Introduction In any society one of the most important aspects is to understand the various aspects that characterize the day to day activities of the local Australian community members. For a health professional, it is important to understand all the pertinent factors that such as culture and issues of diversity that may have an effect on the health of their health (Kruske, Kildea
Free Enterprise Systems Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Moral development
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Economic Development
Free Enterprise Systems
Introduction Free enterprise systems have been adopted by many countries as the main form of business model. This model allows people to transact businesses without excessive government control and external influences from third parties (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011). The free ownership of property, rule of law, competition and free pricing are encouraged in this system (Bastiat, 2007).
The free enterprise system poses different advantages and disadvantages to the society. One of the influences of this economic model is on the moral and economic development of the society. These aspects of the society are important pillars of human existence. Therefore, it is important to understand how the moral and economic fabric of our society can be affected by the free enterprise system.
More importantly, this analysis would improve the understanding of our social, economic and political environments today (as a product of free enterprise systems). From the above understanding, this paper seeks to investigate the influence of free enterprise systems on the moral and economic development of the society.
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Moral development The most notable characteristic of free enterprise systems in today’s society is the fact that the model gives all people an opportunity to be successful. Unlike other economic and social models, free enterprise systems do not offer limits to success. In fact, if one fails, the system always offers another opportunity to try once again.
Subsequently, if someone fails for a second time, he or she can try a third time (and again). It is very easy for people to succeed in such a system but most importantly, the system does not discriminate who is eligible for success (Bastiat, 2007). From free enterprise system, we have therefore seen many people rise from poverty to become some of the richest people in the world.
Certain socio-economic systems such as the caste system in India offers limits to success and almost entirely, the social class where someone is born dictates the socio-economic destination of the individual. Free enterprise systems are therefore fair to every individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The biggest drawback associated with free enterprise systems is the inequality created within such a system. The gap between the rich and the poor can be dramatically wide such that it may be very difficult for poor people to earn a decent living in this system. This situation may be realized through the understanding that free enterprise systems produce gullible individuals who may cannibalize everyone else for their benefit. Rogge (1979) explains that in such a system, there is little concern for the welfare of the majority.
For instance, free enterprise systems have been known to give rise to a wealthy minority who control most of the resources in the society. This inequality puts the poor majority at the mercy of the wealthy minority. Therefore, exploitation, unfair work policies, poor wages and similar practices are likely to be witnessed in such a system.
These are only some of the unfair societal practices we witness today from the establishment of free enterprise systems. Many people would argue that such an unfair and unjust system is immoral in today’s society because it does not uphold good ethical principles. Rogge (1979) observes that the future of free enterprise systems is shaky and there is need to re-evaluate its place in future societies.
Free enterprise systems also erode our moral fabric because it brews corruption and favoritism within the society. For instance, the argument advanced by proponents of free enterprise systems on inequality and injustice is that the poor and the downtrodden are taken care of through charities (Rawls, 1999).
However, the realities of potential success in such a system are extremely low. If charities are set up and donations flow in such systems, people who give such donations receive favor from authorities and all those concerned. Through this understanding, free enterprise systems reward corruption and support peddling. In fact, it is very easy for the wealthy minority to dictate policies in the society by using donations as a tool to wield power over the poor.
From the above dynamics of free enterprise systems, it is important to highlight that the free enterprise systems creates a materialistic society, which is obsessed by the accumulation of wealth (Danner, 1994, p. 63). Through this understanding, free enterprise systems hardly account for everyone’s well being.
Critics of free enterprise systems have cited this drawback as a strong weakness of the socio-economic model. Some have even observed that free enterprise systems will soon collapse because they will lead to the depletion of global resources since people are excessively greedy. This assumption bears a high credibility because the free enterprise system has created the perception that happiness can only be achieved through excessive accumulation of wealth and increased spending (Danner, 1994, p. 48).
We will write a custom Essay on Free Enterprise Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Undesirable traits have therefore sprouted in today’s society because of this assumption. It has therefore been very easy for people to be envious of other’s success (and for those who have acquired wealth to be unreasonably selfish).
The increase in materialism has brought forth a generation that is willing to do anything to acquire status, fame and money. For example, many people are now willing to engage in crime to earn easy money. These statistics show how free enterprise systems have created a superficial society (Danner, 1994).
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Economic Development As noted in previous sections of this paper, free enterprise systems support competition. Competition is an important aspect of economic development because it leads to innovation and the production of good quality goods and services. The free enterprise model also ensures that consumers can get the best prices in the market.
The freedom which is evident in free enterprise systems ensure that producers produce the best quality goods and sell them at the lowest prices so that they can be able to stay in business. If businesses do not conform to these requirements, they will be run out of business by others who do so. This business outcome ensures that the economy develops within the principles of quality and fair pricing (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011).
The fact that free enterprise systems do not offer limitations to the number of businesses that can operate within the economy increases the prospects of witnessing rapid economic growth. In addition, free enterprise systems ensure that as a producer, someone can produce whatever type of goods they wish to and sell them at their preferable price.
Similarly, buyers have the privilege of purchasing what they want within the confines of their unique tastes and preferences. The principle of free will is therefore upheld within a free enterprise system. Within such a system, economic growth is likely to be realized (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011).
The influence of free enterprise systems on economic progress is therefore undoubted. Excerpts from economic studies show that over the last few centuries, free enterprise systems have birthed economic growth in most countries. Therefore, some of the world’s super powers we know today became wealthy because of adopting free enterprise systems. For instance, if we use different economic parameters such as gross domestic product (GDP), capacity utilization and the standards of living, we can see that countries, which have adopted free enterprise systems as their main economic model, have the highest GDPs, capacity utilization and standards of living in the world. A few examples are the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), Canada, Japan and other western powers. Economic theorists attribute the increase in economic development to the ability of free market systems to control price and establish free market systems. Rogge (1979) explains that these elements are the main pillars of economic progress in free enterprise systems.
To affirm the above observation, it is important to highlight that within past two centuries, the global economy has grown substantially. Upon further entrenchment of free enterprise systems, it is reported that further economic progress has been witnessed (Rogge, 1979).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Free Enterprise Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During these times, some of today’s economic giants such as Japan were extremely poor nations but after adopting the free enterprise model, they have become formidable forces it today’s deregulated economy. Consequently, there has been a sharp increase in the standards of living (which has been occasioned by better healthcare services, increased food availability, and increased wages).
Conclusion This paper shows that free enterprise systems have offered immense opportunities and limitations to our economic and social lives. Economically, the model has contributed to growth and an increase in the standards of living. Apart from the notable divide between the rich and the poor, free enterprise systems seem to work fine (economically).
However, weighing the moral retrogression that free enterprise systems have brought forth; it is difficult to support the economic model. Comprehensively, we can agree that free enterprise systems are economically progressive but morally retrogressive.
References Bastiat, F. (2007). The Law. Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Danner, P. (1994). Getting and Spending: A Primer in Economic Morality. Kansas: Rowman
Japan’s economy Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help
Japan is a nation in East Asia with a population of 126,457,664. Japan has three ethnic groups comprising of Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Japanese is the national language used in Japan. Majority of Japanese are Buddhist, Shinto and Christians. This paper mainly describes the politics, economic and military/law enforcement on Japan.
Japan has a constitutional monarchy. Its Emperor has limited powers but the constitution defines him as the “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people (Glenn 2010).” The Prime Minister of Japan and elected members of Diet hold power in Japan while Japanese people have dominion over the nation.
The Prime Minister of Japan is also the head of Cabinet and he has the power to dismiss and appoint Ministers of State. Japan’s current Emperor is known as Akihito while the Crown Prince of Japan is known as Naruhito. National Diet which is a bicameral parliament makes up the legislative in Japan.
The Diet comprise of House of Representatives (480 seats) who are elected after every four years or when the house is dissolved by popular vote (Glenn 2010). On the other hand, the House of Councilors which comprise of 242 seats are elected by members and allowed to serve Japan for a term of six years. There is a secret ballot that is used in elected offices and universal suffrage for those who are over the age of 20years.
Japanese legal system was mainly influence by Chinese law. Japanese Constitutions demands that the Emperor be responsible for promulgation of the legislation which is then passed by National Diet. The court system in Japan is separated into four parts: three different ranks of lower courts and the Supreme Court.
The Six Codes makes up the main body of statutory law in Japan. There are seven major political parties in Japan which are represented in National Diet. They include: Your Party (YP), Social Democratic Party (SDP), New Komeito Party (NK), the People’s New Party (PNP), the Japan Communist Party (JCP) and Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) (Glenn 2010).
Japan’s economy is ranked third among the largest in the world. Japan’s economy is competitive and efficient mainly in international trade. However, it has lower productivity in areas such as distribution, services and agriculture. Japan has a free and industrialized market economy with employees who are educated and hard working.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country also has invested in many things and made several savings. Japan had attained several promotions in the foreign market due to its industrial development. This is why Japan has mature and rich industrial economy. Natural resources in Japan are few and that is why the country mainly relies on trade to earn foreign exchange that is used to purchase raw materials used in the country.
Between 1960s and 1980s, Japan had the highest economic growth rate which dramatically slowed down in early 1990s after the collapse of bubble economy which was marked by real estates and plummeting stock prices (Flath 2000). Japan’s real GPD grew roughly to 1% growth yearly and this became consistent until early 2000s when Japanese economy began to fall again until it became in line with the world’s economic conditions.
In 2008, Japan fell into its first recession and in 2009 with the fall in demand for goods all over the world, the Bank of Japan managed to report a growth in real GDP of -5.5%. In 2010, Japan’s economy improved with a growth of 4.4% in real GDP. In 2011, per capita GDP in Japan was $ 34,300 while real growth rate was 0.5% with a GDP of $ 855 trillion.
The main exports of Japan include computers, cars, and electronic devices with main traders being the USA, China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Germany, Taiwan and Thailand. Japans major imports include raw materials such as wood, foodstuff and oil with major suppliers being China, USA, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates and South Korea.
Recently, Japanese has shown greater understanding of security issues. They have also shown full support for Self Defense Forces and this was evident after the 2004 the tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean. Japan participated in the peacekeeping operations that took place in 1990s in Cambodia and also 2003-2008 stabilization/reconstruction efforts in Iraq and lastly in Tohoku disaster that took place in 2011. Japan government has inhibited its military role in international affairs.
Japan and United States have a close relationship; Japan mainly depends on the U.S for strategic protection after they signed Mutual Security Treaty (Alexander 2011). Japan is however interpreting on how they can revise Article 9 in their constitution. The U.S-Japan security alliance is the cornerstone that designs all foreign policy in the nation.
Japan has become associated with America for 19years: they joined Security Council in 1956. Japan is among the G4 nations that are in search of how to become permanent members of Security Council. The Article 9 of Japanese Constitution has given Japanese military the authority to use force or declare war in international disputes. Ministry of Defense governs Japan’s military and it consists of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF).
We will write a custom Case Study on Japan’s economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Alexander, E. (2011). What Keeps the Japanese People Together? New York: Dissent Magazine.
Flath, M. (2000). The Japanese Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Glenn, H. (2010). Japan’s International Relations: Politics, Economics and Security. New York: Free Press.
The Last Supper in the Bible Report college essay help
The last supper is recorded by four of the canonical gospels in the bible namely Mathew, Mark, Luke and John (Harris). Based on the history of religion, there are two analogical interpretation of this religious landmark that bears significance from a theological perspective.
Notably the Hellenistic influence over Judaism from the 3rd century B.C had an impact on most aspects of life, particularly table customs and feasts which relate greatly, if not entirely, to the subject in question.
The initial analogical provision with regards to the last supper was pegged on the reports of the festival as found in the bible—where God is said to have instructed the Israelites to sacrifice a lamb on the 14th day of the month Nisan just before the sunset (Klawans). On that particular night, the Israelites engaging in the festivity were to eat the sacrificial lamb with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (Klawans).
In addition, the lamb’s blood was to be smeared on the Israelites’ house doorposts as an outward sign and symbol of them being part of the festivity. Seeing the smeared blood sign on the doorposts, God would then pass-over these houses (Exodus 12:13). And while doing so, God would smite the Egyptians and non-conforming Israelites (those who did not swab their doors with the blood) with the tenth plague—which entailed killing of the first-born sons.
In the years that followed, this became a Jewish festive meal thereafter known as the Passover. It is commonly perceived to be the frame work of the last supper, offering background interpretation of the actions and words of Jesus that night but as will later be discussed, not necessarily the Passover festival itself.
Essentially, most Christians celebrate the last supper primarily because Jesus Christ told them to do so in remembrance of the sacrifice he made on the cross. The last supper also resembles a farewell meal. As brought out in the context of Luke 22:14-38 and John 13-17 (living bible) Jesus constantly makes remarks that imply his departure.
The solemn words of Jesus such as: “For I will not drink wine again until the Kingdom of God has come….This is my body, given for you. Eat it in the remembrance of me,” create an unmistakable setting of him saying goodbye.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the anchor bible dictionary, Freedman states that the significance of the day varies across different Christian factions. For instance, among the catholic Christians, as well as other historical Christian churches like Anglicans, Lutherans, Episcopalians or even the byzantine Christians; the belief is on the literal words of Jesus that the bread represents his body while the wine represents his blood.
To this group of Christians, emphasis is laid on the principal of hermeneutics and the nature of faith in the apostolic times where biblical interpretations were based literal words.
On the other hand, the Christians who emerged recently tend to be of the opinion that the bread and wine symbolically represent Christians being part and parcel of Christ’s suffering on the cross. To this latter group, God’s passion to humanity through Christ’s sacrifice on the cross is greatly emphasized with all Christians being called to obedience and emulation of Christ’s perfect example.
The other analogical perspective of the last supper as influenced by contemporary Judaism is characterized by the use of eschatological metaphors related to the meal. It is this aspect that sets aside all other earthly meals that Jesus may have had before his death. It explains why, these otherwise normal and common gestures of breaking bread and drinking from a cup bears profound significance that it should be commemorated, terming them as ‘prophetic symbolic signs.’
Jesus identified himself with the bread and the wine, engaging in symbolic interpretation of the events as follows: “Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant’” (Matthew 26:26–28=Mark 14:22; see also Luke 22:19–20).
As highlighted by Leon-Dufour, the word ‘symbolic’ here does not dilute or in any way invalidate the reality of the matter but offers a deeper dimension of the same. For instance his acceptance of sinners and out casts to the table implies forgiveness which became their inheritance following his crucifixion as foreshadowed by the wine and bread during the last supper.
Also, we are told that at some point in the last supper, Jesus says “Go in peace, your sins are forgiven.” Here, Christians get to be reminded that through the sacrifice on the cross, victory over sins is ensued through forgiveness (Freedman).
We will write a custom Report on The Last Supper in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even more importantly, we are informed that in the last supper, the disciples and got to meet together with Christ and fellowship with one another. Here, the significance of fellowship—especially during trying times (just in the same way Christ was undergoing trying moments—is greatly stressed. In addition, the fellowship signifies unity in the body of Christ thus encouraging Christians towards the same (Freedman).
One of the most fundamental questions that have haunted scholars for years and perhaps to date remains debatable is whether the last supper was in fact the Passover meal? This controversy was perhaps born of the conflicting accounts between the Synoptic Gospels that identify the last supper as the Passover and that of John, who does not.
The very word ‘synoptic’ as implied by the Greek etymology means ‘seen together’ meaning these books (Mathew, Mark and Luke) are better studies together. Jonathan Klawens interprets this fact by suggesting that these three accounts are therefore not independent sources at all but a copy of each other (3).
Before indulging into the intricate analysis of the synoptic account versus John’s account to answer or at least attempt to shed light on the Passover and last supper controversy it is important to highlight the journey of the Passover through history. The Passover began before the temple was destroyed, dating to about 70 C.E.
The order of the rituals was as follows: Unleavened bread was broken, wine was served, the diners reclined and hymns were sung. In addition, when partaking of the Passover meal, the Israelites’ Exodus story was retold while the significance of the entire meal and celebration was explained to the audience (Klawans).
It is in fact this order that many scholars use to argue why the last supper was the Passover meal because as noted in the synoptic Jesus and the disciples did nearly all of the rituals (O’Toole). The key word here however is ‘nearly’ meaning it lacks conclusiveness. The breaking of the unleavened bread, serving of wine, reclines of diner and the singing of hymns was part of the last supper.
In fact scholars interpret Jesus’ explanation of the symbolic meaning of the bread and wine to be similar with the re-telling of significance of the unleavened bread, bitter herbs and wine during the Passover meal.
According to Jeremias (15-88), who provides one of the best known studies of the Last supper, points out several parallels of the last supper and the Passover, inclusive of the already mentioned points above. He remarkably notes down that the Last supper took place in the evening, stretching into the night when the Passover was required to be eaten.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Last Supper in the Bible by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving of alms to the poor was customary of the Passover, which as noted by John happened during the last supper whereby Judas was said to have left the room that night to do so. The breaking of wine and the serving of bread, also obligatory to the Passover, were present during the Last supper.
However these parallels are not utterly satisfactory to a significant number of scholars who then oppose the idea on the basis that the argument has a myriad of missing links and facts. For instance according to Klawans, wine and bread, the only foods mentioned during the last supper were the basic foods in of any formal Jewish meal. Where was the Passover lamb or the bitter herbs? In addition, during the Passover individual cups were used but in the last supper one cup was used (4).
Moreover, a good number of scholars speculate that considering that the last supper happened just before the arrest of Jesus when there were security reasons for meeting at night, not that it was necessarily the Passover. It was customary for the Passover meal to be a family affair whereas Jesus shared the last supper with only twelve men leaving out women and children.
It is here that John differs with the synoptic as he points out that Jesus in fact died when the Passover sacrifice was being offered and any last meal recorded was that of the previous night. Essentially, the timing of John’s analogy of Passover events is widely believed to immensely compliment the Christianity claim that Jesus was a sacrifice and that his sacrificial death on the cross heralds a new redemption; just in the same way the Passover offering recalled an old order of events (Klawans).
All these divergent belief therefore begs the question, should we follow John’s assertions or should we stand by the synoptic? Or perhaps the unwavering doubt on both sides should persuade us to plead ignorance of the matter? When push comes to a shove, john’s account is more plausible than that of the synoptic.
However, this does not in any way mean that his account is entirely accurate. Nonetheless, if forced to choose between the two inaccuracies, John’s account and analogy is more believable based on scrutinized facts in history and the timeline of events during that time.
Nonetheless, scholars who reject the idea of the last supper being the Passover try to account for the synoptic Gospels claim. For one the proximity of the Passover itself to the last supper creates one motive. Klawans further points out that Christian communities, who were primarily Jews, began to question how, when and whether they should celebrate the Passover in the years after Jesus’ death.
In conclusion, the last supper might have been the Passover, or not. Without a time-travel machine to determine the case of the matter, the truth becomes rather hard to detect. It could be that the right question is not ‘what it was not’ but ‘what it was or is.’ The last supper was a thanksgiving and a blessing.
It was the indiscriminate acceptance of everyone, sinners and saints, a meal, a communion, a proclamation, a messianic banquet and a farewell in anticipation of the coming Kingdom. But on top of the face-value and literal importance of these activities and ventures to Christians, symbolic significances such as the redemption of humanity, costly forgiveness of sins, fellowship and unity among the body of Christ (and the non-Christians as well), among many other symbolic meanings that were discussed herein.
It is only by considering both the symbolic and literal meanings of the last supper that we can be able to utterly decipher the true meaning of the day and celebrate it accordingly (Freedman).
Works Cited Freedman, David Noel. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Print.
Harris, Stephen L. The New Testament: A student’s Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 2011. Print.
Klawans, Jonathan. Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder? Bar Magazine, 2010. Web. .
O’Toole, Robert F. “Last Supper.” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992. Print.
Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. 3rd. London: SCM Press, 1966. Print.
The Significance of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation in History of Western Civilization Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Martin Luther is one of the greatest men known in history for the many developments he made. Among these developments is the protestant reformation (Bainton 44). In this reformation, Martin Luther strongly opposed the notion that people could free themselves from sin by exchanging God’s punishment with money.
In his attempts to reform the protestant church, Luther wrote several letters to the leaders of the church such as Bishops and the clergy. Nevertheless, after the struggle that proved difficult at times, Martin Luther succeeded in the protestant reformation. This paper therefore seeks to explore the major significance of Martin Luther and the protestant reformation in the history of western civilization. This will be effectively achieved by addressing the questions that follow.
What was the basic chronology of Luther’s breaking with the roman church?
Martin Luther protested on October 31, 1517, reacting to several debates, which he thought were of great significance (Mackinnon 204). He thus sparked a lot of debate from different interest groups and people, particularly with respect to the so-called doctrines. Although his reaction or revolt was not against the church itself, it can clearly be depicted that it was mainly geared towards the general reform in the Church.
Nevertheless, by 1519 he openly reacted to those doctrines he had earlier on regarded as implicit and even denied the mandate of the church in certain religious issues. In 1520, the pope excommunicated him at the time. He defied these religious leaders and particularly rallied against the papacy and the Eucharist.
Why did he do so and what societal factors facilitated the acceptance of his message?
From the proceedings of the events, it is depicted that the significant social factors, which facilitated the acceptance of Martin Luther’s ideas were mainly two-fold. The first one is that there were already some elements of dissatisfaction or resentments coming mainly from the city governments regarding the various clerical privileges and immunities given.
They, for instance, were exempted from tax and even undertaking some civil responsibilities. An example of the latter is their exemption from defending the city despite the fact that religious orders held a big proportion of urban property. These people were therefore keen to eliminate the aforementioned privileges and take the general civil responsibility like everybody else.
In addition, they were also reacting to the poor quality of sermon at the time. Consequently, they established preacherships where men with some good level of education were considered, and where such men were given the mandate of delivering or reading the sermons. This really attracted the protestant style of worship that emphasized more on sermons, and formed the main part of the service as opposed to Catholic orientation of Eucharist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What were the key principles of his critique of Catholicism and what were the principle writings by which he spread his message?
His major critique was directed at the Papacy. According to Luther, the whole idea of Papacy was just but a beautiful false front, and a misleadingly holiness under which most of the evil was hidden.
He therefore called for an urgent reform in the Church. Luther advocated that the papacy be converted to simplicity as well as humble fashion of the former days of St. Peter, and called for reconsideration in the way the finance was managed.
He actually demanded that all finances and estate property be taken care of by the national churches instead of the pope. He also demanded for the complete eradication of clerical celibacy, which the Germans had rejected earlier on.
With respect to the Eucharist, Martin Luther was particularly concerned about the nature of the sacramental doctrine in the Church. He particularly objected the idea of the many sacraments, which the church adopted at the time. The Church acknowledged seven sacraments while Luther advocated for those that were mainly comprised of baptism and the Lord’s Supper under the Authority of Jesus Christ.
According to Luther, the catholic Mass was not a true reflection of the Lord’s Supper. Further, he argued that the whole idea of Eurcharist was not a repetition of the sacrifice of Christ. He believed that wine and bread should only be given to the laity and the clergy.
Again, the view commonly held by the Church doctrine, was that during celebration of the Eucharist, bread and wine are changed to the body and blood of Christ respectively, and that only the physical appearances of the bread and wine remained (Mackinnon 204). According to Luther, this was based on the principal of Aristotle, with whom he actually differed.
He suggested for a more real doctrine that of the actual presence that followed the consecration of the body and blood of Christ in their corresponding form of the bread and wine. He argued that the priest never caused any miracle, but instead Jesus Christ was omnipresent and that he opens the eyes of every believer to Christ
We will write a custom Essay on The Significance of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation in History of Western Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In respect to the Christian Freedom, he advocated for freedom from all priest crafts, with the priest being the only one responsible for carrying out what he had been called upon to perform in a specific office.
Luther mainly employed the use of Hymns, Psalmist and his catechism to propagate his teachings or ideas. These writings entailed mainly basic religious knowledge. A case in print is Hymn‘s Almighty Fortress is our God which was generally easy to remember and evoked strong human feelings.
This was particularly important, as it was able to have a significant imprint of Martin Luther’s central or key points in his doctrines. His catechism contained brief sermons on the main articles of faith and presented succinct explanation of doctrines in form of questions and answers.
What is the most effective means used by the Roman Catholic Church to the protestant challenge and why.
From my own point of view, I could say that one of the most effective and appropriate means the Catholic Church used in reaction to the various challenges was the Protestant formation of ecumenical council. This is because it significantly helped in fostering unity and accommodation from the opposing religions. That way, the two religions were no longer in conflict, but united in most of their doctrines and culture.
The legacy of the reformation and Counter Reformation
The main legacy out of all these is linked to a series of religious wars that eventually resulted in a long civil strife, which had a negative impact on the German economy thus leading to the death of several Germans (Bainton 45). As a result, this meant that the religious believes in Europe had been outweighed by the political and national convictions.
Works Cited Bainton, Roland. Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther. New York: Penguin, 1995. Print.
Mackinnon, James. Luther and the Reformation. New York: Russell
Canadian Immigration Policy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Immigration refers to entry persons into a particular country with an intention of settling there while immigration policies are set of rules, regulations as well as directives set by the government in order to control the entrance of people from other countries. Canadian immigration policies are therefore, acts of parliament that limits individual persons from entering into the country.
Canadian immigration is marked with discrimination in its history. This discrimination was felt in form of class, gender as well as race. The immigration department had an intense bias on those people who were poor and only accepted people on the basis that they were rich and therefore would work into the benefit of the Canadians (Arat-koc, 1999. 208).
The Canadian government had stated racist laws and practices which were meant to restrict certain groups of people in terms of class, race as well as gender. However, these policies changed with the introduction of point system policies which advocated for non-discriminatory immigration hence changing the face of the Canadian immigration policy (Arat-koc, 1999. 209).
This paper critically evaluates ways in which assumptions about class, gender and race shaped Canadian immigration policies before and after the introduction of the points system in 1967. The paper also points out the consequences for social inequality in each period.
How assumptions about class, gender and race shaped Canadian immigration policies before the introduction of the points system
According to Arat-Koc, 1999, before the introduction of Canadian points system in 1967, Canada experienced massive discrimination in terms of gender, class and race (p. 208). This was so intense in that the immigrants were undergoing severe maltreatments instances meted out by the Canadian government. Gender was one of the bases of restriction stated in the Canadian policy.
In history, Canada is known to discriminate against women whereby women were seen as a burden to the society. Only those women who belonged to a certain racial group or from a recognized ethnic membership were treated differently since they were viewed to represent a positive form of Nation building.
Women were generally seen as biological and cultural reproducers. This is due to the fact that they gave birth to children who represent a certain culture depending on the race and ethnic group from which they belong. They were also seen as cultural transmitters since they could be married in different racial background as well as different ethnic group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, they were restricted to make an entrance into Canada to prevent those cultural transmissions. Hence only married women who belonged to a certain race or a certain ethnic group were allowed to migrate in Canada (Arat-Koc, 1999. 208).
In addition, women were seen as dependents on men. This meant that women were not supposed to own anything by themselves including skilled women. They were not supposed to have an identity card, visa or any other legal documents.
They were simply identified by their husbands. In cases where single women were allowed to migrate, they were allowed as domestic workers who would meet the needs of middle class families as well as with the expectation that these women would be married and be mothers with a full citizenship (Carty, 1994.190).
Women discrimination helped in shaping Canadian immigration policies in that it lessened the number of dependents since the Canadian government viewed women as dependents. Women were denied chances to acquire education hence, increasing the number of dependent in contrast. Thus, by allowing women as domestic workers to the middle class families, the policies reduced dependents hence improvement of Canadian economy.
On the other hand, women discrimination in Canadian policies robbed the country of potential investors. If women were given chances to acquire education, they could have equally improved the economy since they had potential to work to the development of the country (Anderson
The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment Research Paper essay help
There are different sources of energy. The speech focuses on effects of fossil oil energy on the environment. It discusses the different types of renewable green energy, which is a better alternative to fossil oil energy.
Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) states that wind power is one of the best sources of the world’s renewable energies. Kooten’s research centers on the description of what makes wind power environmentally friendly.
The research includes differentiating the green power sources and examining the pollution caused by power resources. The wind power has many advantages over the fossil fuel power sources.
Wind energy is classified as green energy. Green energy saves the environment from hazards of pollution. Moreover, green is associated with the trees providing us with the oxygen, the food of the animals, etc.; it can be also viewed as a synonymous of life (Rowlands 2002).
Borowitz (1999) reiterates fossil oil energy is not green energy. Fossil oil produces the car’s carbon monoxide fumes which pollute the earth’s atmosphere. This kind of energy creates health-damaging smog which covers the sky and makes it difficult to breathe for every living being, thus it destroys life.
Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) insists that renewable green energy derives from several sources. First, the sun heat generates renewable solar energy. The people can use solar panels to convert the sun’s energy to the homes’ electrical energy. Second, geothermal energy is another renewable energy, which is generated by the hot springs.
Another source of renewable geothermal energy is the volcanic heat exiting the earth’s soil. Third, Ethanol energy is another renewable energy as Alcohol generates Ethanol. Fourth, wind energy is one of the most popular renewable energy sources which works in the following way. Wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In terms of fossil oil energy, Lovins (2012) insists that fossil oil generates unhealthy pollution. He also states (2012) fossil fuel energy sources are the remains of organics that over millions years, have undergone substantial physical changes induced by pressure and chemical changes caused by the action of bacteria (p. 134). Wind energy reduces the current air pollution increase in major cities of the United States.
Judith Cherni (2002) states the concentration of industrial manufacturing plants’ exhausts immensely contributes to the pollution of the atmosphere. The air pollution significantly derails the average person’s health. Different air pollutant types exert different degrees of health damage to the people.
The degree or concentration of the pollutants has various effects on the average county resident. To reduce the current air pollution trends, the states’ air pollution policies must be effectively and deficiently revised and set into immediate motion.
Likewise, a research conducted by Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) shows that the earth’s wind energy supplies potential can effectively replace the world’s fossil oil needs. However, only one percent of the world’s electricity need is presently supplied by the green wind power. The fact is true even though there is almost fifty percent of yearly growth in the wind producing capabilities over the past twenty five years.
Almost 100 percent of the entire green wind energy had been firmly entrenched in the highly developed nations, including India and China. Further, Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) studied the available wind power that can fill thirty four percent of the global electricity demands when 2050 comes. The research indicated governments must determine the best procedures to reduce the hurdles of replacing the unfavorable fossil oil fuel with renewable energy.
The hurdles include technical, financial, economic, market, institutional, and other realistic obstacles. To overcome the hurdles, some nations have implemented several programs that include tax incentives, capital subsidies, feed-in tariffs, and grid access guarantees.
Aside form these programs, the climate change mitigation initiatives precipitating from the Kyoto Protocol made important milestones in promoting the environment-friendly advantages of setting up the green power using the wind. The Kyoto Protocol came up with an agreement according to which all the developed countries should reduce their CO2 gases.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Mir Hessami’s (2006) research findings focus on implementing both solar and wind energy. Hessami indicates the purpose of the research was to make a blueprint of the advantages of filing the solar needs of society. Hessami (2006) supposes wind power supply system can supply the power needs of the rural residential building occupants.
The system includes the hot water service, space heating service, and other electricity and storage system power needs. The optimum green power design has been achieved by implementing a cost-benefit analysis for each alternative system. Furthermore, Charles Chemel (2011) insists the power generation sector remains to be the major contributor to the global air pollution.
Despite the 1990s agreement to reduce global fossil fuel emission levels, the fossil oil’s contribution to the pollution levels continues to rise as the population increases. The pollutants discharged by the fossil fuel-based power stations include sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (N0x). Specifically, the power generation sector contributes an estimated 50 percent, 25 percent, and 10 percent of the United Kingdom’s emissions of the SO2, NOx and other pollutants only in 2007.
These pollutants have hazardous effects on the human residents of the community, especially causing respiratory or breathing health issues. In addition, the pollutants continue to destroy the already environmentally damaged global environment. The Sulfur and nitrogen pollutants increase the acidity levels of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
In terms of analysis, Charles Chemel (2011) clearly shows that changing the community’s power needs from wind fossil fuel to wind power is a major aim. Consequently, the community must allocate large sums of cash to purchase the wind power turbines. In addition, the society has to discard the community’s current fossil fuel power plants.
The experts should be hired to work in the field of wind power turbine technology. They will install the wind power turbines, then they will monitor, maintain, and fix the wind power turbines whenever the need arises.
William Schlesinger (2011) insists fossil oil generates greenhouse gases. Schlesinger (2011) states that atmospheric physicists show us that rising concentrations of certain greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere should raise the temperature of the planet at rates, times, and places that are consistent with recent observations of ongoing climate change that is global warming.
The unfolding impacts of this climate change will affect human habitation, health, and economics, and the persistence of various species in natural ecosystems during the course of this century. The greenhouse gases prevent the escape of the suns’ damaging rays including the ultraviolet rays from escaping the earth’s atmosphere.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere continues to rise. This is the one of the major adverse effects of the greenhouse gases, which is global warming. Global warming affects the weather. As a result, the weather and temperature changes affect the growth and extinction of the animals on land and the fishes and other marine animals within the depth of the world’s oceans and seas.
Based on the above discussion, there are various sources of energy. The wind power which is green-based does not pollute the environment. The sun’s energy eliminates toxic fossil fumes generated by fossil. Hydro energy eliminates the harmful effects of fossil oil use. Indeed, renewable energy is a better alternative to fossil oil energy.
References Borowitz, S. (1999). Farewell Fossil Fuels: Reviewing America’s Energy Policy. New York: Plenum Trade Press.
Chemel, C. et al. (2011). Predictions of U.K. Regulated Power Station Contributions to Regional Air Pollution and Deposition: A Model Comparison Exercise. Journal of the Air
Divergence between False and True Virtue Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The last days of the Socrates refers to a sequence of four conversations by Plato that illustrates the demise as well as the testing of the Socrates. Plato gets the chance to present as well as build up his accountability’s attitude of a person for his dealings as well as their consequences in their society.
The debate on Socrates trial which was about Euthyphro who had laid blame on his father of assassinating a servant and as well a servant had assaulted another servant. This is the reason as to why the Socrates and the Euthyphro resulted in a dialogue.
It is through this dialogue that the reader gets a bright expression of the Socrates to employ mode of inquiring in order to prod holes a in other people’s declaration. Plato employs his conversation in telling his story concerning the Socrates trial, as well as shielding himself from the charges of deceit as well as the variation of the youths.
Despite his effort to push for the dialogue being put into consideration, the Socrates trial was delayed and this led to him to spend more time in Athens prison. Plato got a friend who was to help him out of prison but the Socrates opposed the argument and thus he had to remain in prison. Due to his royalty, Plato decides not to escape as this would be a betrayal to the Athens as well as causing harm to those he loved.
The wickedness of the spirit is held up by Plato’s conviction on the Socrates he also argues that demise ought to be part of a philosopher since it is through this that he would get do away with the distraction of the deceased as well as achieving true wisdom.
It is through the dialogue that we are able to have a clear view of what true and false virtues are presented as in this community. Plato is brought out as a fighter in the kind of living that was taking place in the region.
The Euthyphro looked into what godliness was all about as well as the manner in which it could be identified. Plato’s friend was on the other hand worried about what obligation under law was all about, while phaedo was determined in exploring the soul of the human soul.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Admission of guilt is also an issue to the Socrates and it is clearly elaborated via the Athens way of pleading with the Athens government with an aim of shielding Plato from the accusations of bringing in new spiritual attitudes as well as misleading the younger generations. This according to the government was a false virtue as this was against the beliefs in the region and as well, no one had a right to go against or include what he felt was right in the community.
This portrayed how the Socrates had no right to do whatever they felt was right but instead go by the set laws by the government. Interfering with what the administration of the area felt was the right thing, led to Plato’s imprisonment.
The dialogue brings Plato as one who loved money as well as someone who was of honor. This portrayed him as a man with false virtual as he stresses that that was one of the characteristic of a philosopher yet on the other hand he is committed to introducing new religions to the youths. For instance in our community today, there are various religious people who act as the role models in the field of religion, yet what they sermon is normally against what they belief or even what they do.
This is one of characteristic of false virtue the religious people among us portray. In his conversation, self-restrain is not a feature of those who look down on the body as it involves one not being keyed up by the fervor an as well being greater to other people and behaving in an appropriate manner.
Socrates is brought out as one who directly attacks its victims without compromise. This is brought out by the way they insisted on Plato remaining in prison despite the efforts of the friend who tried to rescue him from this, they opposed his thoughts and insisted that he remain imprisoned. On the other hand the Socrates are viewed to have true virtue via a conversation between them and Meno where it is brought out as having the particular behavior due to ignorance towards what virtue was all about.
Meno is ironical on how Socrates was going to inquire something it was fully uninformed about. This refers to the ignorance the Socrates had towards what virtues was. This is clearly portrayed in the society where some individuals are unaware of the kind of things they are expected to do yet they argue that they are very informed about such particular things.
In conclusion, Plato’s conversation is portrayed as a theoretical symbol of living rational study in which the shared activities of an individual aid in elucidating the tribulations being tested. This indicates that people’s opinions ought to be put forth despite the divergences that exist among different individuals with varied state of understanding.
We will write a custom Essay on Divergence between False and True Virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Social influence and anti social behaviour Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How research helps in the understanding of social behaviour
Introduction Experiments on social influence help to determine whether a person behaves in accordance to one’s social context or one’s personality. They emphasise the importance of the implied, real or envisaged existence of others. Individuals spend most of their time in social gatherings and they can exert an influence on group members or the reverse may occur.
Indeed, most people’s attitudes reflect the belief systems of their respective groups. To effectively understand human behaviour, one must fully appreciate the role that social context plays in influencing it. Experiments on social context can demystify antisocial behaviour because they provide a theoretical basis for deviations from the norm.
How research helps in the understanding of social behaviour One classic piece of social influence research is the Asch conformity as carried out by Solomon Asch. He was one of the most important contributors of the antisocial behavioural discipline because he demystified the concept of group conformance (Turner 1991). In his analysis, the experimenter used two types of cards for all the participants. One card had a standard line while the other card had three different lines.
Subjects were supposed to match the lines on the second card with the standard line. This was a relatively simply test that had a clear answer. However, the subjects were placed in the company of others and answered after all the confederates (5, 6 or seven in number) had responded. It was found that twelve out of the eighteen subjects changed their minds when the perceived members of the team did the same.
When these participants were asked to identify the correct line privately, they gave the right answer. This experiment illustrated that members of a group will be under pressure to conform to other’s people’s opinions even when they know that the opinions they hold are wrong.
Ash’s study was critical in illustrating the importance of normative social influence. His subjects deliberately gave a wrong answer because they wanted to adhere to group norms. At the time of the experiment, it was necessary to follow the instructions of members of the group. Their feelings and expectations were imperative in bringing out these outcomes.
In fact, conformance was so important to the subjects that they were willing to support an answer that they knew was obviously wrong (Bond
Comparing and Contrasting Two Theories of Personality: Psychoanalytical Theory vs. Behavioral Theory Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction to Theories of Personality
Psychoanalytic vs. Behavioral theories
Introduction to Theories of Personality Personality refers to a set of organized and dynamic characteristics possessed by an individual. Under different circumstances, such individual characteristics influence a person’s emotions, behaviors, cognitions, and motivations (Olson
The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Today people build their society and relations in it on the principles of ethics which were developed by such philosophers as Socrates and Aristotle in the ancient times. One of the main principles on which the ethical school is based is the notion of virtue as the representation of the moral perfectness of a man.
Moreover, virtue can also be defined as the way which a man should follow to live the better life which is full of light and goodness. Socrates and Aristotle are considered as the founders of the ethic principles. Socrates was the first who determined the notion of virtue, and Aristotle developed his own vision with basing on Socrates’ viewpoint.
Thus, there are many similarities in the philosophers’ interpretation of virtue, but there is also a significant difference in their approaches to the discussion of virtue which is influential for the organization of their ethical systems. This important difference is in determining the source of virtue as the moral category.
Socrates considers virtue as the basis for understanding people’s morality. Virtue can be thought of as the complex of the best human qualities and traits which he develops consciously. Socrates determines four main virtues which exist in people’s lives.
They are prudence (or personal wisdom), justice, temperance, and fortitude (Taylor, 2001). Following these four virtues is the men’s chance to live the better life because they are connected with all the aspects of people’s living including civil life and military service.
However, a man cannot follow the principles of a virtuous life consciously when he does not know them. That is why to live a moral life, it is necessary to know what the virtue is. Having determined four main virtues, Socrates states that prudence can be considered as the major one which is the source for developing justice, temperance, and fortitude.
His arguments depend on his opinion that prudence (or wisdom) is associated with the human intelligence or reason, and intelligence is the knowledge (Taylor, 2001). Thus, Socrates understands virtue and the way to it as the knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Socrates, the real morality and virtue is the knowledge of what is good and what is bad (Taylor, 2001). The understanding of virtue as good is the way to reach the person’s moral satisfaction and live the happy life. A man can acquire such virtues as prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude when he spends a lot of time trying to learn and perceive the world around him and developing oneself.
The human’s perception is his knowledge about oneself and the reality. It is possible to learn to live a virtuous life as persons learn any other norms and rules. Socrates considers virtues and the moral norms and rules which are based on them as eternal and unalterable. Analyzing Socrates visions of virtue, it is possible to say that he understands the knowledge as the source for developing virtues the main of which is prudence as the reflection of person’s intelligence (Taylor, 2001).
Aristotle develops Socrates’ principles associated with the notion of virtue and presents his own structure of human’s moral categories which form the ethics. Thus, Aristotle understands virtue is the balance or ‘golden mean’ between two possible extremes in actions and thoughts (Curzer, 2012). That person who is virtuous should know where this ‘golden mean’ is and act according to it in order to achieve the goal to live the happy life.
Happiness is the notion which Aristotle combines with the idea of virtues because virtue is the human’s way to his happiness and the part of happiness as the whole one. Happiness as a result of following a virtuous life is also the part of the person’s life when his mind controls his will, feelings, and emotions and points the good way to happiness (Curzer, 2012).
Moreover, Aristotle determines much more virtues which influence the people’s life. They are liberality, truthfulness, friendliness, forgiveness, integrity and some others which form the person’s morality (Gottlieb, 2011).
According to Aristotle all the virtues can be divided into intellectual and moral. Thus, intellectual virtues are affected by the people’s wisdom and their will to follow them. Moral virtues are connected with the emotional nature of humans (Gottlieb, 2011). They depend on the people’s desire, will, and motives to realize them.
Virtue is the moral category which can be considered as the motivation for person’s actions and behavior. Therefore, Aristotle understands person’s will, desire, and motivation as the main basis for virtue, but not the knowledge (Curzer, 2012).
We will write a custom Essay on The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Socrates and Aristotle develop the knowledge of virtue as goodness and the combination of the person’s best traits, but their approaches to the issue of the source of virtues are quite opposite to each other and form the main difference in their visions of virtue as the moral category. Socrates’ opinion that the knowledge is the single source of virtue is argued by his successors.
The idea that “virtue is knowledge of what the agent’s good is, and the agent’s good is knowledge” is rather controversial because it appeals only to the rational on in humans and rejects the fact of their emotional causes for actions (Taylor, 2001, p. 69). Socrates does not differentiate between the knowledge and its usage.
He considers that a person can act badly and without following the principles of virtuous life only because of the fact he does not know these principles. This opinion can be considered as rather idealistic because it rejects the natural peculiarities of the people’s behavior which are based on the affective part of the personality (Taylor, 2001).
Aristotle’s vision of the virtue’s source can be considered as more realistic in comparison with Socrates’ one. He is the first philosopher who develops the moral principles with focusing on the voluntary aspect of personality. The knowledge has the general character, and the action is a result of the personal will.
Being influenced by the knowledge, virtues and morality depend on will and desire to live a virtuous life. It is possible to know what is good, but it is important to want to follow goodness (Gottlieb, 2011). It is important to notice that that person who has the knowledge about virtues can have no desire to develop them and to follow them even if she knows these moral principles.
That is why Aristotle’s theory of virtue is “relevant to contemporary life in detail, not just in general approach” (Curzer, 2012, p. 4). Aristotle’s viewpoint that virtues in action are the effects of person’s will can be considered as more plausible in comparison with Socrates’ idea on the rational character of virtues.
The notion of virtue is the basic category of the ethics which was developed by Socrates and Aristotle. The main principles of virtues provided by these philosophers have many similarities in relation to virtue as the moral category, but the main difference is in Socrates and Aristotle’s vision of the source of virtue.
Socrates presents the idealistic visions of goodness depending only on the knowledge when Aristotle examines all the aspects of this notion and focuses on the voluntary factor. Aristotle’s idea can be considered as more reliable because it depends on the natural characteristics of personality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Curzer, H. J. (2012). Aristotle and the virtues. USA: Oxford University Press.
Gottlieb, P. (2011). The virtue of Aristotle’s ethics. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, C. C. W. (2001). Socrates: A very short introduction. USA: Oxford University Press.
Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” Essay college essay help near me
The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa is a book that takes us through a family in Africa, the joys and the struggles they had to go through each and every day. The book is a humorous piece of literature offering numerous lessons and insights about the mayhem faced in Africa. The author has taken us back when some of the fertile lands in Africa had been misappropriated by the whites.
After independence, the farms, which were occupied by white settlers, were taken over by some enlightened members of the society. As it can be noted from the book, the author’s family was one of the beneficiaries of such farms. Despite the fact that they had almost everything they needed, they faced lots of challenges than the other people in the society (Rogers, 2010).
They could not escape from the fact that they were living in an environment that was dominated by poor and illiterate people. Coping with issues in the underdeveloped country is what motivated the author to come up write the book and explore the kind of life in the contemporary African society. He gives us a feel of what it means to be African, the joy and the challenges that come from a continent that is considered backward by many developed nations.
The ‘Last Resort’ is a book with an African setting that seeks to reveal several issues that are overlooked especially by foreigners. Contrary to expectations that those in power in Africa do not face challenges, the author examines the challenges faced by the rich members of the society. We realize that those endowed with power in Africa have their own challenges that are slightly different from what other developed countries face.
The author reveals more about the poverty situation in Africa affects both those in authority and the normal citizens (Rogers, 2010). Despite the efforts of those in authority to work hard and obtain money, by the very reason of them being among the poor and illiterate they will also have to face the challenges that come with living in such an environment.
Living as if they have everything does not prevent them from empathizing with the situation around them; they aim at inspiring their fellow compatriots that they can also make it in their lives by working harder. The author reveals to the audience some of the challenges that hinder African nations from developing at a similar rate with others in the west.
After reading the work, it is observed that it can be biased based on the perspective in which the information is derived. It is debatable whether the information and revelations presented in the work present the right situations faced in the African continent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The work also offers less reliable resources on the study topic. What the author has done is empathizing with the situation in his perfective as a son of a white farm settler. Most events about poverty and inequality as faced in Africa could be more or less theoretical to the author than practical. This is because the author was brought up in a well-up family.
The information is also based on what he felt about his environment rather than what the real situation is. The rich and those who are in authority in Africa are perceived to be unsympathetic about the poor and consider them lazy people who have become complacent about their situation.
They overlook some of their challenges, which include illiteracy and poverty from their backgrounds. They may not have had the opportunity to advance their studies or get the exposure that requires them to take up certain responsibilities.
The author’s family may have landed on a fortune that enabled them get the needed exposure to be in leadership position. They were endowed with the responsibility of maintaining it. Coming from such a background, the author may be biased with his portrayal of the poor peasants in Africa who are mainly concerned about what their families will have for the day (Rogers, 2010).
The challenges they face on a daily basis do not give them room to think about investments. It takes quite some time and generations for their attitudes to change from simply having daily bread to investing into larger business units. It should be noted that there are different levels of development and as much as a lower class of people in the society is despised, we realize that they have their own benefits.
They take up responsibilities that people in upper classes will not take. It is hence appropriate to appreciate the different levels rather than condemn them. In fact, it is by knowing where you have come from that will make one appreciate where they are.
The last resort highlights Africa on a rich man’s son perspective. The book should therefore be read and interpreted considering from such point of view. This also implies that what has been displayed in the book is just a shadow of what Africa has been and how the people of the land react to the changes and challenges they face on a daily basis.
We will write a custom Essay on Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It will be encouraging to know that what most people are told and know about Africa is contrary to the truth (Rogers, 2010). A person will give a description of something basing on the knowledge and experience they have heard. Their perspective has to do with the attitude of the narrator and how they choose to display what they have seen from their experiences.
The most appropriate thing the author has managed to convince his audience it to get their own experience and derive their own conclusion rather than waiting to be told.
Reference Rogers, D. (2010). The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa. New York: Crown Publishing Group.
Trade Liberalization in International Trade Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impacts of trade liberalization
Empirical studies on the effects of trade liberation
Introduction International trade is the exercise of exchanging products, either tangible or intangible, between different countries across the globe. This involves both import and export trade, both of which have their significant positive and negative impacts in the trading countries. Due to the controversies surrounding international trade, the venture is not fully acceptable in almost every country in the world.
A significant factor that hinders international trade leading to its unacceptability is imposition of tariffs. Although there are several other non-tariff factors that cause hindrance to international trade, tariffs have played a significant role in many countries for such a long time, making them the greatest factors hindering free trading activities between countries (Aguiar, 2002, p 1).
Tariffs are imposed by governments of respective countries in the form of taxes, quotas and duties. This is done as a way of promoting domestic products since the imported products end up with hiked up prices as a result of the imposed duties and taxes. Such imported products have increased prices throughout the whole chain of consumption and as a result, people are left with no choice but to use the domestic products even if the goods are not their preferred choice.
This paper evaluates ways in which tariffs act as barriers to international trade and the impacts of trade liberalization based on empirical studies.
Impacts of trade liberalization Trade liberalization has various effects in various aspects in the countries imposing them. For instance, there are impacts on income distribution, environmental stability, economic growth and development, among others. Some of these effects may have positive impacts on such countries, while others affect the countries negatively.
Based on a broader development impact, trade liberalization has resulted in increased welfare of local citizens due to the improved allocation of local resources. Restriction of importing products creates an anti-export state which promotes local production and thus the improved allocation of local resources. The removal of this restriction leads to liberalization of export-based products and leads to a shift from the production of products meant to substitute imports to the extensive production of export goods (James, 2012, p 1).
This creates both short and long term generation of growth as such countries adjust to new ways of resource allocation to its advantage. However, this process may have limitations due to adjustments of costs, which are more likely to result in potentially unproductive results for the countries as well as to individual entrepreneurs. The most significant effect is the loss of stability of such countries, which result from the difficulties arising from balance of payments and/or decreased revenue from the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others are unemployment effects, which result in low output and the reduction of human capital due to loss of industries and specific firms. However, these impacts depend on the rate with which transitions are made from one sector to another.
Despite these relations between trade liberalization and economic growth, the two have not been completely correlated with each other in a universal manner. There are still controversies surrounding trade liberalization on economic growth of the trade-liberalized countries. Although a lot of literature has linked the two, some studies have failed to deduce a conclusive connection between them.
For instance, a study by Rodriguez and Rodrik (1999) indicates no correlation between the two with the argument that the theoretical analysis is less informative and is nothing close to the real facts on the ground hence regarding to the conclusion of trade liberalization affecting economic growth as being biased (Basu, and Abegaz, 2010, p 1).
Some of these researchers argue that the gap between the theoretical aspect of the matter and the real facts could be a result of other internal factors of the involved countries such a poor performance concerning the economy. However, this does not mean that trade liberalization does not necessarily affect economic growth in any way.
In any case, factors like improved technology, availability of information and the openness of paving way for reduced prices do play a significant role in contributing to economic growth in any country with or without trade liberalization. However, for better economic results in regard to trade liberalization, there needs to be complementary policies specific to each country, which includes availability of infrastructure, level and value of education and policies of financial and other macroeconomic sectors of the particular countries.
The overall impact of trade liberalization is better determined by the complete economic pathway of specific countries. Trade liberalization affects the poor in a similar way that it does to other consumers as it leads to increased prices of imported products as well as ensuring that the prices for substitutes of foreign goods are kept as low as necessary.
This increases the actual income for all consumers, including the poor. One of the most important factors to consider in trade liberalization is price transmission, which affects the way that prices of border products are effectively translated into the actual price changes of the locally produced products. This, however, depends on the competition within the distribution sector of the country importing the products.
We will write a custom Essay on Trade Liberalization in International Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of the imported product also affects price transition as well as the operation of marketing institutions, especially those that are run by the government in those countries. Another significant factor affecting trade liberalization is enterprise, which affects the movement of resources between local industries and this, in turn, creates an impact on employment and, consequently, on wages. This is where trade liberalization affects households through its impacts on employment and wages, thus, affecting profitability of consumers.
There are two different ways through which trade liberalization can affect enterprise. One is when there is full employment and flexible wages during which the changes in price resulting from trade liberalization are reflected in changes on wages but with employment remaining constant.
The other way is when there is no constant employment with pools of employees moving in and out of jobs probably due to circumstances of the jobs. In this case, trade liberalization results to changes in employment rather than in wages.
In the actual sense, the two situations tend to occur simultaneously with a balance between them depending on the flexibility of relative wages and employment as well as the capacity of the respective sectors to absorb the unemployment situation and other declining sectors (McCorney, 2006, p 1).
Trade liberalization also affects taxes and expenditure of countries due to the reduction or the complete elimination of trade taxes, which lowers government revenue. This causes governments to put on efforts to stabilize macroeconomy by cutting off some social expenditure or alternatively, imposing new taxes which, in turn, affect the poor in an inappropriate manner.
Empirical studies on the effects of trade liberation The empirical evidence on trade liberalization has been only directed towards reforms in the general markets due to the relationship between trade reforms and poverty in many countries. Evidence has been presented on eight countries and it has indicated that the countries have had a gradual rate of liberating trade for a period of over 20 years.
These countries are India, Bangladesh, Zambia, Jamaica, Philippines, Malawi, Brazil and Bulgaria. Trade liberalization in these countries was pursued through multilateral, bilateral and regional levels of trade policies through the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. Broader economic policy strategies were also considered, including the structural adjustment program.
After several years of trade regime interventions, all the eight countries began implementing tariff reforms, which resulted in gradual decrease on average tariffs although in a considerable rate. Several quantitative restriction measures were either completely eliminated or transitioned into their respective tariff equivalents (Aguiar, 2002, p 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Trade Liberalization in International Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Manifestation of trade liberalization was also demonstrated in the removal of restrictions on imports and the overall simplification of the export-import activities; the most significant being the elimination of import-export licenses. Generally, the trade reforms created easy accessibility to international trade for the eight countries.
Additionally, all the eight countries have joined partnerships with neighboring trade partners to boost general trade. Each of the eight countries has at least one partnership with a free trade agreement through which they benefit by receiving easy preferential market access. For instance, the two African countries among the eight, Zambia and Malawi, have easy market access to most of the developed countries, a preference that other African countries may not have.
All the other countries out of the eight have trade agreements that have been established between countries within the same locality. With trade liberalization providing essential incentives for trade, the bilateral and regional trade agreements kept particular partners to trade. These agreements have and are still influential in the products to be traded as well as the trade partners.
Another important feature common with the eight countries is that the trade reforms have been greatly promoted by international financial economic institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF (Tussie and Aggio, 2006, p 1). However, some changes have occurred in all the eight countries with some of them getting trade reform promotions from local policies such as the stabilization plan in Brazil, the centrally planned system in Bulgaria and the economic liberation framework in India.
Trade liberalization has been linked to economic growth, not only in the eight countries mentioned, but in any other country with liberty to trade. This is because of the economic policies associated with it, which have impacts evidenced in social and economic indicators. These countries experienced various impacts resulting from the trade policies associated with the liberalization process.
For instance, Zambia and Malawi have had proliferation in the value of their non-traditional export goods representing a significant increase in the total earnings from exported products. However, negative impacts were also reported, especially in Zambia, as quoted by the World Bank, 2008: “The country saw significant progress in the area of structural reforms during the 1990s, but full macroeconomic stability and sustainable growth proved elusive. All the social and education indicators deteriorated. Infant mortality rates, adult illiteracy, malnutrition and poverty remained very high” (McCorney, 2006, p 1).
Bulgaria and Bangladesh have, on the other hand, had institutional reformations. Bangladesh transformed from the previous centrally planned system to a market economy. The impacts of trade liberalization in these two countries were fairly positive compared to those in the two African countries, Zambia and Malawi. They gained economic growth by increasing external flows.
However, in both countries, absolute alleviation of poverty has not been made possible with large populations living beyond poverty line. Philippine and Jamaica have also had gradual economic growth with indicators in the living standards of their population. Brazil and India, on the other hand, have exhibited great economic growth facilitated by the economic policy agreements, which added value to trade liberalization, hence, greater economic growth in those countries.
Conclusion International trade is the process of buying and selling of products between various countries around the globe. Its main operations involve importing and exporting products between various countries. However, there have been controversies regarding international trade as its significant impacts have been divided between the positive and the negative.
As a result, many countries do not allow free international trade and they do this by imposing restrictions widely classified as tariff restrictions and non-tariff restrictions. The tariff restrictions mainly involve taxes, duties and quotas. The most significant effect of international trade causing these restrictions is the deterioration of local markets due to the high competition presented by foreign goods.
However, with the proper implementation of trade reforms, developing countries can actually grow economically and socially from international trade through trade liberalization. This is significant because with trade liberalization and consequent removal of trade licenses, both local and imported goods get to have reasonable prices to the benefit of the poor. In conclusion, considerations and proper implementations of trade reforms and related agreements should be done prior to making the decision of liberalizing trade.
Reference List Aguiar, C. 2002, “Trade and financial liberalization and its effects on growth, employment and income distribution in Latin American countries”, provisional draft: IDEAS conference. Web.
Basu, A. and Abegaz, B. 2010, “The elusive productivity effect of trade liberalization in manufacturing industries of emerging economies”, center for development research, universitat Bonn. Web.
James, B. 2012, “Trade liberalization, profitability and financial leverage”, Highbeam business: journal of international studies. Web.
McCorney, G. 2006, “The effects of trade liberalization on the environment: an empirical study”, department of rural economy, university of Alberta. Web.
Tussie, D. and Aggio C. 2006, “economic and social effects of trade liberalization”, coping with trade reforms: a developing country perspective on the WTO industry tariff negotiation. Web.
International Marketing and Its Challenges Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Global marketing is described as the process through which individuals or companies produce products, offer services, and make them available to customers worldwide (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2006). This type of marketing has brought about development within the world and more so, creating job opportunities for many people.
The purpose of this analysis is to help readers establish more about international marketing and to learn on some of the challenges that this type of market is subjected to. It is also aimed at assisting individuals as well as companies in discovering ways in which they can indulge themselves in this kind of markets (Keegan and Green, 2012).
Companies, which market their products and services globally, are faced with several cultural factors and as such, they either favor or disfavor their global marketing strategies. These cultural dimensions include;
Competition Marketing globally tends to create a great competition especially if many entrepreneurs in the world, who uses the same channel to market, are engaging with the same type of products. Global marketing is largely facilitated by technological development aspects and hence bringing about tremendous development in communication and transport in meeting, the customer’s needs effectively (Johansson, 2008).
As a result, continuous provision of quality products to consumers from different companies and countries is ensured. As such, it means that the competition for a product or service is very high. This can be regarded as a great challenge to entrepreneurs’ as they try to ensure that their goods are presentable and attractive to the consumers.
In response to this challenge, companies pump many resources to try having a competitive advantage and as such, those companies with a small funding capacity can easily back out (Gerbe, 2007).
Political culture The state of governance in countries, which a company decides to trade with, greatly determines how one will run his/her business in that country. In some countries, there exist conflicts in almost every sphere meaning that the political environment is unstable and as such, trading in that country becomes difficult (Gerbe, 2007). For instance, tax charged on imported goods might be very high such that low funded companies cannot meet and hence posing as a great hindrance to trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other countries employ dictatorship mode of governance and as such, some harsh rules are put into place, which tends to suppress the foreign investors and entrepreneurs and therefore, the marketing of a product or service may reduce due to harsh political environment (Johansson, 2008).
Society Lifestyle In any country, the lifestyle of its citizen will determine if the marketing of foreign made goods or services will be successful or not. Some products are not accepted in certain countries because of their cultures and taboos. Therefore, before a company decides to engage global marketing, it is necessary to find out if their way of living does support the use the product or service it intends to introduce.
This decision is necessary as, if a company fails to consider the lifestyle, then it becomes a victim of terrible marketing thus tremendous losses (Hollensen, 2001).
Capital Marketing globally necessitates pumping huge amounts of financial resources. This plays a great challenge to individual or companies who cannot meet the cost. It mostly affects the developing worlds as well as the third world countries (Matt, 2008). For a company to engage successfully into this type of market, it becomes important that there be a continuous flow of substantial income to ensure that there is no delay in the production of the product.
The delay can lead to the collapse of the company due to the high competition from other well off firms where the consumers can turn to at any time. Capital necessary to finance such big investments can be obtained through loans from banks and other financial institutions (Dana, 2001).
A company, for instance, dealing with cosmetic or beauty products, may face a challenge in its effort aimed at marketing its products globally whereby it would be subjected by stiff and unhealthy competition. Such a company should establish criteria on how to deal with this problem in order to survive in the field.
Due presence of an integrated technology, the competition is exceedingly escalating and thus, for a company to survive this competition, it must ensure that its products are readily available to the consumers even at their doorsteps (Hollensen, 2007). The use of Internet makes it possible for enterprise to advertise their products using their website therefore reaching as many market segments as possible without incorporating a lot of resource or energy.
We will write a custom Assessment on International Marketing and Its Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This, in turn, will ensure that the companies make tremendous amounts of profits. Since there are so many companies making use of global markets to market cosmetic products, there is a wide variety of products for the consumer to choose from, the quality of the product also determines how consumers will respond to the product (Kaynak, 2002).
For a company to effectively engage in global marketing and develop a competitive advantage over its competitors, it must recommend ideas and tactics and incorporate them in its global marketing strategy. Such recommendations would include;
Search competition culture information A company dealing with cosmetic and beauty products must take advantage of the existing integrated information technology to search adequately the relevant information regarding the nature of competition existing among companies marketing their beauty products globally. It must get into fine details including the amount of resources capable of giving it a commanding lead as well as a competitive advantage over its competitors. In addition, it must find information on untapped markets and doing all this, it can easily avoid unhealthy competition (Schmidtmann, 2008).
High quality products and services To effectively attract a substantial demand for beauty products and services from customers across the world, it is necessary that a company dealing with such products to ensure that an integrated paradigm in management is put in place. As such, it will ensure that its products pass through quality assurance tests and hence, the products must be of superior quality.
This is a winning strategy, putting competition into consideration, as customers will always prefer quality and unique products. Moreover, quality products are indispensable and will become accepted across many countries across the world (Hollensen, 2007).
Multi level Marketing Beauty products are regarded as basic needs as nearly every person uses them. Their markets are readily available and as such, making use of people globally to take these products and services to their doorsteps becomes an important aspect if a company wishes to attain a competitive advantage.
As such, not many companies indulging in global market trading do employ retailing at such levels. Utilizing diversified marketing levels is an important aspect in establishment of different market segments in an effort to mitigate the presence of stiff competition (Saidin, 2007).
Fair Prices While still maintaining high levels of quality among its beauty products and services, the company indulging itself in global marketing must ensure that it maintains affordable prices of their products and services. As such, the prices must be slightly below the competitor’s prices. Fair prices are used to entice customers and as such, they prove to be effective as large volumes of sales are realized and this means that a company has achieved a certain degree of command in respect to competition (Saidin, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Marketing and Its Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liaison A company dealing with cosmetic and beauty products and services can liaise with specific wholesalers as well as retailers globally to sell its products through them subject to a small merit fee. A company, which intends to achieve an upper hand in issues concerning competition, it is necessary that, it approach various groups of traders to optimize the channels through which its products will be distributed.
From this analysis, it is clear that global marketing is faced with a great deal of challenges positioned by cultural dimensions the major ones being economic culture, that is, capital, competition from the like minded companies, politics in various countries across the world as well as the diversified lifestyles shown by different categories of people, their cultures, tastes and preferences.
A company must be very cautious in engaging into the global market to avoid setbacks resulted by undesirability of its products. As such, it must establish measures to curb these possibilities, especially the case associated with global competition (Mooij, 2009). The most important effort towards mitigation of such issues is making substantial use of the integrated information technology to establish the strengths and the weaknesses of the competitors.
References Czinkota, M.R,
Understanding the Linkage between Aggression essay help free
Introduction Extant epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently demonstrate that aggression is a developmentally salient behavior, which is mostly triggered by situational factors such as the presence of violent cues, parental conflict and divorce, poverty, provocation, and the quality of parent-child relations (Bettencourt et al. 751).
Another strand of existing literature (e.g., Daffern et al. 430; Fossati et al. 24; Latalova
Marketing plan of airline company Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction A market plan is a document that strives to ensure all strategies are implemented to the end (Mcdonald, 2011).The main goal of marketing involves revenue maximization and customer satisfaction. It is expected that when a good marketing plan is adopted and implemented, it should be the turning point for any enterprise.
According to Plunkett, ”The commercial airline industry has always been particularly vulnerable to economic and political changes” (2009). Therefore, investing in the industry needs carefull considerations. A good marketing plan places a firm on a higher pedestal to compete and command a sizeable share of any market that it operates.
Mission statement Fere Airline is committed to becoming a profitable, global, and competitive airline, known for success based on efficiency and effectiveness in all its aspects of operations.
Fere Airline’s Core Purpose:
The Airline strives to make a significant contribution to the sustainable development of Europe.
Continuous improvement of service and product quality to remain competitive
Maintain the highest safety standards in operations
Fere Airline’s Goals:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To become the airline of choice in Europe
To adopt business strategies that will ensure profitability
To place London’s Stansted Airport on the map of the world and develop it as a premier hub in Europe
To achieve a world class status in all aspects of operation, performance, customer satisfaction, and product quality
Airline’s Organization Structure:
For efficiency in service delivery, the airline’s organization structure will comprise of eight departments. An executive director will head each of the departments. The executive directors in consultation with the Group Managing Director will make most departmental decisions. The suggested departments are:
Security and Anti-terrorism
Human Resources and Administration
Fleet 15 Boeing 737 900ER
Image courtey of ComPilots-Aviation Portal
Boeing 737-900ER Technical Characteristics
Wingspan 112 feet 7 inches (34.3 meters) Wingspan w/winglets 117 feet 5 inches (35.7 meters) Cabin width 11 feet 7 inches (3.53 meters) Overall length 138 feet 2 inches (42.1 meters) Tail height 41 feet 2 inches (12.5 meters) Lower hold volume 11,824 cubic ft. (51.6 m3) Volume with 1 aux tank 1,674 cubic ft. (47.4 m3) Volume with 2 aux tanks 1,585 cubic ft. (44.9 m3) Source (Boeing, 2004)
General Strategy The airline industry is fiercely competitive (Cento, 2008). As globalization gains momentum, this already fierce competition is expected to intensify. This means that without proper marketing, the firm will hardly make any penetrations. Therefore, survival in this field means appropriately responding to the changing aero-political environment.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing plan of airline company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the above factors, Fere Airline has committed to investing in a state of the art information gathering system that will ensure the company remains up to date with market changes. As such, the company’s ability to respond to unforeseen threats and available opportunities will be rapid.
In concrete terms, the airline aims to become the leading carrier in Europe with a heavy presence in Africa, Asia, and America in the next 20 years. The company also intends to own a fleet of 40-50 modern aircrafts for these operations. Finally yet importantly, the company intends to forge partnerships with other airlines to increase service efficiency.
Product and service analysis
Fere Airline’s headquarters will be based in London Stansted Airport. As a European short haul airline, its operations will cover France, BCN and ARN. Fere Aitrlines has already acquired 15 Boeing type B737 aircrafts for start up. The Airline will engage in both cargo and human transport.
However, concentration will be on passengers considering the size of the palne. B737 are relatively small aircrafts and cannot, therefore, handle voluminous laggage (Kundu, 2010). To ensure that the airline gains considerable market share, various products and services will be offered.
The company will introduce gift cards to its loyal customers. Customers who win the gift cards will have their journeies fully sponsored to a destinations of their choice. Be it the Himalayas for a holiday with your spouse, Africa to watch wild animals, or the Middle East, the company will take them safely at no pay.
Travel insurance makes airline travelling expensive (Lee, 2006). According to Karr, “The cost of travel insurance varies widely, depending on the cost and length of your trip, your age and health, and the type of …” (2006).
Many airlines use the above mentioned factors to swindle traveller and charge exhorbitant prices. The company will offer comprehensive insurance to its clients at very affordable rates. The comprehensive cover will comprise lost package, travel delays, and trip cancellation insurance.
Apart for the conventional payment methods such as direct deposits, mastercard,and visa card, which are sometimes inconveniencing, the company will offer a varriety of convenient payment methods such as paypal, pyoneer, credit cards, GoodAsGold, Moneybookers, Alertpay, and Mobile Money Transfer. This will ensure that customers can easily pay for their flights using the most convenient method to them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing plan of airline company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One bag free campaign
Travelers who have a lot of luggage need not worry. The company plans to run a promotional campaign aimed at attracting more clients, especially those travelling with families. Therefore, every paseenger will be allowed to travel with one bag free.
Free onboard services XM Radio
Every seat will have a fixed XM Radio for customers to tune in and listen. Most interestingly, the customers will have a choice of 100 radio stations. This will ensure that passangers tune in to the stations of their choice in terms of presenters, music genre or discussions.
Fere airline’s management knows that travelling without snacks makes the journey boring and long. As such, the company has contracted leading snack companies, Doritos, Jeffa Cakes, Hovis Bakery, and Greggs.
On every seat is installed a 36 channel DIRECTV with leading international channels. Clients who like business news can always catch up with Quest on CNN, sports and entertainment lovers, ESPN among other wolrd class channels.
“Strategic partnerships are being heralded as a sound strategy in the airline industry” (Fojt, 2006). Attaining a world class status with a Boeing 737, is an almost impossible task. As globalization gains prominence, so is air travel (Meskill, 1999).
This means that the demand for air travelling across the world remains high. The company must, therefore, make efforts to tap into this growing market through mergers. As such, the following companies have been contacted for mergers.
Fere Airline and Air France have agreed to share services between London and Paris. This will give the customer a better service experience through regular routes and marvelous experinces.
Fere Airline will share London to Frankfurt route with Aeroflot.
Time schedule is used to advertise the timetable of arrivals and departures. It only includes days when the airline is operational. In this case, the time schedule will cover the period beginning 1st February 2011 to 18th April 2011.
Departing London Stansted Airport
To Departure Arrival Flight nos. days France 2200 2354 CS001 1stFebruary 2011 Barcelona 2200 0045 CS003 10THFebruary 2011 Stockholm 0930 1236 CS007 15THFebruary 2011 France 2100 1100 Cs012 21stFebruary 2011 Barcelona 1715 2000 Cs015 27thFebruary 2011 Stockholm 1035 1500 Cs 014 30thFebruary 2011 France 2245 0500 Cs013 2ndMarch 2011 Barcelona 1545 1830 CS011 5th March 2011 Stockholm 1135 1700 Cs005 10thMarch 2011 France 2025 0400 Cs006 14thMarch 2011 Barcelona 1600 2200 Cs003 18thMarch 2011 Stockholm 1135 1700 Cs004 21stMarch 2011 France 2000 0600 Cs009 28thMarch 2011 Barcelona 1600 2145 Cs008 4thApril Stockholm 1135 1600 Cs007 16thApril 2011 Time justification
Fligh time and distance have been calculated using flight time calculator (https://flighttime-calculator.com/).
London to Paris
Start time:31 Jan 2011 22:00 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:31 Jan 2011 23:54 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
London to Barcelona
Start time:09 Feb 2011 22:00 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:10 Feb 2011 00:45 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
London to Stockholm
Start time:15 Feb 2011 09:30 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:15 Feb 2011 12:36 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
Start time:21 Feb 2011 19:00 GMT 01:00
Arrival time:21 Feb 2011 18:54 GMT 00:00 (Local times)
Budget for advertising
Budget in marketing plan refers to comparison between expected revenue earned as a direct result of advertising and cost incurred in advertising.
Care should be taken to ensure that an optimal level of advertisement is reached. That it is to say marginal costs of advertising should be equal to marginal revenues collected. Too much advertising is not recommended since it will only be effective up to certain optimal limit.
Between February and April 2011, the company plans to spend $ 150,000 on advertisement. The table below show specific areas of expenditure and expected revenue generated from advertising effects.
Marketing expenditure February March April total Online 2000 3000 3000 8000 Brochures 6000 5000 6000 17000 Trade shows – 9000 10800 27000 Print 12000 11000 9000 32000 Radio 10000 12000 10000 32000 Promotions – – 30000 30000 Publications 1000 2000 1000 4000 Sales training 6000 5000 1000 12000 Total spent 50000 52000 48000 150000 Total sales 4000000 4500000 6000000 1450000 Marketing as a % sales 1.25 1.15 0.8 Online advertising
The internet has proven effecteive lately in advertisement. In fact, according to Yeshin, “The web should not be regarded as a substitute for advertising in traditional media” (2005).
Instead, the internet should be taken as a primary advertising method due to its wide coverage, cost effectiveness, and efficiency (Rock, 2005). Use of social media such as Face Book and Twitter and company website can be of great importance to online advertising. Online advertisement will run for 3 months.
“An attractive brochure can be very useful” (Henning, 2008). The company must, therefore, design and print brochures and distribute them to potential customers to aid selling of company products.
Trade shows, if well organized, can prove crucial to a company’s success. It is no wonder that Hisrich claimed that, “The importance of trade shows in industrial sales cannot be overstated” (Hisrich, 2000).
Radio advertisement has remained of great importance despite the emergence of the internet and Television. More still, the advent of FM radio stations has brough in jist among listeners (Mathur, 2005). The company, has decided to use 3 popular radio stations in its advertisements.
From the projections, February, March, and April’s ratio of expenditure to sales would registere 1.25%, 1.15%, and 0.8% respectively. This is a favorable ratio. It shows that returns on amounts invested in advertisement cost are several times the cost. This occurrence shows that advertisement plays a pivotal role in boosting revenues.
Print and radio utilized the highest cost while publications registered the lowest cost.
Marketing strategy refers to causes of actions that are aimed at achievement of market plans (Handlechner, 2012). Such strategies mainly focus on gaining competitive advantage in the market to boost revenues. They also work to ensure customer loyalty to products of a particular enterprise.
Competitive and customers strategies
Fere Airline will strive to be competitive despite the cutthroat competition that exists in the airline market. It faces completion from established airlines such as Virgin Atlantic, Air France, and British Airways. Despite the economic strength of these established companies, Fere Airline will most probably prevail and be profitable because of its highly efficient and effective operations.
Mock press advertisement
We are glad to announce to you the introduction of our world class airline services. The industry is crowded already, but we took this step because we believe travellers deserve nothing less than excellence and comfort. Surely, what we are launching today, Fere Airline, is an epitome of comfort with a touch of class.
It is impressive and highly innovative. This is the reason why you need to fly with Fere Airline. We are introducing a flee of 15 Boeing 737 all customized to meet your comfort needs.
It may be hard to believe that such excellent services would come at low prices, but Fere Airline is determined to make travelling cheaper and more exciting for all. We desire to ply all routes in Europe. However, we will only make direct flights to France, Spain, and Germany.
Conclusion Marketing plan is an integral element of any business idea. Ignoring the need for a marketing plan is business’s own peril (Berman, 2009). A good marketing plan is paramount for success.
It should be designed exhaustively and realistically without leaving out important components. Important components include various competitive strategies,potential challenges and how the business intends to tackle these challenges.
The management needs to go a step further, adopt the components of market plan to the fullest. It should not just be a decorated documents which is not implemented in the business strategic planning. Fere Airline shows good tidings in the future, it should not be complacent.
It exists in a very competitive arena, and no efforts should be spared by all stakeholders, since slight mishap could plummet the tremendous grounds they have covered to oblivion.
References Andrew, T. (2003) Aviation insecurity: the new challenges of air tarvel, Amherst, NY: Promethes Books.
Bayne, K.M. (1997) The Internet marketing plan, New York: J. Wiley
Ecological Imperialism Essay college admissions essay help
Ecological imperialism is a very insightful book based on the fact that it asks the basic question that has continued to attract attention and controversy in equal measure. There has been an argument as per to whether environmental issues of today are historically determined. If this is the case that such issues are historically determined, then there should be some kind of history that is most relevant to questions that revolve around policy making and management.
The main question that Crosby poses is whether the expansion by Europeans would have succeeded without the biota that they brought with them. The book explains that the expansion was successful because the biota that Europeans brought with them succeeded.
It remains to be understood how a few disoriented Europeans were able to overwhelm the new world with their civilizations (Crosby 67). There are good answers to this question that have been posed by Crosby as he explains various aspects that relate to ecological imperialism.
In fact Crosby has been able to popularize the concept of ecological dimension by looking at the history of imperial expansion into the new world. There is a question as per to how Europeans were able to colonize people of the new world with misfiring guns and spears. In this case, Crosby tries to explain that the victory hat Europeans had is not as a result of their political and military might but bacteriology.
This is where Europeans unwittingly carried with them diseases like small pox and measles that were used to wipe out inhabitants of the new world. Therefore a good question that is asked is: did ecology shape European expansion? As far as this issue is concerned, European expansion can be explained by ecological factors (Crosby 59). Ecology was able to create Neo-Europe’s that facilitated the expansion of Europeans in the new world.
Why did Europeans spread so quickly into America, New Zealand, Australia and others is s question that has been well answered by this book in different perspectives that are supposed to be understood? The question is not so innocent because it explains that other things like pests, pigs, livestock and diseases followed Europeans to the new world (Crosby 68).
The most splendid answer is found in the final chapters where there is a definition that weeds can be explained as organisms that thrive on disturbances that are always caused by humans. If this is the case, then humans can as well be described and considered as the primary weed of all.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a disequilibrium that was fathered and distributed by different people thereby creating a potent self replicating system (Crosby 151). There are various advantages that Europeans developed to explain why they are found everywhere. It should be understood that there are other places where Europeans failed which is realistic in one way or the other.
As far as Crosby’s arguments are concerned, his question is very useful and well conceived because it explains to people the ecological and historical impact of various aspects of European expansionism up to the 20th century. The question is well conceived because for Europeans to have decided to expand into new territories, they must have factored into account various aspects like geography and climate.
This has therefore helped to present a fresh insight that can deviate from the normal norms. It should be known that this is a millennia long process that has been well explained by Crosby for all people to understand (Crosby 215). The success of Europeans was as a result of different factors other than weapons which are well boiled down by Crosby. In this case, it builds on a useful question in trying to understand the thesis.
The thesis of the book is clear and well stated because it helps people to understand different aspects that relate to ecological imperialism. This is because the thesis holds that Europe had an unassailable biotic mix that could not be understood by other people. Native people and ecosystems could not understand the biotic mix of Europeans which is clear and well stated thereby helping people to understand the book well (Crosby 90).
This therefore means that the argument is sound and well supported. As much as there might be some reservations about his arguments, it is well thought and explained out because there are real examples that have been used to reinforce it. There is proper explanation because it is quite obvious from the argument that the biota functioned as a team wherever it was taken up by Europeans.
It should be understood that there are various ways by which Crosby might be able to improve upon his argument or evidence. As much as Crosby is trying to advance a good point, the way it has been put forward is problematic in one way or the other. Humans have been excluded from the picture which is not good (Crosby 42).
This work can be improved upon by ensuring that human development is not relegated to the sidelines as Crosby has argued. There should be no dangerously reductive picture of the historical developments that Crosby has tried to argue in favor of.
We will write a custom Essay on Ecological Imperialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This therefore paints a rosy picture that deterministic ecological explanations cannot be held accountable for the European expansion that was witnessed in successive years. All in all, Crosby should not forget that the initial European exploration was motivated by curiosity rather than necessity.
Works Cited Crosby, Alfred. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Print.
UK Airports in Bad Weather Essay best college essay help
It is obvious that winter is one of the most problematic seasons for different companies connected with transport. Transportation is one of the parts most interested in the absence of snow and ice.
Looking at the situation in the airports it should be stated that there are many cases when the flights are cancelled because of the bad weather, but it is twice irritating when the flights are cancelled because the airports failed to conduct their direct responsibilities and clean the snow.
The UK airports have appeared in the complicated situations as they are to consider the best ways for dealing with snow in order to avoid the situations which happened this year. This paper is devoted to the discussion of the problems which have appeared in the UK airports connected with snow and the ways how these problems may be solved.
Considering the situation which has appeared, it is important to check the facts. The cleaning systems in UK and in Europe differ greatly. Thus, “in Germany, no airport had to shut even though Munich saw temperatures plunge to -27C. In Stockholm only six of 350 flights were cancelled.
Copenhagen had four inches of snow but no disruption” (Adams, Hough,
The Bunker Hill Monument Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The Bunker Hill Monument is an emblem that represents the revolutionary war at Breed’s Hill near Bunker Hill. The monument, 67 meters tall, was built out of granite. The Bunker monument was constructed within the year 1827 to 1843, in Massachusetts, at a town called Charleston.
A granite railway was put up purposely to ferry granite form the quarry at Quincy, Massachusetts, to the Bunker Hill. From the base to the apex of the monument, there are 294 steps. The staircase is spiral and is constructed in the inside of the monument up to the pinnacle.
At the top, visitors could have a beautiful and clear view of Boston and the battlefield. At the apex, there are two canons made out of brass that were used in the revolutionary war. Stealth took the canons out of Boston in 1775. This monument was amongst the first to capture and document America’s history.
The site, where the revolutionary war was fought, is known as Freedom. The monument is in the custody of the Boston National Park. This essay explores what the monument represents, why it was built and by whom it was built.
The American government formed an Association in 1823 and mandated it to acquire all the sites where the, June 17, 1775, war was fought (Packard 5). The Association was further tasked to build a fitting park to honor the heroes of the revolutionary war.
The Association commenced its work by setting up a team of artists to design a plan for the monument. The selected team comprised of Engineer Loammi Baldwin, Daniel Webster, George Ticknor, Washington Allston and Gilbert Stuart. About fifty plans were proposed about the design of the monument. The first team could not agree on a plan; hence, another one was constituted.
The new team included H.A.S. Dearborn, Edward Everett, Seth Knowles, S.D. Harris and Perkins T.H. The team agreed on a design called obelisk. It was done by Horatio Greenough. Loammi, the engineer, was praised for modifying the monument.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Construction took off in 1827 under the watch and stewardship of Solomon Willard, architecture by qualification. The materials used included 2 cubic yards of granite block. The obelisk was extracted from a quarry at Quincy through wedging technique. A transportation fee to the construction site was $5.40 on each cubic yard.
Lack of sufficient funds heavily affected the progress of the project. The construction process had to be sopped when the cash budget had been exhausted totally. The only option that was feasible was to sell the acquired parcels of land to raise the required funds to finish the monument.
They sold off ten acres in the year 1838, only retaining the apex of Breed’s Hill. Once the required funds were raised, the construction process resumed hastily. The final capstone was fitted in July 23, 1842. The monument was completed, and in 17, 1843, it was devoted by Daniel Webster, an orator (Webster 37).
The Association remained the custodians of the monument until 1919 when Commonwealth of Massachusetts assumed the management of the monument. This transfer lasted only until 1976 when again ownership was shifted to National Park Service. The monument effectively became part of the Boston Historical Park.
The memorial monument was an honor of the Americans who fought in the revolutionary war against the British. The genesis and development of the war would perhaps explain the significance of the memorial park in the history of Americans.
The British government had accumulated many debts out of the long war between the Indians and the French. The government raised taxes for the colonialists to raise funds to offset the debt. This move attracted rebellion from various colonies protesting the taxation. For instance, in Boston, colonists of the tea party damaged property and disposed Tea to the Boston Harbor.
The government responded by deploying soldiers to Boston to enforce order. Governor Thomas Hutchinson handed over to General Thomas Gage. Thomas effected the application of the Martial law that caused more rebellion from the colonists.
We will write a custom Essay on The Bunker Hill Monument specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Militiamen, minutemen, organized themselves to counter any further advancement of the British beyond Boston. The government commanded the military to annihilate the militia group. In April 1775, the militia attacked British troops in Lexington, Concord. This marked the birth of the American Revolution.
The rebel leaders mobilized men from Massachusetts to organize a battalion. The response was testimony of the unity of the rebels. Men from New Hampshire and Connecticut joined forces with the ones from Massachusetts.
Their objective was to protect Boston from the British. People from all over including Joseph Warren, a physician, came to Boston to fight. About fifteen thousand rebels engulfed Boston where General Gage and the British army were. King George III reacted to the news by deploying Generals Henry Clinton, John Burgoyne and William Howe to Boston to help Gage.
They reviewed the situation and decided to attack the hills in Dorchester and Charleston in order to regain control. The rebels discovered this strategy and set to occupy Charleston. The 16th of June 1775 is the day the war was staged.
Artemas Ward directed the American soldiers to arm themselves with shovels and guns as they left their camp. They moved to Charleston Peninsula, a place that was near Bunker Hill, in Boston. The strategy was to get to the hill from where they could confront the British ships. However, the soldiers headed to Breed’s Hill instead apparently due to improper coordination.
The Breed’s Hill was located closer to the British base. The Americans launched a stern warning to the British about their presence. This triggered what many believed was a revolutionary war. Major General William Howe commanded the British army. The general decided to command to his army to move towards the hill thinking that the Americans would move back.
A group of 28 British forces went through the Charles River towards the hills where the Americans were. The Americans opened fire to the British after they advanced closer to them. A couple of the British died, and others were injured as they retreated.
Another attempt at defeating the Americans on the hill was futile as more were killed. The Americans finally ran out of ammunition and resulted to physical fighting with the British. The British overpowered them and occupied the hill. The consequence of this fight left more than 1054 dead and scores others injured.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bunker Hill Monument by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, General Gage was saddened by the loss they had sustained from the attack. Though the rebels lost, they built their confidence to fight and challenge the British. They had managed to drive the British back two times before their ammunition ran out.
This was a tremendous inspiration since the possibility of reconciliation with the British was minimal. This reality triggered a war that was fought for eight years.
George Washington assumed leadership of the American army in 2nd July 1775. He was mandated to reorganize his troops for an imminent war against the British. The king, who was in London, interpreted the confrontation at Bunker Hill as an act of war.
This opened the window for Britain to stage retaliation. The general Howe prepared his troops in readiness for the war. He also planned on how to incorporate loyal colonials.
During the subsequent years after the battle, the hill was declared a divine place. This sanctity was to be preserved to mark the significance of the place where the genesis of the American Revolution was born. American patriots always traveled there to honor and recognize the Americans who lost their life in the attack.
The exact first monument to be planted at the hill, in 1794, was in accolade of Joseph Warren. Joseph Warren was one of the influential leaders in Boston. Warren had been killed in the fight. There was a need to recognize the efforts of all those who fought at the hill.
Early 1800, an Association was constituted to oversee the establishment of the monument. The Association raised money for that project from the public. The foundation stone was placed in 1825. In 1840, the monument had been constructed halfway when Sarah Josepha Hale organized a fair to raise more funds. Sara was an editor for the Godey’s Lady’s Book.
She mobilized several women to a fair that was held for 8 days. About $30000 was raised to help in the completion of the monument. Amos Lawrence and Judah Touro, men of irreproachable will; each gave $10000 to the Association overseeing the construction.
Three years after, the construction was finished. The monument was unveiled in 1843 coinciding with a memorial of the war. During the ceremony, the president of the United States of America, John Tyler, attended together with about 100000 people including the participants of the war. At the ceremony, there were only twelve survivors from the battle.
Daniel Webster, orator and national leader addressed the gathering highlighting the significance of the monument. He said it represented the past sacrifices, a basis for today and future generations (George 89). The monument was dilapidated with time hence the need for repair.
The process of its renovation cost $3.7 million dollars. The repairs included fitting lighting in the monument. In April 2, 2007, the Bunker monument was reopened for the public. The lights were switched on, in April 20, 2007 since the monument was erected.
The monument has had a tremendous effect on the lives of people: a linkage that connects people to the veterans of the American Revolution. Countless students all over the globe have studied the site. Numerous people including students visit the monument to learn the chronology of events that triggered the American Revolution.
The monument represents an eternal reminder of the patriotic Americans who refused to be enslaved and misused by the British. It represents the American patriots who sacrificed their lives to liberate and defend the American ideals and land. The Bunker monument is a national heritage that emboldens the foundation of the independent America.
Works Cited George, Adams. Webster’s First Bunker Hill Oration and Washington’s Farewell Address. Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.
Packard, Alpheus S. History of the Bunker Hill Monument. Charleston: Nabu Press, 2012. Print.
Webster, Daniel. The Bunker Hill Monument Adams and Jefferson. Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2005. Print.
NuComm Company in China Case Study essay help
Is Duncan Cowie right in his view that China is an “ideal market” for NuComm? Is this the right time to enter?
In today’s world, it has been noted that the internal market in any given single country has been shrinking by the day, hence forcing the firms to search for markets outside their country.
Consequently, globalization has come in handy to help these firms with the much-needed demand for their goods and services, therefore, decreasing their operating costs and increasing the profit margins through economies of scale.
Contrary to many people’s views, going outside one’s country of origin is not an easy task, and it requires strategic planning together with good timing not forgetting enough and extensive research to be sure that the investment is worthy, since the initial costs are high.
NuComm management is faced by the dilemma of determining whether investing in China is a feasible option, and if it is to choose the location and mode of entry.
Duncan Cowie the financial manager of the company who worked in China for around two years, and has some experience in the Chinese business atmosphere, proposed that China is the ideal market for Nucomm.
NuComm needs to diversify from the American and the Canadian markets where it has based its operations for years due to the volatility of the currencies there hence affecting its profit margins. The idea of investing in China was the best at the time given the prevailing conditions.
1. The Chinese workers in North American represent a significant number yet they are not covered by any call center firm, and that would make a good opportunity as they will be more ready to associate themselves with a company which would serve them even when they are back in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 2. China is still an upcoming industrial country where a service industry is just but gaining foot, and that would be advantageous, if NuComm becomes one of the first firms to start offering the communication service.
3. There are a lot of opportunities that are available in China and highlights the meager number of call centers available compelling one call center seat to serve 100, 000 people compared to America’s 700 people.
4. The government of the people’s Republic of China has recently promised to support foreign firms that have the intention of investing in the telecommunication sector, since they want to develop this sector.
The government has indicated the possibility of relaxing laws that regulate foreign investment, including the requirement that a foreign firm must have some percentage of local ownership in order to operate in China, to attract foreign firms.
This is an idea that NuComm should take advantage of because though it is only directed to a specific city, Dalian, the Chinese government has a reputation of implementing all its promises and putting all necessary machineries in place whenever it wants something done.
5. The idea of not going where the market is but where the market is expected to be helped NuComm to succeed in the Philippines. In China, Cowie notes also that the call center service businesses are not so much pronounced, which means that there is a lot of potential, when people there would come to know the usefulness of the services offered.
6. NuComm needs to expand very fast in order to save itself from the financial problems that are imminent. The possibility of growth in China is projected to be just what NuComm needs to be able to set pace for financial sustenance.
We will write a custom Case Study on NuComm Company in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industrial analysts have projected that the call center seats will increase at a rate of 40 per cent per year, which is higher than even in America, where the market is fast becoming saturated.
7. Besides, the cost of operations in China would be far much lower than those of America because wages in China are comparably lower than in the US, and wages make the bulk of NuComm’s recurring expenses. The most expensive town in China is Shanghai, where the wages are $282 compared to America’s $2500.
8. NuComm’s efforts in India failed and going back would be more of gambling given that there is nobody who is experienced as to how business is run there. On the other hand, Cowie has been working in China albeit with another company and therefore, knows how to go about with business in that country.
The timing could not be more perfect than now because the government has just pledged support, infrastructure is good and the upcoming Olympic Games will increase business opportunities.
The Olympic Games will bring a lot of people from various parts of China as well as other parts of the world, and it would be just perfect opportunity to create contacts with various firms which would become the customers. The government is also encouraging the development of the telecommunication sector and has even promised support to foreign firms that are willing to locate in specific places.
Assess Cowie’s five-step entry strategy for China. Does the sequence make sense?
Duncan Cowie suggests a five-step entry strategy which if applied by NuComm will be of great help, according to him. It is important to focus on the Chinese people working in America as the main target, because they are bound to be more willing to have service, since they have been in the American market and have probably used the service at one point in time, therefore, they know how important it is.
The workers also, being Chinese, have information about Chinese’s firms and individuals who may be interested in the service and therefore, will help a lot in giving referrals and enabling NuComm to take opportunities a head of time.
It is also important to have clients that will enable the firm to break even in the early stages of entry. On that note, the Chinese workers in America stand to be the most dependable at the moment given that they have embraced the advancement in technology.
Not sure if you can write a paper on NuComm Company in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Chinese workers will also be delighted to be associated with a company that operates in China and which is ready to offer them services that they have not been receiving.
On top of that, more and more American firms are entering the Chinese market, while others have already established there, and they will all require call center services. These firms will be looking for a more credible company available to contract for the services.
Given the popularity that NuComm has in the US and Canadian markets, it will stand a greater chance of securing deals for most American firms, which based in China. As it is in America, many firms prefer out sourcing call center services and will therefore, definitely need the services even when in the foreign market, more so when it is another American firm that is offering the service.
It should be noted, however, that dependency on American firms only can be catastrophic given that the number of American firms entering Chinese market might not enough to support NuComm’s business.
A large number of the inhabitants of Chinese cities are the natives of China, who also happen to own a substantial number of businesses, which mostly serve the Chinese people, and to some extent, foreigners. China is also densely populated, if population is an indicator of the market that is available.
Therefore, tailoring some of the products for the Chinese businesses will be of great importance to NuComn, if they want to earn from the investment.
It should be noted that in China, English or French is not used, and people there use Chinese language for communication. It will be therefore, a limiting factor, if NuComm does not improvise a way that they will provide services in Chinese language and in fact, this should be done as early as possible.
China is the center for Asian development, and it has put in place a conducive business environment for economic development other than the fact that it is centrally located in the Asian continent. It is, therefore, possible to use it as a center to serve other Asian countries as Cowie is suggesting.
Hong Kong which is one of the cities of China is identified as the epitome of business with various parts of the world leave alone Asia, hence it would not be difficult for NuComm to serve other countries, especially from Asia using China as their point of operation.
Though the five-point strategies make sense, the order is not very convincing to people. I agree that using the Chinese who work in America as the first strategy in entry is quite good given that they present the easiest people of Chinese origin to convince on the importance of call centers.
It is also important to aim at American firms as the second strategy since they have the ideas of the advantages of the services offered by NuComm, and the two strategies have taken into consideration the language barrier that is bound to affect the operations of NuComm.
But at the same time, the Chinese people who are the natives and who are the majorities should not be sidelined for long because Chinese people have a higher tendency of copying, and they might adopt NuComm’s idea to start their own businesses, which will compete with NuComm.
Therefore, the strategy of China for China should come in the third, or second, if possible, to reduce the chances of competition from the Chinese people, and also to prepare for the strategy of supporting American firms to invest in China through Chinese voice services.
What are the risks facing NuComm in entering China at this time?
Though the Chinese venture seems to be profitable, there are a lot of risks that may face NuComm on entry.
1. Chinese people are known to have a culture of copying, if they respect somebody’s idea, which NuComm is not used to and which increases competition.
Intellectual rights are protected in Canada and US, where NuComm is based, but that is not the case in China. The probability of several companies springing up a few years or months after NuComm has set up is high.
2. The Chinese people after realizing that their people have come up with companies that offer the same services as NuComm may choose to deal with their people therefore, decreasing the market for NuComm.
3. The Chinese might customize the services into Chinese language before NuComm does that which will further shrink the chances of NuComm getting hold of the market.
It is, therefore, upon Nucomm to move with speed after entry to ensure they increase their scale as fast as possible so that they get to enjoy economies of scale before competition stiffens.
4. Moreover, the Chinese system of government has proven to be very corrupt and to get assistance one needs to know somebody in a position of influence as opposed to either America or Canada, where corruption is minimal, if not absent.
This is made clear by Duncan Cowie, when he says that he had to party the whole night with Chinese families to get things done his way. The ruling party officials had ties with the so called private firms and offered them favorable business conditions hence an upper hand amongst competitors.
Therefore, it might be difficult for the NuComm firm to operate without having a god father to help in pushing things given that America and Canada are places where protocols are observed.
It is also not clear if there might be someone who is very influential and who might want to copy the NuComm idea and therefore, manipulate the authorities to push regulations against NuComm. But on the same note, Cowie had been in China and knows who is who and how they are approached and what is required for one to succeed in that country therefore, he will be able to help.
5. On top of that, most firms, which had entered China early on have not broken even in the market and hence, they were yet to even recover the initial cost of investment.
NuComm’s case as it is has financial problems and could not afford to tie down any amount of money for a long period of time without realizing any returns from it. It therefore, has to strategize on how to make returns from the very first moment they enter the Chinese market.
6. For service delivery to be efficient and thus, reduce operating costs staff must deliver to their best and this can be through employing well educated and highly qualified people. In China, the call center services are relatively new to some places, where labor is cheap therefore, finding a well trained employee may be difficult.
NuComm should, therefore, choose a method of training employees, so as to get maximum output from them, while maintaining the quality of their services and at the same time keeping operating costs at a minimum. Though wage rate might be lower in China compared to Canada or America, getting the right employee might be an uphill task leading to decreased rate of delivery.
7. It is China’s regulation that a foreign firm cannot operate, if it is fully owned by foreigners which means that any international firm setting up in China must collaborate with the natives. This means NuComm has to look for another firm in China to enter into joint venture with, in order to be allowed to set up in China.
The problem of finding the right company or securing favorable terms of operation sets in and NuComm has to strive to get a company, which is ready to enter into the call center business and give the best terms and conditions.
Entering China can be done through any of the four cities that Cowie suggests but the most convenient city should be chosen for this is a risky process. The situation should be one where the costs are low while income is high and given the financial position of NuComm the returns should be realized as early as possible.
Which of the possible Chinese locations should the company choose, and what should be the mode of entry?
Beijing is the capital city and expects to host Olympic Games besides having reduced costs compared to Shanghai and probability of getting highly educated staff is high. There will be many people coming during the Olympic Games, but this is periodical and after the games business will go back to normal, hence the viability of income after the Olympic Games is not very clear.
Coupled with that is the fact that so far there has not been a firm that NuComm will partner with, in order to start its operations in Beijing. It is also evident that Beijing is the capital of the communist part, whose leaders are known to be very corrupt therefore, increasing the possibility of corrupt deals against NuComm should it be seen that NuComm will succeed.
On the other hand, Shanghai is directly under the control of the central government; hence most of its activities are overseen by government officials. The possibility of the government interfering with the operations of a firm located in shanghai is therefore, very high.
Being a commercial town and a hub of industries in China, it has many businesses, which increase competition and therefore, people are striving to improve their performance hence they will be more receptive to any idea that will help in boosting productivity.
Dalian has come into question due to the outright efforts by the government to boost development in the region thus, offering relaxation in regulations. Many foreign firms have been located there due to the policy that allows foreign investment and more are yet to come given that most policies limiting foreign investment can be relaxed.
Most of the firm there are those, which are likely to offer support to NuComm and the government can be willing to facilitate the registration process. Furthermore, infrastructure is developed and it has the capability of meeting NuComm’s demands.
Hong Kong is the best city to enter china because:
Hong Kong has had ties with the west for a long time now and has the entire infrastructure and other needs for full operation of NuComm.
English is the official language of business therefore, language barrier will not be a problem.
There are many companies, which are ready to assist NuComm in starting up given that collaborating with a local firm is a requirement in China.
Returns to capital are realized at a faster rate in Hong Kong than any other city and this is what NuComm highly needs.
The entry mode will be a joint venture because:
China has a requirement that foreign firms must not be owned 100 per cent by foreigners, thus, leaving collaboration with local firms as the only viable option.
A joint venture will help in minimizing the risks that faces NuComm, if it enters on its own in the new market.
Due to corruption, relationship with top government officials is important in operation in China, therefore, a local firm will help in dealing with issues of relationships.
The cost of entering as a joint venture is also minimal compared to the costs of entering in other means and NuComm is facing financial problems.
Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chehelsouton as a form of art and design
Introduction Using skill and imaginations to communicate thoughts and observations, create emotions, and engage audiences can be referred to as art. Design simply means composition.
These two terms are integrated to establish the concept of transforming what is in mind to a compositional structure that can be seen by others. Features that form a finished artwork may be expressed through drawings or actual creations like buildings and sculptures (Nelson and Shiff, p. 56).
This paper describes Chehelsouton pavilion as a form of art and design it analyzes the creativity used during its construction, the originality of the materials used, the art applied in designing it as well as the intended use of it as a palace.
It seeks to establish the relationship between history and art, how these two variables are dependent on each other and their implications on modern art.
This brings us to the result of art and design, which is the aestheticism, and the appeal it gives to the audience. The audience refers to the people who used the pavilion as well as the tourists who visit to admire and appreciate it as a form of art.
Chehelsouton as a form of art and design Chehelsouton is an ancient pavilion built in 1647 by Shah Abbas II. This pavilion was used by the King and his successors to receive dignitaries and ambassadors. It was built inside vast Royal Park round an earlier building erected by Shah Abbas I.
It was designed with twenty columns at the far end of a long pool, which when reflected in the waters of the fountain appear to be forty. This gave it the name “Chehelsouton” meaning forty columns. It contains frescoes and paintings on ceramic depicting historical scenes like reception of Kings and victories achieved by kings, such as the conquering of the Indian army in Kamal during 1739.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These paintings also express traditions like events of celebrating the joy and love. The pavilion has a brilliantly painted interior with a host of human figures. This includes various battlefield scenes, as well as audiences conducted by the Shah.
This is conducted in conjunction with rulers who bordered the empire from the eastern side. Chehelsouton grew by accretion of new additions such as chambers and halls into the existing structures over the years to come up with the current pavilion.
The palace has become a museum of paintings and ceramics, and this has attracted millions of tourists both foreign and domestic. This tourist attraction has maintained the idea of its conception, which included the reception of visitors, entertainment and hospitality to the palace’s guests (Ruggles, p. 102).
From the above description of the pavilion, the following is an illustration of how history is expressed through art and design. The relationship between material and design in Isfahan exhibited some differences when compared to that in the Western tradition.
It should be noted that painters from the west were known to impose a design on an artificial surface that was limited. This was due to the predetermined space provided to be used in imposing a figure on the material. However, Isfahan painters and sculptors did not adhere to this. They were not known to be limited and controlled by the predetermined space in their work.
On the contrary, these artists made their designs conform to the outlines that were naturally determined by the materials they used. In most cases, these materials included an iwan, talar or portico. Isfahan art embraced naturalism, and this proved to be a critical factor of this form of art.
In addition, this demonstrated outstanding abilities of the artists in incorporating nature into their compositions. From such art, we are able to learn the environment of the Isfahans, as well as their competence as skillful artists (Ruggles, p. 113).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The trend has changed greatly in the modern times. In essence, art history is regarded as an aspect that emphasizes on educating individuals on the evaluation and interpretation of art influenced by their own views. This we can say has been discovered through analyzing the originality of arts that were practiced in the past.
For instance in the case of Isfahan, the technique used in creating the pavilion was original in the fact that it was made out of what existed naturally, the pool, the gardens and the plain woods used to create the columns.
The designers only added their creativity on the nature, and this is what gives art the beauty and appeal expected of it. This form of art shows that the people identified with their environment, this association differentiates natural art from the artificial one (Udo, p. 149).
Emotions have been created in the paintings that were included in the pavilion; for example, in the following picture it is clear that victory in battles called for celebration and brought joy to the people. This joy was communicated by merely using the paintings without words to describe them.
A painting showing the victory of Nader shah over Mohammed of India. It shows the celebration of joy and love.
Source: Persia Articles
Transition has been outlined from the fact that there were additions to the original idea of the pavilion in the past years. This explains that history is a series of events that are connected to one another. On the other hand, art can be used to illustrate the transformation from old to modern times without separating the two.
From this pavilion, Culture of the Isfahan residents is evident. First, the main reason for the construction of this palace was the reception of kings, dignitaries, and ambassadors. This tells us that the Isfahan residents had a culture of treating visitors with the utmost respect and hospitality. From this history of visitors’ reception, it has resulted to the same culture being practiced at a modern setting where tourists, both local and foreign, visit Chehelsouton as an art that attracts tourism. On the contrary, taste is determined by culture, ideas and imaginations that transform to creativity are based on experiences which are as the result of interactions and practices of a given society. This is how culture shapes history (Arnold, p. 54).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not all art is beautiful to the eyes, but it remains an art. The value of an artist’s creation is in the composition and the expression intended. It can be used to pass a message and may not be accompanied by an aesthetic value. For example in the painting below, the artist has communicated that the people of Isfahan used to go to battles, thus expressing remorse (Ruggles, p. 160).
A painting showing battle
Source: Persia Articles
Architecture is a major historic form of art that has evolved from the ancient, simple structures to the significantly advanced, modern ones. In Chehelsouton, at first the skillful designers were able to base their construction on just a stone, the pool and pillars. Other additions were introduced over the years. This implies that, through observation of historic arts and initial ideas, history gives new, creative ideas to designers. This helps them come up with inventive architectural designs (Ruggles, p. 156).
Specific historical scenes such as the reception for an Uzbek King in 1646 create memorable events that artists and designers treasure. Such histories led to the invention of a veritable museum of Persian painting and ceramics. Therefore, studying historic forms of art creates ideas which further improve this art, for instance, paintings made to treasure historic events led to the birth of museums. It is through the creation of this museum that the idea of maintaining the pavilion, not as a reception for dignitaries, but a tourist attraction came up. Transforming this palace into a museum helps the residents study their history as well as identify with their culture that dates back to the 17th century (Ruggles, p. 163).
Tourists at the entrance of the pavilion
Source: Tamara Ebrahimpour: Isfahan’s Chehel Sotoun: A Reflection of Beauty.
Conclusion History plays a major role in art and design because creativity and composition requires one to compare and contrast it to another work of art. As one explores the fascinating world of art with beautiful collections of thousands of human experience, ideas are born, and this inspires artists to find beauty in man made forms.
It is an aesthetic object which is meant to be admired and appreciated for its value. Individuals cannot escape from viewing works of art in the context of time. This is because it is varied, and cannot be reduced to a given context. Art and design appreciation introduces excitement to life as it is part of history creation.
Works Cited Arnold, Dana. Art History: A very short introduction.Oxford.Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Ebrahimpour, Tamara. Isfahan’s Chehel Sotoun: A Reflection of Beauty. 2012. Web. http://www.payvand.com/news/07/nov/1118.html
Nelson, Robert S, and Richard Shiff. Critical terms for Art History. Chicago.University of Chicago Press, 2003. Print.
Persia Articles. Frescos in the main hall of the Chehel Sotoun in Isfahan. 2012. Web.
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.
Udo, Kultermann.The History of Art History.New York: Abaris books,1993. Print.
Occupational Risk Assessment for Silica Dust Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Acceptable Exposure Limits for Silica Dust
Assessment of the risks related to Silica Dust Exposure
Introduction In the course of the day to day activities, man is faced with numerous challenges right from the areas in which they live to the areas in which they live. These challenges in most of the cases always lead to a danger that is posed to the people who are exposed to these risks; it is therefore very important to identify the substances to which if one is exposed, there is a possibility of their health being affected.
The risks that. Occupational risks are those risks that are experienced at the workplace; one of the distinct characteristics of the occupational risks is that they are the risks that are likely to face the workers in the working environment (Chen et al., 2006). Therefore the occupational risks are calculated based on the total time of exposure that has been identified for the identified risks.
In the determination of the human health risks at the workplace it is also very important to consider the nature and extent of the damage that might be caused by exposure to these risks at the workplace; the ecological risk assessments are meant to consider the health risks in relation to animals and insects (Chen et al., 2006).
They are used to determine the extent to which the human health may be affected by the exposure to these insects as well as extent to which the health of the humans is affected by these risks. The major difference that exists between the occupational risks and the ecological risk assessment is the human exposure to occupational hazards can be considered over a given period of time per day whereas the ecological exposure for the insects and animals may be different.
One of the substances that have been classified as a health hazard at the workplace is Silica dust; silica is found in many of the materials that human beings interact with in the course of their day to day activities. It is worth noting that although Silica as a substance is not harmful, Silica dust has been known to cause many health problems such as silicosis which is an occupational disease.
Occupational risks are the risks that result from exposure to the identified health hazard while at the work place; this hazard is easy to quantify because it is usually based on the time in which the exposed person is at the workplace.
However non-occupational exposure to silica dust does occur and it is not easy to quantify; this may be due to sand storms or desert dust, dust from factories, or industrial activities which involve the use of silica as a raw material (Berry, Rogers
When the State Trembled Essay (Book Review) college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Author’s Main Arguments
Analysis of the Book
Introduction The Winnipeg was one of the tragic strikes that hit Canada in 1919 since it involved many workers. It is approximated that over thirty thousand workers participated in the strike to demand their rights and freedoms from the government and the ruling class. The book When the State Trembled captures clearly, what transpired during the time by reporting the other side of the story concerning the Citizen’s Committee of 1000.
Business autocrats and the ruling class in society formed the committee to check the influence of workers in the industrial sector. The committee was charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the poor do not access the means of production in society. Therefore, the committee had to liaise with state machineries to ensure that the status quo remains intact.
The author of this book exposes the injustices that existed in the Canadian society in early 1900s. The owners of the means of production pressurized the government to form oppressive labor laws that could later be used by the bourgeoisie to subjugate the working class. The bourgeoisie took advantage of the prevailing conditions to unleash terror to the poor.
The poor could work without pay. Furthermore, the ruling class in society utilized other means that affected the unity of workers. Workers could not rise up to the occasion to demand for their rights since the government could always support the elites. The 1919 strike was termed illegal and all participates were to face legal punishments. In the book, lawyer A.J Andrews and acting minister of Justice Arthur Meighen were the representatives of the Citizens Committee of 100 and the state.
This shows that they were hired to demoralize and frustrate the activities of workers in the state. At the end, the leaders of the workers’ union were prosecuted and were charged with sedition. This meant that leaders in government were aware of the dangers of labor movements as regards to governmental power and authority. In other words, the leaders were against radicalism and the teachings of Marxism, which suggested that people had to determine their own destinies.
The working class should always organize for a revolution if it is to salvage itself from the chains of poverty. The book also reveals that the existing social structure is a product of the struggle between the rich and the poor in Canada. In other words, economics and political power are intricate meaning that they are inseparable.
The Author’s Main Arguments The author comments that all capitalists are equivalent since their aim is to maximize profits and avoid losses. They always communicate with each other regarding the market and the plight of workers in organizations and companies. They agree that they should not increase wages whatsoever. The union leaders instruct workers and members of society in general to be aware of this fact and not to be fooled by any one that the interest of the bourgeoisies is to help workers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The owners of the means of production control all aspects of lives since the author observes that Meighen and Andrews brokered a deal between the state and the elites. This would allow easier management of state affairs. The government could not support the workers even though their conditions were appalling. In this sense, the state is always interested in safeguarding the interests of the rich in society. The poor survive at the mercy of the rich.
Even though the representatives of the owners of the means of production had no state powers or authority, they could influence the formulation of policies to favor their employers. This implies that even the intellectuals are properties of the bourgeoisies. The writer shows that private entities and the rich in society usually hold the government at ransom. They force the state to formulate some policies that are considered illegal in the constitution.
For instance, Andrews ordered the state agencies to disperse marauding workers yet he did not have any governmental power. In this sense, the government practices illegal acts, which are contrary to what it is supposed to do. In page seven, the author observes that the committee of 100 was a secret organization whose membership was not disclosed to the public.
Author’s Objective The author aimed at presenting the issue of class conflict in society. The book manages to bring out succinctly the antagonistic parties that try to outdo each other as regards to distribution of resources. The main issue that the book addresses is the issue of resource distribution in society. The ruling class is in control of societal resources while the proletariat tries to access these resources unsuccessfully.
The book is successful in presenting its main agenda, although the author leaves out other important issues that took place at the time. The author presents class conflicts at a time when society was stratified based on ownership of property. In the Canadian society, only a few members controlled resources.
The same individuals influenced the government to enact policies that favored them. The author manages to show the reader that controlling the means of production was the main borne of contention. The conflicting parties could not settle the disputes peacefully since each group was concerned about its own interest.
Throughout the text, the author manages to answer the question ‘why’ by showing that the working class had all the rights to strike. For instance, the author elucidates that strikes had succeeded in other places and the workers had achieved their objective, which was to better their standards of living. During the 1896 elections, the Liberals took control of government and instituted policies that were capitalistic in nature.
We will write a custom Book Review on When the State Trembled specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From 1896 to around 1929, Canada experienced many changes economically and politically. This was a time when the country faced the problem of immigration. Consequently, the economy grew at a faster rate than expected. This meant that wealth was accumulated and some groups tried to monopolize various sectors of the economy. Immigrants were encouraged to invest in various sectors of the economy, especially in mining and in hydro-electronic projects.
The First World War brought other changes that complicated lives in Canada. In 1919, the country had experienced many changes that threatened the social equilibrium. Other countries such as Britain and the US demanded Canadian products implying that the market was available for the Canadian finished goods. Due to this, workers had to produce more but at the same cost. Therefore, the findings of the author are consistent to what was happening at the time. His arguments are supported by facts.
Analysis of the Book The author manages to bring out the relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie during the 1919 strike. He also manages to expose the way bourgeoisies operated in society. Through analysis, it is identified that the relationship between the rich and the poor in society was complex. The rich believed that the world was capitalistic and the poor had to provide labor at the market price. They believed that the poor needed not to change things since it could cause conflicts.
Furthermore, the author showed that the bourgeoisie was also in contact with each other regarding investments and production of important goods. This is actually true even in the modern world. Economists believe that producers and consumers of goods and services check each other frequently leading to a scenario whereby the producer only produces goods that are needed in the market. In the same way, the elites will always ensure that their products have ready markets.
They ensure this through constant communication. On the other hand, the proletariat believes that the bourgeoisie deprives them of their resources hence leaving them without anything. Due to this, the rich are always in conflicts with the poor over the working conditions and wages. The poor think that only strikes can change the existing social structure.
Even though the author manages to bring out conflicts that existed in Canada in 1919, he fails to appreciate that other conflicts existed as well. The author narrates that class conflict was the only major problem in the society. This is not actually true because the state faced other problems such as the problem of gender equality, ethnicity and age conflict. For instance, women were not allowed to own property in society and their culture was not respected.
They had to live according to the wishes of men. Women were considered to be suffering from inferiority complex meaning that they could not be trusted with leadership positions. Both in the ruling class and the working class, only men were given positions of influence. Women faced various types of injustices but the society could not stand up to condemn such injustices. The society reserved some positions for men. Women could only participate in activities that the society allowed.
Such injustices led to the formation of feminist groups. The author does not capture this aspect. As the working class was fighting for its rights and freedoms, women were also busy demanding for their rights. For instance, they requested the state to allow them to vote for their preferred candidates and present their candidature during elections. Through feminist groups, women were incorporated in the financial system, though as underdogs. The author does not mention this aspect at all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on When the State Trembled by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1919, Canada was faced with various problems but the author does not revisit any of them. For instance, the state was faced with the problem of refugees. It was a time when Asia was under colonial rule, which forced many families to seek refuge in Canada. The government had to come up with policies that would guarantee normalcy and constancy in society. The new members were viewed as competitors. Therefore, the local population was always in conflict with them.
The government had to design policies aimed at bringing unity and harmony. The ruling class utilized the services of refugees and immigrants at an expense of the locals. This angered many locals because they felt neglected in their own country. The Canadians had to compete for job positions with foreigners. The author does not capture this aspect in his analysis.
In other words, Canadian society cannot be understood to be consisting of a single problem, which is the problem of class. Foreigners were forced to merge into the mainstream since they were considered to be in the margins. The Chinese for instance were requested to abandon their culture and pick up the western culture that was dominant in Canada. However, the foreigners were reluctant to drop their cultures and opt for other inferior cultures.
Course Commentary After the Second World War, the state witnessed an abrupt economic growth. Polices formulated by the state were socialist in nature because people’s welfare was considered. For instance, the state provided free healthcare services and healthcare programs to the poor.
Furthermore, the aged employees were offered pension programs that would allow them to enjoy life even after retirement. This showed that the 1919 Winnipeg strike achieved its mission. Workers were treated with respect and their wishes were considered when formulating important state policies. By adopting the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation policies, the federal government was confirming that it recognized the existence of trade unions.
As can be observed, the international system changed after the Second World War. Equally, many things changed in Canada. Canada appreciated Britain as the superpower before the Second World War. Afterwards, the relationship between Britain and Canada faded due to the activities of the British settlers in the country in 1919. The book reveals that British settlers had established centers of power that were used to subdivide and oppress members of Canadian society.
Canada embraced the US as its trading partner, though Britain was also involved in trade. The Book explains why Canada opted to embrace the US and not Britain. It was related to the events of the 1919 Winnipeg strike. Canadian foreign policy makers decided to side with the US because of the experiences of the 1919 strike.
The decision makers knew that communist ideas would inspire people to demand for a socialist government. The state was keen to arrest any person who advocated for communism. The state arrested at least 18 people in 1945 since they were suspected to be planning to overthrow the government.
Canada took an active role in the international system mainly to condemn the effects of Communism. For instance, it participated in the Korean War and offered advisory services during the Suez crisis. The authorities ensured that the Bolsheviks in Canada did not access governmental power and authority since they could turn the state to a socialist society.
Socialism was highly detested by the ruling class since it could easily interfere with the societal structure. The rich could lose their status and the society could witness the tyranny of the multitude, which is the rule by the less fit. The book exposes why the state was always advocating for capitalism in other parts of the world.
Again, the book is very helpful in understanding why the state came up with immigration laws that favored some ethnic groups. It is noted that not all communities were treated equally. The government did not recruit those considered to be supporting communist ideas. The strike exposed the realities of capitalism in society but the ruling class was unwilling to allow the proletariat to take over power and authority.
Culture and Organization Learning Essay (Article) custom essay help: custom essay help
The article ‘Culture and organizational learning’ by Cook and Yanow explores the issue of organizational learning and the types of learning that they undergo as well as answers an intriguing question on if organizations learn.
The writer’s argument from the cultural viewpoint is that an important characteristic of human beings is their potential to act or capacity to operate in teams or groups. Groups of individuals, who share a common practice or experience, are considered to be of the same culture.
A culture is constructed on the basis of inter subjective meanings where constituents get across in their joint practice through actions, language, and objects (Cook
Public Art in Education Research Paper college admissions essay help
My background training involves studies on various components of contemporary art and design. Public art as envisioned by Freedman, combines the interests of various stakeholders including artists, local communities, urban planners, city agencies as well as both private and public organizations (Freedman 6). I am interested in understanding the effectiveness of public art in education, creating awareness as well as social identity of communities and uniqueness of towns.
Most communities desire to have an identity especially relating to their areas of residence and their icons such as the totem poles of Vancouver (Fales Library and Special Collections).
However, in the contemporary setting, the major challenge to art is the threat of potential bias by artists and designers who frequently use unconventional means and hybrid strategies to influence judgment (freedman 19). As such, there is need to investigate the effectiveness of public art and the role of communities in coming up with materials that can be placed in the artwork to facilitate social identity.
It is through a clear understanding of the historical contextualization of art by communities coupled with rigorous scholarly research that we can accurately understand its effectiveness in appealing to the public about various issues of community concern and identity (Fales Library and Special Collections).
Thus, by doing more research on effectiveness of the information contained in the public art in promoting social identity or creating awareness, appropriate decisions can be made. In addition, it will enrich the existing body of knowledge in field of art and design.
Works Cited Fales Library and Special Collections. Fales Library and Special Collections: Guide to the Public Art Fund Achive. 2012. Web.
Freedman, Doris. Ten Years of Public Art. New York: Public Art Fund, 1982. Print.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More
What is it Designwise to Make a House Home? Essay essay help
There are different types of home that vary in color, features, designs, sizes and the styles. Basing on my perception and comprehension, a home is a sacred and fabulous place that welcomes both spiritual and non-spiritual people. Indeed, a home is a place that shuns diverse violation thus the need to adopt secure designs. As such, I can feel safe, free, settled and calm.
When I am at home, I can shun chaos and find relative peace knowing that I belong there as evident in the security features thus the need to incorporate sound features. I fancy a house that has a modern storey because they are more attractive and updated. I value a home that houses my family members since they always make me welcome.
I equally fancy a home with pets because when I am bored, I can play with them; furthermore, they serve aesthetic purposes. This makes it fundamental to incorporate designs that address animal needs.
A home addresses designs that surpass fiscal capability as evident in the shape and lighting. These make one develop an inner emotional feeling. The first floor of my home has an outsized living room, two bedchambers and one bathroom thus indicating a spacious design. My house is painted with pink colors that are visible as one walks through the front door.
As one enters through the door, a big lively living room welcomes an individual. The design is commensurate to the heart of the house, which is a family room fortified with modern furniture. The living room houses two beautiful pink and white couches with original pillows, a lovely massage chair and an astounding LCD screen.
The textures of my home furniture are soft making them inviting; furthermore, the fluffy carpet delights the guests who prefer taking off their shoes. My living room devours aromatic fresh flowers, which are appealing and bring forth a soothing feeling. Instead of music that distorts the silence in my living room, I use a fireplace that gives rise to a decent atmosphere thus highlighting my fancy design attributes.
Most people consider kitchens as comfortable places; therefore, I transformed the kitchen making it intimate and spacious thus allowing conversations. It has an oversize, colorless bowl that parades my kitchen fresh fruits plus a beautiful flower vase with scented flowers that creates an attractive kitchen atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My bedroom defines my personality in diverse ways. As one enters, he or she will see a stack of my favorite books, a beautiful pink indoor mat, pinkish colored bulb, a big attractive wardrobe that slides sideways and a very huge comfortable bed in the middle of the room with double headboards consisting of shelves and wooden drawer.
My dressing table is located at the end of the room with a wall that has decorations in the form of large paintings. Finally, my bathroom and toilet are separate thus serving different purposes. They both have doors fitted with accessories, scented air freshener, white glittering tiles and new hand towels.
My home includes all the interior and exterior designs that define a home including entertainment, study, sleep, and eating facilities. A box home refers to small residential project, which focuses on constructing a peaceful box house. This home is nonviolent and built using aluminum wooden edging with divergent woods used inside.
The box home is a 19 square meter residence consisting of four rooms with the basic functions of the kitchen, bathroom, living room and bedroom. The room emphasizes the need for excellence space, quality material used in construction, natural light, and reduces unnecessary floor spaces. These attributes define my house outstandingly.
Differences Between Debit Card and Credit Card Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The use of hard plastic cards in transactions has increased significantly over the years; this is because of the increasing cases of thefts and robbery associated with cash, and inconveniences caused by carrying large sums of money.
The form of plastic cards available includes store cards, cash cards, debit cards and credit cards; all these cards are used in transactions, but they are different in the benefits to its users, and on other services that come with the use of each of them. This paper will explore the differences between credit card and debit card.
The user of a debit card makes transactions using funds in his or her bank account, while the user of a credit card makes transactions without funds in his or her account but pay for it later, usually after one month. Some debit cards allow an overdraft, and the overdraft is charged; however, the cardholder has limits on the account spending.
Therefore, it is difficult to overspend when using debit cards; this restricts the cardholder to budget for only what he or she has (Nieuwenhuyzen 89). On the other hand, when using credit cards there are no limits, and the cardholder can easily lose track on how he or she has been spending; this can lead to overspending.
Debit cards are offered by banks without a charge; this remains so as long as the cardholder adheres on the terms and conditions, which includes the bank minimum balance. The same does not apply to credit cards because some have annual charges, and in the case where the credit cardholder fails to pay for his or her full monthly balance, the bank offers a penalty to the cardholder, and an interest is charged on the balance (Whiteley 146).
This means that the credit cardholder can only escape this charges and interest by spending within his or her means. Apart from interest and penalties, there are other hidden charges, which include card replacement fees and balance transfer fees; this makes credit cards more expensive to maintain than debit cards.
Debit cards have received competition from credit cards in terms of the fee charged for the cards; however, this has been countered by the increase of the debit card rewarding programs. Some of the programs help the cardholder to save small funds from time to time; this means that as the owner of the card spends every day his or her savings account gets better every day as well (Nieuwenhuyzen 153).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the debit rewarding programs are not more valuable than those offered by credit card companies and banks. Companies offering credit cards make more profit when compared to those offering debit cards, and this contributes to the high-valuable rewards received by credit cardholders.
Credit card rewards include bonus airline miles, they also offer cash back on the cardholder purchases; a card holder only needs to use his or her credit card and pay the balance in full to earn more of these rewards (Gitman, Joehnk
The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the Inferno, Virgil is a guide and the voice of reason in the poem. He serves the purpose of reinforcing Dante’s Christian responsibilities in his pilgrimage. If it were not for his contribution, the journey may have overwhelmed Dante.
Virgil’s role Virgil is highly knowledgeable about many aspects of hell. Without him, Dante would not have understood the historical, spiritual or geographical significance of the things he was seeing (Bergin 55). In Canto 14, Circle 7, Round 3, Dante asks Virgil about the river that they can both see. Virgil replies by affirming that:
“In the middle of the sea, and gone to waste, there lies a country known as Crete, under whose king the ancient world was chaste. Once Rhea chose it as the secret crypt and cradle of her son; and better to hide him, her Corybantes raised a din when he wept.” (Dante XIV.7.3)
Virgil, therefore, contributed towards a better understanding of the journey because he tells Dante about the history behind the events and features that they are witnessing. As such, he is a guide to Dante.
Sometimes Dante was uncertain about the next step. These were all unfamiliar things that were potentially dangerous. Dante needed someone to assure him that he was going in the right direction. The journey would have been extraordinarily scary without Virgil.
In fact, it is likely that Dante would have turned back at the entrance to hell if it had not been for Virgil. Dante’s own assertions emphasize these sentiments: “Thy words have moved my heart to its first purpose. My Guide! My Master! Now lead on.” (Dante II.133). Virgil reminded the main character about the importance of his mission and thus propelled him to achieve it.
In certain scenarios, Dante even consider Virgil as a father because of the things he did for him. For instance, when they got to Dis, some furies threatened to turn both Dante and Virgil into stone. Virgil quickly urged Dante to cover his eyes and turn around.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Dante took too much time to respond, Virgil himself turned Dante around and covered his eyes for him. In such an instance, Virgil acted in a similar manner to a father. He cared about Dante and would not allow harm to come to him.
Many Christians may ponder about the fate of non Christians who lived before Christ’s coming. Some contend that the non believers do not merit their place in hell because nobody gave them a choice. This controversial subject also troubled Dante, and as he travels inside hell, he gets answers to this troubling question. Through Virgil, Dante learns that Christians must make no apologies for their faith. Furthermore, there is no room for exceptions.
Virgil helps Dante to realize that all pagans’ lives are condemned regardless of whether they existed before or after Jesus’ coming. In fact, famous thinkers and ethicists such as Aristotle, Socrates and Homer were all condemned to hell even when they all lived honorable lives. “Their honor wins them ease in Hell out of God’s favor. “ (Dante IV. 76-78). Consequently, he settles a moral dilemma that Dante, and many Christians struggle with frequently.
Virgil’s pagan status emphasizes his role as a guide and the voice of reason. He was an ethicist and a writer that lived before the rise of the Christian church (between 70 and 19 BC). He wrote a world-renowned poem called Aeneid in which he talked about morality and evil, honor and the underworld. At the time, there was no reference to Dante’s faith. Dante chose Virgil – a pagan – as a guide in his journey in the afterlife in order to bring out the relative objectivity of his arguments.
If Virgil had been another famous Christian mentor, then one would analyze his arguments on the basis of his faith. The logic behind them would have been irrelevant. However, because he was a pagan, everything he said must have come from a place of reason, and that was why he played that role in the poem.
A guide has the responsibility of ensuring that his pilgrims are safe. People assume that such an individual knows the ins and outs of the chosen site. In this case, Virgil was familiar with the twists and turns of Hell since he had been there before. As a result, heaven entrusted him with the responsibility of ensuring that Dante passed through those territories safely.
In fact, he protected Dante in a number of scenarios in the poem. In some cases, he looked for mechanisms of penetrating the various barriers in their way. For instance in Canto III, he told Charon, whose main duty was to prevent living persons from entering that territory, that Dante must pass through the place since it is God’s purpose for him to do so.
We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Virgil uttered the same statement when they met Minos. He silenced protests against Dante by explaining their mission in the place. He lets everyone know that the divine power mandated their purpose.
One must realize that although Virgil was an authority in hell and purgatory, he still had a number of weaknesses. These flaws meant that Virgil was not fit enough to guide Dante through heaven. Someone else who was worthy of that responsibility took it up. In fact, Virgil’s weaknesses are highlighted in various instances in the narration. In one instance, Dante and Virgil encounter the demon Malacoda.
The creature convinces Virgil that he will do Dante no harm by dropping his weapon (Dante XX1.106-111). However, he never gave them truthful information concerning the next bridge. Virgil was naive enough to believe a flimsy character like Malacoda. In another situation, Friar Catalano tells him that evil agents are creatures that cannot be trusted because they are so proficient at hiding their real intentions.
Virgil is not all-knowing as one may be tempted to think (Hollander 99). The poet probably chose to portray him in this manner in order to demonstrate the limits of reason. He wanted to prove that, in spiritual matters, it took more than just logic to enjoy the most supreme rewards that heaven could offer. Virgil’s role as a guide and a voice of reason could only go so far; it needed to be completed with another force, which was faith.
Perhaps, one of the most vital things, to remember about the character of Virgil in the poem is that logic and reason play a vital role in one’s spiritual journey. It allows one to understand one’s supreme power better. In this poem, Virgil’s point of view was not adversarial to Beatrice’s point of view.
These two schools of thought played complementary roles in the process of completing Dante’s spiritual journey. Therefore, while Virgil was an crucial piece of the puzzle, he still did not signify the ultimate message in the poem. Dante himself represented the main theme. He had completed a journey towards getting to know God.
Conclusion Virgil is a guide to Dante because he offers a context or explanation to the events in the journey. He is a mentor and protector in several instances and ensures that Dante sticks to the mission. Nonetheless, his inclination to reason over faith limits his influence in the narrative.
Works Cited Bergin, Thomas. Dante. NY: The Orion Press, 1965. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dante, Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. 2009. Web. ‹http://www.everypoet.com/archive/poetry/dante/dante_contents.htm›
Hollander, Robert. Dante’s Virgil: A light that failed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. Print.
Marketing Plan Critique: Xeros Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The present marketing plan focuses on the new product (washing machine Xeros) marketing strategy. The plan covers the major points necessary for making decisions on how to market the product. The marketing plan provides a thorough market and customer analysis revealing opportunities and possible threats.
The marketing plan also contains a particular strategy to put the product on market. It is necessary to note that the marketing plan is quite detailed and profound; the author also suggests effective solutions and strategies.
The plan touches upon all important points which will help to market the product effectively. However, the marketing plan has certain downsides. Though, the flaws of the plan are not that crucial and the plan can be improved.
Strengths of the Marketing Plan Market Overview
The present marketing plan includes a detailed market overview. The plan presents precise statistical data which enable the management to draw certain conclusions concerning the present state of the market. It is noted that it is possible to focus on two markets, i.e. residential and commercial.
It is concluded that the development of the residential washer market depends on the development of real estate market. As for the commercial market, the statistical data presented confirm that there is quite slow but still steady growth in this sector. Therefore, the market overview is well-grounded which is very important for a marketing plan (Kumar
Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting Essay online essay help: online essay help
Tintoretto’s Susannah and the Elders takes as its topic the Apocryphal tale of an honorable young Jewish matron sexually blackmailed by elderly public servants and saved from execution by Daniel’s literally divinely inspired interrogation . Tintoretto chooses the moment when Susannah’s lustful admirers try to spy on her while bathing, to encapsulate the longer story and showcase a stunning nude in a private moment.1
With a cramped focus and high contrast in brightness, it is superbly effective at riveting the eye on the gleaming skin of the heroine and providing a sense of impending doom for the dutiful woman.
The picture thus succeeds admirably at capturing the materiality of glowing fleshskin, water, silver, mirror, and greenery, while still being very clearly much an artificial construct of the studio and paintbrush, because the artist’s most urgent purpose is to explore and represent a magnificent woman’s figure.
Although probably originally much brighter, the colors nonetheless seem muted. The natural items pictured; for example, vines, trees, and duck pond, exhibit the same color intensity and range as the bodies and bald head of the dirty-old-men magistrates.
The only exceptions seem to be the glowing body of Susannah, and her “ornaments of display”2. This is a clear signal of the artifice of the artist, but it does not detract from the picture, because these elements of the setting merely set off and highlight the nude’s serene self-absorption.
These muted background colors, combined with the nude’s brilliant paleness, focus attention on her. The lurking perverts are almost a second thought, concealed behind the fragile-seeming espaliered wall, and blending in, as they do, with the underbrush3. For the artist, they are less interesting than the central figure, and their lack of obtrusiveness both fits the narrative and helps attention to concentrate on Susannah.
The clothing of the left-hand elder forms a pumpkin-colored mass, with a fungus-like bare pate thrusting out towards the viewer. This figure appears to be the ground to the left of the espaliered wall .4 The figures and objects in the landscape are clearly delineated with both line and hue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The most striking example of this, apart from Susannah, is this mushroom-like elder’s cranium, outlined perhaps with a brush, to distinguish it from the background.
Figuring out this background takes effort. Unlike in a Da Vinci, such as La Gioconda (or Mona Lisa) wherein the landscape, although not always strictly realistic, is at least plausible, the background seems almost irrelevant.
Susannah’s setting evokes, for modern viewers, simplified theatre-in-the-round sets: the vining plants espaliered onto the (notably skinny5) wall are the only explic. It reference to an orchard sweltering in the full heat of summer, as the Biblical story indicates.
However, her small supposedly private space is beautifully detailed, and this draws the eye to admire her body and to the intimate personal objects next to her feet. This is not the way space presents itself to the eye in the natural world, and is clearly showing the imprint of the artist, but it works to create a sort of tunnel vision on the naked beauty.
The space in the painting seems very shallow, in spite of the vistas of garden and pond visible to the rear. The attention of the painter and of the viewer is funneled dramatically in on the constricted bathtub-sized area where Susannah is bathing.6
This cramping really leaves Susannah with nothing to do but give herself a sponge bath and admire herself7 Since the artist is not as concerned with the action of the narrative as he is with exploring the pleasure of a lovely woman revealed, the claustrophobic space is not a detriment.
The light is uniform and nearly directionless. The body of Susannah is bright but without any indication of the source of illumination. From the artist’s perspective, since his goal is the elevation of her form, this otherworldly illumination is not a drawback.
We will write a custom Essay on Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is in the use of reflective surfaces that the Venetian touch is perhaps most evident. The mirror could enhance beauty, reveal something not otherwise visible to the viewer, or tell some moral truth8 Susannah’s mirror reflects only her toiletries and towel, not her nakedness.9
This habit of the Venetian painters of titillating expectations using mirrors and then disappointing them or fulfilling them in unexpected ways is described by Cranston. The light reflects from the shiny pate of her Peeping Tom, too.
The water reflects her thigh as well as the rocks or hummocks on which Susannah is sitting. It is clear, lucid, clean-looking, and still. Tintoretto uses a very thin line of blue-tintedish white to delineate where the water surface is broken.
The actual water of Venice would have been darker10, and opaque.11 A and additionally, as Hills points out, the tidal waters would have been moving.12
All this play with reflection is a tour-de-force, a demonstration of the artist’s mastery of the medium. It also fits into the pattern set by other Venetian painters such as Titian, of using reflections to send a variety of messages about reality, truth, identity, age, beauty, purity and deity, as detailed by Cranston. The subtext of the mirror, which is a very artificial element in the painting, would not be missed; the nude at the center of the picture is self-sufficient
Although neither artist’s brushwork nor the canvas substrate is obtrusive in this, painting, the use of canvas rather than board represents a new direction for Venetian artists . It was appropriate to the locale. It is not a fresco, which would be appropriate for the dry mountainous area of Florence, and the canvas was apparently a better match with the wet environment of Venice.
Tintoretto’s use of oil-based paint was also part of a growing trend away from tempura at the time. This medium may explain the fact that most of the scene appears to be viewed through smoked glass.13
The tea-dipped atmosphere, everywhere but the figure of Susannah, endows the scene with antiquity and unreality. It is yet another way to focus the eye on her beauty, or what Tintoretto presents as her beauty. Her muscular appearance seems to reflect his lack of female nude models.14 As a result, although magnificent, she suggests a man with breasts added.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This problem does not apply to her lovely face and elaborately braided hair, however, and the overall effect is one of sensuality.15 Here again, whether we notice that the lighting and color seem like artifacts of the studio, or ignore it, Susannah as an almost sculptural nude is the central point of the picture, not the realism of her setting or female secondary sexual characteristics.
There are a number of objects clamoring for tactile appreciation: beads, delicate linen cloth, and silver containers all suggest the merchant wealth of Venice. The water looks deliciously cool and clean to touch or drink. However, in general, it is Susannah’s own flawless, and uniformly- colored, flesh that appeals most strongly to the sense of touch.
How the picture balances the challenge on the one hand; representing material things, people, and places and on the other hand; being a made, material item is, as for all paintings of that era – and perhaps all paintings of all times – a work in progress; a continual striving. Although the scene is, overall, not very naturalistic, and seems to reflect some sort of studio set, this does not detract from the impact of the picture.
Susannah almost floats above the hummocks, and only her submerged leg seems to actually touch the surface of the planet. It seems likely that her figure was sketched and perhaps pre-painted from a model in a studio, not in any sort of outdoor setting. The physical location of her observers also seems uncertain and uncommitted. They are part of the substance of her landscape rather than actors in her surrounding setting.
However, none of this diminishes how the composition involves the viewer in the heroine’s quiet moment of comfort and relief from the heat. In a more modern painting, with no need to justify a nude, no surroundings would even be needed. Her observers could appreciate her beauty16 without backstory or moral lesson.
As a painting, in an era when artists attempted to portray the material world with maximum fidelity, while also conveying multiple layers of deliberate meaning and spiritual truths, this painting it shows its craft; its materiality. The cues to the fact that this is a painting include the vagueness of the perspective, the loose relationship between the figures and gravity, the mysteriously source-less lighting, and the masculine proportions of the studio nude.
However, Tintoretto captures with loving accuracy her peaceful, contented expression, her gleaming trinkets, their peekaboo in her mirror, the fragility of her towel, the subtle feel of still water on skin, and water reflecting skin.
The result of the artist’s artifice is a frankly erotic glimpse into the private toilette of a lovely woman possessing enviably beautiful (or desirable, depending on one’s gender) skin, hair, and easy acceptance of self, in an all-too-fleeting moment, in a setting that is almost irrelevant in its admittedly loose connection to nature or reality.
Works Cited Cranston, Jodi. The Muddied Mirror: Materiality and Figuration in Titian’s Later Paintings. State College: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010. Print.
Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris. Oil on Wood. 2012.
De Young Family Foundation. “The Novelty of Painting in Oil on Cavas.” 2012. De Young Family Foundation. Web.
Hills, Paul. Venetian colour:marble, mosaic, painting and glass, 1250-1550. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. Print.
Knickerbocker, Amy. “Tintoretto’s “Susanna and the Elders“: Image vs. Text, Part II.” 2012. Artist in an A-Frame. Web.
Larmann, Ralph. Painting in Renaissance Art. 2012. Web.
Raffety, Michael. “Masters of Venice Show Brings Paintings Never Before Seen In USA.” 2011. Mountain Democrat Newspaper. Web.
Reisch, Bruce I. and Philip Stewart. Grape Breeding. 2001. Web.
The Holy Bible. “The Book of Susannah Chapter 1.” King James Version. Vol. Apocrypha. University of Virginia, 2012. Web.
Tintoretto. Susannah and the Elders. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Oil on canvas.
Titian. Venus with a Mirror. Natonal Gallery of Art, Washington. Oil on Canvas. 2012. Web.
Women’s Health Information
The Resurrection in the New Testament Term Paper college application essay help
Introduction One of the main differences between human beings and animals is the ability of people to have a sense of belief in the existence of a super natural being that controls all the activities and events in the universe. Human beings have developed a very complicated belief in the existence and work of these super natural forces that has led to the establishment of different religions in the world.
Some of these religions include Christianity which is practiced world wide in various forms. Christianity is derived from the word Christ which refers to Jesus Christ and is therefore used to mean behavior that is similar to that of Jesus Christ that is emulated by those who follow the Bible’s teachings.
This term paper is aimed at outlining the background and interpretation of the resurrection in the New Testament as is evident in Christian’s lives.
Definition of Resurrection Resurrection refers to the process where a dead body comes back to life. It is a very unique and shocking occurrence that medical scientists and contemporary philosophers have failed to understand or explain. This is due to the fact that death marks the end of human life and therefore breaks the association between an individual and the rest of the community.
Death is a phenomenon that has no empirical formulae of studying or analyzing and it is only through religious intuitions that human beings try to unravel the mysteries behind the occurrence and aftermath of death and the life after.
Background of the Resurrection The history of the resurrection is dated back to the beginning and life of Jesus Christ and is marked by a sequence of various events that hinted on the coming of Jesus Christ. Since life begun on earth people had always been born and lived for very many years before their death occurred (Keener 201).
There were no strange occurrences of deaths as most of them involved the very old people who had reached their life expectancy limit and in fact gone beyond their time on earth. However, with time things and events changed and prophets came and went until the coming of Jesus Christ that was foretold by many prophets including Elijah and John the Baptist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the cases of resurrection were unknown before the coming of Jesus Christ very few of them were actually recorded like the dry bones in the ‘Valley of Death’ that were prophesized by Prophet Elijah and they got muscles and became live human beings.
With the coming of Jesus Christ that is heavily documented in the New Testament very many cases of resurrection were experienced and they were climaxed by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Jesus performed many miracles regarding the resurrection of the dead and some of those people include Lazarus who had died, was buried and his body had stayed on the tomb for several days until he had begun to decompose and smell awfully.
These events of resurrections taught many Christian believers many lessons and this led to the many interpretations of resurrection that are discussed in the following stages.
Sacrifice for Human Beings The resurrection of Jesus Christ is interpreted by all Christians as being a great act of sacrifice for the deliverance and forgiveness of sins committed by human beings through the various generations. When God created Adam and Eve and placed them in the Garden of Eden, He expected them to be very loyal to him and follow all His words to the latter.
The worst sin that Adam and Eve committed while in the Garden of Eden was disobeying God’s command of not touching or eating the fruits from the tree in the middle of the garden.
Their disobedience was triggered by the serpent that cheated them of the value of the fruits and this led to their excommunication from the Garden of Eden marking the beginning of sin and suffering in the generations that followed.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Resurrection in the New Testament specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, due to the love that God had for his people He was not pleased to see them suffer and continue sinning and therefore, he sent his son Jesus Christ to come and die for the sake of human beings (Licona 2010). This act shows a lot of sacrifice by God and Jesus Christ who endured very painful experiences which led to his death.
Christians interpret the suffering, crucifixion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as a great sacrifice for their sake and continue to celebrate this through Easter holidays in their calendars. It is not easy for someone to lay down his life and suffer for the sake of another human being, but Jesus Christ proved his love for human beings by sacrificing his life for them.
Proof of Power over Death Every human being is always confronted by a hard fact that one day they will die and leave this world regardless of their wealth or fame. Very many people spend countless nights thinking about their future and the inevitable occurrence of death that has made them think that death is so powerful and strong that no one can overcome it.
However, with the death and resurrection of Jesus that is widely documented in the New Testament people are made to believe that death is not supreme over Christians.
They believe that Jesus conquered death through resurrecting other people like Lazarus and through his resurrection (Beale 2011).
They interpret all these resurrections as manifestations of the Christian power over death and that they should never be worried about dying since it is just a transitional stage that they have to pass through in order to attain the higher glory of the Kingdom of Heaven.
Proof of Life after Death Many people have always known death as a mark of the end of life and therefore when one dies it becomes the end of the person’s story of existence, accomplishments and failures in life. When a person dies the family, relatives and friends are usually filled with sorrow and mourn for days on end due to the loss of their loved ones.
However, Christians believe that death marks the beginning of a happier and everlasting life and so people should never be worried and mourn whenever it occurs to their loved ones but instead be happy and pray very hard for them to go to heaven when their time comes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Resurrection in the New Testament by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Christians believe that the resurrection of the dead marks the beginning of such life that will be celebrated throughout their life in heaven (Ivy 2010). The resurrection of Jesus proved to the millions of believers that death is not the final stage of their living but just a transitional stage to Heaven.
Therefore, Christians interpret his resurrection as a clear indication that when those who believe in him die, they will resurrect and join him later in life. This gives them more hope to continue believing and worshipping him as they wait for their death that will connect them with their Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ.
Foundation of Hope and Christian Faith People usually have very many questions regarding what will happen when and after their life on earth ends. This has led people to various beliefs and practices that aim at giving them the assurance of good life after death. Christians believe that the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus were as a result of their sins and so they affirm their faith to having life after death through the resurrection of Jesus.
It is upon these grounds that people get saved and declare Jesus as their savior since he died for the sake of their sins. This continues to attract thousands of people to the Christian faith as the resurrection of the dead provides solace and promise of life after death to them.
This also enables them to continue reading the bible, attend churches and Christian crusades to know more about the Kingdom of God that awaits them after death.
Challenge to Christian Declarations The suffering, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus serve as a great challenge to the Christian faith with regard to their declarations and affirmations of their faith in God.
It acts as a guide to the behavior and conduct of all Christians with regard to their faith and beliefs (Carson 2012). Christians usually have personal declarations, obligations and commitments to God and are always obliged to follow and adhere to them all the days of their lives.
In addition, the Ten Commandments that were offered to Moses on Mount Sinai act as a vey important tool for every Christian to follow and respect. This together with the resurrection of Jesus helps many Christians and in the process of assessing their faith and stand in Christianity.
Companionship All human beings are social creatures by nature and require each other for companionship and socialization. It should be noted that people need each other to provide emotional support to each other with regard to the experiences that human beings encounter in the daily association with their friends and environment.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ and his ascension is interpreted by Christians as a connection between him and them although in the spiritual realm. Christians believe that Jesus is constantly and always with them throughout their lives as they too await their death (Carson 2012).
It should be noted that Christian faith is largely penned on the fact that Jesus Christ suffered, died, was buried and resurrected to be with them for eternal life and those who trust and obey the Christian rules will be rewarded by eternal life.
Christians are thus comforted that even though Jesus died he resurrected and is with them together with the Holy Spirit that was sent to watch over and be companions to all who believe in Christ.
Future Assurance All human beings are always guided by a desire to achieve the set goals with regard to all their commitments, efforts and dedications. People who believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ are guided by the assurances that the bible and other Christian publications offer them with regard to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The main assurance of the resurrection of Jesus Christ is the fact that all who believe in him will enter the kingdom of heaven. When Jesus resurrected he ascended to heaven to prepare a place for all those people who will affirm their faith in him and continue to proclaim his work through their lives.
This means that they are expecting better and good things to come after they have died and resurrected. First, they are guided by high hopes of resurrecting just like Jesus did. Secondly, they are expecting to enter the Kingdom of Heaven where Jesus is seated at the right hand of God awaiting their arrival.
Thirdly, they are expecting a good life without pain or suffering but one filled with praises, worships and celebrations of lives well lived.
The Christian faith strongly advocates for its followers to ignore their present sufferings and temptations as they are stepping stones towards achieving their dreams. They are guided by the fact that the death of Jesus Christ paved way for their deliverance and all those who believe and follow the teachings of this faith will enter the Kingdom of God after death (Licona 20110).
This assurance pushes all Christians to prepare to meet their creator and enjoy all that the Bible promises all those who will keep the Christian torch burning in them until when their death occurs.
Conclusion The Christian faith is largely attributed to the life and times of Jesus Christ as many Christians try to emulate his behavior. The resurrection of Jesus Christ serves as a turning point for many Christians who were destined for eternal punishment due to their sins while on earth.
It should be noted that Christian faith is very much affirmed on the belief that just like Jesus Christ they will die and resurrect and join the many prophets and people who died for the sake of preaching the gospel and those who never allowed suffering or persecution to deter their quest for the word of God.
References Beale, G. K. (2011). New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New Testament. New York: Baker Academic Publishers.
Carson, D. A. (2012). The Intolerance of Tolerance. New York: W. M. B. Erdmann’s Publishers.
Ivy, J. (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus Christ: A Biblicist’s View of the Resurrection. New York: Noiz Inc. Publishers.
Keener, C. (2011). Miracles: The Credibility of the New Testament Accounts. New York: Baker Academic Publishers.
Licona, M. (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiography Approach. Oxford: I.V.P. Academic Publishers.
Wireless Power Transmission Implication for the Environment Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Wireless power involves the transmission of power without using wires or cords. Use of Wireless power transfer technology can lessen or eradicate the need for batteries and wires. Although wireless power has several benefits to the community and the environment, it, also, has negative implications.
This paper will focus on some forms of wireless power transmission, as well as, negative and positive implications of wireless transmission for the environment.
Nikola Tesla introduced the idea of wireless power transmission, in early 20th century. Tesla came up with the notion of electrostatic induction, which entails making exceedingly high potential and alternating variations amid two bits of metal using a tool similar to a Tesla coil.
A field that is electric would be rotating back and forth liberating energy to be arrested by a receiver, among these metal bits. Tesla believed this could be valuable as it would be possible to move the lights anywhere without a cord.
Besides, Tesla hypothesized that by structuring two vast Tesla coils, it would be possible to create this outcome in the entire world. Since then, many notions about the same have emerged, with resonant inductive coupling being the most potential technology.
Resonant inductive coupling uses the basics of wave harmonics to form a strong connection of magnetic waves, which resonate at a similar frequency of harmonic magnetic waves, from 2 coils. Several studies reveal that this technology is extremely competent.
Wireless power transmission can be used in many areas, where the wired power may be unsuitable. However, wireless power technology has many demerits, despite its many applications. Similar to wired power, wireless power has a restricted range.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the range of wired power is clearly visible, since it becomes restricted by a chord, whereas the range of wireless power is not visible as it becomes revealed by a signal. The range of wireless power that gets created by resonant induction coupling can be established from the radius of the coil. High efficiency occurs near the coil’s radius.
Besides, considering its 80% effectiveness, wireless power is less efficient than the usual wired systems. This is because a wireless system some power gets utilized in forming the magnetic field that relays the power from one coil to the other while in a wired system much of the power that becomes directed into a circuit gets to its destination (Glindogdu
Sport and money Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free
Which sports should not have received any money and/or as much money?
Each sports developed in Australia deserves further advancement to introduce the highest professional level at the world level. However, inequality of funding allocations leads to uneven distribution of resources and inadequate development of sports in Australia as a whole.
Funding selected sports, therefore, does not provide fair and transparent development for sports infrastructure. In this respect, I believe that such sports as soccer should not receive as much many as possible because part of this money could be spent on developing the Australian basketball.
Unequal allocation of funding resources for sports hampers the overall growth of Australian professional sports.
In this respect, Hayes (2012) agrees with the former South Wales premier Kristina Keneally who insists, “this sort of major expenditure cannot continually be made on behalf of a select few sports at the expense of other high-participation codes” (n. p.).
Raising questions about funding specific kinds of sports was important because there was an unequal distribution of finance, specifically when it comes to great expenditures on football.
While estimating the statistics received from the ASC, the situation with basketball funding has significantly been changed. Hence, the total investment in sports equals to over $ 5 million per year whereas football funding amounts to about $ 3.5 million (Australian Sports Commission 1).
Such popular sports as hockey and football should have received so much money merely because they are highly popular among people. The money, first of all, should be spent on developing the Australian sport as itself, but not promoting individual athletes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Which sports should have received any money and/or as much money? Why?
Paralympics games should be financed with greater resources because this sport provides incentives for personal and professional growth. People with disabilities taking part in professional sport are much more ambitious and straightforward than people with no physical impairments.
Therefore, the Australian Sports Commission should be more concerned with delivering wider opportunities for people with limited possibilities. Judging from the statistics, blind sports receive $ 65 thousand, deaf sports receive $ 85 thousand, and disabled winter sport has only $ 60 thousand (Australian Sports Commission 1).
All these investment are significantly lower than the funding of football in Australia. Shortage of resources and unequal allocation creates significant problems with sport development in the country.
Judging from the above-presented consideration, sport should be regarded as more than just a game and, therefore, it is worth of governmental funding. In this respect, people who do not make sense of life without sport should be financial supported by the government to sustain their successful professional sport career and fulfill themselves as talented athletes.
Aside from money spent on sports involving disabled people, such sports as basketball and swimming should also be taken in deepest consideration so as to promote promising basketball players and swimmers (Balym, n. p.).
Specifically, corrupted ways of allocating resources on individuals rather on the overall development of sports will not contribute to successful promotion of professional sport development in Australia.
In this regard, more funding should be spent on the equipment, facilities, and coaching rather on individual needs of famous swimmers. Because swimming is a well-developed kind of sports, money should be more spent on engaging new swimmers and promoting new talents to the professional sport.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Sport and money specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Australian Sports Commission. NSO/NSOD 2011/12 Grants and Allocations. Web.
Balym, Todd. Australian Swimmers Angry at Money Spent on Combacks of Ian Thorpe, Michael Klim. Foxsports. 2012. Web.
Hayes, Mark. Kristina Keneally says it’s time for basketball to receive more federal funding. Herald Sun. 2012. Web.
The Impact of Scientific Management in the 21st Century Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Critical Analysis of Scientific Management
Fundamental principles of scientific management
Influence of scientific management in the 21st century
Application of scientific management in organizations
Limitations of scientific management in the 21st century
Introduction According to the theory of management, scientific management refers to strategies that are used to determine how best a certain job can be performed in an organization. Scientific management can also be technically defined as management thought primarily concerned with the physical efficiency of an individual worker (Harris, 2002, p. 377).
According to Ritzer (2010, p. 22), “scientific management is a procedure aimed at production of nonhuman technology exerting control over employees or workers in an organization”. Nowadays, most organizations in the industry make use of scientific management.
Some of these organizations include hospitals, car and computer manufacturing industries, processing plants, hotels and restaurants among others. Despite many criticisms and theories that dismiss the relevance of scientific management in modern times, this paper analyses the impact of scientific management in the 21st century.
Although scientific management has a great, positive impact in the 21st century, it also has some disadvantages. This may influence of scientific management in the current work environments leading to inefficiency.
Critical Analysis of Scientific Management Taylor who is referred to as the father of scientific management developed the theory of scientific management. Before the invention of this theory, most business organizations used the rule of thumb. This is where the worker had the initiative and control.
In the application of the rule of thumb, it was the efforts of the worker which gave results of the business productivity, either a success or failure. According to Taylor (1911, p.133), “the rule of thumb is inefficient such that it cannot not give the desired results as per the industry expectations”. His aim and motion to develop the theory of scientific management was to replace the rule of thumb which was unproductive and inefficient.
Fundamental principles of scientific management There are key principles of scientific management. Some of these principles include time study, functional foremanship, and use of equipment and implements of a high standard in trading, use of standard acts of workmen, use of functions that are uniquely planned among many others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The key principle of scientific management is geared towards ensuring that employees and employers prosper to the maximum. Scientific management not only ensures large revenues to the company, but also ensuring that every branch of business has developed to its high state of excellence.
Again, scientific management does not only ensure higher wages received by the employee than the usual wage of his class, but also the development of each employee for maximum efficiency. Taylor argues that there should be a machine like operation in an organization portrayed by employees in order to ensure efficiency which is directly proportional to profitability.
Scientific management theory asserts that workers should be trained and scientifically selected. This enhances increased profitability in an organization. This is because a highly trained and qualified worker means quality production (Taylor, 1911, 133- 135).
Also, according to the theory of scientific management, the employer should ensure that there is maximum cooperation with the employee. This gives an assurance of perfection in the job. In addition, each work performed by every employee should be tested to ensure that it has utilized the best procedure. This ensures production of quality work hence high profitability (Blake
High Court of Australia Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The Australian High Court is a national monument with historic, judicial and architectural significance to both the people of Australia and scholars. Its architectural design is unique to its time of development and is especially significant as it seeks to portray the important role the judiciary plays in the lives of Australians.
This discussion will especially focus on the importance of the building’s design as well as the use of construction materials within the confines of architecture to bring forth the desired judicial posture of the Australian judiciary.
Precisely, there will be a brief look at the history of the building and as well as the location and site selection. Importantly, the discussion will focus on the Brutalist architectural style that was used to build the structure the rationale behind adoption of this style and the intricate use of materials to produce an architectural finish that reflects the overall Australian judicial aspirations.
There will be an overt emphasis on concrete which is the main building material in the building and an analysis on how concrete is used to bring out the Brutalist style of architecture. Part of the information used in this discussion was provided by an Australian High Court clerk who answered a list of pre determined questions that were asked to him through a phone interview.
High Court of Australia building
The history of the High Court building dates back to 1950 when Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies pushed through plans develop Canberra to a national city where government offices are to be located (MacMahon 2001, p. 147).
In 1972, the government through the NCDC conducted an international architectural completion for the building’s design. Out of a total of 158 designs that the NCDC received, only six made it to the final stage with a winner- Edwards Madigan Torzillo and Briggs Pty Ltd- announced in October 1973 by the Premier Whitlam.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The NCDC advertised for contractors for construction of the building with the tender awarded to PDC Constructions Pty Ltd. The Prime Minister unveiled the foundation plague in 1975 and the project was completed in April 1980. Its official opening took place on May 26th the same year.
Site and Location
The eventual location of the Australian High Court is a result of the original plans by Walter Burley Griffin’s 1911 designs that envisioned a new national capital with a section specifically meant for a group government buildings that astride the Land Axis at the lake side Water Gate.
The designers of the building were fronting for a large building that will effectively reflect the constitutional status of the High Court instead of its actual work related needs.
The Australian government decided in 1968 its decision to transfer the principle seat of the High Court to Canberra whose building was to be located next to the Parliamentary Triangle and the National Library Service. According to Edquist
The Alhambra’s Structure: Buildings and Gardens Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The transformation of the Alhambra
The Alhambra as a metaphor of Paradise
Introduction The Alhambra is now considered to be a real masterpiece of Islamic architecture; to a great extent, it represents a conception of Paradise as it was imagined by Muslim architects of the Middle Ages. This paper is aimed at examining the structure and relations of buildings and gardens in the Alhambra.
In particular, it is necessary to show what kind of purpose various elements of this complex serve and how they complement one another. The main focus will be on such components as the use of water, the selection of plants, architecture, and decorations, especially arabesques.
Overall, it is possible to say that in the course of its history, the Alhambra transformed from an ascetic fortress into a beautiful palace and garden complex that was supposed to recreate or reflect the image of Paradise in various ways.
The transformation of the Alhambra It is worth noting there was no master plan according to which the Alhambra had to be constructed. Its construction began in the middle of the fourteenth century, but since that time this complex was redeveloped and expanded several times (Mauriers
Representation of gender in media Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender and media representation
Representation of role models
Women and men representation in media
Introduction It is amazing to note that some people spend more time feeding on media content than doing an assignment, exercising or even sleeping. While this may be a leisure activity for some people, the impact of media cannot be underestimated today (Bennett 2005, p. 12). This assessment essay focuses on the issue of gender representation in media, with regard to image, roles and stereotypes.
Media representation What is media representation? According to media theorists, representation refers to any model in any medium that defines a real aspect, say, people, events, objects, places and cultural identities among countless abstract concepts. Such representation may be written, spoken or expressed in moving pictures.
In defining media representation, the end products are also considered through the construction of one’s identity. For instance, an issue like “gaze” may consider how women look at images of women, men at women or even women at men (Bennett 2005, p. 12).
An important point to note is that all texts are always constructed irrespective of how realistic they may appear. They do not represent mere recordings or reproduction of pre-existing circumstances that are real (Briggs
The Role of Interactivity to the Success of Reality Television Shows Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Over the years television programs were meant to inform, educate and entertain listeners. Most programs were mostly transmitted in a one direction way.
However, this has changed as most television programs nowadays continuously seek to involve the listeners either to ask questions or to give their opinions and comments concerning the program. The aim of this essay is to investigate the importance of such interactive programs to the listeners. This study is going to use two reality formats of the British television programs.
“As Seen On TV” The Celebrity Expert: How Taste is Shaped by Lifestyle Media
This was a work of art that was created by Helen Powell and Sylvie Prasad. The two have vast experiences in working with the media and are both professionals in the same field. Helen had in the past worked in the advertising industry and is currently employed by the university of East London as a senior lecturer and program leader in advertising.
On her part, Sylvie is currently lecturing media and cultural studies at the University of East London besides being a leader in media practice. The two have explicitly examined and documented the importance of the role of interactivity to the success of the reality television show (Powell
Reproductive Choices Expository Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Anthropology of gender is a discourse that places focus on the social and the cultural construction of gender, and the ideologies surrounding the construction of gender. The field also features the flexibility of gender and the execution of the aspects of gender. Reproductive choices fall under the rights of individuals or groups, with regard to the subject of reproductive rights.
The entitlement to these rights fall under the lawful freedoms, related to the reproduction and the reproductive health of individuals. Reproductive choice, rests upon the regard, accorded to the basic rights of all individuals and couples, in the area of deciding liberally and responsibly, the timing, the number, and the spacing for the desired children.
Any individual is also entitled to the access to information, and the means necessary for their attainment of the highest possible standards of reproductive and sexual wellbeing. These choices, also guarantee that, any individual, will have full liberty to make any decisions about their reproductive nature, without the influence of discrimination, violence or coercion.
Some of the choices accorded, under the bracket of reproductive rights, include the choice to do a safe and legal abortion; the right to use birth control means; the right to receive superior reproductive health services; and the entitlement to access education; so as to reach informed reproductive choices.
Reproductive choices, also give individuals, the entitlement to information on STIs, contraceptives, and freedom from coerced sterilization. Reproductive choices, which fall under reproductive rights, began to be recognized as a subject under the human rights bracket, at the 1968 UN global conference on human rights (Edmeades et al., 2010; Gutmann, 1996).
Discussion The area of reproductive choices is a central area in the study of gender anthropology, mainly because men are key contributors to the reproductive choices available to them, and their women. They also form a substantial aspect of the reproductive choice statistics.
Demonstratively, men’s reproductive health, has become a central area for development and population programs. Further, understanding the reproductive health of men, requires a clear evaluation of the biological and the cultural aspects surrounding the case.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there is an intersection between masculinity and health; as well as the availability of reproductive choices to women, with reference to their male partners.
For instance, different studies have portrayed a larger proportion of women, as not able to dictate the usage of contraceptives during lovemaking. In such cases, many of the women will cooperate with the demands of the men, though it may be putting their reproductive health on the line (La Font, 2003; Nyblade, Jeffreym,
Affect and emotions in consumer decisions Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction What is the difference between the two words, affect and effect? The difference is that effect is used when a causative agent is involved. In psychological realms, it is used in the technical sense of it, e.g., in explaining why a wall has collapsed. An explosion caused by dynamite can be said to be the cause of the collapse (Shapiro and Emde, 1992).
Affect is not easily substantiated as opposed to an effect. It is among the top-notch senses in the human psychology. Affect is a sense found in humans but not in any way affected by pheromones such as smell or taste. It is from the subconscious part of the brain where the affect action takes place.
A person who does something that is attributed to affect only realizes the probable consequence of the action after its execution. Affect does not just represent a feeling; it also encompasses the interaction of the individual with the surrounding environment. This is referred to as cognition in psychology.
Thrift explains that affect is a product of the events that people experience. There exist four approaches used in describing affect. The first one (which was first done by Darwin) includes the study of emotions. This approach has a short coming; it does not include the effect, which is a result of communication. The second one uses a psychoanalytical approach, with an emphasis on the psychological processes of the brain.
It is more biological and revolves around issues such as the desire for something and sexual libido. The third approach uses of an individual’s physical state of mind; it also uses emotional and psychological aspects. Finally, the fourth approach looks at how affect influences other people around it, for instance people and animals (Shapiro et al. 1992).
Among the things that can influence the decisions that an individual makes is emotional status; the emotions that people exhibit are in some way related to what has just been explained as, affect. Emotions give way to the making of a choice by identifying and knowing the cause of a given occurrence. An example could be when a person is angered by a thing, person or situation for being offensive.
Affect does not imply the reverse of human cognitive ability neither is it an irrational way of making decisions (though it may be easily confused for this). It is another way of choosing between the different options that are presented to an individual. Affect and the cognitive ability of the humans have got some influence on each other (Redding 1999). Affect is devoid of any consciousness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there roles that affect plays in the making of decisions? An individual who has to make a decision about walking a tight rope for instance will have to undergo two processes before making this decision. The first part is the reflection on the essential requirement of walking on a tight rope, which is the ability to balance.
There is thought by the visceral side which may raise fears about the consequence of falling down. The ability to rationalize consciously will only take place after there has been some fear on the person due to affect. There is then the preparation of the body by emotions that prepare for anything that could happen.
We can also say that affect happens to people as a result of their interaction with others, or other beings in their environment. It is thus an occurrence between more than one thing and person. Brennan explains that there is an atmosphere that can be described as coming from affect.
That is to say the occurrences outside ones’ body can interfere with the occurrences inside. Affect has got a strong influence on the feelings of a person. This often brings out emotions (Redding 1999).
A feeling can be regarded as a sensation within one self. It could be that of happiness or sadness or even of fear. Emotion can be termed as an exhibition of what one feels, for example, laughing as a result of happiness or shaking as a result of being afraid.
The expression of emotions could either be genuine, or not (Preece and Keller 1990). Whenever people want a product and go for it, the expression of emotion cannot be a result of pretence, in almost all the cases because it costs them. What then is the influence of the two instances affect and emotions in designing of a product with the user in mind?
This can be done by creating need-fulfilling products and services; these have to consider the influence of affect and emotions in their choice in the way that consumers make their choices on the products to buy or use. There are a number of hormones that are involved in the process of decision making by consumers.
We will write a custom Essay on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is from these considerations by designers of products and services that the science of affective computing came into being. Its emphasis was in the link between emotions, and the ability of individuals to make decisions as they learn. Another bit was the incorporation of some functions of the memory.
It was around this time that people with disorders of the mind and those who could not express their emotions were found to be unable to make decisions. Affect has been noted to lack the human mental ability of recognition; it is this property that can be said to be critical as people make decisions about the things that they want (Preece et al. 1990).
In the designing of products, there is the incorporation of a number of aspects; affect being one of them. For instance, the ease of use by the consumer and any form of beautification that can complement this is factored into the design.
It is this beautification that stimulates the senses of the potential consumer as he makes a decision concerning the product, e.g. the design of glasses used in drinking wine and the design of auto teller machines. Other than this, the beauty of any product has to be oriented towards its use. The use of the product should be considered by manufacturers in designing its beauty.
Emotions and affect (which is a form of sense) have to be related to the way an individual is expected use the product. The design of a product or a brand is considered to be a success if it has an effective appeal to the buyers. Product designers have to incorporate another aspect of the human mind as they strive to achieve sales.
These are the emotions that can lead to a reduction in the cognitive capabilities of the human mind. They include fear and anxiety. It is thus necessary for the designer of any product to consider some of the feelings that can be aroused as a result of the design of a product.
For example, when the product is a gadget, for example, a computer and is not easy to use. The design should capitalize on possible emotions as a result of well designed products that may translate to increased uptake by consumers.
An example of such an emotion could be happiness or arousal of the user as a result of the experience of using the product. In short, products should be fun to use (Shanahan, Qu and Wiebe, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Norman (who has written a lot about affect) asserts that products designed in a way making them attractive to people bring about a relaxed feeling and an increased level of creativity to those who use them. The consideration of affect and emotions is not to be limited to the designing of products only, but also to the creating of names that buyers of the products will use in identifying them.
As a result of the appeal to the user or buyer of a product, the name brings the two closer together based om emotions. The trend nowadays among the makers of a commodity is to create a relationship with the buyers of that product that is built on passion and affect.
This is how; companies have been able to exploit the affect of their consumers in order to achieve sales. One of the ways that have been used to achieve this is via the increase in contact between companies and buyers (Shanahan et al. 2006). How this is increased contact achieved?
The increased contact between the two can be achieved through a design of the products that factor in sensory aspects of the human being. For example, fragrance has been used by laptop makers in order to make them smell in a way that is attractive and appealing to consumers.
The other human senses can also be incorporated into the designs, for example, attractive colors, or even cars that are designed in a sexy way. It is these senses that lead to an emotional contact between the consumer and the product. A further explanation on this (i.e., affect and emotion) is that affect can be used in designing a product to make it appealing to the customers.
It is also important to look at the Tardeshian theory in order to understand this further. This theory states that passions are passed on through media unknowingly to people. This can be attributed to cultural interaction and how people have been created biologically (Shanahan et al. 2006).
Both of these can be manipulated. This is useful in the strategic decisions that are used in politics and business. For example, politicians in the United States of America use empathy in their efforts to align their policies with what the majority of the population desire. In this way, they manage to gain substantial amounts of support. It is this strategy that designers of products use when making products.
It is essential to mention that there are emotions that are involved in most potential customer’s decision making. One of them is the emotion that relates to how and what people think. The other is when a person feels satisfied while using a purchased product.
The manufacturers of products have the obligation of making sure that their products will satisfy customers. Users of products in this way get some emotional experience. This is a crude way of one learning about the way he, or she acts as a result of his or her emotions. These people may notice changes in their physiological processes which act as indicators of various emotions.
They may be going through some of these as they make critical decisions on the products that they are to buy. Consumers think that they have a feeling in their gut that directs them to choosing a given product, as opposed to the other. This is based entirely on the emotional value of the product. Little do consumers know that they only choose a product that adds emotional value to their lives (Preece et al. 1990).
Conclusion Clearly, there is an influence of a psychological kind on how people choose the experience to undertake. Moreover, this applies to the choices that they make on the products and services that they buy or use. The psychological influences could be attributed to affect and emotions. These have made consumers have some influence in the design of a product.
Product designers and branding managers have a duty to ensure that their products will arouse an emotional feeling to the end user. Consumers only buy a product based on their emotional experiences with it, and only when its previous use was satisfying.
This is not in the literal sense of it but in the way that those products are in sync with their emotions and affect. Emotions and effect are very crucial in the study of consumer behavior.
References Preece, J and Keller ,L 1990, Human-computer interaction, Prentice Hall in association with Open University,New York.
Redding, P 1999, The logic of affect,Cornell University Press, New York.
Shanahan, J ,Qu,Y and Wiebe,M 2006,Computing attitude and affect in text: theory and applications, Springer,New York.
Shapiro, T and Emde,R 1992, Affect: psychoanalytic perspectives, International Universities Press,Detroit.
The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Increase in the speed of internet
Transformation of media business to digital form
Age and privacy based content restrictions
Introduction A lot has changed in the world of mass media since the introduction of the internet technology. In every step of the internet evolution comes a corresponding change in mass media owing to the fact that most people consider the internet to be the best source of information as the prerogative goes ‘if it is not in the internet it does not exist’.
This means that many people rely on the internet for information and since information provision is the highest mandate of mass media, they have to be at the same level with their audiences.
Convergence in relation to mass media is defined by Benkler (2006, p. 33) as “the interrelationship that has occurred in the development of the internet as a result of association between communication networks, ICT facilities and the media”. This is believed to have played a major role in the recent developments in the media industry as far as communication and broadcasting are concerned.
The concept of convergence is better understood when it is dissected into four subsections. The first is in the view of technology which in the words of Benkler (2006, p. 49) involves “the combination of computing, communications and content around networked digital media platforms”.
Second is the industrial view of convergence which involves the growth and development of digital media space that has allowed online companies to flourish, some of which include Microsoft, Google among others. The third view is social based which involves the evolution of the social network characterized by the coming up of social media of the likes of YouTube, Facebook and Twitter.
Finally is the textual view of convergence which involves the reproduction of media into what is commonly referred to as transmedia. This according to Benkler (2006, p.50) is a platform where “stories and media content such as sounds, images, written text and so on are dispersed across multiple media platforms”.
From this it is clear that the internet evolution has played an explicit role in the development of convergence media in a number of ways as explained in the paragraphs that follow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increase in the speed of internet Research findings conducted by Lister (2006, p.125) and documented in his book The Wealth of Networks: How social production transforms markets and freedoms, indicate that “as of December 2010, there were 10.45 million active internet subscribers in Australia, of which 8.15 million were household subscribers and 2.3 million were business and government subscribers”.
This figure is considered to be a 17% growth from the previous years’ figure of 8.95 million. Besides, it was discovered that more than 3 million people above the age of 14 used their mobile handsets to access the internet in December 2010, and this is considered to be a rise compared to the previous years’ 1.9 million.
From this we can deduce that households which were the highest targets for the mass media have now found another source of information and entertainment which is the internet.
These statistics also indicate that in the recent past, the number of internet users has increased partly due to the universal availability, convenience and high speeds. The availability of the internet through mobile devices, specifically phones, has played a major role in the development of convergent media.
Most people can now access the internet in the comfort of their homes unlike earlier on when internet services were only available in cyber cafes. The internet speeds have also increased incredibly and the cost reduced to make it even more convenient for households.
People are able to get information real time while travelling or when they are in the comfort of their homes. As a result, it has dawned on the media personnel that the best way to transfer information to the public is through the internet, mostly on social networks.
This explains why platforms such as twitter broadcast breaking news and it reaches the world over in a matter of seconds after the occurrence. Before it would take a number of hours before the journalists themselves get the information so that they can relay to the public within their region.
We will write a custom Essay on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For news and information to reach people across boundaries, it would take days and at times even fail to reach owing to logistical complications. From this, it is clear that the internet has played a major role in media convergence and in the alteration of the core tendencies in the mass media business.
Transformation of media business to digital form The incredible increase in internet usage among the masses has seen to it that the most valuable and believed information is what is obtained from the internet. Most people seek information concerning various subjects on the internet and they take what they get as the gospel truth.
Examples of the most commonly sought information includes slimming tips, body building and exercising tips, ideas on nutrition, medical advice and information on various diseases and health conditions and so on.
Earlier on, this information was being sought from magazines and those people offering these services would buy into the advertising space. This however changed with the evolution of the internet; hence indicating that print media is almost becoming a forgotten thing.
Digitalization of the media has provided a more convenient platform for obtaining information, since it is just a matter a click and one gets all the information they need. Video platforms such as YouTube ensure that video adverts and other information presented in visual form can be accessed as well.
It is even possible to stream television programs from the internet, hence rendering TV’s obsolete as well. The internet in this case is considered more convenient owing to portability and reliability.
This is what fits into the lifestyles of most people nowadays: characterized by more things to do and less time to do them. This means that most people are unable to sit down and catch up on the evening news, hence preferring the best alternative, the internet, which they can access while on the move.
Media globalization In the recent years, the wave of globalization has been experienced in the world over and this credit is owed to the internet. It is now possible to catch up on the happenings in other continents across the oceans with just a click. Globalization has also encouraged the businesses to be conducted globally, from a focal point.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While carrying out businesses in different parts of the world, it is no longer necessary to make the frequent travels to these regions, thanks to the internet. Conferences are conducted across continents through teleconferencing facilities, orders are made through the electronic mails services and payments made through e-payment platforms such as PayPal.
The entertainment industry, particularly, has benefitted from the whole concept of globalization since they are now able to reach the entire world in a matter of seconds. This industry is considered as the backbone of mass media since people are in constant search for relaxation and fun.
Recently, mobile devices which allow users to watch movies online and stream music from various radio stations across the continent have been developed. As a result of this, competition in the media industry is no longer local but international.
This has led to the increasing rate of international broadcasts as opposed to the local broadcasts done before. In order for the media houses to obtain this information that they need from other regions, they need the internet so that they can be in correspondence with their agents around the globe.
This explains the rise and growth of international media houses such as CNN and BBC whose success is greatly owed to the internet innovations. These media houses rely on satellite technology to send and receive information real time such that it can be viewed in many other parts of the world just like it is being viewed at home.
In other words, a person watching CNN news from the United States is watching the same thing with someone else in another continent; say Africa, all owed to the internet technology.
Enhanced innovation The other way in which the internet has contributed to the development of media convergence is by increasing the rate of innovation. With the introduction of the internet, it is now possible to develop products and test them in a matter of days. Software developers are always coming up with programs to be used in different industries to ease the process of production.
The media industry is no exception in this. Earlier on, obtaining information especially in visual form required a travel to where the information is being obtained from.
This has however changed since pictures and videos are being posted on the internet in a matter of seconds. These contents are used to make news even on print media, since all there is to do is to obtain permission from the owner and publish the information from the internet.
The media is also widely known for using the social network as a broadcasting tool. This is one innovation that has proved successful as far as communication is concerned. Events all over the world are made known to the entire world in seconds.
Intellectual property is becoming more and more famous with most countries being forced to adapt to the rules governing this kinds of property.
In the bid to explain the extent to which the internet has contributed to media convergence as far as innovations are concerned, Benkler (2006 p. 137) asserted that “there is an interrelationship between developments which include the growing share of intangible capital, growing speed and intensity of innovation and the increasing diversity of sources of innovation, the ICT revolution and the rise of knowledge based communities and global knowledge networks”.
All these have contributed to the media evolution over the years and still remain to be the highest ranked drivers to innovation in the media industry.
Age and privacy based content restrictions In the earlier years, it was possible for the media people to conceal some information for the sake of underage audiences as well as information that was considered discrete for privacy purposes. This was mostly done by airing adult programs late at night or giving a disclaimer before the program begins and leaving it upon the parents to enforce the rules.
This however changed with the internet era since everything on the TV can also be viewed through the internet and even worse, teenagers no longer wait for their parents to go to bed before they sneak into the living room to watch pornographic videos.
They have this at their disposal wherever they are with their mobile phone devices, not only for viewing but also sending to other people. This means that the media efforts of maintaining morality in the society have been rendered useless.
In the history of the media, there has existed a tighter regulation regarding the widely used media such as television, cinema and video as compared to print media. This is owing to the fact that the latter is more discrete and concise in the information presented therein.
As a result, changes related to convergence have affected the former to great extents. In fact a report presented by Lister (2003, p. 78) in his book New Media: A critical introduction book observed that “the public own the airwaves; and since frequencies are scarce, and the broadcast media are influential, to grant a broadcast license is to bestow a privilege.
This privilege carries with it an obligation to provide the public with programs which meet the standards it expects”. Since a majority of the viewers are young people in their teens and early twenties, the same generation greatly influenced by the internet technology, the media houses have to be at par with the information available on the internet.
The internet in this case might work for them or against them. It works for them in the sense that they are able to get updated information from all over the world promptly. It can however work against them in the event where their potential audience obtains all the information they need from the internet and this can happen if the media proves to be an unreliable source of information.
Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that the major changes experienced in the mass media industry have been as a result of the internet evolution. The internet has influenced the media in both negative and positive ways and despite the damage brought about by this; it has proved difficult to control.
The internet is open to the public and most attempts to privatize information on the internet normally prove futile due to the existence of hackers. It is also not possible to have a viewers’ discretion policy since it is mostly controlled by a series of systems unlike human control.
The only place where this can be possible is in the cyber cafes which are also becoming irrelevant with the advent of mobile devices. Most homes today are connected to the internet and it has also been proved that people spend more time on the internet than watching their favorite programs on TV.
This has therefore forced the media personalities to up their strategies and use the internet for their good before it down plays the industry completely.
References Benkler, Y 2006, The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Lister, M 2003, New media: a critical introduction. Routledge, London.
Program Planning and Evaluation Proposal custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Needs Assessment and Rationale
Program Goals and Objectives
Introduction Program planning is an indispensable responsibility of field workers. Program planners not only plan but also implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of their programs.
According to Waterston, (1965), program development is viewed as an ongoing process that consist of a study of the situation, thinking about long range and immediate objectives and choosing learning experiences that would be constructive as far as the target audience is concerned.
On his part, Kettner, Moroney and Martin (2008) viewed program planning as the process of constructing various actions to shed light to community development. Blair (1998) does not divert from the views of Kettner, Moroney and Martin since he defines program planning as a set or a number of related events that portray some needed actions aimed at achieving certain objectives over a specified time.
In his view, objectives show what are to be attained. The same objectives can be revised as new knowledge is generated. Knepper (2010)argues that there are a number of factors that must be considered when designing a program. Firstly, the planner must work with the lay advisory committee.
Again, the program planner should explore and describe the general situation of communities being planned for. Other factors include identification of problem areas and their prioritization, stating of objectives, preparation of a program document including work plans and finally monitoring and evaluation of the program.
From the above information, it is evident that a good program requires careful planning whereby the planner should set goals and objectives, evaluate the effectiveness of the program, implement its tenets and monitor the implementation process.
Program planning is not an easy task hence it is imperative for a project planner to come up with various techniques that would help him or her counter the challenges associated with implementation. In this paper, the planner would wish to introduce an online help center where clients could acquire information pertaining to community services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Program Description With the emerging technologies the world, Skype has turned out to be a new phenomenon in the cyber world. In fact, it is almost a necessity, just like the email address. In this proposal, the planner intends to use the tool in relaying information to the locals as regards to health, especially mental health.
The planner would set up the Skype center so that people with mental problems can easily seek for advises. The service is very efficient since it permits the planner to communicate with the locals without any difficulty. It has an advantage over the local phones since it transmits both analog and digital information without any interruptions.
For this reason, the planner will have to register an account with the service provider in order to make calls with other registered users. For this case, community members would be encouraged to open accounts with the service provider for easier communication (Glauser, 2011). The service has one more advantage, which is related to the cost.
It is relatively cheap as compared to other means of communication. This would suit the wishes of the planner since this program suffers from funding. The terms of payment for Skype service is friendly to the user since an individual goes for the one that best suits him or her.
Community members would be comfortable reporting their health problems without necessary using many resources. The transportation costs would be reduces since the community members use money to seek advisory services regarding their health.
However, the planner would need initial capital to put up structures that would house employees. Communication equipments would also be installed.
Needs Assessment and Rationale There are two concepts that are central in the process of planning. These include planning and projects. In the preparatory phase of any project, the planner aspires to establish various stages that are critical in the project planning. Each stage has its own importance. Stage one entails a decision to adopt planning. The planner needs to establish this in advance before proceeding to fulfill any other task.
We will write a custom Proposal on Program Planning and Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The subsequent stage is the organization for planning stage. This stage is only arrived at after the planner has adopted the program. In the second stage, the planner would consider coming up with a program that would suit the demands of the audience, which is provision of information regarding health and mental awareness information.
For this to happen, the planner establishes the work force and determines how much resources are available to accomplish the task. For the Skype program, the planner would need adequate resources for financing website formation and advertising the same site through the social media such as yahoo and twitter.
The third stage in need assessment and rationale would be setting goals, objectives and targets. The performance of the program is measured in terms of its ability to achieve goals and objectives that are set for it. Goals are abstract and specify what planning should ideally achieve in the medium and long term.
Based on the Skype program, goals would be both short-term and long-term. On the other side, objectives are more precise implying that they are operational statements that represent specific steps necessary in attaining chosen goals. They are different from goals since they are specifically achieved in a shorter period.
Progress toward their attainment can be measured and evaluated. Targets are least specific since they are clear statements about what should be achieved over a given time period. It should be noted that in advance that goals, objectives and targets change, especially in the medium to long-term.
As implementation, monitoring and evaluation go on; they generate new lessons that help in changing these stages in the planning cycle. At the third stage, the planner needs to assess various variables that may affect project implementation. Each goal and objective should be rationalized, implying that a sensible reason should be given for its existence (Celotta,
Hudson’s Alpine Furniture Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Daily operational issues
Introduction The following analysis explores the production and operations management approaches employed Hudson’s Alpine Furniture. This critical evaluation would give some detailed account on some of the production and operation management issues that adversely affected the profitability of Hudson’s.
Therefore, it could be argued that the company made serious management strategy of adopting its new line of furniture business. Though, the sales were increasing the costs of holding stock rose to a bigger margin. The applicable approach to this case analysis is the use of theory of constraints, which is very critical in the production and operations management of Hudson Alpine Furniture Company (Steyn 2000 p.363).
The constraints theory is relevant in the production and operations management of this company since it would help in solving the issues witnessed in adopting the new commercial furniture deal. Under this theoretical approach, Hudson’s performance could be evaluated based on its production output in terms of sales revenue earned, inventory, and operational costs.
The variations in these three measures would be critical in assessing the performance of the company. The incorporation of this theory of constraints would be important in assessing the rate at which the company is capable of generating money through its furniture sales against the amount of money invested in producing the furniture inventory and the operational expenses.
These theoretical approaches to the production and operation management principles are essential in determining the necessary conditions, which ought to be reached first. In this case, it can be ascertained that its goal is that of making profit, which is the necessary condition (Steyn 2000, p.367).
Therefore, it is important to understand the most applicable procedures that are necessary in making the best financial decisions, which are based on the sales revenue earnings, operating expenses as well as the inventory (Schragenheim, Dettmer
Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes Analytical Essay essay help online
Introduction Several incidents concerning medical waste being spotted on public and private beaches have drawn a lot of public attention on the issue of management of medical waste. One such incident happened back in June 1987, when in Indiana polis, twelve children were found playing with blood vials that they had picked from a bin placed outside an HMO medical office.
Two of these vials were infected with the AIDS virus (10). These issues and others raise concerns on how medical waste is handled, treated and disposed.
Medical waste can be defined as all the waste that is generated by health facilities and other sources such as funeral homes, research laboratories, doctor’s clinic funeral homes, nursing homes and veterinary facilities.
These wastes consists the hazardous (radioactive materials), infectious also referred to as red bag waste and any other waste generated within the facility (4). Medical waste although not voluminous, is infectious and toxic and leads to serious environmental pollution (1).
Background Information According to Environmental protection Agency (EPA), hospitals generate around 3.2 million tons of medical wastes per annum. (10). 10 to 15 0percent of this medical waste generated is infectious. In most hospitals, the non infectious waste is land filled while the infectious one is incinerated.
Medical waste requires proper handling, disposal and treatment to minimize the environmental and health risks associated with it. Illegal or careless disposal of medical waste not only creates an aesthetic and health problem, but also increases public apprehension on the existing medical waste management methods.
Due to the liabilities and the safety related concerns, some municipals refuse or ban any medical waste from their incinerators and landfills. Various states have prohibited all un-sterilized infectious waste from the municipal landfills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The states have also banned construction of commercial incinerators handling medical waste. These afro mentioned bans, have made it increasingly difficult for medical facilities and hospitals in the country to properly manage medical waste (3).
This situation is further complicated by the lack of clear and concise regulatory climate. These inconsistencies are present in the Federal guidelines laid down by the States with regards to the definition of medical waste and the management options available for handling, transporting, treating and disposing medical waste (5).
The current situation can only change if the Congress adopts bills relating to medical waste management. In the meantime, most states have been mandated to devise their own plans and programs of managing the medical waste generated. This means that there are a lot of variations between different states and local requirements.
This paper aims at looking at the disposal problems posed by medical waste for both the local government and hospitals, the methods used in disposing medical waste, the long term implications medical waste has on the environment and the conclusions drawn from the discussion (2).
Classification of Medical Wastes Medical waste is heterogeneous in nature as it comprises a variety of materials ranging from general waste such as food, office waste and non-infectious waste from patients. It also includes infectious waste e.g. contaminated sharps and blood products, hazardous waste generated from pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic chemicals from chemotherapy, mercury as well as radioactive wastes.
Classifying infectious waste has proved difficult due to the variations resulting from different State regulations (10). These different classifications lead to inconsistency in storage, disposal and treatment practices across different states. The variations also influence the preferred treatment methods, cost of management and eventually, the possible environment and health hazards created by these wastes.
Around 10 to 15 percent of all medical waste is infectious but this percentage can differ from 3 to 90 percent, depending on the definition and procedure adopted (10). The state entities, EPA and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have all tried to find the proper definition of infectious waste based on the characteristics of the waste.
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to EPA, infectious waste is any waste with the possibility of causing an infectious disease. EPA has broadened its category of infectious waste compared to CDC. This has led to the adoption of EPA instead of CDC guidelines, in hospitals and other areas that generate medical waste, helping in minimizing potential environmental and health risks (4).
Another concern is whether to classify infectious waste as hazardous which will increase the cost of managing it due the construction of special facilities. Such a move would improve the management of medical waste, but lead strict regulations and prosecution of illegal dumpers.
Some of the wastes recommended to be included in the infectious category are waste from dialysis, stocks and cultures with infectious agents, blood products and human blood, contaminated sharps, soiled dressings, surgical gloves sponges and other surgical waste (6).
Varied definition of infectious and hazardous medical waste has led to the public being exposed to this hazardous waste that poses a health risk. For example, the public was barred from accessing beaches in the East coast after bloody bandages, sutures and needles were found in the shores.
Infectious waste is sent to the incinerators, thus if the category was broadened as discussed above, such waste would not have ended up in the beaches (10).
Handling of Medical Waste There are various occupational hazards associated with handling medical waste. Waste handlers and health workers are primarily exposed to this type of risk as they more than often handle this waste. Handling hospital waste include packing, storing and transporting it properly to avoid any contamination and littering as discussed below;
Packaging- before packaging any medical waste, it must be sorted into different categories and packed accordingly. This is a time consuming activity and quite risky to the handler. Bulk waste is put in polythene bags and colors used in differentiating different categories of wastes. Infectious waste is placed in red bags and all the waste is securely closed in readiness for storage or transportation. Sharps are put in puncture proof containers due to their infectious capability and also due to their prick injuries (7).
Storage- hospitals must designate special areas for storing the waste before it is transported or disposed. The area must be regularly disinfected and kept at the right temperature. According to EPA, storage areas must have the bio-hazard symbol and sufficient packaging to prevent vermin’s and rodents from accessing the area. The waste must also be stored for the shortest period possible, although EPA does not give the stipulated period, leading to a State disparity in specified temperatures and times. Lack of uniformity in regulating storage temperature and time can sometimes lead to increased rates of putrefaction and microbial growth (8).
Transportation- EPA guidelines address the movement of infectious of waste on-site briefly, and provide limited information on how to move this waste off-site. Such recommendations involve using leak proof and rigid containers to move the waste and not using mechanical loading devices that can rapture packed waste. There are no guidelines on how to handle and transfer medical waste off-site. Although EPA, recommends that hazard labels be put on all medical waste in accordance to Federal, State and municipal regulations, the energy and transport department limit the use of this label, confusing commercial waste handlers (10).
Varied definition of infectious waste across different states complicates the matters and increases the likelihood of improper disposal and potential exposure to the public.
For example, if a state does not classify bloodied sutures and bandages as infectious waste, it can dispose this waste from another state in the municipal landfill. However, such waste can be washed by storm water to the beaches and pose a health risk (9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Methods Used In Disposing Medical Waste Incineration
As hospitals generate a lot of waste, both non-infectious and infectious wastes are incinerated together. There is no data on the exact waste incinerated in hospitals or information on the number of current medical incinerators available.
Municipal incinerators burn a large volume of waste compared to hospital ones. However, hospital incinerators are situated in highly populated regions, leading to a greater probability of public exposure to toxic fumes and air pollutants.
These small incinerators emit higher levels of pollutants, although few risk assessments are carried out, making it impossible to evaluate the risks emanating from these incinerators in comparison to other sources e.g. the municipal incinerators (10).
Moreover, the short stacks in hospital incinerators might permit emissions from the incinerators to go into the hospitals via windows and air-conditioning ducts. Hospitals in US use three types of incinerators namely: rotary kiln models, multiple chamber air and controlled air.
Most medical waste incinerators are closed air, since they are associated with lower costs and lesser pollution. The advantage associated incinerators is that they can reduce large volumes of waste, sterilize it, and make it possible for it to be disposed traditionally through landfills. Secondly, modern incinerators harness the heat created during the process and use it to power generators within the facility (8).
Autoclaving uses steam sterilization in treating wastes before they are sent off to the landfills. Autoclaving is done in closed compartments, where pressure and heat are applied generating steam, within a given length of time so as to sterilize medical apparatus.
All microorganisms found in the medical waste are destroyed by the steam generated and then disposed off disposed in landfills. After autoclaving medical waste, it undergoes compaction through shredding so that it is not used for any other purposes and then later on disposed in the landfills.
However, autoclaving is not recommended for pathological waste due to the presence of low levels of radiation. The advantage of this method is that it can be used in processing 90 percent of medical waste and compaction reduces the volume of waste after (7).
Long term Environmental Implications of Medical Waste Improper disposal of medical waste have far reaching environment impacts. Disposal of medical waste in oceans or other water bodies can lead to contamination of water by the pathogens found in this waste. Medical wastes such as soiled bandages or plastic gloves destroy the aesthetic appearance of the environment when they litter the beach or other places.
On the other hand, the disposal methods used in getting rid of the medical waste causes serious air pollution. According to a JAMA study carried out in 2009, the health sector accounts for 8 percent carbon emission (8). Most of the medical waste is plastic that produces furans and dioxins during combustion.
Most old medical incinerators have no equipment for controlling pollution. The incinerator ash generated from combusting contaminated waste may contain potentially toxic chemicals that will end up in the landfill and cause environmental pollution.
When autoclaving is used in disposal, the waste might not completely sterilized since the density and volume of material being sterilized determine the effectiveness of the process (7). There is a possibility of incomplete sterilization if the autoclave is overloaded and these pathogens will end up in the landfill, polluting the environment and posing a health risk to the public.
Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that poor regulatory framework has hindered proper management of medical waste disposal. Medical waste is disposed through incineration and autoclaving, but both methods cause environmental pollution and pose a risk to the public health.
Incineration releases toxic gases, while in autoclaving there is the risk of incomplete sterilization, transferring pathogens to the landfills. It is important for medical facilities to adopt new technology in waste disposal to reduce the environmental pollution.
References Landrum, VJ. Medical waste management and disposal. California:William Andrew; 1991.
NBCE. Medical, municipal and plastic waste management handbook. New Delhi: National Institute of Industrial Re; 2007.
Office of technology Assessment. Finding the Rx for managing medical wastes. Washington DC: Diane Publishing; 1990.
Friedman, M M and Rhinehart, E. Infection Control in Home Care. Sudbury: Jones
Sustainability project – Amcor site best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Murray Basin River
The AMCOR housing and parking project
Differences in the two projects
Scale and other aspects
Introduction Climate science is an area of science where virtual methods are widespread and the political stakes are high, because climate change as a result of emission of anthropogenic GHGs seems to demand a cessation of fossil fuel combustion and the use of alternative energy sources so dear to environmentalists.
It is important to note that climate change is an area of science where models inevitably play an important role (Kellow 2007). Environmental conservation for sustainability is an important aspect in the day to day activities on the globe.
This paper discusses environmental conservation for sustainable management of resources. It utilizes the examples of the Murray River water conservation project and the AMCOR housing and parking project. The two projects differ in different aspects that include scale and sustainability.
The Murray Basin River The Murray Basin River is composed of a large area that is estimated at approximately 1,000,000 KM2. It is approximately one-seventh of the total land mass of Australia. A large part of the basin is flat with extensive plains that are less than 200M in altitude above sea level.
The basin has been transformed by major constructions of water storage facilities along the river system. The water storage facilities are meant to regulate the flow of water, conserve water and also for hydro-electric power generation. The major storages include Dartmouth and Lake Victoria.
Hume and the Menindee Lake are also other major water storage facilities that regulate the water flow. These structures make it possible for water to be stored during the wet periods. This water is later released during the dry season (Haisman, 2004). There have also bee important development in agriculture due to these facilities.
Natural inflows in the reservoirs vary from seasons to season especially in the Hume reservoir. Thus, the Northern darling System flows generously throughout the summer while the Southern Murray system is actually a winter rainfall system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to facilitate all these, the Commonwealth Government has set aside funds that are distributed throughout the territories. The funds are distributed on the basis of progress of implementation of reforms. The council of Australian governments predates the national competition policy in that there is close interaction between the states that aim at achieving the goals of sustainable and efficiency of the rural and urban industries in Australia.
The council of Australian governments has enacted policies that control the water pricing system, ecological conservation, and enactment of comprehensive systems of water allocation. The council is also charged with the mandate of water allocation, trading and cross border sales of water, and separation of resource management from water service provision.
The AMCOR housing and parking project The Amcor site is housing and parking project that is predominantly a residential community project that will involve several aspects of environmental conservation for sustainability. The achievements of the project are meant to show how ecological sustainability and environmental management can cause sustainability of the environment.
The project is also meant to interface with the Yarra River corridor. This will act as a refuge from the built environment thereby buffering the indigenous vegetation and wildlife. The project also incorporates convenience retailing services and community facilities within walking distance of homes.
This will also create employment opportunities along the Heidelberg Road. It is also important to note that the project will restrict space that is paved for roads and parking. This will maximize the availability of land so that the remaining land can be used for other productive activities.
It will also make sure that cars do not dominate the roads in the area thereby reducing traffic and creating a safe haven for children. It is also meant to make walking around the place a pleasant experience. At the end of the project there will be homes for a diversity of households including some affordable housing.
There will also be respect among the existing neighborhood character whereby there will be cohesiveness in the community across south Alphington and south Fairfield (Australian Government. 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainability project – Amcor site
Cause and Effect of Poverty Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Effects of poverty on health
Effects of poverty on educational attainment
Effects of poverty on migration patterns
Poverty can be described in a number of ways. For example, the disparities in income and wealth are considered as a sign of poverty since the state is related to issues of scarcity and allocation of resources and influence.
Although poverty is most prominent among developing countries, studies indicate that the condition is also noticeable among the developed countries. Poverty may also be defined as the combined status of poor individuals (John
Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy Essay college essay help
Introduction At the moment, the business environment is characterized by a high rate of dynamism as a result of technological advancement, coupled with a high rate of globalization. To survive in such an environment, firms operating in different economic sectors are increasingly considering ways through which they can develop a competitive advantage in the facing of the mounting competition.
A firm only attains a competitive advantage over its rivals after the implementation of a unique competitive strategy. A competitive strategy refers to the decision regarding how a firm intends to establish itself in a certain domain. The competitive strategy entails both offensive and defensive mechanisms which are aimed at dealing with the five competitive forces (Vallabhaneni, 2009, p. 15).
These forces include barrier to entry, rivalry from firms in the industry, the threat of substitute, supplier bargaining power and lastly, buyer bargaining power. There are a wide range of competitive strategies that firms may decide to incorporate in their daily operations. The main strategies include cost leadership, differentiation strategy, cost focus, broad differentiation, and low cost strategy (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.223).
Firms adopt different competitive strategies depending prevailing environment in the market. For example, Fiat Motor Company integrated a broad-line competitive strategy in its operations. This competitive strategy means that the car manufacturer is a regional producer of a wide range of automobiles.
Through an effective implementation of a competitive strategy, a firm is able to create value for its products. The resultant effect is that the firm attains a high competitive edge over its rivals in the market. On the other hand, to survive in the long run, it is important for firms to ensure that they implement a sustainable competitive advantage.
In the 21st century, the purchasing behavior of consumer has undergone a major change and if at all firms do not keep pace with these changes, they are likely to lose a large share of their market to their dynamic rival companies that have embrace the changes.
The change in the purchasing behavior of consumers is worsened by the increase in the degree of complexity within the business environment as a result of technological advancement arising from innovation and the high rate of globalization (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To attain a high competitive edge, firms have deemed it appropriate to adopt the integrated cost and differentiation strategy. The research paper endeavors to examine whether or not it is suitable for forms to implement integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy in an effort to attain competitive advantage.
Arguments for integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy According to Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2009, p.147), a firm which has adopted integrated cost and differentiation strategy is more efficient in its operations compared to a firm that has incorporated only one business-level strategy.
For example, a firm that has incorporated an integrated strategy is able to respond to the changes in the business environment more effectively. This is due to the fact that the firm is not constrained in the implementation of its strategy. However, the firm can easily change its competitive strategy depending on the prevailing business conditions.
An integrated cost and differentiation strategy also provides a firm with an opportunity to enhance its human capital. For example, the firm’s employees can easily learn new skills. According to Ogbor (2009, p.254), developing the skills of a firm’s employees play a vital role in the firm’s efforts to attaining a competitive advantage in the market.
Alternatively, a firm can also easily take advantage of technological advancement in the industry. The acquisition of current technologies and new skills means that there is a high probability for firms to advance in their core competences.
The result is that the firms will be able to produce highly differentiated products that add value to the customers. Currently, consumers are increasingly demanding differentiated products and services at low prices (Manning 2001, p. 32).
Further, the integration of new technology may result in a firm undertaking its production cost effectively. Consequently, the firm in question is better placed to attain competitiveness owing to the low cost of its products.
We will write a custom Essay on Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy greatly enhances the attainment of competitive advantage through low pricing and ensuring that customers attain value for their money (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121). For example, the differentiation strategy can enable a firm to adopt an integrated premium pricing strategy.
On the other hand, the cost leadership contributes towards a firm being effective in its pricing strategy. For example, a firm can be able to set the price of its products at a relatively low point compared to its competitors. This may culminate into an increment in the firm’s sales revenue considering that consumers are price sensitive in their purchasing patterns (Viney, Winchester
Ethical Concepts in Business Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities
Introduction Ethics is a term used to refer to something that is beneficial to people. In other words, it creates a notion of doing the right thing. In business field, ethics entails adopting values that are beneficial to the business as well as the society. Ethical principles should therefore be based on human respect, integrity, being compassionate, caring and honesty. This means that individuals and businesses should be involved in promoting and protecting human rights. In addition, it calls for responsible citizenship (Chun 281).
Ethical Concepts The ethics of virtue is one of the concepts that relate to hiring of people with disabilities. It argues that human acts are observed intentionally. They are not achieved as result of chance. It entails application of good values such as tolerance and understanding. In other words, business ethics concepts revolve around virtues.
Fairness, honesty and integrity are among them. Fairness as the ethical concept has a big influence in this case. The computer technology industry goes against the ethical concept by not hiring disabled veterans. The concept puts it clearly that all businesses should treat all people equally in any commercial dealings and especially during recruitment.
Ethical Philosophy Research has shown that disabled veterans are best employees. They are not expensive to employ and maintain. For example they are cheaper in terms of insurance and safety. Moreover, accommodations provided are cost neutral because they act as morale to workers hence high productivity (Barclay and Markel 338).
Disabled veterans are also beneficial to the business. They have ability to learn given a new environment. This is due to their previous exposure and experience, they can adapt to the new environment fast. Their diversity and flexibility to work as team or as individuals allows them to be a mark higher than the ordinary workers. In addition, being veterans is a clear indication that they uphold integrity and thus the best in today’s business industry.
Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities Hiring veterans with disabilities requires a given organization to provide certain reasonable accommodations. This is because their conditions are demanding and the organizations must put that into consideration for them to be productive.
Providing reasonable accommodation to veterans with disabilities is beneficial to the business. This is because their skills, experiences and educational qualifications are actively utilized by the organization in order to realize its goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like the other employees, disabled veterans exhibit reliability and trustworthiness and acceptable business ethics. In addition, they portray positive values such as being passionate about what they do with a positive mind as well as going extra mile.
Ethical approaches can be employed to realize Advancement in the workplace of workers with disabilities. For example when businesses uphold integrity, fairness and honesty, it means that they have respect for both humans and the environment.
They will therefore assume the social responsibility as it is required. For disabled persons, the business will provide the necessary accommodations in order to make the maximum profits. Various accommodations in this case include transport, availing necessary facilities, flexible time schedules and modifying the work environment in general.
Conclusion In business ethics it is unethical to discriminate workers on basis of their disabilities. In fact, any business practicing such as in the case of computer technology industry mentioned above, can act as tool to bring it down. Hiring veterans with disabilities exhibit acceptable business ethics and can be used to improve an image of a given business.
Veterans with disabilities are potential workers with skills and experience just like other people. They should therefore not be discriminated at all cost. Instead, they should be provided with favorable accommodations that will enable them to be productive.
Works Cited Barclay, L. and Markel, K. “Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Disabilities.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2009: 333-345.
Chun, R. “Ethical Character and Virtue of Organizations: An Empirical Assessment and Strategic Implications.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2005: 269-284.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Concepts in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
American Government’s War on Drugs Essay a level english language essay help
History of war on drugs The issue of drug usage and supply has dominated the public domain throughout the 20th century. This was mainly because the drug market was purely unregulated. As a result, accessing drugs and substances containing derivatives of various drugs was also easy, including medical prescriptions that contained cocaine and heroin.1
During early years of the 20th century, legislation played a major role in regulating the use of drugs in the United States and all over the world.
For instance, the Pure Food and Drug Act, adopted in the year 1906 was to guard the society against poisonous drugs before it was amended in 1912 to address the issue of drugs carrying wrong labels. In 1914, the Harrison Tax Act was passed to prohibit the sale of heroin and cocaine.
By the mid of 1930s, the Marihuana Tax Act was adopted and aimed at imposing taxes on marihuana. Although this drug was considered to be safe, law enforcers believed that if allowed to be supplied freely, it would become a gateway for other drugs like heroin.
It was during the tenure of President Dwight D. Eisenhower that the war against drugs began, with the Narcotic Control of 1956 heightening the penalties associated with supply and usage of drugs. In 1954, the president called for a national war on drugs.
Similarly, President Nixon’s regime demonstrated the willingness to fight drugs by ending the importation of marijuana from Mexico through tight cross-border security measures. Additionally, the formation of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 was a milestone in strengthening the war as it gave federal government an upper hand in fighting drug abuse.
In 1971, President Nixon declared that drug abuse was “the number-one public enemy,” and stepped up efforts directed on fighting the scourge. Besides enforcement of the law, the president emphasized the need to treat drug addicts.2 He also engaged celebrities in spreading the news about the negative effects of drugs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970s, drug abuse was considered by many as a law enforcement problem that required criminal-justice strategies to fight. The inclusion of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) into the federal law equally boosted efforts to save the society from the dangers of drug abuse.3
Nancy Reagan is also remembered for her campaigns in schools, teaching students about the effects of drug abuse. Her activism drew huge attention and became the core of the anti drug war. By focusing on the impact of drug abuse on children, it was easy for anti drug administration to formulate stronger legislation that would protect existing and future generations.
During that time, cocaine was th most abused drug followed by heroin, which usage was rampant among African-Americans. The popularity of cocaine continued to grow among middle-class Americans as it was processed into smaller blocks to enhance easy acquisition by people from different social classes.
As a result, the Antidrug Act of 1986 was established to discourage the use of “crack” by introducing the 100:1 ratio, which meant that a person found with 50g of crack would be imprisoned for ten years, an equivalent sentence for being in possession of 5000g of the powered “yuppie.”4
The war on drugs has continued to intensify in recent decades, and leaders of that war adopted better rules and ways of dealing with the problem. For instance, Joe Biden’s 1994 Omnibus Crime Bill allowed the death penalty, symbolizing the seriousness of the war, comparing its victims to other offenders like murderers and rapists.5
Additionally, the arising confusion between the definition of legal and illegal drugs became evident in the implementation of the drug policy legislation. For example, the law recognized narcotics as illegal, unless they were medically processed and prescribed.
Importantly, not all prescribed drugs were safe. Illegal narcotics are those used without professional prescription. Despite the existence of this unstable definition, the issue has not been confusing. The only confusing thing in this scenario is the government legalizing the use of a particular drug and goes ahead to hunt its users.
We will write a custom Essay on American Government’s War on Drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This occurred in 1996 when marijuana usage had been authorized in California before successive American government arrested several marijuana distributors in the same state.
In his first term, President Barrack Obama continued with the war on drugs, with his drug policy coordinator suggesting the rebranding of the war as harm-reduction strategies. This is believed to have been based on the need to rehabilitate addicts and manage complications associated with drug abuse.
In general, the Obama administration has not deviated from the Bush administration even though the war remained a rhetorical convention with regard to the view of enforcing the country’s drug policy enforcement. Nevertheless, rebranding of the policy as harm-reduction strategies has been viewed as a step forward in managing drug abuse.
Success of the war on drugs Analyzing the success of the war on drugs in the society, it is important to understand the drug control rhetoric, which is aimed at realizing a drug-free society. Based on this analogy, it is believed that the war on drugs has not been successful since a democratic society cannot be 100% drug-free.6
This argument affirms that the campaign lacks practicality in addressing complex issues surrounding drug usage. Additionally, the use of illegal drugs has far-reaching implications besides the mere usage. For instance, consumption of alcohol and tobacco by underage children, and unlawful use of prescribed drugs has become a burden to the society.7
Although many people are not aware of it, the cost of cocaine exceeds that of the combination of other drugs. In this view, the war with this social problem is interpreted as an application for general illegal drugs.
Goals The war on drugs has mainly been led by the national drug control which strategies have not been changed significantly since 1989, when it issued its initial annual strategy volume.8
The initial strategies of the NDC were aimed at controlling the overall usage of drugs, initiation reduction and management at every level, including casual users and addicts. In addition, the agency was aimed at the reduction of hospital admissions by addressing import availability and local production of drugs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Government’s War on Drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1990s, NDC simplified its goals and targeted the reduction of drug usage considering the consequences that were related to the use of drugs. Nevertheless, today the administration puts more weight on measures that target usage of these drugs.
Unlike previous strategies, the current blueprint incorporates the need for education, treatment and disruption of the market through national policies. In its application, the current national drug control is principally motivated by the desire to reduce the impact of drug abuse on the society.9
Nevertheless, no explicit efforts have been witnessed to handle other consequences like overdose, HIV infection, and lost productivity. As a result, there is a difficulty in accounting against broader objectives of the NDC.
It is important to reaffirm that the national strategy towards winning the war on drugs is by reducing drug abuse consequences. In this approach, success with light users is more likely than with addicts.
It, therefore, follows that the progress towards the use-reduction goal may not necessarily indicate a similar change in a consequence reduction mode.10 This is to say that, reduction of casual marijuana users may not show a decrease in drug use consequences.
Consequences of war on drugs The war on drugs has been conducted for more than fifty years, without focusing on ways of establishing long-term strategies of dealing with drug usage and supply. Besides this has seen a failure, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime observes that there is a host of negative effects, which have been precipitated by this war on drugs.11
These consequences are based on a punitive approach that has allowed criminal gangs to be in-charge of the trade and criminalized several drug users. The following points are considered to be major effects of drug abuse.
National development Since its launch several decades ago, the war on drugs has continuously undermined development and security in most parts of the world. It has been found that drug traffickers can have a reliable supply of illegal drugs if honest politicians, government employees and security agents like armies are not involved.
Additionally, this can be achieved if farmers have a limited access to money to acquire enough farm inputs like fertilizers.12
Traffickers, therefore, thrive in cases where there is little governance or presence of poor infrastructure. As a result, they target at weak countries, which are easy to manipulate. With this target, they are able to equip private armies, merge and fund revolts, and corrupt police, government officials and politicians.
Examples of such countries, which have been affected by drug traffickers, are Afghanistan and Colombia among others.13 After destabilizing a country, they disrupt the operations of international and non-governmental organizations and divert resources and aid into enforcement.
The same consequences are replicated during the shipment of other drugs like heroin, undermining governance, security and economic development of the country.
Human rights It is doubtless that human rights of most drug users and farmers who plant these crops are rarely addressed by the United Nations or at the local level during the fight against drug abuse. As a result, this war is always characterized by serious violation of human rights, including but not limited to mass incarceration, torture, inhumane treatment, extrajudicial killings and denial of basic health services.14
Most of these policies further discriminate people, who use drugs. As a result, they impede them from access to drugs, harm prevention, and HIV treatment.
It is important to mention that young children have also been exposed to these human rights costs. Moreover, local communities involved in drug-producing usually receive cruel treatment during the process of eradicating the crops from farms.
Stigma and discrimination Like with any other form of war in the world, the negative effects of the war on drugs are mainly felt by marginalized, vulnerable and those that are excluded from the society. Children and young people are always placed on the frontline by individuals or groups of people dealing with drugs.
Amazingly, most of these children are forced into the business because of poverty, drug war casualties or as a result of being orphaned, due to incarceration of parents.15 Women equally suffer from exploitation by the drug business. Women with young babies are usually separated from their children, especially when they are put in prison. This detachment may affect the child due to limited resources for him or her.
Drug enforcement has also promoted social prejudice, where some minority groups of people are targeted and punished for being stereotypically labeled as drug users or distributors.
Threat to public health Historically, the war on drugs has been perceived to protect health of people by limiting the accessibility and usage of illegal drugs. However, research has revealed that this target has not been met, based on the increasing number of drug users and the existence of market that allows individuals to purchase the drugs cheaply.16
Additionally, the policy has increased the risk associated with the use of drugs through exposure to contaminants and risky behaviors like injection.
As a result, drug users are exposed to overdoses, blood-borne diseases and poisonings among others. To a worse extreme, some victims have contracted HIV via the above-mentioned health risks. 17
Increased crime Instead of eliminating crime, drug control policies have promoted the establishment of a drug market, which was estimated in the year 2005 to register a turnover of $300 billion in a year.18 The truth behind this is the fact that all the profit and wealth derived from these sales is enjoyed by drug traffickers and kingpins.
Consequently, producing countries may become unstable and corrupt while consuming states may experience an increase in gangsters and drug addicts.
Additionally, the expansion of the market contributes to the destabilization of the world financial system through money laundering and overstretching the criminal-justice system, emanating from an exponential increase in the number of criminals to be sent to prisons.
Biblical approach Based on the analysis presented earlier in this paper, it is evident that the war on drugs has not been successful. From the increasing prison population to the immense cost and implication of the war both to the society and economy, there is a need for a better solution to be considered.
This is important in reassuring people that it is not “war” as perceived but strategies to avoid initiation into drug usage and rehabilitation programs to help the addicts.19 Nevertheless, this has to be coupled with other institutions like criminal justice, in achieving a safe living environment that has minimum risks.
In addressing the question of drug abuse from a biblical and ethical perspectives, it is paramount to ask ourselves the morality of drug abuse and the ethical implications of the war. Can Christians be drug addicts?
Does the biblical approach support or oppose the war on drugs? One of the main facts about the bible is that becoming a Christian does not automatically shield an individual from danger and tribulations.
In other words, a Christian can suffer a worse tragedy similar to non-Christians. Unlike other people, the bible guarantees Christians a path to be taken in order to avoid temptations, sin and criminal behavior.20 It advocates for obedience, respect to authority and law and doing what is right in the presence of God.
According to David, a major character in the bible, who is believed to be an ancestor of Jesus, God created human beings in their natural state that allows natural functioning of the body without use of artificial substances like drugs.
In doing so, God knew that men would live a full life without finding satisfaction in drugs and related behavior in the society. We are therefore supposed to avoid conforming to the patterns of the world because of the natural state of our creation.21
According to the bible, men and women are controlled by God every time because He is all-knowing and omnipresent. Importantly, God does not spy on human beings but gives them free will to decide on what is right and what is wrong.
As stated in the bible, God considers our bodies as His dwelling places that are supposed to remain clean and well nourished. At this point, we need to ask ourselves how marijuana, nicotine, cocaine or heroin nourish our bodies in preparing a “fit dwelling” for Him. Does the use of these substances make us better or worse than before? If human bodies are God’s temple, can he cohabit with drugs?
One of the ways through which drugs operate is the way they alter the normal functioning of the body, by affecting the manner in which a person thinks and behaves, sometimes in a dangerous way that threatens an individual or a group of people.
It should be understood that the bible does recognize the medical use of drugs in restoring the normal status of a person promptly. This, therefore, supports the use of prescribed drugs with a prescription from a professional medical doctor. Besides this authorization, these drugs are to be used responsibly without sharing with friends or family members.
Another biblical aspect is that human bodies are created as a unity of body, soul and mind.22 The existence of the three aspects of the human body defines the functional ability of a person, although normalcy is only enjoyed when the three are in sound states.
The implication if this formation is that disruption of a single segment of the body that affects normal performance of the body as a whole. Additionally, the bible teaches about self-control and the need for human beings to take control of themselves.23 This virtue is completely uninstalled whenever a person is under the influence of drugs, due to distortion of the mind.
Besides the bodily make-up, the bible equally emphasizes on godly behavior and the need for one to maintain good behavior. Definitely, drug abuse cannot fall under good behavior. This kind of behavior mentioned in the bible benefits individuals and those around.
The bible, therefore, advocates for role models in the society to shape morality, set standards and correct those who stray from desirable ways of God.24
As such, Christians are called upon not to be stumbling blocks to other people in the society but to behave responsibly. With regard to the use of drugs and its “unsuccessful” war, one needs to think of the effects of abusing drugs before going for them.
How then does the bible view the war on drugs? Basically, this is seen as a way of restoring sanity and morality in the society. From this perspective, drug abuse alters the normal body operation of an individual, rendering him/her unfit to belong to the family of God.25
Drug users and addicts gain a state that does not accommodate God as his temple through contamination and infections. Based on this interplay between the teachings of the bible and the war on drugs, it is important to mention that drug abuse has an array of negative effects and needs to be curbed to save humanity.
By the fact that God appoints leaders into authority, they ought to use wisdom from God to lay down workable, human and achievable strategies to drive the agenda of fighting drugs in the country.26 This is necessary in eliminating loopholes in the current war plan, that have given the opponents of this idea a platform to prophesy doom over the initiative launched several decades ago.
Contrary to this perspective, it has been argued that there are more than enough reasons drawn from the bible, which condemn and oppose the war on drugs. This is not only on the manner in which the strategy has failed but also about the lack of biblical background.
According to Laurence M. Vance, a U.S. theologian, the use of alcohol is the only condemned thing by the New Testament and not all the drugs which are listed as illegal. Vance notes that the bible does not allow excess consumption of alcohol but instead recommends that one should be filled with the Holy Spirit.27
Despite this biblical recognition of alcohol, it has been branded and treated like other drugs. He further argues that not all crimes are sins and that the war on drugs criminalizes every act of drug abuse. As a result, he believes that Christians ought to oppose the war on drugs.
Bibliography Caulkins, Jonathan. “How Goes the War on Drugs.” RAND. Web.
Gospel Way. “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety.” Gospel Way. Web.
Hagen, Bernhard. The War on Drugs. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004.
Hartstein, Max. The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All. Indiana: iUniverse, 2003.
Lyman, Michael, and Gary Potter. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010.
Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia, and Sarah Gallagher. War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights. New York City: IDEA, 2004.
Mauer, Marc. “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs.” The Sentencing Project. Web.
Rowe, Thomas. Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole. London: Routledge, 2006.
Thomas, Kelly. “A Model for Success in the Drug War.” The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 8 (80): 1-31.
Vance, Laurence. “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs.” LewRockwell. Web.
Watton. “The Biblical View.” Watton. Web.
Footnotes 1 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 4.
3 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 88.
4 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 5.
5 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 92.
6 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Sarah Gallagher, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.
7 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 88.
8 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.
9 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.
10 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.
11 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 96.
12 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 10.
14 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 77.
15 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.
16 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 3.
17 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.
18 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 11.
19 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 53.
20 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.
21 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.
22 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.
23 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.
25 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.
26 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.
27 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.