qualitative methodology because of the nature of demand theory which assumes that some factors have to be constant for the overall result to be obtained (Maloney, 2006, p.7).

We will write a custom Research Paper on An investigation on the factors that drive demand for Ryanair travel services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, in the case of price, the income and consumer tastes and preferences will have to be made constant in order to come up with an analysis of the impact of price on demand. The researcher will also utilize both primary and secondary methods of data collection. First, the primary methods will be based on information gathered from the passengers and various staff of the organization.

Furthermore, the main clients of Ryanair airlines will also be interviewed or sent questionnaires to which they will respond. Their responses will be collected and fully incorporated throughout the research process. Moreover, it will be observed that questionnaires are going to play a significant role in ensuring that those vital individuals, who could not be reached easily, are able to participate in the research endeavor (Schlesinger


The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction This paper aims to discuss the controversy that occurred in Taiwanese Company Young Fast Optoelectronics (YFO). This enterprise is a supplier of such leading international corporations as Samsung, HTC, Google, and LG.

In March 2010, the management of YFO dismissed more than ten union members, who protested against poor working conditions in the factory and illegal practices, pursued by the management of the company. Afterwards, it was also discovered that the YFO employees had to work overtime without any compensation and that the company hired students who did not reach the age of sixteen (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged).

This scandal attracted the attention of the government and international trade union organizations. Several stakeholders are involved in this argument: 1) the workers of this manufacturing facility and trade unions; 2) the management of YFO; 3) the government of the country, and 4) international companies, supplied by YFO.

Overall, it is possible to argue that this one of those case when ethical principles and legislation contradict each other. Domestic laws do not explicitly forbid sweatshop practices and, the government has very few legal means of influencing the decisions of the management; more likely the governmental officials are unwilling to intervene into the affairs of YFO.

However, such companies as Google or HTC try to be or at least appear responsible corporate citizens and they certainly do not want to be associated with the supplier that abuses the rights of its employees. In this essay we need to discuss the arguments, made by each party involved in this controversy and evaluate them from different moral perspectives, like Utilitarianism and Kantian ethics. These ethical theories can be used as effective tools to assess the behavior of private and public organizations.

The argument, made by various stakeholders The government

In order to discuss this conflict of interest, one should first understand the controversial nature of sweatshops. This is one of those social phenomena that existed virtually in every country, even in advanced economies at a certain point of time. Certainly in such countries as the United States, the United Kingdom, or Germany they disappeared in the first half of the twentieth century, as the quality of living improved and private businesses could no longer dictate their terms to the workers (Balonze, 2004).

However, in developing countries such practice is still very widespread because the bargaining power of workers is not strong enough and they cannot choose from a great variety of employers. One should also bear in mind that Asian economies are growing at such a rapid pace mostly due to the cheapness of labor, and the governments of these countries are not particularly interested in the eradication of sweatshops.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thing is that the adoption of stringent labor laws may eventually force international investors out of the country (Balonze, 2004, p 77). The most dangerous thing is that a great number of people can lose their only source of income, if the local labor legislation is changed. This ambiguous nature of sweatshops is the main reason why this case is contradictory.

Naturally, one should not assume that the government cannot do anything to stop this exploitation of employees, for example, they can impose fines on YFO. Yet, the problem is that it will be easier for the management to pay these fines rather than adopt a new attitude toward workers. Under the circumstances, the government is guided by utilitarian ethics.

According to this doctrine, every action which promotes the well-being of the entire community can be justified, even if they harm a limited group of people (Gensler et al, 2004 unpaged). They may defend their policies by arguing in the following way: if government increases pressure on the management of YFO, the company will have to reduce the volume of its output or even worse, its services will no longer be required by the international corporations like LG, Samsung, and Qualcomm.

In the long term, it may result in the reduction of the staff. So, to some extent, utilitarianism or consequentialism, as it is also known, can be used to justify their argument. Still, one should not suppose that utilitarianism is the only way of looking at this problem.

For instance, if one applies Kantian interpretation of moral, the governmental policies will no longer seem morally permissible. It should be taken into consideration that Kantian ethics also emphasizes the motives, underlying any action, rather than its consequences (Sullivan, 1994). This ethical theory postulates that in order to determine the moral worth of any action or behavior a person should think of what would happen if this behavior becomes universal (Sullivan, 1994).

In other words, one should think of what would happen if sweatshop became the most widespread type of workplace and the employers received a chance of exploiting workers with impunity. It seems that in this case the quality of living in Taiwan will greatly deteriorate. Therefore, from this viewpoint, the government’s indifference is morally impermissible and even harmful to the community. This discussion shows that the same action can have various moral and ethical interpretations.

The management of Young Fast Optoelectronics and the company’s partners

The management of Young Fast Optoelectronics also takes a utilitarian approach to this problem. They are primarily concerned with financial and operational performance of the enterprise, rather than well-being of the employees. They argue that by raising labor standards in the organization, for instance by paying additional compensation to the employees and reducing the working hours, they will make the company less attractive to their foreign partners. Moreover, they will be forced to dismiss a great number of workers.

We will write a custom Essay on The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To some degree, they follow a rule, formulated by Nicolo Machiavelli who argued that “the ends justified the means” (Benner, 2009, p 359). The core principle of this philosophy is that even an immoral action can be acceptable, if it will contribute to the common good (Benner, 2009).

Under the circumstances the notion of common good can be understood as financial and operational performance of the company. One should not forget that over the last several years, the value of the company’s stock has risen dramatically, and each of the administrators, engineers and supervisors received a bonus, whereas workers were not compensated for their effort in any way (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged).

Therefore, we can argue that the policies of the management cannot be justified even from utilitarian perspective. Utilitarian ethics set stress on the fact that the action is moral only if it benefits the majority, rather a limited group of people, while in this case, the workers, who represent the majority, are put in an underprivileged position.

Kantian ethics also does not enable us to vindicate such strategies because they have nothing to do with moral duty and with concern for people’s welfare; more likely, this is just a pursuit of profit. Actually, it is very difficult to find any ethical theory that would help the management of YFO to defend their position because virtually every ethical theory strongly relies on the so-called golden rule, according to which one should treat others as he/she wants to be treated.

As it has been mentioned before, YFO is a leading supplier of such internationally-known corporations as Qualcomm, LG, Samsung and so forth.

They prefer the services of this organization because it provides the best price-quality ratio; however, they do not pay much attention to the human resource management of YFO. Again, from legal standpoint, they are not obliged to do it. However, many of them emphasize their responsible corporate behavior, while this indifference to the needs of Taiwanese workers can really tarnish their public image.

These stakeholders also adopt utilitarian point of view to this problem because the main purpose of these international corporation is the maximization of revenues, and partnership with YFO is probably the best way to do it. Nonetheless, in the long term such strategy can significantly affect their profitability because more and more people, living in advanced countries, are growing more aware such notion as ethical consumption, and they pay attention to the environmental and human resource policies of the enterprise.

The employees

Finally, we need to speak about the most important group of stakeholders, the employees. In part, we have already presented their argument: they believe that despite the improvement of company’s performance, they felt no positive change (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, they claim that the management entirely disregards their civil rights. One of the workers formulates his complaints in the following way: “I wonder why all the glory always goes to the top tier of the company, while the workers at the bottom, who sacrificed our health and our time with the family, are always maltreated and ignored?” (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged).

Their choice is very limited: they can either comply with managerial demands or leave the company and lose the only source of revenue. The most unfortunate thing is that domestic laws do not protect these people properly, and the only group that can really support them is international companies which collaborate with Young Fast Optoelectronics. The management of YFO does want to such partners, and they will, certainly pay attention to the opinion of these companies.

Discussion Overall, this case exemplifies one of the greatest moral dilemmas, faced by modern companies which now can operate in globalized environment. On the one hand, the erasure of national borders and absence of any restrictions on free trade give them a good opportunity to maximize their profits. Yet, very often this improved performance is based on the exploitation of workers, who are put almost in subhuman conditions.

As it has been shown in the previous section, several ethical approaches can be used to solve this dilemma, and we can say neither Utilitarianism nor Kantian ethics can give a loophole for justifying these policies; this includes each of the stakeholders: the local government, the management of YFO, and international partners of this company. The most dangerous thing is that there are very few ways of influencing these people.

Still, it should be borne in mind that nowadays such notion as ethical consumerism is becoming more and more popular. It means that modern customers can boycott the products of those manufactures which do try to meet the employees’ demands and even exploit these people as it is done by the management of YFO (Guido, 2009). The key issue is that consumers, who live in advanced countries, may refuse to buy the mobile phones, produced at the factories of Young Fast Optoelectronics.

This will certainly have an adverse effect the bottom line of many companies that are closely connected with Young Fast Optoelectronics. Therefore, it is possible for us to say that this exploitation of Taiwanese workers is not only immoral, but it may also be economically unsound. This is why Taiwanese government as well as the partners of YFO should force the management to hear the voices of employees and address their needs.

Conclusion The application of various ethical theories to organizational conflict helps to better understand the reasoning and policies of private businesses. More importantly, the use of these theories can assist us in finding solutions the conflicts which occur between the management of the company, its employees, and the government.

The case that has been analyzed illustrates that the globalized economy gives almost unlimited freedom to private organization. Unfortunately, this freedom is frequently abused by the management, as it is done in Young Fast Optoelectronics. Ethical consumerism and responsible corporate behavior are the only methods of affecting such businesses and forcing them to improve the working conditions.

References Balonze J. 2006. Debating Globalization. London: Gyan Publishing House.

Benner. E.2009. Machiavelli’s ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gensler. H. Spurgin E. Swindal J. 2004. Ethics: contemporary readings. London: Routledge.

Good Electronics. 2010. “Taiwanese electronics workers fight for their rights”. Accessed from

Guido. G. (2009) Behind Ethical Consumption: Purchasing Motives and Marketing Strategies for Organic Food Products, Non-Gmos, Bio-Fuels. NY: Peter Lang.

Sullivan. R. 1994. An introduction to Kant’s ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trade Union of Young Fast Optoelectronics. 2010 Fact Sheets Regarding the Struggle of Young Fast Optoelectronics Trade Union (YFOTU). Retrieved from:


Kinship system of the San community Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Kinship by definition is the most basic principle of doing classification of people while putting them into social groupings, responsibilities and categories factoring in marriage together with parentage as key elements of the classifications: this is a common scenario in the society of human beings.

The San community which is known to reside in the vast Kalahari Desert is an example of foraging and horticultural societies in the world that perfected the kinship practice where they give a lot of attention to the naming system: they consider anyone with the same name to be a member of the family and must be coming from lineage of a particular ancestor.

The kinship system of The San is unique; the system is in a way that it provides social safety to the community members as well as economic security. Families are able to survive in several conditions courtesy of this system. The ability a member of the San community to go even the furthest distance that one could imagine and still get a family member is to a great extent extraordinary.

They rely on namesake kin approach to identify the perceived family member where, if you go to that furthest end and get someone with the same name then that person would have no choice but to accept you as a relative and cater for all your needs; this is very important especially when one goes to look for employment in far places.

The family structure of the San composes of nuclear set-up type of a family which relies on passing of the kinship from the parents to children to form a linkage and also bring together people of the community into groupings. There exists two patterns for the linkage identification; one being the unilateral type of linkage which is the progress of the relationship through mothers and fathers and the other type is the bilateral which involves the groupings.

The naming system of the San community was not just used in identifying a blood relative in a far distance place but was also used during marriage.

During marriage, it was important that the linage of the man and women be looked at; that was simple by studying their names where one of the partner was not supposed to bear the name of one’s parent because, by them having same name means they were related hence no marriage could take place. All the strict rules were meant to avoid incent which is the marriage of close relatives. It was a great taboo to marry a close relative.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The marriages which occurred between unrelated individuals played a big role in widening the base in term of number of relatives; it created strong bonds between the new found wider relationship and that gave space to anyone from the two new found bigger community to have the opportunity to be accommodated anywhere especially during hard moments like when was searching for employment.

Despite my perception that the kinship system of the San community is a beautiful one, it is not practiced to the latter in the current society. Improvement in technology is all to blame for the difference. Nowadays, the similarity in genotype is all that is needed to determine if an individual is a close relative as opposed to the naming system of the San community.

The structure of the family has also changed where the San community knew family as union of man and wife and of different lineages, but the current society accommodates practices like gay and lesbianism and even worse, one could get siblings marrying.


“The Culture of Celebrity” by Epstein Joseph Essay college admissions essay help

In this essay, the author seeks to address the issue of celebrities which has become very pervasive in contemporary America. The author begins by expounding that the world “culture” no longer holds its original meaning but rather has evolved to mean the general emotional atmosphere that surrounds a particular word to which the term is attached.

The article goes on to articulate the difference between being famous and being a celebrity. It states that fame is earned through talent or achievements while being a celebrity achieved through broadcasting of one’s achievement or by cultivating something which may pass for achievement.

The article derides celebrities of appearing to have brilliant accomplishment while most of them don’t have any worthwhile accomplishments or talents.

For this, the celebrities are accused of fraudulence. According to the article, celebrities purport to live our fantasies and as such, are the nearest thing to a god for most people. However, the author also suggests that people loathe celebrities and wish to see them fall from grace. It is for this reason that tabloids such as the Star and the National Enquirer are full of stories of the troubles of the rich and famous.

The author reveals that being a celebrity in present day is different than it was in the previous decades as the intensity of the celebrity-creating institutes has changed. While in the olden days stars were afforded some privacy, today’s paparazzi, gutter-press and television invade the lives of the celebrities. Also, the author notes that while in the past people used to pay off the media to avoid talking about them or making them celebrities, money is presently used to buy celebrity.

The author also discusses the class of academic celebrity who are not necessarily genuine scholars but rather people who gained the right exposure to the public through television or radio programs. The author especially decries the celebrity culture among intellects and other literally figures whom he asserts should be the aristocrats of the spirit and not promoters of the work that they write. Epstein says that while authors aim to acquire more readers, their primary objective should be producing good works

“Death to film critics! Hail to the CelebCult!” by Roger Ebert,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this article, the author laments the replacing of the articulate thought provoking film critics with non-intelligent gossip on celebrities. The article begins by praising the role that film critics played as warning bells. However, the author notes that now the critics have been reduced to gossip mongers.

The article highlights the change in direction that the American newspapers have taken with emphasis being laid on focusing on the celebrity items that readers are interested in. As such, newspapers will emphasis more on celebrity news which instills poor values in the youth. The article contrasts the 1950s scenario where celebrities enjoyed some privacy to the current scenario where they are hounded by press personnel.

A major issue that Ebert highlights is the phenomenon of big newspapers firing film critics and more attention being paid to ignorant gawking. The author notes how more newspapers have done away with the traditional film critics opting for critics who “reflect the taste of the reader”. This is as opposed to the primary role of film critics which is to encourage critical thinking and introducing new development to being of lascivious gossips.

The article notes that while in the past newspapers used to act as weathermen on social trends and encourage critical thinking, they have now fallen to covering senseless gossip. These non-intelligent stories are favored since it is allegedly what the people want to know and hence the newspapers aim to remain relevant to their readers.

The author concludes by remarking that the celebrity culture which is prevalent in America is turning us into infants and eradicating critical thinking. The sign to this is the doing away with the intelligent and critical film critics and replacing them with the

“Return of the brainless hussies” Traister Rebecca This article by Traister addresses the issue of stupid women being projected as sexy and desirable in mainstream media. The article begins by demonstrating how Paris Hilton has achieved widespread fame and celebrity status by presenting herself as a very stupid girl to the public. This is despite her being a role model to many young girls. The author suggests that playing dumb seemingly makes a girl admirable and hence acceptable by Americans.

The article also records the findings of the author in her research on the effects that the current celebrity culture could be having on the teens. The author records that the material that is available in the teen books is not as ant-intellectuals as critics suggest and the teen literature is sound and of value to the readers. The article suggests that people should be more concerned about the impression they create to teens through their behavior since this examples have a bigger impact that books or magazines.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Culture of Celebrity” by Epstein Joseph specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author also addressed the craze for celebrity and the propagation of stupid-girl which results in most celebrities portraying themselves as dumb in public. The article question the values that celebrities are instilling in teens since one can become a celebrity for simply losing weight.

The article notes that the American public does not make women celebrities based on their intellect. It goes on to highlights how some of the best known women celebrities attained this status by posing dumb questions or out of their ignorance. This is retrogressive in nature and a step away from the liberalization which the feminist movement championed. The author concludes by stating that it is the media which is guilty of portraying the blonde dumb girls as sexy therefore playing into the male ego and feelings of superiority.

Crafting Your Image for Your 1,000 Friends on Facebook or MySpace by Wolpert Stuart In this article, the author explores the role that social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace place in creation of identity by the youth. The article suggests that the youth are creating idealized versions of themselves on these sites and then striving to achieve these versions.

This is a very important function especially since it helps them explore their emerging identities and gauge public reaction to the same. As such, the article praises the role that social networking sites are playing in self-development among the youth. The article declares that we are always engaged in self-presentation and social networking sites allow us to do this at a higher level.

The article notes that as a result of social networking sites, the meaning of friendship has been watered down as people who are mere acquaintances are grouped as friends. These sites devalue real friendships and negate the needs of face-to-face relations. This results in detachment as people use the sites as a stage where they are performing to an audience as opposed to being real. However, this performance results in one experimenting on different things until they get their own identity.

The article suggests that social networking sites are inappropriate for children under the age of 10. In any case, the article insists that children should keep a close watch of their children as they interact with others and ensure that they discuss online safety issues so as to ensure they are not harassed online.

The article highlights the fact that privacy is infringed on by social networking sites since events can be broadcasted without someone’s consent. However, the article also claims that the sites can strengthen existing relationship by giving people who would otherwise have no ways of keeping in touch a means by which to do so. The article also states that these sites assist people with lower self-esteem by helping them overcome this barrier and have a larger network of friends.


Ethical Manager Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The Role of an Ethical Manager

Ethical Managers and Ethical Dilemmas in Organizations

Business Examples of Ethical Management



Introduction The purpose of this essay is to discuss whether an ethical manager is someone who identifies and effectively manages ethical dilemmas within an organization. To better understand the purpose of an ethical manager within an organization, the concept of ethics needs to de defined and understood. Ethics in organizations and businesses involves identifying what is right or wrong within an organization and then determining to do the right thing.

The concept of business ethics has began to be a common practice in most organizations as many managers try to ensure that their employees are doing the right thing in the workplace. Organizational ethics are important to every organization as they provide the necessary foundation for business operations and systems. The modern concept of business ethics is based on individual and collective judgement on what are proper business ethics when it comes to conducting business transactions and activities.

Business ethics encompasses social factors, environmental factors such as technology, economy and political issues, sustainability, the effects of globalization on the company, the society and the well being of employees.

The role of the ethical manager in an organization is to ensure that business ethics are observed within the organization especially during times of fundamental change such as economic downturns, mergers and acquisitions, bankruptcies or foreclosures. Such periods of fundamental change are usually marked with the questioning of the organization’s values and beliefs with some of these values being abandoned.

There is usually no moral compass that can be used by organizational leaders and managers during such times to ensure that complex dilemmas that are right or wrong have been identified and dealt with. Attention to business ethics in the workplace ensures that managers and employees have been sensitized on how they should act ethically during times of crisis or confusion. The role of the ethical manager therefore becomes to manage ethics within an organization or business setting (Samson


Asian Women in Films Term Paper essay help free

Introduction It is widely known that the media plays a major role in determining how people interact in our societies as well as how they think. Movies, television programs and shows as well as the print media mirror the societal norms and what it considers important[1]. The media has for a long time misrepresented Asian women especially in the United States. Although the population of Asians living in the United States continues to grow, they are still considered as the minority group.

Presenting Asian women as sex objects is worrisome because apart from misrepresenting them, stereotyping is also endorsed. As noted, the media plays a major role in determining how people in a society perceive things; in the same way it makes people to have false beliefs about these women. The film “Dragon Lady” portrays Asian women as having sexual appeal, exotic, calm and pretty; all these elements may not always hold true for the entire population of Asian women.

It is easy for people to meet an Asian woman and make her a representative of other women of Asian origin; however it is important to know that each of these women is unique in her own ways. It is unfortunate that the Asian women not only have to carry the burden of how they are misrepresented in films but also the beliefs held by the society concerning women in general[2].

Historical Background The culture of stereotyping Asian women in films can be traced back to the colonial period. Colonization can be defined as ownership of something. Many writers argue that Asian women were viewed as goods that can be possessed[3]. They were portrayed as people without an identity. A clip in the film “Ancestors in the Americas” regards Asian women who migrated into the Untied States as a single unit[4].

This implies that they were all the same hence individual differences were disregarded, if one of them acted in an unacceptable manner, she could be used as a representative of the entire Asian women population. Asian women are brought out as sexual objects by the military soldiers in the war films. The media has played an active role in supporting stereotypes in the society through films that are aired. The characters of these women tend to be more on the negative side than on the positive.

In ancient times, women were seen as meek beings who conducted themselves in a way that showed that they were lowly. She was expected to have some skills so that she could get along well with her husband[5].

Three things were done on the third day after a baby girl was born: placing the baby below the bed, giving her a broken pot which she was expected to play with, and announcing her birth. Laying the baby below the bed indicated that she is submissive and simple meaning that she had the responsibility of humbling herself before others. By giving her the broken pot, the society expected her to provide labor and be hard working. Announcing her birth to the ancestors gave her the responsibility of continuity and monitoring worship at home[6].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These ancient customs characterized a simple way of life of the women and the ancient rites and rules. A woman was expected to act in a way that proved that she was meek and humble in the society particularly when it came to dealing with men[7]. A woman was expected to be morally upright so that she could serve her husband better. Films that feature ancient times prove this since they clearly bring out the role that women played.

Cho Heajong, a student who went to the United Stated to take a graduate degree tells of her experience with the women in America[8]. She says that women who were considered “sexy” could get whatever they wanted from men since they used their sexual appeal to seduce men. On weekends, those who were considered beautiful could go out with men leaving behind those who were considered “ugly”.

This behavior was shocking since those who did not have dates were depressed because they felt unloved. Women who came to study here had to pamper themselves to look pretty so that they could at least have a date[9]. Foreigners like Koreans and Asians could be affected by peer pressure since they wanted to fit in. Those who did not agree to be led astray were considered backward and ugly.

It is from here that women from Asian origin also engaged in sexual relationships with Americans so that they could feel powerful like other women. The men were more powerful since they had better education and were lucky to land in good jobs. Generational changes have not changed the way people perceive women since it is hard to come across men seeking attention by using their sexual appeal.

Although women in the ancient world were seen as meek they were motherly and they were a sign of peace in the society, after this generation came a mother’s generation that was characterized by aggressive women who could manage their businesses well, later there emerged a generation that was characterized by women who were caught between motherly love and independence[10].

One thing that characterizes these women is that they have been seen as lesser beings by the society despite their efforts to reach a point of self-actualization. That is why the modern day films will portray Asian women as sex objects despite the efforts to stop this vice[11].

Films produced between 1950s and 1960s portray Asian women as evil goddesses. They are seen as cunning hence they get what they want through socially unacceptable means.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Asian Women in Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from being seen as prostitutes, the movies objectify the Asian women characters by making them to appear having slanting eyes, swollen hips, kinky dark hair, and white skin which has been made darker by makeup. “The world of Suzie Wong” is a movie with an Asian woman depicted as a prostitute; she is desperately in love with a man who does not love her as much as she does.

Many films either depict Asian women as sexual objects or oppressed. These women are paradoxically given two choices: to be primitive and desperate or to be deceitful and morally corrupt.

They are rarely portrayed as sophisticated women who are sure of what they want for their life like their white counterparts. The stereotype is deeply rooted since it owes it origin to the colonial period. This vice could have been there before the colonial times since the society discriminated women and saw men as superior to them, women were therefore oppressed[12].

The play “The return of an old Acquaintance on a Rainy Night” attempts to show that women are independent beings hence they can make decisions without depending on someone else’s opinion. The phrase “Woman is not the moon” suggests that she will not depend on someone else’s brightness to brighten herself[13].

She can comfortably rely on herself to shine. This film aimed at warning or enlightening those who saw women as lacking an identity or as commodities that could be possessed. This film is opposed to the idea of using a small portion of the population to represent the entire population.

The Modern representation Although there has been great efforts to counter the stereotypes on Asian women in the modern world, research shows that sexploitation of Asian women is still noticeable[14]. Although the number of films misrepresenting Asian women has reduced, there are still some films that depict the same. In the clip “How many Asian American Actors can you name?” many students interviewed only named a few Asian women, in addition, those that were mentioned played roles that were stereotypical.

Lucy Liu is a renowned Asian American actor whose character has raised controversy, while some see her as an icon other view her as a curse. She plays a sexually charged role in “Ally Mcbeal” where she is depicted as a sex addict who uses sex to exploit men to get whatever she wants.

Some see her role in this film as one that attempt to enlighten the society about the sexploitation of Asian women while others argue that she comes out as an icon who is able to identify opportunities and exploit them to her advantage. Still, it is evident that whatever the intended message, her role depicts her as a sexual object; a trait that is assumed to be inherent in majority of Asian women.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Women in Films by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The conflicting opinions have not affected her popularity since she still remains to be one of the most celebrated Asian American actors. It is hard to change people’s thoughts concerning the issue of stereotypes since they have already been made to believe that whenever an Asian woman is given a role in a film, it must be sexually inclined[15].

Examples of movies/films that feature Asian women and their roles The characters described below feature in films that depict their sexual powers. It is evident that all of them play roles that portray them as exotic, cunning or sex objects. These are just but few examples that aim at proving than indeed Asian women are misrepresented in the film industry. The image of Asian women is tainted since the society tends to view the character’s behavior as a representation of the behavior pattern of the entire population of Asian women.

One thing that is evident is that despite having other positive traits, the negative ones are emphasized more than the positive ones. Emphasis on this aspect makes the society to disregard the positive aspects since the films tend to focus more on the negative aspects. Evidently this aspect makes the movies more interesting hence the playwright has to present them as such. The following are some of the examples[16]

In the movie “Charlie’s Angles” Lucy Liu stars as Alex Munday. She is one of the agents working for a strange detective. Alex is among the three agents who work for the detective. They tend to wear tight fitting clothes while working to fight crime. She is portrayed as independent, brave and sexy.

Ziyi Zhang stars in the movie “Memoirs” as character Chiyo. She is hopeful that she will become a Geisha in Japan. She identifies herself with wealthy patrons with whom she has sexual relationships. She appears to have beautiful blue eyes, a stunning physique and is talented in dancing.

The movie “2003 film X2” features Kelly Hu who plays the role of Lady Deathstrike. She is seen as evil since she is determined to kill her boyfriend. The playwright objectifies her presenting her with robotic limbs while her fingers have razor-sharp claws. She is brought out as having supernatural powers due to her great speed and strength. The clothes she wears are tight and suggestive of her sexual powers.

Isabella is a character in the movie “Miami Vice”, her real name is Li Gong. She has a sexual relationship with Ricardo Tubbs, an undercover agent who is in search of drug lords. She is portrayed as pretty, exotic, and a threat.

Hollywood versus Asian women Hollywood movies tend to be more inclined to fantasies than reality. This aspect works best for viewers who do not have a rich background of the Asian culture. The directors of this film industry have a way of manipulating the process of film-making. For a long time, Hollywood has portrayed the image of Asian women to the world.

It is unfortunate that most of the people who produce these films have little information concerning the Asian culture and its women. The films produced are stereotypical since they portray Asian women as exotic mistresses.

Among the movies that have misrepresented Asian women include “The last Samurai”, “The world of Suzie Wong”, and “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” all of them have been produced by Hollywood directors and in some way, they do not depict the true nature of Asian women. Hollywood has a big market for its products hence these films are watched by many people across the globe; this means that they influence many people since they are easily accessible.

The Asian women are depicted as dependent hence they regard their white counterparts as their only saviors. They are brought out as poor and having no sense of identity. Their plight makes them to fall in love with American men since they believe that they can make their dreams come true. These women hold that once they marry the white men, they automatically climb up the social ladder. The American man will be attracted by her obedient nature hence he will be sure that he will dominate her.

The films will often show the American man feeling superior and having a conviction that he can manipulate her as he wishes. The women are subject to maltreatment since they have been given a chance to realize their “American Dream” by the white man. She acts according to what she has been told. Some of the films even suggest that these women are there to be seen but not to be heard.

The movie “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” by Henry King features an Asian woman, Doctor Han Suyin, who falls in love with a married journalist. Their love is affected by the journalist’s wife, their cultures, racial discrimination and political factors. Initially, Suyin was an independent woman who did not need a man to take care of her.

At some point, she turns into a meek and a submissive character ready to give in to a man’s demands. Many characters in the movie are opposed to this relationship because of the cultural differences. As the movie ends, the director’s message is passed well since he proposes that Asians and American should not have interpersonal relationships[17].

The movie “The World of Suzie Wong” directed by Richard Quine is also a Hollywood production that stereotypes Asian women. Suzie Wong is presented as a prostitute who was initially pretends to be a Chinese seducer. To climb the ladder and gain more power among her colleagues, she attempts to seduce Robert Lomax, a famous artist to sleep with her.

She comes out as a sex object who seeks empowerment through sleeping with men. Later in the film, she transforms into a desperate woman who cannot support herself unless she is supported by a man. She is a Hollywood stereotype since she is ready to act as a slave who does exactly as told without questioning.

The stereotype is further evidenced by the fact that she her language is poor and wanting. This is seen in instances where she attempts to communicate in English but exempts articles. Her language is poor to the extent at some point; it becomes hard to understand what she intends to communicate. By portraying her that way, viewers can be tempted to think that all Asians speak in broken English although this does not apply to all.

This makes people to have misconceptions which can be hard to prove wrong since as stated earlier, the media plays a major role in determining how people think[18]. It is interesting to note that once people watch two or more films that depict Asian women as sex objects they conceive a misconception that is hard to erase or to make them to see the issue from a different angle.

Conclusion The art of cinematography has been misrepresenting Asian women for a long time. The women are either depicted as sexual objects or lacking a sense of identity. Historically, Asian women were portrayed as lesser beings.

The issue of misrepresenting these women started way before the colonial era since women were still degraded. During the war, Asian women were used as sex objects by the soldiers. Although there has been efforts to reduce the number of films that misrepresent Asian women, these efforts have not been fruitful since the films are still produced.

Hollywood is one of the best selling film producers. It is also known to produce films that undermine the Asian culture and its women. The women are portrayed as submissive and sexual objects. They desperately fall in love with Americans so that they can realize their “American Dream” In the ancient world; women were seen as lesser beings that could be easily manipulated by men.

Bibliography Chao, Ban Zhao Pan. Lessons for a woman. New York: Century Co., 1932.

Chen, Edith Wen-Chu. Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today. New Jersey: ABC-CLIO, 2010

Danico, Mary Yu and Ng, Franklin. Asian American issues. California: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

Haejoang, Cho. Living with conflicting mother, motherly wife, and sexy women in the transition from colonial-modern to postmodern Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002.

Hamamoto, Darrell. Countervisions: Asian American film criticism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

Honig, Emily and Hershatter, Gail. Personal Voices (women). California: Stanford University Press, 1988

Honig, Emily and Hershatter. Personal Voices (Family relations). California: Stanford University Press, 1988.

Huang, Guiyou. Asian American literary studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

Knapp, Ronald and Lo, Kai-yin. The inner quarters: Oppression or freedom. Santa Barbra: University of California, 2005.

Larson, Stephanie Greco. Media


The Causes of Stress in the Contemporary Society Term Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Stress affects various aspects of life, the current generation experiences stress in various fields which include; at home, within learning institutions, employment offices and every social gathering places. Everyone within the society undergoes stress, is has become common experience to people’s daily lives. Those at the various fields of sport, those driving heavy vehicles and doing types of work that involves heavy use of physical and mental energy.

All these people live under constant mental torture and stress. One unique characteristic of these people is that they are capable of handling the situations they find themselves under, because of their capability to identify causal mechanisms. The paper determines the causes of stress in the contemporary society. All the factors leading to certain stresses fully depend on certain conditions and environmental factors.

Theories of motivation and how they are used to motivate employees Motivation contributes towards productivity and level of activeness of employees. It also contributes towards keenness and gives an individual sense of moral value and dignity. Without motivation, there is loss of morale in performing certain duties and also sense of belonging.

Capability with which an individual perform duties depends on the knowledge he has and the level of training he/she has received. Motivation works so quickly depending on the recipient. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start

“There exists is a gap between an individuals actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. It is inducing others in a specific way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator.

Naturally, these goals and also the motivation system must conform to the corporate policy of the organization. The motivation system must be tailored to the situation and to the organization” (Edwards et al, 1998, pp 28). Different views have emerged on the principles of motivating employees at work. There are some commonly known theories that have been used for quite some time (French, Caplan and Harrison, 1982).

Fredrick Taylor Taylor argued that workers could only be motivated through payment. The theory of scientific management he argued addressed some crucial issues concerning workers. He argued that employees do not naturally enjoy work therefore calling for close supervision for perfect work to be done.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This calls for managers at various capacities to develop process breakdown that entails different tasks performed. He further argued that despite all these employees should be equipped through appropriate training methods and equipments that enable them to perform their duties effectively.

Payment should be made based on the level of performance and time taken to complete a task. This means that all workers get motivated to maximize on their potential. This theory presented organizations with the aspect of realizing high productivity level at lower costs. It helped in the area of delegating duties within an organization.

Mayo These theorists believed that employees other than money, employees could be motivated by taking care of their social needs at the work place. This theory called for all managers to consider workers as fellow human beings.

The management team should have that heart of focusing on workers deep interests and be ready to understand, recognize their general contributions. Mayo believed that employees could better be motivated through various means such as good communication links, greater manager involvement and working as a team” (Edwards et al, 1998, pp 28-67).

Maslow Maslow categorized employee needs into five levels, according to him these levels must always receive maximum satisfaction for efficiency to be realised in the work place. The theory argues that unless one need is fully met, it presents some difficulty for the employee to be motivated towards next level.

This call for organizations to offer some kinds of incentives to individuals that enables them fulfils their needs. However, workers are motivated at different levels leading to differences in pace of movement up the hierarchy. This means that different set of incentives could be offered depending on the nature of the employees.

Maslow argued that the highest state of human level is characterized by several human virtues which include integrity of character. “His prescription for human salvation is simple, but not easy: ‘Hard work and total commitment to doing well the job that fate or personal destiny calls you to do or any important job that “calls for” doing” (Edwards et al, 1998, pp 28-67).

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Causes of Stress in the Contemporary Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Herzberg Herzberg theory argued that besides every strategy any business lays, there were always certain factors that when applied could lead motivation of employees. Consequently, there were other factors that could lead to employee de-motivation leading to laziness.

He argued that democratic management approach could lead to employee motivation within any business organization. The managers could adopt some several methods which include expansion of jobs, employee empowerment through work delegation and presenting employees with opportunities to perform challenging but interesting tasks that guarantees their growth.

Effects of previous life experiences, different management styles, organizational culture, social culture and family Some level of stress is considered normal since it at times provides people with the energy and motivation to cope with life’s challenges both within families and work place. This kind of Stress assists individuals to overcome life’s challenges and meet their life and organization targets.

Some view challenges positively, they would not consider it strange and hence receive it with joy. However, frequent stresses have negative impact on an individual’s health. Persistent frustrations reveal negative signs of stress (Cordes and Dougherty, 1993).

Detailed analysis of stress at work and the different causes of stress such as environmental factors, economical factors and individual factors

Work plays a role in people’s lives and brings about crucial influences on their general health. Salaried employment has contributed much to the people’s day to day livelihood. Employment sometimes become very wonderful experience to individuals and at times presents some level of stress.

Stress produced from work, always demand for more energy and time. This means that all employees irrespective of their status are subject to either good or negative aspects of employment. There is a relationship that exists between work, mental and physical health which is an essential part towards career adjustment as well as productivity within organizations (Cohen et al, 1997).

There are several causes of stress some of which include; threats caused by poor working conditions. The fear of dismissal from the work place, the rate and certainty of change. The level of relationships within the organization also causes stress since it can sometimes lead to junior employees being harassed by their seniors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Causes of Stress in the Contemporary Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Stress can also be caused by pressure due to unreasonable deadlines and acquisition of new methods of management or technology. The demands for the employee’s adaptation and acceptance sometimes call for unnecessary conditions. These may further be attributed to compliance with tough proposals from frequent meetings and the means and ways of acting upon performance feedback. Sometimes stress arises from frustrations caused by poor communication links, lack of motivation from the senior employers.

Overlooking employees small improvements and often go without recognition. This may also be as a result of poor training received for a particular position. However, major stress can be caused by emotional losses, fear of some unknown physical danger. Some also through major accidents and loss of employment (Cohen et al, 1986).

Look at different organizational structures and see how they may affect stress at the work place. It is important to look at different views that exist on stress

The manner in which managers handle stress in their employees’ influences the duration of the employees absence and any arising costs. The salaries given to employees act as substitutes to the level of stress they undergo while. Part of the payment is related to time off work and training services.

It is necessary to solve employee related problems to avoid stressful circumstances. Possible agreements and resolutions should be made prior to occurrence of any problem. But most importantly, the effective managers require deep understanding of particular employee activities and link it with the right kind of stressor. This reduces the chances of causing lots of harm to workers. The nature of attention given to employees by their managers determines how successful problems are resolved (Edwards et al, 1998, pp 28-67).

Stressors are responded to by increasing and triggering immediate series of hormonal changes. These changes may either be adaptive, as with increased energy and performance or maladaptive as with increased turnover, increased health-related benefit costs, increased absence, or increased aggression on the part of employees.

Stressors weaken the immune systems, life satisfaction and happiness to decrease, the risk of heart disease to increase, and the rate with which cancer develops to increase (Cohen et al, 1986). For these reasons, we need to better understand how organizational choices influence individual stress (Harrison, 1985).

Research on the effects and causes of stress within work place was considered since it lead to creation of clear roles and duties. Since that time, many current theories have been offered to guide researchers interested in the relationship between organizational or occupational stressors and resulting strains or illnesses, between stressors and coping choices (Lazarus, 1966), the underlying psychological appraisal processes, and the causes of organizational burnout (Harrison, 1985).

There is a relationship between organizational stress and a post-stressor outcome or response. This relationship has enabled slow reaction towards stress preventive measures within an organization leading to strengthening of the issue.

Look at different variables that will influence an individual’s stress levels. These could be a range of factors from personality differences, perception and social support

Stress arises as a result of emotional interference, physical activities, social and economic situations that require rapid responses to change. Some levels of stresses are considered healthy since they enable an individual to discover new things and crucial areas in life. The danger lies when stress comes in magnitude too big to handle. Workplace stress can be attributed to the demands between emotional and physical demand within a specific job. This requires some level of control for which when exceeded leads to individual stress.

These combinations of high demands can sometimes lead to harmful responses both to the individual and the organization at large. An individual’s personality conflict with other people within social set-up contributes to some percentage of workplace stress sometimes leading to mental illness. There are indeed several causes of stress within the workplace which can cause negative effects within working (French, Rogers and Cobb, 1974).

Why it is important to manage the employees stress levels and the possible consequences of having a stressed work force and how it may affect their performance and consequently the performance of the organization

It is important to manage employee stress since it helps the management in identifying and addressing the issue in the workplace. The management helps the employees to come to terms with the reality of facing some unexpected events within the working place. For instance, good number of employees may refuse to accept that they are stressed or fear losing their current positions within the organizations. This leads them to more damage to personal life and even the working environment at large (Driskell and Salas, 1996).

Scheduling training in which multiple sessions are involved is necessary. Organizations should regularly schedule training sessions throughout the year, varying time, location, and format. It may be that women would experience lower overall stress if these training sessions were blocked together in a single time frame in a common environment and followed a common structure.

High level of stress leads to significant health effects. These are also experienced in jobs done on shifts and those done part-time. The kind of job done determines whether the risk one is exposed to either result in short or long illnesses. Research has revealed that taking some rest from work results in high quality of work done.

Those who always perceive their workdays to be stressful take at least frequent one day off within a period of one month. Straining jobs results into poor health conditions which ultimately reduces performance at work place. Majority of the people link active performance with less work and this at times become more insecure in terms of rewards (Chen and Spector, 1991).

High motivation and morale at the work place are affected by the use of drugs. Individuals who use these negative means are often prone to low productivity since they tend to take frequent leaves on the basis of health. The constant short leaves are only appropriate for those with jobs demanding psychological alertness. However, certain aspects of work stress diminish with the increase of protective factors. On the other hand, negative coping behaviours increase the likelihood of taking short-term rests (Edwards et al, 1998, pp 28-67).

Ladies are often prone to stress when they are subjected to vigorous working conditions. This is unlike men who are always highly motivated and have got the ability to contain their situations (Geary, 1998). They should be subjected to some light training on how to manage effectively their working hours without being subjected to unnecessary stress. At the same time they should be discouraged from using drugs as means of lowering stress from work place (French, Caplan, and Harrison, 1982).

References List Chen, P. Y.,


Saudi Arabias’ Geopolitical and Socialeconomical Culture Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab country in the Middle East lying in between Europe, Asia and Africa. Its size is approximated at 2,149,690 square kilometers (865,000) square miles, which is about one third the size of the United States. The country is located between the Persian Gulf and the Red sea, bordering Jordan on the north and Iraq on the northern east, Kuwait, Qatar and United Arab Emirates on the east and Yemen on the south and the Sultanate of Oman on the and southeast.

Early history Historically, Saudi Arabia is not considered as the cradle home of the Arabs but the first Arabs are thought to have originally come from the Arabian Peninsula. As far back as 15,000 to 20,000 years ago there is evidence of the existence of human presence in the Arabian Peninsula citing the existence of roaming hunters and gatherers who lived off wild animals and plants.

At the time of the last ice age about 15,000 years back, the Europe ice caps thawed, resulting to great climatic variation in the peninsula. The once immense plains covered with grassland suddenly turned scrublands and arid regions. The river streams evaporated creating dried river beds (commonly known as wadis), which are a common features in peninsula presently.

This harsh climate forced the existing human beings to develop other means of survival as they no longer had animals to hunt because they had vanished. These people then moved to the mountain valleys and oasis and that’s where agriculture is said to have developed and begun in Mesopotamia before it spread to the Nile River Valley and across the Middle East.

The development of agriculture brought about growth of other sectors farmers who started raring animals that included goats, camels, cattle, sheep and horses. These advances led to permanent settlements, which led to the beginning of the modern civilization. Arabian Peninsula became the homeland of Islam, which is the second most practiced faith worldly.

Islam was pioneered by Prophet Muhammad. Around the year, 610, this Muhammad is said to have received messages from God (Allah) through the angle Gabriel to proclaim oneness of God globally and as these revelations continued, so did his followers increase.

In the year 622, Prophet Muhammad learnt of the plan of his assassination than he decided to lead his followers to Yathrib which was later changed to Madint Al-Nabi (City of the Prophet) and now simply it’s referred as Madinah, and this emigration (Hijrah) marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar, the year of the hegira. It marks the time Muhammad fled from Mecca. Muslims use a lunar calendar, meaning their twelve-month year is much shorter than the solar one which the Christians use.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the subsequent years, numerous clashes took place between the “followers of the Prophet Muhammad and the pagans of Makkah”. By 628, the Prophet was able to unify the ethnic groups that he and his followers made an entrance into Makkah without shedding blood, which by this time Madinah was entirely in the hands of the Muslims. However, there was an attempt by the aggressors to take over the peninsula, but finally the peninsula was alienated into various counties.

In 1745, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhabi was urging for the cleansing and reforms in the Islam religion. Concurrently, the Wahhabi faction had dominated the Arabia. By 1811, Wahhabi elders were waging a jihad against the reforms in the Islamic faith in the peninsula, which they succeeded in uniting much of it. By 1818, the Wahhabi people had been subjugated again by the Ottoman Empire and their Egyptians collaborators.

Saudi Arabia kingdom is an almost entire creation of King Ibn Saud (1882-1953) who is a descendant of the Wahhabis leaders and is said to have seized Riyadh in 1901. He then made himself a leader of the Arab nationalist movement whereby he established Wahhabi dominance in Nejd by 1906 and he later conquered Hejaz in 1924-1925. These two kingdoms (Hejaz and Nejd) were merged to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. (Mohammed


Implications of Inter-Religious Dialog Towards A Universal Theology of Religion Term Paper essay help online free

There is need for religions and spiritualities to intercommunicate, so as to learn, and work with one another. Intercommunication attributes greatly to effective contribution of religious groups in making the world a better place to live in. Inter-religious dialogue has been promoted through provision of forums for exchange among different religious groups.

Swidler defines inter-religious dialogue as something new to many people, as it has only been deeply imagined by Christians only, although other followers from different religious groups have decided to collaborate (Swidler 10). The idea of inter-religious dialogue remains as an illusion to many, as they fail to understand how Christians can portray their faith in a way that other religions like Muslims, Hindus and Jews can also understand. Most of people consider this as a way of loosing Christian faith.

However, inter religious dialogue has been considered as the most important matrix to reflect the real meaning of life according to the theology by Christians. The possibility and the need for dialogue has been brought by keen understanding of truth and applying it to theology and other methodical reflections (Porpora, Collier, and Archer 32).

The idea behind the success of inter religious dialogue is different religious groups listening to one another openly with an aim of learning from each other, but not forcing change to one another. The other idea that has made it possible is the recent urge of different religious traditions to seek religious wisdom, truth, and ideas through dialogues. In the past, a dialogue between different religious groups was unheard of, until a century ago when this became as an open discussion.

Inter-religious dialogue should be conducted with courage and sincerity. The parties involved should have freedom and reverence. Due to the fact that the parties in dialogue have different opinions, they should put extra effort to create mutual understanding between them, by tabling all the matters in question, find solution, and thus enrich one another.

There are reasons behind seeking the truth in religion field through dialogue such as, the historicization of truth (Imperato 102). This implies to remove the ideas of truth that existed before the nineteenth century. Any correct statement was believed to be static, and if anything was thought to be true it was believed to be true always. Any fact was also related to anything originating from it.

In nineteenth century, several scholars came to relate the truth with the historical circumstances. The historicizing of the truth advanced with time, and started getting concerned with the future but not the past. The second reason is the sociology of knowledge, whereby all the truth was believed to be on the basis of the culture, social class, or on gender of the perceiver (Swidler 18).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third reason is the limitations of language, whereby all the truthful statements are believed to be part of descriptions of the real thing(s) being described. Its said that although the truth can be seen from all perspectives, human beings can only express issues from only one perspective through the use of language. The fourth reason is hermeneutics, which describes that the full knowledge of a certain text is on the other hand interpretation of the same.

For any inter-religious dialogue to take place effectively, there are some rules that have to be adhered to, the main purpose of initiating the dialogue should be considered by the two parties involved. The second rule is that the inter-religious dialogue must have two parties who are not necessarily from across a faith line but maybe also be coreligionists.

This type of dialogue will enable Christians to share the products of inter-religious dialogue; the whole society would therefore change through learning, and hence global move towards the religion reality. Every party to be involved in the dialogue should be full of honesty and sincerity (Swidler 23).

Every party as well should be aware of its religious traditions both major and minor beliefs. Incase there is a party that is not very sure about its traditions; there should be no room for lies in the dialogue. Another rule for an effective inter-religious dialogue is that ideals of one party should be compared with the ideals of the other party and practices the same. The ideals should never be compared with practices.

In addition, before starting any inter-religious dialogue, the parties to be involved should define themselves well to each other. Its advisable for every party to be involved to state clearly what it takes to be a member of their own religious traditions. All the religious groups can define themselves from outside apart from the Jews who can only define themselves from inside.

During the dialogue, each partner involved should be ready to listen keenly to the other partner, and try as much as possible to agree with the other partner without loosing his or her integrity of his own traditions. Personal integrity should be maintained throughout the dialogue (Imperato 57).

Inter-religious dialogue can only take place between two religion groups that are equal. Incase there is a certain religious group that is claiming to be more superior than the other, then no dialogue can take place between them. The two parties to dialogue should be equal, as this would be the base for learning from each other. This is referred to as “ par cum pari”.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Implications of Inter-Religious Dialog Towards A Universal Theology of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-religious dialogue should be conducted on the basis of mutual trust. The parties to the dialogue should be members of a certain religion. Just like any other dialogue among persons, personal trust should be the foundation.

The parties are advised to start their dialogue with the least complex issues, so as to establish a common a common beginning and develop some trusts between the two parties. As the trust deepen and advances among the parties, the dialogue can graduate to more complex issues. The minor issues discussed at the beginning of the dialogue, would help a great deal in solving the complex issues.

As the main theme of entering to a dialogue is to learn from each other, persons participating should have self-criticism of themselves and their religions. Lack of this aspect to any of the parties involved would imply that his or her religion is perfect, and posses all the correct answers (Swidler 31).

Lack of self-criticism would make inter-religious dialogue impossible or unnecessary. Believing that ones religion is perfect cannot create a room for learning from the other religion, hence no need for holding a dialogue. Both parties possessing a healthy self-criticism would be a better starting point, as lack of it is lack of integrity.

During the dialogue participants are advised to try to experience the other party’s ideology deep within (Porpora, Collier, and Archer 52). As far as the parties are involved in the dialogue physically, their spirits should also be involved.

Inter-religious dialogue is not like any other common discussion, but a spiritual dialogue with dos and don’ts. Inter-religious dialogue is special, and is composed of three major parts. The first part is practical, where we join together to help human kind. Second part is spiritual, where parties try to experience religion of one another.

The final part is the cognitive, where every party tries to seek for understanding and truth from each other’s religion. In the practical part of inter-religious dialogue, parties get the chance to learn from each other.

In the second part, parties concentrate in their counterpart values, and tries to make them applicable in their own tradition. The parties who are persistent, serious, and ready enough to participate in the dialogue reach the third part. The third part is the most important, as it brings revelation of new areas of reality, and what the truth entails.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Implications of Inter-Religious Dialog Towards A Universal Theology of Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inter-religious dialogue aims at achieving many and different goals in human religious lives. The main goals are classified into three categories. The first category is to discover oneself ever more reflectively. Secondly, this dialogue helps in discovering the other party more faithfully (Imperato 25).

The last category is to enable parties to enjoy life fully accordingly. Through encountering with the others, and discovering some contrasts in our actions leads to people discovering themselves fully. The same case applies in inter-religious dialogue, whereby parties discover well their religion traditions, through contradictions, and common ideas involved in one another’s religion.

The dialogue partners serve as a mirror to one another portraying the true selves of one another, hence why it’s always worth to persevere the dialogue frustrations. The partners in dialogue should not be taken as objects against our wish, but as people whom we are related to in one way or another.

Discovering the true differences among the dialogue parties, which should either be contradictory or complementary would be the best outcome of a dialogue. When holding the dialogue, parties should be very sensitive when placing the differences of their religion to avoid misplacing them (Porpora, Collier, and Archer 45).

Not all true differences fall under the category of contradictions, and a partner should not be quick to place them there. Some ideas that seem to be in contradictory category may be also fit in complementary category, and that is why decisions should be made keenly. Often, the partners may come across some contradictory truth claims in the process of their dialogue, and also some commonality in their religions.

Religious dialogue should mostly entail matters of religion not just a matter of exchanging principles and intellectual ideas. The dialogue should be based on the religious attitude from both partners. Just like Panikkar explained that one might leave as a Christian, after a while becomes a Hindu, and later returns being a Buddhist without changing his or her Christianity faith and doctrines.

This type of experience may not be possible to most of religious people or thinkers, but trying to experience another party’s ideology deep within is possible and achievable (swidler 37).

Swidler argues that imagination is a great contributor in inter-religious dialogue. Whereby, if one allows the feelings, symbols, and stories of the partner to have a room in his or her mind, a move should be expected depending on their strengths that will enable a person to return back to his or her religion traditions as an enlightened person.

The main challenge of inter-religious dialogue is on how one can manage to participate in religious dialogue without loosing integrity of the religion and its traditions, and successfully make the other party to understand and take in ones presentations.

It becomes a challenge to imagine how a Christian would express his insights of faith to another person from a different religion like a Jew or Marxist in a way that is acceptable to them (Oman 120). The people, who are ready to be involved in a dialogue, should not only be convinced by the benefit of it, but the necessity of this dialogue. Its has been proven to be necessary for religious people to get involved in inter-religious dialogue, as this would promote working together to form a universal systematic theology.

Commonality among religious groups can be achieved through inter-religious dialogue. With a common base, it will be possible for religious groups to bring unity in human family, and promote equality among human kind. Sharing something in common among different religious groups will as well result to eradication of violation to individuals. The human community will be of value to every individual and institutions.

Religion commonality will make religious individuals to stand with the poor and the oppressed, and be the source of their consolation despite their religion aspiration. Due to good hope and good will born by commonality, religious people would finally emerge victorious (Albl 110). Through inter-religious dialogue, religious groups will slowly, and painfully work towards a compromise of full human life truth.

Works Cited Albl, Martin. Reason, Faith, and Tradition: Explorations in Catholic Theology. Maryland: Saint Mary’s Press, 2009.

Imperato, Robert. Christian’s footings: creation, world religions, personalism, revelation, and Jesus. New York: University press of America, 2009.

Oman, Mujiburra. Feeling threatened: a Muslim-Christian relation in Indonesia’s new order. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006.

Porpora, Douglas, Collier, Andrew, and Archer, Margret. Transcendence: critical realism and God. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Swidler, Leonard. Toward a universal Theology of Religion. New York: Mary knoll, 2007.


Film analysis on The Inside Job Movie by Charles Fergusson Essay best essay help: best essay help

This essay is a film analysis that is based on the movie by the name Inside Job, which was directed by Charles Fergusson that is currently being played at theater. The essay includes the plot of the movie, it analyses characters, and then gives my own thought of the story of the movie in general.

Amongst the first movies that exposes the reality that shocks about the truth that that is perceived to cause the 2008 economic crisis. It begins with a state that is much stable and very wealthy. The state had high level of democracy, and very low unemployment rate. Later the state falls into financial problems due to its regulations dating back to the era of Reagan.

This problem which amounted to more than $ 20 trillion led to millions and millions of individuals becoming unemployed and loosing homes in the recession that could be described as worse after the great depression in 1930s, problem was just about to give rise to global financial downturn.

By the use of extensive research and interviews, these involved stakeholders in finance, politics, journalism and the academicians, this film investigates the coming up of a rogue firm, which is much affected by corruption, bad politics, poor regulations and academicians.

Many characters that were much interesting in the movie were interviewed. On the other hand, many others forming the foundation of this movie purportedly refused to be interviewed.

Amongst these who accepted the interview, like Hubbard, who was from the Colombian School of Business, and who also performed as economic advisor in the former regime of President Bush, heavyweights like Paul Volker, professionals in finance like Minyanville were caught unaware with certain interview questions, as they provided answers that were revealing, as they gave responses that might be considered as being priceless.

The major objective of this movie is to bring out the reality that led to the economic crises in the year 2008. This film very rich with information, and Ferguson played his part well in explaining all the financial terms which have been now and then been mentioned by CNN, and in most cases had no meaning to most of the people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, this film borrows more from Michael Moore, when talking about capitalism. This film has used humor to bring out the reality behind the hysterical claims for banks deregulations. The film tries to show a canvas that is very large, and has moved from generation to generation and describes relations among agencies, rampant gluttonous and very corrupt habit.

In addition, it explains on how tax payers’ money is being wasted on prostitute and drugs by these in power. Amongst other things that brought value in the movie were the interviews that Ferguson used. They also provided different perceptions concerning the reasons and impacts of the 2008 economic recession.

However, the film does not explain at all the advantages of and circumstances that come after the crisis times. It is true that it can never happen to be that all decisions concerning finance are wrong, nor that all individuals involved in business are corrupt and bad.

In addition, the film portrays all economists, elites and all involved in politics to be bad. It was just by bad luck the majority of them had no powers, were easily cheated, not brave and even greedy, to a point of not even not assisting millions and millions of Americans not to lose their livelihood, their homes and even their country at large.

In conclusion, The Inside Job film is the best primer about the 2008 economic recession, for all those that have never followed the situation, on the reason that, they either have no or have little knowledge about finance and economics it follows the slogan that getting angry after having a thought about a crisis, will make one more angrier after watching this film.


Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Components of SAS No. 99

Criticism of SAS 99


Works Cited

Introduction A lot of attention has recently been given to fraud committed by business management and auditing. A lot of light has been shed on the ability of these public accounting firms on whether they are able to discover and report fraud. Fraudulent activities are available in large organizations not only in America, but also in the whole world. This necessitated the need for review and revision of the procedures that these firms use to detect fraud in present and future financial audit statements.

Rollins and Lanza stated: “To meet this need and to serve as the cornerstone of its anti-fraud program, the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) issued Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 99, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, which supersedes SAS No 82 (which has the same title)” (56).

Regulations in SAS 99 improve necessary procedures involved in the elimination of fraud in the accounting profession. The role of the auditor was not affected in the transition from SAS No. 82 to No. 99. It sheds light on the procedures the auditor should follow to detect fraud in financial statements.

The main aim of this essay is to describe key requirements of SAS No. 99, and outline its importance on financial statement audits. Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99, as shall be seen is a crucial regulation that tries to prevent fraud in financial statements by auditors. Some auditors link up with clients in a bid to fraud the company. It is therefore duty of SAS 99 to outline the guidelines necessary to oversee this vice.

Components of SAS No. 99 SAS 99 identifies fraud as a global act that yields a considerable misstatement in statements of finance. Two categories of fraud are discussed: misstatements cropping up from illegal financial coverage (e.g. faking of accounting reports) and misstatements cropping up from embezzlement of assets (e.g. asset stealing or illegal spending).

SAS 99 outlines the triangle of fraud. Normally, three conditions are available when a swindle takes place. First is a pressure that gives a basis to engage in fraud. Then there is a chance for fraud to be downsized. Third, people involved in the swindle have an approach that makes them downsize the fraud. Fraud is serious no matter how less an evil it might seem in some situations.

SAS 99 requires that there be a discussion of fraud involving all group members. This discussion involves professionals and specialists. The topic of discussion revolves around misstatements detected in the client’s financial statements. SAS 99 requires a rise in associate participation, in the scheduling process, and a much stress on professional skepticism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A new procedure is the completion of introductory analytical steps to discover unanticipated associations on revenues. These associations may show material misstatements because of illegal financial reporting.

The key components are describing fraud, brainstorming, checks on risk in formation, evaluating entity programs and controls, assess the risks and provide guidance with regards to communication about fraud management.

For a STATEMENT AUDIT STANDARD to describe fraud and its characteristics, it entails that fraud is either misstatement arising from corrupt financial report or misstatement arising from misappropriation of assets. These form the fraud triangle; first, there is a pressure that leads to a person committing fraud. Second, there is an opportunity for the perpetuation of fraud. Third, individuals committing fraud rationalize it.

Brainstorming comes in handy to enable the entity to check where the financial statement might be susceptible to material misstatement. The entity achieves this by allowing team members to share their experiences with clients and set the proper tone at the top.

Another element is ensuring that the auditor gathers necessary information concerning risk of material misstatement by making enquiries of management, analyzing the results of procedures, and risks.

It requires the auditor to assess management and create awareness about fraud. In addition, the auditors are to instill knowledge to the management about fraud and the control measures. Moreover, performing internal audit is also necessary.

Statement audit standard ensures that the auditors have a guideline and support on assessment of risks. It gives the auditors a challenge on the procedures to take and synthesize how the risk leads to misstatement of material.

We will write a custom Essay on Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statement audit standard also provides measures that explain the identified risks of material misstatement. Moreover, it evaluates the outcome of the audit procedures and other observation that affects the assessment. It ensures clear guidance on fraud management and how auditors communicate this vital information.

When documenting this important document the auditor should; give details on brainstorming session, procedures performed in assessment of risk and its results, give the efficiency of the management of the entity. This most of the time leads to unannounced visits by the audits to the entities.

Criticism of SAS 99 More than half of the procedures are recommended rather than necessary. An outstanding example is; it suggests that auditors appear at the client’s end during inventory audit without notifying the client. Practically, auditors inform clients in advance on the location that the audit would be implemented.

This easily provides an opportunity for fraud by the client. Auditors informing a client the location of the audit beforehand are only giving an alert that there would be an audit. It thus makes it easy for clients to cover their tracks where there was fraud. If a client knows that the audit results would reveal discrepancies in the statements of accounts, and then they would do all they can to make the records straight.

SAS 99 has also been criticized for not sealing gaps of expectations. The strategy suggested in the standard enhances expectation on the auditing career. Because of this, auditors have to consider the expectations of SAS 99 as the lowest work level needed to identify fraud. They must be able to protect any choice that does not follow any of the suggested procedures in SAS 99. It is their responsibility to ensure that all procedures are followed in detecting and handling fraud.

Conclusion Public auditors should follow SAS 99 standards accordingly. This will help in the elimination of fraud, in financial statements. Procedures laid out in SAS No. 99 are crucial for auditors. Auditors use this standard to know the necessary steps they need to take in order to identify fraud in financial statements.

SAS 99 was created to give guidelines. It provides the foundation for malpractice assertions in accounting. They act as a guideline that defines the manner in which they should carry out the auditing process. SAS 99 inflict massive documentation obligations on the auditors than is necessary in SAS 82.

Works Cited Rollins, Steven and Lanza, Richard. Essential Project Investment Governance and Reporting : Preventing Project Fraud and Ensuring Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance. New York: J. Ross Publishing, 2004. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Premarital Counseling Essay best essay help

All married couples would wish the old adage, ‘and they lived happily ever after’ to come true; unfortunately, to over 50% of married couples, this remains that; a wish.

Behavioral researches confirm that, 50% of all marriages end up in divorce, an unfeigned but a deplorable fact. During the first days of marriage, everything might seem blissful until the reality sets in and the couples realize they have different likes and dislikes.

Even if a couple appears to be a perfect pair, differences soon emerge and this worrying trend calls for resolute ‘treatment’. Just as an infectious disease will keep on recurring unless the proper immune system is developed, divorce will keep on occurring unless proper steps are taken to counter this unrelenting social thorn. Fortunately, research assures that, premarital counseling can cut down divorce rates by up to 30%, a significant percentage.

Premarital counseling equips couples with invaluable information about what to expect in the uncertain world of marriage. Murray and Murray (2004) posit that, “Pre-marital counseling is a wonderful way to prepare…for your life together…a few sessions of counseling gives you a chance to look at what you want as a couple” (p. 14).

Premarital counseling develops skills required for couples to stay together. Like a business, which requires a concrete plan and implementation strategy, marriage requires unhesitating plan and execution strategy to improve its chances of survival. Fortunately, premarital counseling offers the strategy together with its implementation criteria required for marriage prosperity.

Six factors define premarital counseling as a valid tool of cutting down divorces. Setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound goals underlines the withstanding significance of premarital counseling in reducing divorce rates. Sharing common goals aligns couples in the same direction and the resultant unity reduces the frequency of conflicts that predate divorce. The other factors draw from the goal setting aspect, working in concert to ensure any feasible survival of marriage.

Schumm and Denton (1979) warn that, “money is the biggest sole factor that causes couples to argue and fight” (p. 30). Fortunately, premarital counseling takes couples through a financial journey exploring pertinent issues like expenditure, savings, use of credits and so forth. With sufficient understanding on how to handle finances, couples can enjoy their marriage regardless of whether they have lots of money or peanuts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication and conflict resolution is another critical yet neglected area in marriage. Premarital counseling explores and emphasizes on the importance of communication and conflict resolution in marriage. Some couples assume the only way out of a conflict is to keep silent while others hold that, they have to win every argument to win a conflict.

Nevertheless, premarital counseling rebuts all the misconceptions surrounding communication and conflict resolution in marriage and outlines amicable ways of handling the same. As aforementioned, first days in marriage may seem blissful; hoverer, the arrival of the first child might herald conflicts. To avoid this scenario, premarital counseling devotes enough time to explore the issue of children and parenting to save couples the pain of groping with marriage realities.

Even though many couples often overlook the issue of spirituality, premarital counseling understands clearly how differing spiritual perception can tear apart a seemingly good marriage. Therefore, the counselors give insights concerning the same. Finally, premarital counselors help couples to outline roles and expectations in marriage to avoid conflict of interest later in marriage.

In the light of all these compelling premarital counseling elements, I personally concur premarital counseling can prevent divorce. Moreover, numbers do not lie, and research has confirmed that premarital counseling cuts down divorce rate by a whopping 30%; whopping because, if 50% of all marriages end up in divorce, then it means that 30% of the remaining 50% remain in marriage due to premarital counseling.

References Murray, E.,


Strengths and Weaknesses in Utilitarianism Theory Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Works Cited

Introduction Ross is of the view that people do not undertake tasks because they are aware of the consequences of their actions; rather, the decision to undertake such tasks is propelled by a promise that they have made to themselves. Proponents of this theory suggest that a right or wrong act is obvious to us since the ability to distinguish right or wrong is innate. It is impossible for human beings to fully understand why a given act is right but they can distinguish between good and evil.

Moral senses are in born hence they are not modified by the environment. This theory contradicts with the relativism theory which argues that moral senses are not inborn; rather, the environment shapes human beings. Since utilitarianism suggests that the moral value of an act is recognized by its benefits, Ross argues that it is through this that human beings prefer actions that bring them satisfaction (Ross and Stratton-Lake, 2-6).

Strengths Utilitarianism holds a logic position that makes it applicable to daily life. It dictates the modern day society since its principles are applicable.

Utilitarians attempted to come up with a way of settling for an objective way of improving the welfare of the people by equipping them with the necessary skills needed to distinguish things that are of benefit from those that are not. This theory is sometimes referred to as “the supreme happiness theory”. It provides an empirical method of calculating happiness. Goodness has the purpose of making one to feel satisfied.

Once a person feels happy with the act undertaken, then we can comfortably conclude that the act is good. If little or no satisfaction is attained; we conclude that the action is not good. The theory therefore provides us with a measurable way to determine whether a given act is good or bad. The theory can also be used to establish the extent or the degree of goodness; this can be exemplified by making use of words such as satisfied, very satisfied, or not satisfied.

This theory observes benevolence as it seeks to endorse the idea of people’s happiness and that of the society. Something is regarded as good if it maximizes happiness. The theory emphasizes on the importance of undertaking actions that have a promise of bringing happiness of the greatest degree (Mill, 23).

Although people are never sure of the consequences of an act, they should weigh their options and settle for those things that are likely to make them feel that they are high achievers. It is the good things in life that motivate people to continue undertaking tasks as well as taking risks. The theory considers the outcomes of an action and luckily most people judge the usability of an action by looking at the end result.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus this theory can be used since its basic principles can be applied in the society. Proponents of the motivation theory suggest that when we are reinforced after undertaking an act, then we get the psyche to undertake more actions since we become hopeful of being reinforced again. If we fail to attain good results, we may become discouraged since we do not feel happy. This is the same case with this theory; good outcomes signify that something is good or that the act was undertaken well.

Mill is of the view that rights and justice are important determinants of the degree of happiness in the world (Mill, 34). If the rights of all people are respected, then the world would be a better place to live in. people would be happier since they would exercise their freedom without fear, this means that people would be accountable for their deeds.

The world would be a better place to live in since as Thucydides, an ancient Greek historian and author said “The secret of happiness is freedom…” to further support the importance of freedom, Bertrand Russell, an English logician and philosopher noted that “Freedom in general may be defined as the absence of obstacles to realization of desires” this generally upholds the idea that with freedom, one can become happy since it becomes easy to do what one finds right and beneficial (Miller and Williams, 26). Justice and freedom are therefore two important things that determine happiness in the world.

Simplicity is also recognized as a main strength of this theory (Ross and Stratton-Lake, 217). This is because it gives a good starting point for the formulation of policy decisions. The theory is also useful when it comes to making laws that deal with ethics. A good example of this is the abortion act of 1967.

The theory is self-explanatory and it does not require one to search for information to understand the idea behind its formulation. It is realistic when it comes to things that are right or wrong. It is also simple since it gives a clear basis for the actions mentioned above to be carried out with ease. This is one of the most important qualities of a good theory since they are formulated so that they can be applied in our day-to-day lives.

Weaknesses This theory has been accused of being relative since it holds that there are standard moral values that should be upheld. It therefore disregards other morals that are of benefit to the minority. It is biased in that it supports only those things that are believed to bring happiness to a section of the population. It is important to note that there are some things that may not be of benefit to the minority but the majority could benefit a great deal from the same (Miller, 111).

What may be of benefit to one person may not bear the same consequences to another person. Proponents of this theory are of the view that provided an action makes us happy, it is right. If I and my business partner kill our competitor, we acquire competitive advantage hence we can reap maximum profits, this will definitely make us happy. So, is this act justified? Is it right? According to this theory it is right since it makes us happy to see our business prospering.

We will write a custom Essay on Strengths and Weaknesses in Utilitarianism Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The moral standards held as right may be seen as godly or basic human rights that ought to be observed and maintained. This is not always true since not everybody derives pleasure from attaining the given moral standards (Miller, 212). Seeing these standards as divine or human rights is a misconception since the fact that they bring happiness to most human beings does not mean that they are applicable everywhere.

One thing that makes the theory to be questioned is the fact that these values vary from society to society. What one society considers as divine or as a basic human right may not be seen as the same by other societies. This means that the principles are not standard since they change with cultural beliefs and values held by different societies.

The assumption that what is of benefit to human beings is morally good is not justified. The proponents do not provide evidence to this claim hence we regard it as an assumption. While this assumption may be true in some cases, it may not be applied in all cases. Good is defined as pleasurable but it may not apply to everyone. Each and every one of us has preferences meaning that different things make different people happy. It is wrong to assume that because something bears positive results it gives everyone a feeling of satisfaction.

This theory can be criticized since it allows evil and socially unacceptable deeds to be categorized as good provided that the deeds are undertaken by the majority. This is regarded as a swine ethics. Vices such as mob justice could be seen as good since majority of the people support it.

This aspect makes the theory to be unrealistic since some things may be regarded as good while they are not. Colonialism received support from majority of the western countries and it benefited the colonialists since they were able to amass a lot of wealth from their colonies; according to this theory it was good. The colonies were oppressed and their rights were violated since they were under the colonizers. The fact that the majority support an action does not qualify it to be regarded as good.

People are not always in support of what is good; essentially, human beings love short cuts to get to where they want even though the path followed does not comply with the rules of morality. The theory is accused to supporting injustice where an individual or a group of individuals become scapegoats so that others can be happy. Extremists such as Hitler can therefore defend themselves using this theory by stating that they were being inhuman to maximize happiness.

Other critics view the theory as being too impersonal. In an attempt to pursue good, the theory disregards the rights of some people. This is because what the majority support may go against the wishes of the minority and in some instances their rights may be violated (Mill, 101).

When the majority are in support of an act, it becomes hard for the minority to defend themselves since the majority vote acts as a green right to undertaking the act or embracing it. It is too impersonal to the extent that it disregards the rights of some individuals without accounting for such a decision or attempting to provide a solution to this group of individuals. It lacks integrity since it fails to consider the morality and the essence of integrity which entails holding on to what one believes to be true and right.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strengths and Weaknesses in Utilitarianism Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The idea of knowing that an act is good without understanding why is not logical. When we say that a person is good, we give reasons as to why that person is considered good. The same case applies to values; there must be a reason to support why a certain act is considered good or bad.

For instance, if a group of people were to be asked if killing is wrong, all of them will not just say that is wrong because they have been made to believe that since they were born. Some will use religious beliefs to explain why it is wrong, some will reason that it depends on the situation while others will use their beliefs to say if it is good or bad (Miller, 167).

Conclusion Utilitarianism theory holds that good things are those that bring maximum happiness to human beings. This theory has both strengths and weaknesses. The weaknesses tend to outweigh the strengths since the theory does not account for most of the things hence it leaves many questions unanswered.

Works Cited Mill, John Stuart. Utilitarianism: Easyread Large Edition. California:, 2006. 164 pgs

Miller, Harlan and Williams, Hatton. The Limits of utilitarianism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. 315 pgs

Ross, William David, and Stratton-Lake, Philip. The right and the good. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 2002. 183 pgs


Welfare Public Policy Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents The scope and nature of the public policy problem

The evolution of public policy

The intergovernmental structure and political concerns

The approaches to policy setting

The suggested policy direction that is supported by research



Public policies are decisions, laws, regulations, commitments, and actions made by the government (Gerston, 2010, p.7). Welfare on the other hand involves programs that are geared to assist marginalized people to obtain a decent income or services; target groups for welfare are elderly people, disabled or poor people. Public policies are government approach to tackle a public problem; this is done by federal, local, or state governments through regulations, decisions, and actions.

These policies are influenced by politics of the current regime and the economic situation. However, the welfare policies have undergone transformation since their first establishment. The various issues addressed by public policy are “crime, education, foreign policy, health, and social welfare. Primarily, there are several types of welfare, social welfare, social security, financial aid, or corporate welfare” (Gerston, 2010, p.7).

The federal government has limited role in welfare policies; many important functions are held by the “States governments including public assistance, social care and various health schemes” (Herrick


Tai-yu Language Policy Research Paper essay help

Introduction General overview of the topic

As every nation may have some internal problems within a state and within a nation due to the number of the disputes related to ethnicity, origins, and rights, it is also necessary to remember that globalization can be characterised as one of the major contributors to the discussion of cultural diversity issues.

Every country that wants to operate in the international market has to strive for English language acquisition as well as every person who wants to enter a prestigious educational institution or/and obtain a good position has to acquire English as it is claimed to be an international language.

Every change finds its reflection in media and public pressure and reaction. Sometimes, people fail to understand the importance and potential benefits of the change implemented. However, the situation can be absolutely different when the external factors influence the change and prevent it to demonstrate its positive benefits. In this respect, it is necessary to adjust the environment or the change so that it would be the most positive contributor to the current situation in the sector.

Though Taiwan is a small country in Asia, it has its unique traditions and culture that also require great efforts for implementation of educational programs in a certain language, cultural programs aimed at development of the cultural importance recognition. In this respect, the changes made in the sector of education in terms of instructions affected the elementary and junior high school.

The decision to implement educational instruction provided using the Tai-yu language provoked certain discussion in public because it enables the community to preserve traditions with the help of the language implementation though some students reacted negatively on implementation of the Tai-yu language instructions for elementary and junior high school because they think English to be international language that provides them with sufficient cultural enrichment and opens new perspectives for professional growth in future.

Thus, the Tai-yu language and its dialect can be protected with the help of the rising generation’s efforts and a step-by-step implementation of this language on the national level in all sectors of human activity.

As the language policy reflects the necessity of reforms to make improvements in the educational area, facilitate operation at the international level, and encourage more effective business partnership, it is necessary to treat the implementation of the Tai-yu language instructions for elementary and junior high school as the indicator of changes aimed at expanding into the international arena in terms of higher level in all areas of human activity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, as any change requires training, it was decided to start with educational policy. In this respect, a language policy basically reflects the democratic thoughts and the ideology of the country. In other words, the policy reveals the restrictions imposed on acquisition and use of the Tai-yu language and dialects in the period of Japanese colonialism; the same situation remained concerning the Tai-yu language use after the colonisation.

Aim and scope

The aim of the research consists in investigation of the attitude toward the language policies implemented in order to encourage the rising generation to speak the Tai-yu language and be educated using this language. Though historical roots of this language show that its use was interrupted, it can be implemented into practice in the current period when the global community actively acquires English language which is claimed to be international.

Taiwan children that are currently in elementary school and in junior high school can obtain education in the historically native language of their country. So, the research should demonstrate how the students who are sure to be impacted by this program and changes imposed by it feel about this innovation and their possible suggestions concerning the ways of improvement.

In other words, the overall research is aimed at making sure that all students will be able to adjust to the new language policy requirements effectively and in the shortest possible time in order not to ruin the curriculum with regard to inability of some students to comprehend material because of the Tai-yu language instruction.

Literature review Historical context

The history provides us with a great scope of sources for analysis to investigate the most unexpected issues and possible rules and laws existing in nature and society and affecting the members of the contemporary global community. As suggested by Hudson (1999, p. 2), the communication presupposes that both speaker and listener know the form and the meaning of the message. In this respect, it is possible to acquire a second language though great practice should be applied to ensure that the language can be used for educational instruction.

On April 14, 1994, the ex-president of Taiwan, Teng-Hui Lee, has delivered a talk publicly about the language problem he has faced on the island. As reported by Chung-yang Jih-pao (1994), Lee said:

I am more than seventy years old. Having lived under different regimes, from Japanese colonialism to Taiwan’s recovery, I have greatly experienced the miseries of the Taiwanese people. In the period of Japanese colonialism, a Taiwanese would be punished by being forced to kneel out in the sun for speaking Tai-yu.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tai-yu Language Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The situation was the same when Taiwan was recovered: my son, Hsien-wen, and my daughter-in-law, Yueh-yun, often wore a dunce board around their necks in the school as punishment for speaking Tai-yu. I am very aware of the situation because I often go to the countryside to talk to people. Their lives are influenced by history.

I think the most miserable people are Taiwanese, who have always tried in vain to get their heads above the water. This was the Taiwanese situation during the period of Japanese colonialism; it was not any different after Taiwan’s recovery. I have deep feeling about this (cited in Hsiau 1997, p. 302).

Lee’s talk was aimed at summarizing the past few decades of Taiwan’s local language history with respect to the changes that should be introduced.

As the Taiwan society is influenced with a rich mixture of diverse cultures including Mandarin Chinese, Tai-yu, Hakka language, and other Chinese dialects, the authorities should do something to encourage people use the language they go used to or bring back the historically widespread language. Liu (1987) states how the KMT government ignored the Taiwanese language in the educational policy:

The KMT established policies that were intended to Sinicize the Taiwanese. They promoted a form of orthodox Chinese, Chinese gentry culture, and represented it as national culture- the culture of all Chinese.

China’s monuments and geography, the high culture of its elite, the Mandarin dialect adopted as the national language, and the history of its heroes, achievements, and development dominated school curriculum and were validated by the official expression in word and deed. Taiwan, and all that is distinctive about it, was largely ignored (cited in Wachman, 1994, p.40).

According to Garcia and Baker (1995, p. 77), proficiency in a second language would be a necessary issue in the 20-century world as well as the third language proficiency.

Moreover, the importance of second and third language proficiency can influence the effectiveness of a person for his/her family, career, company he/she works for. In other words, every person should think about the future and certain skills that can be used in future though obtain at school. As Laitin (1977, p. 18) points out, a change in worldview should be included into the language planning.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tai-yu Language Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that every change concerns most sectors of human activity including culture that consists of language, traditions, customs, and other numerous issues. This idea finds support in the study by Meyerhoff (2006, p. 1) who analyses the ways and importance of language acquisition and difficulties encountered by members of the community that fail to communicate with representatives of other language communities.

Every change concerning the language affects all parties concerned. As suggested by Butler (2004), the language proficiency of teachers should be appropriate for teaching English. The same concern was claimed by authors who studied the second language acquisition classes in terms of teachers’ proficiency and adequacy of materials (Chang Y. 2002, 2004; Chang W. 2007). Moreover, “The significance of English has actually been acknowledged since 1945 in the early foreign language education policy in Taiwan” (Chang Y. 2008, p. 424).

Though some people think the second language acquisition to be an activity aimed at destruction of the national culture and main principles of education, experience sharing, and other sectors of their activity, international language contribute greatly to the development of friendly relationships between countries who operate simultaneously in the international arena in various sectors including production and commerce.

Importance of English language as an international one has been evidenced by numerous researches and analyses that are aimed at providing a sound evidence of the necessity of acquiring one of the international languages as the second or third one. As reported by Wardhaugh (2009, p. 388) while referring to international language such as English and French, “This language not only serves many as an internal working language but also still regarded as the language of mobility.”

In this respect, different studies considered the English language as one of the ways to improve the internal economy of the country through education and business whereas others rejected the necessity of learning English due to national peculiarities of Taiwanese culture and community.

Basic information

The research is aimed at proving that the attitude of the students in elementary and junior high school should be taken into account while implementing some further programs and educational reforms designed to improve the quality of education including teaching methodology, technologically advanced techniques, and the use of international languages along with the national one.

In other words, it is necessary to find out whether the children are ready for the implementation of the language policy or it is necessary to make necessary preparations and implement appropriate educational methods and training techniques for teachers primarily than for children. So, the overall study requires some evidence to prove that children are ready for the language policy.

Though there are numerous researchers based on evidence provided by second language learners and other people who are knowledgeable in the linguistic issues, it is necessary to make sure all students adjust normally to the new requirements designed using the Tai-yu language instructions.

Methodology Data collection

The research requires a specific method to be used for providing strong evidence concerning the readiness of children to adjust to the language policy in the shortest possible time with regard to possible negative reaction that can be demonstrated by older children. The main method is the data collection and analysis via literature review.

Moreover, as it was necessary to analyse the attitude of students toward the implementation of the Tai-yu language policy, a survey had to be included into the research. The main concern of the research consisted in the survey compilation and adequate answers to be provided by respondents.

In this respect, it was necessary to choose the random sampling method to survey twenty students including two different study level such as junior high and elementary as the policy will concern these level while its effective implementation can encourages the authorities to expand it into the national level regardless of the sector ad age of people including their ability to adjust to changes and new policies, especially concerning the language.

Limitations and variables

The limitations of the method included possibility of inadequate answers due to threat of being punished or victimised. In this respect, it was necessary to make sure that the survey is conducted anonymously though would include necessary data for conducting of the research and comparison of data. Though the selection of respondents was random, equal number of boys and girls was used due to relatively equal number of boys and girls at school.

So, five girls from junior high, five girls from elementary, five boys from junior high, and five boys from elementary school were selected to complete a survey. In other words, children had to be surveyed anonymously. So, they were given sheets of paper containing questions presented in the Appendices section of the current research including five questions of different types. Every respondent provided adequate answers and most of them provided possible suggestions on the issue.

Analysis and discussion The current language policy

As suggested in the study by Benjamin and Chen (2003), it is possible to investigate the reasons for acquiring a second language and motivation of second language learners in order to implement more effective methods and facilitate and accelerate their learning efforts and make the results more prominent.

The current issue concerns the language policy aimed at implementing the Tai-yu language as the instruction language in elementary and junior high school. The historic approach provides the researchers with the following example concerning the overall attitude toward the language acquisition: “As the island struggles to define its future, many intellectuals have argued that the imposed China-centered ideology of the past has created, at best, an unhealthy situation in Taiwan” (Brubaker 2003, p. 37).

In this respect, it is necessary to apply some new theories and methods to make sure the process of adjustment flow normally and no student experiences difficulties with comprehension of material using the Tai-yu language instruction.

The results of the research show that most of the respondents are happy with the current situation though the results were not presented in the table with the findings as less than 20% of respondents (namely, 3 respondents) provided answers for that question in the survey though most of them provided oral answers while bringing back the completed surveys.

Sometimes, the actions of people are difficult to forecast hence impossible to analyse. It is clear that the process of implementing the Tai-yu language instructions policy into elementary and junior high study levels of Taiwanese school can appear to be more difficult that it is claimed by authorities and experts in the area of educational programmes and linguistics.

Bilingual education policy and Tai-yu language

Though English language has its distinctive features that are used by native speakers and unique peculiarities used by non-native speakers (Holmes 2008, p. 189), it is necessary to strive for acquiring the correct forms of pronunciation and other features that the language possess in order to obtain adequate knowledge of the language.

This issue concerns the suggestions made by the respondents of the survey who claimed that the implementation of the language policy should be supported with adequate training programmes for teachers and quality improvement methods applied to the classes where children have little knowledge of the Tai-yu language as this language will be used for instructions. Fasold (1996, p. 275) suggests that children should be provided with compensation while being taught second language in order to obtain the knowledge correctly without mixing rules and principles typical of the native and the second language.

Though most respondents treated the English language normally, at the same time, most of respondents reacted positively on the possibility of the implementation of the language policy justifying this fact with the opinion about the necessity of protecting the national culture and traditions in order to be more identified as Taiwanese people in the global community.

Besides, the bilingualism is not a negative issue as many countries of the world have two and more languages as their national official languages which do not restrict the number of languages used by representatives of different ethnic minorities all over the globe. For instance, Wei (2006) in her study examines the multiculturalism as one of the possible preconditions of acquiring a second and even a third language.

Parents’ attitude toward English language education in Taiwan

The parents’ attitude toward the English language education was not the primary focus in the current study though it should have been taken into account as in many cases the attitude of the child depends greatly of the position taken by parents.

In this respect, it is necessary to analyse the parents’ attitude toward the Tai-yu language instructions and the extent of the support provided by parents to their children who encountered necessity of studying in the Tai-yu language.

The parents; attitude affects the attitude of children. However, this issue was not investigated in the current study because the attitude of learners was more important in terms of the difficulties encountered in the process of studying by means of the Tai-yu language instruction.

Thus, the main problem concerning the parents’ attitude toward the Tai-yu language instruction implementation is related to the influence of the parents’ attitude on the child’s attitude. The questionnaire completed by the respondents was not supposed to be aimed at investigating to what extent the parents’ attitude affacts the children’s attitude. In other words, the analysis of the relation between attitudes can be the primary focus for the further research.

Though every child think he/she has independent opinion that is not affected by attitudes and opinions of other members of the community, parents, media, friends influenced by their parents’ attitude, and a great number of other indicators can be named while analysing the way a child can be affected. However, the overall attitude of parents was positive with regard to the implementation of the language policy for elementary and junior high school learners.

Conclusion Summary of findings

The results of the research show that most respondents do not feel negatively about the implementation of the Tai-yu language instruction while a few respondents expressed rather negative opinion concerning this issue.

Moreover, most respondents expressed an idea of some improvements that should be applied to teacher training and instructional material to ensure that the teachers can provide students with adequate materials using appropriate methods. Thus, participants of the research were of little concern toward the implementation of the Tai-yu language instruction in elementary and junior high school in Taiwan.

This study investigated the learners’ attitudes toward the Tai-yu language education policy in Taiwan. The results showed that the majority of the participants expected to learn English education than Tai-yu language. The finding that the major part of the participants who were enrolled in the Tai-yu classes at the elementary level indicated the Tai-yu language policy in effect is actually powerless.

Recommendations for further research

The study was limited due to the number of respondents and the questions asked by means of a survey. In this respect, it is necessary to take into account the attitude of parents toward the language acquisition and language policies implemented because a parents’ attitude can affect the attitude of children.

So, it is preferable to analyse the relation between the attitude of children and parents in order to find out whether the positive attitude was retrieved from the parents’ attitude or it was self-generated. Another limitation of the research concerned the number of respondents as the findings could be more objective and multi-variant if there wwere more respondents.

Reference List Benjamin, J., and Chen, Y-L. E., 2003. A cross-cultural study of the motivation of students learning a second language. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, ED 479388. Chicago, IL.

Brubaker, B. L., 2003. Language attitudes and identity in Taiwan. Master of Arts degree, University of Pittsburgh.

Butler, Y., 2004. What level of English proficiency do elementary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL? Case studies from Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 245-278.

Chang, W. C., 2007. On English education of pre-school and post-school. Secondary Education, 58(4), 190-215.

Chang, Y. F., 2002. A survey of primary school English education in Miaoli County. English Teaching


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The rationale for international trade and investment has economic, political, and legal perspectives. There are economic advantages every country derives from international trade since no country can produce everything it needs. It is through trade with other countries that a country earns foreign exchange, which it requires to buy what it needs from other countries.

Politically, international trade enhances ideological cooperation among nations, which in turn contributes to international security. Legally, international trade promotes the development of common laws between trading partners and in the process contributes to the development of legal systems. These perspectives contribute to the “progressive integration of economies” (Rivera-Batiz


Knowledge of Motivational Theories for Better Management Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Use of Motivational Theories in Management



Introduction In their existences, organizations and companies are constantly being pressured by the competitive forces around them to increase their productivity and raise their performance levels.

This is especially the case in the present day business environment which is rife with aggressive behavior and rampant competition which force businesses to look for innovative means to give them a competitive advantage therefore assure that they are not forced out of the market. In this environment, the role of management is more important than ever. Managers are the people who are taxed with the role of marshalling the human resource in the organization for its growth and expansion.

For the manager to be of greatest benefit to the organization, he/she must be able to obtain optimum results from his/her staff. This can be obtained through various means amongst which is the possession of exemplary leadership skills by the manager. However, the manager must also possess sound theoretic knowhow on relevant subjects which should then be converted to practical application.

This paper shall set out to argue that sound in-depth knowledge of motivational theory by the manager will in fact enable him/her to be a better manager. This paper shall reinforce this assertion by highlighting a number of motivational theory and how knowledge of the same can be exploited by the manager for higher productivity.

Use of Motivational Theories in Management Motivation is defined as a “process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals” (Kondalkar 2002, p.245). Bearing in mind the fact that the manager is tasked with marshaling the organization’s resources to accomplish some organizational goal, it can be rightfully stated that part of the role of the manager is to motivate his staff to achieve certain desired goals. It is the role of the manager to ensure that the employees have a high degree of motivation in their performance.

One of the motivation theories that a manager can utilize is the Expectancy Theory. Chapman and Hopwood (2007, p.120) state that the expectancy theory as proposed by Vroom assumes that individuals choose intended actions, effort levels and occupations that “maximize their expected pleasure and minimize their expected pain, consistent with hedonism”.

Expectancy theory asserts that a person’s individual motivational force is a function of their expectancy. In other words, the probability that one’s effort will result in a first-level outcome will result in the person being motivated to act in a certain manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By following this theory, the manager should therefore strive to demonstrate to the employee that the outcomes they seek are achievable. Once the individual believes that performing at a particular level will result in the attainment of the desired outcome, he/she will increase him performance level therefore benefiting himself as well as the organization.

Arguably the most influential motivational theory is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. This theory as proposed by Abraham Maslow states that human needs can be viewed as a hierarch and people are constantly ascending from the lowest to the highest and when one set of needs is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator to the individual.

A manager who understands Maslow’s theory can adopt a systematic approach in motivating his subordinates. The manager will understand that the needs of the workers who are at different levels will differ significantly. For example, the newly employed worker who is working at a low level will be more concerned about his basic needs and will want minimal rewards.

However, once the same worker has secured these physiological needs, they will cease to motivate him and the manager will have to come up with other motivators for the employers. By understanding this theory, a manager will be aware that for some of the employees, social needs are the motivator and this being the case the manager will seek motivators that are relevant to the particular employees.

There are various aspects that one has to take into consideration when motivating employees. The two factor theory of motivation advanced by Frederick Herzberg suggests that job satisfaction has two dimensions which include hygiene factors which are work conditions and the motivation factors which include work incentives (Griffin 2007, p.296).

A manager who has knowledge of this knowledge will realize that for motivation to be achieved, two particular angles must be considered. The hygiene factors which include working conditions, supervisors, pay security and interpersonal relations must not be deficient. The motivation factors which include achievement and recognition, advancement and growth and responsibility must be present since these are the factors that create a drive in the employee.

Most people are bound to compare their performances to that of other people in the same situation that they are in. This is also the case in the work environment where the employees constantly compare themselves with employees both within and outside of the organization.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Knowledge of Motivational Theories for Better Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The manager who is conversant with the Equity theory will be in a better position to manage his workforce and maximize their performance. The Equity theory is a social comparison theory which states that a balance of outputs to inputs is the goal that employees are motivated to achieve (Pynes 2008, p.153).

Knowledge of such a theory will enable a manager to be better at his job since he will seek to ensure that employees do not feel like they are under rewarded. Pynes (2008, p.154) highlights that an employee who feels that the ration of outcomes to inputs are equal is likely to be satisfied with the exchange relationship he/she has with his employer.

However, if the employer has a perception of inequity and he feels that he/she is giving more and the outcome is less, the person can reduce his input efforts. This will hurt the organization since success can only be achieved if each employee is performing optimally. A manager who is well versed with this motivational theory will ensure that at any one time, the employees perceive the ration of their inputs being equal to the outcomes that they obtain from the organization.

Without any in-depth knowledge on motivational theories, a manager is most likely to rely on the basic idea of rewards and punishments to achieve the goals that he desires. A study by Frey and Jegen (2001, p.591) reveals that monetary incentives and punishments may have the undesirable effect of crowding-out intrinsic motivation under some conditions.

A manager who does not know this will only seek to motivate his workforce by offering incentives which may have the effect of reducing the intrinsic motives. According to Frey and Jegen (2001, p.591), some people are intrinsically motivated to perform an activity without receiving any apparent reward for it except for the activity itself. With this in mind, the manager can improve his managing skills by increasing the quality of work for the workers since this is all that some employees need to be motivated to give favorable performances.

It is the role of the manager to come up with a vision and communicate the same to the employees so as to give them a sense of purpose and meaning. As such, the average manager will come up with a goal that he expects his employees to follow. The manager may com up with goals that are unchallenging, unclear or even unattainable by his workforce.

Knowledge of the Goal-setting theory advanced by Locke will ensure that the manager does not get into such pitfalls. Pynes (2008, p.155) states that according to the Goal setting theory, high performance results from clear expectations. With such knowledge, a manager will set specific task goals for his employees and ensure that these goals are challenging, clear and attainable.

In addition to this, the manager will realize that the goals may need to change in time since the same goals that were challenging and achievable in the past year may be unchallenging or unachievable for the next year. With such considerations, this manager who has an in-depth knowledge of this motivational theory will challenge his employees therefore bringing about positive results for the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Knowledge of Motivational Theories for Better Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion This paper set out to demonstrate how in-depth knowledge of motivational theory can help someone become a better manager. To this end, this paper has argued that knowledge of the various motivational theories can help a manager achiever his prime role which is to ensure the effective and efficient utilization of resources that are available to an organization for higher profitability to be achieved.

This paper has shown how the decisions made by the manager can be enhanced by an in depth knowledge of motivational theories. It has also been shown that a lack of knowledge in motivational theories will greatly hamper the operations of the manager in inciting the best performances from the employees. From this paper, it can be authoritatively stated that knowledge and application of motivational theories makes someone a better manager.

References Chapman, SC


Scenario Project: Investigative Plan Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Robbery investigation process

Technological assistance in robbery crimes

Measures of analyzing patterns of robbery crime

Process of synthesizing robbery data and making conclusion

Appropriate investigative units to catch robbery perpetrators

Equipment to support the process of robbery investigation



Introduction In recent times, there has been an increase in the number of robberies undertaken in Brooklyn, a region that continues to experience high rates of daytime and night robbery crimes, mainly perpetrated by people armed with guns.

The robbers target various people in undertaking their actions; for instance, they may target vulnerable people, mostly women some of whom may be in public places. Although numerous cases of such kind of robberies have been reported to the relevant authorities, the people in neighborhoods of Brooklyn feel insecure and they have taken measures to ensure their ultimate security.

However, to avert a rise in the robberies, the police must take swift measures to ensure the security of the citizens and bring to book those who have committed robbery offences so that they may be charged in the courts. The punishment of the offenders of the crimes will also help in discouraging other people from engaging in the vices, thus ensuring improvement of the ultimate security of the residents and the neighborhood of Brooklyn.

Robbery investigation process Any form of crime investigation essentially involves the act of collecting information through the process of applying sound reasoning, analyzing the information collected to answer the questions or solve problems that threaten the life of the people (Sennewald and Tsukayama, 2006).

Investigation process largely involves employment of techniques such as undercover investigations, surveillance, background investigation and the variety of internal strategies that should be used to expose the crime (Sennewald and Tsukayama, 2006).

Investigation process function in collaboration where additional procedures are used to build the case including interviewing suspects and witnesses, analysis of physical evidence, obtaining statements and confessions and also useful information generated from key and reliable informants (Sennewald and Tsukayama, 2006). Robbery investigation plan should have the following details with regard to steps to follow in robbery investigation process within the Brooklyn region.

First, the Chief need to familiarize with the region’s crime trends by analyzing crime data of the region. Next, there is need to integrate all the activities being undertaken by security forces in the region by re-defining and refining of the investigative roles and skills of the security forces. After this, the next step is the need to secure and examine carefully the most prominent robbery crime scenes for appropriate generation of data and information leading to revelation of criminal activities (Kryzhanovsky, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Appropriate recording of the scenes of robbery crimes is necessary and this may be undertaken through taking photos, notes and some sketches with detailed written description of the scene with the location of evidences recovered (Kryzhanovsky, 2007). Further a critical step of collecting physical evidences will be necessary such as weapons being used in robbery, fingerprints of the suspects and also dropped items.

Next step should involve collection of confessions and eyewitness accounts which become appropriate in making plan of investigation. Another vital step should involve attempts of identifying or finding out about the kind of criminals involved in these kinds of robbery activities should be made and making of robbery suspects’ models or profiles should be another critical step.

The next step should involve analysis of expertise data and information and see how well and beneficial they can be in relation to the robbery crimes of Brooklyn region (Kryzhanovsky, 2007). Another step is the utilization of secret sources to generate useful information about crime acts in the region. Integration and cooperation with other vital divisions that are likely to contribute to the success of the investigation should be another key step undertaken (Kryzhanovsky, 2007).

Supportive steps that will add some back-up effort to these investigation processes will involve the Chief increasing activities of installing surveillance cameras in critical points around the Brooklyn area; increasing crime scene-processing teams; rewarding information contributed by the general population of the region; promoting the creation and use of interactive crime prevention websites; and more importantly establishing mechanisms of conducting regular public education to the general population of the region (Brown, 2001).

Technological assistance in robbery crimes Technology assistance in crime investigation especially involving robbery crimes involves lab forensic investigation and testing. Forensic investigation will involve examination of robbery scene evidences left behind by the robbers which may include fingerprints (Newton and French, 2007).

Violent robbery crimes may leave bloodstains at the robbery scene and this becomes critical in forensic DNA profiling (Newton and French, 2007). When gunshots are involved forensic ballistics testing becomes necessary and this is enabled by the use of Integrated Ballistics Identification System to identify the type of cartridge to suspects’ firearms (Newton and French, 2007). Stolen cash can be identified by the use of forensic computerized serialized numbers for the cash.

Measures of analyzing patterns of robbery crime Crime mapping has become critical aspect of addressing any form of crime, Crime maps indicate and shows the frequency of crime, and the hottest locations for crimes (Piquero and Weisburd, 2009). Further measures to ensure accuracy of the crime maps has been use of the location quotients which in more details show and reveal the distribution of crime activities (Piquero and Weisburd, 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on Scenario Project: Investigative Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other more predictive crime activity measures involves use of the predictive mapping where such tools as crime prediction accuracy index have been used and in the end have provided clarity analysis of finding out predictive crime mapping that is both statistically and empirically robust (Piquero and Weisburd, 2009).

Process of synthesizing robbery data and making conclusion Robbery investigation will eventually lead to generation and accumulation of data which in turn will need to be synthesized in order to make vital and necessary conclusions. Longitudinal synthesis of data has been preferred as the best methodology in arriving at concise conclusion and recommendations for adoption.

Data synthesis involves process of building knowledge that in turn constitutes several steps. An effective approach is that of analysis of statistical results which constitute a process known as meta-analysis (McGuire, 2004). The process is further backed and enriched by secondary analysis.

After the meta-analysis has been done the results are reported in the form of a general outcome variable known as effect size where correlation coefficient become prominent and effective which largely shows close association between two variables (McGuire, 2004). The correlations are worked on through computations specifically through examining their averages leading to systematic conclusions about the relative strengths of different patterns of associations related to the robbery crime.

Appropriate investigative units to catch robbery perpetrators The most investigative units to zero-round robbery criminal will constitute criminal profiling processes that involves the use of available information about a crime and crime scene to curve out and try to identify the psychological characteristics of the unknown perpetrator of the crime.

Crime profiling generally involves generating information about the scene of the crime, state of the crime scene, kind of weapons used, and how victims were injured. Other critical information includes location pattern of crimes, how the offender got to and from the crime scene and where the offender lives (Bartol and Bartol, 2006).

In carrying out effective crime profiling with ambition to zero-round the offender it is always advisable to use multiple techniques of crime profiling and numerous suggestions have indicated that diagnostic evaluation, crime scene analysis and investigative psychology when accurately carried out can lead to identifying the offender of robbery crime or any other type of crime (Bartol and Bartol, 2006).

Equipment to support the process of robbery investigation Robbery investigation to generate or confirm particular information will need certain supportive equipment. At the same time the process of investigation might be a risky undertaking that will require protective equipment. As such, certain specific equipments are needed to provide support to the process of robbery investigation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Scenario Project: Investigative Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Equipment to be purchased include: raid jackets, rams, protective weapons, flashlights, protective body armor, first aid kits, and many more (Brown, 2001). On overall, efficient and effective forensic laboratory equipment will be needed and their purchase will be a great step in addressing robbery in the region.

Conclusion Addressing the issue of robbery inBrooklyn area will largely be realized through formulation and development of an effective robbery investigation plan. Further the success of the plan will depend on the collaboration efforts of key department involved in the issue, allocation of adequate resources to facilitate and implement the plan, adoption of appropriate technology and the general determination of the security personnel involved in the area.

References Bartol, C. R. and Bartol, A. M. (2006). Current perspectives in forensic psychology and criminal justice. New York: SAGE.

Brown, M. F. (2001). Criminal investigation: law and practice. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Kryzhanovsky, M. (2007). White House special handbook: how to rule the world in the 21st century. New York: Algora Publishing.

McGuire, J. (2004). Understanding psychology and crime: perspectives on theory and action. London: McGraw-Hill International.

Newton, M. and French, J. L. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Crime Scene Investigation. New York: InfoBase Publishing.

Piquero, A. and Weisburd, D. (2009). Handbook of Quantitative Criminology. New York: Springer.

Sennewald, C. A. and Tsukayama, J. K. (2006). The process of investigation: concepts and strategies for investigators in the private sector. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.


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Table of Contents Introduction

Human Resource Performance

Financial Performance

Supply Performance

Marketing Performance


Reference List

Appendix: Financial Ratios Calculations

Introduction Business Corporations define objectives that are used to help in reinforcing the position of any business Company; this strengthens their position within the industry and establishes them above existing competitors within the industry. The objectives underline the processes used and the advantages that would improve any Company’s position.

The objectives revolve around the company’s key strengths and opportunities, and at the same time assist in preventing any form of weaknesses as well as protecting the company against threats. However, there is a possibility that a company could create competitive advantage through the implementation of appropriate business models (Camardella, 2003, pp. 103-107).

Any Business entity should utilize the use of the BSC which could act as source of help to the company in the area of human resource management. This makes it possible for the Company to focus on hiring and retaining of customers within the market. It should be the focus of the company to hire best and experienced personnel who are dedicated to production and customer service (Chan


Millenium Mambo Essay college admission essay help

The later films of Taiwanese director Hou Hsiao Hsien, including Millennium Mambo, appear to have garnered the director a reputation of being cinematically “difficult” (Wood, 2001).

Released in 2001,Millennium Mambo represents the “15th film from Hou, a leader in Taiwan’s cinematic new wave of the 1980s. Although widely considered one of the greatest filmmakers working today, with each new movie considered a major event,” Millennium Mambo nonetheless was the first of Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films to secure a North American release (Dargis, 2004: p. 2).

Hou Hsiao-hsien belongs to Taiwan’s “New Cinema” group, a collective of Taiwanese directors that emerged in the 1980s. The “New Cinema” movement collaborated on each other’s films, and enjoyed solid backing from film critics working in Taiwan at the time.

Taiwanese cinema was dominated by “escapist romances and propaganda films” at that time, thus the “New Cinema” collective broke from tradition and “used a realistic style to convey their socially concerned themes…and their films “recognized the fact that Taiwan was not synonymous with China” (Huang, 1999: no page).

Hou Hsiao Hsien’s work garners the most international recognition amongst the “New Cinema” directors. His subject matter remains almost exclusively grounded in the experience of living in Taiwan, which is in fact his experience, as Hou has spent the lion share of his life living and working in Taiwan (Huang, 1999: no page).

Huang (1999) also notes that “contrasted with the positive influences one can gain from country life in most of Hou’s films are the attractions of the city, with its opportunities for a living wage and concomitant confusion of an alien social structure, and its dissimilar types of human relationships,” which we see evidenced in Millennium Mambo (no page).

Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films remain under the cinematic radar, largely unknown and for the most part unavailable to North American and European cinephiles. This paper will make a case for the distinguishing form of filmmaking applied by Hou Hsiao-Hsien in Millennium Mambo, with a particular emphasis on the director’s dramatisation of discrete scenes and his use of long shots and master shots to simultaneously create mood while maintaining an emotional distance from his characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a rule, Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films tend to favour aestheticism and mood over narrative structure, largely as a result of Hou Hsiao Hsien’s “intransigent refusal to “help” the audience by making obvious points, spelling out meanings, telling us what to think of the characters, or carefully explaining their motivation” (Wood, 2001: p. 12).

Apt to rub critics the wrong way, this creative obstinacy of Hou’s can sometimes be read as self-aggrandisement, and results in unflattering criticism such as this dismissal by Jones (1999): “Hou joined the ever growing number of filmmakers who appear to have climbed too far out on the limb of aestheticism, showing no regard whatsoever for their paying customers” (Jones, 1999: no page).

In order to fully appreciate Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films, Wood (2001) argues that audiences must “first…unlearn the indoctrinations of contemporary Hollywood and become active observers rather than passive receptacles, noticing even the smallest details, pondering their significance, making thematic connections beyond those of narrative, reaching our own decisions rather than having them foisted on us” (Wood, 2001:p. 12).

Other critics view Hou Hsiao Hsien’s work as deeply personal. In her essay Looking for Nostalgia: Memory and National Identity in Hou Hsiao-Hsien’s a Time to Live, a Time to Die, Wu (2003) holds that “Hou Hsiao Hsien consistently drew on his personal life experiences and those of his co-writers’ in the overall structure of the narratives, through which he represented the history of the increasingly industrialised and westernised Taiwan” (Wu, 2003: p.45).

Hou Hsiao Hsien often collaborators with the same writers and cinematographers, all of whom make a conscious attempt to “project…themselves into their films” (Wu, 2003: p. 46).

In Wu’s (2003) mind, Hou Hsiao Hsien and his screenwriters “offer the cinematic equivalent of historical representation, raising questions of identity on a symbolic level, in which they appeared to articulate themselves while simultaneously being articulated into history” (Wu, 2003: p. 46). As such, Hou Hsiao Hsien remain one of a handful of filmmakers concerned with “national soul searching, [and] reconstructing history as a function of reflecting the present” (Wu, 2003: p. 47).

Millennium Mambo constructs a loose narrative around main character Vicky’s experience as a hostess in a trendy Taiwanese bar and her relationships with two men: her abusive boyfriend, and an older gangster who befriends her. Kaicer (2001) called Millennium Mambo “an urban youth film, set in the bars, clubs, and dingy apartments of contemporary Taipei” (no page).

We will write a custom Essay on Millenium Mambo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The techno inspired soundtrack “dance music of his Taipei slackers defines the beat of its shots, the drift of its camera, the endless loops within loops of its spiralling chronology” (Kaicer, 2001: no page). For Sklar, (2002), Millennium Mambo represents Hou Hsiao Hsien’s “least compelling…narratives, but it’s reassuring to know that the film casts his remarkable artistry and moral seriousness at least another decade into the future” (Sklar, 2002: p.12).

The film’s critical welcome, according to Wood (2001), was mainly mixed. Jacobowitz (2005) raved that Millennium Mambo perfectly depicted “the cool edginess of the alienated youth” of Taiwan (p.65). Berry and Lu (2005) saw Millennium Mambo as a work of art that “pursues innovation into a future setting” (p. 7). Los Angeles Times film critic Manohola Dargis (2004) found that:

“Unlike the characters in director Hou Hsiao Hsien’s previous films – including his masterpieces “The Puppetmaster” and “Flowers of Shanghai” – Vicky and her friends don’t have strong connections to specific places, to a home or a history…[yet] as always with this filmmaker, the visual pleasures are enormous and often deeply touching.

One of the most ravishing images in a film filled with ravishing images is of Vicky gently lowering her face into some freshly fallen snow. As she raises her head laughing, the camera lingers on the impression she’s left behind. In the snow, we see the traces of a self already melting into a memory” (p. 3).

However, when the film premiered at the Cannes festival in 2001, Millennium Mambo garnered the dubious honour of being “the first of Hou Hsiao Hsien’s mature films to receive a less than enthusiastic reception” (Wood, 2001: p. 12). Millennium Mambo was “dismissed by critics in a perfunctory line or two with no attempt to relate it to Hou Hsiao Hsien’s previous work” (Wood, 2001: p. 12).

Like Hou Hsiao Hsien’s other works, Millennium Mambo is backward looking, and told from memory. Sklar (2002) remarks that in Millennium Mambo “Hou Hsiao Hsien returned to [the] curious aspect of his penchant for the past [in] that the film opens with a voice-over explaining that its events “happened ten years ago in the year 2001,” casting the present as history” (Sklar, 2002: p.12).

Though set in the recognizable present, Millennium Mambo continues Hou Hsiao Hsien’s tradition of looking to the past to offer commentary on the present. In Millennium Mambo, Sklar (2002) understand “Hou Hsiao Hsien’s strategy for taking on today’s chaotic, incoherent postmodern culture – as he makes it appear to be – involves viewing it as evanescent, as having already happened and, presumably, later been transformed into something else” (Sklar, 2002: p.12). (2004) describes Hou Hsiao Hsien “as a member of the “master shot” school of filmmaking” (No page). In standard filmmaking, the master or establishing shot happens first and presents the key elements of any given scene. The filmmaker then repositions the camera in nearer proximity to the subjects held within the frame, be they actors or objects, culminating usually in a close-up.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Millenium Mambo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When it comes time to edit, the filmmaker typically intercuts between the establishing shot and the medium and close shots to generate the intensity of the scene (, 2004: no page). (2004) highlights the fact that “Hou Hsiao Hsien almost never engages in this latter aspect of standard film technique. A movie composed mostly of long shots, especially extended takes as is usual for Hou Hsiao Hsien, tends to keep the audience emotionally distanced from the characters and the action.

As a result, Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films are criticized as boring, and sometimes they are. But at his best, Hou Hsiao Hsien can provoke overwhelmingly intense emotions precisely because the viewer has worked to earn it. Hou Hsiao-Hsien films offer a generous store of images and feelings that lavishly reward time and patience” (No page).

Hou Hsiao Hsien’s shooting style and camera work in Millennium Mambo relays a similar technique, although according to Sea (2002), Millennium Mambo “is the first of six films…to be realized in the next ten years…that deals with Taiwan’s present youth, and is devoid of the long pans, evocative images and detached shooting style that have typified Hou Hsiao Hsien’s work” (No page).

Millennium Mambo contains a disconnected, emotionally frozen feeling, evoked mainly by the performances, but also by the way that the film is shot. An example of this occurs in the seduction scene (Millennium Mambo, 2001).

Vicky returns from her hostess job to find her boyfriend, Hao Hao, at home and in the mood for love (Millennium Mambo, 2001).. Hou Hsiao Hsien’s camera stays far back from the scene as Hao Hao attempts to seduce Vicky, first through romantic kissing and finally through cunnilingus (Millennium Mambo, 2001)..

Vicky, meanwhile, keeps her lips turned away from Hao Hao’s, and while he takes off her clothes she drinks a cup of tea and smokes a cigarette (Millennium Mambo, 2001).. Eventually, Hao Hao gives up and returns to the bedroom (Millennium Mambo, 2001).. The indifference and boredom that Vicky extends towards Hao Hao’s attempted lovemaking is exquisitely captured through the remoteness of the shooting style (Millennium Mambo, 2001).

Like Vicky, the camera feels passively disinterested, essentially standing back from the action, offering no encouragement to the viewer, and waiting for Hao Hao’s frisky moment to be over (Millennium Mambo, 2001). The lack of passion in the shooting style perfectly mirrors the lack of passion and apathy that forms the heart of the scene, and of Vicky and Hao Hao’s relationship (Millennium Mambo, 2001).

Critical response to the shooting style Hou Hsiao Hsien exhibited in Millennium Mambo was again mixed. Wilmington (2004) found that “Hou Hsiao Hsien, who often shoots his scenes in single takes with a roving camera, used only the sketchiest of scripts. Most of the heavily emotional scenes were improvised from brief outlines. Yet, working in this minimalist, seize-the-moment way…rivets our eyes and often wrings our heart” (p. 2).

Halcyon Realms (2005) lamented that “in the case of Millennium Mambo the potential bore factor skyrockets because the photographer is Lee Pingbin, who loves to lock down his camera and shoot empty compositions where the actors are completely out of frame” (No page). Similarly, Thom (2002) remarked that “Hou Hsiao Hsien’s film could pass for a documentary, if it weren’t for his extreme aesthetic approach” (no page). Kaicer (2001) found:

“Contemporary Hou Hsiao Hsien…disorienting, experimental, jarring. Unprecedented for him, most of Millennium Mambo is shot in shallow focus and medium close-up, with a roaming, exploratory camera always in motion.

A Hou Hsiao Hsien who directs the viewer’s eye, too, is something new: we’re used to slowly, patiently exploring the spaces he lays out for us, to exercising a certain autonomy as we read meaning into his films. Hou Hsiao Hsien controls our eyes in Millennium Mambo and shows us what he himself seems to be in the process of discovering, in something like real time” (No page).

Bingham (2003) described Millennium Mambo’s “intensely claustrophobic tone and oblique compositions…characters half-viewed through doorways etc,” yet also pointed to the similarity in content between Millennium Mambo and Hou Hsiao Hsien’s earlier work Flowers of Shanghai.

“Thematically, in its portrait of a girl building up to dumping her unemployed, layabout boyfriend whom she supports, it can be seen as a companion piece to Flowers of Shanghai, in that both films feature a protagonist desperate for freedom from an aimless relationship…or series of them in the earlier film…and independence in a culture still largely unsympathetic to their plight (No page).

Huang (1999) echoes Wood in her suggestion that to appreciate Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films, audience members must remove the lens of Hollywood and open their minds to a filmmaker whose narrative bias leans towards indirectness (No page).

In Huang’s (1999) mind, Hou Hsiao Hsien’s films “present the viewer with certain problems, and not only because they demand some awareness of Taiwanese political and cultural history during the second half of the last century [but because] …their treatment of narrative structure has become increasingly challenging and unorthodox (No page).

This is especially true of his shooting style. In Huang’s (1999) words, “one feels at times that Hou Hsiao Hsien shoots only the sequences that really engage him, leaving the audience to fill in narrative hiatuses with a combination of common sense and imagination.

The many characters are seldom given the careful, emphatic introductions to which Hollywood has accustomed us, and close ups are rare, point-of-view shots non-existent; sequences are often entirely in long-shot. In short, Hou Hsiao Hsien expects us to work, concentrate, be vigilant; the films construct a spectator who is at once detached but sympathetic” (No page).

In essence, Hou Hsiao Hsien’s shooting style emulates Vicky’s experience of life in Taiwan – disconnected, emotionally detached, non participatory, and boring. The absence of a real narrative in Millennium Mambo echoes Vicky aimless existence. As Wilmington (2004) describes “Hou Hsiao Hsien has evolved an almost rarefied technique, suggesting a life that seems to rush past his camera, unmediated and unaware” (p. 2).

In the case of Vicky, the speed of the bar contrast sharply with the slow pace of change she exacts in her relationship with Hao Hao. How Hou Hsiao Hsien shoots Vicky’s world is exactly how Vicky sees the world – as a passive spectator, never really coming close to anything. Hou Hsiao Hsien’s shooting style appears to be patterned after his protagonist’s lived experience of life in Taiwan – passive, fleeting, distance.

Burnett (2004) points to Hou Hsiao Hsien’s ability to “manipulate…the device of the fade or the dissolve to deflect spectator attention away from the amount of time that has elapsed between segments and other such questions of plot and to direct he/she towards pondering the evolution of the film’s style” (No page).

In conclusion, director Hou Hsiao Hsien’s Millennium Mambo contains many of the filmmaker’s trademark touches. It is an aesthetically beautiful film, peopled by beautiful actors and replete with lush imagery.

However, the shooting style, the lack of nearness to the characters, creates an emotional distance that imbues the film with a lost quality that lingers throughout. Hou Hsiao Hsien shoots and stages Millennium Mambo in a way that renders Vicky’s actual experience of life – disengaged, severed from any real emotional engagement with the world or with others, and drifting somewhat directionless through life.

Reference List Berry, Chris and Lu, Feiyi. (2005) Island on the edge: Taiwan new cinema and after. Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press.

Bingham, A. (2003) Cinema of Sadness: Hou Hsiao-hsien and ‘New Taiwanese Film’. Cinetext. Web.

Burnett, C. (2004) Parametric narration and optical transition devices: Hou Hsiao-hsien and Robert Bresson in comparison. Senses of Cinema 57. Web.

Culture vulture. (2004) Films of Hou Hsiao-Hsien. China Through a Lens. Web.

Dargis, M. (2004) Woman held captive to love in ‘Mambo’. Los Angeles Times. Web.

Halcyonrealms. (2005) Millenium mambo. Halcyon Realms. Web.

Huang, V. (1999) Hou Hsiao-hsien. Film Reference. Web.

Jacobowitz, F. (2005) Hou Hsiao-hsien’s Cafe Lumiere. CineAction 65. Web.

Jones, K. (1999) Cinema with a roof over its head. Film Comment. Web.

Kraicer, S. (2001) Millennium mambo. A Chinese Cinema Site. Web.

Sea, L. (2002) Millennium mambo. Love HK Film. Web.

Sklar, R. (2002) Hidden history, modern hedonism: The films of Hou Hsiao-hsien. Cineaste, Fall. Web.

Thom, F. (2002) Millennium mambo. Plume Noire. Web.

Wilmington, M. (2004) `Mambo’ a raw film poem about the pain of desire. Chicago Tribune. Web.

Wood, R. (2001) Flowers of Shanghai. Cine Action. Web.

Wu, I. (2003) Looking for nostalgia: memory and national identity in Hou Hsiao-Hsien’s a time to live, a time to die. Cine Action. Web.


Helping, Giving and Volunteerism Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Statement of the Problem

Literature Review





Volunteerism, sometimes denoted as giving or helping, has characterized the universe for sometime now. Such volunteerism is greatly expressed in charitable donations by different individuals and organizations. Today, it is estimated that charitable donations account for almost $ 95 billion and individuals have come out as the biggest contributors (Kiplinger Washington Editors, 2008).

What normally happens is that individuals together with different organizations come together with the aim of supporting special causes such as helping the poor, paying medical bills for victims of different ailment, or even donating for victims of different disasters. Helping implies a form of gift to someone else; sharing a part of what is owned, and individuals even go extra lengths to offer their services as part of voluntarism process.

Voluntarism is seen as opportunity that people should embrace in order to change lives of other people as well as the lives of volunteers themselves. Among the American society, giving to the community has become an important aspect that majority of individuals embrace. Some high school have even taken initiatives of requiring the student to allocate some time in order to volunteer in community work and the success of this may determine whether the student is eligible to graduate or not (The Nemours Foundation, n.d).

Exploring the issue of voluntarism, many literatures have put much emphasis on the important benefits and help that receivers of such help accrue. Little has been written about the benefits or factors that drive individuals and organizations that give help or participate in voluntarism activities.

In real sense, individuals cannot just give any particular help without being directed or influenced by particular motivation. Therefore, how are such individuals motivated to give, what psychological, emotional and social benefit do they achieve as part of their role in contributing and lastly how best can voluntarism activities be regarded as duty that individuals have to fulfill?

The guiding thesis for this research paper will be based on the fact that individuals who participate in voluntarism activities are directed by particular and specific motivations and that voluntarism together with giving has to be regarded and viewed as a duty to be accomplished by individuals.

Statement of the Problem Voluntarism is an aspect that is becoming important but little attention is being paid to it. The role of voluntarism in term of donations and giving is immense and continues to change the lives of many people in different parts of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to available charity statistics, as per the year 2009, it was revealed that about 65 per cent of USA households participate in activities of giving (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010). Another research carried out by Giving USA organization statistics shows that American individuals giving donations to charities reached $ 303.75 billion by the year 2009 (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010).

At the same time, statistics show that giving tendencies by corporate organizations in USA is on the rise whereby, in 2009, it stood at 5.5%, but since then, it has risen to the current level of 14.4 billion (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010). Contribution from foundations also continue to form part of charity donations although by 2009 such form of donations had dropped by almost 8.4 per cent to the current level of almost $ 42.9 billion (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010).

Analysis of the same statistics further reveal that the biggest source of charitable giving comes from individuals whereby, in the year 2009, it stood at $227.41, which constituted 75% of the overall accumulated form of giving (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010). Coming second after individuals are foundations that contribute about $ 38.44 billion accounting for 13% of the total giving (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010).

Third placed are the bequests accounting for about 8% and corporations come last contributing about 4% of the total giving (National Philanthropic Trust, 2010).

Giving therefore does not happen without motivation. The above large amount of donations given by individuals and corporation require an indecisive investigation to reveal the psychological factors that lead individuals to give. Such research undertaking is important especially with regard to increasing role of voluntarism and donation activities in the contemporary world.

Literature Review Scarce literature exists as to why people show willingness to donate to charities or provide voluntarism services in their communities. Nevertheless, there are heightened attempts specifically in the field of social psychology to investigate reasons that motivate people to donate or give help to different charities (Buunk, Buunk and Vugt, 2007).

According to Sandra Sims, an online contributor in the journal of ‘Step by Step Fundraising’ observes that more people are being driven to donate and the major motivation is being guided by their own experience and values.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Helping, Giving and Volunteerism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These two aspects constitute part of the many aspects of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which have been viewed by many psychologists as major reasons why majority of people in society are giving to charities (Sims, 2007). According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, people give in order to fulfill aspects of love, belonging, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization (Sims, 2007).

At the same time, other literatures postulate that individuals are motivated to give by factors of: helping, altruism, cooperation, and pro-social behavior (Batson and Powell, 2003; and Van Vugt, et al., 2000 cited in Buunk, Buunk and Vugt, 2007); the second reason cited by the same authors why individuals give is that of social influence (Buunk, Buunk and Vugt, 2007).

The needs of hierarchy according to Maslow’s hierarchy are placed at better way of explaining why people donate or decide to give. Maslow placed the human needs in ascending order of importance as show: physiological needs constitute the basic needs that are vital to sustain human life and include things like food, water, warmth, shelter, and sleep.

Many poor people find it difficult to fulfill or have these physiological needs, a situation that motivates many people to donate, give, or volunteer their resources including time (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

Security or safety needs constitute another category of needs that largely ensure individuals are free of physical danger and of fear; for instance, such individuals may require property, food, shelter when it seems that the individuals on their own cannot provide for these safety needs charitable activities might be excellent avenues for such individuals to get solace (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

The desire to see individuals in society have adequate safety needs has constituted motivation aspects driving particular people to give, help, and donate in various charity organizations. Maslow further looks at the importance of affiliation or acceptance needs, an aspect that motivates individuals to participate in voluntarism activities as a way of making other people feels accepted in society and to feel that they belong and assume an important position in the wider society (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

Esteem needs constitute another group of needs and according to Maslow, “once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others” (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

This particular kind of need produces such satisfactions as power, prestige, status, and self-confidence (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006). Thus, in giving, donating, or even volunteering, many people feel satisfaction within themselves with regard to achieving power, prestige, status, and even self-confidence (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Helping, Giving and Volunteerism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, Maslow looked at need for self-actualization and according to the author; this particular aspect is regarded as the highest need in the hierarchy of needs (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).

The postulation of this need is that many individuals after achieving a lot in life finally develops desire to become what one is capable of becoming that is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something great (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006). When such feelings emanate the individuals find charitable organizations as the best avenues to realize this need. It becomes apparent to the individuals that donating and volunteering their time and energy help them to achieve this need.

Findings Postulation in the literature tried to look at motivating factors that lead majority of people to donate or help. The literature review dwelt largely on the psychological aspects as postulated by Maslow.

Nevertheless, carrying out further research many people gave different reasons as to why volunteerism and giving to them is important. According to field findings by Rebecca Ruby and Katya Andresen published in their online article title, ‘The secret to Getting People Give’ the two researchers found out from different people why they perceived donating or voluntarism was essential.

The participants in the research expressed that giving was part of the initiative to help other people in the society (Ruby and Andresen, 2008). At the same time, some respondents noted that upon listening to stories of people in need they became obliged to donate and volunteer.

Another group of respondents noted that giving was a sign showing that an individual is not powerless in times of problems or disaster (Ruby and Andresen, 2008). To other respondents, they put it in precise words why helping was necessary and important; giving results in sense of closeness to the community or any particular group where also giving makes one feel that his or her efforts are changing the lives o someone.

Further, giving helps people receive tax deduction, as well as enabling people to establish permanent pictures in mind of how a person in need was helped. Other respondents were convinced that giving is part of life to some individuals from their childhood and it is through giving that individuals establish good images for themselves.

Through giving, individuals are presented with opportunity to establish long-lasting legacies while to others giving is part of religious duties to be fulfilled. Lastly, through giving and volunteering people are seen to be leaders and role models to be emulated by others in the society (Ruby and Andresen, 2008).

Another field research carried out by Sandra Sims and published online in her article titled ‘Why do People donate to Charitable Causes’ found out three major reasons that drive people to donate to charities.

The first reason has to do with personal experience where majority of givers adopt the activity of giving to others when they reflect on their own experiences as beneficiaries of charitable donations and help (Sims, 2007). Others, particularly in medical donations, give in order to honor their loved ones who in one way or the other died from the particular disease or problem donations are being done currently. Second reason why people give is that of making and witnessing change in the society.

In other words, when particular people participate in charity work their biggest desire is to see difference being realized in society (Sims, 2007). The ambitions of such donors come to coalesce around the desire to see long-term and lasting impact in the lives of less advantaged or those affected by particular disasters. The third reason as to why people donate and give as expressed by the author involves, “doing something active about a problem or take a stand on a particular issue” (Sims, 2007, p.1).

By giving, the individual is able to accumulate some form of social power that he or she I able to use in approaching certain social and complex problems in society (Sims, 2007). The fourth reason as to why people give has to do with motivation aspects. When some people give, they become largely attracted to the need realizing personal recognition and benefits (Sims, 2007).

Discussion As seen from the earlier section as to what drives majority of people to give, one aspect becomes clear as to why many people find motivation in giving and that aspect has to with duty. Majority of activities of donating or volunteering is seen to be guided by the sense of duty and as Brooks and Wilson (2007) postulate, about 80% of interviewed people who gave donations or provided help in many organizations and charities confirmed that those who have more should give to those who have less.

The concept of duty is concisely expressed and promoted by Kant who holds that “humans are morally good not so far as they act from passion or self-interest but so far as they act on an impersonal principle valid for others as well as for themselves” (Kant and Paton, 1991, p.30).

According to Kant, duties are divided into duties towards self and duties towards others and further divided into perfect and imperfect duties (Kant and Paton, 1991). As a result of this classification, four major types of duties are proposed by Kant. Analyzing the four types of duties Kant is convinced that a perfect duty is one that admits of no exception in the interests of inclination.

With regard to duties upon self, Kant express that individuals’ various capacities have a natural function or purpose I life and it is a perfect duty upon individuals not to limit such purposes and at the same time it is positive duty for such individuals to further such purposes to others (Kant and Paton, 1991). At the same time, Kant notes that individuals have a duty towards other individuals and the perfect duty here involves that of not limiting the realization of possible systematic harmony of purposes among majority of people.

Giving and voluntarism should be seen as a way of providing support to the work that touches on the lives of many people and such activities or initiatives should be guided by sense of responsibility and duty in order to help people suffering and in need.

Giving as a duty can be justified basing argument from existence of three basic and pressing issues in society today: increasing human suffering and skyrocketing cases of poverty especially among disadvantaged families; the increasing vulnerability to diseases compounded by increasing rate of deaths resulting from such diseases; and lastly increasing gap between the rich and poor in society (Riddell, 2007). Majority of people today falls in the category of being chronically poor living on less than $2 dollars a day (Riddell, 2007).

As cases of poverty increase, vulnerability to diseases is becoming inevitable usually caused by a mix of insufficient food, poor water and sanitation, inadequate shelter or even health care and as fate would be majority of the affected succumb to poverty-related deaths (Riddell, 2007).

Therefore, the described above scenario in the contemporary modern world is gradually making the aspect of giving and voluntarism a necessity that people to embrace in order to save other. It is becoming a prerequisite to undertake and get involved in charity work in order to see a function world. In addition, it is from these pressing needs that giving and voluntarism is graduating into a duty that individuals should embrace positively.

Conclusion Thesis statement for this research paper centered on the need of investigating the increasing nature of voluntarism and donation activities as a form of duty that humans have to fulfill. From the exploration and analysis of literature, profound evidence shows that today’s world is characterized by high numbers of poverty levels, many people especially in poor societies are dying from poverty-related disease and the gap between the rich and poor in many societies is widening.

As a way to address these issues, it was found that voluntarism and giving should be embraced and perceived as duty that individuals are obliged to fulfill in the society. Kant’s concept of duty was further explored and it became evident that human have a duty towards others of ensuring they experience similar happiness and joy as themselves.

References Brooks, A. C. and Wilson, J. Q. (2007). Who Really Cares: The Surprising Truth About Compassionate Conservatism — America’s Charity Divide–Who Gives, Who Doesn’t, and Why It Matters. NY: Basic Books.

Buunk, A. P., Buunk, B. and Vugt, M. V. (20007). Applying social psychology: from problems to solutions. NY: SAGE.

Kant, I. and Paton, H. J. (1991). Moral law: groundwork of the metaphysic of morals. NY: Routledge.

Kiplinger Washington Editors. (2008). Kiplinger Personal Finance, Vol. 62, No. 3. Washington: Kiplinger Washington Editors Inc.

Koontz, H. and Weihrich, H. (2006). Essentials of Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

National Philanthropic Trust. (2010). Philanthropy Statistics: Charitable Giving. Web.

Riddell, R. (2007). Does foreign aid really work? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ruby, R. and Andresen, K. (2008). The Secret to Getting People to Give: 14 Reasons Why People Donate. MD: Learning Center Network for Good. Web.

Sims, S. (2007). Why Do People Donate to Charitable Causes? CA: Step by Step Fundraising Inc. Web.

The Nemours Foundation. (N.d). Volunteering. Web.


Advertising or Ad Campaigns Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ford’s advertising Campaign



Introduction The advertising or ad campaign that will be focused on in this essay will be for Ford Motors and its ad campaign for its F Series pickup trucks.

Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its headquarters in Michigan, USA. The founder of the company, Henry Ford established Ford Motor Company in 1903 by introducing car brands such as the Ford Lincoln and the Mercury car brands. These brands catapulted the company to be the second largest car automaker in the United States and the fourth largest in the world with regards to car sales after Volkswagen in Germany.

The company has focused most of its car making activities in the manufacture of trucks, sports utility vehicles and sedans. Some of the most common Ford car models include the Ford Taurus, Ford Mondeo, Ford Explorer and Ford Expedition (NY Times 2010).

Ford’s advertising Campaign One advertising campaign for the company involved an investment of $100 million on its ad campaign for the Ford F-150 pickup truck which made its debut in 2003. The Ford F-150 pickup has been described by many automakers and car industry analysts to be the most popular variant of the car manufacturer’s F-Series pickup models.

The F-150 was the best selling vehicle in the United States for over 24 years since the company was in operation which led financial analysts to estimate that the sale of F-Series pickup models accounted for half of Ford Motor Company’s profits.

The popularity of the F-Series and especially the F-150 has been as a result of the company’s extensive marketing campaigns and advertising activities which have continued to relay the improvements of the company’s F-Series trucks to the pickup and truck market in the United States ( 2010).

The $100 million was used to produce over 30 commercials and print ads to market the F-150 truck to car buyers of trucks in the American market. The extensive use of the many ads and commercials was meant to ensure that the Ford pickup remained the number one top selling full-size pickup in the American market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company decided to divide its advertising campaign into two phases where phase I was referred to as the Tease Campaign and phase II was known as Earned the Right Campaign (Duncan 2010). Ford’s Tease Campaign was based on the fundamental principles of using tease campaigns in advertising and marketing (Wark 1992).

A tease campaign is defined as a brief advertisement that is used to capture the interest of the general audience by offering bits of information of the product that the company is advertising. The tease campaign does not reveal the name of the sponsor during the ad campaign or commercial and it does not also offer the name of the product that is being advertised (Farrington 1999).

Teaser campaigns are usually used before the official advertising campaign and their main purpose is to draw the interest and curiosity of the target audience to the product that is being advertised. The main objective of these campaigns is to create an awareness of the company’s product and also position the product in the minds of the target audience (Belch et al 2007).

For a teaser campaign to be effective, the ad or commercial has to be clearly visible in both the print and visual media and it should also have a clear message that creates some interest to the ad in the mind of the viewer. The teaser campaign should also last for a few seconds if an ad commercial is being used in the advertising campaign (Chapman 1986). In the case of print media, the teaser campaign should incorporate the use of catchy phrases and attractive colours that will draw the interest of the viewer.

The most common uses of teaser campaigns have been before the introduction of major motion pictures and during the launch of major products such cars, airlines, personal computers, laptops and mobile phones. Teaser campaigns are especially popular among automotive advertisers who are planning to introduce a new car model into the market or are planning to introduce a newly renovated car model to its intended target audience (Wernick 1994).

The Teaser ad Campaign for Ford Motors Company dealt with the launch of a 60 second commercial that was meant to attract the attention of the viewers to the product.

The commercial used in the Tease Campaign to market the F-150 Ford pickup truck involved using phrases and words such as “farms, fields, concrete streets and crowded construction sites” in the ad commercial to represent the consumers of Ford’s pickup trucks in the American market which is generally every pickup consumer. The purpose of the teaser campaign was to gain the curiosity of the company’s truck consumers who had developed interest in the company’s pickup F Series truck models (Duncan 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Advertising or Ad Campaigns specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second phase of Ford’s ad campaign involved incorporating the official marketing campaign referred to as “Earned the Right campaign”. This ad campaign was immediately launched after the teaser campaign to build up on the interest that had been received by the ad.

The Earned the Right campaign was to feature four commercials that would be aired on television during the NFL regular seasons. The ad was meant to describe the features of the pickup (Low end-torque and horsepower) to the company’s target market and audience by providing a short description of the improvements that the truck has when compared to the previous truck models manufactured by the company.

The ad campaign was also meant to draw the attention of any potential truck buyer by encouraging them to visit any Ford auto dealership and view the F-150 Ford truck before they decided to make a purchase. The placement of the commercials before and after the NFL games was meant to attract a large American audience that usually tuned in for the NFL regular season games on various media broadcasting channels (Duncan 2010).

The company’s marketing executives decided to place commercials during every NFL game that was televised by ESPN so as to ensure that a 50 percent audience of truck buyers would be targeted by the commercials. The Teaser Campaign and Earned the Right advertising campaigns were described by industry analysts as the largest campaigns that were developed by Ford (Duncan 2010). The F-150 pickup model received a lot of attention as other advertising strategies were incorporated to market the product to its audience.

These advertising strategies included the use of popular websites such as Yahoo, MSN and AOL to increase media hype for the pickup truck. This form of advertising was meant to reach 75 percent of the company’s Internet users in MSN by incorporating the use of pop up ads and 230 by 33 banner ads that offered pictures of the F-150 truck to Internet users. The banner ads also had a link that would allow the user to view more details about the truck (Morrisey 2003).

In Yahoo’s homepage, the truck’s ad dominated two prominent positions of the web page that were devoted for ad campaigns. The webpage offered close-ups of the truck and links that would be used by Yahoo users to get more information on the F-150. In AOL, the welcome screen to the website featured an ad for the F-150 which was meant to catch the attention of the website’s users (Morrisey 2003).

These online placements of the company’s ad campaign included the four commercials that the company developed for the Earned the right campaign. This type of advertising proved to be different from that consumer electronics such as washing machines, dish washers, refrigerators and vacuums which mostly incorporated advertising campaigns that lacked teaser ads meant to encourage users to purchase the products (Nixon 1997).

In the case of washing machines, the advertising campaigns for expensive front loading machines proved to be ineffective as most consumers opted to purchase the conventional top loading washing machines. This forced Samsung to incorporate an advertising campaign that was different from other types of conventional washing machine adverts (Yaish 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertising or Ad Campaigns by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The persuasive technique that was utilised in advertising Samsung’s SWF Series washing machine involved the use of a persuasive text which stated that, “Nothing stays on clothes at a 1300RPM spin speed. I wonder why the colour of the clothes is still so bright and clear.” This ad caption was followed by images of bodiless shirts of different types of colours and materials which were vomiting different types of colours and stains such as mud, oil and ink.

The ad text and images were meant to relay the message that under a 1,300 rpm spin speed, the SWF washing machine could remove all stains on different types of clothing. This type of advertising was described as hard selling because of the incorporation of direct and overt sales images in the ad campaign which involved shirts that had no bodies (Atrens 2001).

This ad campaign differed from that of Ford’s F-150 pickup ad campaign that was soft selling in nature because of the friendly messages that were used in both its teaser and official advertisements. While most advertisers lauded Samsung’s ad campaign to be a bold move (the ad won an award in Qatar), many consumers saw the ad campaign as offensive and disgusting because of the bodiless images and also the depiction of throwing up in the ad campaigns images (Joseph 2009).

Conclusion The essay had dealt with an evaluation of Ford Motor’s advertising campaigns for its Ford F-150 pickup series which is the most pickup truck in the United States. The essay has focused on one advertising campaign that the company utilised to market the F-150 pickup model and it has also looked at the various ad texts that were incorporated in the ad commercials.

A comparison of the company’s ad campaign was done with another piece of technology which was Samsung’s washing machine. The discussion noted that the ad campaign incorporated by Samsung was different from that of Ford as it involved the hard selling of the SWF washing machine to its consumers.

References Atrens, D., “The future of dietary health promotion”, Health Promotion Journal of Australia, Vol.11, No.1, 2001

Belch G.E., Belch G.E. and Belch M.A. Advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective. New York: McGraw Hill Irwin, 2007, pp 256-275. ISBN 0-07-253676-4

Chapman, S., Great expectations: advertising and the tobacco industry, London: Comedia Publishing, 1986, pp.11-33. ISBN 0906890861

Duncan, A. “Ad campaign’’. Advertising About. 2010. Web.

Farrington, J., “Are ads making you sick?” Current Health 2, April 1999, Vol.25, No.8 “Ford F-150”. Ford Motor Company, 2010. Web.

Joseph, J. “Dubai lynx awards 2009: Samsung washing machine ad campaign”. Vision Widget, 2009. Web.

Morrisey, A. “Ford F-150 ad campaign begins ad blitz online”. Clickz News, 2003. Web.

Nixon, H., “Fun and games are serious business”, in Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multi-Media, (ed) J. Sefton-Green, London: University College London Press, 1997. ISBN 1857288572

NY Times, “Ford Motor Company”. New York Times, 2010. Web.

Wark, M., “Still life today: the Benetton Campaign”, Photofile, Vol.36,1992, pp 33-36

Wernick, A., “(Re-) imagining technology: the case of cars”, in Promotional Culture, London :Sage, 1994, pp.67-91. ISBN 0803983913

Yaish, F. “Samsung washing machine at 1300rpm”. Ad Sneeze, 2009. Web.


Business Intelligence Solutions in UAE Companies Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Advantages of business intelligence systems

Limitations of business intelligence systems

Business intelligence solutions in UAE companies


Reference List

Introduction Sabherwal and Becerra-Fernandez (2009) defined business intelligence as a system that avails business decision makers with relevant business information and knowledge by levering a variety of data sources as well as structured and unstructured information.

Business intelligence systems refer to software/ hardware systems that enable the end users to obtain business intelligence by analyzing vast amounts of base data emanating from diverse business perspectives (Masunaga


History of Symphony Orchestra Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


17th and Early 18th Century

19th Century

20th Century

Claudio Monteverdi


Reference List


Introduction For many years, people have been making music through various instruments for as long as musical instruments have existed. However, in the 17th century, orchestra was birthed and symphony orchestra has changed ever since. The evolution of symphony orchestra has been a combined effort of many musicians to form what we know as modern orchestra today.

Before we dig deep into the history of symphony orchestra, it is important to understand that in the early years of the evolution of orchestra music, there was a lot of accretion of orchestra music; especially in the 18th -20th century[1]. The 20th and 21st centuries have however not witnessed much change in the evolution of orchestra music, especially when analyzed in terms of music composition[2].

Conventionally, orchestra was played by a sizeable number of musicians but today, the number of musicians playing orchestra can be as much as 100[3]. Initially, the number of musicians was 50[4]. Groups of orchestra musicians are normally referred to as the symphony orchestra but there are smaller versions to it (even though they bear no difference with regards to how the music is composed or played).

From this understanding of orchestra music, this study seeks to dig deeper into the history of its current constitution; right from the 17th century when it started to the developments witnessed today. This will specifically encompass the major milestones covered in the development of the music. Lastly, this study will single out one orchestra musician so that we can best conceptualize the development of symphony orchestra through time (from the analysis of the musician’s works). This will be done in a systematic manner.

Roots Various researchers have pointed out that the root of orchestra music can be traced back in ancient Egypt when small groups of musicians would congregate to entertain guests in various festivities such as weddings, holidays and the likes[5]. However, at this time, the musicians did not fully enjoy the benefits of their talents because of regime suppression which would not support their work[6].

Actually, a section of research studies point out that the Roman Empire was the major oppressive element to the growth of orchestra music but when it collapsed, many musicians came out to play their instruments with a wide variation in octaves and tones[7].

Conventional research studies point out that the root of modern orchestra can actually be traced back to the 16th century when a number of music composers started taking up the task of composing orchestra music seriously[8]. The trend later picked up in Italy where orchestra was played in social gatherings just like its roots in Egypt.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, with the development of the theatre and opera houses, orchestra music took a different turn because it was now written by specific organized groups, leading to its rapid expansion in other European countries such as Germany, France, England and other states.

The major players at this time were the likes of Henry Purcell, Moliere and the likes. At this point, orchestra music was widely entertaining and it was not only made through the use of instruments but also through vocal support[9]. This development greatly elevated the status of orchestra music to new heights,

17th and Early 18th Century During the 17th and early 18th century, orchestra music took a highly organized form where most talented musicians formed large instrumental groups to entertain enthusiasts. In fact, some researchers explain that great musicians at the time would have control over almost an entire town in terms of talent control[10]. Such musicians were the likes of Johann Sebastian and the previously mentioned Handel.

The best musicians were therefore hired by such pioneers to form large instrumental groups when the fan base for orchestra music increased. This development increased the premiums to be paid to musicians who could rewrite music for a given audience in a specific period of time[11].

Playing Orchestra music thereafter became a lucrative undertaking as many instrumental groups started being booked to play for specific audiences out of the conventional town setups. Pioneer artists were therefore surrounded by permanent groups of instrumentalists who acted as their symphony.

This created an ensemble of musicians who became a permanent fixture in most performances. Such ensembles lasted longer than was previously thought and were primarily composed of aristocratic orchestras[12]. This point marked the emergence of ensemble groups.

19th Century In the 19th century, playing orchestra was a big thing. Most of the sizes we see in modern orchestra performances today were first seen at this time. At times, they surpassed such sizes. Musical instruments used then were also developed from previous versions because instruments such as the Piccolo and the Tuba were availed to instrumentalists at this point.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Symphony Orchestra specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such developments were pioneered by the likes of Wagner who made the Wagner Tube specifically to produce a given sound that most or all of existing instruments could not. The composers of most performances also took the role of conductors and this development led the way into how orchestra music was conducted in the 20th century.

20th Century To many enthusiasts of orchestra music, the 20th century was characteristic of a lot of liberalism on the part of composers[13]. The 20th century also brought with it more responsibility and visibility to the conductors who were majorly overshadowed by instrumentalists in the past.

There was not much difference in the way orchestra music was played in the 20th century when compared to the 19th century, except for the fact that a few additional instruments were used; or in other cases, certain instruments were omitted. This means that the 20th century orchestra was still characterized by big strings and smaller brasses, even though the instruments used were still characterized by a hugely expanded percussion section.

The 21st century has not made significant strides in the development of orchestra music either. This means that most features of orchestra music evidenced in the 20th century still comply today. However, recent research studies point out a difference in the way orchestra audiences behave. Such studies point out that today, there is much more loyalty of audiences to a given maestro[14].

Explicitly, such researchers point out the fact that certain composers today can be paid as much as an entire orchestra, just to be heard[15]. This development has been viewed by some pessimists as the turning point for orchestral music in the 21st century because it inhibits room for creativity and entry of new composers. Nonetheless, with regards to instrumental development, not much has changed.

Claudio Monteverdi Claudio used to be a world renowned maestro whose works can be traced back to the 17th and 18th centuries[16]. Claudio lived through the years 1567–1643 hailing from an Italian family which practiced medicine at the time. A lot of Claudio’s works can be traced to his inspiration from the Church through Maestro De Capella[17].

Claudio started playing orchestra music at the age of 17 as a string player. This was back in the 16th century, representing how many orchestra players started. True to the history and roots of orchestra music, Claudio used to play in social gatherings organized by a powerful family called the Gonzales family which he used to work for[18].

Initially, Claudio’s works were guided by another musical composer by the name Giaches De Wert[19]. It is reported that Claudio grew under the guidance of Giaches De Wert until orchestra music began taking root in most European societies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Symphony Orchestra by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This prompted him to take the step of performing in most European states as part of the military expeditions he was taking at the time. This development is characteristic of the growth of orchestra music from Italy into other European states. His first performances were done in Flanders and Danube[20].

Claudio’s short stint as part of De Wert’s group is also representative of how many orchestra artists started and grew (since many started under the guidance of certain composers who later paved way for talented artists to shine). Claudio’s time working with De Wert is also representative of the talent mop which was characteristic of the 17th and 18th century when talented orchestra singers always played together in a group or symphony.

However, when De Wert died, Claudio got the opportunity to create his own opera called the La favola d’Orfeo. With the creation of his opera, Claudio took the first bold step of using a number of instruments as part of his musical production, instead of treating the instruments as part of mere decoration as was observed by most artists who came before him.

In later years, Claudio increased the use of instruments when producing orchestra music, in addition to combining polyphonic sounds with baroque techniques (which was a breakaway from the renaissance way for producing music). This development increased the melodic composition of his music, even though he coupled it a lot with bass instruments.

Claudio’s works later grew when he was commissioned to join a choir in Rome where he greatly improved the choir’s music[21]. However, Claudio’s dominance slowed down afterwards and was it not for the development of opera houses; he would have totally disappeared from the public eye.

The development of opera houses therefore greatly helped his star shine throughout most of the early years of the 17th century. This development manifests how the growth of opera houses complemented the development of orchestra music. At this time, Claudio developed a number of orchestral compositions such as Il ritomo d’Ulisse and L’iucoroiia~ioiie di Poppea. Claudio died soon afterwards.

Conclusion Orchestra music has developed over the centuries to become one of the most celebrated types of music today. Its roots can be traced back in Egypt but the major milestones in its evolution can be attributed to its composition, the development of opera houses and experimentation with musical instruments. These factors have greatly increased the prominence of orchestra music over the years.

Reference List Galkin, Elliott. A History of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory and Practice. New York: Pendragon Press, 1988.

Koscielniak, Bruce. The Story of the Incredible Orchestra: An Introduction to Musical Instruments and the Symphony Orchestra. London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003.

Spitzer, John. The Birth of the Orchestra: History of an Institution, 1650-1815. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Whenham, John. Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Footnotes John Spitzer, The Birth Of The Orchestra: History Of An Institution, 1650-1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 23.

Bruce Koscielniak, The Story of the Incredible Orchestra: An Introduction to Musical Instruments and the Symphony Orchestra (London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003), 3

Bruce Koscielniak, The Story of the Incredible Orchestra: An Introduction to Musical Instruments and the Symphony Orchestra (London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003), 1.

Bruce Koscielniak, The Story of the Incredible Orchestra: An Introduction to Musical Instruments and the Symphony Orchestra (London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003), 2.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 24.

Bruce Koscielniak, The Story of the Incredible Orchestra: An Introduction to Musical Instruments and the Symphony Orchestra (London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003), 1.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 23.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 24.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 23.

John Spitzer, The Birth Of The Orchestra: History Of An Institution, 1650-1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 23.

John Spitzer, The Birth Of The Orchestra: History Of An Institution, 1650-1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 22.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 24.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 24.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 23.

Elliott Galkin, A History Of Orchestral Conducting: In Theory And Practice (New York: Pendragon Press, 1988), 23.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 2.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 1.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 6.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 3.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 5.

John Whenham, Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 4.


Role of the Orchestra in Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle Essay essay help online free

The first decades of the twentieth century became the era of significant changes and experiments in different fields of social life. Controversial political processes, revolutionary mood, struggle for the rights of different social groups, significant scientific discoveries, reforms; finally, the World War I – the changes took place at different levels, from the supreme power of states, to the world-view of an average individual. Not unexpectedly, the dynamic spirit of the time found its incarnation in art.

Literature, visual arts, theater, music, architecture became the field for bold innovations and experiments. Always fulfilling the role of a mirror that reflects the spirit of an epoch, art demonstrated the anxiety and at the same time aspiration for breaking the borders that prevailed in the society. Music did not become an exception: composers who worked during the first decades of the twentieth century experimented with musical form, tonality, sound, instruments, the way of performing musical works.

Taking the legacy of the previous centuries as the background at the starting points, composers find new approaches and devices of expressing their ideas. Béla Bartók is one of the brightest composers of the first half of the twentieth century. His works are considered the gem of Hungarian musical legacy. Bartók is one of the composers whose works possess characteristics of Expressionism in music.

Particularly, Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle (1911) demonstrates certain influence of Expressionist tendencies in music (Hailey, p.103). Bartók’s famous opera is innovative and experimental in different aspects, which makes it of particular interest for musical theorists and critics. In this essay, the role of orchestra in Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle is discussed from the perspective of the plot of the opera and of from that of musical conjuncture of the discussed period.

Expressionism is a cultural movement that was widespread during the first decades of the twentieth century. The first wave of Expressionist art belongs to Germany; however, Expressionist traits can be found in the works of artists from different countries of Europe (Lee, 2008, p.14).

Expressionism in music, as well as in other kinds of art, implied shift from outer to inner, from simple narration to expression of one’s thoughts, sensations and emotions. Greenberg says, the purpose of a work of art that belongs to the Expressionist tradition is not just “to express ideas and notions, but to express with greater immediacy sensations, the irreducible element of experience” (cited in Hailey, p.105).

Thus, Expressionist traits give an artist opportunity to expand his/her focus, look beyond the external side of the events and look deeper into the action. With a short, but neat quotation, Lee summarises this peculiarity of Expressionism, “Expressionist artists want to show us how they feel about what they see” (Lee, p.14).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All discussed above makes it possible for Bartók to use orchestra as the device of reaching the main purpose of Bluebeard’s Castle, which is description. As a rule, the focus of an opera written in the classical style is story-telling. It narrates a dynamic story with an impressive plot, saturated with conflicts and events.

In this case, orchestra is the device that illustrates the story and expresses the dynamics of the plot. Interacting with the vocal parts, it helps a viewer to visualise the story. However, Bartók’s opera has its significant peculiarities: it does not have dynamic plot saturated with events; instead, it focuses on description. The story takes place inside Bluebeard’s castle, and there are only two main characters whose interaction we observe during the whole opera.

The idea of the story itself predetermines the importance of description for Bluebeard’s Castle: a viewer is offered to get familiarised with the mysterious interiors behind seven doors of the castle. Thus, the role of the orchestra in the opera is to help a viewer imagine what is hidden behind each of the doors.

This idea entirely fits the peculiarity of Expressionism in music, “…The narrative of musical Expressionism has always been more descriptive convenience than historical reportage, an evocation of a syntax that is distorted, violent, or emotionally tortured”, states Hailey (p. 104).

Considering the specifics of the plot of Bluebeard’s Castle, the purpose the composer sets is to draw by means of the sound, not just narrate. Instead of illustrating a pursuit, an intimate conversation, a ball, Bartók has to describe flowers, green fields, the lake of tears.

Considering the influence of the Expressionist movement, this is not unexpected: Hailey emphasises that one of the brightest characteristics of art that dates to the first decades of the twentieth century is the aspiration of visual arts, literature and music for imitation of each other’s functions (p.105).

This makes the composer experiment with tonality, harmonies, orchestral parts, loudness, tempo – using these devices is analogical to mixing paints on the palette; it is quite common for the works belonging to the movement of musical Expressionism.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of the Orchestra in Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is possible to notice that during the first minutes of the opera, the orchestral parts are not so bright and expressive: the focus is on the vocal parts of Bluebeard and Judith. This is not accidentally: the opening scene of the opera does not include either significant events of the plot or the issues that require bright description.

The role of the orchestra decreases in the course of the story, which “corroborates” the statement about its “descriptive function” in Bluebeard’s Castle. During the Doors scenes, the role of the orchestra is equal to that of the vocalists, and sometime even dominating.

At the same time, considering the Expressionist traits of the opera, it is reasonable to state that the description is focused not on the outer world, but on that inner. Seven doors are described not just from the perspective of their appearance and the subjects placed in them, but from the perspective of Judith’s feelings. The aim of the orchestra is to depict the chambers behind seven doors as they are perceived by a woman who is in love with a “monster” hated and abandoned by people.

Each time Judith crosses the threshold of the next chamber, she aspires for seeing something that will remove her doubts and calm her soul; however, each door leads her close to disappointment and fear: she learns more and more frightening things about Bluebeard. A listener may easily notice this focus on the inner world of the character when listening to the Doors scenes.

For example, when Judith opens the Door 4, she sees a garden full of wonderful flowers; with the help of the orchestra, Bartók helps a listener to imagine the view she sees. On the one hand, the interaction of the orchestral parts creates the picture of blossoming flowers; it is even possible to hear the trills imitating birds’ singing. On the other hand, the orchestra sounds in accordance with Judith emotions: when she sees the flowers, she is excited, but her anxiety does not disappear, and she observes the landscape eagerly and attentively.

Balancing on the border of tonality and atonality, avoiding traditional and stable harmonic constructions, the orchestra depicts the garden that associates with the inner fear rather than with the beauty of the flowers. The orchestra also expressively depicts the moment when Judith notices blood on the flowers. It is remarkable that in this scene, the role of the orchestra is more significant than that of the vocal part: the instruments express Judith’s emotions, and then she only supports them vocally.

One of the brightest moments of the opera is the Door 7 scene where Judith joins the number of Bluebeard’s imprisoned wives. The sound of the orchestra is the most tense and expressive; it depicts the final point of the story, the point of no return for Judith. At the same time, it is interesting that in the very end of the scene, this tension decreases: the opera does not finish with a dramatic note; the orchestra “calms down” and thus demonstrates that Judith submits to her destiny and accepts it.

At the same time, it is remarkable that some critics argue that the opera also depicts the inner world of Bluebeard himself. Particularly, the cold and terrifying castle with the mysterious doors is a symbol of Bluebeard’s soul, “Bluebeard’s human attributes are thereby transferred to the castle, which becomes implicitly identified with its owner” (Leafstedt, p.126).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of the Orchestra in Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The orchestra also helps to emphasise the circular scheme of the opera. Frigyesi sees the “metaphor of a circle” in the Bluebeard’s Castle (cited in Bayley, p.71); first of all, it is predetermined by the plot of the opera.

A viewer may notice that Judith fulfills the same action seven times, and each time, her emotions change according to the same scheme: at first, she is interested about what she will see behind the door; the next moment, she is amazed and excited; then, she is frightened and disappointed with the picture she has just seen; finally, she falls into the depressive mood and fear after learning a new terrible fact about her beloved man.

Not accidentally, the orchestral parts also follow this scheme: its dynamics varies in accordance with evolution of Judith’s feelings: for example, if a listener will focus on the Door 4 scene, he/she will first hear the orchestra sounding tense, mysterious; then, the sound is “blossoming out” when Judith sees the garden with flowers, and the orchestra depicts her excitement; however, everything changes very quickly when she notices blood on the flowers: the orchestra illustrates her fear and amazement; finally, the dynamics of the orchestra diminishes, and we again see Judith depressed and disquieted.

Thus, working within the framework of musical Expressionism, Bartók uses the orchestra to depict the inner world of the character and her emotions. Considering the peculiarity of the opera plot, the orchestra serves as the main device for Bartók to depict the places hidden beyond seven doors of the castle.

However, the composer provides not an objective, “outer” depiction, but that from the perspective of Judith, the protagonist of the opera. The orchestra also helps to outline the circular scheme of the opera that corresponds to the peculiarities of its plot. These shifts and such original approach chosen by Bartók makes Bluebeard’s Castle an outstanding musical work, interesting for critics and admired by listeners and viewers.

References Bayley, A, The Cambridge companion to Bartók, Cambridge, U.K.; New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Hailey, C, ‘Musical Expressionism: the search for autonomy’ in Behr, S, D Fanning


Environmental Defense Fund Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) is an environmental interest group whose operations are centered in the US. It is a nonprofit making organisation and its core activities are targeting the protection and preservation of the environment.

In particular, this environmental pressure group has been on the forefront towards campaigning against the devastating effects of global warming, restoring the natural interactive balance between man and other living species as well as the overall wellness in human health. In order to discharge its duties fairly and expeditiously, EDF is nonpartisan. Its key mandate lies behind seeking viable end-based solutions on the challenges facing the environment.

The Environmental Defense Fund has a large membership base ranging from farmers on the ground to corporate partners. As part of its broad objectives, the membership of EDF is open and consequently, any interested party can join the group. There are both individual members and corporate partners who are offering monetary and moral support to the organisation. Individual members are free to donate to the group at will.

However, the group does not accept direct funding from corporate organizations. As Gwen Ruta, the Vice President of the group notes, “we accept no funding from our corporate partners. That independence frees us to set aggressive goals and drive change across entire industries” (EDF, 2010).

As a member of EDF, the immediate community will benefit from a preserved environment void of human destruction. The broad agenda of EDF as an environmental interest group is to advocate for a healthier environment. In retrospect, it is imperative to note that elements such as global warming occasioned by the destruction and interference of the ecosystem have largely impacted human life in a negative way.

For instance, natural catastrophic events such as hurricanes and erratic weather conditions which are being witnessed in the modern environment would likely not be prevalent if man opted to preserve the environment. Hence, membership to EDF is not only beneficial to local communities; the larger society is also bound to enjoy living in a healthy environment.

Currently, EDF deals with three main issues, namely global warming, development of human health and protection of the ecosystem. In fact, the group has already outlined additional goals for 2011 so that they can achieve more in regard to protecting the environment. For example, the interest group is currently focusing on how oceans can be protected from human influence (EDF, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the group is seeking to implore United States to reduce its greenhouse emission as part and parcel of securing an international deal on managing climate change. In addition, the nonprofit organisation is endeavoring to work with business enterprises to speed up the process of reducing carbon mission to the environment. EDF is also forging innovative modalities that can be adopted and implemented by the business community in cutting down carbon emission to the environment.

The group is equally aiming at altering the argument on climate change. It will achieve this by seeking public opinion that supports carbon cut and present the very ideas for discussion at the international platform. This will go hand in hand with the process of enacting necessary environmental legislations.

EDF is also multiplying its efforts to attain the ‘irreducible minimum’ in terms of greenhouse gas emissions both at the local and state level. On the same note, the group is throwing its environmental conservation effort behind the “smart green grid” located in Texas. It is aiming at offering direction to this project in addition to hosting several of such projects countrywide.

Finally, EDF is currently advocating for the need to optimize energy efficiency consumption especially by public utility programs located in each state. Besides, the group is proposing the use of alternative “green energy” also known as renewable energy resources even as the infrastructure is being modernized.

At the international level, EDF is in the process of not only creating but also enhancing mechanisms that can be used to recognize the developing countries as low emitters of carbon other greenhouse gases. According to EDF, a reward system should be put in place to motivate partner countries who are duly complying with the regulations.

EDF members can obtain information on the prospects and activities of the group through the publication archives downloadable from the website of the organization. These publications contain assortment of data that can be utilized by both members and non members. Apart from the publications, members are also given the opportunity to meet experts well positioned on environmental legislations and protection. Some of available experts on this area include but not limited to senior policy advisors and economic policy analysts.

The environmental Defense Fund (EDF) can improve its public image, acceptance and overwhelming support by revitalizing its policies and being more resilient in its operations (O’Leary


The essence of a manager’s job Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction How does it feel when an employer denies an individual a career advancement opportunity at the workplace, only because a computer has randomly selected the qualified individuals? In this era of stiff competition among firms as illustrated by time and eminence, managers have employed the use technology in decision-making.

These accessories aid the process of making organizational decisions. Furthermore, they believe that these electronic accessories help in making quick and accurate decisions. Hence, they manage to withstand stiff competition from other companies.

It is clear that even if managers use these software and computers in making their decisions, they are certain that the decisions will be more rational. It is crucial for managers to accept advice to reduce the use of such accessories when making decisions. Some of the reasons why the decisions made by managers will not be more rational are the fact that, computers and software tools restricts the scope of making decisions, as there are decisions that require the application of an individual’s principles and skills.

Moreover, these technologies easily results in errors when used in making organizational decisions since there are no consultations done during the process. In making decisions that are more rational, human conscience plays an imperative role, unfortunately decisions influenced by technology lack this concept.

Additionally, rational decisions free of individual manipulation are tenable. However, it is easy to manipulate technology-assisted decisions to favor a certain subject. Computer experts who enter the programs used in this processes can easily do this. Rational decisions are real since human instinct facilitates the process.

However, this is not the case when decisions are made with the aid of technology. Rational decisions made without the use of computers seem to convince the subjects more. It is a fact that, managerial decisions aim at achieving company goals. Thus, use of technology might as well fail to meet the company goals. Most importantly, a decision crafted in a rational manner is flexible.

This means that the decisions can be reversed or made to accommodate other concepts if need arises. It is noteworthy that this is not possible when decisions are made using computers and software tools. In as much as computers and software tools allow managers to congregate information and scrutinize them easily, they make their decisions faulty or irrational.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Birrell


Euthanasia and Suicide Essay college application essay help

Introduction Euthanasia can be defined as the intentional act of inducing an easy and painless death to a suffering individual or mercy killing. It is closely associated with suicide act which involves an individual deliberately terminating his or her life in most cases without any assistance. There are usually cases of assisted suicide where the individual takes his or her own life intentionally with assistance from another person who may either be a medical practitioner or even a lay person.

The final act that results in the death of the person is however usually performed by the person intending to die after the provision of information, advice and even the ways through which he or she can take his or her life by the assisting individual. Euthanasia can either be active or passive depending on the amount of action a person takes to bring about the intended result / death.

Physician Assisted Suicide Physician assisted suicide is a process where an individual takes his or her own life on purpose with assistance from a medical practitioner or a physician. Active euthanasia involves causing death of the sick person without his or her involvement but rather through assistance by someone else.

Active euthanasia can be in the form of voluntary euthanasia which is performed upon the request of the patient, involuntary euthanasia where the patient’s life is taken without his or her request and mostly where the patient express non acceptance for termination of his or her life, the main intention being relieving pain and suffering, and non-voluntary euthanasia that takes place with neither the patient’s request nor consent.

Passive euthanasia on the other hand can be termed as literally letting a patient die through carelessness or not providing the necessary care and treatment needed to keep him or her alive.

According to me, physician assisted suicide is more of active euthanasia than passive euthanasia as the physician is actively involved in the termination of the patient’s life without the patient’s participation. There is however a thin distinction since it can be passive where the doctor neglects the patient with the aim of letting him or her die (McDougall, Gorman, and Roberts, 2008).

Legalization of assisted suicide in comparison to Adolph Hitler’s Aryan supremacy world view Some of the reasons given by medical practitioners for their choice to conduct physician assisted suicide on a patient are; the fact that the person is suffering from a terminal illness which have no cure or where the person has no chances of benefiting from the discovery of a cure for the disease in comparison to his or her life expectancy, and where the person is in too much pain or has become a burden and therefore unacceptable to those he or she rely on for support.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connor (2009) suggests that the legalization of assisted suicide is comparable to Adolph Hitler’s Aryan supremacy world view. I also agree on this argument since both ideologies results in unnatural deaths of the persons involved and the belief that the individuals are unworthy and a burden to the society and so the solution is their elimination through induction of death.

Conclusion Although euthanasia is termed as good death and emphasizes on dying with dignity as opposed to suffering and being a burden to others, it should not be used as the solution but other means of reducing pain and ensuring that the patient dies a natural death in dignity should be considered, for instance, hospice care bearing in mind that every person is important and life is divine.

A person should also not be offered with the option of terminating his or her life since he or she is part of the society and the decisions made may have impacts on the society at large.

Reference List Connor, K. (2009). Expansion of Assisted Suicide to Washington Targets Elderly, Disabled With Death. Retrieved from

McDougall, F.J, Gorman, M., and Roberts, S.C. (2008). Euthanasia: A Reference Handbook 2nd Ed. New York: ABC-CLIO.


Collaborative Crisis Intervention at a Domestic Violence Shelter Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Community Partners


Ethical Issues


Reference List

Introduction Domestic violence cases often touches on private and confidential of the family and the professional service provider because they are sensitive and very personal. However, because of the need for collaboration, sometimes it is totally difficult to avoid sharing clients’ information among the professionals offering these services (for example, lawyers, social workers, psychiatrists, and other workers from government departments).

Sometimes, important services can be provided without a breach of confidentiality but in most cases it is very difficult to maintain utmost confidentiality of sensitive information.

Community Partners Collaborative partners for the crisis intervention will include the state domestic violence shelter and victim management programs in the community. Once the women or the children have been referred to the programs, they are enrolled and taken through a number of interrogative sessions with criminal investigation services and the emotional assessment social workers (Lauer


Historical cemetery in Rhode Island Essay scholarship essay help

Rhodes Island is one of the regions in the United States that is endowed with historical resources. However, the most unique and often ignored of these resources are the region’s cemeteries. There are approximately three thousand historic cemeteries of different sizes in the region with some being small family lots and others being large well architecture and manicured garden cemeteries.

Unfortunately most of the cemeteries in the area, particularly the smaller lots, have been neglected and have over time turned into nothing more than unkempt parchments of land with headstones strewn all over. With cemeteries containing critical information regarding the personal details of persons including their occupations, religions and family background, it is understandable why these historical cemeteries need to be given due appreciation.

The Ebenezer Fuller Family lot located on Hall Lane off of Hope Road is numbered Cranston historical cemetery CR039 (Friends of Cranston). It has been registered at the Cemeteries Affairs of the Veterans Program and it is listed as one of the regions whereby vandalism is punishable by law.

There are 16 people buried in the lot between year 1815 and 1871 with 7 of them coming from the Fuller family, five from the Thayer family, two are Fenners (Friends of Cranston). The Fullers include a Caroline, two Ebenezers, an Ann Frances, an Elizabeth and two Lucy Anns. An Amy, a Rachel, a smith, a Mary and a Thomas are Thayers buried on the lot. The remaining three persons are an Almira Boss, a Willie King and a Franklin Smith (Friends of Cranston).

The cemetery was most active in December 1848, experiencing the burials of Lucy Ann Fuller and Amy Thayer, whose deaths had five days between them (Friends of Cranston). Currently, the cemetery is in very bad shape with most of the tombstones having either broken or fallen down due to natural effects. Some of the headstones lie haphazardly and it would take a keen family member to establish the proper graves on which they belong.

There is no planned growth on the lot and most of the trees around have aged and dried up. The degradation of the trees has resulted in an accumulation of a huge amount of growth-depressing humus on top of the graves. This therefore means that even in favorable climatic conditions, grass in the lot only grows in patches. The cemetery, measuring 25 ft by 35 ft is positioned approximately 10ft South of Hall Lane Road and neither has an enclosure nor a sign indicating its ownership.

With a surface area of 851 square feet, Ebenezer Fuller Family Lot can comfortably accommodate over 30 graves. It is therefore left for historians to establish whether there are more than the aforementioned sixteen individuals buried in the land. The property has never been sold and like many other historical cemeteries within the region, it is open to rehabilitation by any individual(s) of goodwill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the organizations that are making an effort in trying to get the cemetery back to shape include the Friends of Cranston Historical Cemeteries; an entity that has through its website appealed for individuals to volunteer information or resources that could help in taking care of this particular cemetery. The appeal states in part that the maintenance of historical cemeteries is important for future genealogists and historians (Friends of Cranston).

Works Cited Friends of Cranston Historical Cemeteries. To locate and promote the encouragement of the care of Cranston’s many historic cemeteries. n.p., 2009. Web.


The importance of realism and naturalism in American Literature Essay essay help

Realism and Naturalism in American Literature In American literature, realism is a literary technique that shows the realities in life while naturalism on the other hand attempts to apply scientific analysis and detachment in its study of human beings. In the Norton anthology of American literature, the editor discusses the role of these two literary techniques in America’s history. In the period 1865-1920 the United States experienced high industrialization rates. The innovation of the telegraph, telephone and electricity accelerated economic growth.

Furthermore the completion of the railway in 1869 enabled businessmen to come and exploit the land for gold and other minerals. There was a high inflow of workers from Europe coming to look for work. The development however brought serious consequences. With the rapid increase in population the people needed more land and territory. The ordinary people could not protect themselves from the mighty and wealthy.

The railway company stole land from the natives. It also shrewdly eliminated other competition and became a monopoly. Other industries like steel and oil were also in the hands of a few wealthy and powerful men. Working conditions and pay for workers was poor as the monopolies had all the power. The corrupt government turned a blind eye to the actions of these monopolies.

With the increase of populations in cities there arose new publishing opportunities through several newspapers. The marginalized and under-represented people had a voice now to speak out. The writers spoke out against social injustices and inequalities due to the rapid industrialization. These were writers who had the courage to speak up. The editor of the anthology stresses the importance of realism in this period since several social issues were spoken of boldly.

These were the issues of the railroad monopoly that took the land of small farmers and the corruption of government officials. Helen Hunt Jackson spoke of the US injustices against Native Americans, Charlotte Perkins Gilman spoke of wealth and human rights and Thorsten Veblen spoke of the greediness of the extremely wealthy businesses. These writers affected the sociology, philosophy, and economy of the people. There were also writers who spoke against racial injustices.

These issues were highly challenging causing the authors to turn to aesthetic realism where they used descriptive and colorful language to represent life as it was. It was known as local color writing where dialects, social relationships and the current natural environments were depicted in their novels. Mark Twain is an example of this generation of authors who showed the vernacular dialects and added humor. This caused the readers to sympathize with the characters. American naturalism came later.

It was a continuation of realism but with a detailed focus on the lower class and marginalized communities who had bleak chances of survival while realism focused on middleclass and upper class. It was more logical than realism. Naturalism was different though in a scientific and deterministic approach. This literal technique was highly influenced by Charles Darwin book, Origin of species that spoke of survival of the fittest (Baym, 2007, p 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These writers for example Frank Norris and Stephen Crane attempted to show life scientifically. The characters in the novels lived in an environment with chance occurrences and the strong people usually victimized the weak. The situation was very tough and the characters lacked the intellect and resources to overcome adversity. The characters had to join forces to survive against the tough environment. At the end of the day the novels still worked towards providing social solutions.

Reference List Baym, N. (2007). The Norton Anthology of American Literature. (7th Ed, Volume C). New York, NY: Norton, W. W.


Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction The nature of childhood is a varied concept defined by its interpretation in various societies and communities. Different perceptions of childhood therefore exist although some researchers purport that childhood is an already dead concept while others note that modern children are more empowered than ever before (Newman 2006, p. 1). Childhood is therefore a universal concept of human life and a natural stage of development although variations in culture have made its definition a little dramatic.

For instance, in the western world, children are considered quite fragile and different from adults but comprehensively, the variations in culture can be observed from the commonly held adult perception that children are innocent and have a strong entitlement to protection and nurturing (Newman 2006, p. 1). In countries such as Japan, children are accorded more independence and treated as people who can act willfully without much parental influence (Staples 2008, p. 1155).

The commonly held perception about childhood in the Western world is therefore largely based on biological construction. This explains why many Westerners purport that children are extensively dependent on their parents for long periods, infants can die if they are left alone for a couple of days or a human baby may depend on his or her parents for several decades to come (Newman 2006, p. 1).

In contrast, it is interesting to note that babies from other animals are normally very independent from their early days on earth. For example, a baby horse is able to get on its feet and play around in its early minutes of birth without any parental help.

From the Western point of view, the establishment of laws to protect children against various social adversities like pornography, child abuse, neglect and such like adversities is in order but its is equally interesting to note that the concept of childhood only took root in the Western society as late as the 17th century (Newman 2006, p. 5).

In many spheres therefore, the concept of childhood is often debated across various disciplines including developmental psychology, pedagogy, sociology and the likes but many researchers have often held the belief that childhood is a creation of cultural perceptions and an imagination of adult views (Newman 2006, p. 10).

Understanding the nature of childhood therefore stems from the understanding of how we perceive young children since we cannot differentiate how adults see young children and the paradigm that defines childhood today and in the past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At present, small volumes of literature have shed light on the transformation of childhood through time and this study seeks to provide the missing link, with a clear definition of how the nature of childhood has evolved over the decades.

From this understanding, we will comprehend how the nature of childhood manifests itself in present day society when compared to historical time settings. In this context therefore, we will analyze the social and cultural perceptions of childhood and possible synchronistic developments to explore whether metabolite shifts in childhood have occurred over the years or not.

As will be evidenced in this study, childhood is rather a social construction than a biological stage because it basically emerges out of attitudes, beliefs, and values of different societies and communities at various points in time. This is however subject to a number of changes in definitions and expectations as will be evidenced through the parental perception of family responsibility. This analysis will be done systematically through the analysis of childhood in medieval times, the 18th and 19th centuries and childhood in modern times.

Medieval and Early Modern Childhood The perception of childhood during the early 16th to 17th centuries was an evolving issue. Majorly, the perceptions about children and adulthood were defined by adult views and during the early modern times, children were perceived by upper class citizens as mature and fragile. This eventually led to changes in the way children were treated in various disciplines such as nursing, care, aristocracy and the likes.

However, before this development, children were often perceived (in the 16th century) as inherently evil creatures with a strong inclination to do moral wrongs (Hwang 1996, p. 196). This view was majorly advanced by the Puritan doctrine. Several Calvinist people held the belief that children were wayward and impulsive in accordance with their belief in predestination (which meant they had very little room between hell and heaven).

In the early years of the 17th century, the interpretation of the nature of childhood significantly changed because it was at this period that childhood was first perceived as a separate developmental stage of human life. In addition, at this point in time, the notion of who was deserving of childhood also started changing as the concept slowly broadened to eliminate the previous narrow-minded way childhood was perceived.

The same developments were characteristic of the Western world, including Europe and America, although there were slight variations due to religion, geography and the likes. Basically, the major factors which instigated the change of childhood perception came about with the development of industry, urbanization, parenthood and gender rights movements.

We will write a custom Essay on Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the very early stages of the 17th century, the concept of childhood was majorly understood by middle and upper class citizens because lower class citizens (in the European society) had an extended period of childhood, with the maximum age set at seven. Newman (2006, p. 11) notes that this view changed “With the advent of Calvinism, and Protestantism in general, in the late 1500s, the focus shifted, perhaps because of the rise of a middle class, perhaps because of the new religion’s focus on the individual”.

For instance, from a protestant’s view (where the world and human beings were perceived as evil and agents of immorality), children were perceived in the same manner with critical researchers noting that children were also agents of morals, requiring character moulding (Newman 2006, p. 12).

Another major influence of the perception of early childhood can be traced to the invention and growth of industries which implied an immense need for labor. Since childhood was perceived as the period between birth and the age of seven, it was not deemed wrong to subject children (more than seven years old) to factory labor (Hindman 2009, p. 38). There was therefore no significant difference in the way adults and children worked, except for the fact that both did different kinds of work in different time schedules.

This meant that instead of children working in their family farms, they worked in factories for minimum wage. The situation between America and Europe never differed much, only that America had fewer industries at the time due to the deep rooting of the economy in agriculture. Nonetheless, the situation became so severe that kidnapping instances became quite common in Europe since children were exported to America to work in Industries (Hindman 2009, p. 39)

From the above understanding of childhood in the early 16th and 17th centuries, childhood can be seen as a mere creation of the society. This view was largely advanced by a French Medievalist, Philippe Aries. He noted that in early childhood, the concept of early childhood itself was nonexistent because attitudes towards children were virtually progressive and influenced by socioeconomic perspectives (Hutton 2004, p. 73).

This view was widely held until the early years of the 17th century when children were considered miniature adults and it was believed that they could take care of themselves without the help of families or relatives (Hutton 2004, p. 73).

Aries’ works were basically useful in the development of the concept of childhood because it introduced the concept that childhood was a result of social construction and not biological construction (Hutton 2004, p. 73). However, his works are now currently criticized by most researchers even though he introduced the analysis of childhood as an independent field of study.

Some of the basic criticisms against Aries’ works stemmed from the methodologies he used in drawing up conclusions about childhood. One of his main critic was Hutton (2004, p. 73) who notes that “in everyday life, children were indeed dressed differently to adults; they were just put in adult clothes to have their portraits painted”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This meant that Aries was wrong to take portraits in early modern history (regarding childhood and family) and base his assumptions of childhood on the same, because in essence; the portraits were often used to improve the status of individuals. Other researchers such as Kroll cited in (Hutton 2004, p. 73) also detested the view that childhood in medieval times was treated with a huge degree of ignorance as purported by Aries. Other criticisms held by Hutton (2004, p. 73) advances the fact that Aries’ works were wrong because:

“Firstly, his data were either unrepresentative or unreliable. Secondly, that he took evidence out of context confused prescription with practice, and uses atypical examples. Thirdly, he implicitly denies the immutability of the special needs of children, for food, clothing, shelter, affection and conversation. Fourthly, that he puts undue emphasis on the work of moralists and educationalists while saying little of economic and political factors”.

Nonetheless, Aries still remains one of the most celebrated contributors to the understanding of early childhood.

Representation of the Nature of Childhood in the 18th and 19th Centuries The 18th and 19th centuries are probably the times when today’s Western perception of childhood developed because during this time, children were starting to be viewed as innocent and in need of social protection (Warren 1997, p. 204).

From this point of view, children were seen as creatures in need of protection and guidance to prevent them from falling into social temptations, but along with the notion of protection came the notion of discipline. The 18th and 19th centuries therefore changed the concept of parenthood because parents at this time were more persuasive to their children not to fall into the traps brought about by the social world.

During this time, children were often beaten, until a change in the way children should be disciplined was introduced in the 18th century (Newman 2006, p. 7). However, the same vice continues in some societies to date. Churches also voiced their concerns regarding the same, with one notable Dutch priest who said that God created the human buttocks so children could be beaten without causing unnecessary bodily harm (Newman 2006, p. 12).

In some religious quarters, heaven was regarded as a place where children would not be disciplined in physical ways. Apart from religion and the church, certain social institutions also affected the development of the concept of childhood; for instance, the concept of child labor was widely accepted through a great part of the 1800s and the early years of the 19th century (Hindman 2009, p. 38).

As the years went by, children were often forced by some parents to go to the streets and fend for themselves, through peddling, begging, robbery, prostitution and other vices. This point led to the creation of laws to protect children from such adversities as is affirmed by Newman (2006, p. 12) who notes that:

“Some children had their teeth torn out to serve as artificial teeth for the rich; others were deliberately maimed by beggars to arouse compassion. Even this latter crime was one upon which the law looked with a remarkably tolerant eye. In 1761 a beggar woman, convicted of deliberately “putting out the eyes of children with whom she went about the country” in order to attract pity and alms, was sentenced to no more than two years’ imprisonment”.

The first childhood protection agencies only emerged in the middle of the 19th century to provide a sanctuary to children who had been abused and neglected by their parents and the society. Many such institutions emerged from that time and some are still coming up today. However, such organizations have failed to protect children from suffering social adversities. In other words, they have tried to prevent children from experiencing social extremes instead.

The major kinds of children who have been protected by such agencies are poor urban youth who have been viewed by the society as an economic burden and a threat to society (Newman 2006, p. 12). The major view held by adults in the 18th and 19th century was that poor childhood led to poor adulthood and so it was very important for the society to take care of children during their tender ages to prevent them from becoming unproductive adults.

However, still at this time, economic factors still defined childhood because families were more bound on economic than emotional fronts. The male child was especially valued more than the female child because he was considered of great value in terms of the human labor he could provide in the farm.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, three key ideas were advanced by Rousseau’s concept of childhood. The first major concept was that even in the age of reason where major milestones were covered in terms of technological progression and science; there was a strong need to still emphasize on matters of the heart and the importance of human emotion (Santer 2007, p. 2).

Net Industries (2011) notes that Rousseau also preached “against the prevailing doctrine of original sin, Rousseau proclaimed the basic goodness of human nature and the innocence of childhood and lastly, Rousseau took issue with the notion that children were but imperfect adults” (p. 4).

From this analysis therefore, we observe that Rousseau was a strong advocate of the opinion that childhood was a precious period in human development and it was basically characterized by its own laws and functions; an attribute which has greatly influenced the development of contemporary perceptions of childhood (Classen 2005, p. 1).

Representation of the Nature of Modern Childhood With the development and growth of industrialization in Europe and across the globe, the previous commonly held perception of children as a source of labor and income was no longer held since parents became the main source of income, rendering children economically useless (Newman 2006, p. 6).

This view made people see children as a great economic burden and with the progression of culture; many children were starting to be viewed in terms of their emotional significance (in contrast to the previously held perception of economic significance). Parents therefore began looking at their children in terms of their intimacy worth and many would invest in their children without expecting any tangible benefits in future. Many would only expect emotional support. Newman (2006, p. 11) affirms that:

“The contemporary social value of children is therefore determined not by their labor potential but by the love and care they are thought to deserve. Hence, the most desirable child for adoption today is the newborn baby. A person living in an earlier era would find this preference difficult to understand, just as we today assume that babies bring forth a nurturing instinct in adults”.

These views are primarily perpetrated by the media, and the internet through social networking sites. In fact, the media has been at the forefront in upholding the emotional value of children through contemporary television shows which depict children as priceless adult possessions (Andresen 2010, p. 14). Such observations have been evidenced through drama programs involving kidnappings, child adoption and the likes.

The internet and technology has also empowered children in terms of information access while children organizations have offered unconditional support to children who maybe subject to social adversities from their parents. Such developments have led to the empowerment of children laws, development of foster homes and other avenues to protect children. These developments have given children more voice in present day society.

Conclusion Childhood has evolved through time, driven by economic and social progression. Economic conditions changed the way children were perceived because it led many to perceive children as miniature adults who could fend for themselves. This was the major paradigm existent in the medieval society and the early years of the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. There was also a considerable degree of neglect on children at this time.

However, as industrialization took centre stage in world economics, children were viewed as priceless emotional creatures (which act as the basis for present day perception of children). This development also led to the strong empowerment of children by giving them a strong voice through children laws. These events characterize the development of childhood perception through the years.

References Andresen, S. (2010) Children and the Good Life: New Challenges for Research on Children. New York, Springer.

Classen, A. (2005) Childhood in the middle Ages and the Renaissance: The Results of A Paradigm Shift in the History of Mentality. London, Walter De Gruyter.

Hindman, H. (2009) The World Of Child Labor: An Historical And Regional Survey. New York, Sharpe.

Hutton, P. (2004) Philippe Ariès and the Politics of French Cultural History. Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Press.

Hwang, P. (1996) Images of Childhood. London, Routledge.

Net Industries. (2011) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Web. Available at: .

Newman, D. (2006) Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life. Thousand Oaks, Pine Forge Press.

Santer, J. (2007) Free Play in Early Childhood: A Literature Review. New York, NCB.

Staples, R. (2008) Early Childhood Education: The countries. London, Greenwood Publishing Group.

Warren, K. (1997) Ecofeminism: Women, Culture, Nature. Indiana, Indiana University Press.


Fallacy Summary and Application Paper Application Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fallacy One: Ignorance of Relevant Viewpoints

Fallacy Two: Presence of Vague Questions and Answers

Fallacy Three: Missing of Key Ideas


Reference List

Introduction There are many concepts in human life which help to define the importance of existence and enjoy the possibilities which are offered. Fallacy is one of such concepts. Paul and Elder (2006) help to understand the essence of fallacy as “a deceptive or misleading argument, a sophism” (p. 295). There are many types of fallacies identified, and in this paper, three logical fallacies will be evaluated. They are ignorance of relevant viewpoints, presence of vague questions and answers, and missing of key ideas.

These fallacies have certain impact on critical thinking as well as decision-making process as misuse of language may lead to unpleasant results (Shibles


The importance of realism and naturalism in American Literature Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Realism and Naturalism in American Literature In American literature, realism is a literary technique that shows the realities in life while naturalism on the other hand attempts to apply scientific analysis and detachment in its study of human beings. In the Norton anthology of American literature, the editor discusses the role of these two literary techniques in America’s history. In the period 1865-1920 the United States experienced high industrialization rates. The innovation of the telegraph, telephone and electricity accelerated economic growth.

Furthermore the completion of the railway in 1869 enabled businessmen to come and exploit the land for gold and other minerals. There was a high inflow of workers from Europe coming to look for work. The development however brought serious consequences. With the rapid increase in population the people needed more land and territory. The ordinary people could not protect themselves from the mighty and wealthy.

The railway company stole land from the natives. It also shrewdly eliminated other competition and became a monopoly. Other industries like steel and oil were also in the hands of a few wealthy and powerful men. Working conditions and pay for workers was poor as the monopolies had all the power. The corrupt government turned a blind eye to the actions of these monopolies.

With the increase of populations in cities there arose new publishing opportunities through several newspapers. The marginalized and under-represented people had a voice now to speak out. The writers spoke out against social injustices and inequalities due to the rapid industrialization. These were writers who had the courage to speak up. The editor of the anthology stresses the importance of realism in this period since several social issues were spoken of boldly.

These were the issues of the railroad monopoly that took the land of small farmers and the corruption of government officials. Helen Hunt Jackson spoke of the US injustices against Native Americans, Charlotte Perkins Gilman spoke of wealth and human rights and Thorsten Veblen spoke of the greediness of the extremely wealthy businesses. These writers affected the sociology, philosophy, and economy of the people. There were also writers who spoke against racial injustices.

These issues were highly challenging causing the authors to turn to aesthetic realism where they used descriptive and colorful language to represent life as it was. It was known as local color writing where dialects, social relationships and the current natural environments were depicted in their novels. Mark Twain is an example of this generation of authors who showed the vernacular dialects and added humor. This caused the readers to sympathize with the characters. American naturalism came later.

It was a continuation of realism but with a detailed focus on the lower class and marginalized communities who had bleak chances of survival while realism focused on middleclass and upper class. It was more logical than realism. Naturalism was different though in a scientific and deterministic approach. This literal technique was highly influenced by Charles Darwin book, Origin of species that spoke of survival of the fittest (Baym, 2007, p 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These writers for example Frank Norris and Stephen Crane attempted to show life scientifically. The characters in the novels lived in an environment with chance occurrences and the strong people usually victimized the weak. The situation was very tough and the characters lacked the intellect and resources to overcome adversity. The characters had to join forces to survive against the tough environment. At the end of the day the novels still worked towards providing social solutions.

Reference List Baym, N. (2007). The Norton Anthology of American Literature. (7th Ed, Volume C). New York, NY: Norton, W. W.


Fallacy Summary and Application Paper Application Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fallacy One: Ignorance of Relevant Viewpoints

Fallacy Two: Presence of Vague Questions and Answers

Fallacy Three: Missing of Key Ideas


Reference List

Introduction There are many concepts in human life which help to define the importance of existence and enjoy the possibilities which are offered. Fallacy is one of such concepts. Paul and Elder (2006) help to understand the essence of fallacy as “a deceptive or misleading argument, a sophism” (p. 295). There are many types of fallacies identified, and in this paper, three logical fallacies will be evaluated. They are ignorance of relevant viewpoints, presence of vague questions and answers, and missing of key ideas.

These fallacies have certain impact on critical thinking as well as decision-making process as misuse of language may lead to unpleasant results (Shibles


Theories of Human Development Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Theory of Motor Development

Piaget’s Theory of Development

Vygotsky’s theory

Comparing and contrasting the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky



Abstract Human development is a very complex process and no single theory can be sufficient enough to explain these processes. This paper focuses on various theories that attempt to explain the development processes and factors that influence them. The study explores different theories of motor development, their pros and cons.

The paper also examines theories of cognitive development focusing on Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of development. The two cognitive theories are compared and contrasted citing some of their impact on the provision and practice used in working with children in the early years. These theories demonstrate that human development is a gradual but progressive process that occurs in stages.

Introduction Human development varied and extremely complex process. Therefore, no single theory can manage to explain human development exhaustively as a result of this complexity. Each theory tries to explain a limited range of development and this is the reason why particular areas of development often have cutthroat theoretical views, each attempting to explain the same facet of development (Barnes 1995).

Theories of human development are an array of ideas that are based on scientific proofs and efforts to explain and predict individual behaviours and development. From this definition it is very clear that theories attempts to provide vivid explanation from a messy mass of information (Neaum 2010).

Theories of development are categorized into minor and major theories. Minor theories of development deals with specific area of development; on the other hand major theories are the category that attempts to explain wider area of development. Some of the major theories of development include motor development, Cognitive development, Social cognitive development, evolution and ethology, psychoanalytic theories and humanistic theory (Neaum 2010).

Theory of Motor Development One of the major milestones in the development of infants is the achievement of various motor developments. The development of motor skills has a major impact on other facets of development. The ability of a child to act on the effects of his/her surrounding has significant implications on other aspects of development, and each and every accomplishment enhances the child’s level of independence. (Cohen 2002).

At birth a child has several well developed motor skills, which comprises of staring, suckling, grasping, breathing, crying-necessary for the infant’s survival. Nevertheless, the common impression of a new born baby is one of uncoordinated lack of ability and overall weakness. Movement of their body reveals weakness in the muscles and deficiency in coordination, and takes a number of weeks before the baby can lift their head in an appropriate posture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The infant’s muscles at this time are not able to function well therefore the infant is not able to perform basic activities. By the end of infancy, about a year and a half, the toddler can perform all the basic activities through complex coordinated movements (Bremmer


The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Making the Things Fall into Place

Photography and the Concept of Gender

Perpetuation Which Takes a Moment

Reference List


Making the Things Fall into Place Being the art that disarms the time itself, depriving it of its destructive influence on people and things, photography rips things and people of their cover, presenting them in the way they are, with no disguise. In spite of all the attempts to camouflage the feelings of the people in the focus of the camera, a photographer will inevitably picture their real emotions and feelings.

Photography makes the gap between the opposites even wider, sharpening the problems and detecting the conflicts between the genders in a very Sherlock-Holmes way. Photography is a weapon of stereotyping of all kinds, the gender one as well. As Guimond marked, speaking of Allan Arbus, a prominent American photographer,

Later, in the mid-19060s when she was doing some free-lance commercial photography for Harper’s Bazaar, Arbus did a series of portraits of married couples (“Fashion Independence on Marriage”), which contained all the controversial gender stereotypes – the wives touch, cling and snuggle against the husbands; and the men stare boldly straight at the camera, whereas the women tilt their heads submissively.[1]

Of course, whether Arbus depicted the situation as it was or there was some air of personal experience in this work, the results spoke for themselves. In fact, the artist showed that photos can depict stereotypical ideas better than anything else.

It has been proved that a picture, which was in fact a frozen motion, could be more convincing and argumentative than a train-long debate. Being a revolution in the art of photography, this bold experiment initiated the series of others, where the social conflicts, among them the aspect of gender and gender stereotypes was paid a great deal of attention to.

Photography and the Concept of Gender As it has been proved already, photographs make the art of creating the models of people’s social behavior, especially the one concerning the gender gap, and exposing the most common prejudice and social phenomena to the mankind. Yet the boldness which the photographs depicted the gender stereotypes with stirred not only indignation, but also meditations concerning various social roles of a man and a woman in the then society. The ideas began shifting, and the gap between the two genders started narrowing, since the most important problems have been viewed already. Thus, the only thing which people were left with was to discuss these sore spots.

There was no doubt that the photographers who made the first steps towards the gender problems foresaw the on-coming gender revolution. The firmness of social roles of a man and a woman was doubted, which could not but raise protests from the orthodox part of the society and get the encouragement from the people with more progressive viewpoints.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The vividness of the gender stereotypes which the art of photography disclosed was incredible, because of the new ideas of gender gap and the gender prejudices which the boldest photographers dared to take picture of. Touching upon the racial issue later on, the photographs were still about the relationship between the genders and the settled gender roles.

With both whites and blacks fostering the vogue for the primitive, the movement could not be stopped. Its popularity allowed for the marketability of black artists and their creative contributions to the American culture. Conversely, primitivism worked to reinforce and perpetuate racial and gender stereotypes and to foster belief in white superiority.[2]

Exposing the sharpest conflicts to the public without a slightest air of hesitation, photographers thus both implanted the gender stereotypes deeper into the people’s subconsciousness and at the same time made people shake the dust of prejudice off their minds. The pictures taken to view men’s superiority, women’s submissiveness, the negative features of both were of a therapy effect to the society. As a matter of fact, these caricatures made people laugh, and laughter was of somewhat medical effect to the people’s souls and minds.

One of the most impressive works in this field, the pictures by Sherman, a photographer who depicted the existing gender conflicts and gender stereotypes in a most explicit an open way, was a mixture of a postmodernist world and the problems of gender, with a little tint of anxiety all over them. As Sutton emphasized, the issue of the conflict was made even more topical as it was viewed through the prism of postmodernism:

Even when the photographs did not appear to reference particularly stable identity types, they still reflected the very same fluidity of identity as a postmodern anxiety. This is why, from the beginning, they have had an unrivaled position in discourses of identity and representation.[3]

It is doubtless that the art of photography makes the unsteady time freeze in an artistic pose which reflects the controversies of the human nature, the gender conflicts in particular. The crisis in the relationships between a man and a woman led to the crisis in the arts, which in its turn triggered the postmodern crisis itself, as the abovementioned Sutton noticed:

Mulvey rightly suggests that it is feminism’s investigation of the fluidity and interchangeability of gender stereotypes – encouraged by analysis of Sherman’s work – that partly led to the recognition of such fluidity in identity by postmodernism in general.[4]

We will write a custom Essay on The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a specific response to the ideas of fluidity in the art of photography which were introduced by Stephen Bull. Exploring the issue of fluidity in the art of photography, he suggested that the replicated roles of a man and a woman in the society are not the biological necessity but the result of the social influence.

According to Sutton, society imposes certain model of behavior on a man and a woman, while photography is just another means to reveal the hypocritical standards and shift to a more civilized way of tackling the gender conflict:

It is in this culture that male and female roles are replicated. The important point here for Butler is that although seen as connected to biological differences, gender roles are not ‘natural’ and fixed, but ‘cultural’ and fluid. In other words, gender roles can be changed.[5]

Thus, Bull considers art in its every single manifestation a support for the ideas which differentiate the man’s role in society from the one’s of a woman. Bull makes it clear that the art of photography is a specific means of cultural repetition of gender roles.

According to Bull, photographers with their traditional approach to the idea of gender are merely another means of gender stereotyping and consolidation of the typical image of a man and a woman in people’s subconsciousness. However, Bull also marks that with help of photography the idea of gender roles can be changed if a specific approach is taken:

Butler argues that these changes are usually prevented be the cultural repetition of traditional gender stereotypes ‘performed’ through images and texts, but that it is also possible to transgress these by ‘acting against the grain’.[6]

There was another problem which concerned the issue of morality. People could not orient themselves in the labyrinth of the new art; they needed some landmarks which could draw the line between the moral and the immoral in the art of photography. Since there were more than a hundred ways to depict gender conflicts, gender gap and gender stereotyping, people were wondering how far photography and photographers can go to show the boiling social conflict.

In spite of the fact that photography did rip the mankind of its illusions about the gender conflict being settled, photographers themselves did not suggest any solutions, not helping to tackle the problematic issues, but even making them ever deeper. Like any art, the art of photography could only observe and create, while people demanded some actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Perpetuation Which Takes a Moment The mocking manner in which photography can enter one’s life and leave a mark on someone’s face is incredible. However, this was the problem which people did not realize. Being a mere mark on people’s lives, a photograph could not act, but only depict the objects and people around.

Proving to be a means to perpetuate gender conflict and the differences between the world pictures of both genders, a picture has long been a screen behind which stereotypical ideas were hiding from the progressive viewpoints. Like any other means for people to cling to their old prejudice to, this barricade was finally demolished as well.

Following the pace of the history, one can find out that the art of photography, ossifying people, events and ideas, was pushing the mankind to the technical progress yet making people regressive in terms of the gender relationships.

According to the historical evidence, the gender stereotypes in the art of photography were soon intertwined with other ideas which kept the former in the background. As Marien noted, speaking about the famous photographer and image-maker of the 1980s, Cindy Sherman, after the photographer taking the self-image out of her pictures:

Despite these changes, Sherman’s interest remained constant through the last decades of the twentieth century, as she continued to expose not only the shallowness of gender stereotyping but also the titillating pleasure of looking.[7]

Because of the fact that photograph can hardly express the one and only idea and there are always two or more implications even in a picture of an apple, ideas have to merge in a photo.

Thus, gender stereotypes would mix with the racial problems, and the racial issues will be replaced by political issues. Nevertheless, the authors of the gender stereotyping perpetuation manage to keep the main conflict in the focus of the camera and create a surreal image of men and women playing the part prescribed for them by the centuries of traditions and customs.

Twisting the focus of the camera, photographers can make it reveal hidden conflicts and suggest people some ideas concerning the situation. Yet people have to remember that a picture is merely a piece of paper, and that it is the pivot of our consciousness which makes people create stereotypes and break them.

Reference List Bull, S, Photography, Taylor


Procedures in the Justice System: Plea Bargaining Essay online essay help

Differences between different types of plea bargaining The practice of plea bargaining is widely spread in the United States of America and is recognized as an integral element of the justice system. Despite the popularity of this phenomenon, its benefits are rather disputable ad gave rise to the continuing debates of the specialists working in this field. Though the practice of plea bargaining increases the efficiency of the investigation process significantly, it should be limited for preserving the important constitutional rights of defendants.

The two major forms of plea bargaining include charge and sentence bargaining. The first types presupposes prosecutor’s offer an exchange of a less serious charge for a guilty plea. The second type is associated with the promise of a more favorable sentence recommendation. “90 percent of all criminal cases are plea bargained” (Worall, 2010, p. 369).

Among the main arguments for implementing plea bargaining are the improved flow of the cases, the benefits for the defendants and the increased victims’ satisfaction. However, this strategy is also compliant with a number of negative consequences. “Some argue that plea bargaining is objectionable because it encourages defendants to waive their constitutional right to trial” (Siegel, 2010, p. 436).

Thus, it can result in false confessions in case if a wrongly accused individual does not believe in his/her chances for winning the case and considers the guilty plea as the only way out. Along with the practices of some states of banning plea bargaining for particular crimes or restricting the use of certain types of bargaining were rather successful and can help in observing the defendants’ constitutional rights.

Along with all the benefits of plea bargaining for the judicial system, it predetermines a number of disadvantages and should be restricted with proper regulations of the procedures.

Ad hoc plea bargaining The term ad hoc plea bargaining is used to define a number of extraordinary concessions made by defendants. Among the most widely spread forms of this phenomenon is the performance of some act for dismissal or receiving a less strict sentence. Taking into account the implementation of unauthorized measures, the use of ad hoc plea bargaining should be restricted.

Taking various forms, ad hoc plea bargaining can either become violation of the legislative regulations or be beneficial for the community. The phenomenon is recognized as a rather controversial interpretation of the current legislation (Siegel, 2010, p. 435). Actually, the principle of ad hoc plea bargaining provides prosecutors with opportunities for free interpretation of the regulations and the implementation of unauthorized forms of charges and punishment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While in some cases ad hoc plea bargaining can be beneficial for the community (such as making a monetary contribution to educational programs or labor of public utility), in other cases the prosecutor’s initiatives can take more extreme and inadmissible forms.

For instance, in the case Ryan v. Common on Judicial Performance, the criminal charges were dismissed from a female defendant because she had exposed her breath (Worall, 2010, p. 369). Though cases of such extreme violations are no so frequent, the use of the strategy should be restricted.

Taking into account the human factor and the associated forms of prosecutor’s unauthorized initiatives, the use of ad hoc plea bargaining should be restricted for preserving the constitutional rights of defendants, on the one hand, and observing proper trial procedures, on the other hand.

Reference List Siegel, L. (2010). Introduction to criminal justice. (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Worrall, J. (2010). Criminal procedure: From first contact to appeal (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.


The History of Cars Essay writing essay help

Introduction It is hard to imagine life without cars. Cars have formed an important part of our lives and the quality and power of the car one drives is used to define his/her standard of living. They have become a status symbol rather than their original intention as a means of transport. Cars provide an individualized and privatized means of transportation.

The motor vehicles did not just rise in a single day but rather have evolved from the earliest models to the more sophisticated automobiles dominating our roads today. It has been a gradual process starting from when the wheel was first invented and through several other stages.

This paper traces the stages through the history that the cars have undergone from the primitive carriages of the 1880s to the fast, complex, and comfortable vehicle that dominate our roads in the 21st century (Volti 1).

The Invention of the Wheel This marked the infancy stage in the development of transportation known to us today. However, it is hard to know who or exactly when the wheel was invented but reports show that this may date back to more than 5000 years. The inspiration for the development of the wheel arose as people sought for easier and better means of moving things around. People had discovered that rounded objects could lessen the amount of effort needed if heavy things were placed over them and pushed along.

The sledge was soon later incorporated as a means of moving things, it was recognized that when sledge was pulled on a smooth surface or on logs, the amount of energy needed to push it was reduced.

The sledge was further improved by making grooves on the logs on which it was placed thus reducing the amount of friction between the logs and the sledge. This further lessened the amount of the effort needed and when the wood between the two inner grooves were cut, the wood that remained between the grooves now formed the axle. This type of sledge formed the first carts.

The next natural thing that the inventors of the wheel did was to design the axle so that it could fit into the hole made in the centre of the wooden wheel. Further improvements on the axle were made to ensure that the axle remained static while the wheel was made to rotate on it. Further improvements on the design of the wheel were made in different parts of the world with an aim of fitting different purposes such as war chariots, racing carts, and freight wagons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Age of the Horse Drawn Carriages During the first stages, the wheeled vehicles were pulled by people, oxen or horses but later the internal combustion engine were invented to replace ‘horse power’ as it was called then. The use of horses to pull the carriages allowed for the people to wield more power and to expand their territorial borders. The amount of pollution caused by horse wastes in European cities resulted in inventors looking for alternative forms of transportation.

The Horseless Carriages and the Steam Engine Steam-powered vehicle came into being in the late 18th century but were only considered more potentially practical in the early 19th century. Nicholas Cugnot (1725-1804) built the first steam powered vehicles that were supposed to haul French army artillery. It is recorded that his first steam vehicle travelled at a steady 3km/hr but run out of the steam power in less than 25 minutes (Volti 2). Cugnot second steam engine also failed prompting the government to drop the project.

Development of Locomotives Early 1830s witnessed continued interest in the steam as a source of power and the period continued to experience development in locomotives, steam powered tractors, and other forms of vehicles. In England, automobiles powered by steam were on the rise but their growth was terminated immaturely as more emphasis was laid on rail locomotives.

The Role of the Bicycle in the Development of Cars There was great stride in the development of bicycles during the 1840s. The development of the bicycle is very important in the history of cars as most of the parts found in the early cars owed their origin from them.

Such parts as the chain-and-sprocket drive, the tires, bearings, spooked wheels and many other components of the automobile were derived from the bicycle. Steam cars faced limitations in the building technology and lack of good roads and it was only in the 19th century that personal transportation emerged. These cars were very heavy thus meaning that they could only travel on rails to function effectively.

The steam engines were therefore used on railroads leading to the great success of the railroad industry. The steam engines operated by burning wood or other fuel and the thus generated heated water in boilers. The resulting steam was used in driving pistons up and down and in the process turning the crankshaft, which ultimately moved the wheels. These steam engines required numerous stops to replenish its water and also needed long time to start.

The Internal Combustion Engines Early attempts

The invention of internal combustion engines was influenced by the idea of personal mobility. This venture required that individual vehicles have a source of power to drive them.

We will write a custom Essay on The History of Cars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As already seen, steam power was out of question and could not be used in personal cars because of their weight and the fact that they could only use rails. This led to the idea of an internal combustion engine that contained an air-fuel mixture within it. Attempts to make an internal combustion engine dates back to the late 17th century; when efforts to use gunpowder were made but failed.

Lenoir’s double acting engine

In 1850s, a French engineer, Etienne Lenoir constructed a double acting engine in which an ignited mixture of air and gas was used to push the piston to the far end and of the cylinder creating a power stroke. When this piston was pushed back I the same mechanism, another power stroke was created and the exhausted gas was expelled.

Therefore, for each revolution of the crankshaft, two power strokes were produced. This kind of engine had its disadvantage in that the air was not compressed before being burned and therefore the engine produced less power and was inefficient. However, Lenoir’s engine was far much better when compared to the steam engine since it had a higher thermal efficiency.

Early development in Germany

In Germany, Nicholas Otto also made significant steps in the development of steam engine. Together with his friend Eugen Langen (1833-1895), Otto developed a four-stroke cycle in 1876. This model of engine was however not efficient but was a gap in the building of more improved combustion engines.

Daimler’s first ‘car’

In 1885, two of Otto’s workers; Gottlieb Daimler (1834-19000) and Wilhelm Maybach (1847-1929) made improvements on Otto’s four stroke engine by installing a single cylinder engine on a two wheeled frame which came to be referred to as the first motorcycle. The same engine was installed onto a four wheeled wagon to make the first internal combustion engine car (Volti 4).

Carl Benz (1844-1902) constructed a three wheeled vehicle that used Otto’s four stroke combustion engine and was better than that constructed by Daimler (Flink 11). Carl’s three wheeled vehicle marked the beginning of personalized road trips when his family made a 200 kilometres journey in it.

The progress of the internal combustion engine in France

Germany is credited with the manufacture of the first cars but credit also goes to France where considerable steps in the motor industry. Peugeot, a steel metal company, constructed the first car that used a v-twin engine which was a Daimler engine design. Peugeot later on produced its own design of engine which used independently pivoting wheels.

Another French company, Panhard et Levassor also introduced a car that was more sophisticated than the Peugeot. Panhard’s model of engine, termed systeme panhard had its engine mounted on the front and operated by turning the rear wheels via a driveshaft that run underneath the car.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Cars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States of America joins the car industry

The united states marked a slow start in the motor vehicle invention and remained stuck in the ‘buggy’ despite making big strides in the manufacture of other industrial products such as watches, typewriters and fire arms at relatively low costs. Its first internal combustion engine automobile was designed by Charles and frank Duryea in Massachusetts in 1893. The car was propelled by an engine with a single-cylinder and contained a spray carburetor and electric ignition.

In 1894, the first gasoline car was made by Elmer and Edger Apperson using the Hayne’s design. The Duryea motor wagon company came into existence in 1895 and specialized in gasoline cars. Henry Ford first built his two cylinder engine car in Detroit and only registered the Ford Motor Company in 1903. Other important car builders in US during the early stages included; Ransom E. Olds and William C. Durant who founded General Motors in 1908.

Electric Cars This mostly came into being in the 1830s but failed due to the fact that early batteries were limited in their capacity to store energy. Because they operated within towns, the cars were relatively advantageous since they did not require to be occasionally replenished with water (Larmine


Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Public Reaction to the Opera

Performance History

Character Presentation

Libretto’s Adoption to Music

Musical Representations of the Orient



Madama butterfly is one of the most celebrated opera pieces in America and Europe. The opera extensively touches on social vices like devotion and irresponsibility, depicted by a tale of two lovers (Butterfly and Pinkerton) (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1). However, some people note that the opera has more to do with misunderstandings willful and innocence (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1).

According to Metropolitan Opera (2011, p. 1) critics note that the opera is “compassionate and brutal, colonialist and anti-imperialist, disdainful of Americans and demeaning of Japanese”. However, Art Nouveau (2010, p. 7) notes that “audiences are enraptured by the humanity of Cio-Cio-San’s love—and by Puccini’s music, which is at once lush, evocative, and witty”.

Madama Butterfly was an opera done by Guacomo Puccini based on the events that took place in Nagasaki in the early years of the 1800s when foreigners took Japanese women as their temporary wives (Groos, 1991, p. 1). The opera was originally played in two successive acts but ultimately in was played in three (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). The piece enjoys a huge acclamation in the United States, though it has a Japanese origin (Greenwald, 2000, p. 1).

Nonetheless, its hugely acclaimed version was not the original, but a rewritten piece by the composer, Puccini. Around the world, the fifth version of the opera is commonly played (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1). Madama Butterfly is a unique opera and its distinct nature can be best affirmed in the words of Art Nouveau (2010, p. 3) which notes that “It is intimate, devoid of spectacle, taking place completely within a house in Nagasaki”.

The story line is also uniquely simple in that “without subplots, girl wins boy, girl loses boy, and girl commits hara kiri” (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). Art Nouveau (2010, p. 3) further notes that: “What makes the opera unique is the characterization of Butterfly and her Captain Pinkerton, both in the drama and in the rich and luscious Puccini score”.

This observation, and the fact that the opera was among the first literary works to expose the differences in the way of life between the Western and Eastern world, are the unique features of the opera. However, the fact that the opera got a bad reception in its initial premiere and the fact that it turned out to be one of the most celebrated literary pieces also makes it cut a mark above the rest.

Public Reaction to the Opera Madama butterfly was a poorly received opera in the public eye during its first debut in Milan, Italy (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). This happened despite the fact that celebrated singers such as Rosina Storchio, Giovanni Zenatello and Giuseppe De Luca graced took part in the first overall presentation of the piece (Fisher, 2004, p. 330).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some sections of existing literature analyzing the opera affirm that the opera was so poorly received that even Puccini himself thought he would be lynched by an angry mob for producing such shoddy work (Fisher, 2004, p. 330). One of the reasons advanced for the poor reception of the opera was the irritatingly long nature of the second act (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

The lengthy nature of the second act was already known to Puccini as extensively long and therefore it had the potential to spell disaster for the premiere of the play (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 4). However, Puccini ignored such concerns and continued with premiere anyway. Puccini could easily divide the second act into two but his major concern was that breaking the second act would lead to a distortion of the dramatic composition of the entire opera (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 5).

Such concerns were especially noted when he had to break night and day in Virgil (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10). Partly, the reasons advanced for the poor reception of the piece was the late completion of the work and the poor quality it had due to a lack of proper time allocation during rehearsals (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

However, some observers note that Puccini’s rivalry with his contemporaries and the jealous nature of his competitors (especially for the good input his producer was helping in coming up with a good Libretto) was also part of the reasons for the poor reception at the La Scala premiere (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

In some quarters, Puccini was also criticized for plagiarizing his own music and therefore lacking originality in presenting his works (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10). Politically, the tensions existent in the Russo-Japanese war was also another reason for the poor reception by a section of the audience who thought the opera was sympathetic to the Japanese and therefore it was taken as a biased piece of art (Jenkins, 2010, p. 11). Comprehensively, Jenkins (2010, p. 11) affirms that:

“The exact reasons behind the fiasco are, of course, nearly impossible to trace with any accuracy but there are several likely explanations. First, Ricordi’s secrecy during the rehearsals and alienation of the press undoubtedly created an unnecessarily hostile reception in the papers.

Second, Puccini incorrectly assumed that the audience would be able to maintain concentration during his abnormally long second act–in the revised version, the curtain wisely falls during the vigil. Finally, and this must remain conjectural, it is possible that the fiasco was “fixed” beforehand. This would not be the only instance of such treachery in operatic history and certainly Ricordi suspected as much as he revealed in his comments recorded above”.

We will write a custom Essay on Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of these shortcomings, Puccini made several changes to the opera and notable was the splitting of the last scene into two, to make the three acts observed in the final piece (Jenkins, 2010, p. 12). After the changes were effected, the opera was received well.

Performance History Madama butterfly first premiered in one of Italy’s most known opera houses, La scala. The performance flopped despite the appearance of some of the most celebrated casts such as soprano Rosina Storchio (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

A lot of bad decisions were made during the opera’s rehearsals as can be noted from the high level of secrecy upheld by the opera’s producers who in turn recommended that the casts’ scripts should not leave the theatre (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13). The move was also motivated by the fact that the producers did not want careless singers to lose their musical scripts (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13).

This greatly contributed to the poor mastering of the music by the players. Moreover, the printed scripts were to be mastered by the cast, a page at a time, since printing was done sequentially and in a slow manner (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13). The press was also forbidden from attending the rehearsals and therefore most media agents and critics were irritated before the premiere, prompting them to search for small faults with the opera performance (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13).

Madama Butterfly also premiered in 1904 in Buernos Aries, Argentina while in London, it premiered in 1905 at the Royal Opera house, Covent Garden (Jenkins, 2010, p. 14). In the United States, the opera first premiered in Washington D.C at the Columbia theatre in 1906 and in New York, the first performance took place in November 12th of the same year at Garden theatre and lastly, in Australia, the first performance was done at the Royal Theatre in 1906 (Jenkins, 2010, p. 16).

Character Presentation The character, Butterfly was exclusively presented as her own distinct person by a Japanese girl, who many enthusiasts of the opera had valiantly tried to identify the real life model of the personality (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). Butterfly is the main character in the opera who has an affair with a rather careless lover called Pinkerton.

She is depicted as a Western representation of the orient and in some aspects, a cross-cultural figure, though not a racial one (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). She represents a confused Japanese girl who tries to trace her path between Eastern and Western social ideals as can be seen through the denouncing of her authentic religion for Christianity (Western influence) and her final decision to take a her life away (Ritual Eastern ideal) (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1).

Art Nouveau (2010, p. 5) affirms that “Madama Butterfly” figures in a distinctly American dialect of cultural and ideological power that is inseparable until the time of World war I, from both Japanese masculinity and from the musical sphere of high art in the West”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pinkerton is represented as an army officer in the United States and Butterfly as a fragile “butterfly” who Pinkerton pursues at whatever costs and through whatever means (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 10). Butterfly is represented as an innocent character by Cio-Cio San who battles an American rival who tries to win Pinkerton’s love through an endless dramatic ordeal until her suicidal death. Pinkerton’s American wife is nonetheless presented as a non-innocent character, though fragile just like Butterfly (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12).

Often times, Cio-Cio San is presented as having a different interpretation of what Pinkerton’s actual motives are (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). The opera further represents the intrigue among the three characters as a tale of love and pain (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 11). Other characters represented in the opera are Puccini, Illica, and Giacosa (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 11).

Libretto’s Adoption to Music The adoption of the Libretto in Madam Butterfly varies from performance to performance and therefore no single adoption best conceptualizes what was sung at each performance (Fisher, 2004, p. 331). However, soprano was used in the music as an affiliation to Cho cho san. Mezzo soprano was used in affiliation to Cho cho san’s servant, Kate Pinkerton, cho-cho-San’s Mother and the aunt (Fisher, 2004, p. 331).

Tenor was used in affiliation to BF Pinkerton (the army lieutenant) and Goro (the Marriage Broker) (Fisher, 2004, p. 331). Baritone is musically used in representation of the United States Consul at Nagasaki and Yakusidé the official registrar (Fisher, 2004, p. 332). Finally, bass was used in representation of the Bonze (Cho-Cho-San’s Uncle) and the imperial commissioner (Fisher, 2004, p. 332).

Musical Representations of the Orient Madama butterfly has a number of musical representations. First Pinkerton’s opening act is accompanied by music representations, although plagiarized from Star Spangled Banner which is an exotic musical presentation representing his exotic role in the opera (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12).

During this musical representation, the climax is marked with chauvinistic and colonialist sentiments from the assertion “America Forever” which may have very well aroused negative sentiments among the audience because it implies Western imperialism.

Butterfly’s entrance on stage is also accompanied by a magnificent musical setting called the “happiness motive” which represents Butterfly’s feelings at the time she met Pinkerton because she declared that her marriage to Pinkerton was going to make her the happiest woman in Japan. The music was characterized by a 4 note phrase which rises and climaxes in an elegant and pulsating manner (although Puccini integrates it with the Love duet at the end of the song to give the music more emotional power).

The Love duet is regarded by some analysts as one of the best musical representation in the entire opera since it gives Butterfly the courage to speak of her love for Pinkerton, even though she shies away from it (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12). This sounds almost childlike. However, the ending tones of the song are a little dissonant and quite frankly, fails to resolve tonally (perhaps as a way through which the composer explains to the audience that the love story remains unresolved).

When Butterfly believes that Pinkerton has come back for her in the second act, Puccini accompanies the scene with musical variations of the theme (which are essentially meant to capture the nostalgic sentiments of Butterfly and the empathic sentiments from the audience).

In the musical depiction Un bel di or “one fine day”, Puccini tries to show the delusional status of Butterfly’s mind when she sits and hopes that Pinkerton will come back to her (plus her faith in Pinkerton coming back to her). In the aria, a pentatonic musical segment represents a fragment of butterfly’s thoughts that Pinkerton will come up the hill but unknown to the audience, the music is played once again in the final act when Butterfly says that Pinkerton should be back in a couple of minutes to take their baby away.

Conclusion Throughout the opera, authentic Japanese melodies are included in the piece but occasionally, exotic instruments are included to enforce the Japanese melodies and the story’s plot. In some quarters, it has been assumed that Madama Butterfly has a strong sense of music such that the story follows the music and not the other way around.

The music is seen to haunt the characters such that it drives them to think of the first time they met each other, and to some extent, the music shows the level of submissiveness of the oriental woman (Butterfly) to her American lover (Pinkerton).

References Art Nouveau. (2010). Madame Butterfly – Giacomo Puccini. Web.

Fisher, B. (2004). Opera Classics Library Puccini Companion: The Glorious Dozen. New York: Opera Journeys Publishing.

Greenwald, H. (2000) Picturing Cio Cio Swan. Web.

Groos, A. (1991). Madame Butterfly: the Story. Web.

Jenkins, C. (2010). The Fiasco of Madama Butterfly’s First Performance: Feb 17, 1904. Web.

Metropolitan Opera. (2011). What to expect from Madama Butterfly. Web.


Research Studies in Technology Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Government policies play an important role in technology commercialization and can have both positive and negative effects on this process. The research under consideration Technology commercialization in road infrastructure: How government affects the variation and appropriability of technology by Caerteling, Halman and Doree was published in The Journal of Product Innovation Management in 2008.

The investigation explores various roles the government can play in technology commercialization and their combined effects upon the realization of technology projects.

The business research under consideration can be defined as basic or fundamental research which results are not meant for direct application in practice. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model analyzing the combined effects of the government’s impact on the processes of technology commercialization in road infrastructure, including the government’s functions of a regulator, sponsor, first user and buyer.

The purpose of this business research is to fill the existing gap in theoretical knowledge without specifying the ways for the immediate practical application of the research results. Previous studies focused on the effects of specific government’s roles, and the current study is aimed at enhancing the understanding of the combined impact.

The major business problems under investigation include the inconsistencies between the roles of government as a regulator of the market and the largest user of technologies and the importance of preventing the emergence of monopolies in the sphere of road infrastructure.

On the one hand, the government controls and owns the road infrastructure, and the changes in the sphere require its participation. On the other hand, the government does not develop any technologies and is dependent upon the firms which work on the innovations in the sphere.

Thus, government’s championship in the sphere limits the viability of new firms and technologies but its participation is important for regulating the situation in this sector. Caerteling, Halman and Doree (2008) noted that “government has to create a market for new technology, and technology commercialization is subjected to competitive bidding” (p.146). At the same time, the emphasis should be put upon support of new technologies, increasing the capacity use and creating opportunities for the traffic flow control.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The data collection methods which were used for the research include the literature review of the discussion of the government’s specific roles in road infrastructure and a multiple case study of the combined effects of the government on technology commercialization. These methods were helpful for building a bridge between the existing theories of the government’s roles and their practical application on the examples of particular technology projects.

The requirements for the choice of the projects included the distinction between technology and construction projects and the application for at least partial funding of the project by the government for demonstrating the links between the government and the private firms working on the technology projects. The data for a multiple case study was retrieved from several sources, including the interviews with project team members and the government officials.

The results of the research clarify the complexity of the government’s role in technology commercialization of road infrastructure or other partially public goods. The proposed conceptual model can be valuable for both policymakers who develop strategies for technology commercialization and firms developing product and trying to overcome the impediments of cooperating with government as a buyer. The research explores the interdependency between the technology and other types of policies.

Reference List Caerteling, J., Halman, J., and Doree, A. (2008).Technology commercialization in road infrastructure: How government affects the variation and appropriability of technology. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25: 143-161.

Sekaran, U. (2006). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. New York, NY: John Wiley


Role of Asian Women Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The role of Asian women in history and the transitions that they faced through ages Asian women have a remarkable record in history. All over the world, they women have been outstanding in almost all fields. These women have gone through massive oppression in their respective countries. No Asian woman could rule a kingdom, write literature, lead armies or participate in war. The western world portrays them as sexists. On the contrary, these women are warriors who have stood up to be recognized in different fields of profession (Taehakkyo


Merit Pay for Teachers Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Forms of merit pay

The Disadvantages of Performance Based Compensation


Works Cited

Introduction Merit pay, as many would call it, is a practice in which the salary of the worker is determined based on the basis of how well individual worker is successful in his/her work. This method of compensating employees may seem attractive as it makes sense to reward those employees who demonstrate high productivity and subsequently high contribution to the sector or the organization in question. This method may also look interesting as it show fairness and retains employees in the company.

Forms of merit pay a) Annual salary increment

Forms of merit pay include instances where a worker’s annual salary is increased on the basis of the productivity. Anyone whose work is assessed and found to be good re receives an increment in his/her salary.

b) The bonus system

In the bonus system of performance appraisals, hardworking and productive workers are rewarded with a bonus payment for only that period of time.

c) Direct compensation

This approach takes a direct recompense for quantified method of production. This is highly practiced in factory set ups and is not applicable in the merit payment for teachers (Bacal 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Disadvantages of Performance Based Compensation It is argued that this mode of compensation will be anomalous to the character of effective schooling. It is feared that this method of payment will suppress reforms in the education sector mainly by causing enmity between teachers as they endeavor to earn more pay.

Conflicts may arise in schools between teachers who are not compensated against those get high paychecks. Jealousy may arise from the administrators (who could be fellow teachers) against the teaching staff if they earn more. This is expected to give rise to competition and weak teachers may feel endangered.

This conflict between the two parties becomes unfortunate if it differently influences student learning. Concern also arises due to the financial attachment of the evaluation as some of those who do not qualify for the award fear that the judgment was not really equitable. It can be seen that the spirit of competition instilled into the teachers by this program becomes unhealthy and ideas are no longer shared.

Learning climate in the school change and teachers no longer share the hard work fearing that the credit may be beneficial to only one of them. In general, competition rather than cooperation arises. A common misunderstanding that arises is the comparison with commission stores that base their compensation on this mode and attain high productivity in sales. A clear observation reveals constant rivalry and lack of cooperation. The effect would cause our education system to crumble.

Merit payment is inequitable; it could lead to the rise of free riders who lie low and only come out during the sharing of the kill. This is especially so if merit payment is done as per department. This will deter collaboration because hard workers will become demoralized when they observe others slaking off. It is common knowledge that for any education system to prosper, teaching should be done in teamwork and collaboration (Solmon and Podgursky 8).

Performance-based payment tend to oppose the above notion by creating division, in fact, it is inappropriate and counterproductive. Supporters of the performance based payment argue that effort is not always collaborative to be productive. However, teaching is not like athletics, in athletics, individual effort matter most and the runners are paid based on their performance in the field, there can be no otherwise.

It is not clear on what basis anyone is dubbed a ‘good teacher’. There lacks proper parameters in measuring the ‘goodness’ of a teacher in the educational process. Standardized tests cannot be relied on in the evaluation of teachers as they are sometimes very difficult to use in gauging the relevance of a teacher to the students using their achievement (Abma 6). The two famous measures that proponents suggest for evaluation of teachers are inconclusive. No teacher can decide on what a given student get in an exam.

We will write a custom Essay on Merit Pay for Teachers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The test scores are also very ineffective in some spheres of the curriculum, for example, these tests do not measure well performances in arts or in contests (Solmon and Podgursky 8). How do you evaluate an artistic teacher? A teacher who is able to deal with imperfect situations? This teacher deals with various parties ranging from disturbed students, administrators, union employees. All teachers are therefore important in their own ways. It is difficult to also evaluate how a teacher make a class feel.

Conclusion It is evident from all over the world that merit based compensation poses serious problems especially in public schools. It is my view that this system should be left to operate in the private schools and in other industries. There are very few instances where this system has worked properly more so in the public school. Merit-based system has been experimented and has so far no fruits have been bored. I propose for a complete neglect of this system.

Works Cited Abma, Derek. “Merit-Based Pay For Teachers Ineffective, Educators Say.” National Post Inc. 2011. Web.

Bacal, Richard. “Performance Management and Appraisal Help Centre.” Bacal


Leadership as a Human Resources Management Strategy and Policy in Multinational Companies: a Case Study of Apple Company best college essay help

Research proposal Leadership as a human resources management strategy and policy in multinational companies: A case study of Apple Company

Brief discussion on leadership strategy and policies

Leadership is the ability to influence people to contribute willingly to the objectives of an organization. Leaders have the obligation of motivating their followers to improve their performance so that they can achieve the goals of an organization.

There has been an increasing need for organizations to come up with innovative products and to differentiate the products offered in the market for successful competition. As more companies penetrate the international market, competition increases and there is need to come up with strategies and policies of improving the performance of the employees (Kambil, 2010).

To improve the competitiveness of its products, Apple has embraced leadership as a strategy and policy and this has made the company to achieve higher sales levels in the recent past. Apple Inc. manufactures computer hardware, software and electronics. The company has become innovative and has been able to differentiate its products by adopting modern technologies. The innovativeness of the employees of Apple can be attached to the excellent leadership strategies of Steve Jobs, the president and co-founder of the company (Frank, 2011).

Rationale for the selection of this topic

Leadership has become a very important aspect of human resources management and there is need for organizations working in multinational environments to embrace leadership as a strategy of improving performance at the workplace. It is important for managers to use better strategies of communicating with their employees and to encourage the use of leadership roles to improve the level of competitiveness of the products manufactured and marketed by these companies (Mostovicz, Kakabadse,


“The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

“The Sate in Capitalist Society” Review


List of References

Introduction “The state in capitalist society” is a book written by Ralph Miliband. This book is the author’s masterpiece. The intention of the author in this work is to expose the capitalist state, “showing that it is not a neutral set of institutions, reflecting some general interest by way of democratic practices, but that instead it is the state of the dominant interest in a divided society” (Mead, 2008, Para (Para 1).

Miliband wrote this book in a plain manner, enabling the reader to understand the book, describing the complicated social relationships in such a way that social science students and other interested people can understand his work (Barker, 1978). There is an evaluation of the “capitalist state” in a broad perspective in the book: giving out examples from all the “Western type World”.

This gives room for a notion of all-inclusiveness on the author’s side (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate, 2010). “The state in the capitalist society” was written in the course of the mid 60’s and was initially published in 1969. According to Mead (2008), after the book being written, it “became a standard text in political science, sociology and the study of social policy for the next decade” (Para 2). The arguments presented in this book today remain to be sharp and perceptive.

According to Anonymous (The state of the capitalist society – 40 years on, 2009), this book has played a major role in the renewal of both “state theory and Marxist political thought” (Para 1). “The state in capitalist society” is a piece of work that has remained to be important and has played a major role in the development of the social as well as the political theory beginning from the mid twentieth century.

“The Sate in Capitalist Society” Review In the book, “The state in capitalist society”, Ralph Miliband offers a Marxist critical assessment of the liberal theories concerning modern capitalist state, and mostly, the assessment of “pluralism”. In this assessment, the author attains success. This author portrays pluralism as an ideological construct playing a role to make justifiable, a “state system” which upholds an intrinsically separated society, and in this manner bringing forth “relations of domination and subordination” (Mead, 2008).

However, what this author does not carry out is to sufficiently connect with the “nature of the state itself”, instead, he illustrates “what the state is not” (Mead, 2008 Para 4). There is no point at which the author offers a comprehensive evaluation of the state from a “Marxist” point of view.

It is even clear that there is no “Marxist politics” in the entire book. But this weakness or limitation does not make the book lose its importance because the purpose of the book was just to offer a critical analysis of “liberal conceptions”. This book remains to be a very important book, and especially when it is considered that it provides readers with “a clearly posed critique of bourgeois ideology on the state; and it provides a series of historical examples of mid-20th century state activity in capitalist societies” (Mead, 2008, Para 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book presents an unrelenting and solid challenge to the present political compromise by carrying out the presentation of the drastic option of taking on socialism as the main issue encountered by civilization and the critical circumstance of carrying out substantial advancement (Smith and Harvey, 2008).

Giving an illustration that control of capitalism was quite all-inclusive to a level that there was no possibility of attaining half-done reforms, the author of this book makes an effort to give an explanation of the way the society has been able to avoid socialism, and he does this by carrying out an exploration of the way its claims have not achieved success to convince a number of intellectuals and the prospective supporters of a substitute order.

Carrying out an evaluation of “the power of economic leaders and the leading class”, Panitch (2009) points out that this book also “probes the state’s claims to legitimacy, defines the purpose and the role of the governments, and analyses the concepts of reform and repression” (Para 1).

More so, Panitch (2009) observes that “depicting how the state reemerged from behind the mystification of the political system and its behavior to become the central theme of the political studies, this book combines a potential appeal with thorough, detailed scholarship” (Para 1).

The state servants and the notion of “imperfect competition” are as well discussed in the book. Miliband has made a great contribution to “The state in capitalist society” as a writer (Anonymous: New Left Review, 2007.). Before he died, this author was among the prominent “thinkers on the Left not only in Britain but across in the whole world” (Panitch, 2009 Para 2)

According Anonymous (Reclaim the “state debate, 2010), most of the people who had engaged in the “Labor Movement” in the course of the 1960s and had been able to identify the weakness of this party, experienced a feeling to fight against reformism and the author of this book, Miliband, was among these people.

Basing on this book, the author presented arguments that “the limits of social democracy were not contingent but were rooted in capitalist social relations themselves” (Para 20). Of course this author did not accept the notion that “socialism could be brought about by electoral means alone and thought that any political changes needed to be supported by extra-parliamentary working class struggle” (Anonymous:. Reclaim the “state debate, 2010 Para 20).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book, as pointed out by Anonymous (Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010) was basically aimed at “bourgeois liberal ideas” which considered the society as consisting of “free individuals defined as such in the sphere of circulation and which saw the state as a democratic arena equally accessible to all individuals and pressure groups” (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010, Para 21).

Through this book, Ralph Miliband looked for a way to convince people that there was a possibility to talk of classes, and justify the definition of the state by Marx as “a committee managing the bourgeois affairs” (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010).

According to Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery (1987), in this book, Miliband presents an argument in a most convincing way that,

The state is in capitalist society represents the class interests of the monopolized corporate structure and that most of the paraphernalia of politics with which sociologists and political scientists choose to deal in the fifties and sixties such as political parties, elections, and education about government and politics, are simply mechanisms to legitimate capitalist state (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987, Page 309).

Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery (1987) further point out that the state is an institution and tool that exercise power in favor of the corporations, basically for the reason that it is subjugated by these corporations, and there exist immense links among “individual corporate personages and specific officials of government” (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987 Page 309).

There exists a similarity between the analysis carried out by Ralph Miliband in his book and that of the New Left, basically for the reason that Miliband’s analysis relies on the work of Antonio Gramsci (Italian communist) and “Gramsci’s analysis of the concept of hegemony” (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987 Page 309). According to Miliband (1969), hegemony is defined as;

An order in which a certain way of life and thought is dominant, in which one concept of reality is diffused throughout society and all its institutional and private manifestation, informing with its spirit all tastes, morality, customs, religious and political principles and all social relations, particularly in their intellectual and moral connotations.

In a general sense, hegemony refers to the spontaneous loyalty that any dominant social groups obtain from the masses by virtue of its supposedly superior function in the world of production. It is the totality of a world view, the enormous complex of prejudices, assumptions, half-thought-out notions and profound ideas (Miliband, 1969: Page 180).

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Ralph Miliband’s book, “The state in capitalist society” is a piece of work that has remained to be an important work and has played a major role in the development of the social as well as the political theory beginning from the mid twentieth century. In this book, Miliband presents arguments which, to this day, remain to be “sharp and insightful”.

He has presented his ideas in a plain manner so that any one who reads his work can have to understand his ideas with ease. He offers a Marxist critical evaluation of the liberal theories pertaining to modern capitalist state, and mostly, the evaluation of “pluralism”. In this evaluation, Miliband attains great success.

He depicts pluralism as an ideological construct playing a role to make justifiable, a “state system” which upholds an intrinsically separated society, and in this manner bringing forth “relations of domination and subordination. An insistent and firm challenge to the present political compromise is presented in the book by carrying out the presentation of the strong option of taking on socialism as the main concern encountered by civilization and the critical circumstance of carrying out considerable advancement.

However, the weakness that can be seen in the book is that the author does not offer an all-inclusive examination of the state from a “Marxist” point of view. In the whole book, it can be seen that there is no comprehensive examination of the “Marxist politics”. But on the other hand, such a weakness does not render the book to be of less importance because the purpose of the book was merely to give out a critical analysis of “liberal conceptions”.

This book maintains its great importance, especially when it is put in to consideration that it offers to readers a noticeably created analysis of bourgeois philosophy on the state; and it provides a chain of past cases of “mid-20th century state activity in capitalist societies”

List of References Anonymous, (2010). Reclaim the “state debate”. Web.

Anonymous, (2009). The state of the capitalist society – 40 years on. Web.

Anonymous, (2007). New left review. California: University of California Press.

Barker, C., (1978). The state as capital. Web.

Kirkpatrick, G. R., Katsiaficas G. N., and Emery, M. L. (1987). Introduction to critical sociology: New York: Ardent Media.

Mead, S. P., (2008). A brilliant critique of liberal theories on the state. Web.

Miliband, R. (1969). The state in capitalist society. London: Widenfeld and Nicolson.

Panitch, L., (2009). The state in capitalist society book description. Web.

Smith, N. and Harvey D. (2008). Uneven employment: nature capital, and production of space. Georgia: University of Georgia Press.


Criminal Evidence and Legal Issue Essay essay help online free

The principal restriction of impeachment, by the use of evidence of misconduct, can result in a conviction of a witness According to the principal restriction of impeachment, the use of evidence of misconduct can cause the conviction of a witness. Any misconduct that is compliant with the truthfulness of the witness’ evidence can result in impeachment of a witness even if an individual was not convicted for the kind of misconduct as a crime. If the witness intentionally gives false evidence and it is proven by the court, the witness can be convicted.

There are two main restrictions which need to be observed by a cross-examiner before asking a witness any provocative questions with the aim of questioning his/her trustfulness and possible impeachment of an individual as a witness. These are the factual basis for asking particular questions because “no unfounded fishing expeditions are permitted for this form of cross-examination” (Garland, 2006, p. 160).

According to the second restriction, the interrogator has to accept the witness’ answer as it is if the witness is not convicted for this particular misconduct in the past. “Extrinsic evidence of instances of conduct that show false statement or dishonesty is not allowed” (Bocchino and Sonenshein, p. 157). For example, if a witness lied on his/her tax returns but was not convicted for it, the examiner can ask a related question because it can shed light upon the witness’ trustfulness but the answer should be accepted as it is.

Specific acts of misconduct can be related to the witness’ credibility but proper procedures of cross-examination need to be observed for using this evidence of misconduct for the impeachment of a person.

Examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self incrimination Under the current legislation, the witness’ privilege against self-incrimination can be waived at the witness’ discretion. It is significant, that the right for this privilege can be claimed only by the witness and waiving it, the witness will have to keep to this decision throughout the whole case.

If the accused decides to take the stand in most cases it would mean waving the privilege against self-incrimination though there are rare exceptions to this rule. Thus, taking the stand and waving the privilege against self-incrimination, the accused will not be able to testify only about the issues which are favorable to him/her and then reject to answer the questions relating to unfavorable issues.

Still, the privilege against self-incrimination can be retained by the accused who takes the stand under particular circumstances. “Unless the defendant, during direct examination, testifies in such a way as to deny the crime generally or testifies to facts and circumstances relating to the crime, there is no waiver of the privilege” (Garland, 2006, p. 170).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, if a person is accused of robbery in a particular place and somebody claims of recognizing him because he was seen nearby a high school some 8 years ago, the defendant can take the stand for saying that he/she did not attend the school in question without waiving the privilege against self-incrimination. In this case, the defendant’s evidence is not linked to the crime or related circumstances.

Thus, the privilege of the accused against the self-incrimination has been retained and the prosecution will not have the right for the cross-examination.

Making a decision to waive the privilege against self-incrimination, an individual should bear in mind the waiver would be applied to the entire investigation and cannot be used for answering only the questions on favorable matters. The privilege can be retained by the accused who decides to take the stand in case if the evidence he/she gives is not related to the crime.

Reference List Bocchino, A.


Website Launch and Rebrand Essay college essay help near me

This proposal will address the need for rejuvenation of our company’s communication materials, namely, our website. The current website, launched in 2009, contains outdated content, a user panel that confuses site visitors, and as of yet has added relatively little value to the organization as a whole.

It is also text heavy and contains images which do not relate directly to the goals of the company, nor do they foster the mission of the company. The company’s “key offering” is not clearly apparent to the site visitor with no prior knowledge of our organization and its products (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1; Brand, 2009; Burson, 1987). Site visitors must comprehend our organization’s key offerings within the first few seconds of arriving at our web portal, and at the present time, this is not the case (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1).

The current site does not leverage the organization’s assets and gifts, and as a result, potential high profile, highly desirable web traffic from prospective customers remains down. More troubling is the fact that our site has developed a reputation amongst other public relations professionals and communication specialists of being disorganized, bewildering, and difficult, which spreads through the network of desirable customers and potential clients and affects our bottom line.

The fact that peers view our website as unprofessional and ineffective reflects badly on our whole organization, namely, because it feeds two negative assumptions: first, that our company is technologically backward, and secondly, that our company does not respect the changed landscape the internet brings to public relations at large. (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21). The importance of a website as a communications tool has long been understood (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).

A decade ago, public relations theorists recognized that “web sites are used to keep stakeholders up-to-date, provide information to the media, gather information about publics, strengthen corporate identity, and a host of other public relations functions. Most Fortune 500 companies use Web sites for external communication, focusing on promoting the company image and enhancing public relations rather than for direct sales or other revenue generating activities” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).

However since that time the web has evolved to become the front line of public relations, and how a company looks online now significantly affects its appeal to potential clients, and hence its revenue generating capabilities. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state, “web sites, for better or worse, are the windows through which organizations are viewed” (p. 14).

As public relations professionals it is our job to communicate the face of the organization to the world. Increasingly, the first line of intersection between the face of our company and the public occurs online. Public relations professionals must present a technologically sound face; failure to do so actually results in lost traffic, and the inadequacy of our current communication tools spreads virally through the network of peers and customers alike.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Senior management has given us the mandate to rebuild and relaunch the website and has asked us to focus on income generation, profile building, and to provide a forum for senior management to communicate with the world. Under the authority of the CEO, the public relations department henceforth contributes not only to the company’s bottom line but will help set and implement our company’s mission, goals, and sales targets via the rejuvenated website (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).

As Dozier (1995) logically deduced, the power of any public relations department “is seen in their contributions to strategic planning. Communicators cannot influence the strategic decisions of dominant coalitions unless the membership of that coalition values and supports communication. Influence, then, is circular. (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).

Public relations professionals in general now understand how vital a functional website is to the positive reflection of the company overall. “Practitioners believe a Web site symbolizes an organization’s competitiveness, enhances an organization’s image, and increases the practitioner’s personal sense of professionalism” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 31).

It is imperative that our organization present an attractive user friendly and inviting site that highlights our corporate philosophy and corporate responsibility. The bulk of our potential customer base is technology literate and as such, we need to become “technologically savvy in monitoring as well as using such media” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21).

Senior management understands that the internet cultivates a “participatory culture,” wherein potential clients are members of the “wide consume classes around the world…which pursue vast selections of content that race from one media system to another all over the world in different media economies – content that is available in nearly endless combinations and permutations of media channels and sources…Not only can consumers obtain information, they can reshape content created by organizations and they can create their own intellectual property….they are able to respond to subtle shifts in culture” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).

These shifts occur quickly and turn on a dime, and create “dramatic shifts in consumer tastes and trends that are hard to monitor, let alone shape, by large organizations” such as ours (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).

According to Botan and Hazelton (2006) “businesses are expanding their marketing and sales strategies to the Internet [and] companies world wide are moving from a physical presence location to a virtual presence location. All together, this means that the interaction between an organization and its audience will increasingly be carried out through the use of Web sites” (p. 422). Competition is fierce and the pace of change is blistering, therefore we must move now lest the company be left behind.

We will write a custom Essay on Website Launch and Rebrand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plan to develop the new website’s content and structure will involve several steps, as outlined here. Firstly, the public relations department will liaise with a group of technologically minded stakeholders within the company from the IT department, senior management, and sales. Our goal will be to develop a practical website relaunch plan for the company.

The public relations manager will take on the responsibility of content manager, under the auspices and direction set forth by the CEO and senior management. Our group will work to illustrate the company’s major offerings as well as highlight our product strengths and mission visually with the larger goal of raising the online presence of the company and becoming more attractive to potential customers.

Top of the agenda is to create a site that generates buzz while promoting our company’s corporate philosophy, highlighting the strengths of our senior management team, especially the CEO, and promoting “two way communication” between our company and our consumer web audience (Mackey, 2009: p. 51).

Our website partnering strategy group will collect the necessary information from the company’s leaders to allow us to competently convey information about the company, its senior management, its professional expertise, and its formal strategic marketing directives.

The website partnering strategy group will also conduct an informal survey of competitor websites to ascertain the level of strategic transparency that our competitors convey in their online presence.

The website partnering strategy group will assess what content needs to be developed to champion the company’s marketing proposals. Emphasis will be on coalescing content on the website with other strategic corporate communications and external public relations tools.

The website partnering strategy group will liaise with the IT department for input on the any existing security concerns. The IT department will be on board to consult with the viability of the projected website rejuvenation plan and to help structure our implementation plan. The website rejuvenation plan will cover an 18 month window, unless otherwise directed by senior management and the CEO.

Once the proper content has been identified, the website partnering strategy group will formally compose the website rejuvenation plan document, with goals, growth projections, sales targets, and profile raising objectives in place.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Website Launch and Rebrand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The website partnering strategy group will seek input from external parties such as trusted vendors to garner feedback on the website rejuvenation plan document and polish the plan if need be. At this time the website partnering strategy group will also delineate the time frames for the conclusion and launch, as well as and establish projected costs.

The website partnering strategy group will then formally meet once again with senior management to gain approval on the direction and strategy of the website rejuvenation and establish a set calendar of completion dates. The company’s senior leadership and the CEO have expressed a sense of urgency and their backing of the plan is expected to “grease the wheels”.

As Tice-Wallner (2010) states “website overhauls can cost up to a $100,000 in technical, graphic design and marketing support, [therefore] any disconnect between the work of the group and the direction set by firm leadership can be costly and scuttle success (p. 2).

Once senior management has approved budget and strategy, the website partnering strategy group will then officially kick off the website rejuvenation plan.

The website partnering strategy group will create information collection protocols to facilitate easy tracking of the success of the website rejuvenation plan. This entail sustained communications between all stakeholders – senior management, the CEO, sales, marketing, and the IT department.

Along the way the plan will be continually assessed in relation to senior management goals and priorities, and the website partnering strategy group will produce all required alterations to the plan as they occur. Senior management and the CEO will be kept aware of the plan’s advancement through weekly meetings with the public relations manager.

The website partnering strategy group promotional plan involves primarily working to make the site attractive to media, who will indirectly promote the site through viral networking. Once a prototype of the new site has been created, the website partnering strategy group’s first priority will be to ensure that the site is technically sound. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state:

The speed at which your site loads, and the quality of the homepage are also important. How long does your Web site take to load? From a networked computer, most Web sites load in a matter of seconds. However, more than half of all Americans access the Web from home. And a majority of those connections will still be through slow modems.

Given this dynamic, organizations that want to attract media professionals and encourage them to devote some time to exploring their site need to employ a few simple principles. First, put all important information (or links to this information) on the first page (links to how to contact the organization, how to order products, how to invest, etc.) Second, create lean pages that load fast and are easy to navigate (p. 15).

As intimated at the outset of this document, the public relations department has received feedback that our visitors to our present site do not immediately understand what our company markets or what or offering is. We require an immediately recognizable “saleable message” that site visitors can absorb within the first few seconds of arriving at our site (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 2).

A major focus of the website partnering strategy group’s promotional plan will be to include a specific section of the first page for the media, one that contains clear directives for media visitors, given that a successful relaunch depends heavily on a positive response from journalists who cover the business beat (Kent and Taylor, 2003: p. 16).

The public relations department’s existing relations with the members of the business media provide us with insight that some media find our existing site overly complex – “byzantine” in the words of one journalist – and that some have essentially stopped visiting our site as a result.

Others have admitted that they are not immediately aware of the media relations link when they arrive at the present site. As Kent and Taylor (2003) have shown, “one of the first icons to load on your site should be the link that tells the media folks where to go for information specific to their needs; don’t hide media links behind other links or in tiny text at the bottom of the page.

You should create a specific section of your Web site for the media. Some organizations call this space the “Press Room,” or “Journalists.” It is important that this link be prominent, perhaps on the upper left side of the homepage…so that media representatives do not have to hunt around to find it” (p. 16).

The website partnering strategy group also will place special attention on maintaining the freshness and viability of the site. As Tice-Wallner (2010) points out, companies often “make big investments in their websites, and then fail to update them or utilize the many enhancements created by the developer to ensure that messages get out to clients and potential clients on a timely basis” (p. 2). This was the mistake we made in our earlier site when we did not craft an action to suit our message.

Also, the website partnering strategy group will pay extra mind to base all of our decisions on our marketing strategy, less so than on the ideas put forth by the web developer. As public relations professionals, it is our job to tell the world about our company and ensure that our key messages are received. The website partnering strategy group remains confident that with the help of senior management and our many talented stakeholders we will be able to launch a website that does our company proud.

References Botan, C.H. and Hazelton, V. (2006) Public relations theory II. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Brand, J. (2009) Public relations: an overview. In: J. Johnston and C. Zawawi (eds) Public Relations Theory and Practice. Crows Nest, Australia, Allen


Incident Command System on Katrina Disaster Research Paper essay help: essay help

Source and Background of the problem The occurrence of hurricane Katrina came one year after the Department of Homeland Defense (DHS) had already created an emergency response plan following a series of national disasters that had caused havoc in United States. For instance, one unfortunate incidence that left the country in a state of desperation was the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the twin towers, the Pentagon building and the World Trade Center.

In fact, the creation of the National Response plan was aimed at setting the right platform for dealing with emergency disasters in future, whether artificial or natural catastrophes. Nonetheless, the response level of hurricane Katrina was deemed as a big failure as documented in myriad of Congressional reports released later.

For example, a report by the House Select Committee in 2006 summarized the response to the hurricane as having lacked initiative right from the state to federal government level. Hurricane Katrina is one of the worst natural disasters ever witnessed in the history of United States owing to heavy loss in life and property.

A White House report on the response to the hurricane pointed a blaming finger on all levels of the government since there was lack of coordination. Another report by the Senate noted that the victims suffered for a longer period than necessary due to delay. The report confirmed that “these failures were not just conspicuous; they were pervasive” (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, 2006).

Similar to all the prior natural calamities that have ever struck US, early warning signs were released as part of the initial plans to tackle the natural disaster. Unfortunately, the warnings were not heeded by government officials. These officials failed to take sufficient action on the forthcoming disaster.

In addition, Levees had already been built in New Orleans as part of protecting the area against such disasters. However, these structures were not strong enough to wither the strong storm. Moreover, the government had already put in place critical elements of the National Response Plan although the execution of the very elements delayed.

On the other hand, the military are usually ready to deal with natural disasters by assisting in the evacuation process. Further, there were voluntary agencies as well as non-governmental organisations that offered invaluable help in responding to the disaster and recovery process (Brunsma, Overfelt


Managing Innovation Essay essay help free

Innovation can be referred to as the “incorporation of new ideas or new methods used in business with the intention of winning customer loyalty” (Klein). Innovation is an important process in any company since it helps in evaluating the performance the firm (Ettlie 74). For any company to survive in a competitive market, it must have effective strategic management policies. This can be achieved by focusing on innovation within the firm.

Managing innovation enables managers to gain the knowledge that will enable them to manage their businesses in a given business environment. The knowledge gained through effective management of innovation facilitates the development of products that meet the expectations of the clients. The level of competition in the modern market is very high (Adam 73). Thus firms should be in a position to identify and take advantage of the weaknesses of their competitors.

One of the most important factors to consider when analyzing the level of competition in the market is the level of innovation. All firms need to incorporate new ideas in their operations in order to survive in the competitive market. This is because the level of technology changes everyday and new products are brought into the market on a daily basis. Companies that intend to have the best reputation in the market must upgrade their level of innovation (Adam 82).

Innovation is a process of “thought change since its main intention is to come up with new ideas” (Adam 87) that can be implemented in the market. There are several types of innovation. However, they all focus on the development of the organization through new ideas and strategies (Adam 91). Innovation can be disruptive or sustaining (Adam 97). When analyzing the types of innovation, much emphasis is usually put on disruptive innovation since it is the most important as far as business is concerned.

Innovation is a long process that occurs in stages or phases within the organization. For example, the development of a new product begins with the thought process. This is followed by the manufacture of the product and ends with the marketing of the product. The process of innovation thus begins with the thought process. This involves developing a vision of what is to be achieved.

Innovation is therefore considered to be “the incremental or radical changes that take place in an organization” (Bessant 67). The changes relate to the manner in which decisions are made, the production of goods and services and the distribution process. The advancement in technology focuses on improving all aspects of a business in the modern economy through innovation (Klein 101). According to Pixar seminars, managing innovation is a very important process since it facilitates growth and resilience.

The second stage of managing innovation is more advanced and involves the implementation of the new ideas (Harvey 65). Thus at this stage the new ideas are “transformed into actions that are important for the survival of a firm in the competitive market” (Ranchhod 87). At the implementation stage, the management must provide the necessary resources. This is because lack of adequate resources can undermine the firm’s ability to realize its innovation objectives (Ettlie 89).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the financial resources, the firm must invest in appropriate technology that will help in the implementation of the innovation plan (Ettlie 90). This can be achieved through an assessment program that aims at identifying the technical weaknesses in the organization. Outdated technologies should therefore be replaced with new ones. Besides, there should be on-the-job training programs that aim at improving the competence of the employees.

Entrepreneurs who focus on innovation in their businesses are able to increase their rate of production in their respective industries. The increase in production is attributed to the high level of efficiency, cost saving and creativity that is associated with innovation within an organization (Bessant 103).

Managing innovation might only be possible if the managers in a given firm have the skills and knowledge that enables them to inspire their employees to be initiative. This means that the process of managing innovation is not only the responsibility of the management team. The process must bring together all members of the organization and the potential clients (Harvey 78). The perspectives of all the concerned parties should be considered.

Due to the large number of employees within an organization, the suggestions concerning the expected changes will definitely vary or even contradict each other. Thus the organization must develop an evaluation mechanism that will be used to vet the ideas presented by all individuals who are involved in the innovation process. Only the best ideas should be chosen and implemented by the organization (Bessant 114). It is not possible to implement all ideas due to lack of sufficient resources.

A company is considered to be the pioneer of innovation if it succeeds in overhauling its production and distribution processes ahead of other firms in the industry. This will enable the firm to improve its competitiveness in the industry (Ranchhod 99). Consequently, the firm’s revenue will increase as it increases its productivity and market share.

However, with time other firms in the industry will begin to restructure their operations in order to remain competitive. As firms reposition themselves in the industry, the competition in the market becomes more intense. Thus, firms will begin to focus on product differentiation with the aim of positioning themselves as the best in the market.

The most important tool in managing innovation is research and development. The decisions made at each and every stage of managing innovation must be supported by adequate and relevant research. Engaging in research at every stage of managing innovation will help in making the right decisions that will help the organization to achieve its objectives (Ettlie 100).

We will write a custom Essay on Managing Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reviewing research findings on particular issues concerning innovation can help in solving a dilemma. Decisions that are based on facts are likely to be more effective and will help the organization to achieve its objectives.

Works Cited Adam, Jolly. Innovation: harnessing creativity for business growth. New York: Kogan Page, 2003. Print.

Bessant, John. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Print.

Ettlie, John. Managing Innovation: new technology, new products, and new services in a global economy. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.Print.

Harvey, Dershin. “A framework for managing innovation.” International Journal of Business Innovation and Research 4 (2010): 598-613.

Klein, Stefan. Managing dynamic networks: organizational perspectives of technology enabled inter-firm. Frankfourt: Birkhauser Publication, 2006. Print.

Ranchhod, Ashok. Marketing Strategies: A Contemporary Approach. New York: Prince Hall, 2007.Print.


Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Historical background

Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach

Works Cited

Abstract Arab music and cinema have gone through shifts of rapid progressional changes particularly because of the influence of modernity. Stemming from a purely religious framework, the two art forms have made radical turns in their development in order to compete effectively with other musical and film developers.

With most of the Western artistes tending to portray the Arabic culture, the Arab musicians and film makers have in recent days come out strongly to challenge such opinions through their works. This project seeks to analyze the development in both Arabic music and cinema. To this end the research shall cover all elements of progress covered in both the historical development of the two art forms as well as highlight on the modern day challenges being faced by the artistes in the field.

Historical background Music has played a fundamental role in the development of the Arabic culture since time immemorial. The works of anthropologists in various Arabic regions have unearthed different music instruments collected from both religious and secular environments, revealing that music has definitely been part of many Arabic rituals (Barakat 206-238).

Unfortunately, from research conducted by various scholars in the field it has been revealed that most of the traditional forms of Arabic music did not have a well laid down system of notation. As such, most of the musical transference only happened through a generational inheritance in which children learn from their parents. Arab music can easily be traced back to the 3rd Century

With the entry of modernity and civilization, Arabic music has had to borrow some elements from other cultures, a factor which has led to the development of such genres as Arab pop and Arab rock. The commercial prospects of the music industry have seen various individuals such as Ilham Al Madfai, Fairouz, and Magda El Roum develop music that appeals to the younger generation.

They have learnt to package their products professionally including going the extra mile of producing music videos to further attract more audiences. However, even with all the developments going on in the trade, modern day musicians still play allegiance to the masters of Arabic music including Umm Kulthum and Mohamed Al- Qasabji.

Even though some musicians have chosen to stick with traditional Arabic melodies, the influence of Western conventions has necessitated the development of pop cultures which are indicated by the development of competitive forms of ranking popular hip and urban music (Lughod 135-161).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, these changes have not been without controversy as some of the developing younger-generations musicians have from time to time been accused of being negative influences to their peers. Syrian musician Abu Khalil Al-Qabani, for instance had to go on self imposed exile to Egypt to avoid falling victim to extremists. In Cairo, he established the first genuine Arabic music orchestra with his work receiving acclaim from all sectors of the music society.

Like music, Arab cinema has gone through intense evolution (Boyd 3-11). Since the production of the first Arabic film in the 1930s, various genres and aesthetic elements of production have been developed which weave into the elements of literacy, story telling and the development of music.

Most of the Arabic films have been developed in Egypt though some of the other Arabic states have greatly contributed to the development of the art form. Hollywood has had its influence in Arabic cinema particularly touching on the writing and production methods. Like with all other modern day forms of art, cinema has been heavily influenced by Western politics particularly when it comes to censorship and the usage of cinema as agent of resistance.

However, unlike Hollywood, Arabic cinema tries to portray the culture in positive light, by covering some of the broad aspects of social issues plaguing the people. In this regard, the films do not portray Arabs as nothing more than terrorists but as human beings who undergo normal everyday strife (Wild 200-209).

Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach The role of images to mould people’s thought processes through alteration of their states of mind will be analyzed based on secondary data. Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be relevance to the research topic and the year of publication.

Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries were visited to access the data. Some of the online databases that were accessed include Ebsco, Questia, Emerald and Science Direct among others. This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field.

Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay. Information from the books will serve to provide explanation as regards to the psychiatric effects of images and graphical representations. This is very vital information that will make the research appeal to both professionals and the general public.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the commonly applied functionalities of the stock market. Empirical data will also be collected from various cultural and scientific studies, with numbers and figures used to illustrate the evolutionary process of Arabic music and cinema.

In such a practical-based field, the strength lies in the figures and numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by adequate exemplification.

Works Cited Barakat, Halim. “Creative Expression” in The Arab World: society, culture, and state. Ed. Halim Barakat. Berkeley: University of California press, 1993. 206-238. Print.

Boyd, Douglas. “Developments, trends, constraints” from Broadcasting in The Arab world: a survey of the electronic media in the middle east. Ed. Douglas Boyd. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1999, 3-11. Print.

Lughod, abu Lila. Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt. Cairo: The American University of Cairo press


Management Tools and Technique Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Decisions form a critical part of management in an organization. Both individuals and organizations often make decisions on particular issues. Each decision that is taken by an individual or an organization is associated with some consequences. The impacts of a decision can be positive or negative.

Consequently, it is important to evaluate the various available options in order to arrive at the best decision. This calls for an effective and efficient decision-making tool or technique. The use of a reliable decision-making tool enables policy makers to avoid failures and conserve scares resources (Haan


“The little store” Essay college admissions essay help

“The little store” is a short story written by Eudora Welty who was born and brought up in Jackson, Mississippi. This is a small town where Eudora finds materials to include in her stories through observation and imagination (Welty 1). She lived with her family and enjoyed living in this small town because it seemed exciting to her since she was a child. All the activities going on in the little store amuses her and she would give anything to visit the store as many times as possible.

Eudora grew up in state capitol of Mississippi where her mother kept a little pasture for their only cow, which produced their daily milk. Her mother was a homemaker and did all her home chores but never visited the grocery. Most of their groceries were delivered to the doorstep upon making an order and in case of emergencies, Eudora would always ran the errand to the little store. The store was owned by Mr. Sessions who together with his family managed it (Welty 2).

It was one of the groceries in the area that recorded high sales revenue on a daily basis due to the frequent visits made by children to get groceries for their families. Most children along that street knew the store as they knew their homes because it provided a good site for them to skip, play jacks, cycle, and even skate. It was more than a grocery; though it was small, there were a lot of activities that were taking place.

Eudora remembers the little store as a place where she spent most of her time during her childhood. She had played with her friends and brothers in the street near the store until darkness came. She even thought that the little store was made for children because she had never seen a grown up near it and would not have imagined that the owner’s family lived in the same building.

She was actually surprised the moment she saw Mr. Season’s family in the building because according to her, they did not look like a family because they never did things together nor did they eat from the same table. Near the little store, there were other houses, some with single occupants while in others lived family members, for instance Eudora’s family. In one house lived the principle of Eudora’s grade school even during the vocation, which got Eudora scared.

Near the down corner lived a little boy by the name Lindsey where a big chinaberry tree titled forward and backward. Eudora was a frequent visitor to the chinaberry with her skates waiting for the berries to fall and roll so as she could collect as many berries as possible before Lindsey caught up with her. However, she was not that fortunate because she and the little boy suffered from a flu epidemic at the same time that might have been caused by the berries.

The little store was in a world that made any child feel ineradicable. Every child dreamt of being in that area, which formed part of their daily lives. Although it was in the midst of family houses, “it alone hadn’t any yard in front, any tree or flowerbed. It was a plain frame building covered over with brick” (Welty 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its inside was incomprehensible with all lots of smells coming out of it. This may be one of the reasons why the Eudora’s mother preferred to make orders outside the street and only sent her daughter to the store when she run out of stock. Apart from the smells, dust was all over; on the floor, shelves, and on most of the products.

To make it worse, the shelves were not properly arranged, Eudora notes that, “shelves climbed to high reach all the way around, set out not too much of any one thing but a lot of things” (Welty 4). It was easy to forget what one had gone to buy because he had to search from all the shelves.

To make sure that the children came back to the store, Mr. Sessions kept standing scales by the door where the children could check their weight at every visit to the store. He could even memorize what each weighed last time and tell them how much they had gained.

In this essay, I have attempted to give a general overview of the activities and the condition of the little store which contracts with the way of life of many families in Jackson. The little store is an example of what really goes on in many streets in which there live different kinds of people with different perceptions about life.

Even though the store was small and disorganized, it still served the purpose it had been set for although many adults preferred to send children to the store rather than go to it because of its condition. Even the family that lived in the store’s premises seemed to live their own life and they were never seen together.

Work Cited Welty, Eudora. Modern Nonfiction; “The little store”.


Writing on women Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The Revolt of “Mother” by Mary E. Wilkins tells the story of a woman who defies tradition and rebels against her husband. The protagonist Sarah Penn decides to take action and provide a new house for her family after waiting for forty years for her husband to do so without success. She does this by moving her family into the new barn her husband had made for his cows and a new horse. When he returns home and finds his family in the new barn, he complies and agrees to make it a proper house.

The author of the story, Mary E.Wilkins lived during a time in history when patriarchy was so strong and the women submitted to their domineering husbands silently. The author seems to have been highlighting the struggles of women in a male dominated society. Through her works, she shows that women could overcome the dominance if only they took decisive action.

Thus, Wilkinson and the female protagonists in her stories fight against patriarchy. For instance, Elrod (1997) urges that Wilkinson’s story reveal the odds that women had to contend with in New England’s religion and the possibilities of emancipation.

The women being patient bring about the possibility of freedom and Sarah Penn had to wait for forty years before she got a new house (Tritt, 2004). The woman in her story goes against the tradition of the time and triumphs by challenging it and gaining a new self-identity. Thus, Wilkins was a domestic writer who was willing to critic the tradition in her society that clearly oppressed the women.

Wilkins lived in an era, which considered religion very important. She underwent many teachings in religion and thus she uses her knowledge of religion to speak to her audience using biblical illusions. In the story, Sara Penn alludes to the biblical Sara, the wife of Abraham. Sara was a woman to reckon with because she spoke her mind out to her husband for instance telling him to lie with her maid Hagai to bear him a son, as she was barren at that time.

Later she tells him to send Hagai and her son away after God and been merciful to her and she gave birth to Isaac. These actions changed the lives of the next generations just as Sarah Penn’s did. Sarah Penn changed her family’s living conditions as well as her son’s view of women. For example when Adoniram her husband returned from his trip, his son Sammy tells him that they had moved into the barn to live there.

His attitude seems to have changed from the Sammy we met earlier who was so similar to his father that he could not tell his mother or sister about the plan to build a new barn yet he had known for three months. Therefore, through Sarah Penn, Wilkins shows us a woman who confronts male dominance head on and through an unorthodox behavior and achieves independence (Westbrook, 1988).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author uses this story to address the issue of women oppression that was rife at her time (Brand, 1977). The men oppressed the women by silencing them or failing to communicate with them like Adoniram did with his wife whenever he was asked a question he would not speak.

Adoniram’s behavior of putting animals before the welfare of his family was a wanting behavior that had to be confronted because a man is supposed to put his family before all else. Therefore, Wilkins using her story The Revolt of “Mother” addressed the issues facing women in the nineteenth century and showed that there was hope for the women just as Adoniram had been defeated so would patriarchy.

Reference List Brand, A.G. (1977). Mary Wilkins Freeman: Misanthropy as Propaganda. The New England Quarterly, 50, 83-100.

Elrod, E. R. (1997). Rebellion, Restraint, and New England Religion: The Ambivalent Feminism of Mary Wilkins Freeman:’ Literary Calvinism and Nineteenth-Century American Woman Authors. Michael Schuldiner (E.d). Lewiston, NY: Mellen.

Tritt, M. (2004). Freeman’s The Revolt of Mother. The Explicator, 62, 209-12.

Westbrook, P.D. (1988). Mary Wilkins Freeman. Boston: Twayne.


United Nations Peacekeeping operation in Northern Africa Essay cheap essay help

Proposed action: Any course of action taken to tackle the developments in this war torn Northern Africa country have to be based on the United Nation’s security mandate in peacekeeping operation within the country.

Every so often, these Security Council’s mandates are created within a general attitude that is usually neutral, consequently making a contradiction that has the possibility of destabilizing UN operations en bloc. In the case of this scenario presented, where the situation is volatile and deteriorating very fast, the only action left to take is to comply with the military faction leader’s orders to evacuate in the next 48 hours.

Despite the huge population of refuges, very few personnel to carry out the evacuation, and no sign of help coming from other sources, the UN peacekeeping force commander is left with no choice but to evacuate since the faction leader is known for his brutality in addition, buying of time through negotiations cannot provide for a solution to the issue. (Klinger, 2005)

This new turn of events will now change the initial mandate of the peacekeeping force, which was to protect displaced persons and assist in the safe return to their homes; support in demobilization of combatants after a peace treaty is agreed upon and signed by all warring parties.

The start of this war ten years ago has seen more displaced persons increasing such that the peacekeeping force cannot handle. As the commander, try to seek for help since the resources at hand are not able to handle the huge operation and the UN force’s mandate is not to engage in war but promote peace.

However, at the same time it is important to try and start of the evacuation so as to protect the people as their safety is vital, and avoid provoking the faction leader (Pushkina, 2006). Also as an added measure, reopen negotiation channels and try to buy some time to fully evacuate everyone to safety (Goulding, 2001; Bellamy