Customer Care Service Program Report College Application Essay Help

“One satisfied customer will tell three other customers while one dissatisfied customer will go out of his/her way to tell 300 hundred other customers” this is a common saying in companies and businesses that deal with a lot of customers, the moral of the saying is that a company has a lot to lose by not ensuring that its customers are satisfied and happy at all times.

The customer is king and a satisfied customer will come back begging for more therefore it is paramount that the quality of service delivered is precisely of high quality. This is therefore why companies whether big or small concentrate on satisfying customers and are coming up with innovative customer service/care techniques that leave their customers smiling and begging for more.

When creating a customer care service program you should have one aim in your mind quality and satisfaction the role of staff in this process of service delivery is as important as the product itself, and in cases where the products are assumed to be of the same quality across the industry then the way staff treat and interact with customers determines who crosses the finish line in the first position (Kotler and Keller 2002).

As much as all customers should be treated the same it is also vita to know it is only fair to you to ensure that the biggest accounts in your business are treated like royalty. Below are some key elements to be considered while developing a leading customer service system:

1. Identify which of your customers is the most valuable to your business then cluster or rank them according to the level of importance to your business.

2. Find out the level of service expected by the customer. This can be obtained through conversations and use of questionnaires, surveys or gathering commercial intelligence from competitors.

3. Develop a customer service standard and programme that aims to maximize customer satisfaction and build loyalty and do not forget to involve employees in this stage. Their involvement creates an obligation for them to perform their duties diligently, at the same time create a system of rewarding excellent customer service and punishing poor customer service delivery amongst employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 4. Create a monitoring system that will be able to gather the opinions and felling of customers and rank them in order of importance according to the various types of services that you deliver as far as customer service is concerned. Which will assist you in making any corrections to the existing programme and standards if need arises.

By understanding the concept of customer care and how customers analyze service delivery to conclude whether a service delivered is either of good or bad quality can be very useful in your case.

Below are some indicators of good customer care that you should strive to exhibit in your organization and urge your employees to ensure they adhere to: Friendliness/politeness, Responsiveness, constant communication and feedback mechanisms , acknowledging and taking notice of customers Keeping you promises by letting customers know what you can or cannot do, appreciating customers (Locker


Race in United States Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research questions

Literature Review

Relevance of the Study


Empirical Analysis

Works Cited

Introduction United States has stood to be one of the world’s economic power houses. The country has been recognized as one of the nations with more than enough resources that could fully support its citizens. This however, resulted in some negative effects which include ecological destruction and racial discrimination.

Though considered as having some of the best environmental laws, the communities within the country are not given equal treatment. The policies safeguarding the environment have not fully addressed some equal benefits to all members of the society since some communities are generally overlooked when it comes to usage of land and agriculture (Schelhas 7).

Access to arable land has been a difficult task for the minority blacks who live in the USA. Large chunks of land and other natural assets have been dominated by the wealthy, majority of which are whites. The less privileged have been denied access to these natural resources and also used as damping sites for environmental wastes. This calls for the importance of including asset-building in the democratic strategy in order to account for sustainability and most importantly empowering the community (West 13).

Research questions The research will seek to answer the following questions;

To what extent do public policies contribute in reducing or increasing the cases of racial inequality in agricultural and environmental affairs?

What brings about the unequal exposure to environmental protection?

What policies can help reduce racism, raise productivity and increase employment opportunities?

Literature Review According to Collin and Robin (13) political and logistical problems are the main barriers to environmental and agricultural justice. There is no fixed relationship, between agricultural development and environmental stress. Both are determined by national policies and by investments that seek to increase research capacity and the knowledge needed to move from racial based society to a liberal society which treats human being with equal rights (Collin and Robin 13).

Studies have revealed that agricultural work is crucial in the economy of a nation, and much attention should be given to both the rate and pattern of its development. Non-farm activities and policies that affect interactions between agriculture and industry are also important determinants of the level of employment and social status (West 13).

According to Pefia (6), “there is a direct relationship between the persistence of environmental racism in farm work and the political, legal and economic conditions that maintain farm workers in a state of labor repression.” This was an implication that unequal trends in the environmental protection as well as unequal exposure to the environmental dangers emanated from the collective effects of several conditions and these conditions were more of economical, political and legal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government’s public policies and laws that were put in place to give support to the farm labor contractor system gave limitations on legal grounds that could enable farm workers to organize themselves for the protection of their rights (West 13). According to Majka, immigrant status which has not been documented of a large number of farm workers weakened even more the farmer’s capacity to deal with the injustice challenge that face them in the agricultural place of work.

The absence of the legal frameworks or the frameworks that are weak for organizing unions, attaining collaborative rights for bargaining, and the right to protest, presented greatest grave barriers to the achievement of the environmental justice for these workers (Majka and Majka). Basically, this implied that as long as the farm workers were still defenseless and unorganized, they still had limited ability to deal with the environmental racism in their work places as well as in the places they live.

There existed some level of discrimination in US Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan, credit and subsidy program (Schelhas 7). Unequal treatment of farmers of color as well as discrimination imposed by the United States Department of Agriculture engaged a well documented legacy of institutionalized racism. There was acceptance by the internal report made by the Civil Rights Action Team of lack of success of the United States Department of Agriculture to go in line with the laws of federal civil rights.

In the United States of America, Racial discrimination in USDA was left greatly unchecked at a time when Reagan administration came to an end. This was brought back by the Clinton administration in the year 1996 but the destruction had been done and the civil rights enforcement complaints were still eminent all through the 1990s (Swanston, 82).

Global environmental study shows that there are so many environmental issues around the world that people have to contend with irrespective of their race or color. Amongst these environmental hazards include; dirty water, polluted air, waste treatment areas, municipal dumping sites, and government or industrial disposal facilities amongst others.

However, researches have revealed that within the United States these environmental hazards have been worsened by the practice of racism. The existing environmental policies and practices are of great disadvantage to some individual communities of the same race.

These policies have brought about environmental racism which has really benefited northern counties as opposed to Southern counties. According to Majka and Majka, environmental discrimination can be likened to institutional discrimination which is defines as “actions or practices carried out by members of dominant racial or ethnic groups that have differential and negative impact on members of subordinate, racial and ethnic, groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race in United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These policies brought about extreme exploitation of arable land and the natural environment in favor of the native population. Those who form the numerical minority in politics and in any other sector were subjected to policy discrimination (Majka and Majka).

The country under its current policies placed numerous strains on the environments associated with the under-privileged within the society mostly people of different race. This is seen in industries dealing with massive mining and extraction of resources. Globalization has made it easier for international companies to occupy places that have least environmental rules and regulations, cheap labor and good consumer base.

Relevance of the Study This research tends to champion for the restoration and non-discriminating use of natural assets. It brings to the realization that natural assets are not limited but comprise variety of things such as land, clean air and water. The study seeks to show the necessity of utilizing agricultural land and environment with equality in mind.

This focuses on reducing poverty level alongside building of financial wealth amongst the communities. The study will seek to identify give clear effects of public policies on natural resources and their effects on both rich and poor (West 13). The report will seek to find out why minority farmers have lost significant amounts of land and potential farm income as a result of discrimination by Farm Service Agency programs and the programs by its predecessor agencies (Schelhas 7)

Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative methods of study will be applied in this case. Literature survey study on the uses and challenges of environmental policies on agriculture and racism will form the basis of the study. The risks, challenges and benefits of Environmental policies will be identified and accounted for by use of examples.

Part of the data will be obtained from the primary sources which provide explicit information on inequality brought about by poor government policies. Questionnaires will be prepared for use during structured interviews respondents being community members and environmental officials

Qualitative method helps in easier understanding of data since it emphasizes on direct information from people’s words and actions. Qualitative method has the characteristic that it should gather information on acquired data, based on quantitative methods. The task of understanding and presenting qualitative research proved to be very demanding as statistics.

Empirical Analysis Inductive coding will be used to reveal how consistent the research is with the information given. The data will be broken down and re-organized to achieve the intended objective. The grouped data will then be categorized for the purposes of comparison that will help in providing practical reality of the research (Straus and Corbin). For quantitative analysis Chi-square analysis test will be utilized. The critical alpha level that will be used to measure discrepancies is 0.05.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race in United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Empirical research design is developed in order to help in exploring the theory discussed in this paper. Individual calculations will be measured based on the interviews conducted and previous data collected statistically analyzed. Available database having track details on the nature of the effect of public policies on agricultural land and environment based on race will be analyzed.

Meta analysis will be conducted to include all the effects of public policies on racial inequality down the previous years. This research seeks to establish an understanding between the research objectives and findings from the interview (Strauss and Corbin).

This research employ the use of Grounded theory which will be used for the purposes of interpreting the data collected. Collecting, interpreting and understanding of data will be done best in grounded theory, where the collection of data, its analysis and theory are closely related bringing some relevance to the research undertaken (Strauss and Corbin).

There is the utilization of peer debriefing which ensures that the required consistency is achieved. For the purposes of coding, the interview scripts are scrutinized to ensure identification of similar or different opinions, the similar ideas are identified substantiated and all the comments highlighted within the transcript margins.

Two different evaluators are used each making his own coding frame for sampling the sub-transcripts (sub-sample used n=2). The different findings will then be compared to ensure accuracy of the coded data. From this a coding frame is produced that is appropriately utilized on the whole data collected. The data will then be thoroughly compared and analysed to tally with the requirements as per grounded theory approach.

Data collection will also be followed by the process whereby the data is grouped into themes which assist in detailed description of the research based on the social and environmental settings. The validity of the research will be based on transparency and viability of message conveyed. Individual narrative interviews are conducted concurrently with the process of transcription and coding of data which is later concentrated and categorized for analysis (Strauss and Corbin).

Works Cited Collin, Robert


The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The historical recordings of past events are very important in the understanding of the actual happenings, analysis of the flow of past events, understanding the factors influencing past occurrences, explanations of the effects of such events, linking the present and future to the past as well as the decision making based on such events.

The actual recording of past events however utilizes every manner of evidence to be able to adequately support the assertions made. Historians and other analysts are in agreement on the need to use the evidence that creates reality and is supportive, but are divided on the relevance of such evidence as from primary sources which they assert are at the heart of history recording and interpretation, yet still creates subjectivity and questions the fairness and truth of such historical recording.

It is worth noting that personal narratives and records of events and discussions forms part of memoirs. Despite the division on the role of personal narratives in recording of history, their relevance from their nature and role in history cannot be overlooked.

This forms the basis for this essay, that is, the analysis of the merits and pitfalls of personal narratives based on the war memory. It is worth appreciating that the authors to be analyzed, Naruo and Sachiko, present their own personal narratives or historical accounts of the occurrences of the war in Japan based on where they were their feelings and perceptions of war as well as their own descriptions of the happenings of the war.

This presents their characters, beliefs, values, interpretation of events and explanations for actions taken. These narratives form the foundations for the explanation of the merits and pitfalls of memoirs in the recording of the historical events. This analysis focuses on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them.

Background study: The role of memoirs or biographies in history Personal narratives are very important in the recording of past events. They are basically personal recordings of the individual events and happenings that act as a trace of the life of such an individual.[1] Naruo in his narrative of “Doesn’t seem too bad”, focuses on the account around his life in the spring of 1945 in which Japan was in war.[2]

He writes as a fifty two year old man, about the events of war in his life as a 6th grade young boy. Sachiko writes her narrative when she is fifty seven years and in her narrative “When I made Balloon bombs”, focuses on her work at the Kokura munitions factory in February of 1945 as a young girl in her fourth year class in high school where together with her classmates had been mobilized to work in the plant in the production of balloon bombs.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors are very much related in that they were both in school although Sachiko was in high school while Naruo was in 6th grade. This raises the fact that they were knowledgeable of writing and reading though Sachiko being older presents a clearer understanding of the war happenings as compared to Naruo. Basically, Sachiko is a young girl or lady while Naruo is a young boy although both of them write these narratives in their fifties with Naruo being fifty two while Sachiko is fifty seven.

These narratives are very relevant in providing historical information on the war from different perspectives in terms of gender and age since Naruo is around twelve years as a young boy child and Sachiko around seventeen years as a female teenager about to get to adulthood especially out of the great memories of the war in Japan whose effect is relevant even to date.[4]

Further, these accounts present the historical accounts from different locations where Sachiko was in Kokura munitions plant working in the making of balloon bombs, while Naruo has his account on his journey from Hiroshima to north eastern Japan. This analyses focuses on the justifying the reasons relevant for their use in history recording based on their merits and pitfalls in relation to records of history.

Factors that influenced the writing of the memoirs and their use in the recording of past events The war period elicited different feelings and reactions. In the period of 1945, Japan had been in war with China which had started back in 1937 and with America and its allies. The war took the direction of bombings and massive destruction of cities and towns and much later into nuclear bombings.[5]

These personal narratives represent the experiences of the authors with war. The experiences and memories that were so significant motivated them to write them down.[6] Sachiko has the rare experience of making balloon bombs which were used in war, while Naruo travels and sees a burned town to which the psychological state of meeting a person who perceives the situation as bad despite the feeling of fear elicits suspicion on him

It is worth noting that since both writers were in school during that period, the ability to read and write facilitated their writing of their historical accounts.

The magnitude of psychological impact the war had on the authors seemed to have motivated their writing.[7] This is revealed in the fact that Sachiko presents the shock and feelings of surprise at the fact that she actually made a balloon bomb and goes on to describe this process. Naruo on the other hand, has great surprise that despite his lack of much understanding on the war, the man he spoke to creates fear and suspicion to him and causes him to think much about his perception of the war and his statement of not being too bad.

We will write a custom Essay on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The age of the authors also seems to have been a motivation for their personal narratives with the shock and overwhelming nature of the war more than they could bear in their age. It is also worth noting that the issues raised are the involvement of children in war, psychological effects of war, conditions at the munitions plants and the role of gender in the war.[8]

Merits of using memoirs in recording of history The use of memoirs in history recording is based on justified reasons, which form the merits of such memoirs basically with the influence of their nature, degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.[9] Personal narratives as memoirs have the advantage of being useful in various fields other than just the records of history. This includes in the analysis of the issues surrounding the writing of such narratives.

For instance in “When I made Balloon bombs”, there is evidence of information regarding the war, the issues in the munitions plants during the war period, the education basis, gender influences in war as well as the science and art in the making of such bombs. In so doing, Sachiko presents information useful on the history on education, use of girls in munitions plants, the living conditions at the time and the aspects of disease and death as is applicable in the health sector as well as the issues of casualties after the war.[10]

Naruo presents information on a journey in a train with conversation with the neighbour and the creation of suspicion.[11] This is applicable in the learning of transport of the time, communication, education and the protection of children in war. These narratives can also be used in literature learning.

Personal narratives are also advantageous in providing the actual chronological order of events and the differences in geographical locations with actual explanations limited to a specific place.[12] Sachiko focuses on her life in the Kokura munitions plant proving information on the munitions plants in terms of conditions, workers, working environment and their role in history.

Naruo presents information on his journey from Hiroshima to the north eastern Japan raising the importance of Hiroshima as a target area for war hence the eviction of children. They both present the actual dates of the happenings of the war as the end of February in 1945 for Sochika and during the spring of the same year for Norua raising the ability to verify the reliability of the information in comparison with other records of war.

The fact that memoirs are primary sources of evidence increases the validity of history sources since such recordings are not based on any secondary interpretations of information which increases their truth.[13] Personal narratives are personally written with clear indications of the writer to be able to gauge the value of such information and get the perspective from the person. Sochika clearly specifies that she was in fourth class in high school and had been mobilized with her classmates to work in the munitions plants during the war.

Norua on his part presents his journey from Hiroshima and the suspicions from his neighbour in the journey raising the psychological interpretations and effects of the war. Both Norua and Sochika present their narratives in a way that is truly personal since some things such as actual feelings and interpretations cannot be done by somebody else conclusively. This increases their reliability as primary sources of evidence and as such their advantage in records of history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Memoirs also are necessary in history recording especially where there are limited sources of evidence hence can be used to record such events while they provide historical data from different perspectives and based on different events which increases the value and content of history.[14]

This is very relevant due to limited nature of information especially in events of increasing the scope of research and getting to understand a subject from different perspectives.

Sochika presents information of the life at the Kokura munitions plant as a high school girl which may not have been written by somebody else in her position. Norua presents an account of a young boy’s interpretation of the war raising the influence on children who despite their limited understanding of the war had the ability of interpreting what was happening around them due to the magnitude of the impact of the war.[15]

The reliability of personal narratives also lies in their use of feelings and personal expressions to express the meaning increasing the reality of the event. For instance, Norua expresses his shock on seeing the burnt town of Akashi with clear description of the scene and then raises his words of expression “Doesn’t seem too bad” despite his shock.[16]

This increases his suspicion of the man next to him who seems to have heard raising his feelings of discomfort and thoughts of him being a spy. Sochika raises the expressions that were evident with the fact that they were free to go home some silence and shock. Her expression of the responses raises the understanding of the actual condition at the plants and the lack of expectations of release.[17]

Further, personal narratives are very necessary in increasing the fields of application of historical research such as political, philosophical, language, social, economic and cultural interpretations increasing the use of historical data.[18]

This is evident in the narratives of Sochika and Norua that can be used in political understanding of the times from the perspective of the authors, economic status from the nature of the work environment at the munitions plants and the food shortages in Hiroshima, social influences of gender in war, language at the time, philosophical interpretations of such narratives as well as psychological understanding of the war effects such as diseases, frustrations, fear and suspicion as well as the health issues.

Pitfalls of Personal Narratives Firstly, memoirs are individualized and as such reliance on them would provide a biased viewpoint especially where varying perspectives of different memoirs are used.[19] For instance, despite the age difference between Norua and Sochika, both can be considered as children.

However, Sochika is heavily involved in the munitions plant of Kokura in making balloon bombs, while Norua is part of the children that are evicted from Hiroshima to north eastern parts to protect them. This limits the understanding of the influence of the war on the children in terms of their involvement.

Memoirs also are just recordings of such events as the writer deems necessary. This means that the prior events that the author does not see of necessity are ignored thus making it difficult to follow up history. For instance, Sachiko presents information on her making of balloon bombs and the conditions at the plants.[20]

She does not specify on the reasons why they were allowed to leave, the length they had worked and the events after leaving the plant. Norua also considers his journey and his meeting the neighbour.[21] He does not clearly present the conditions at Hiroshima or the destination area limiting their reliability and follow up.

It is worth considering that memoirs are subject to loss of clarity of the flow of events especially due to loss of memory of the event.[22] This can lead to confusion and hence the lack of the actual presentation of the event. The personal narratives of Sochika and Norua are written in their fifties yet they represents the happening of event during the childhood and teenage.

This is subject to memory loss, exaggerations and the failure to remember the main significant issues or history. This however is debatable due to the magnitude of the war that elicited memories which have remained in Japan especially the effects of the bombings meaning that the authors could have clearly remembered the actual war events.[23]

Historians have been criticized of trying to establish the causes of actions, which are limited by memoirs due to the individual differences. Further, history based on emotions is not stable enough to stand the test of time. This is because memoirs are based on expression of the feelings of an individual, which are influenced by different factors. For instance, the feelings of Sochika are more of shock out of being released and frustration from working at the firm and death of the classmates while Norua mainly bases his narration on fear and suspicion.

It is worth appreciating that the characteristics of the writer of historical records have a role in influencing the reliability of such information.[24] Sochika is a young girl who understands what is happening even with her involvement in the making of bombs. This is not the case for Norua who is a young boy and in fact expresses his lack of understanding of the war and as such limits the application of his work in explanation of war perspectives.

Conclusion This analysis has focused on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them. The narratives that have been used are “Doesn’t seem too bad” by Norua and “When I made balloon bombs” by Sochika. The emphasis has been on their merits and pitfalls as sources of historical records and information based on their nature degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.

Bibliography Fowale, Tongkeh. Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, 9- 23.

Hicks, George L. Japan’s war memories: amnesia or concealment? California: Ashgate Publishers, The University of California, 1997, 13-33.

McCullagh, Behan. “Language and the Truth of History.” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441- 455.

Naruo, Shirai. “Doesn’t seem too bad.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 206-207.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980, 6-25.

Sachiko, Takamizawa. “When I made Balloon Bombs.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 181-182.

Seaton, Philip. Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II. London: Routledge, 2007, 23-45.

Seraphim, Franzika. War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945-2005. Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143.

Southgate, Beverley. What is History for? New York: Routledge, 2005, 12.

Trefalt, Beatrice. Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 13-24.

Footnotes Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 11.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 24.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 140.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 20.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 30.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950- 1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 14.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 442.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 15.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 207.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 15.

Beverley Southgate, What is History for? (New York: Routledge, 2005), 12.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 19.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 142.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 20.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 23.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 448.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 39.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 452.


Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic analysis

Economic feasiblity analysis

The economic impact analysis


Effects of competition in oligopolies


Reference List

Introduction In the world of business, there are various structures that are used to organize the various establishments according to the extents of their involvement. Oligopolies are one such classification and these are well present in countries all over the world. This essay seeks to illustrate how elements of economic analysis can be used to explain the competitive aspects of business entities that take the form of oligopolies.

To this end, a description of the term economic analysis and what it entails shall be provided alongside a complete detailing of all aspects of oligopolies. A section of the paper shall be dedicated to explore the possible impacts of long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm. Finally a conclusion shall be provided and which shall serve as a summation of the arguments presented.

Economic analysis Because of the scarcity of resources, the basic human needs and desires tend to be limited by a number of factors including the purchasing power and the pricing of commodities and services. Economic analysis is the process of assessing the supply and demand patterns as well as the options which customers are exposed to and the incentives that drive them to make certain purchases (Boulding 1966).

This is therefore an analysis of how resources are utilized by a certain group of people. The field of economic analysis is divided into two main categories. These are economic feasibility analysis and economic impact analysis. These two are briefly explained below:

Economic feasiblity analysis Business establishments and state organisations tend to go through periods of uncertainty where great risk-taking measures are required particularly when it comes to the decision making process regarding long-term strategies such as the introduction of new products (Schermerhorn 1978). For a proper economic feasibility analysis to be carried out, it is imperative that the individuals involved in conducting the study commit themselves to ensuring accuracy in the prediction of demand.

To this end, it is necessary that the economic patterns as well as the purchasing power of consumers be taken into account (Schermerhorn 1978). Once the demand aspects have been dealt with, then the supply requirements can be studied and in this regard the firs have to find out which resources would be required for them to achieve their objectives. The feasibility study must also include an analysis of competitors and their basic business strategies.

The economic impact analysis This refers to intense research processes carried out with an aim of providing an estimation of the economic impact of a business establishment to the region in which it is based (Pleeter 1980). The consequence of an economic occurence is a total of the cumulative direct and indirect effects on the population. These effects are estimated by studying the levels of taxation rates, spending chains and saving patterns. These are elements that can only be analysied through scientific surveys in the target populations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oligopoly An oligopoly is a type of market structure where a number of large enterprises exercise dominance in the market (Friedman 1983). The business establishments in this type of market are usually big companies which have a lot of resources for investment and which generally tend to command larger market values.

Such companies are also very well known in the world market because they tend to spend a huge percentage of their profits on marketing and advertising. There are two main types of oligopolies. These are the impure oligopoly and the pure oligopoly (Peeples 1989). The impure oligopoly mainly deals in a variety of products or services while the pure oligopoly mainly deals in the type of product that has no major difference from those produced by other companies in the same line of business (Friedman 1983).

Such homogeneous products include the likes of steel and wheat. In an oligopoly, there are very few sellers gunning for the biggest share of the market and this is primarily because they tend to invest a lot of resources in their daily operations. On average, most oligopolies tend to have between three and four key players (Baye 1999).

The primary feature that characterizes oligopolies is the aspect of interdependence between the companies involved. A basic oligopoly will tend to be made up of very few large enterprises (Friedman 1983). Each player in the oligopoly plays a very distinct role such that any of its actions will have a significant impact on the market conditions. Economic analysis comes in handy to explain the influences of various companies in the oligopoly especially in the view of the fact that the other companies in competition are fully aware of their rivals’ market actions (Peeples 1989). This means that in order for an enterprise to pursue a particular market action, the institution has to consider all the possible counter-reactions by each and every member of the oligopoly.

This sort of strategization likens decision making in an oligopoly to a chess game in which an player has to analyze all the possible moves and countermoves by his/her opponent before establishing a plan for attaining his/her objectives. For instance a company intending to reduce its pricing structure in order to woo more clients has to take into consideration that competitors in the same market might counter the move by reducing the prices even further.

A good example is the ongoing price war between the largest mobile telephony providers in the East African country o Kenya (Zain and Safaricom) where Zain out of nowhere cut all calling rates by 50%, a situation that forced their rivals, Safaricom to cut down their charges as well. This kind of interdependent competition has the negative effect of reducing the price to ruinous levels. Economic analysis helps understand the difference between oligopolies and monopolies in this respect of interdependence.

Economic analysis helps provides an understanding of profit maximization strategies. In oligopoly markets the companies involved are generally fully aware of their competitors’ weak points. As such, the enterprises in competition will tend to exploit such weaknesses to their own advantage regardless of the fact that such actions could spark instances of unfair competitive practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic analysis helps scholars understand is aspect of competition by illustrating how oligopolies raise their profit levels by ensuring production happens at the point where marginal costs and expenditures intersect (Baye 1999). It is also through market analysis that it is easy to understand that oligopolies are able to sustain great profits by the companies acting as price setters as opposed to price takers.

In some instances, firms in an oligopoly can join forces in a secret association that would see them control the market and retain the prices at an all time high (Hirschey 2009). Such cartels result in consequences similar to those of monopolies since they tend to discourage competitive tendencies (Hirschey 2009). Economic analysis comes through to provide explanations to how certain companies in the cartels conduct themselves especially since disagreements in such arragements can result in price wars breaking out.

Once an oligopoly has been well established, it assumes the form of an elitist club where new entrants have to go to extensive lengths to prove their worth (Puu and Shusko 2002). In other words there are very many barriers to entry. Economic analysis helps further understand this aspect of entry by laying emphasis on the primary barriers which include economies of scale and idea licensing.

Similarly, concepts of economic analysis will contribute to understanding further why the enterprises that have already established ground in the oligopoly will make all necessary efforts to ensure that nascent companies are discouraged or destroyed.

In this regard, the incumbent firms can easily maintain long-run large profits by ensuring that no sideline companies enter the market to cause a split in the profits. For the sake of economic security, governments have also been known to deny some companies entry into certain lucrative business ventures. Economic analysis also explains that consumers generally tend to have limited information as regards the pricing structure and therefore will fall victims to the oppressive prices established by oligopolies (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Leaving the market is equally as challenging as the entry and from the principles of economic analysis it has been established that this is due to the fact that such an exit can end up causing a lot of economic challenges for the economy of the country where the firm is located (Puu and Shusko 2002).

Effects of competition in oligopolies The primary effect of competition by oligopolies is unending rivalry among the companies involved (Puu and Shusko 2002). This rivalry mainly arises from price wars necessitated by firms cutting down prices with an aim of getting an unfair advantage on their competitors.

However, their are other forms of competition which dont necessarily involve the pricing structures, top on the list being advertising and differentiation (Hirschey 2009). Big companies tend to invest huge amounts of money in promotional campaigns which tend to work in their advantage mainly because they already have secured their own portions of the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is however easier for companies to lose this portion of the market than to gain bigger portions and this is the main reason why firms have to constantly make the consumer aware of their presence. Advertising remains the primary way for established companies to maintain their competitive lead. In the field of economic analysis non-price competition is considered to be one of the key oligopoly models and this is because of the benefiting effects that it gives companies (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

As far as the price wars are concerned, one economic analysis model that can be used to explain market phenomena is the kinked demand curve model (Fudenberg and Tirole). This model is based on the fact that oligopolists tend to appreciate that when one firm lowers its prices, other enterprises will follow suit for fear of losing their market share (McEachern 2008).

When prices are decreased by a relatively large percentage, the effect is a comparatively small rise in sales; a phenomena known as inelastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008). However, when one firm decides to raises its prices, other firms will generally tend to ignore this and hope that the can take advantage of the situation to attract customers who will basically tend to go for the lower prices. A relatively small rise in price will come with a sharp decline in sales; a condition referred to as elastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Even in the most competitive oligopolies, their tends to be one company that commands the biggest share of the market and as such tends to set the price for the rest of the market. This aspect is explained by an economic analysis model called price leadership where the rest of the companies in the circle have to wait for the dominant firm to set the price for them to follow (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

This is a very common model because companies generally have the tendency to match prices with the largest enterprise in the business. As such when this large player decides to drop the prices to ridiculous levels, the other enterprises have no option but to drop theirs as well.

As far as long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm are concerned, there are two basic outcomes that can be arrived at. First, is that the market will gradually align itself to accord such companies superseded advantage over their competitors (Baye 1999). For instance, if a company decides to suddenly reduce the prices of its products by 40%, there is a chance that the competing oligopolies will reduce their prices to match this figure or to an even lower figure.

However, due to the fact that the reduction is of high proportions, other companies may not have the financial potential to drop their prices to such extents and consequently the firm that dropped its prices will gradually gain in terms of customer drain from competitors and will hope to retain these customers in the long-term. The other effect of long term strategic commitments is that the desired effect may not be attained and the company ends up losing heavily (McEachern 2008).

Drawing from the above example of a 40% price reduction, customers may not be interested in shifting their loyalty from the other competitors in the oligopoly because of the quality of service they have been getting. Under these circumstances, the company which dropped its prices may not be in a position to break even and because of pride issues, the company will not be in a position to raise its prices once its plan backfires.

Conclusion This essay has extensively analysed the importance of economic analysis in explaining certain behaviours of oligopolies. Various analytical models have been used to provide logical explanations as to the behaviours of companies in this business structure. Aside from this, a section of the presentation has been used to elaborate on the impact of strategic commitments on the competitive positions of companies.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that oligopoly is a very common market structure which tends to come with difficulties in evaluation. With companies getting bigger and acquiring more power and with the world becoming a global village on a daily basis it is almost guaranteed that this structure will in the coming years be the basic market structure.

Reference List Baumol, W.J.


The Analysis of Economics Essay college essay help: college essay help

In this paper, we intend to analyze three articles, published in New York Times, The Economist and Newsweek. Each of them focuses on such topic as the development of the US economy and its struggle against the ongoing recession. Our main task is to evaluate the arguments, put forward by the authors and determine whether there they are evidence-based and objective.

The first article to be discussed is called Across the US, Long Recovery Looks Like Recession. It was written by Michael Powell and Motoko Rich and was issued in New York Times on the twelfth of October[1]. The authors argue that the US economy will not be able to recover from the recession in the near future. In particular, they say that the aftereffects of the crisis can be overcome in at least nine years. Their prognosis is based on the fact that current rate of job creation is rather slow (Powell


Stresses of being a student Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Psychology and health

Sources of student stress

Positive and negative stress

Implications of stress

Coping with stress

Institutional interventions against student stress


Reference List

Introduction Many young people find it quite demanding to move from home to go and stay in college. This is due to the fact that at home they normally have ample time with parental guidance and support (Keil, 2004, p.659). On the other hand, in college they are on their own.

They have to balance out between all the activities they need to engage in. Personal organization turns out to be quite tricky and most of them get their priorities wrong. At the end of the day such like individuals end up in difficult situations as they struggle to keep up with what is expected of them.

Moving away from home also means one has to leave behind his or her family and other close friends. This turns out to be stressful, especially before one gets to form new friends and other forms of support in the new environment (Keil, 2004, p.659).

Stress refers any state of affairs that stirs up depressing thoughts and stances in an individual. Its symptoms include a condition of anxiety and adrenaline production, short-range resistance as a survival means, fatigue, bad temper and lack of ability to concentrate (Schore, 2003, p. 7). There are also other physiological effects like headaches and increased heartbeat.

Psychology and health These two terms refer to the understanding of how conduct and societal circumstance affect the general well-being of an individual. Psychologists work with other medical experts to explain various behavioral characteristics of people (Tsigos


The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East Essay college essay help near me

Terrorism is not a new word to many of us. This word has so many definitions but according to the government of the United States, it refers to threats of the people, manipulation of the state policy by force or fear, or trying to alter the government by either kidnapping or assassination. This act is dangerous for it can take up to five years while planning and finally causing a disaster to the affected. (Kenny, 2009)

To start with, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors. It is believed that roughly 30 million Kurdish people live in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran. This tribe has its own way of living and language, but has no its own state.

It is said that most of the Kurds are Sunni Islam’s although they hold close to other religions including Christianity and Judaism. It is also said that the Kurds lived independently both nationally and ethnically in Kurdistan their historical motherland. (The Odyssey, 2000)

The Kurds are seen to be undeserving of their own state because they are illiterate. This cannot make them go far since the illiteracy level will make them not see far in life. In addition, advanced infant mortality is another reason that shows slow growth leading to few people those cannot stand by their own. The way they are scarcely populated cannot make them own a nation since where there is scarcity there is no unity and without unity, it is hard to make something strong. (Berkey, 2009)

On its part, the AlQaeda was stared by Osama bin Laden in 1988 to combine the global network he organized during the Afghan war. His main aim was to advance the Islamic revolutions during the Muslim world and resisting strange links in the Middle East.

Bin laden befell in the battle beside the Soviet Union’s invasion and occupation from 1979 to 1988 ending up with a defeat under the supervision of the international militias of Muslim troop sponsored by the U.S., Pakistan and Arabia. By the help of Abdullah Azzam the leader of Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, Bin laden had different views on how to work with the network they had recognized.

It is during this time when he decided to find AlQaeda based on personal affiliations formed during the fight in Afghanistan also on his own international network, status and admission to a big sum of money. In this process, Azzam was assassinated and after the war ended, the Afghan-Arabs who were the organizers of the war were known and they could not go back home due to the state of the country .

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This benefited AlQaeda’s global reach and finally assisted in refining the second and third generation of AlQaeda terrorists. Bin laden had some key issues, which probably made him have all the knowledge he used in his operations. His family had wealth that gave him admission to the elite Al Thagher model school were he learned Islamic which in turn changed him to become what he is today. In the early 80,s, he worked with the mujahideen in Afghanistan, which finally taught him how to fight. (Zalman, n.d.)

The AlQaeda had carried out many attacks, which cost both lives and properties worthy many dollars. In 1993, the Al Qaeda was reported to have shot down U.S helicopter killing U.S peacekeeper in Somalia while they were patrolling to restore hope.

In 1998, the Al Qaeda attacked the Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar-Es-Salam, Tanzania by bombing the U.S Embassies, which left more than 300 people dead, and at least 5000 people injured. Two years later on 12 Oct 2000 the Al Qaeda was also reported to have attacked the USS Cole in Yemen killing around 17 U.S. Navy and more than 39 injured. All these among others are some of the attacks that the Al Qaeda made. (Cronin, n.d.)

In order to fight all this terror towards Americans, I have been thinking of ways in which they could win the fight. First, they should be organized and preventive. By doing this, they will have tight security that will enable them decipher any plan the terrorism will be deciding to do and by so doing to prevent the damage that would have been caused. In addition, they should be intelligent.

By doing this the terrorism will never get access due to the fear of FBI coordination, which will lead to the penetration of the attackers. They should also redefine law enforcement. This will give the attackers fear of facing reprisals under that firm law. Funding the terrorists should also be stopped. Anybody got funding the terrorists should be dealt with accordingly.

This will help a lot in reducing the terrorism. Stern border protection should be adhered to if the borders will be guarded properly this will reduce the terrorism. This reduction will result since there would be no mingling which brings about peer pressure, which can result in doing the harm. This among others should be done in order to fight the terrorism in the world (Hamilton, 2002)

Conclusion Terrorism has been a great disaster to the world since it has caused so much harm to the affected. It is due to this that many countries are living under fear of the terrorists. Secondly, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors.

We will write a custom Essay on The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a nation, which cannot stand by it self due to some failures. Finally, the AlQaeda and Osama bin Laden have played a great role in destroying and pulling back the economy of many countries by the attacks they have been doing. We should all preach peace in order to stop all this from happening.

References Berkey, J. (2009). Preventing conflict over Kurdistan. Web.

Cronin, A. Terrorist Attack by Al Qaeda. Web.

Hamilton, L. (2002). Combating Terrorism and Protecting Our Homeland. Web.

Kenny, J. (2009). What is Terrorism? Web.

The Odyssey. (2000). Speak your mind the Kurdish Conflict. Web.

Zalman, A. Profile: Osama bin Laden. Web.


No title Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

You are to answer the following questions.. According to Blauner, what are some of the similarities between people of color in the U.S. and colonized people around the world (p. 303)?  What does he mean by the “colonial labor principle” (p. 305)?

Answer all questions.

In a discussion form not essay.


Scramble for Africa Report best essay help

The lecture on the scramble for Africa is both informative and educative. It draws its main strength from the fact that it goes back to the late 1880s to provide a clear review of how things have changed in the period that colonialists entered the continent.

This lecture divides into various aspects of the scramble by providing categorical analysis of the forms of rule adopted by the colonialists and there spheres of influence. The appreciation of Africa as a continent with a wide array of natural resources helps provide a clear understanding of why other individuals felt the need to abandon their countries and continents to come set base in Africa.

The theory on neo-colonialism has been well elaborated help create an understanding of the colonial elements that still remain in the continent and. The section that has been given extensive coverage (and appropriately so) is the detailing of the mining and exportation of oil from some African countries. Other aspects that have made Africa so highly cherished by individuals from other continents include the extensive prospects for Agribusiness.

However, it is also worth noting that from the lecture the moral issues surrounding the move by the Western nations wanting to take over all the good things in Africa have been given mention. The section on the unequal struggle by Africans fighting for the control of resources that they should have unchallenged control over serves to offer the entire lecture some sense of balance.

This is because most of the discussion was structured to show the happening of events from the point of view of the ‘offenders’ and it only takes an analysis of the retaliation by the ‘victims’ to make an argument credible.