Definition Of Alcohol Misuse (Alcohol Abuse And Addiction) In Youth Population Age 18-29 Essay Essay Help

Alcohol is an addictive substance has a significant influence of human behavior. The risk of harm for youth population age 18-29 is higher than for other age groups. The definition of the alcohol misuse is different than such terms as alcoholism and heavy drinking. Various researchers indicate different types of the alcohol misuse such as the hazardous drinking, harmful drinking and dependent drinking.

According to Midanik (2003), the alcohol misuse can be determined as the high frequency of drunkenness. In this case, drinking is harmful due to the excessive experiencing and drinking over the limits. People age 18-29 drink 8,7 times in a month. For youth population age 18-29, the level of alcohol misuse is higher than one for the elder group and, at the same time, young people need more drinks to be drunk.

Analyzing the article of Jiang (2009), it is possible to define the alcohol misuse simply as the excessive consumption of alcohol where a number of the young drinkers is higher than any other group of age due to their aspiration to the social integration and the personal identification.

For Hyman, the alcohol misuse is the harmful use of alcohol and an indication of the alcohol-dependent syndrome. Historically, the uses and misuse of alcohol influenced many people. However, all abuse problems can be treated accordingly.

Zufferey et al. (2007) concludes that the alcohol misuse can be defined as a high consumption, including the quantity and frequency, and a high-risk drinking when people use alcohol together with other psycho-active substances and drive after drinking. The level of binge drinking demonstrates that young people consume five or more alcoholic drinks in a row.

Hazardous drinking increases a number the risk factors and harmful drinking leads to the terrible consequences concerning the young people themselves. From the other hand, dependent drinking causes all the hazardous and harmful factors and becomes a basement of the increasing alcohol misuse.

According to Eschmann et al. (2011), although the alcohol misuse among youth population (18-29 years) as the high level consumption is significant today, such tendency can be explained by the age when people start their experience of using alcohol and, thereby, they demonstrate less ability to control the frequency and quantity of the use of alcohol. Besides, males show a higher level of alcohol consumption.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Schuckit (2009) defines the alcohol misuse as the harmful use of the substance that causes the morbidity and mortality, leads to the use of other drugs and substances, depressive mood, insomnia and suicide. Besides, the researcher indicates that misuse as the type of alcohol-use disorder is a medical and psychiatric problem that should be immediately treated in clinics.

Freire (2008) concludes that the alcohol misuse is a complex of behaviors that includes the episodic heavy drinking, intoxication and experience of the social problems related with alcohol. In this case, the alcohol misuse reflects more the involvement with alcohol than its regular use. For addicted young people, drinking of alcohol is a significant part of their social life, helpful tool of social integration and the personal identification.

Therefore, it is possible to conclude that all researchers provide the same opinion about a problem of the alcohol misuse, defining it as the excessive and uncontrolled consumption of the substance that leads to the serious consequences, including the morbidity and mortality.

Reference List Eschmann, S., Zimprich, D., Metzke, C. W.


Strategic Management science or art Report scholarship essay help

Summary In the management domain, strategic management encompasses identification coupled with definition of strategies for everyday use. Usually, managers employ these strategies to strive for high performance as well as admirable competitive advantage for business establishments.

In addition to that, it includes decisions as well as acts managers establish, and which determine the outcome of the organizations’ performance. Incisively, a science is whatever skill that manifests detailed use of facts for a particular purpose.

Subsequently, an art is clearly characterized as skill critical for any human tasks. Not only a strategic management is a behavioral science, but also an art since its application in relative situations involves these two perspectives (Bingham and Eisenhardt 1437-1467).

Introduction Ordinarily, (Bingham and Eisenhardt 1437-1467) argues that the main function of strategic management is to integrate diverse functional components of an organization wholly, as well as to make sure these functional aspects are in agreement.

Basically, this involves application of scientific principles established in management, and execution of activities to meet desired goals. In brief, the base of strategic management as an art as well as a science are clear in today’s global business environment. In this respect, strategic management draws higher profitability if well planned and executed.

Literature review Strategic management as a science

Generally, a science is a taxonomic collection of knowledge about a particular field of study, with universal features which define remarkable development. It simply sets up a cause with accompanying effects links among two or more factors, and emphasizes the rationale of the relationship.

These principles spring up from scientific methods such as observation along with the verification by means of testing. Specifically, a number of features describe a science. One is cause with corresponding effect relationship. Indeed, principles of science institute reason and aftermath relationship amidst a number of variables.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With reference to strategic management, same principles exist. For instance, in cause and effect relationship, where there is little stability in authority besides responsibility ineffectiveness emerges. Second is examination of validity as well as predictability of the subject under consideration.

In essence, legality of scientific standards is proved at any convenience. It is important to note that each test will give similar result regardless of when it is done. Furthermore, scientific management principles are examined for validity by use of standards like unity of command through comparison of two persons (Gao 125-136).

Thirdly according to Gao (125-136), generally accepted principles involve scientific standards, which in one way or another signify basic truth of a specific area of enquiry. Chiefly, these principles are relevant in everyday operations. In brief, strategic management encompasses some cardinal principles, for instance, the principle of unity which are used worldwide.

Finally, experimentation together with observation is involved, this basically makes up thorough scientific look into a field under consideration. Similarly in strategic management, principles founded on scientific research accompanied with observations like in the principles are highlighted by Henry Fayol. A number of these principles are established by the way of experiments as well as practical encounters of managers (Pugh and Bourgeois, 173).

From above arguments, it is undeniable that strategic management like other sciences has a well arranged body of knowledge. Even though this vast body of knowledge is not like that of other physical sciences such as biology among others, ostensibly because strategic management deals with behavior of human beings, whose behavior is toilsome to foretell accurately. Given that strategic management is a social process, it is deemed as a social science, which is flexible by nature. The reason for flexibility is that theories as well as principles result in a range of results at different times, and hence it is a behavioral science (Gao 125-136).

Strategic management as an art

Conversely, an art connotes manipulation of knowledge together with a skill in tasks to attain desired results. In this perspective, an art is outlined as individualized application of theoretical formulas for attaining coveted results. For the most part, an art has to a large extent practical knowledge.

In this case, a manager needs to be well-rounded in academic qualifications and the practical part of management. In addition to that, a manager must have a personal skill. For one thing, each manager has a unique style of addressing strategic management, depending on knowledge level coupled with personality (Hodgkinson and Healey, 1510).

We will write a custom Report on Strategic Management science or art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, a great sense of creativity is critical in an art. In the case of strategic management, creativity is displayed in targeting to bring forth unique results via combination of cognition and imagination. Above all, it harmonizes human as well as non human endowments to accomplish the desired objectives (Leaptrott and McDonald, 35).

Again, continued practice leads to mastery of a given art. As an example, managers gain skills by way of trial and error in the earlier stages, yet daily application of strategic management principles over a long period makes them more competent in strategic management.

To sum up, an art is goal oriented, whereby in strategic management efforts are directed towards attainment of preset goals by utilizing available resources. Therefore, in a way strategic management is an art, which demands exercise of particular principles as it deals with shaping the attitudes as well as behaviors of people (Maranville 782-807).

All things considered, management is not only an art but a science as well. From above analysis, strategic management integrates scientific characteristics and artistic features. It is carefully weighed as a science since it is a coherent to a vast body of knowledge, which consists of acceptable universal truth.

It is termed as an art because strategic management necessitates accredited skills, which are particular to a given manager. Accordingly, science gives knowledge, while art handles application of acquired knowledge along with skills. It is recommended that for a manager to succeed, one needs to adopt scientific knowledge likewise the art of using it. Consequently, strategic management is a wise fuse of science as well as art, since it evidences the principles as well as the way these principles are applied (Maranville 782-807).

Conclusion Management as a science was earlier on determined by authors of scientific management especially Frederick Taylor, and remains today in a number of empirical researches on strategic management. On the other hand, Henry Mintzberg molded strategic management as an art, and is clear in heterogeneous theories of management.

Singularly, most scholars besides management practitioners blend art as well as science to more effectively cultivate managerial talent. Distinctly, this is the case in recent theories of management (Zhang and Rajagopalan, 28).

Works Cited Bingham, Christopher and Kathleen Eisenhardt. Rational heuristics: The simple rules that strategists learn from process experience. Strategic Management Journal. 32.13 (2011): 1437-1464. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management science or art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gao, Fei. Is management science or art? Systems Research and Behavioural Science. 25.1 (2008): p125-136. Print.

Hodgkinson, Gerrard and Mark, Healey. Psychological foundations of dynamic capabilities: reflexion and reflection in strategic management. Strategic Management Journal. John Wiley


The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

The NRA, National Rifle Association, was formed in 1871 by Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate. This followed a poor show of marksmanship by their troops. The main aim of forming the group was to encourage people to practice shooting as a sport or a form of entertainment.

AARP, American Association of Retired Persons, is a membership organization that is comprised of senior citizens who are 50 years and above.

It was founded by Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus to protect the social life interest of senior citizens ranging from job placement, money management, tax preparation and prescribed drug cost especially so negotiating for an affordable health insurance. Both NRA and AARP are prominent, but I find NRA being more powerful than AARP.

Between the two organizations AARP, has the larger membership of about 35.7 million as of February 2010 (NRA, 2011) which is almost ten times that of NRA which was estimated at 4.3 million(Opensecrets.Org, 2011). Over the years, changes occur in most interest groups that see their membership rise or fall.

Some of these reasons are as a result of members’ frustration due to lack of expected results or while membership surge occurs when the interest groups attains certain goals in such an incredible way.

In the year 2005, for example AARP was said to have a membership of about 39 million (Kaiser, 2005), this number has however dwindled over the years to the current 35.7 million. On the other hand, NRA membership has been growing through the years even though not at a very high rate. In many cases, growing numbers indicate growing faith if not trust and power.

With such a high number of members comes power, but that is not always automatic. Power is the ability to influence policy making in both the political arena and legal framework. Having a high number of members therefore puts an interest group in a better position for negotiation than its counterpart; however, power is sought rather than given on a silver platter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While AARP may have the numbers to be able to put so many candidates through to congress their influence on policymaking is minimal as compared to the influence made by the NRA.

With its 4 million members, NRA is able to reach out to the congressmen and influence the policies that they make in a way that favors and protects the interest of her members (AARP, 2011). In 1934 for instance, NRA formed legislative affairs division to counter attacks on the second amendment rights.

In 1975, NRA realized the importance of having a political defense to the second amendment and formed the Institute for Legislative Action, (Opensecrets.Org, 2011). In fact sometime this year NRA carried out a survey to establish the problems her members were facing in getting initial firearm certificates and even those renewing (Alger, 2011).

Basically, NRA opposes any attempt to restrict gun ownership including background check on those wishing to acquire firearms and worse still firearm registration. Unlike NRA members who exude confidence and gratitude, many members of AARP have ended up frustrated by this interest group due to what they consider poor lobbying of their rights.

In an article, Frank Kaiser claims that more than 14 million seniors under Medicare plan without drug coverage still struggle to buy medicine among other expenses (Kaiser, 2005). If healthcare was the main objective and idea behind the organization then the organization has failed its members. AARP then lacks the power to have the interest of her members catered for.

Over the years, AARP has severally been accused of furthering other interests other than those of its members. Frenk (2010) observed that more than 40 million people are still uninsured due to lack of affordable quality services.

While AARP is supposed to be a non-profit making organization some of her revenue has been attributed to proceeds that are made from selling insurance and other financial services to the members. In 2005, AARP was involved in a tag of war with the then administration of President Bush who wanted to introduce a scheme where social security would be privatized.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This opposition made some people to question the credibility and integrity of the organization. Indeed James K. Glassman an enterprise scholar is reported to have said that the idea suggested by Bush had fewer risks as compared to AARP’s selling of mutual funds (Gleckman et al, 2005).

This was a real show of distrust. AARP’s reputation suffered a major setback in the sense that it was clear to all that the organization put commercial interests before that of the members.

Controversy seems to have dogged AARP for a long time. In the year 1979, one of its founders Leonardo Davis was forced out of office in a most embarrassing way on claims of illegal business practices and representing the organization in fraudulent way (Jeanty, 2011).

In the year 2007 AARP made 497.6 million dollars from royalties and fees that the organization receives from the companies she endorses (Kaiser, 2007).

Reputation is a vital component of power or the route to get there. Once the reputation is dented power is lost. Since both NRA and AARP are interest groups and nonprofit making at that the one sure way of comparing the money they have is looking at the way they spend the money to get their way or to influence policy makers through lobby groups.

AARP have an upper hand in that their members are exclusively senior citizens who comprise nearly half of the voting citizens and therefore they can claim to have put most politicians to office.

NRA on the other hand is not as lucky. The only way for her to get access to power is through lobby groups. The NRA lobby machinery or group is so powerful that it has grip on both houses of congress. Actually in the year 2001 NRA replaced AARP as Washington’s most powerful lobbying group.

When it comes to organization, NRA has got it all right. In order to make their lobbying as effective as possible, NRA established Institute of Legislative Action (ILA). This arm of NRA serves also to mobilize and inform the public about various undertakings of the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This makes members feel involved and part of the whole process. Apart from visiting universities and giving talks NRA has accounts on the social network such as twitter and facebook. Keeping in touch with her members makes them feel closer and important which is a vital factor in maintaining a good reputation and power.

AARP on the other hand seem to have slept on their job. Most of the lobbying and public relations are marketing related and most people feel that their needs are not being addressed or worse still the organization has lost focus of its mandate. Though AARP has attained some heights in the past, there is need to re-focus.

According to New York Times, “AARP has adopted a pragmatic, bipartisan approach over the last decade. Using its well-financed lobbying machine, the group was instrumental in obtaining Medicare prescription drug coverage in 2003, blocking George W. Bush’s efforts to privatize Social Security in 2005 and getting President Obama’s health care plan passed in 2010.” (Lynch, 2011).

The damage done to AARPs reputation is immense and their power to influence decision is little. If world ratings are anything to go by then good reputation is power according to my personal perspective. In his article Daniel Drezner shows how the perception of the US has changed across the globe.

He has done this by comparing the perception of the US by other countries when President Bush was in power and when President Obama took over. When several people, especially those that you wish to manipulate, think you are a good person, they also tend to believe that your policies are equally good.

That may not always be true but even then, you have more supporters and friends in your camp who are at your disposal. They can trust you they can work with you. When President Obama took over in 2008 the only thing that changed immediately is the reputation of the country. America won more friends and without a word gained back its former position in the world (Drezner, 2009).

References AARP. (2011). AARP history. Web.

Alger, L. (2011). Notes from the secretary general. National Rifle Association Journal, XC (2), 2.

Drezner, D. W. (2009). A hard measure of Obama’s soft power. Foreign Policy. Web.

Frenk, J. (2010).Globalization of health and health services. The Journal AARP International. Web.

Gleckman, H. et al. (2005). By raising its voice AARP raises questions. Bloomberg Businessweek. Web.

Jeanty, J. (2011). About the AARP Lobby. Web.

Kaiser, F. (2005). When will AARP grow some balls. Suddenly Senior. Web.

Lynch, F. R. (2011). How AARP Can Get Its Groove Back. New York Times. Web.

NRA. (2011). A brief history of the NRA. Web.

Opensecrets. (2011). National rifle Assn: Responsive politics. Web.


Baby Gap Company’s Expansion Strategy Case Study college admission essay help

Analysis of Baby Gap Baby Gap is the company which used to be rather popular among youth in 1990’s. Still, the wrong expansion strategy of the company turned it to suffer greatly. The company debt increased and to save the situation, Baby Gap spent less on the quality of the product. People noticed it immediately and the company sales were declined as well.

Since 1990’s up to 200’s the situation in the company was rather unstable, still, having expanded internationally and having invited a new designer, the company is planning to return its positions at the market.

The main competitors of the Baby Gap are the following family clothing industry performers, TJX Companies Inc., Ross Stores Inc., and Abercrombie


Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Validity of Animal Tests

Alternative Methods

Effects of Animal Testing

Animal Rights Movements



Introduction Before human beings utilize a substance as either a cosmetic or a drug, its effectiveness and efficiency is first tested. Such tests are usually performed in animals mainly because of their inferiority in society. Animals end up with permanent damages or prolonged sufferings due to effects of chemicals.

Proponents of animal testing argue that it is better to use animals because human life is more valuable than anything in the world could be. Opponents have stood firm to challenge the position by claiming that human beings should come up with other alternatives instead of using living creatures.

Hartung is one of the staunch opponents of animal testing who has overseen reduction of animal testing in Europe. Hartung argues that abolition of animal testing will probably lead to better science since the method was developed out of a crisis (Abbott, 2005).

This means that it is not accurate and can lead to more complications in human beings. Indeed, several tragedies have been reported in various parts of the world including the 1930s incident where a woman lost sight after using Lash-Lure to color her eyes.

Animal tests should be evaluated carefully because of a number of reasons. One reason is that chemicals can have diverse effects that cannot be determined by animal testing alone. For instance, animal skin is different from that of human beings hence the difference in effects.

Again, the policy should be reviewed to conform to environmental demands since some chemicals have been proved to have acute consequences to the environment. This paper analyzes the effects of animal testing and gives some alternatives that can be employed in testing chemicals. It further looks at the activities of animal rights groups and their achievements.

Validity of Animal Tests In many tests, only rats are used in studies implying that the sample size for researches is usually limited. Researchers cannot apprehend the full effects of a chemical since more advanced or higher animals are not used.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars attempt to research on primates using young animals, which make interpretation of data very hard. Chemicals manufactured after undergoing tests using juvenile primates are usually dangerous to human beings since their effects have no enough literature.

Furthermore, there is usually incongruity as regards to the age of species. Researchers approximate the age of animals and equate them to those of human beings.

This normally results to serious problems when not carefully considered because days are equated to years of human beings, for instance; a drug that is effective in rats at day two is believed to be functional to human beings at the age of two years (Baldrick, 2010). Chemicals and drugs do not apply uniformly in animals and human beings because environments are different.

Before a genuine study is ascertained, many animals are to be used. In the study involving rodents, various species are easily obtained and utilized in research but the case is different for higher animals.

It would take researchers a very long time to get species of the same offspring hence they use available ones, which result to insufficient evidence causing major problems afterwards. Scholars supporting this idea claim that getting monkeys with suitable gender is near to impossibility.

Another challenge to the proponents of animal testing is related to dosage and the time line for a study. A human being is not exactly equivalent to an animal that is why the quantity of a drug to be utilized is an issue. Researchers have not actually determined the exact dose for human beings in some chemicals, which have led to deaths or harms. Many individuals misuse chemicals since there are no clear guidelines on their usage.

Alternative Methods Creton (2010) gives various methods that scientists need to employ in their studies to avoid calamities. Such methods are necessary since they are ethically based and more effective. In fact, Creton argues that animal testing should be applied as a last resort and need to be highly controlled to produce accurate results.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The scholar further claims that a number of reasons are to be evaluated first before employing a testing method. One of the simplest ways of validating a chemical is calculating its toxicity in a mixture. This method evaluates the effects of mixtures of chemicals basing on the characteristics of each chemical element hence avoiding animal testing.

Environmental hazards of a chemical can determine its effects instead of exposing it to a living organism. This method is mostly recommended in determining the effectiveness or effects of a pesticide. The method employs a formula that calculates the lethal dose in an element.

The EU has already incorporated the method in its administrative system to determine the effects of industrial products, biocides and pesticides. Furthermore, the EU explains clearly to users that no further tests are to be conducted using animals because the substance is efficient.

Moreover, the internationally recognized body charged with the responsibility of classifying and labeling chemicals has integrated the method in its plans and further suggests that only methods that do not use animal tests are allowed. The global body (GHS) promises to avail data for complex elements, which would aid in their classification without using animal tests.

Another technique for identifying an element or testing its superiority is the read-across method. The method permits scholars to come up with structural, chemical and toxicological features of elements that further allow prediction of chemicals without relevant/enough data.

The technique definitely trims down the need for animal testing. The international regime (IRP) incorporated the method in its programs long time ago. Before utilizing the read-across method, the UK authorities have established a number of factors to be considered in order to attain good results.

These include comparison of the purity and impurity summary of substances, their physicochemical features, their expected lethal kinetics and finally the importance of reading across the outcomes acquired from obsolete test techniques.

QSAR is another non-animal testing method that can be employed in establishing the effects of elements, offering data for use in primacy situation, guiding the plan of a testing approach and offering first hand data.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To fasten the utilization of QSAR, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has formulated the QSAR utility toolbox-software that offers a translucent and reproducible technique for assembling and assessing elements, as well as employing read-across.

The original version of the software has been availed as a free download from the OECD’s Web site. Besides, the OECD has formulated values and regulations on legalization of QSARs to augment the dogmatic recognition of QSAR sculpt for evaluating chemical wellbeing.

Effects of Animal Testing The circumstances under which animals are exposed to human testing have led to cancer in rats, although animal experiment outcomes were acknowledged as of little significance to humans. The only justification being presented for this pronouncement is that there are anatomical and physiological disparities between people and animals.

It is essential to note that even though animals are usually employed in cancer study, they do not contract the human type of cancer, which attacks membranes such as lungs. Approximately 9% of the sedated animals in the experiments pass on.

It is exciting to know that animals and people metabolize 83% of materials separately (Speit, 2008). Majority health specialists concur that information from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated securely to human beings.

In animal experimentation, poisonous chemicals to humans are safe whereas friendly chemicals to humans such as lemon juice are harmful. Genetically modified animals (GMA) will never be replicas for human sickness. In reality, drugs that are approved as harmless in animal experiments cause 88% of stillbirths in human beings.

Animal Rights Movements The idea of animal rights is not new in the world because it can be attributed to the earliest animal activists in the 6th century such as Pythagoras. The coming of scholars such as Aristotle and Plato relegated animals by placing them in a low status in society. Aristotle wrote much about politics while insisting that man was above everything in society and every creature belonged to man.

It was therefore upon man to decide what to do with such creatures. The works of Aristotle inspired the first Greek scientists to use animals for experiments. However, Aristotle’s writings were evaluated in the 19th century when British nationals questioned the rationale behind animal testing.

The opponents of animal testing quickly formed an organization and spread their ideas to other places such as the United States. Within no time, the organization had lobbied governments of various states to come up with legislative laws that would protect animals (Hills, 1993).

In 1890s, animal rights organizations seemed to progress well when Henry Salt published his first book. Even though Salt’s works were influential, it never attracted huge groups than the 1970s publications did. Scholars in 1970s questioned scientists about why they used living organisms in performing deadly experiments.

They claimed that animals are living things, which can feel pain just like human beings. Scholars observed that human beings are accorded fair treatment because of their reasoning capacities (Viren, Funrnham,


20th Century Socialism Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Socialism Socialism in USA can be traced to the days of the arrival of German immigrants and during the formation of Marxian Socialist Union. Socialism was considered as the belief and hope that men could be rescued from their helplessness and depression by use of government power. The Socialist Party in the USA was founded by Eugene Debs, and it thrived under his charismatic leadership. The party sought to tackle the American problems in an American manner (Socialism 1).

During his radical speeches, Debs acknowledged that there was only one general labor problem and there was no Negro problem. He expressed optimism that racial prejudice would evaporate. Consequently, in one of his articles, Debs mentioned that the socialist party had nothing special or specific to offer the Negroes, and that it was impossible to appease all the races.

According to Debs, the Socialist Party was to be the party of the working class irrespective of the race and color. The failure of the Socialist Party to deal with the Negro problem was due to its perspective of the racial prejudice problem and Debs acceptance of the racial supremacy notion in his political thoughts. Debs acknowledged that there was no Negro problem but general labor problem.

Philip Randolph was an American activist who served as the leader of both the Negro Civil Rights Movement and the Labor Movement in the USA. Randolph led a match to the Washington, which was aimed at pressurizing President Franklyn Roosevelt to desegregate all production plants dealing with military supplies during the World War II.

Consequently, Randolph inspired the freedom budget that sought to ameliorate the economic problems of the Negro in general and workers and the unemployed, in particular. Randolph was a vocal agitator and an advocate for the civil rights of the Afro-American community. His match to Washington was aimed at ending discrimination in factories.

It is through the efforts of Randolph that the President promulgated the Fair Employment Act as a measure to address the grievances of Randolph. Consequently, Randolph led a demonstration at the Madison Square to advocate for equal opportunities in all spheres of employment from the government, labor union and military to war industries.

This allowed the government to incorporate the Negroes into employment that was earlier preserved for the white employees. The renewed efforts of Randolph aimed at ending racial discrimination in the military led to the formation of a committee which was later dubbed Civil Disobedience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This forced the president of the USA Harry Truman to end racial segregation in the military by applying an executive order. Consequently, Randolph emerged as an advocate for ending immigration restrictions (Socialism 1).

During the new deal, the communists contributed more on matters job creation than the socialists and democrats. This is because the communists advocated for welfare capitalism which emasculated radicalism so such an extent that they could not be called socialists. Democrats estranged radicalism but they never win any support elsewhere (Laslett 40).

Philip Randolph was a black man and a founder of the magazine the messenger which was provocative and radical. He was described as the most dangerous Negro by President Woodrow Wilson. Besides organizing worker strikes, he joint hands with the progressives and the communists to form the National Negro Congress.

He considered socialism as the only way of uniting the blacks and he worked for the emancipation of the whites through Labor unions. He was instrumental in creating the consciousness which led to the establishment of the Civil Rights Movement (Randolph 7).

In the advent of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, there were various realignments and changes in party position. The Democratic Party embraced radical liberalism. The passage of civil rights acts during the period of 1960s enabled parties to switch positions on civil rights matters.

Democratic Party supported civil rights positions and this position was in consonant with that of the grassroots activists. This was after the New Deal coalition of southern democrats and the northern liberals which was considered to be a successful alignment.

Big Bill Haywood was an American radical who established and led the Industrial Workers of the World. Haywood was also an executive committee member of the Socialist Party of America. It was in his capacities in the above organizations that he organized various strikes and labor battles.

We will write a custom Research Paper on 20th Century Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Haywood was considered as an advocate of Industrial Unionism, which advocated for the organization of all industry workers into one umbrella union. It was because of his radicalism that he was arrested and prosecuted on several occasions.

Haywood was dismissed from the Socialist Party in 1912 due to his advocacy for direct action in contrast to a political tactic that was considered the position of the party. Haywood represented the interests of the working class in the labor struggles. He occupied the second top most position in the Women Federation of Miners.

The Wobblies or the Industrial Workers of the World was an international union that represented the interest of the workers and was formed by socialists. Wobblies promoted industrial unionism as opposed to craft unionism advocated by other unions.

The Wobblies broke out of the Socialist Party due to its policy stand since it argued for political action contrary to arbitration and political affiliation, which were the stand of the Socialist Party. The Wobblies advocated and appealed to the working-class and the Negroes. The government ultimately capitalized on the instabilities of the World War I to crush down on the activities of the Wobblies (Socialism 1).

Lack of socialism in USA implies advanced capitalist practices. U.S. lacks social-democratic presences with a working class that lack class consciousness. According to Lipset, there is no socialism in USA due to the nature of its society.

He argued that America is a new society which lacks class stratification as well as a feudal system. The ideological emphasis which stresses on equality, liberty and egalitarianism make it difficult to persuade the Americans to embrace socialism.

U.S. already believes in the principal of equal opportunity for all. Consequently, internal factors in US radicalism make it hard for socialism to thrive. These factors include diversity in cultures and languages and racial divide and strong economic growth.

The nature of America’s society prohibits the emergence of class based political ideologies, which subscribe to the European model. Class feeling that is typical of European societies is absent in America. The mass American politics and the American culture of consumption developed long before it happened in Europe.

Not sure if you can write a paper on 20th Century Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The prevalence of socialism in Europe is due to the fact that Europe was catching up with the stage that America was several years ago, and it was experiencing an economic and political process which had been already experienced in the USA. The presence of democratic parties in the United States of America has been considered as the best instruments for social-democratic movements (Foner 57).

The riddle of socialism in the USA had puzzled Marx and Engels. To them, capitalism was ripe in the USA, and also it was ripe for social revolutions, but they argued that it was the absence of an entrenched feudal system and tradition that hindered the development of socialism.

It is the varied definition of socialism that made it difficult to comprehend whether there was or no socialism in the USA. The absence of revolutionary or labor movement in the USA is one of the factors that explained the absence of socialism.

The USA does not have a large social-democratic party like the ones that exist in the European countries like the Labor Party in Britain or the Federalist Party in France or the Communist Party of Italy, which have the capacity to capitalize on mass socialism consciousness.

Consequently, it is explained that its nature of advanced capitalism and as a country that lacks strong social-democratic presence with social class that lacks class consciousness also explain the absence of socialism in the USA. It is worth mentioning that the three factors which are recipes for socialism are ideology, politics and class structure.

Consequently, people must be united by a common course in order to keep socialism alive since in ancient Europe it was the militancy in factories that was often reflected in the class politics of socialism. The American form of socialism was the only workplace oriented as opposed to creating their presence in the workplace and the rejuvenation of Labor and Socialist parties in the period of 1820 were short-lived because they ran out of ideologies, and they failed to create a presence between industrial relations and American political practice (Foner 58).

Socialism failed in the USA due to the class conflation and the features of the American society and politics which come with unfortunate consequences. The absence of a powerful social-democratic party can be used to explain why socialism could not thrive in US. The American society is also static.

This implies that their political ideology, limited mobility and limited understanding, and the tradition of American radicalism could not allow socialism to flourish. According to Hart, socialism is an inherited practice which is traced to the feudal past and from society with class stratification. He argued that minus feudal tradition and class oppression in society, socialism becomes dormant. Since socialism advocated for a classless society, America had already reached that kind of society.

Emigrants from Germany and France created the fear that the country was being occupied by a majority Catholic population, and they injected a new dimension into the slavery debate which they constantly opposed. Majority of them joined the Republican Party in 1860 elections due to the fact that the party advocated for an end to slavery and equality for all.

The Germany immigrants were running away after an unsuccessful revolution in 1848. They were pleased with the abolitionist policy of the Republican Party and the party’s policy of free soil. Germany’s support for Union during the American civil war also attracted the German immigrants to the Republican Party (Foner 69).

Red republicanism in the USA was rebranded to democratic republicanism, which was understood to combine democracy, which was the voice of the people and republicanism which was the spirit that unified the Americans as a state. The U.S. socialist party was similar to the ones formed in Europe since it was aimed at helping the peasant and the lower-class population.

Socialist parties emerged as instruments for advocacy and with the main task of destabilizing the status quo that only benefited the minority at the expense of the majority. Socialist parties were instrumental in shaping the modern-day politics. Socialism was instrumental in ameliorating the existent labor conditions all over the world.

Lincoln was a red Republican. He became the first present to be elected on the Republican ticket. Red Republican was the party which was formed to abolish all forms of slavery. Republican is considered a radical democratic party due to its positions on several issues.

This was imminent immediately after it assumed government; the party oversaw various radical changes, which were aimed at saving the union which included the abolition of slavery, and it advocated for equal rights of all men following the American civil war.

The radical picture of the red Republican was manifested in its support for capitalism and commerce where it pressed for an increase in wages and pension for veterans of the union. Red Republicans also supported the annexation of Hawaii. The party’s position against the US joining the League of Nations was by itself radical (Foner 75).

Works Cited Foner, Eric. “Why is there no Socialism in the United States?” History Workshop Journal 1.1 (n.d.): 57-80.

Randolph, Philip. Black Macho and black Feminism. Radical America 14.2 (1980):1-70. Print.

Laslett, John. Failure of a dream?: essays in the history of American socialism. 1984. University of California Press. Print.

Socialism. “Socialism in America.” U.S. History, n.d. Web.


Coles and Innovations Report best essay help

Table of Contents Executive summary


Business elements and how they can be improved through e-tailing

Current business elements with the innovation

Consequences of the innovation not occurring




Executive summary The report is an expansion of an existing business. It entails the introduction of Asian foods in a large supermarket chain – Coles. The innovation will be enhanced through e-tailing of the commodities.

A number of business processes will be modified through the combination of these two strategies and they include: customer service, product receipt, order fulfilment, product selection and product search.

Introduction Coles is a successful Australian retailing company that has approximately 11 million customers. It needs to gain competitive advantage by expanding its market share. This report has identified a gap in its product range and market demographics.

The organisation does not sell Asian food, yet there are plenty of immigrants in Australia. Furthermore, this same group has recorded greater internet use than other minorities in the population. Therefore, this report suggests the introduction of Asian foods in Coles’ retail portfolio, and sale of the commodities through the internet or physical stores.

Business elements and how they can be improved through e-tailing The inputs involved at Coles are physical and conceptual (Jarvis 2005). The physical ones encompass materials, tools, and finance. The materials are the products that are sold in its shelves. This organisation sources its fresh foods from its own farms, and other partner farmers.

It gets manufactured goods directly from the concerned industries in huge quantities. This eliminates the need for intermediaries and other people who may inflate product prices. Currently, there is a challenge in the product choices because it does not cater to a certain group of people.

The company’s competitiveness can be improved if it incorporates this group of people. Asian food is missing from the company’s product offerings, yet this group has some of the most desirable characteristics. It has been shown that among the minorities in Australia, Asians happen to earn the highest amount of disposable income.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the proportion of persons who have completed higher education is greater than it is among other ethnic groups. Therefore, they have the financial resources needed to support a new portfolio of Asian foods at Coles. Their numbers have also been increasing tremendously in the country.

There is a need for product line expansion and customer base expansion targeting a new set of consumers. In terms of Coles’ physical inputs, the company normally uses part of its profits to reinvest back in the business. It would have more profits for its inputs if it changed its business processes slightly.

Most of its equipments centre on service automation, product movement or delivery, and transactions; it needs to change this. Business inputs can also be intangible. These encompass the information, ideas, data, values and beliefs of the stakeholders in this business.

Currently, the business needs to know more about its consumers or its market. Therefore, they require information gathering. They need to expand their business idea to include a new product-category and a new market segment. Employees’ social attitudes, abilities and expectations need to be altered so as to accommodate a new product type (Shaw 1999, p. 100).

The processes at Coles are currently focused on operational ones. Human and technical mechanisms are implemented in order to achieve business objectives. This is done through retail stores and online selling. Inputs are taken and then made available to consumers through these two major avenues.

Transportation of goods from manufacturers and farms is one such example. The company’s processes ought to be made more transformational. This can be achieved by using ideas as an input and transforming them into a new business element. In other words, this company is in need of a fresh innovation. The creative processes ought to be improved to increase market share.

Outputs at Coles are physical and conceptual. The physical ones are monetary (Coles happens to have high cash flows and profits that allow it to invest back into the business in order to keep generating more profits). The conceptual ones include influences and information.

We will write a custom Report on Coles and Innovations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Every sale or transaction made is an opportunity to learn more about the consumer. This acts as feedback that enables the company to provide better services to other consumers or to that same consumer. After-sale services can be improved at Coles, especially because the company sells a portion of its products online.

The purpose for creating this business was to offer convenience to the people living around Coles. The company wanted customers to get whatever they wanted at a cheap price and in one place.

The target consumers in this business are mainstream Australian consumers. In order to increase the company’s profitability, Coles will need to expand its customers’ demographics. Asian consumers can be specifically targeted for the new product.

Current business elements with the innovation This innovation consists of three main concepts; product expansion, market expansion and internet retailing. It will introduce Asian foods to the market through online selling and in-store selling.

The new products that will be on offer include: sals and bean sauce, which all contain beans as the main ingredient, strongly flavoured and authentic Asian noodles, rice crisps, rice crackers, pickles and legumes, Asian meal kits and Asian sauces. This product will cater for the Asian market in Australia.

It will also provide a potential area for growth among mainstream Australian customers. Many individuals are now developing a taste for Asian foods and strong flavours, so these products can be quite promising in the market (Promar International 2000, p. 5).

In order to carry out a systemic analysis of the new and improved business processes involved at Coles, it will be useful to use the consumer mercantile activities as suggested by Kalakota and Whinston (1997, p. 45). It is a model that was designed to evaluate how businesses could be enhanced through the internet.

These activities are eight, and they include: product service search, comparison shopping, product selection, negotiation of terms, order placement, payment, product receipt and customer service support.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coles and Innovations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The product service search is one of the mercantile activities that will be altered through this innovation. Consumers who are interested in finding a product will usually look for it physically in stores or through catalogues and phone inquiries.

However, through the use of e-tailing, customers can use search engines in order to find Asian food. Coles will be one of the first organisations that will be found on search engines when customers are looking for Asian foods in Australia. The internet will aid product searches by giving information about the product even before putting it on the shelves.

Customers can prepare to purchase it online, or may choose to go and inspect it in the physical stores. If the latter case is true, they will be given information about the exact in-store locations of the Asian foods, so that they can save time on it.

Therefore, the internet will be useful for driving consumers to the online Coles store as well as the physical retail stores. They may also be told about the availability of the products; i.e., whether they are in stock or out of stock at that particular time. This way, consumers will get information more quickly and will respond to the provision of the services.

It has been shown that Asian consumers account for 37% of all internet use; 27% of all internet users are Europeans while 20% are North Americans (Turban et al. 2008, p. 33). This means that such individuals are likely to do product searches for their cuisines using the internet.

Product comparisons are usually done through an analysis of the attributes available for a particular product. Catalogues and review adverts have been the main method for Coles.

It has not used online avenues for this purpose. In this introduction of Asian foods, Coles will offer its shoppers mix-and-match options, so that they can select complementary dishes. For those who may not be too particular about the kind of Orient dishes they want, the online service will allow them to compare prices for various Oriental foods.

They may also compare attributes such as the use of certain spices or prevalence of particular ingredients like beans in the dishes selected. Customers will have a decision support system that will offer them alternatives if they can’t find the Asian dish they are looking for.

Product selection occurs when the concerned consumers select the product that meets their needs. As the customer selects his or her product online, he or she will be given information about the weight, ingredients and method of preparation of the dishes.

If a customer chooses to buy the commodity physically, he or she will find this information in the product package and additional tags. During this phase, customers will also be given additional information about other related foods that they may consider purchasing in the future (Otto


Campus Life Problem Motivation Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online

Aerobic is a physical exercise, which helps people to keep their body fit. Some students may fail to attend aerobics class because they are not interested. Lack of interest may hinder students from attending class. Another reason is that the activities involved in aerobics may be difficult for students.

If students, do not expect to learn from aerobic class they will not attend. Students always like to attend classes that they will learn from the lecturer. Aerobic classes are recreational and so student may fail to attend, as it will not help in their course work. Because this course is not examinable, students may under look it.

Students’ attitude towards the lecturer may also determine whether they will attend the class. If students have a negative attitude towards the lecturer, they will not attend classes. The workload of student in course work may make him miss aerobic class in order to concentrate on course work .

Finally, students may fail to attend aerobic classes due to influence from other students. The number of students reduces dramatically as time goes. Those who drop continue influencing others to follow suit.

Motivation is the process that guides and maintains goal oriented behaviors. It involves biological, social and emotional cognitive forces that influence behavior. It causes people to act. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside the individual. They involve money, promotion, accolades, and social praise.

Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within an individual such as satisfaction with what he or she is doing. As an aerobic lecturer, one should maintain a positive attitude towards the students. Lecturers who are friendly and knowledgeable about students’ interests demonstrate personal qualities that motivate students.

Discipline is another significant factor in motivating students. It involves responding negatively to behaviors to deter future occurrences. Inform the student that they are making mistakes by not attending classes. Describe the behaviors and standards expected from the students and ask them to comply.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rewarding the students that attend aerobic class may also serve as a motivator. Extrinsic motivators in terms of reward can help students who lack intrinsic motivation . Reward may be in the form of participation certificate, praise or a gift. As a lecturer, allow students to participate in the activities.

Give some students time to guide others. This will help in boosting their self-esteem and consequently motivation increase. Caring about the student may also improve their morale. Show them that you care by sharing problems with them. Ask them the problems they face, their concerns and their goals. In doing this, the student will see the lecturer as an experienced person, and they will appreciate his class.

Most of the students will attend classes if they feel that their needs are satisfied. Making the students, understand the importance of the course is also crucial. Some students may not see the need for aerobic class. It is essential for the lecturer to explain to them the benefits of attending the lecture.

Allowing student to take control in class motivates them. Let the student choose the schedule and the time to have aerobic lectures. Students may be willing to attend lectures in the evening instead of morning. Ask them the appropriate time to hold aerobic class and negotiate with them. In this, they will feel motivated. Teamwork may also help in motivating the students. Working as a group or a team will motivate students, as they will enjoy what they are doing.

Works Cited Whetten, David and Cameron Kim. Developing Management Skills. New York: Prentice Hall, 2010.


Family Trend Changes Essay argumentative essay help

The hastening of our customs and the organization of the family as the leading structure has led to a new family trend. Although the family trend has conventionally paid attention to the protection of spatial borders, the rising transformations have meant that the family trend of temporality is taking its position next to the trend of territory.

As time becomes less and more precious, there develops more divergence between families, within families as well as the wider social order. This is dependent on responsibilities, time control and entitlements to behavior and genetics.

The thought that family trend is restricted within families is based on quite a number of assumptions. To begin with, in dissimilarity with our daily assumptions that family trend is continuous, linear, uniform and quantitative, trends are experienced with dissimilar connotations and vulnerable to diverse interpretation.

For instance, children and parents stand in a diverse association to family trends because of their distinctive history, biography as well as social status. In addition, time is an essential intermediate through which persons articulate their ideals. Therefore, time is prone to unstable levels of control because it is an entity of compromise.

As a result, family trends tend to adhere to changes in time and may also be affected by genetics and behavior of individuals. As illustrated in cases below, Diseases such as cancer, thyroid cancer, stomach cancer and diabetes fall under such family trends.

In the first case of cancer, the fist parent is aged fifty. His health condition was good until he had gastric cancer surgery about five years ago and had to remove of a part of his stomach. This led to a cancerous condition. Cancer is a chronic infection that gradually develops illness. It has non-specific indicators in its premature stages.

Stomach cancer is caused by long-term inflammation of the stomach, helicobacter pylori infection, poor diet, smoking and family history. It starts when stomach cells become anomalous and mature uncontrollably. These cells form a tissue growth known as a tumor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stomach cancer can occur in any stomach part, and can extend to close lymph nodes and other body areas such as the lungs, bones, liver and a woman’s ovaries. The first parent did not visit a doctor until he was an adult. This trend is related to behavior.

The second parent, aged forty five, was good until when he had thyroid cancer about the same year as the first parent. He had a surgery about four years ago and a thyroid was removed. Thyroid cancer is a chronic illness and can cause disability and fatality. The surgery was successful.

The risk factors linked to an augmented likelihood of developing thyroid cancer include race, radiation, inadequate iodine in the diet and family history. Women are more likely than men to get thyroid cancer. Parent two had a sporadic cancer checkup for an extensive time.

However, he has to take hormones for life. Aunt three was okay until she had thyroid cancer almost the same year as the second parent. She had a surgery about three years ago and a thyroid gland was removed. She has a similar condition just like the second parent.

Grandparent one, aged eighty one, was in good health until he was diagnosed with malignant neoplasm. He underwent a surgery and it was successful. He experiences similar conditions just like the fist parent. Nevertheless, he had a lot of the symptoms that characterized this cancer but he never sought for medication until it reached the third stage. This trend is kinked to an individual’s behavior and habits.

Grandparent three is fine and going for annual health checkups. However, he has type 2 diabetes. This form frequently occurs in adulthood. Nonetheless, young people are gradually being established to have this disease. In this state, the pancreas does not form sufficient insulin to maintain blood glucose levels normal. This is due to the body not responding well to insulin. It is a serious condition. It is escalating due to the rising obesity and failure to exercise.

Diabetes is a chronic disease similar to cancer. It is an inheritable disease but can be managed. Therefore, if grandparent three adheres to rules and maintain good habits, the disease can be managed. Risk factors for diabetes include heart disease, inactivity, obesity and some inheritable genes. Grandparent three gets sufficient checkups and follows prescriptions. He ought to eat well, exercise, and take medication. This trend is related to behavior.

We will write a custom Essay on Family Trend Changes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aunt one’s health control is very poor. She has diabetes type one. This type can occur at any age. Nonetheless, it is mainly diagnosed in adolescents, children, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone that is generated by specific cells known as beta cells, which are found in the pancreas. In type one diabetes, beta cells of the pancreases generate small or no insulin.

Due to insufficient insulin, glucose increases in the bloodstream rather than the cells. The body is not capable of utilizing this glucose for energy. This results to symptoms of type one diabetes. The precise cause of type one diabetes is unfamiliar. The symptoms include feeling hungry, being very thirsty, low blood sugar, stomach pain and flushed face.

This type is chronic and needs to be followed up. It is significant to adhere to rules and good habits to discover improved results. Her behavior is positive as she eats well, manages stress, and goes for annual checkups. Family trends illustrate the extent to which such diseases can be managed. Good trends lead to better results.

Reference Taylor, S. (2011). Health psychology. 8 ed. New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill. Print