Defining The Concept Of Civilizations Essay Essay Help

Civilization is one of the key concepts of Anthropology. Recognizing this phenomenon as a complex one, researchers integrate materialistic and spiritualistic approaches to defining it, considering physiological peculiarities of the development of the nervous system, geographical and social environment, and system of beliefs as the main determinants of the formation and development of the civilizations.

The theories of Boas and Mead contradict the views of Tylor and Morgan on the main factors which have impact on the process of evolution.

Defining the concepts of civilization and culture, anthropologists Boas and Mead established the relationship between the heredity, social and geographical environment and realization of these or those peculiar characteristics. Boas used the observational data for defining the peculiar features of various peoples and races, using an evolutionary approach to his comparative analysis. His main argumentation was focused on the changes in person’s central nervous system which are dependent upon the environment and living conditions.

“Social and geographical environment must have an influence upon the form of the body of the adult, and upon the development of his central nervous system” (Stocking 215). He supported the monogenist theories concerning the common ancestry of all the humans. At the same type the central concept of his researches is the plasticity of human types predetermined with the differences in external factors of both geographical and social surrounding.

At the same time, Boas does not claim for the comprehensiveness of his studies, pointing at the weaknesses of the statistics analysis and particular inconsistencies of observational data. “A race must not be identified with a subjectively established type but must be conceived as a biological unit, as a population derived from a common ancestry and by virtue of its descent endowed with definite biological characteristics” (Boas 37).

Developing his theories, Mead shifts the emphasis to the peculiarities of temperament in men and women. She researched the attitude towards sex-differences among the representatives of the three primitive societies (Mundugumor, Arapesh, and Tchambuli). Mead used the analysis of temperament peculiarities and social roles of the two sexes for defining the particular elements of civilizations as the so-called social fabrics.

Mead’s primary argument is “the general belief of our society that there was a natural sex-temperament which could at the most only be distorted or diverted from normal expression” (Mead 22). The anthropologist does not overemphasize the role of the physiology, acknowledging that the observations are focused on generally accepted behavioral patterns and the social attitudes that innate characteristics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The anthropologists Morgan and Tylor investigated the main principles of organization and development of the society. Along with the evolutionary approach that was implemented by Boas and Mead, these researchers consider the backward movement within the community as a significant factor which can result in degradation and regress of mankind.

Morgan’s historical analysis of formation and development of civilizations is based on the theory of acquisition of knowledge and experience. Starting from the analysis of the tribes of savages and barbarians, the researcher gets to the roots of the origin of the civilizations, considering the progress of the humanity as a rather casual phenomenon that could be prevented under particular circumstances.

“Civilization must be regarded as an accident of circumstances” (Morgan 553). Morgan’s views on the paths of the development of the humanity contradict Boas’s and Mead’s theories and cannot co-exist with them. As opposed to Boas’s hypothesis concerning the diversity of the races, Morgan considers the process of progress predictable, explaining it with the universal natural laws of human mind.

Using the same method of statistics analysis, anthropologist Tylor evaluates the role of progress and regress strengths in the development of civilizations. Recognizing the concept of civilization as a complex phenomenon, the researcher does not limit its definition to constant progress of the primitive society resulting in the present day level of development of humanity.

As opposed to Boas and Mead who decided on the materialistic approach to defining the concepts of culture and civilization and focused on the physiological characteristics of the central nervous system, heredity or social environment as the most important issue of their theories, Tylor focuses on the relationship between the system of beliefs and the life of the community, integrating the issue of regress of civilizations into his analysis for making it more comprehensive.

“In striking a balance between the effects of forward and backward movement in civilization, it must be borne in mind how powerfully the diffusion of culture acts in preserving the results of progress from the attacks of degeneration” (Tylor 376).

Using different approaches for defining the concepts of culture and civilizations, Boas and Mead, on the one hand, and Morgan and Tylor, on the other hand, formulated their hypotheses of the main principles of the development of the mankind which cannot co-exist because of the differences in the anthropologists’ approaches.

We will write a custom Essay on Defining the Concept of Civilizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implementing the same method of historical and statistical analysis for defining the concept of civilization and the main principles of its development, Boas and Mead, on the one hand, and Morgan and Tylor, on the other hand, came to different conclusions, emphasizing various sides of life.

Works Cited Boas, Franz. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1938. Print.

Mead, Margaret. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow and Company. 1935. Print.

Morgan, Lewis. Ancient Society. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1907. Print.

Stocking, George. (ed.) The Shaping of American Anthropology 1883-1911: A Franz Boas Reader. New York: Basic Books Publishers. 1974. Print.

Tylor, Edward. Primitive Culture: Researchers into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art and Custom. London: John Murray. 1871. Print.


Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

For more than fifty days, FBI agents were stationed outside Mount Carmel Center, the headquarters of the religious cult called the Branch Davidians.

They were waiting for the group’s charismatic leader David Koresh to stand down and order his followers to lay down their arms and surrender to the overwhelming force that has surrounded their compound. But as time breached the deadline set by the FBI, David Koresh and his followers were intent to wait out to be certain that what they are going to do next is in line with prophetic utterances made a few years earlier.

They were willing to wait for divine instructions but the federal government and the FBI who did not understand the worldview of the Branch Davidians and therefore they could not wait any longer and they believed that they were justified to use force. If only they knew the aftermath of the assault they would have made a different decision.

Background A historical background is needed to at least make sense of the numerous and sometimes conflicting accounts of what really happened in the aftermath of the final attack on Mount Carmel center in April 19, 1993.[1] It has to be pointed out that this group did not come out of nowhere; in fact, the origin of the Branch Davidians can help explain why Koresh was able to hold sway over a group of people and ultimately led many of them to their death.

This group came from a splinter sect that broke away from a Christian denomination known all over the world as the Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDA).[2] The SDA is known for “…their belief in the imminent return of Jesus Christ to earth, for their special vegetarian dietary restrictions and for their retention of Saturday as their Sabbath.”[3] Those who are aware of the practices of the SDA can ascertain that the Branch Davidians came from the SDA.

This does not mean that the SDA is responsible for what happened at Waco but at least it provides a backdrop that will help understand how and why the splinter group used some of the ideas and doctrines they had at SDA and shaped it into their own.

Nevertheless, it can also be said that these two groups were linked by: “…historical roots, the origins of their members, their name, their identity, and their apocalyptic preoccupations, idiom, and paranoias.”[4] Once again it must be reiterated that the SDA is not responsible for creating the Waco debacle and yet it is also clear that David Koresh learned much from them, especially when it comes to their strong interests with regards to apocalyptic events.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The breakaway sect was founded by a man named Victor Houteff who was an SDA member since 1919. But after more or less ten years of membership Houteff began to express his disappointment with the errors he found in the doctrines of SDA and so he wrote a book entitled The Shepherd’s Rod in 1930.[5] But more than that Houteff believed that he was a messenger sent by God and in 1935 he founded the Mount Carmel center, the same facility that would figure prominently in news headlines fifty years later.

Houteff called his group the Davidian Sevent-Day Adventist and after World War II he began to recruit members outside the United States. But in 1955 he died and soon after his wife took over the vacant leadership position and she made a prophecy that the world will end on April 22, 1959. When the supposedly dreadful day came and nothing happened many members began to desert the group.

The organization almost disintegrated due to the failure of the prophecy but a man named Benjamin Roden assumed control of the group and he renamed it the General Association of Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists.[6] After his death his wife Lois and son George took over.

The year 1981 was a significant year for the group because during this time a man named Vernon Howell joined the group; he was 21 years old and he became the group’s handyman.[7] Three years later Vernon Howell married the daughter of a prominent member of the community, her name was Rachel Jones and a power struggle ensued between George Roden and Howell.[8] But Vernon Howell came out on top and in 1985 he spearheaded a drive to recruit members abroad.[9]

The strategy that he used to recruit was interesting because he targeted former SDA members who were disgruntled with the SDA.[10] Nevertheless, Howell achieved success in this regard especially when he went to the United Kingdom. He was able to convince a number of British citizens to come and join him. In the aftermath of the final raid it was discovered that thirty-three out of the eighty two followers who died at Waco, Texas were British.[11]

The recruitment plan was not only limited to England but was also aimed at Canada and Australia, after a successful round of recruitment the membership of the Branch Davidians can be said to be multi-racial ad multi-ethnic of whom 45 were black.[12]

It was also during this time that Vernon Howell decided to change his name so that he will be known henceforth as David Koresh. He had his name legally changed and submitted a court document that explains that the purpose for dong so was “for publicity and business purposes.”[13]

We will write a custom Research Paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The group was know known as the Students of the Seven Seals and correctly interpreted as students of the scroll protected by the seven seals.[14] The name Branch Davidians was not an official name that the group adopted but it was what the Waco Tribune-Herald used extensively to refer to them.[15]

Aside from going to different countries to look for new members Koresh also traveled to the land of Israel in 1985 and this experience added another dimension to the group. According to some experts there is a phenomenon called the Jerusalem Syndrome that sometimes develops after a pilgrimage in the holy city.[16] A year after his visit, Koresh began to refer to himself as the “Sinful Messiah.”[17]

It is easy to generalize the whole group based on the thought pattern, activities, achievements and the declarations made by their leader. From an outsider’s point of view Koresh has no value as far as the normal standard of what constitutes a productive citizen is concern. He has no real job, he was no entrepreneur and he was not a professional. Thus, it is easy to conclude that his members came from the same mould. As one reporter had insinuated during the crisis and wrote the following:

Cults such as the Branch Davidians attracted the lonely, the lost, the unloved and the naïve. Their members came from all over but had at least one thing in common: they were alienated from modern society and were searching for a replacement. Many were society’s losers with nowhere else to go. Others sought spiritual salvation and believed they would discover it by joining a cult. A few, like George Roden, were simply mad.[18]

This sweeping statement cannot be used to describe every member of the Branch Davidians. There are those whom one can consider to be of good standing in the community and men of great achievement, for example Wayne Martin, one of the followers of Koresh was a Harvard-trained lawyer while Steve Schneider the group’s spokesperson had a master’s degree from the University of Hawaii and Livingstone Fagan had a degree from the Manchester Metropolitan University and at the same time a trained Seventh-day Adventist pastor.[19]

Understanding Davidian Theology No one outside the Branch Davidian cult can clearly explain what David Koresh was trying to say – his prophecies as well as his declarations. He clearly had his own system of interpretation. Nevertheless, it is important to try to understand what he said in order to determine if FBI and the ATF were justified in storming the gates so to speak that resulted not only in the death of Koresh but dozens of members including women and children.

The type of Biblical study that Koresh seem to be passionate about is referred to as apocalyptic. In the last few years of his life Koresh was obsessed with the Book of Revelation the last book of the Christian bible and it was believed to be written by the Apostle John.

In this book there is an important section that deals with a scroll or book with seven seals and the person who can break the seal is the one who will be able to read and understand these books and the fact that they are sealed means it is of utmost importance. However, the bible says that no one was able to break the seal.[20]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As one reads this particular passage in the Book of Revelation one can feel a sense of urgency and suspense not knowing what will happen next. But this feeling quickly passes because in just a few verses the One who is able to break the seal was revealed and he is none other than the Lamb.[21]

In the case of the members of the Davidian cult there is no need to ask who is the Lamb and there is no need to experience an acute sense of anticipation for his coming because they knew who the Lamb is and who can open the seal. He is not a spiritual being but made of flesh. He is human and he is none other than their beloved leader – David Koresh.[22] But Christians all over the world will sneer at this remark because they will also argue that the Lamb is none other than Christ.

The Old Testament of the Christian Bible repeatedly discussed the need to offer a sacrificial lamb for the sins of the people. This was ingrained into mainstream culture after the release of movies like the Ten Commandments wherein one can see the blood of the lamb painted on doorposts and the consumption of a roasted lamb as a means to preserve the Hebrew slaves from impending doom. This act and this symbolism were easily understood as a sacrifice that is acceptable to God.

In the New Testament of the Christian Bible the prophet John the Baptist pointed to Jesus and said that he is the lamb of God that will take away the sin of the world.[23] In other numerous instances in the New Testament one can also the reference to Jesus Christ as the lamb of God.[24]

It is therefore puzzling why Koresh would claim to be the Lamb of God. But the moment he was convinced that he is indeed the One who can break the seals as mentioned in the Book of Revelations and the moment that he had followers who believed in what he said then the sky was the limit in terms of what he thinks can be done through his actions. The following is an excerpt that Koresh gave in an interview with a reporter from Time magazine and he made the following assertions:

I offer to you my wisdom, I offer to you my sealed secrets. How dare you turn away? My invitations of mercy … Who are you fighting against? The law is mine, the truth is mine … I am your God and you will bow under my feet … I am your life and your death. I am the Spirit of the prophets and the author of their testimonies. Look and see, you folls, you will not proceed much further. Do you think you have power to stop my will? … My seven thunders are to be revealed … Do you want me to laugh at your pending torments?

Do you want me to pull the heavens back and show you my anger? … Fear me, for I have you in my snare … I forewarn you, the Lake Waco area of Old Mount Carmel will be terribly shaken. The waters of the lake will be emptied through the broken dam.[25]

Even the most objective assessment of Koresh’ words will lead to the conclusion that this man needed help because he believed that he is equal to God. At the same time he needed to check himself into a mental facility because he does not only deluded into thinking that he is God but he also believes that he has the power to destroy the Lake Waco Area referring to the water that comes from a nearby dam and therefore hinting at the destruction of this facility.

It is not only the message of doom that forced the federal government and the people surrounding the siege to act quickly, without a doubt their actions were influenced by how the Waco Tribune-Herald portrayed Koresh as the archetypal cult leader, “a man whose hold over his followers was complete, to the point of his being able, if he so wised, to order them to commit suicide” and therefore the need to stop this madmen from leading people to their untimely deaths.[26]

For those who stand in the foundation laid by the U.S. Constitution, specifically the First Amendment there is nothing wrong with what Koresh was babbling about. Even if Koresh believed himself to be the devil the federal government cannot and should not curtain his freedom to express himself and the kind of religion that he will adhere to.

It is therefore important to stress that the federal government agents who stormed Mount Carmel Center did not breached the facility because they were not in agreement with the Branch Davidians’ rhetoric but they did so on the other grounds. It is therefore crucial to take note of the fact that the agents wanted to arrest Koresh because of the legality of some of his actions.

The First Attempt On February 28, 1993 a seventy-six strong and heavily armed ATF agents were in an eighty vehicle convoy going to Mount Carmel center just outside Waco, Texas.[27] For the past several months ATF acted on a tip that the Branch Davidians were purchasing illegal firearms materials and this was allegedly for the purpose of converting AR-15 semiautomatic rifles into machine guns.[28]

This was not allowed according to the law because the Branch Davidians were supposed to report this to the government and they had to pay the required fees and since they did not, ATF was obliged to get them and force them to pay for their offenses. If only they knew what was in store for them the ATF may have reconsidered their decision to play hardball with the Branch Davidians.

The ATF agents carried with them a search and arrest warrant.[29] They also brought with them two cattle trailers pulled by pickup trucks and these two were filled with ATF assault forces and these were driven quickly in front of the headquarters of the Branch Davidians to unload its cargo of lethal force while at the same time two black hawk helicopters came out of nowhere possibly as a means to intimidate the inhabitants to surrender to the authorities.[30] All of these can be ascertained but what soon followed was disputed by both sides.[31]

According to David Koresh he shouted at the incoming ATF agents that there were women and children inside the building and so he told them to get back for he was ready to negotiate but he added that the ATF agents[32] replied with burst of gunfire.

His assertion was strengthened by a 911 call asking the authorities to stop the violence. The ATF agents on the other hand said that they identified themselves and shouted to Koresh that they had a warrant but all of a sudden they were cut off by a hail of bullets and the reason why they had to fire back.[33] It was a bloody initial attack.

When the sound of crackling gunfire was over in the said initial attack four federal law enforcement agents were killed by the Branch Davidians.[34] Six Branch Davidians members were killed by the agents.[35] In just a matter of hours the whole thing was transferred to the hands of the FBI.[36] There were negotiations made and Koresh released ten children.

The Media The Waco Tribune-Herald played an important role in the debacle because before the first raid by the Bureau of Alcohol and Tobacco and Firearms the Waco Tribune-Herald already had an idea that such an assault will be made and who was the target of the raid. As a result on February 27 a day before the ATF tried to serve the warrant to search and seized evidence of illegal activities, the Waco Tribune-Herald released a report entitled The Sinful Messiah.[37]

In the said report the Branch Davidian was reduced to nothing but a scary cult where the leader is an expert in brainwashing and has managed to control the members to follow him blindly. In other words the Waco Tribune-Herald had a hand in demonizing the obscure sect and propelled them to world prominence.

Aside from that the Waco Tribune-Herald released details that painted an image of David Koresh as a sex pervert who seemed to have his own harem – a collection of wives who were still married to his followers and if this was not enough according to the report Koresh had the propensity to have sexual intercourse with girls as young as 12 years old.[38]

This means that if proven true Koresh is not only stockpiling illegal firearms but also guilty of statutory rape. However, the evidence is still sketchy with regards to this part of the Branch Davidians’ story.

It can also be said that the Waco Tribune-Herald helped create a scenario that made it extremely difficult for the FBI and ATF agents to sit idly while Koresh continued with his propaganda regarding his belief that he is the messiah and that the end of the world is near.

This is because after the initial attack CNN broadcasted all over the world images of dead ATF agents being retrieved while the agents of the federal government seemed in retreat. For example there were footages and images were played over and over again on TV screens around the globe.[39]

It could have been a simple hostage negotiations but it is no longer possible to simply talk to David Koresh and his men because now they have to answer to the deaths of the agents in the first raid.

On the other hand the Branch Davidians were an obscure sect before this incident and after their headquarters was seen on TV the group achieved a level of notoriety that made their name synonymous to religious fanaticism while at the same time earned sympathies from those who see the government as an intrusive entity that will try to bend the law with regards to the First Amendment.

The Government The Federal Government was drawn into the destructive saga because of the belief that the government is supposed to enforce rules but it turned out that the government was not helping the situation. It was the height of irony that the Federal Government will act as fire accelerant to the flame because their presence convinced Branch Davidians that biblical prophecies was about to come to pass.

The more that the FBI tried to end the siege by force the more that they gave ammunition to David Koresh without knowing it. The government had a narrow perspective with regards to the Branch Davidian problem. For the FBI negotiators Koresh and his men could not talk about anything of substance and so their frustration increases every passing day. The Branch Davidians on other hand went deeper into their paranoia that what they feared was about to come to pass.

On the other side of the fence the FBI agents were also convinced that this paramilitary group is just doing everything in their power to elude capture and therefore the government has to act quickly. They approach the situation from a legal point of view and by being legalistic about it they could not figure out anything except to use their hostage and rescue team and other specialists to end the crisis using tools of warfare and other tactics.

The FBI negotiators did their part by connecting a private line between them and the Mount Carmel Center and through this line they were able to talk to Koresh or his spokesperson a man named Schneider.[40] In one report submitted to the Department of Justice authorities said that Koresh would often go into a two or three hour monologue.[41] This means that it was increasingly difficult for the FBI negotiators to influence Koresh to think about surrender.

Hostage/Barricade After the immense blunder of the initial attack the Federal Bureau of Investigation were called to take over and they did. The firs thing that they had to do was to assess the situation and then formulate the right strategy to end the crisis.

One of the first things that they had to do was to label the problem correctly and it has to be pointed out that in this case the FBI could not find the exact terminology to indicate what they are trying to deal with and therefore they came up with an awkward name for it and they said that it is a kind of a hostage situation.[42] However, the people inside the building could not be said to have been taken against their will.

The FBI had to reassess their initial description of the situation and so someone said that it is a hybrid between a barricade and a hostage situation. If it is a barricade then the agents had no choice but to wait it out until the group surrenders out of exhaustion there would be no justification for storming in. But if it is a hostage situation and the agents feel that the hostage taker is going to harm the lives of the people then they have all the reasons needed to enter in using force.

The Aftermath It was time for the second raid and this time around agents from the federal government made sure that all bases were covered. Armored vehicles punched holes into the walls and gas canisters were thrown inside the building and in the aftermath this is what can be seen: “…the compound was burnt to the ground and at least 75 sect members, including Koresh and 25 children under 15 years of age were killed.”[43]

The bloody end was once again broadcasted to the whole world and while there was a strong condemnation against a religious cult leader who allegedly abused his members, the result of the attack and the death of the children earned them sympathy. It did not take long before the word wanted to know why if the federal government did everything in its power to resolve the crisis without having to destroy the lives of the innocents.

The images of the burning building and the death of the children created a wave of protest from those who suddenly saw the contrast between the story that they heard on the news and the actual event. Surely the group can be considered as communal religious sect that may have subscribed to bizarre practices and yet there is no reason why their lives must end this way.

The red flames covered the building and no one knows what to do with the children trapped inside. This is perhaps the reason why the U.S. Constitution and the founders of this nation inserted the First Amendment; they must have known that someday people will be killed for their beliefs.

The First Amendment The debacle at Waco presented to the world a unique case where religious freedom and the right to bear arms converged in the life of one group the Branch Davidians. It was a curious case because most of the time the world has to deal with religious freedom, the right to worship and the right to choose ones religion without interference from the government.

However, there is an added element because this group did not only struggle for religious expression like the Old Order Amish or the Mennonites but this group also tried to make a point about their right to bear arms.

From another perspective one can see that the Branch Davidians wanted to be left alone to pursue what they believe is the only way to lead their lives. If other religions are allowed to do so then why is it that the federal government had a different outlook when it came to David Koresh and his followers?

It can be said that the Old Order Amish of Iowa and other similar groups exerclised the same right and no one bothered them.[44] The existence of the Amish people is a celebration of the First Amendment and it is a testament to the power of the Constitution to create a diverse society without its citizens destroying themselves to create a much simpler society.

This has been at the forefront of the Branch Davidian fiasco, was the federal government intent on wiping out a religion that would not conform to a more acceptable type of belief system? According to the Religious Studies Professor Rowland A. Sherrill: “Let’s not beat around the bush: Our first response to people who are religious in ways other than we are is to be irritated.”[45]

He added that common views regarding religious people are that they are intolerant; that heaven is for a select few; and that they have a blind adherent to their religion that can be a source of annoyance or dread.

The Waco Tribune-Herald, the government, and the people living within that particular community labeled them as a cult and there is no need to expound on the fact that this term carries with it a load of meaning that can surely illicit a negative response. This added to controversial image of the group.

Others however contend that the use of the term cult can be easily abused or misused. Political scientists like Michael Barkun contends, however, that the term cult, “has become virtually meaningless, little more than a label slapped on religious groups regarded as too exotic, marginal or dangerous”, in the same way that English settlers used the label barbarian and applied it to the Native Americans of this country.[46]

This is the question when it comes to the Branch Davidians, do they have the right to worship freely and even further, do they have the right to bear arms?

It is clear in the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that an American citizen has the right to own a weapon. The only question is what kind and how many?

This is an issue that is not easy to resolve and it is evidenced by the number of books, articles, TV ads and speeches made because of the need to create a common ground – gun rights advocate are asking for more while those who had an aversion for gun toting citizens are asking for greater limits. One of their most popular supporters is actor Charlton Heston who spoke out in their behalf and said:

Just about everything I hope is good about me – who I am, what I’ve tried to do – can be traced back to those smoking muskets and the radical declaration of independence by those ragtag rebels. Wearing threadbare coats and marching on bleeding feet, they defeated the finest army in the century, and they gave the world hope. Within them flowed an undertow of personal freedom, a relentless sense of what is right, so irresistibly strong they simply could not resist.[47]

The fears of those who cry for gun control is repeatedly justified every year after news of indiscriminate shootings and the deaths of many due to firearms.[48] The Waco, Texas incident was no exception.

On the other hand gun rights advocates made clear their own set of fears. It is not only their fear of being mugged and assaulted without the ability to defend themselves but also their fear of the government. There are those who said however, that this right and this talk of freedom from the First Amendment to the Second Amendment have been blown out of proportion.

There are those who even contend that these ideals were taken from the militia myth created after the success of the American Revolution.[49] In other words there is no need to form a private army in this day and age but many cling stubbornly to the idea that they must be prepared at all times to defend themselves not only against intruders but a powerful government.

Groups like the Branch Davidians may also offer a counter-argument that their purchase of weapons is justified by the fact that the government has its standing army known as the National Guard. They may even argue that it is their right as an American citizen to be armed in order that no entity foreign or domestic can overwhelm them and take their freedom away from them.

The need to bear arms was strengthened by the belief that a time will come that the federal government will try to limit the freedom of the people. The right to bear arms is also justified by the belief that only an armed populace can defend the U.S. Constitution against those who would try to tamper with it to serve their personal purposes.

A general understanding of why private arms keeping should be allowed was expounded in the following argument: “…to deter tyranny and, if necessary, to overthrow it and restore the Constitution.”[50] Those who support this view will also add that a federal government “could become tyrannical” and it is the duty of the armed people to deal with the problem by being able to stage a revolt.[51]

There is logic to the arguments made by gun rights advocate but in the case of the Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas incident there is more to the issue other than the right to bear arms.[52] It is a confluence of the First Amendment and the Second Amendment rights. The difficulty in separating the two proved futile.

And after the event it is easy for many people to judge what happened to the Branch Davidians from either of two perspectives: one will say that it is a violation of their right to free speech and religious worship while others will say that the government came in because of the weapons that they stockpiled within the Mount Carmel Center.

Resolving the Crisis The negotiators worked diligently to establish rapport with Koresh but it was not an easy task, in fact it was an impossible task. The FBI asked the help of experts, even those who are familiar with biblical prophecy. There were also third parties who tried to get through Koresh.

One of them is the station manager of a radio station based in Dallas who urged Koresh to surrender and ask for medical help.[53] The station manager also tried to convince the cult leader to release more children but instead of a favorable response Koresh started what authorities would later call as a mad rambling from a psycho and he would talk and talk about his religious views and he was oblivious to the fact that the station manager and his audience find his rhetoric unintelligible.

Nevertheless, it was easy to understand that patience is needed and at first the government was willing to wait, willing to diffuse the situation and willing to resolve the crisis without using violence. But after weeks of doing nothing except to observe and listen to a boring monologue they were ready to consider anything new.

It was discovered later that weeks before the final attack leaders in both Washington, D.C. and the FBI were increasingly frustrated over the delaying tactics of Koresh and his men. This was exacerbated by the fact that Koresh promised to stand down after March 2 but when the window of time given for his possible surrender began to close, the FBI was considering more drastic actions.

On March 15, 1993 FBI agents began to draw up a new strategy to finally defeat Koresh. It was called a “modified negotiations strategy” and this was a new directive to the negotiators to be firm and to make Koresh surrender.[54] This also meant that they would no longer listen to what Koresh had to say, from that time forward the Branch Davidians had to show that they are willing to comply or the FBI will make their lives miserable. By doing so negotiations began to break down.

At around the same time the FBI began to use “stress escalation” and harassment techniques.[55] Electricity was temporarily cut-off and then afterwards the FBI ordered that the power must be cut permanently.[56] The FBI were demanding and no longer listening to what Koresh had to say. The FBI would demand that Koresh should release more people and when he refused to comply they would retaliate with punitive measures.[57]

Such as the use of searchlights during the night in the obvious attempt to keep the people inside the building from getting any sleep. Loud music were played during the night as loudspeakers continued to blare out irritating sounds.[58] However, these actions prompted a negative response. Instead of forcing Koresh and the people to leave the building they were pushing them deeper into their shell because now they believed that the government is evil and it only seeks their destruction.

It can be argued that there could have been a better way to end the siege or hostage situation. The federal government and the FBI should have made a correct assessment of the situation by first determining correctly that there are two sides of the issues. First, the government has the right to regulate the use of weapons. It does not matter what others will say with regards to the ownership of guns and other high-powered weapons because it is clear that many had suffered from the misuse of weapons and therefore it is just proper for the government to enforce the law.

Secondly, the federal government should have considered that this is a multi-part problem and that the Branch Davidians were not only stockpiling weapons but they were convinced that they are part of a communal religious group that believed in the imminent fulfillment of biblical prophecies.

This should not be taken against them for this is what they believed. But more importantly the FBI should have realized that their presence and the failed entry of the ATF agents weeks beforehand was the signal for the Branch Davidians that the end of the world is near and that they were not seen as law enforcement agents but as enemies in the spiritual context. If this was insight of the federal government then they would have reconsidered their plan to use deadly force.

Conclusion David Koresh and the Branch Davidians were arguably the victim of the media hype specifically the report written by the Waco Tribune-Herald.

This report forced people to see them in a very negative light and put pressure on the government as well as the law enforcement agencies to bring David Koresh and his men to justice. In the process no one placed an emphasis on their right to worship in the way and form that they want to worship. Due to negative information that were broadcasted to outsiders and people who had no clear idea of what the Branch Davidians was all about the group was demonized.

As a result there was an urgency to end the crisis by force. This is the reason why so many people were killed including women and children. If the negative reports did not influence the law enforcement agents who were responsible for resolving the crisis using non-lethal force then the story could have ended differently and the lives of the people would have been spared.

Bibliography Carter, Gregg Lee. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture And the Law. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Crothers, Lane. Rage on the Right: The American Militia Movement from Ruby Ridge to Homeland Security. Maryland: Rowman


Early Sufi Women Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction


Islam and Mysticism




Introduction In the early Islam, women were considered inferior, but due to the evolution of mysticism as a cult that emerged from within the Islamic faith, it has made many women attain the level of sainthood that was earlier a preserve for men only. The Islamic religion has a caste system for the priesthood that was strictly for men.

According to Smith (1977), “It is the development of mysticism or Sufism within Islam, which gave women their great opportunity to attain the rank of sainthood.” The objective of the mysticism is to renounce the worldly things and become clean so that one can have total devotion to God.

Al-wahatiyya in Al-Sulami (1021) defined Sufism as “…rejecting all worldly means of support and ending all worldly attachment.” Thus, the religion of mysticism is about focusing on the heavenly interests and purposes rather than getting involved with the people or material things.

Mysticism regards gender equality in serving God because “in the spiritual life, there could be neither male nor female. All whom God had called to be the saints could attain, by following the Path, to union with Himself, and all who attained, have their royal rank, as spiritual beings, in the world to come” (Smith, 1977). The Sufi women aimed at perfect union with God by making sure that they had no extra burden from the world to carry as they had better relinquish their burden through repentance than continually carry the burden in the sinful world.

Mysticism Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women where the women are the leaders in its establishment and development. Rabi’a of Basra was chosen to be the first woman saint to lead mysticism because she the Islamic region no longer restricts women from reaching sainthood.

The Sufi women heaped lot of praises to the Rabi’a that she was devoted to God like men; hence, she is more than just a woman. Smith (1997), describes Rabi’a as “the head of the women disciples and the chief of the women ascetics, of those who observed the sacred law, who were God fearing and zealous… and she was one of those who were pre-eminent and experienced in grace and goodness.”

The religious qualities of Rabi’a made her to be given chance to lead in the growth of mysticism by the Sufi woman. The biography of the saint Rabi’a is so fascinating and mystical she grew without parents, become a slave and her devotion to God made her master release her. When she was free, she experienced direct communication with God as the sakina glory of God shone over her head when she prayed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rabi’a took her pilgrimage to Mecca and on her way, the ass she was using to carry her luggage died and Instead of seeking help from strangers, she refused saying that she was dependent on God only but not His creatures. She earnestly prayed until a miracle happened when her ass stirred up and the she continues on her pilgrim journey. God in the desert directly answered the prayers of Rabi’a and this encourages her to devote her life to God more.

When Rabi’a successfully completed her pilgrimage, she went back to Basra where she become devoted to God and walk according to mystic Way of renouncing the world and asceticism. Rabi’a resolved to remain celibate because she considered marriage as a hindrance to the attainment and fulfillment of the highest will of God.

According to Smith (1977), “…purgation was the first stage towards stage towards the attainment of the mystic’s goal, and asceticism was enjoined on all who entered the novitiate.” The Way of mysticism begins when one renounce the worldly distractions like marriage as in the case of Rabi’a and then a process of daily devotion in order to be made clean and free from sins.

Fatima is another Sufi woman of Nishapur who demonstrated sainthood. She was the oldest Gnostic and many people come to seek her so that she can interpret and reveal the secrets within the Quran. She was very famous due to her great devotion to God in that many commended as the second Mary. Fatima (Al-Sulami, 1021) said, “One who acts for the sake of God while desiring to witness Him is a Gnostic, whereas one who acts in the hope that God will notice him is the sincere believer.”

Fatima dedicated her life in the service of God and many people realized her devotion. Abu Yazd (Al-Sulami 1021) admits that, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself.”

Other Sufi women have been shown to have strong mystic beliefs; taking their time in solitude while praying and fasting, renouncing the world pleasure like marriage, even though against cultural and religious persuasions of Muslims depicts how the women of Sufi are zealous in their services to God

Islam and Mysticism Mysticism is a cult within the Islamic religion because some of its teachings are not solely based on the Quran but other sources. The Rabi’a experience during her pilgrim in the desert is like to the Biblical experience of Moses, the sakina glory corresponded to halo in Christianity.

We will write a custom Essay on Early Sufi Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concepts of purgation and repentance have Biblical origin. Quran teaching recognizes the teachings of the prophet Muhammad as the central to the beliefs of Muslims. Smith (1977) proves that, “the title saint was bestowed to women upon equality with men, and since Islam has no order of priesthood and no priestly caste, there was nothing to prevent a woman from reaching the highest religious rank in the hierarchy of Muslim saints.”

The mysticism grew because when the women were given equal chance of serving God, they exercised Islamic belief out of the context of Quran and introduced their fundamental beliefs of asceticism, celibacy and purgation as the necessary requirement to attain highest level of mysticism. The Muslim theologians were against mysticism as the movement of the Sufi women because of their sainthood, their influence and the form of worship they were practicing.

Gender The religion of mysticism is depicted as the religion of women and that the women are the most devoted in their service to God. The devotion of Rabi’a, Fatima and other saints is that of asceticism and their experiences impact greatly on the religious and social aspects of their societies.

Many men praised their good works and service to God. For example, a man had to say this about Fatima, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself” (Al-Sulami, 1021).

Fatima is equated to a man in her capacity of serving God meaning women have been treated as inferior in their abilities to serve God with the great zeal as men. The establishment of mysticism gave women a chance to be equal with their male counter parts and attain sainthood. Smith (1977) quotes Attar that, “saintship may be found in a woman as naturally as in a man.” The prophets teach that, what matters to God is the purpose of the heart and not the outward appearance.

Conclusion The Sufi women are the women who serve God with great zeal. The emergence of mysticism provided gender equality in the Islamic religion thus women explored their capacities to reach sainthood and incorporated other believes other than the Islamic beliefs that lead to their rejection by the Muslim theologians. Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women that involve asceticism and purgation so that one can appear worth to worship God and attain eternal bliss.

Mysticism has demonstrated the women’s ability to serve God equally as men, dismissing the cultural and societal perceptions that had limited and degrades their pursuits of eternal life. Their male counter parts and theologians were appalled by the influence of the Sufi women, threatening the own influence on the religion and the society. Thus, mysticism becomes the appealing religion to women because of the freedom from the restricting Islamic laws and culture.

References Al-Sulami, A. (1021). A Memorial of Female Sufi Devotees, Fons Vitae.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Early Sufi Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smith, M. (1977). Rabi’a the Mystic. The University of Texas Press.USA


Staff/Family Relationship and Communication Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Background

Families welcome to the program

Information on daily happenings

Structure and content of parent conference

Monthly communications


Background The school administration committees are always concerned with staff, as well as other entities thus guaranteeing performance enhancement among students. An apt relationship between staff and families is essential in the accomplishment of school programs. The school authorities should, therefore, design devices and approaches that families can utilize to foster meaningful relationships and communication.

The initial step is developing a resolute association involving school workforce and families to ensure that they share common interests. Linking family units in school programs is never enough unless the personnel make the first move to fabricate unquestioning affiliation with them. There is no sole method ratified for nurturing a suitable communication and bond among teaches and families in an effort to improve students’ performance, but it involves instance and suppleness (Dietz, 2005).

Families welcome to the program A reception process full of vigor should be employed whilst building employee/family rapport and contact. A warm welcome involving warm wishes coupled with posting symbols in the families’ indigenous languages will make them feel part of the school society. An assisting authority, fluent in the native language should act like an interpreter.

Orientation episode should provide the families with a resource center because this will improve the intensity of reception. Transect walking around the school while indicating recent developments will make the families’ day enticing. Parents, guardians and other relatives will feel privileged when they split edifying and linguistic origins with some school team. The relationship should be initiated on an affirmative note thus highlighting school accomplishments.

Trust levels should be augmented by propagating communication between the two parties. The management should show that they care and should exude respect to all the attending families. This is achieved through treating each attendant as a personage without any mistaken belief consequently addressing their interests. It is crucial to indicate that the school should uphold professionalism thus enhancing self-assurance among the staff.

Information on daily happenings Information sharing amid families and staff is crucial in the daily updates of occurrences in the school; furthermore, there are several ways of attaining this concept (Christernson,


Effects of Poverty on Immigrant Children Report college application essay help

Presently, approximately 8.7 million children of below 8 years belong to immigrant families or families with one immigrant parent. This is a drastic increase from the 1990 figure that was 4.3 million, a fact that research studies attributed to the drastic increase in the number of legal and illegal immigration before the U.S government enforced tough cross border measures to manage illegal immigration (Fortuny, Hernandez,


Labour Wage Rate Analytical Essay writing essay help

Introduction The labor market is characterized by wage rate differentials. There exists more than one labor market since firms require different types of labor for different jobs and this implies that the demand and supply for labor is different for specific labor time. The wages paid to employees also vary with the labor service provided.

If all the firms wanted the same labor, then a common labor market would exist, however, there are variations in labor needs of the firms and employees want different jobs in different firms. These factors have led to payment of different wage rates. This papers seeks to explain the reasons for differences in wage rates and their implication

Factors Responsible For Wage Differential There are various factors responsible for different wage rates as explained below.

Compensating wage differentials

Not all jobs or occupations are the same and the degree or level of risk or injury involved is different in both nature and magnitude. For example, considering the level of risk associated with an occupation such as electrical engineering and teaching is different, an electrical engineer is more prone to death risk as compared to a teacher.

However, more often than not, the engineer is paid higher wage to compensate for the risk involved as compared to the teacher. Compensating wage rates are normally applied if the degree of risk associated with the occupation is high or if working conditions are poor. The implication is that there is a tendency for people to want to venture in occupations associated with high risk and even work in poor conditions in pursuit of the additional income that come with such offers.


Competition both within the industry and among employees has also contributed to difference in wage rates. Competition within and across industries is important to the issue at hand since it has led to a distinction between successful and unsuccessful. Successful firms, regardless of their size are able to pay better and higher wages than the unsuccessful ones.

The issue here lies in the ability of a firm to pay. It is therefore possible that two or more businesses in the same industry and dealing with identical nature of goods and services will pay different wages to their employees depending ion a firms ability to pay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competition among employees has also become a very important factor in that. employee performance appraisal is used to determine additional benefits to employees. An employee achievements and efforts are evaluated and then additional benefits are given or rewarded by the organization to serve as an incentive[1].

Employee productivity

Difference in wage rates can also be explained by the value added by an employee. This is especially true in the manufacturing industries where value addition is important at every stage of production. For better understanding of this concept, value addition is defined as the contribution by factors of production to the value of the final product.

Amount of labor required in production varies with the type of industry. For example, in a cloth-manufacturing firm, the value added by labor is lower than value added by labor in a paper manufacturing industry. The challenge lies in differentiating the actual value added by labor and that added by use of machines since in most cases, the two go hand in hand.

Sometimes, employees work as a team and it is difficult to measure the exact value added by each employee to the final product. The implication is that active employees may feel demoralized and lack the incentive to work hard and give their best and this may detrimental to the overall performance of the organization[2]. The role of trade unions cannot be ignored in creating wage differentials.

Most of the highly paid employees have trade unions that bargains or negotiates with employers for salary increment. More often than not, such bargains bear fruits. On the contrary, poorly paid employees are not even able to form trade unions that can act as their voice in bargaining for better pay. This implies that the poorly paid will continue to receive such pays since their bargaining power is weak.


Nature or characteristics of the employment and formal education required for the job. This aspect cannot be explored fully without considering individuals socialization. Socialization in this context focuses on individual’s ambitions, self-motivation, and their willingness to adhere to the authority structures in place at that time.

Productive socialization is normally associated with attainment of certified qualification such as a degree or having a good work experience record. Socialization of an individual therefore plays a part to difference in occupation wage rates through cost differentials. This can be explained further in that there are different job entry levels in almost all occupations.

We will write a custom Essay on Labour Wage Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A fresh graduate from school with no previous experience cannot be paid the same amount as a graduate with experience for the same job. This is because the latter has an additional advantage in that he requires less training. In addition, if an employer is interested in a candidate with both formal and practical experience, the costs associated with search for such a candidate are higher as compared to getting a fresh graduate since in the former a more porous screening process is applied hence increasing the costs.

From the discussion on socialization, it can be argued out that occupation requiring less formal or academic training and less experience tend to have lower average wage rate as compared to those that requires higher formal academic qualifications and experience.

Gender and Race

Another cause for differential in wage rate that does not reflect the skills and abilities of a person in performing a job is race and gender. The question rotates around socialization since a certain race may be perceived to have negative socialization. The implication is that before an employer gets to higher them, a thorough screening process will be employed and as if that is not enough, the employer will see to it that such employees are monitored and supervised.

This in return increases the costs to the organization and in order to recover for such costs or minimize them, lower average wage rates are applied as compared to those from a race perceived to have positive socialization. The implication of wage differential is that the employees who are underpaid will tent to be less productive.

Gender has also been a base for wage differential and with special regard to women of childbearing age and the traditional perception of their role. There is a preconceived idea that occupations in which women work tend to have a high turnover rate due to the time they take in maternity leaves and their inability to work for long hours since they have other family responsibilities. The implication is that such cost is borne by all the women across occupations leading to lower wage rate[3].

Table Showing Differences in Wage Rates

Average full time wages paid per week (pounds).

Gender Solicitors Accountants Teachers Nurses Sales Assistants Waiters and Waitresses All Male 800 620 520 410 250 190 430 Female 650 520 470 380 190 180 320 Graph Showing Wage Differentials between Occupations

Wage Differentials in the Manufacturing Sector To some extent, the wage differentials in the manufacturing industries are justified. This is because there are different departments and different processing stages and the skills required are different.

For example, there is need for unskilled labor to do those jobs that are not skill intensive, on the other hand, qualified personnel is required to perform the profession job. Therefore, the firm must be able to cater for all those labor expenses without passing a heavy burden on the consumer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Labour Wage Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the consumers are overburdened, the firm may be faced out by competition. In the manufacturing sectors, there is heavy capital investment on machines and technology that require special expertise and pose a great risk to the operators. Such employees will need an incentive to make them have the will to venture into such risky operations.

If the market forces of demand and supply continue to operate in determining the wages, then wage differentials will persist. This is because, it is difficult for the labor market to clear i.e. have supply equal demand. There will be increased and unskilled labor supply and the demand for the same will apply.

However, employers are interested in the marginal revenue product and will only employ it the marginal revenue product equals the marginal cost. With continued improved technology and better training facilities, the earnings of the skilled labor will continue and vice versa is true for the unskilled ceteris paribus.

Trends in Income Distribution and Wage Rates From the study, it can be concluded that unequal distribution of income will continue to exist in the society with urban areas being in a better position as compared to the rural areas. This is because, most people prefer migrating to urban areas in search for better paying jobs since most industries and firms that can offer that are located in the urban areas.

Unless policies are implemented and incentives for delocalization are given, it will be difficult to achieve equality in income distribution. Difference in wage rates cannot be eliminated since it is not possible to pay common wages to all people since the nature of job and their requirements are different. It is possible that the gap between the highest and lowest paid employee will continue to expand.

Conclusion Different occupations gave different wage rates since their requirements are also different and varied. Most employers pay wages based on the marginal revenue product gained from labor services offered and it should be equal to the marginal cost. Various factors such as difference in skills, competition, trade unions, nature of job and poor working conditions have accounted for the wage differentials.

Bibliography Gleicher, D. L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991. Web.

Gottschalk, P., B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997. Web.

Holley, W., K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008. Web.

Footnotes P. Gottschalk, B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997, 124.

W. Holley, K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008.

D. Gleicher and L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991, p. 89.


The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Slavery Experiences

Racial and Gender experiences



Introduction The Life of a slave girl is a story depicting the slavery experiences of Linda Brent. Linda Brent was born, brought up and lived under the conditions of slavery. The Whites enslaved the Colored people by making them their servants, working in plantations and taking care of their children at home, particularly women. During those times of slavery, the slaves were bought at a price and their children will inherit the slavery conditions of their parents.

The slave owners have the power to dictate the slavery conditions of their slaves for instance their work, changing the masters or mistresses and even their marital status. Linda severely endured and fought for the emancipation of her slavery status by escaping from his master and her mistress, and earnestly praying for the help from God. In this essay, I am going to analyze Linda’s experiences in terms of slavery, racism, gender and compare her unique experience with the experiences of other people.

Slavery Experiences Since Linda was brought up under slavery conditions, she has experienced a great deal of mistreatment where her human rights were crossly violated. Mr. and Mrs. Flint owned Linda as their slave amongst other slaves hence they had absolute powers over her life in that they can dictate her according to their selfish interests. Linda was a mother of two kids: Ellen and Benny.

These kids were at the disposal of their master and mistress to be sold to any willing slave owner without the consent from the mother. The Kids have inherited the slavery conditions from their parent hence they are slaves by birth and subject to their master and mistress.

Linda finds herself between the rock and the hard place when she was told that she hard to part with her children because they are to be shifted to the new masters. She cried helplessly saying that, “my poor children were between two fires: between my old master and their new master! And was powerless” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda had to endure parting with her two only kids and behave as though she never nursed any child in her life.

She vowed to find ways to free her children as confesses that, “…I had no trust in thee, O Slavery! Never should I know peace until my children were emancipated with all due formalities of law” (Jacobs, 1861). She was very determined to free her children and she made a successful escape into New York in the search for her children.

During her slavery, Linda experienced torture when her master imprisoned her. She bitterly recounts the experienced saying, “I affirm that I lived in that little dismal hole, almost deprived of light and air, and with no space to move my limbs, for nearly seven years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it is a fact; and to me a sad one, even now; for my body still suffers from the effects of that long imprisonment, to say nothing of my soul” (Jacobs, 1861). The experience of the prison severely affects her health status and still haunts her soul because she fails to comprehend why she went through such torture.

After Linda had successfully escaped from her master and mistress, she went to New York where she was faced with the great challenge of finding a job to keep her going.

She said that, “The greatest difficulty in my way was that those who employ strangers required a recommendation, and in my peculiar position, I could, of course, obtain no certificates from the families I had so faithfully served” (Jacobs, 1861).

Her life was going to be very hard unless she come back to her master who can recommend her. She was very lucky to be employed by a very humble and understanding woman, Mrs. Bruce who gave her a job without requesting a recommendation from her previous master or mistress.

Racial and Gender experiences When Linda was traveling to New York, she experienced racial discrimination on her journey as Rev. Jeremiah Durham confessed that, “I am afraid you will have a disagreeable ride, but I could not procure tickets for the first class cars …they don’t allow colored people to go in the first-class cars” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda describes her experiences in the second- class ride, as “It was crowded with people, apparently of all nations.

Every other man had a cigar or pipe in his mouth, and jugs of whiskey were handed round freely. The fumes of the whiskey and the dense tobacco smoke were sickening to my senses and the coarse jokes and ribald songs around me equally nauseated my mind” (Jacobs, 1861). Since she was a woman, it was very hard for her to endure the ride where men were smoking and drinking.

During her stay with Mrs. Bruce, Linda experiences racism in the hotels whenever they board, despite the fact that both the whites and the colored pay equally for the services. At some instances, the waiters did not allow her to sit and when she persists, they refuse to serve her until Mrs. Bruce intervenes. The white waiters hate serving the colored people and they complained that, “they were not hired to wait on Negroes” (Jacobs, 1861).

We will write a custom Essay on The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fugitive law also threatens her stay in the New York because the law requires that all fugitive slaves be identified and returned to their right masters, failure to which the person hiding a fugitive slave is liable to fine and imprisonment. The law shocked many fugitives in that, “Many a wife discovered that her husband was a fugitive, and must leave her to insure his own safety.

Worse still, many a husband discovered that his wife had fled from slavery years ago, and as “the child follows the condition of its mother,” the children of his love were liable to be seized and carried into slavery. Everywhere, in those humble homes, there was consternation and anguish” (Jacobs, 1861).

As child inherits the slavery conditions of her mother, Linda too was in great fear, as she was a fugitive together with her daughter Ellen but Mrs. Bruce was willing to pay the price of imprisonment and fine, so she kept her in her house secretly.

Conclusion The unique experience of Linda is that she was born under slavery conditions. Her grandmother was a slave, her mother inherited the slavery, she becomes a slave, and she has passed on the slavery conditions to her kids. The problem of slavery has continually become part of their family lineage.

Unlike, the free white women and free Black African- American women, her children were subject to slavery because the child inherits the conditions of her mother. In contrast to other men and women, the marriage in slavery was neither legal nor permanent because the master or the mistress dictates the aspects of marriage and divorce depending on their interests, thus Linda had no opportunity to choose the father of her kids. Thus, Linda’s slavery experiences were unique.

References Jacobs, H. A. (1861). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. The University of North Carolina. Retrieved from


Art Spiegelman, MAUS Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Reference List

Introduction Published in 1991 and written by Art Spiegelman, the MAUS is a book that provides the account of the author’s effort of knowing his Jewish parents’ experience, following the Holocaust as well as their survival in U.S. It gives a picture of the difficult affiliation between the author and his parents where he stands as a survivor of this as well. This tale is presented in the form of a conversation between the author and Vladek – his father.

In a humorous manner, Spiegelman employs animals to represent characters. For instance, dogs represent the Americans while reindeers represent Swedes, among others. The setting of this interview is a large area ranging from New York through Germany to Sweden, a style that enables the writer to give a broad picture of the mass destruction during the World War II while at the same time he shows the nature of relationships in his family prior and after the war.

The author uses characters like Vladek Spiegelman-Art’s father, Anja-Vladek’s wife, Art- Vladek’s son, among others, all of whom are survivors of the holocaust, either direct or indirect. The concept of ambivalence stands out clearly in the book through the various relationships provided. For instance, Vladek’s ambivalence towards his son, Art, is clear as explained in the following paragraph.

Ambivalence Ambivalence is no more than the disagreement of ones feelings towards another person or a thing. This person may simultaneously portray both the positive and negative views towards another. The novel is rich in this concept. For example, Vladek is the father to Art. He loves him but he is unable to show it off.

This case is seen when Art, who has been playing with his friends accidentally falls. Art cries of pain and rushes towards his father for assistance.“…until he has spent five days locked in a room with a group of people and no food, he cannot know the meaning of the word friends” (Spiegelman, 1991). These are the father’s comments to his son. Vladek ought to act like a loving parent by soothing his son to stop crying as well as nursing his pain. From the response, it is not clear whether he loves his son or not.

Whether he said this to make his son laugh rather than cry or whether he said this out of ignorance is not determined. Moreover, he is willing to converse with his son. In fact he narrates to him about his origin as well as that of their family. But the way he addresses some questions is wanting.

When Art enquires about the dairies, Vladek does not hesitate in giving his weird answers. “I looked in, but I don’t remember” (Spiegelman, 1991). These answers fail to classify Vladek’s feeling towards Art. He has a diverse feeling towards his son and this is no more than ambivalence. Art’s feelings towards his father are also strained and uncertain too.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Art portrays an all-round relationship with his father. This is apparent because he entirely relies on him for the account of his own story. He frequently visits him at his yard. Following the suicide of his mother, Art declares that his father is a murderer (1991).

In addition, when Vladek feels dizzy, he demands the assistance of Art who in turn fails to rescue him. Based on these issues, it is not clear whether Art has positive or negative feelings towards his father. Paying him frequent visits and abusing him portray two opposing feelings, showing how he is unsure towards his father.

Another uncertainty stands out between Vladek and his own self. It is apparent that all people love themselves and Vladek is not an exception. When he is visited by Art, he is found putting in place a variety of pills. From their conversation, Vladek posits that in order to be strong, he ought to fight for his own salvation. Art’s healers posit that Vladek has a guilty sensation following his surviving in the holocaust.

This makes it vague of the kind of feelings he has for his own self and hence ambivalent. Moreover, in another dialogue between Vladek and Art, neither of the two understands the feelings of the other as Art enquires about the holocaust. Vladek has a real experience of the scenario unlike Art. Art cannot understand the feelings of his father in relation to the episode because he (Art) was not there as it occurred.

On the other hand, Vladek is unable to identify his son’s feelings towards him because the two do not relate in the sense that the scenario happened in the presence of one and not both. Therefore the two are ambivalent towards each other. The relationship between Vladek and Anja is also ambivalent as expounded below.

Anja meets with Vladek and her boyfriend. They stay together in this relationship until they marry. This shows that Anja loves Vladek because of this evident willing to stay together as husband and wife. However, Anja has another boyfriend, whom she also loves. It is thus unclear of whether Anja is truly in love with Vladek or the other boy. This identifies her as ambivalent towards Vladek. Vladek on the other hand accepts to marry Anja.

Following the incidence where Anja’s friend was arrested, Vladek opts to terminate his marriage with Anja. When Anja gives birth to Richieu, their first child, she is taken to a high class hospital where she is well-nursed by Vladek until she recovers. Vladek’s conduct of nursing and ending of their marriage, as depicted here are opposite. Whether he is a real loving husband or not fails to be clear basing on this, hence ambivalent towards Anja. The connection between Vladek and his own father is undefined as well.

We will write a custom Essay on Art Spiegelman, MAUS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In their dialogue, Vladek explains to Art that he was almost intentionally starved to death by his father. He adds that he was even denied sleep. This followed from a plan between him (father) and his army, which sought to absorb Vladek as a soldier. Vladek tells his father not to repeat that again implying how mistreated he felt, though he becomes a soldier later. Based on this, his stance as a father, behind this scenario is not defined. His feelings towards his son are no more than ambivalent.

Conclusion The concept of ambivalence is well developed in the book. However, it is worthy noting that this concept has some attached functions. For instance, it functions to maintain one’s undefined state which is, to some extend, important. In the book, it has played a crucial role in the represented relationships. For instance, if Art hated his father, he would not have gotten the material for his book. If he loved him, he would have rescued him when he was ailing.

In addition, Anja’s ambivalence towards Vladek places her in a position better that she can be if she sticks to either of the two. If Vladek leaves her as he says, Anja will join her other boyfriend. If that is not the case, she is still safe. This shows how ambivalence plays an adaptive role in this relationship since Anja can adapt whichever outcome of her marriage. These, among other illustrations, depict ambivalence as a tool that serves some crucial functions, as discussed above.

Reference List Spiegelman, A. (1991). Maus: A Survivor’s Tale: And Here My Troubles Began. New York: Pantheon.


Dorothy Allison’s Trash Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction “Trash” is a collection of several short stories. In this collection, Allison focuses on her main agenda concerning politics, emotions and aesthetics. Having been brought up in a poor family background surrounded by poverty and suffering, Allison is not disturbed by what she went through and insists that nothing can make her change her attitude.

She is described as a Southern trash simply because of the life she used to live while still a child. The term trash means something that has no value. It also implies something that is considered a waste or needs to be thrown away. This is how Allison perceives herself. “Allison is described as a feminist and a lesbian coming from Southern Carolina in the United States of America” (Allison, 1988, p. 4).

In the preface of these stories known as deciding to live, Allison cuts short the message in all the stories by use of strong descriptive words. She says that the stories have a message of the life experience of a working class cross-eyed lesbian full of hope in life and addicted to violence as well as language. Considering the kind of life she lived while in Southern Carolina with her family members, Allison’s love to women in general is very strong.

In her description, she does not give up easily and rarely gives consent to any efforts meant to downgrade her. Through the life she experienced, she believes that what happened was enough and should not happen to women in general. She feels for female characters and wishes no harm to them. She does not want any woman or young female to pass through the kind of life she passed through when she was still young (Allison, 1988).

In river of names, the narrator explains how she lost several of her relatives through mysterious incidences. Back in her home place Southern Carolina, Allison lived a life full of suffering and acts of child abuse. After loosing her father, her mother decided to get married to another man who became a step father to her. In the beginning, the step father seemed to be good and well behaved showing love to Allison’s mother and the rest of the family.

The relationship between Allison and her step father turned out to be a nightmare when her step father started to molest her and abuse her sexually. He actually raped her on several occasions and physically molested her. The problem is that even after her mother learnt of her husband’s behaviors, she was still confused whether to chase away the husband and protect her daughter or continue staying with the husband.

Due to the strong love that Allison had towards her mother, she decides to accept everything that happens to her. She decides not to hate her step father who molests and abuses her sexually. She considers herself as trash and compares herself to something that is meant to be used. In the story, we learn that Allison so loved her aunt that she could spend most of her time visiting her and helping her perform some household duties. Even in her aunt’s home, her step father still followed her to beat and abuse her.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is shocking is that her auntie seems to reason the same way as her mother. After learning of the molestation and harassment that Allison is passing through, she also decides that the step father should not be chased away. She considers other options provided that the family remains intact. But because Allison loved her mother and her auntie, she respects their decision and gives in to all sorts of harassment.

All this made her develop strong feelings towards women than men. She believes that women were taken as trash. She now takes everything valuable including what others considers to be trash. She takes women as normal human beings who are vital and vibrant deserving due respect (Allison, 1988).

In mama, Allison realizes the love that she has for her mother. It is this love that dwells throughout the stories. Allison so loved her mother that she dint think of any revenge despite the physical and emotional torture she was undergoing through.

In this story, there was domestic violence that overwhelmed Allison’s family. We are told that the step father could lock Allison in the bathroom and physically molest her. She had a strong and loving relation with her mother. Having been beaten by her step father, her mother could scream loud and save her from the brutal acts of her husband.

She could take her away, wash her and wipe her clean. She could soothe her to relieve pain and make her comfortable. This is the reason why Allison could not afford to loose her mother in any way. She would rather persevere and stay with her mother than loosing her. She so loved her mother that she obeyed every step that her mother took.

This shows that the relationship between the two was strong and full of love, emotions and caring. Since it is her mother who brought her step father in the house, we expect Allison to hate her mother due to the step father’s actions. Instead, Allison feels no hatred to her mother even after being molested by her step father. It is this kind of love that made Allison to develop a soft spot for women in general.

This contributed to her growing up to be a feminist and a working class lesbian. She ensures that women’s rights are respected and obeyed. She does not want to see a situation where women are molested and sexually abused (Allison, 1988).

We will write a custom Essay on Dorothy Allison’s Trash specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the gospel song, Allison shows her love to a girl who is least popular in the whole school. At first, she wants to become a singer of gospel music but she does not posses the voice. In the process, she meets an albino girl who has no friends at all and decides to become her friend.

She strives to insert a sense of acceptance into her friend’s mind. Allison does not take her as trash but instead decides to love her and make her feel loved. At her friend’s family barbecue, Allison decides to attend without even accepting the invitation. She shows up abruptly demonstrating the love she has to her friend.

During the funeral, she makes herself available when her friend starts to moan. Due to the overwhelming tears, she decides to insert her face in her mother’s dress. The relation between her and her mother was very strong. Allison took her mother as the only source of comfort at times of problems.

This made her develop a loving attitude towards female. She fights for the rights of women and forms movements that will protect all women. In don’t tell me you don’t know, the narrator’s auntie makes a step to reconcile two parties. She comes in between Allison and her mother to restore the love between them. Allison felt bad about what was happening to her in presence of her mother.

She felt that her mother should have protected her from abuse. Her mother was in a dilemma to choose between her daughter and her husband. Finally, Allison decides to reconcile with her mother and step father. She says that the reconciliation contributed to her present determination. She is determined for the well being of women in general (Allison, 1988).

Conclusion It is the love and strong relation between Allison, her mother and her female relatives that made her develop a soft spot for women. She turned out to be more attracted to women than men. She finally became a working class feminist and a lesbian. The suffering and the abuse she went through made her determined to protect women in general.

Reference Allison, D. (1988). Trash: Short stories. Ithaca: Firebrand books publishers.


Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introductions

Feminism in the Play


Works Cited

Introductions Written by Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House is a play released during the Victorian era of the 19th century. The play addresses life as it was then, when women where no more than dolls, unable to perform significant roles in the then society as well as standing up for themselves in the family.

It addresses the issue of gender roles, showing how disempowered the female is and the consequences behind this. Nora, a major character and a wife to Helmer, illustrates how women suffer mistreatments and degradations from their husbands. Following the impact on the life styles of women and the devastation of gender roles in the then century, brought by Ibsen through this publication, which is also evident today, the composition stands out as a feminist essay right from the title, A Doll’s House, up to the end of the play.

Feminism in the Play Feminism is an issue that pursues the liberation of women, majority of whom live as slaves even in their very own families, whether married or not. This is the condition of women as at the time when Ibsen composes the play. He is handling the situation as it is as a call for women to stand up and fight for their rights in the society.

The topic of the play serves as a clear illustration of feminism. A Doll is denotes the position of a woman in the family. A major character employed to portray is Nora. She is married to Helmer who refers to her as a mere doll rather than a wife. Nora is referred by her husband as a songbird, a lark, a squirrel, names that suggest how insignificant she is to her.

In fact, Helmer asks, “Didn’t you tell me no one had been here…My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird must have a clean beak to chirp with-no false notes!” (Ibsen 25). Helmer stands out as a commander in his family. Everything he tells his wife ought to be adhered to regardless of the consequences therein. The way he questions Nora depicts his sternness and authoritative position in his family. He deprives Nora of the ability to decide as the wife.

She cannot decide on whom to welcome in her family, neither can she decide on what to do in it. She only dances the tune of her husband. She is just a doll in the house that does in accordance with what others need out of it but not what it needs out of them. This degradation is what the writer brings forth to the women stressing on their need to rise up and fight against it.

Nora is given every sort of names by her husband. But this does not make her dump him. They are together as a husband and a wife for a good number of years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yes, Torvald, I can’t get along a bit without your help” (Ibsen 26). Money seems to be everything that Nora wants. But she realizes later that it (money) is useless without her enjoying her rights, not only as a woman but also a living being. In her reaction against the situation, she makes the best individual pronouncement for the first time. She opts for abandoning her husband to stay alone where she can enjoy freedom.

She will not be constrained in a house like a doll; neither will she dance to any other person’s tune, but hers. She is a feminist whom the play uses as an illustration that women can make sound decisions as well as playing a significant role in their families other than just cooking and taking care of their husbands.

“The common denominator in many of Ibsen’s dramas is his interest in individuals struggling for and authentic identity in the face of tyrannical social conventions. This conflict often results in his characters’ being divided between a sense of duty to themselves and their responsibility to others” (Ibsen 1563). Nora realizes that she is more than what she does or what his husband thinks she can do and has the right to manifest her talent or powers as a woman.

She goes for this right. In fact, she declares that she needs to “make sense of [her] self and everything around her” (Ibsen 25). This is her turning point. She is ready to stand up for her rights as a woman regardless of the prevailing situation where women are being oppressed and denied some of their fundamental rights like the right to make personal decisions.

Mrs. Linde’s conversation with Nora depicts her as one who led a life based on the decisions of her late husband. For instance, when her husband dies, she has virtually nothing of her own, money and children inclusive. This places everything in her then family in the hands of her husband. She has no power to earn as a woman. This is only the task of her husband. The death of her husband is symbolic. It implies the end of slavery and a commencement of feminism.

Linde sets off to look for a job, which in turn enables her to take care of her family. This is no more than the realization that she is capable of working for her people just like her husband. In fact, she stands out as woman enough to leave a note to her husband claiming to return the following day. This is contrary to what is expected of the then women. They ought to stay in the houses all the times as the title, ‘A Doll’s House’ suggests. In her dialogue with Krogstad, she says that she is now ‘free’ and wishes to look after her family.

This depicts the oppression she experiences before realizing that she is equally as powerful as a man and that she is all able to support her family. For instance, she takes a full responsibility of nursing her sick mother. This is not a possible case before when she is a doll in her husband’s house. She says that she was “a poor girl who’d been led astray” (Ibsen 29). This is the consequence of oppression that Ibsen addresses, that is in turn realized and abandoned by people like Linde and Nora-the feminists.

We will write a custom Essay on Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nora initially is a ‘pet’ in her family. She is just there to make her husband happy by going out with him, cooking for him, and maintaining his title as a ‘man’ owing to her beauty. As a doll plays its assigned role, not based on the situation, Nora has to tolerate this torture for the sake of her husband.

This is her life that she realizes later that it is no more than a lie. She imagines of another one where she will be, not a doll, but a significant and a responsible person in her society. Nora says, “I’ve been your wife-doll here, just as at home I was Papa’s doll-child”(Ibsen 1608). This is the beginning of her realization. She is now courageous enough to confront her very own stern husband no matter the outcome.

She is ready to fight for her rights as a woman. “I have to try to educate myself. You can’t help me with that. I’ve got to do it alone. And that’s why I’m leaving you now” (Ibsen 1609). Nora goes for the change she wants. She can educate herself regardless of her being a woman. She is not afraid of saying this to her husband.

Conclusion Ibsen finalizes the play by depicting all the women characters as feminists who abandon their ‘doll’ lives to leave like free, significant, and responsible in their societies. Nora, Linde, among others, begin as slaves but end a feminists. This renders Ibsen’s ‘A Doll’s House’ a feminist essay.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. “A Doll’s House” London: Nick Hern Books, 1994.


Minimum Wage Issue Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of minimum wage

Analysis of the effects of minimum wage


Works Cited

Introduction Minimum wage is the lowest pay that an employee should get per hour, per day or per month. These earnings are usually set by the government through legislation; however, two arguments, social and fiscal, are usually presented concerning the issue of minimum wage.

Minimum wage laws usually cover employees who work in the fields of employment with low pay, and are usually imposed to raise the wages to reduce exploitation of the employees by their employers. Governments usually impose minimum wage to reduce poverty; indeed, increase in the minimum wage is also said to increase motivation of the workers and hence lead to more productivity.

However, some economic analysts believe that raising the minimum wage does not reduce poverty, arguing that it in fact increases the levels of poverty since it creates unemployment. These people also argue that increase in the minimum wage hurts small firms severely as they usually try to minimize on their cost of production to maximize on their returns as they continue to grow.

This may usually make the firms to reduce their workforce, and the remaining workforce is usually overworked to compensate for the reduced workforce. These people also believe that minimum wage causes inflation, as organizations tend to increase the cost of their product to cater for the increased cost of production due to the increase.

Theory of minimum wage Usually, there are theories proposed to explain the effects of minimum wage on the employment. The standard neoclassical theory explains that the availability of labour and employment follow an equilibrium demand supply curve with the downward sloping demand curve for labour and the upward sloping supply curve for labour.

The point of intersection between the downward sloping demand curve and the upward sloping supply is the equilibrium point (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 70). This is the equilibrium wage, which the market is capable of offering for labour.

Therefore, if the government imposes a minimum wage lower than the equilibrium wage, this would have no effect since equilibrium wage will be higher than the minimum wage. However, by imposing legislation, which demands, that the minimum wage be higher than the equilibrium wage, this forces the minimum wage from being pushed downwards due to market forces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this creates disequilibrium in the labour supply demand curve with the supply of labour being more than the demand for it by the market. This leads to unemployment as some people will not get work for their skills; indeed, unemployed people are usually worse of than before the minimum wage since they will now have zero income.

Figure 1.1: Standard neoclassic market demand supply of labour curve

Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia,

However, increase in minimum wage higher than the equilibrium wage does not always result in unemployment. An example is usually explained in Monopsony, a situation where there is only one employer in the labour market. In this situation, the factors that are explained in neoclassical theory do not necessary hold.

In fact, minimum wage significantly influences the direction of employment in the economy as well as eliminating the shortcomings of Monopsony, thus in this situation, the cost of hiring additional workers follows an upward sloping curve, which is usually above the labour supply.

Figure 1.2: Monopsonistic demand supply of labour curve

Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia

We will write a custom Essay on Minimum Wage Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MRP represents the marginal revenue product curve, which is identical to the market demand curve in standard neoclassic market. MFC represents the marginal cost curve which is the cost incurred by a Monopsonistic firm in hiring a new employee. S represents the factor supply curve identical to the competitive market.

In some instances, raising the minimum wage increases the demand of the product produced by the company. This will therefore make the company to hire more workers in order to increase output to cater for increased demand. This may occur if the workers are also consumers of the product; hence, increasing their wage enables them to buy more of the product.

Analysis of the effects of minimum wage The labour market rarely fits the characteristics of the ideal standard neoclassical theory or of Monopsony. Therefore, generalization is generally used to explain the effects of minimum wage on employment and poverty levels. Many economists have different views regarding the effects of increasing the minimum wage.

This is because the labour market does not fit the ideal neoclassical situation or the Monopsony situation. Increase in the minimum wage does not necessary lead to loss of employment. Many different states in the United States have not reduced the number of employed people after increasing their minimum wage; a notable example is New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Increase in minimum wage in these states in 1988 did not lead to reduction of the people employed; in fact, it led to increase in the employment as shown in their data. For instance, the increase in the minimum wage of Vermont and Illinois in January 2006 from $7.0 to 7.25 has been used to show the effects of increasing the minimum wage on employment (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 72).

In Vermont, it led to a decrease in the number of people who were employed. However, analysis of the data showed that it was not reliable as there were very many other factors, which affected employment. However, their increase had no effect on employment in Illinois. These are a few examples to show that increase in the minimum wage does not lead to reduced employment.

The argument that increase in the minimum wage usually leads to unemployment is usually viewed differently by different people who have vested interests.

Businesspersons and generally entrepreneurs are usually opposed to increase in minimum wage as it leads to an increase in their cost of production. This is because each entrepreneur usually strives to reduce the cost of production in order to maximize on his or her profits. Labour unions would like to portray the increase in minimum wage as of not having adverse effects on employment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Minimum Wage Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because by showing that it reduces employment they would show that it reduces their members by making them loose employment. Therefore, the debate on minimum wage is usually a passionate one as each group would like to portray the other as being on the wrong. These groups may use many different methods to prove their correctness, sometimes even overlooking some factors while analyzing their data.

Minimum wage does not necessarily lead to inflation since the costs of labour in most organizations does not usually account for a large percentage of overall expenses. Increase in the minimum wage cannot be directly related to the loss of employment, as there are many other political and economic factors, which usually affect employment.

It is clear that both theories are based upon ideal situations. However ideal situation rarely do not occur. Therefore, it would be hard to single out increase in the levels of unemployment due minimum wage increase. Form the above two theories it is clear that markets cannot be left to self regulate themselves especially in third world countries so as to reduce their levels of poverty.

Conclusion The issue of minimum wage is mainly a political one. Governments usually increase minimum wages at a rate lower than the rates of inflation in order to reduce the powers labour unions have on the powers. However, minimum wage should be increased from time to time to cater for inflation and reduce the levels of poverty.

Works Cited Atanova, Stefka, Tudoreanu, Mihnea and St.Lawrence University. “The Effects of a Raised Minimum Wage on Employment: Differences across States and Social Groups.” Issues in Political Economy, Vol. 19, pp 69-89. 2009. 26 October 2010. 2009.pdf


The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Legalization of Marijuana

Effect of the Legalization on Demand

Effect on supply

Elasticity of demand and supply

Other factors


Works Cited

Introduction Cannabis sativa L. is a plant that appears naturally in most of the states and all over the world. The plant has been associated with a lot of benefits and other uses by people from all walks of life. Medically, the plant has been proven to possess a lot of medical benefits as it can be used in manufacture of drugs with curative nature and also has various other medical benefits.

Marijuana is the name given to the plant and all its components and products including its leaves, stem, roots, seeds and all the other products obtained from it, both when it is growing and even when it has been cut and dried. On the other side, marijuana has been used by individuals in different ways, especially for social uses such as recreation, reducing stress and other uses (Pacula 1).

The drug has been outlawed in all the states in the USA. However, there remains a large percentage of the population that still relies on the drug for their daily living, either by engaging in its use or by engaging in its business. The Marijuana business has been operating underground and unlawfully.

However, studies have shown that the business has been in a constant state of a boom and has been estimated to amount to millions of dollars. In this way, those operating the business have been able to make great earnings especially since there are no cost implications on them in terms of taxes and other legal requirements (RAND 1).

Legalization of Marijuana It has been a common debate in most of the states as to whether Marijuana should be legalized and inscribed in the state laws hence allowing it to be used freely, just like any other item in the market.

In this way, the law will give a provision for legality of the marijuana market and also for all the undertakings concerned with the drug, including registration and taxation of all businesses, protection of those using the drugs in the right way and also a way to deal with all the crimes associated with the drugs. In addition, the states shall be able to lay restrictions on the drug, hence ensuring the citizens use the drugs more responsible and in a humane way (RAND 1).

The California state is one of the states that have embraced the idea of legalizing the drug and even inscribing it in the list of the allowed social drugs together with alcohol and cigarettes. In this way, it has been believed that the drug will act as a source of revenue for the government in terms of the taxes collected as well as a source of employment and income for many.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The step will also ensure citizens who follow the law to the letter and do not cause trouble to others are protected even if they use the drug. Moreover, citizens will embrace the use of the drug more responsibly avoiding any cases that may require jailing, probation and medical expenses for treatment of abuse of the drug (Pacula 1).

Hence, there is a need for the state of California, as well as the other states in the USA, to embrace legalization of Marijuana since this will have a lot of benefits both to the citizens and to the state eventually instead of use of the drug illegally which results to serious and undeserved penalties to those caught and also leads to loss of billions of dollars per year I n government revenue that would have been collected from the marijuana business.

Effect of the Legalization on Demand It has been predicted that if the government legalizes the drug, there will be a lot of changes pertaining to the demand for the drug in the market and as a result, there will be a lot of restructuring in the marijuana market.

Currently, due to the control and illegality of the use of the drug as well as the strictness from the enforcers of the law in the state which includes heavy penalties and possible imprisonment of those involved in possession, sale or use of the drug, many of the people who wish to use the drug in a reasonable way have evaded its use. These restrictions from the government have acted as an incentive to the use of the drug and hence many either just avoid its use or carry out illegal activities associated to the drug.

In fact, there have been a lot of underground undertakings in the market leading to large illegal underground markets for the drug. In these markets, there are a lot of people involved in the sale and purchase of the drug, though usually in disguise so as to avoid detection by the law enforcers. However, most of the citizens are not able to act on the platform of the underground undertakings since they are involve a lot of risk and hence are quite dangerous.

This has left the whole business in the hands of very cunning and dangerous gangs that undertake the sale and distribution of the drug and actually are armed in a manner to try and face any opposition from the law enforcers, posing a lot of risk and un rest to the law enforcers and the state at large (Deist 1).

On the other side, it has been observed that with legalization of the drug, there will be a lot of sanity in the market and elimination of illegal gangs that are involved in the market hence allowing the drug to be sold freely and in a safer way. This will improve the image of the marijuana market and attract more clients who will in return opt to use the drug more responsible and without carrying out any illegal undertakings (Whitcomb 1).

We will write a custom Report on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The demand for the drug is hence bound to increase in a great way as many will not be afraid of getting involved in its sale. This ay, there will be a larger market for the sales, even as the already existing market gets boosted due to its legalization.

There are many factors that are attributed to an increase in the demand for marijuana. First, the increased demand will increase the prices for the drug causing more people to be involved in growing and supplying the product, a factor that is bound to result in an eventual lowering of the price for the drugs and hence stableness in the market.

On the other side, the market will have a greater base for its returns and will also result to a more sources of revenues for the government. In addition, the market will force a competition between traders resulting to an improvement of the quality offered and the way it is delivered. In this way, the drug will be used more responsibly and will hence have more advantages to the entire society (Robak 1).

Effect on supply The legalization of marijuana in the state of California will have a large effect on the supply of the product in the market. The main effect is that it will result to more people wishing to venture into the trade since it is associated with a lot of cash flow as well as high returns gotten from sale of the naturally according drug.

In this way, even farmers will wish to plant more plants and hence increase their harvests since the plants require less inputs and less attention but have a lot of returns and do not require any further processing, except in the medical cases.

In the normal circumstances, the plants are harvested and then dried before being packaged and supplied to the market. The high prices in the market places will hence attract many farmers who will wish to be involved in the production of the drug and then supply it to the market (Preston and Tracy 17).

In addition, legalization of the drug will result to more people getting involved in the sale and distribution of the drug in the market in a legal and right way. This will lead to a high competition among the suppliers resulting to increased supply and consecutively a lowered price for the drugs. This will also ensure the dealers in the marijuana industry adhere to the law and avoid evasion of taxes, a factor that will lead to collection of more revenue for the government (Whitcomb1).

Elasticity of demand and supply The increased demand and increased supply will have an overall effect of undergoing oscillations of a rise and a fall in the prices of marijuana. This market will hence be demand and supply driven, where prices will be fully dependent on the demand and the supply of the drug as well as the competition between dealers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, due to a competitive market, the demand and supply will become more elastic resulting to a more stable market that will be more reliable by those carrying out the trade, the customers who buy the marijuana and even to the government especially in terms of collection of taxes and duties associated to the trade.

Other factors There are various other factors that will change due to the legalization of the trade and use of marijuana. In the onset, there will be less involvement of illegal gangs being associated to the trade and use of the drug. This will result to an improved security to all involved in the marijuana use and trade, the law enforcers and even the citizens at large.

Also, there is a possibility of lowered spending by the government on law enforcement changing the way it has been before. Therefore, less people will be arrested as associated to the drug and therefore the government can divert the funds to more constructive ways.

On the other side, there will be a lot of registration of those involved in the trade of the drugs as well as taxation on such a trade. This will result to increased sources of revenue for the government leading to more development in the economy (Deist 1).

Finally, citizens will be able to embrace the use of the drug and hence use it more responsible in the social, recreational and even medical aspects.

Conclusions California has many reasons to consider while dealing with the issue on whether or not to legalize marijuana in the state. Eventually, the state will be able to save a lot on its budget as well as earn more revenue from the trade.

On the other side, the state will save its citizens a lot of problems as it also gives them a chance to venture into the business and also to exercise the trade and use of the drug in a more responsible and beneficial way.

Works Cited Deist, Charlie. Why Marijuana Freedom Is Good Fiscal Policy. 10 July 2010. Web.

Pacula, Rosalie. Legalizing Marijuana: issues to consider before reforming Califonia Law. RAND website. 15 Aug. 2009. Web.

RAND Corporation. Legalizing marijuana in California would lower the price of the drug and increase use, study finds. 11 March 2010. Web.

Preston, Lee, and Brian Tracy. Introduction to Economic Analysis. London: John Willey


No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks


Works Cited

Introduction Although more than a century has passed since the government abolished slavery, still its effects are evident in the contemporary America, because of the demand from a section of the American society to give reparations to blacks for the atrocities their ancestors suffered.

Slavery was a practice that was allowed by the law of the historical southern United States, from the time that the Britons colonized America in the 17th century, until the time of the civil war of 1861-1865, when the practice started diminishing. Although most black slaves suffered under the hands of their white masters, they played a crucial role of making the U.S. to be what it is today, because of their active role in the building of major U.S. cities, and even the white house.

Due to the extreme suffering that the black slaves went through, and the fact that, the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize to the Black community; there has been numerous campaigns to compensate the surviving families of victims of slavery. Generally, reparations campaigns are majorly based on the assumption that, the nonblack taxpayers should pay the blacks a certain amount of compensations, them being the primary heirs of the wealth that their ancestors acquired during slavery.

Yes, no one can deny that black slaves suffered under the tyrannical rule of their white masters, and it is purely wrong that the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize and offer help to then slaves, to ease their suffering. However, why should the present white taxpayers pay for the atrocities committed by their ancestors, some of whom they do not even know? Further, the present America is a mixed race society; hence, tracing the descendants of the black slaves is very challenging activity.

On the other hand, it will be so unfair to impose the burden of paying reparations to one section of the American society, while forgetting that, its only small portion of the historical whites who had slaves; hence, what of those families that never had slaves. (Olson Para. 2-14) Considering these, although every individual acknowledges that slavery made many Blacks to suffer, the government should not offer any reparations to African-Americans, to compensate for the suffering “their” ancestors suffered.

Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks Frankly speaking, most activities of slavery were morally degrading, violated numerous human rights, and caused extreme suffering to the slaves. Therefore, to some extent the claim of paying some reparations to the surviving families of African-American ancestors is correct. However, one thing that most proponents of the Reparation campaign forget is that, slavery was a historical activity that was lawful, and majority of those who the tyrannical treatment of white masters are survived by families of mixed races (whites included).

Therefore, one critical question that most proponents have failed to provide solutions to is; who will the government compensate for the suffering of the historical black community. Historically, not all whites promoted the practice, as there was a group of whites who opposed the practice, for example, the Abolitionists and the Union Army members. Most members of these two groups also suffered under the tyrannical rule of the white masters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, it will be so unfair to make their generation pay for a practice that their ancestors struggled and lost their lives fighting to be abolished. On the other hand, one thing that most proponents of reparation assume is that, it is only the blacks who lost their lands; hence, the tendency of most of them proposing that, the government should give African-American tracks of lands as compensation.

In making this assumption, most supporters of reparation tend to forge that, the historical slavery injustices were also done to whites, more so those who lived in the fertile Southeastern sections of the colonial U.S. Considering this, allocating some portions of land, will be like repeating what the white oppressors did during the slavery period, because some white families resettled ion their ancestry land.

Further, it is important fro individual to note that, some perpetrators of the practice were blacks themselves (more so the freed slaves) after the civil war; hence, paying a certain portion of the American society will mean that, the government is paying those who promoted the practice, rather than the real suffers (Horowitz 1-2).

In addition to difficulties of identifying the real sufferers of the slavery, there is no practical evidence that links slavery with the current problems that the African-Americans face. Most supporters of the reparation ideology assume that, the current problems facing African-Americans are a result of the historical injustices that individuals in this community faced during the slave trade period.

Yes, this might be right because of the practical evidence of how much African-Americans have struggles to be where they are social, economically, and politically. However, it has been more than a decade since the abolishment of slave trade, and many blacks have rose to high levels of political and economic power, regardless of what their ancestors went through.

Considering this, why should a community endowed with all the necessary resources to better their lives blame their suffering on a practice that ceased to exist over one hundred and fifty years ago? Take for example the West Indian Blacks; this group has endeavored to promote its economic wellbeing, and their efforts have gained good fruits, as most West Indians earn almost the same incomes as their white counterparts.

On the other hand, since the adoption on the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, the American government has dedicated numerous funds to those it considers the disadvantages in the society (where the black community are the majority).

We will write a custom Essay on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of these funds are in form of college bursaries, welfare benefits, and economic stimulus packages (Block 56-68). Therefore, the economic assumption largely lacks a base of expression hence, for fairness purposes; there should no compensations to the black community.

On the other hand, considering the fact that, Reparations are likely to favor certain groups within the American society, this can be very detrimental to the peaceful coexistence of the American people.

That is, considering the fact that, most reparation funds should come from the white taxpayer community, likelihoods of racism increasing are high, as this may make one group to feel oppressed of forced to suffer for mistakes they never committed. One thing that most supporters of the reparation ideology forget to acknowledge is that, some whites and some members of the black community came to the U.S. after slavery had long been abolished (Munford 413-432).

Due to this, one question that always arises is that; which group of whites should pay or contribute to the reparation kitty, and how can it be identified? Therefore promoting this like an ideology can greatly endanger the nature of relationships that exist between the entire American community; hence, the need to do away completely with the reparation ideology.

Conclusion In conclusion, because of the numerous negative effects associated with the reparation ideology for individuals to accept that, it is not a good idea to give reparations to blacks, as this may lead to more wars between different ethnic groups that make the American continent.

The future of this debate depends on the acceptance of the entire American society to face the real facts about reparation, and accepting the fact that, although it’s a good way of compensating for those who suffered under the tyrannical rule of slave masters, majority of the sufferers are dead and the American community has become more multiracial. Therefore, paying certain communities can be very suicidal, as it is likely to disturb the peace America enjoys.

To deal with the issue appropriately, it is important for the government to formulate restorative justice policies that will promote love, peace, and development in the U.S. Yes it is so hard to reconcile and make all American Groups to be at par, economically, socially, and politically; however, if the government can offer its citizenry enough economic stimulating programs, likelihoods of the gap that exists between the whites and blacks is likely to reduce.

Dwelling in the history of injustice, is as equal as starting racial wars between Americans; hence, the government should instead formulate programs that are acceptable by all Americans. This can be of great help in mending the damaged relationships that exist between different groups of different ethnic backgrounds that make the American continent (Walker 382-390).

Not sure if you can write a paper on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Block, Walter. On reparations to Blacks fro slavery. Human Rights Review. Sept. 2002. Web.

Horowitz, David. Ten reasons why reparations fro blacks is a bad idea fro blacks and racists too. Front Page Magazine, 2001. Web.

Munford, Clarence. A black perspective for the 21st century. New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1996. Web.

Olson, Walter. Reparations, R.I.P. The Street Journal Autumn. 2008. Web.

Walker, Margaret. Restorative and reparations. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37.3 (2006): 377-395. Web.