Defamation And Law Essay College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction


Critical Analysis of Defamation

Purpose of Defamation Laws


Criminal or Civil Offense



Introduction Freedom of speech abuse may lead to harming others as is the case of defamation. Defamation occurs when one person speaks in a bad way concerning another person based on false information. Defamation, therefore, may be viewed as spreading of rumors about a person. Defamation is either a criminal offense or a civil wrong is most countries. This article examines the definition of defamation at length and makes an argument in support of laws which seek to punish those committing defamation offenses.

Defamation Defamation has been simply defined as talking ill of another person on grounds which cannot be substantiated: “the issuance of a false statement about another person, which causes that person to suffer harm” (Larson, 2003, p. 1). However, in some cases where the grounds for ill talk may be substantiated, it will still be possible for the defamation offense to be committed. In general, the following situations constitute defamation:

A false and defamatory statement concerning another; the unprivileged publication of the statement to a third party (that is, somebody other than the person defamed by the statement); if the defamatory matter is of public concern, fault amounting at least to negligence on the part of the publisher; and damage to the plaintiff. (Larson, 2003, p. 1)

Critical Analysis of Defamation Defamation laws help to regulate freedom of expression such that the practice of this freedom does not harm others. This is possible because the law makes it clear on what should be expressed freely and what should not be. In the UK, there are principles which make it easier for one point out defamation when it is committed.

Principle 1.1

A limitation placed on the issuance of information should be backed up by the law. Such a law should be easily accessible by all and well defined to make it easy for one to distinguish what is restricted and what is not (Article 19, 2000).

Principle 1.2

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A limitation placed against expression on the ground of protecting a reputation should be one that can be proved. The reputation to be protected should be demonstrable (Article 19, 2000).

Principle 1.3

The restriction placed on expression should be consistent with the values of a democratic society, for instance, if it is possible for a reputation to be upheld without placing restriction expression then no restriction on expression should be imposed (Article 19, 2000).

Purpose of Defamation Laws Defamation laws are justified by their focus on protecting reputations. The reputations can be those of individuals or entities. Defamation laws are meant to protect reputations from being damaged through lowering their status or through any other means. Lowering of a reputation of an entity or a person can be through exposure to public ridicule. Defamation laws which tend to protect reputation that is non-existent cannot be said to be legally binding as the reputation to be protected is not demonstrable.

Defamation laws are not meant to hinder the path of constructive criticism, for instance, exposure of corruption deals. These laws do not also offer protection to a nation, flags and other national, traditional or religious objects (Article 19, 2000). Defamation laws do not give a mandate to sue on behalf of a deceased person. Lastly, defamation laws cannot be justified under the following situations:

Safeguarding national security

Maintaining order in the society

Maintaining open relations at the international level

Discussion Typically, defamation laws are meant to safeguard reputations. Defamation laws are not meant to do any other thing that may be accomplished by other laws. There are limits to which defamation laws can offer protection, for instance, legitimate criticism on public authorities who engage in corruption deals cannot be restricted by defamation laws.

Defamation laws are not meant to protect the honor of symbols of national interests. Flags among other national symbols which do not have reputations should not be covered by defamation laws. It is however observed that some nations have defamation laws which cover such symbols (The Canadian Bar Association, 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Defamation and Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Family members cannot sue any person for defaming the reputation of a deceased member of the family. This is because reputation cannot be inherited; it is only some interest that can be earned from being associated with the deceased. It has been argued that “a right to sue in defamation for the reputation of deceased persons could easily be abused and might prevent free and open debate about historical events” (Article 19, 2000, p. 6).

Groups which are not legally recognized are said not to have any reputation. As such, it cannot be argued that the reputations of such groups have been defamed. However, if the group members can prove that their reputation has been defamed at person levels then they can process a lawsuit for defamation but only at individual levels (Singh, 2008).

Public bodies should not be allowed to bring up defamation cases. This is because public bodies serve the interest of the public and they should be exposed to criticism. This will uphold the spirit of democracy in running public bodies.

Criminal or Civil Offense There is a raging debate on whether defamation should be treated as a criminal offense or a civil offense or both. Currently, many nations treat defamation as either a criminal offense or a civil offense. Article 19 (2000), argued that it would be good if defamation is only treated as a civil offense.

It further argues that criminal defamation laws must have a strict and thorough outline of proving that defamation was committed beyond any reasonable doubt (Article 19, 2000). This will include proving that the supposedly defamatory statements made are not true and that they were made with the intention of defaming. A suggestion is also made that public officials are not to initiate this process (Article 19, n.d.).

Conclusion Defamation has been noted to be the issuance of statements which are not true and which are meant to harm the reputation of a person. Defamation laws are specifically meant to protect reputations. These laws should therefore not be extended to cover any other area apart from that of reputation protection.

When invoking a defamation law, it is mandatory that one ensures that his or her reputation has been harmed. The existence of a reputation needs to be shown such that its defamation can be ascertained. Groups which are not legally recognized and generally all public bodies are exempted from this protection.

Unregistered groups are not considered to have any reputation at all and as such they cannot invoke defamation actions. Though most nations treat defamation as either civil offense or criminal offense, there is a call for defamation laws to be amended into making defamation offenses only civil offenses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Defamation and Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Article 19. (2000). Defining defamation. Global Campaign for Free Expression. Web.

Article 19. Criminal defamation. Article 19. Web.

Larson, A. (2003). Defamation, Libel and Slander Law. Expert Law. Web.

Singh, B. (2008). Criminal offence. The Star Online. Web.

The Canadian Bar Association. (2012). Defamation: Libel and Slander. The Canadian Bar Association. Web.


Freedom of expression Essay essay help free: essay help free

Freedom of expression refers to the right to express one’s opinions or thoughts freely by utilizing any of the different modes of communication available. The ideas aired should, however, not cause any intentional harm to other personality or status through false or ambiguous statements. Communication of ideas can be achieved through speech, writing or art. Freedom of expression, unlike freedom of thought, may be regulated by the appropriate authorities in any society in order to avoid controversies between different individuals.

The extent to which this limitation or censorship is done varies from nation to nation and is dependent on the government of the day. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every individual has the right to search for information, access and impart variety of ideas irrespective of the frontiers.

The subject of freedom of expression has always been controversial, especially when considering political aspects. A state is perceived to have the mandate to impede people from convening groups in which they air their opinions if those views can result in direct harm to other people.

However, the interference would only be an exception if doing so results in more beneficial outcomes than standing aside. For one to be in a position to gauge the eventuality of a gain or a loss, then there should be absolute freedom of expression on all matters irrespective of the nature of the sentiments made.

Arguments for absolute freedom of expression can be a made by evaluating the purpose for which the ideas are expressed and the manner in which we evaluate what is true or false. According to Mill (Eisenach, 2004), the right to express one’s opinions offers humanity a rare chance to switch over an error for the truth if the idea expressed happens to be true.

In case the opinion happens to be wrong, mankind stands a chance of getting a clearer picture of the known truth through collusion with a mistake. Therefore, freedom of expression acts in the best interests of mankind as it endeavors to progress and its limitation deprives people of the prospects of growth.

Whether we let expression of an opinion to be limited or censored, whereas it could be true, then we present ourselves as beyond reproach. We consider all that we know to be the truth and therefore dispel all opinions that question this truth. It is possible for people or authorities to be in fault. For instance, what we consider to be morally right or wrong may not be so.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lines that define moral rights and wrongs were set by people who could possibly have mistaken. In order to draw the limit, one must differentiate between sureness and the truth. Our certainty that a particular idea is false does not in any way excuse its expression. Suppressing such an idea would not only justify our confidence of the opinion being wrong, but also proves that we are flawless.

If limitation of people’s freedom of expression in matters such as racism is based on certainty that mankind does not stand to lose any benefit, then this sureness should be founded in the freedom itself. We can only consider ourselves to be certain when there have been no opinions raised to question the truths we hold. Therefore, in order to boost our certainty, we have to leave room for the opposing beliefs.

There are governments that censor the expression of certain ideas not because they are false, but because they are considered to be hazardous to the society. Mill argues that in such a situation, the hazard in the expressed opinions is questionable. The only way to ascertain that the opinion is in fact dangerous is not to suppress its expression but to allow its free discussion.

Secondly, if the opinion that is being limited is true, then the alternative view held by the government must be false. Experience has shown that all beliefs that are false are never constructive in the long run. Therefore, the government that prefers to hold a false conviction in place of a hazardous truth does not act in the best interests of its people.

In many instances, the silenced view may be a mistake. However, most of these mistakes do carry with them a scrap of truth. On the other hand, the existing view on each of the different topics often does not contain the entire truth. By listening to the opinions of others on the matter, an opportunity to learn the rest of the uncovered truths presents itself.

For instance in politics, we could have two political parties with different agendas. One wants to institute reforms while another desires to ensure stability. People may not be in a position to discern what should be retained or altered, but ensuring the parties at opposing ends ensures each party checks on the performance of the other. In the long run, we strike for a beneficial balance between their supposed agendas (Bhargava, 2008).

Moreover, if the opinion being expressed is entirely true, it may not be considered so with certainty. For confidence to feature, these views must be contested against other rational opinions of others in order to single out the supporting arguments. It is expected that those who believe in their opinions will place strong arguments in their favor (Matravers, 2001).

We will write a custom Essay on Freedom of expression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If an authority believes in the rationality of its ideas, then it should leave room for the expression of opposing ideas. For instance, if any reigning political party has faith in the views it has concerning the development of the country’s economy, it should not be wary of an opposition party with contradicting views. After all what they stand for has factual backing (O’Rourke, 2001).

Lastly, the battle for supremacy between different opinions opens up a more comprehensive understanding of our beliefs. We begin to comprehend what is required of us and are, thus, in a position to act on them. Human beliefs do not exhibit any motivation and the debates that arise are what add fuel to the fire.

Holding beliefs with a conservative mindset only serves to hinder our acceptance of the possible alternatives (Jones, 2001). Therefore, opposition exhibited in the freedom of speech opens up a lee way for open-mindedness besides posing a challenge to hypocrisy and logical sluggishness.

The absence of restrictions on people’s freedom of oppression allows for the exchange of error for truth or the clarification of the existing truth. It also reinforces our certainty in the opinions we consider true besides increasing our open-mindedness and thoughtfulness. For governments, it ensures those entrusted with the leadership of the country have reasonable opinions that work for the common good of the country’s citizens.

Free discussion and analysis of different ideas will, thus, result in the prosperity of mankind rather than the detrimental effects it is assumed to bring.

References Bhargava, H. (2008). Political Theory: An Introduction. Delhi: Pearson Education

Eisenach, E. (2004). Mill and Moral Character. New York: Penn State Press.

Jones, T. (2001). Modern Political Thinkers and Ideas: An Historical Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Freedom of expression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Matravers, D. (2001) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill. New York: Routledge.

O’Rourke, K. (2001). John Stuart Mill and Freedom of Expression: The Genesis of a Theory. Connecticut: Taylor


Benefits of Preparing for Emergencies and Terrorism Term Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters

Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers

Benefits to the Authorities

Benefits to the General Population



Introduction The last 13 years have brought to the attentions of all Americans the devastating effects that natural disasters and terrorism can have on the society. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the devastating hurricane Katrina in 2006 demonstrated the adverse effects of disasters.

In both instances, the emergency services responded promptly and they were able to mitigate the damages and save many lives. Even so, Cetron and DeMicco (2006) suggest that these responses were not optimal since the responders were not well prepared for such catastrophes.

In light of increased concern of terrorist-related incidents and the ongoing risk of major domestic incidents in the country, making preparations is a prudent approach. This paper will set out to highlight the benefits of preparing for emergencies and terrorism for emergency workers, government authorities, and the general population.

Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters While terrorism is not a new phenomenon, terrorists today pose significantly greater danger than they ever have in the past. These terrorists are better financed, organized, and they demonstrate greater eagerness to engage in higher levels of carnage; factors that significantly increase the risk that they pose to the public.

Hoffman (2006) notes that in the last decade, terrorism has emerged as the most perilous global problem that threatens to disrupt society life. Taking preemptive actions to prepare for an imminent terrorist attack is therefore in the best interest of the society.

The impacts of natural disasters on society have increased dramatically over the past few decades (Schaefer-Jones, 2007). The reason for this is that human population has increased and many settlements have been established in areas that are prone to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.

The concentration of populations in urban areas also increases the severity of damage when natural disasters strike at a particular location. For this reasons, being prepared for natural disasters is crucial to reducing the hazards posed by such events.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers Preparations will familiarize emergency workers with unconventional weapons that may be used by terrorists. Alexander and Klein (2006) suggest that it is plausible that these terrorists will pursue chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) methods in the near future. While most emergency workers are proficient in dealing with conventional terrorist attacks, they may lack the expertise to deal with CBRN.

Preparation will familiarize the emergency personnel with impacts of such attacks and inform them on how to respond. Alexander and Klein (2006) reveal that training will help emergency workers to address the heightened physical risk of children and adolescents to CBRN effects. Emergency personnel will also be trained on how to identify the various agents used by the terrorists and the effective countermeasure against them.

Preparation will entail determination of priority and authority for incident safety management. In most disasters, significant amount of time and resources are wasted due to lack of a command structure and priority. Emergency workers therefore end up dealing with matters in a haphazard manner and lack of central command leads to poor coordination. Preparation will help establish a priority order that will be used when dealing with disaster. Authority will also be given and a command structure established to help in joint emergency activities.

Reissman and Howard (2008) reveal that proper preparations include delineation of roles to ensure cross-agency consistency and effective communication during a disaster. During training, mock drills are carried out and emergency personnel including, but not limited to, medical teams, fire fighters, and police are given roles and responsibilities that they will carry out in the event of a real emergency. Training ensures that emergency personnel familiarize themselves with protocols to be used in emergencies.

Anticipating likely hazards within the planning scenarios will help identify the kind of equipment and technical expertise that will be needed in the real disaster. This will assist response organizations to acquire the needed equipment and expert staff. If this is not possible, the organization will have an inventory of where this equipment and expert staff can be obtained from on short notice.

This early identification will aid in the quick acquisition of necessary technical staff and monitoring equipment when responding to a disaster. Reissman and Howard (2008) reiterate that having an inventory of such assets will facilitate quick decision-making.

The emergency response team needs to be medically, emotionally, and cognitively ready to face disaster. If these workforce is not ready in these important dimensions, their efficiency will be lowered and this will hamper the entire disaster response operations. The planning phase will include pre-deployment medical reviews to ensure that the emergency response personnel are fit for duty. Individuals who have risk factors that might compromise the mission success will be removed from active participation (Reissman


A Man for All Semesters Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of Main Points




Introduction Dameron’s article titled “A man for All Semesters” explores misdeeds of Tomar as well as the indolent nature of learners in higher institutions. The article gives an account of how Dave Tomar made vast amounts of money by helping students to complete their assignments.

Tomar earns a decent living from his work as a freelance writer in a custom essay company. The article explains how Tomar completed loads of papers for learners who were either indolent or not prepared for tasks associated with completion of their college, graduate and doctoral programs. The interest of learners is just to present exactly what the teacher asks for so that they can obtain excellent grades.

Hence, they keep on confirming whether the writer is writing what the teacher requires. Also, Dameron uses some clients served, by Mr. Tomar, to show that these learners are not ready to think on their own at all. Rather, they expect Mr. Tomar to provide them with an excellent piece of work that meets the criteria asked for by their instructors. Besides, the article demonstrates parents to these learners as being key facilitators to the entire process of cheating in institutions of higher learning.

Other aspects that this article explores are relationships between unemployment and academic cheating. Mr. Tomar was happy with his work as he could earn more than most of his peer lectures in prominent universities. Further, the article shows that the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Writing dissertations for the doctorate and graduate learners as well as completing term papers for college learners produces learners, who cannot think or apply education learnt to real situations.

Besides, completing such vital tasks on behalf of learners leaves them with less time to study and learn. This, in turn, compromises the value and significance of education in American universities. As a result, these institutions end up producing graduates who cannot think critically, and whenever they find themselves in a situation that requires complex reasoning, they make efforts to contact freelance writers who can complete these tasks on their behalf.

This article is of immense significance today to instructors, learners, readers and parents. The article demonstrates that current instructors have neglected their work of ensuring that learners present original work in higher institutions of learning. Whenever instructors offer assignments to learners, they have a responsibility of ensuring that learners submit their original work in order to maintain academic integrity.

Besides, this article demonstrates that learners have lost moral values related to education and their parents are paying little attention to their misdeeds. Every time learners receive assignments while, in learning institutions, they should complete these assignments individually, or as required in order to avoid compromising values related to education.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current economic issues in the United States, particularly in the area of employments, may have made learners develop the act of cheating in examinations Also, parents have a responsibility of ensuring that their children complete home assignments individually rather than presenting these assignments to other people to assist them.

Further, this article is of immense significance to any reader who believes in academic integrity and moral development. This is because this topic seems to compromise these key aspects of education purpose.

As revealed by this account, both undergraduate and graduate schools and learners have fallen into a trap of low quality education and cheating because of little attention by instructors in American institutions.

Summary of Main Points Dameron’s article highlights the issue of academic cheating. Another key point that is clear in this work is that learners in higher institutions of learning just seek to excel in their assignments as opposed to obtaining knowledge.

Besides, Dameron’s article demonstrates how students cannot think independently. Dameron also demonstrates that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. In addition, Dameron uses Mr. Tomar to demonstrate that the current situation of exam cheating has roots in lack of adequate employment.

The article by Dameron further explains that if the story by Mr. Tomar is true, then the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Also, this article highlights that instructors in American institutions of higher learning have failed in their role of molding characters of learners.

Analysis The author fulfilled his purpose through this argument. The main purpose of the author was to demonstrate that cheating in American institutions of higher learning is prevalent due to both economic and institutional issues. However, this work has both logical and illogical ideas.

We will write a custom Essay on A Man for All Semesters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, the article claims that Mr. Tomar’s clients are lazy and incompetent. While this could be true for most clients, it cannot be generalized. This is because some learners ask for Mr. Tomar’s hand due to sickness, ethnical issues or engagement in other activities that they value as much as education. Hence, this fallacy is illogical.

Second, the article claims that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. On the same paragraph, the article demonstrates that the learner has concern of what the paper will entail.

These two ideas are contradicting as one idea seeks to demonstrate that these learners only care about following instructions given in order to pass exams, whereas the other idea demonstrates that learners have a concern on details of the paper as they know what should be contained in the paper. Hence, these two statements are contradicting and seem to be illogical.

Third, the article speculates that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. A study referring to the trend of studying and learning, in higher institutions, by Marks and Philip Babcock indicates that there is a tremendous decline in the time spent by learners on their studies. This study made reference to students’ behavior between 1961 and 2003. This argument seems to be illogical as it draws from inductive arguments.

The fact that there is a tremendous decline, in the time that students spend on their studies, does not necessary mean that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. Besides, the last date that the study made reference to was 2003, 0r 9 years ago. The fact that a situation existed 9 years ago does not necessary means that the same situation exists. All these arguments seem to be informal fallacies.

Response The first issue that I support is the perspective on academic cheating. The practice of academic cheating is prevalent in most American institutions of higher learning (McCabe, Trevino,


How Leaders Create and Use Networks Essay (Article) college essay help near me

This article mainly focuses on how leaders create and use networks in their work place for their success in discharging their duties, a skill that non leaders do not posses. This article was written by Herminia Ibara and Mark hunter.

Ibara is a professor of leadership and learning at the University of Insead, Fontainebleau, France and the director of the faculty of leadership initiative, an executive program for managers moving into broader leadership at Insead. She has also written numerous books. Hunter is an investigative journalist and a professor of communications at Insead and has written different books (Ibara and Hunter 108).

The authors while examining the networks which are the personal connections that will provide support, information and resources, found that they are the most challenging for managers who are transitioning into new leadership roles.

When managers move up the ranks, they will be addressing issues that will impact the whole organization and not only their areas of specialization, these new roles require relational tactics, which involves exchange and interaction with the current and potential stakeholders. All these contacts are particularly critical to the new roles of the leader.

The authors identified three different types of networks which are interdependent on each other. They are operational networks, personal networks and strategic networks. Personal networks will help to improve personal development of the manager.

These based on the relationships forged with the immediate superiors, juniors, the peers and outsiders like suppliers and customers who have the potential of supporting or blocking the project. Personal networks are for the purposes of coordinating and cooperation between individuals who know one another when they are accomplishing any task. This form of networking comes almost naturally to most managers (Ibara and Hunter 107).

Operational networks will assist the managers on present internal responsibilities so that they can perform their duties well. These are relationships built outside the inner circles and are established through professional associations, clubs and other interest groups that will serve to advance careers while giving new insights and perspectives. Operational networks serve as an important tool for personal development and can be a convenient point to establish the next network of relationship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Operational networks are made of flexible connections between people who share or have something in common and are vital for referrals and getting daily tasks done. Strategic networks will help the individual in seeing the new directions of the business, and the stakeholders because this is the inflection point where the manager moves from the functional responsibilities into being a business leader. The concerns at this juncture are the broad business strategic issues.

The relationships established here will be the foundation of information that will enable the leader to achieve both personal and organizational goals. Strategic networks are the most underutilized among the three networking types, yet it is the most important for the success of a manager moving to undertake new responsibilities (Ibara and Hunter 109).

The authors have been studying networking strategies and social networks used by managers for over 20 years and their findings are, the useful and meaningful networks do not happen instantly, but needs time, and all three have to be used to ensure success and not just one or two.

They studied 30 managers for a period of two years who were transitioning into positions of leadership in the organization, and their findings were that those who employed all the three types of networking were successful while those who did not end up failing (Ibara and Hunter 106). These findings support the principles of reciprocity that are common in leadership management to influence followers of a leader.

People find they are obligated to support anybody they are closely associated or share something in common. These networks are based on interpersonal trust because when a person trust another, they are likely to offer support and, therefore, ensuring the success in the transition process. The findings also support the principle of six degrees of separation which simply says there are at least six people connections between one person and another in the world (Ibara and Hunter 108).

On the other hand, over reliance on networks could lead to other problems because not everybody is reliable to give the required and appropriate support and may give some misleading information. Besides, operational networks would address the assigned objectives and not the overall strategic objectives of the organization.

Personal networks are easy to establish and almost comes naturally, but the strategic networks are difficult to establish especially if it involves the superiors in the organization. There is no step by step formula to be followed in order to establish these networks, but they are intuitive based on general guidelines and would largely depend on individuals and situations. This means that they can be extremely hard for some individuals while it may be easy for others (Ibara and Hunter 106).

We will write a custom Article on How Leaders Create and Use Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, this article contains valuable information particularly to any aspiring manager who wants to climb the career ladder by leverage the concept of networks in pursuit of their careers while making solid contributions in their organization. This is because the findings were observable facts on managers working in different organizations and are supported by sound principles of management (Ibara and Hunter 112).

Works Cited Ibara, Herminia and Hunter, Mark. How Leaders Create and Use Networks. Jan. 2007. Harvard Business Review. Web.