Over the past few decades, the business world has experienced various challenges as pertaining to cultural diversity competition, consumer loyalty, technology, scarcity of resources and the most recent one; globalization. As a result, most organizations have been forced to change the way they do business in order to survive these challenges.
Under such circumstances, the application of Knowledge management has proven to be the most effective tool to utilize especially in firms that have gone global (international corporations). In order to have a competitive advantage over the rival companies, it is therefore important for such firms to understand and manage all knowledge they have on the clientele, the technological requirements and the resources required to ensure success of their ventures (Styhre, 2003).
This paper shall focus on knowledge sharing as a key combatant to the cultural barriers that are often experienced by international firms looking to market their products in foreign countries.
A critical review of a relevant article shall be carried out to further support the fact that sharing knowledge pertaining to various cultural attributes may go a long way in handling the various challenges that are brought about due to cultural diversity. Using various principles of Knowledge Management as well as other literatures related to this topic, the paper shall in detail analyze the extent to which the article relates the topic under discussion (Knowledge Sharing) to the problems it wishes to address (culture).
The article “Culture as an Issue in Knowledge Sharing: A Means of Competitive Advantage” by Soley and Pandya (2003) sheds light on how cultural factors may impede the ability of UK corporations to operate in international markets.
According to the authors, the paper aims at evaluating: “Whether culture really does effect UK business operations in international markets, to examine and analyze the provisions businesses utilize to overcome the cultural problems of today’s international marketing, if they exist, to Identify the main cultural problems associated with UK business operations in international markets, to investigate whether technology can overcome cultural problems in international markets” (Soley and Pandya 2003 p. 205).
In addition to this, the authors further embrace the fact brought about by Martin and Simmon (2001) who states that “In international business dealings, ignorance of cultural differences is not just unfortunate, it is bad business” (67). The authors claim that many organizations have in the past undermined this statement and as a result, they have lost a lot of time and money due to cultural misunderstandings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this era where business dealings are bringing different cultures and nations together, it is important for organizations to have enough knowledge on how different people in different countries and markets perceive things. Failure to do so may consequently lead to detrimental effects on the enterprise.
Soley and Pandya (2003) assert that culture is a great phenomenon that is not easy to comprehend. However, good communication within an organization may help lessen the gap that exist between various cultures and create an environment where business dealings are made on mutual agreement.
Guffey and Almonte (2009), state that understanding how culture affects various aspects in an organization may help in averting future discrepancies. They assert that the culture adopted by a given country may determine the communication medium and technology to be used while making business deals. As such, having insight on the culture of the host country and knowing where to apply such knowledge may help in establishing tight business bonds with other nations irrespective of the differences.
As regarding to the methodology used in carrying out the research, the authors used interviews which were conducted among senior managers of different firms within the UK. The interviews were aimed at uncovering whether knowledge of the different cultures affected how the selected firms conducted their business, and whether technology helped alleviate the cultural barriers while dealing in the international market.
According to the findings, having such information is crucial to the business. Bradley (2005) asserts that communication is very important to organizations because it facilitates better understanding of the cultures which are adopted by their trading partners and customers.
He claims that through effective communication, business partners are able to identify, share and transfer knowledge pertaining to their cultures. According to Bernard (2008), knowledge sharing can only be effective if an organization adopts effective communication tools. He asserts that due to the fact that the world is becoming a global community; interactions with other people from other countries have become inevitable. As a result, the need to learn and understand other cultures has become a necessity.
According to Soley and Pandya (2003), “Managers at all levels generally need to be able to communicate successfully. Increasingly they must communicate in a new world of diverse colleagues, clients and customers of international operations,” (p. 207). From this statement, the authors are suggesting that communication and culture are slowly becoming synchronized.
We will write a custom Essay on Culture as an Issue in Knowledge Sharing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They acclaim that communication mediums such as the internet have in the past decade enabled diverse individuals to communicate and come into agreements without having to meet on a physical level. Gattiker (2001) defines the internet as a diverse community. Through it, people are able to communicate with each other faster as compared to the traditional means of communication which were time consuming due to the variation in distance.
As such, the internet provides businesses with an avenue through which they can transfer information and share ideas which consequently leads to the establishment of international links. I also agree with the point the authors raise as regarding to the internet as a means to cultural degradation. Wood and Smith (2005) assert that the continuous usage of such technology may result to more cultural differences.
This is probably due to the fact that the internet is slowly developing its own culture which is being embraced by frequent users. According to December (2002), the internet technology uses a different language and the interpretations of this information vary from person to person. As such, it is always important that organization exercise caution when sharing information because misinterpretation of such may have catastrophic impacts on the organization.
The other issue addressed by the Authors is the impact of culture on the international market. They claim that having knowledge on the different cultures adopted by potential clients may help in reducing complexities and misunderstanding while transacting with people from different cultures.
In addition to this, they claim that understanding different cultures help explain the behaviors of the consumers and as such, this knowledge can be used to develop strategies which may be useful in regards to gaining a competitive advantage against rival organizations.
According to Mooij (2004), having knowledge on how culture may affect the international markets presents an organization with an opportunity to effectively put in place competitive strategies. On the same note, the author reports that such knowledge enables an organization to understand the market segmentation and how the international market is developing.
As a result, the organizations are able to make efficient decisions as to what to produce, where to supply and when. Understanding consumer behavior ensures that an organization produce according to the needs of the customers therefore assuring the organization steady market and a competitive edge against other companies (Hoyer and Macinnis, 2009).
However, Soley and Pandya (2003) claim that different scholars have raised different issues as regarding to the effects of culture on human behavior. According to the article, some analysts claim that human behavior is determined by culture while others acclaim that culture is nurtured from human behavior.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Culture as an Issue in Knowledge Sharing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In my opinion, I believe that human behavior is as a result of environmental factors and personal experiences. Ajami et al (2006) reiterate that culture is as a result of the similarities that exist in the human behaviors within a particular setting. As such, having knowledge on how individuals behave within a given society may come in handy while making decisions on the international market.
Also, the authors of this article have clearly stated that the true definition of culture is inconclusive. This means that different people define it in different ways. As a result, they have utilized the definition which best describes what culture entails.
Through this definition, culture can be identified by five key attributes which are; “language, religion, technology, education and material culture,” (Soley and Pandya 2003, p. 208). They suggest that having knowledge of these attributes in regards to the host country may enable an organization make an investment or production decision.
In their discussion on technology and material culture, they state that the degree of conversance to technology varies from one country to another. Avgerou (2008) reports that most countries in Africa lack technical knowledge mainly due to the cost of getting wired, poor IT infrastructure and lack of technical know-how within the host nations.
As a result, having knowledge on which nations are fairing well in this sector may reduce the costs that would have otherwise been incurred in updating such amenities (Hill, 2008). In addition to this, this digital divide may lead to poor communication which in turn may cause losses to the parent company.
Servon (2002) reports that many international corporations have in the recent past failed due to lack of due consideration of the technological drift that exist between the parent country and the host nation.
This is attributed to the fact that technology in today’s society plays a pivotal role towards the success of any venture. As a result, investing in a country with poor IT infrastructure not only limits the potential of the firm, but also curtails the economies of scale which can only be realized through the utilization of cutting edge technology.
As regarding to language, Soley and Pandya (2003) acknowledge the fact that it is the greatest determinant to culture. The authors state that; “language is the most obvious difference between cultures. Inextricably linked with all other aspects of culture, language reflects the nature and value of culture,” (p.209).
From this statement, it is evident that having thorough knowledge of the language used in the host country is crucial to the success of any venture. The authors further acclaim that despite the fact that the internet uses English as the primary language or business partners may understand and/or speak the language it is wrong to assume that they are willing to use it during business dealings.
Consequently, it is always important that the organization gather enough information about the language preferences of the host country. Having the knowledge on how the host country deals with language will therefore assist in averting this cultural barrier. Allee (2001) reports that; “Without a language to describe our experience, we can’t communicate what we know.
Expanding organizational knowledge means that we must develop the languages we use to describe our work experience,” (p.2). This means that in order to combat language as a cultural barrier, organizations must ensure that they use a language that will comfortably suit them and that business partners in the host nation.
The other key attribute that should be considered while dealing in international markets is education. Moore (2010) defines education as the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and ideas through training. Soley and Pandya (2003) suggests that the education level of the host country is very important towards the success of any international business.
They claim that in countries where the education is low, there is a high likelihood that the communication and infrastructure is also low. As such, having knowledge on the educational potential of the host country may assist an organization device better ways of dealing with the clientele and the business partners.
In addition to this, statistics indicate that people with no education are very resistant to change. As such, lack of education in the host country may by itself hinder the success of an organization. Martin and Simmon (2001) reiterate that knowledge is power especially when it comes to international institutions.
They state that understanding the host nation gives an international corporation a bearing on what to expect and how to handle issues without provoking the locals. As such, understanding the education capabilities of the host nation can be used as a tool to avoid conflicts as well as to counter various challenges that may arise due to this barrier.
Religion is one of the other attributes that have been discussed within the article. According to Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2009), religion varies from one person to another and it defines the culture that is adopted by these individuals. The authors assert that religion can be used to explain why people behave the way they do.
They claim that in as much as international business is primarily focused on how consumers and workers behave, it is equally important to gain some insight as to why they behave the way they do. Having such knowledge gives the organization an idea on what not to do or produce depending on the religion of the target market.
Soley and Pandya (2003) contend that religion can have a huge impact on how people perceive business and economic aspects. Renavikar (2003) reiterates that religious holidays, women social standing and their economic roles vary among countries. She claims that in some countries, women are not permitted to gain an education and neither can they be employed.
As a result, having such knowledge is imperative especially to organizations which are ethically bound to adhere to the affirmative action Act. Therefore, having thorough knowledge on the religious beliefs of the host nation will enable an organization to determine whether or not to invest in the country, what to produce and the ratio of employees to hire from the host nation.
Ethical theories are the criteria that we use to make judgment as to the fairness or unfairness of actions undertaken regarding problems (Sabath, 2002). The theories provide support to decision making and shed some light the thought process behind a conclusion. Some of the theories include the Consequentialism, Deontology and Virtue ethics. They can be applied interchangeably in various settings or can serve to complement each other.
According to Shafer-Launder (2007), the consequentialist ethics theory holds that actions can be judged as right and/or good only on the basis of the consequences they produce with no consideration for their intentions or motives. Utilitarianism is considered to be the most influential consequentialist theory.
This principle dictates that the collective welfare of the people overrides the individual’s right and as such, the theory advocates the maximization of happiness for the greatest number of people (Sabath, 2002). In this approach, the net benefit is calculated and the net consequences evaluated.
From these evaluations, a decision which adheres to the theory by having the most “productive” result is chosen. With this in mind, having knowledge on the ethical standards that the host country upholds is crucial to any organization.
Soley and Pandya (2003) state that bribery and corruption are viewed differently depending on the host country. As such, understanding how these issues are perceived in the host country may help an organization avert legal complications. For example in some countries, giving gifts to business partners is viewed as a form of bribery while in others it is not.
Through the hypothesis, the authors have been able to effectively bring out the objectives of the research study. All through the article, the authors brings into light the various attributes of culture and shows how they can impact international markets. In addition to this, they have managed to show how Knowledge Sharing and Management can be used to identify the various threats that could be brought about by cultural diversity (Nelson and Quick, 2000).
On the same note, by use of examples and theories, they have successfully highlighted the various dangers hat can befall an organization if it does not have a Knowledge management strategy. In their recommendation, the authors have clearly stated that the topic under discussion is too wide and that their research is not conclusive. As such, they have recommended that other scholars should do more research on the topic to further provide more understanding and information on the same.
This paper has summarized and reviewed the article, “Culture as an Issue in Knowledge Sharing: A Means of Competitive Advantage” by Soley and Pandya (2003). The authors have effectively brought out culture as an issue worth addressing in Knowledge Management. The various aspects discussed that may influence an investment decision are very useful especially to managers who wish to join and transact in the international market.
However, they have failed to provide conclusive solutions to the addressed issue. As such the question as o whether Knowledge management can effectively combat culture as a barrier to international business still remains unanswered. However, from the article, the importance of Knowledge Management and Sharing cannot be understated and to my opinion, the article provides a good foundation to business organizations which aim at venturing into the international markets.
References Ajami et al. (2006) International business: theory and practice. 2nd ed. USA, M.E. Sharpe.
Allee, V. (2001) 12 Principles of Knowledge Management [WWW] American Society for Training and Development (ASTD). Web.
Avgerou, C. (2008) Social dimensions of information and communication technology policy: proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC8), IFIP TC 9, Pretoria, South Africa, September 25-26, 2008. USA, Springer.
Bernard, A. (2008) Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management. USA, Springer.
Bradley, F. (2005) International marketing strategy. 5th ed. New Jersey, Financial Times/Prentice Hall
December, J. (2002) Units of Analysis for Internet Communication. Journal ofComputer Mediated Communication, 6 (3), pp 67-72.
Gattiker, U. E. (2001) The Internet as a diverse community: cultural, organizational, and political issues. USA, Routledge.
Guffey, M. E
Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Benchmarking involves comparing a business operations and performance ranking of a company or industry with top performers from other industries. Factors weighed include quality, time, and value. After benchmarking a company or the industry players need to improve from learning by doing things effectively and efficiently.
My industry is the investment and banking sector. Over the years the investment and banking sector has been hit hard by many challenges which have threatened to tear the industry, even to an extent leading to the winding up of some of the industry players. The most recent scandals were pyramid schemes and scrupulous deals that have seen consumers loose their lifetime investments.
Also banks have been hit by the global economic downturn which saw the closure of several banking halls. This has seen lose of consumer confidence in the industry. Many customers are trading cautiously in, scared of succumbing to any scandals.
The industry needs put in place measures that regulate the investment companies or associations to avoid arise of any loopholes in the industry which could expose investors to any kind of threat of their funds. The industry should improve the customers’ confidence by offering secured means of investing and guaranteeing adequate returns (McNair, Kathleen
America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution Research Paper best college essay help
Since 1979 after the Iran revolution America and Iran has been having diplomatic differences in their relations and in the way they run their Nations as well as in dealing with Global issues. Among the issues that have made these two Nation to conflict and enter into a cold relationship includes; terrorism, nuclear issues, hostage crisis, Israel, the Iraq and Afghanistan war, human rights violation among other things which are differently viewed between the two nations (Anderson, 1981: 65)
Terrorism has been one of the key aspects that have resulted into major conflicts between America and Iran. It is a problem that immerged from one person’s faith: Khomeini, who believed that “Islam should rule the world and that democracy was the root of all evil”.
On the other had the American society and government is built on the principles on democracy an issue that contradicts the principles of the Iranian government. Since his death, terrorism ideologies begun to spread, with a lot activities targeting the US and its International interests (Ball, 1998: 124).
In recent years there have been plans for larger terrorists’ strikes operation as many dozen terrorist’s networks springing up. Since then, terrorism has taken a strong hold due to support from the Iranian government which they are determined to support despite of the appeals from world governments religious denominations and intervention by US government.
In the last decade, installations in the US have been destroyed as wide scale killing of innocent children and adults has taken place with as brutal hostage crisis have always been experienced as a result of Iran’s support to the extremist organizations. These activities have been claimed by America to be inhuman and a violation of human rights.
This is because the American nation believes in human rights and democracy, which has no place in Iranian government. In addition, the Iran’s’ failure to control the extremist views has resulted to the unrest and destruction of life around the world (Hogan, 1996: 80).
Iran is one nation that has maintained a high profile in encouraging the anti- Israeli terrorist activities. Israel is a major US ally and any adverse action against it is seen as a threat to American interests. Nevertheless Iran has constantly supported for the ethnic cleansing of the Israelis with impunity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, it has rhetorically, operationally, and financially supported guerilla fighting against Israel. For instance, the Iranian readers such as Khomeini and president Ahmadi-Nejad has been praising the operation conducted by Palestinian terrorists towards Israel as Iran provides the Lebanese Hezbollah and other Palestinian terrorist groups such as Hamas with logistics and military support.
It has as well offered extensive financial assistance, training and artillery to the terrorist groups in Palestine such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades as well as the Liberation of Palestine-General Command which Iran doesn’t view as terrorist (Mitchell,2004:16).
This support has strengthened the terrorist who have integrated their operation, an action that has served to alienate further the relations between the two countries resulting in the US calling for sanctions against Iran and labeling it as a terrorist government accusing the Iran government as a world enemy and promising to fight against it (Boyle, 1999: 132).
In addition Iran has continued to play a destabilizing role in Iraq by supporting terrorist operations in Iraq both directly and indirectly. It has engaged in provision of training to some of the Iraq political groups, provided weapons to Shia military groups and training to enable them defeat the agenda of the coalition troops which is led by the US government.
This support has made the Iraqi extremist groups to conduct activities and operations against the country’s government and other organizations in the country resulting to massive loss of life and property. Moreover the increasing hostility of anti-Coalition attacks has been facilitated by Iran in providing the Shia military with the capability to build IEDs which have explosive projectiles similar to the one produced by Iran and Hezbollah (Nation, 1992:54).
This has been facilitated by the act of the Iran revolutionary Guards who with the Hezbollah initiated a training program to Iraq militants on the construction of advanced IED technology which was passed to the rest of Iraq militants. This has facilitated to constant terrorist attacks to US interests by Iranian sponsored weapons (Charles, 1991: 56).
The government of United States as well as other nations like United Kingdom have been accusing the Iranian administration, particularly the Ahmadinejad administration for its role in causing un warranted suffering of the Iraqi people as well as the US military due to its overwhelming support of the terrorist organizations in Iraq (Ninkovich,1988: 62).
We will write a custom Research Paper on America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition Iran’s supports the Shia militias who have continuously attacked the Coalition troops, Iraqi citizens and numerous installations in Iraq aimed at destabilizing the region and frustrating the US in its effort to bring stability in the region this action led to what President George W. Bush termed Iran as the “worlds primary state sponsor of terror” (Clarke, 2005: 161).
The intervention of America in the Iranian terrorism matters raised the level of differences between the two nations. As a result, this has brought about suffering of innocent countries and individuals for example Israel and other US allies when terrorists operations are carried out to these countries aimed at American interests (Paterson, 1988: 364).
For example many American Embassies in different countries have been attacked by Iranian backed terrorists resulting to Massive loss of life and properties. Some of the countries that have been affected by these operations include Kenya, Iraq, and Palestine among others, where people end up losing their lives (Crockatt,1995: 89)
American has viewed this as inhuman acts where unwarranted attacks on people have led to loss of several lives and in turn a threat towards its sovereignty and security.
On the contrary, the Iranian governments believe that this a noble cause whereby the Islamic people are fighting for their freedom from the western world (Powaski,1998: 80). On the other hand, America being a democratic nation has seen this as violation of human rights and basic freedoms which needs to be stopped making the US call for continuous sanctions against Iran. (Friedman. 2000: 108).
In addition to this, Iran has continuously disrespected the united State’ families and victims of the Sept. 11, 2001, the terror attack and the 1983 bombing of the U.S Marines in Lebanon who were sent to keep peace between the Christian and Muslim fighting’s that was going on and resulted to loss of 241 servicemen at a Marines facility in Beirut (Gaddis, 1990: 51).
As a result a judgment of $2.6 billion against the Islamic Republic of Iran has been awarded by the federal court in Washington, D.C., although the families of victims of the 2001 terror attacks are still pursuing the Iranian government to pay the damages for supporting the terrorist attacks.
The Iran government claimed that the accusation on Sept. 11 attack involvement was a big lie against it. Furthermore, on the issue concerning the 1983 Marine attack, Iranian claimed that Ronald Reagan himself needed to be blamed because instead of keeping peace, the U.S army sided with Christians and started bombing Muslims, forcing the Muslims to attack back. Thus the American Government should be sued for lying to people concerning these matters (Roy, 198).
Not sure if you can write a paper on America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other major concern that has affected the relationship between America and Iran is the issue of the Nuclear weapon production. The Iran’s operation of production of nuclear weapons sent a spike of fear throughout the world and the world’s peaceful condition was at stake (Sivachev and Nikolai 1979: 43).
This was aggreviated after the United State’s invasion on Saddam concerning the production of nuclear weaponry, which was used by Iraq in bombing Iran during the Iraq-Iran war. On successful elimination of the nuclear weapons from Iraq, Iran took the opportunity to start nuclear operation, an idea that was rejected by United States and other powerful nations. Despite this, it is believed that Iran continues to manufacture nuclear weapons secretly (Gaddis,1987: 67)
This can be attributed to the difference in issues concerning Iranian nuclear program by the US nuclear experts and the US intelligence officials who have more access of vital information concerning Iran.
On the other hand the reports concerning nuclear terrorism on the Iran’s neighboring countries also made Iran fear that its security and political development is at stake if these countries like Pakistan were to attack them hence the Iran leaders and experts had to confront the situation ( Ulam, 1974:97).
This was a matter that the Iranian government was not ready to ignore and the country had to think of the necessary precautions it needed to undertake to prevent any attack that could be brought up by these countries. As a result Iran saw it as a need to have even a minimal nuclear deterrent capacity (Westad, 2006:219).
When the US announced its invasion to Iraq, Iran was supportive though its main objective was to eliminate Saddam’s nuclear threat. However, on the Pakistan and Afghanistan threat to Iran it reconsidered its quitting to shelf its weapons but instead it optimistically took this opportunity to install nuclear defense.
As a result it brought back the old Iranian nuclear threat to other neighboring countries and globally. However, Iran claims that its nuclear production is for defense purpose, a situation that have made Washington to reconsider its perception on Iran, as not simply a nuclear threat, but rather a potential in partnership on fight against global nuclear terrorism(Lewis, 2006: 91).
The US officials hence needed to understand the Iran’s stand on the nuclear terrorism issue to determine whether they were to collaborate with them. However, the collaboration of US-Iran was seen as a gateway that could allow Iran in its ambitions of nuclear weapons, this cooperation between US and Iran on nuclear terrorism campaign was seen to have possibilities in cooperating with Afghanistan, hence neutralizing the call for a nuclear shield against nuclear terrorism.
Although, Iran was no more afraid of Pakistan nuclear attack, US defense Secretary, William Perry, said “there is a real threat of nuclear strike against the US from non-state actors in Afghanistan and Pakistan.” In addition Iranian alleges that the anti-Shi’ite radicals in Pakistan would attempt to attack them if they managed to interrupt and make away with the Iranian nuclear artillery.
These views concerning attacks to Iran and US made their relations on nuclear terrorism fight come to an agreement despite the restrict measures imposed in Iran by US concerning the weapons production ( Zubok,1996: 78).
Despite its fight against nuclear terrorism by other Middle East countries, the Iranian plea to be licensed in nuclear production was denied. This has made the two nations to remain in continuous suspicion of each other concerning their security issues. The US due to Iran’s war like activities any significant increased in its arsenal would result in fears around the worlds and in particular towards the US Since it will be considered that such an amount of unrivaled arsenal would be directed towards the US and its installations in the world.
This can be seen in the US alarm over Iran nuclear ambitious which will jeopardize its peace if Iran were to acquire nuclear weapons and attack to United States. Hence it has portrayed Iran as not qualified for nuclear production. However Iran has condemned the US over its double standard nature since other nations in the world are allowed to purse nuclear ambitions while it is not (Ball, 1998: 34)
The Iran-Iraq war was major concern and took the intervention of the United States government. Immediately after the Iran revolution began, Iraq invaded Iran with an aim of stopping the revolution while in its infancy; for fear that the revolution would spread to Iraq. This invasion resulted to an eight year war between the two nations, which led to massive killing of government officials, military and civilians.
This war was condemned by United States, which sent peace troops, and forced them to make for peace resolutions. This action by the US led to resentment by the two countries. In addition, the Marines peace keeper whose mission was to settle the conflict between Christians and Muslims were condemned by Iranian for siding with Christian and attacking Muslims. This resulted to suicide bombing which coasted many American lives and Hatred between the two nations expanded.
The hostage taking of Americans in Iran has also affected the relationship between these two countries. Immediately after the revolution, the Americans in Iran were held hostage with the claim that the United States backed up Shah’s regime. Despite the United States plea to Iran to release their citizens the hostage crises still persisted.
The American families of the victim pleaded with the government as it accused Iran for its actions and refused to agree with the negotiations. This took place in 1979 to 1981, where 52 Americans were held hostage for one year and sixty nine days, after a faction of Islamic students and militias took over the American Embassy as a show of support to the Iranian revolution (Leffler, 2007: 348).
Due to unsuccessful of negotiations for hostage release the US army made an attempt for a rescue operation which failed resulting to death of eight Americans servicemen and one Iranian civilian. This hostage taking was viewed as a “retaliation and reciprocated disbelief” entanglement. It was seen as a blow to the United States governance despite the US freezing all Iranian assets in the in the United States.
The effect of this hostage crisis was had far more adverse effect on the American administration which was accompanied by the loss of presidency of President Jimmy Carter in November 1980. This situation strengthened Khomeini political power and his opposition to the US. On the other hand, it marked the genesis of U.S legal action and fiscal embargos against Iran as well as deteriorating the economic ties between the two nations which has its effect up to date (Gaddis, 1982: 253).
The Iranian government exercises exploitation to its citizen by its faith that democracy is an enemy of development. The minorities like women are exploited and are denied their rights of expression. They are made to be submissive to men. In addition, human rights, concerning movement freedom, speech freedom as well as expression have always been undermined.
This has made the Human Right Programs and movements in the US to intervene and try to reduce exploitation act a move that have been received with hostility in Iran. This is because they consider US as an enemy without the moral authority to intervene in its sovereign matters (LaFeber, 1993: 43).
The United States is also concerned with the false faith that is instilled in Iranians concerning their relation with the US as a result of the Iran’s media and government. For instance the suicide bombing is an issue of a human right of life which is exploited by the Iran’s regime.
From the revolution, the relation between the United States and Iraq have been at stake and involved with a lot of friction concerning human right, terrorism and war among other issues. This has brought about many differences in views concerning both internal and global issues which are disagreed by the two nations. As a result, this has coasted both nations and the world much in terms of properties and lives (January, 2008: 256).
In conclusion after the Iranian revolution, the relations between the two countries have always deteriorated with time as each country pursed its own interests and that of it citizens and allies. Despite the fact that the world is becoming one global village, this realization is still far from becoming a reality to both countries as their differences are continuously increasing in each and every agenda on their tables from human rights to nuclear ambitions (Lundestad, 1999: 412).
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Leffler, M. 2007, For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and theCold War, Hill and Wang, New York.
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Nation, R. 1992, Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917-1991, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Ninkovich, F. 1988, Germany and the United States: The Transformation of the German Question since 1945, Twayne Publishers, Boston.
Paterson, T. G. 1988, Meeting the Communist Threat: Truman to Reagan, Oxford University Press, New York.
Powaski, R. E. 1998, The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991, Oxford University Press, New York.
Sivachev, N. and Nikolai Y. 1979, Russia and the United States, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Taubman, W. 2004, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W. W. Norton
Baritone Voice as Primo Uomo in Mozart’s Operas Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Primo Uomo: Definition and Significance
Operas by Mozart
Introduction The world of music has always been alluring for creative people. Music is one of not many art forms that are possible to specialize in even if one does not have a genius for it. Of course, in this case, becoming an extraordinary musician is impossible, but a person who has an utmost desire to play music will realize at least some of his/her dreams.
Music is the same indulgent for those who have been hurt by nature; the history of music abounds with examples of talented composers who either were deaf from birth or have gone deaf in the course of their music career. The greatest peculiarity of music is that it uses terms that may be unknown to those who are not involved into the world of music.
A person who does not have musical education will never be able to duly appreciate operas composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart or any other prominent musician. Mozart’s operas are especially interesting to view from this perspective because every single character in this composer’s works has a meaning for the entire opera and the part that he/she sings was given to this character not for nothing.
A number of Mozart’s operas, such as Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan Tutte, Die Zauberflote and their characters, such as Count Almaviva, Don Giovanni, Gugliemo, Papageno, and others are united by the presence of baritone voice as primo uomo. Hence, the aim of this paper is to consider these operas in more detail and to define how important these characters are for these operas and why namely baritone voice was chosen by Mozart as primo uomo.
Baritone Voice Definition. Baritone is the most common type of male voice “usually written for within the compass A to f, which may be extended at either end” (Sadie
Habermas and the Public Sphere Essay college essay help online
Introduction In 1962, Harbeneas introduced the concept of public sphere as an ideal and also as an empirical description through his seminal work “The structural transformation of the public sphere: an inquiry into a category of Bourgeois society”. Through his work, he created the impression that the public sphere was an arena where different people would come together to discuss issues of social interest.
In his opinion, every person was an equal participant and had an equal chance to participate in the open discussions (Colhoun 1992). Bennet et al. (2004) adds a contemporary twist to the public sphere definition by stating that it is “the collection of places and spaces-from neighbourhood cafes to internet chat rooms- where private individuals can speak their minds in public, form opinions and become independent agents in governing the state” ( p. 437).
In the contemporary society, the media has assumed a major role as an informer, educator and an entertainer to the masses. In capitalist societies, it also takes a mediating role between the social life, the economy and the state. In Kellner (2006) opinion however, the media have been neglecting its mandate as a tool to promote democracy and serve the public interest. As such, the author argues that the media has for decades now forfeited the crucial role of aiding the formation of a democratic society.
Drawing similarities between the current day communication media and what Habermas refers to as the “steering media”, Kellner (2006) argues that the media has a major role to play in the public sphere and especially in regard to promoting democracy, yet is has failed to rise to the occasion allowing a crisis in the public sphere to take place.
But does Habermas theorise the functions and nature of present-day communication media? Well, his writings suggest that he perceived the media as a tool for information transmission. To him, the media was not as important as debates and the eventual consensus building that formed the basis of democratic process (Habermas 1992).
This explains why he chose to highlight the dissimilarity between “the communicative generation of legitimate power on hand and the manipulative deployment of media power to procure mass loyalty, consumer demand and compliance with systemic imperatives on the other” (p. 452).
Analysing the above quote one gets the impression that Habermas did not consider the media as a tool that could bring about democratic transformation as he perceives it (media) as a tool that can easily be manipulated, and also interested in power and money. This means that Habermas excluded the media from contributing to the democratization process through giving people a platform where they could equally participate in debates and social discussions (Relic 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Kellner (2006), Habermas’ rigid perception of the media is partly explained by the fact that his perception of public sphere was defined at a time when print media was the only prominent form of media. During this time, Kellner (2006) observes that the print media fostered arguments that were rational, objective and agreeable.
Being a writer who got his opinions and concepts published in print media, Kellner (2006) believes Habermas had an open bias against other forms of media, which include broadcast (radio and TV) and the internet. This is despite the fact that broadcast media and the internet was presenting the society with new forums where public debate could be held.
In Kellner’s observation, the public sphere as stipulated by Habermas would be incomplete in its democratization attempts without the active participation of the ‘fourth estate’ as the media is commonly known. But why does Kellner reach to this conclusion? Well, in most democracies, governments constitute three arms namely: the executive, the judiciary and the legislature.
While these three arms of government are meant to maintain the checks and balances that would prevent abuse of power, the media, usually plays the crucial role of highlighting some of the shortcomings in government that the three arms would naturally keep mum about. In an apt definition of its role, it’s right to say that media in democracies play a watch-dog role in all institutions of government.
If one was to define democracy using Abraham Lincoln’s terms, it is “government by the people, of the people and for the people”. This then means that the governed people have a key role to play in a democracy. Notably however, people cannot play an active role if they are not properly informed. Here is where the media chips in.
According to Kellner (2006), the media balances power by providing the necessary checks and balances to a government. In their additional role, they should serve as informers and cultivators of active citizens who are ready to participate in governance whenever the need arises. Failure by the media to inform and educate the citizens, or failure to check the excesses of government would lead to a crisis in the respective democracies.
In Habermas’s theories, one gets the impression that the media is a sounding board through which social problems can be voiced to the political system.
We will write a custom Essay on Habermas and the Public Sphere specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on his description of the public sphere, this essay holds the opinion that the contemporary media can easily fit into the public sphere. This is because, the media is able to gather information from different corners of a society, broadcast the same, and encourage people to react on the same and even raise discussion issues where people can debate and exchange opinions regarding the same.
According to Kellner (2006) the democratic theory requires the public sphere to highlight social problems, give them a theme and if possible amplify them in such a manner as to catch the attention of the law makers. Out of the debates that take place in the public sphere, possible solutions can also be given to the law makers or other branches of government.
The contemporary media fits this discussion as it provides the public with a discussion forum outside the political confines and as a result, people are free to debate specific social issues and come up with possible solutions that they would like to see implemented by the government.
According to Sani (2009), for the contemporary media to fit the public sphere as defined by Habermas, it needs to be free, fair and objective. This means that whenever the media is laying down an agenda for the public to pursue, then it would have no hidden motives. Rather, it would be pursuing the need to promote and preserve democracy and the independent institutions of the government. Further, the media should be accountable as a watchdog.
The equal platform offered by media for people to debate and discuss issues conforms to the public sphere definition. According to Sani (2009), the free and fair media should hold the notion that every person has a valuable contribution that he or she can make.
This is supported by the idea that “there is no way of telling where a good idea will come from; valuable contributions come in different forms; a person’s contribution has the capacity to stimulate better ideas in others. It can also be refuted, reformulated or some value added to it” (p.5).
In one of its critical roles, the media serves as an information tool that disseminated educative and informative information to the masses, which in turn leads to development in given societies. In democracies, the role of the media is voicing the lowly voices which otherwise would not be heard is crucial to fair representation (Sani 2009).
More to this, the media acts as the public informer on the activities of the government. According to Sani, “the public has a legal right to know what its government is doing and the press is the representative of the public in finding that out” (p. 12). In a participatory society, the public’s right to information is crucial since it avails the information needed to create social awareness, which is in turn important in bringing out the truth about political controversies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Habermas and the Public Sphere by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving a voice to public opinion The media in democracies is expected to voice public opinion objectively to allow the respective governments understand what the public supports or dissents. However, political reality suggests that the newsmakers have a major effect on the news aired by the media unlike the ordinary citizens. Political observes however note that the news makers are often representative of the public opinion although this is not unanimously agreed (Sani 2009).
It is also apparent that sometimes the media fails to keep in touch with public opinion since it lacks the necessary connection with the public. Sani using the example of the media in the United States notes that while free speech is allowed, the degree of which the media is ready to engage in the same is often questionable.
In some cases, the media is very outspoken and often seems to investigate all leads to the story, while other stories are treated more cautiously. The language, the tone and emphasis used by the media when covering stories affect how the public perceive the public event.
Accusations of biasness in the media also seem to jeopardise its role in the public sphere. The US media for example reporting about the war in the Middle East seems biased towards Palestine. Most highlights create the impression that Palestine is the perpetrators and attracts the wrath of the Israeli’s.
But is this usually the case? Or do the US media deliberately shield most of the atrocities by the Israelis towards the Palestinians? While journalists may be to blame for this kind of partial reporting, where they gather their news from is the most likely sources of their biases.
According to Sani (2009), news sources mainly feature selected institutions, which exclude the general public. More to this, opinions voiced by elite people in the society are given more weight than opinions from the ordinary citizens. Views expressed by ideological dissenters are also ignored.
This goes against Habermas concept of equality in the participation of debates held in the public sphere. Sani notes that opinions voiced by the public receive quaint treatment often being ignored or simply published on the back or inner pages of the media.
This however changes when electoral politics are concerned. Suddenly, public opinions become important because after all, the public forms the electorate and therefore the power to elect people to governance posts lies with them. The same scenario is repeated in matters that require public support. Even in such issues, the media needs to play an important role in alerting people that they need to judge the political scene in order to influence politics in their jurisdictions.
Public sphere According to Sani (2009), “the public sphere is the means through which democratic decisions are reached” (p. 20). For media to be seen as a public sphere however, it needs to be accessible to all publics and also needs to be representative of all people. Traditionally, the media provided the link between the government and the governed people.
Considering the definition of democracy discussed earlier in this essay, it is clear that the role of the media as an informer and an educator of the masses is almost a clear cut. By providing the public with the right information, the media empowers them to not only make informed decisions regarding the form of leadership that is most appropriate for them, but also enable the public to hold the government accountable.
In the liberal theory, the public sphere “is an arena between the distinct areas of state and civil society that guarantees the protection of an individual” (p. 20). This suggests that the liberals perceive the public sphere as a political domain, while media is associated with the government.
Considering that liberals believe that the civil society should have more powers over the government, it is clear that the media in their perspective is expected to meet the information needs presented by the society. Notably however, privatisation and conglomeration which are current trends in the media industry hampers free flow of information, which in turn means that the media does not fully meet its democratic ideals (Sani 2009).
In the contemporary society Kellner (2006) argues that the public sphere needs to be redefined in order to include political struggles, discussions, information sharing and contestations that take place in public forums. The new definition according to the author also needs to take account of new developments in the media and hence needs to include new discussion platforms such as the cyberspace, face-to-face discussions as well as the wide array of broadcast media.
These forms of media are creating public spheres where debate, information sharing, and discussions can take place. The platforms advanced by the new forms of media can be used by intellectuals and activists to engage the masses for purposes of intervening in affairs affecting a specific society.
With internet use becoming commonly used among a sizeable fraction of the population, a new public sphere is in the making and it would be foolhardy to ignore the developments occurring therein. Blog sites have now presented people with real time discussion platforms where they are able to voice their opinions regarding a specific issue.
As such, Kellner (2006) observes that the web platforms have the capability to revitalize democracy by increasing the distribution of progressive and critical ideas to the masses, in addition to creating new possibilities for promoting positions, attaining social control and manipulating the masses.
To stress the role that the media plays in the public sphere, Kellner (2006) predicts that political wars in future will be fought not only in the traditional sites like parliament and the streets, but will also penetrate new realms in the computer world as well as other broadcast media. To this end, the author suggests that people interested in the culture and politics of the future should be willing to delve in the new public spheres created by information technologies.
The new challenge with information technologies producing a new form of public sphere lies in ensuring that the platforms created are not used as manipulative tools, but are rather used to educate and inform the masses. According to Kellner (2006), this can only be attained if people engaged in the democratic process teach the masses on the right and beneficial way of using the new technologies.
Such would include teaching them how top articulate interest and experiences on the new platforms and ways through which people can promote beneficial and objective debates amongst themselves. By doing this, the World Wide Web would create a new platform where new ideas would be shared amongst people and even common issues affecting everyone in the world like climate change would be discussed and solutions proposed.
The advantages of the new public sphere are identified by Abrash (2006) as easy access; social networks; and scalability. In regard to easy access, everyone who has access to the internet can participate in the relationships and online debates. The social networks on the other hand are not structured.
Rather, people join voluntarily thus meeting the standards set by Habermas that debates would be open to all willing participants. Regarding scalability, Abrash (2006) notes that the social networks where public debates take place start small and gradually grow to massive numbers. In some cases, participants are able to consolidate resources that promote growth and development in their respective areas.
Unlike traditional broadcast media which is regulated by the media code of ethics, and in-house rules that sets the boundaries of what can be published or not, there are concerns regarding the regulation of new technologies (Kellner 2006). More to this, there are also concerns about funding and accountability. No doubt these are challenges that will need to be addressed as the internet progresses to a fully fledged public sphere where democratic principles can be exchanged.
There is also no denying that the open participation structure adopted by contemporary media can turn chaotic. This then raises the need for a structure, which not only regulates the debates, but also sets specific rules on how participants can behave (Abrash 2006). This would ensure that the new public spheres are accountable, but does not means that people cannot speak as freely.
There is also the challenge of misinformation generated in new public forums as well as polarized discussion that seem to favour one group of the divide. Using the example of popular blog sites in the US, Abrash (2006) notes that white men are the dominant contributors.
In such a case therefore, one would expect that the debates would not be inclusive of female opinions as well as opinions from people from other races. In future therefore and in an attempt to promote democratic tendencies in such media, there will be a need to ensure that such media include diverse voices from different sections of the society.
Sustainability of the new media is also a key challenge. This is especially the case considering that the internet is a highly competitive environment, which would need a solid foundation and support from the participants in order to survive. Abrash (2006) further notes that sustainability would also call for the public media to engage with the market-driven economy in order to secure sponsorship and funding.
There is no ignoring that the web-based media will be subject to policy issues. At present, it seems that the web-based media is yet to receive the protection needed to ensure it survival and longevity in the public sphere. This then means that policies need to be formulated and enforced in order to encourage people to nurture and protect the public sphere created by the internet. Such policies could also encourage citizens to participate in the public spaces created.
According to Abrash (2006) however, the media holds opportunities for the public sphere unequalled by any other platforms where people can meet and discuss issues.
For example, the media is capable of “modelling new public behaviours” (p. 8). This assertion is informed by the fact that media has given the public a platform where opinions can be voiced. In an attempt to diffuse polarized opinions, the media uses moderators who set a coherent discourse of a debate. The ability of the contemporary media to broadcast over long distances sometimes transcending continental boundaries means that the participation and engagement of the public is also wider.
The contemporary media also encourages public spheres to be concentrated on shared interests and issues (Abrash 2006). Again, the ability if contemporary media to transcend national and geographical boundaries means that groups with similar interest regionally, nationally or globally can share their ideas and opinions on a common media platform.
With the internet gaining a central place in all these, face-to-face discussions are replaced by real-time virtual discussions. But what benefits has this had on the public sphere? Well, according to Relgic (2005) the technological innovations in the media have opened political possibilities that were unattainable in the past.
For example, the authoritarian governments that prevented people from accessing information are finding it harder to prevent such information from circulating. However, this does not in any way mean that the democratization process is easier to attain with the information age; Rather, how governments and the public use the new forms of media to create awareness is what really matters.
Examples Media use in peace times
As indicated elsewhere in this essay, climate change is affecting people of all walks of life regardless of where they are in the world. This then is an issue of public importance that is being discussed in numerous forums. While meetings between countries are only occasional, the debate on the climate change and the environmental impact that people are experiencing as a result is an ongoing debate in the media.
As Dobson (2008) notes, the environment is a common-pool resources, which is subject to abuse by some self-serving people at the disadvantage who are interested doing their part to maintain it.
In a website that publishes articles that cover ecological and sustainability issues in the world, Dobson (2008) offers his opinion about what is jeopardising efforts to conserve the environment. More specifically, he zeros in on ‘free-riders’ who take no active role in conserving environment, yet they benefit from the same environment in equal measures and possibly even more than who take conservation measures do.
Dobson (2008) uses the platform availed by the web to pass his arguments to readers that tradable carbon permits, which have been advocated as a solution to the climate change problem and those who continue to abuse the climate is not a solution, but only enhances the problem.
He argues that carbon traders set the prices at ridiculously low prices thus jeopardising the entire notion of carbon cap trading. He proposes a different type of solution where the public need to be informed that environment conservation should be a priority not because of the self benefits that people can accrue from the same, but because it benefits each and every individual in equal measure.
Yet, Dobson (2008) correctly predicts that such a process would still be dogged by the ‘free-rider’ problem. To this, he notes that the solution to climate change would have to include cultural, economic, political and technological ideals in order to be successful. Most of all, the government would need to expand and protect the public sphere for environment protection to take place.
According to Dobson, privatisation of key public sectors is putting the public interests at compromised positions because private properties are protected by law. By privatising key public services, the government is aiding in the corrosion of public sphere as well as the interest of the majority of the people.
In his argument, Dobson (2008) believes that privatisation is having a major impact on the public sphere and no wonder pool resources like the environment are being exploited by self-seeking private citizens. In a platform like the one used by Dobson, one gets the impression that a wide access of by people who have been wondering about government’s approach to environment conservation could have elicited more comments.
Presently, only one person has commented on the article meaning that either people have not yet accessed the forum, or do not find Dobson’s argument worth commenting about. This then raises doubts about effectiveness of new media as a debate platform in the public sphere.
Hobson (2009) observes that public debates regarding climate change often involve opinions voiced from cultural understandings, personal experiences and also from scientific understanding. When such varied opinions are brought together on a public forum, the participants perceive the debate as highly significant since it relates to policies set by government and practices observed by the public. Such debates are therefore more likely to shape the public collective perceptions about environmental matters.
The just concluded coverage of the British elections is an example of media coverage in peace times. Though the British media is supposed to give all parties equal coverage in the run-up to the general elections, Labour party and its leader Gordon Brown received 53 percent of the total media coverage, while the Conservative party and its leader David Cameron received 32 percent of the total media coverage. The Liberal Democratic Party and its leader Nick Clegg received the least coverage with only 15 percent coverage (O’Leary analytics, 2010).
War time example
The media has always been an information tool during war time, not only providing up to date information of the happenings in the battle fields, but also creating a sense of unity among the government, the army and the public (Stevenson 1995).
The Falklands war, which occurred in Britain in the 1980s is such one example where the media took an active role in disseminating information and creating forums where people could voice their opinions regarding the war. As one would expect, war times are laden with tension and the public have deep concerns about the welfare of the country.
As Stevenson (1995) notes, the Falklands War was no different. The media at the time was not as liberal as the case today and depended much on the directives offered by the Defence minister during their coverage. Lobby systems also affected the news that was aired to the public as well as the judgement held by journalists regarding what the public would like to hear. Stevenson (1995) notes that the media had an open bias during the war.
He argues that the media coverage misrepresented women by portraying them in their traditional home making roles despite the fact that they (women) were more actively engaged in economic activities following large numbers of men going to war. Meyer
Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty Cause and Effect Essay custom essay help
Over the past few decades, trade has helped many economies develop and consequently raise the standards of living for their households. Due to the rapid rate at which the world is becoming a global community, technological advancements have played a pivotal role in the development and enhancement of international trade in terms of communication, production and service delivery across the boarders.
This paper shall in detail focus on analyzing the impacts of technology on trade. It shall then evaluate the effects that such impacts have had on the poverty levels on a global perspective.
According to Pressman (2008, p. 27), trade refers to the commercial exchange of goods and services for money. The author claims that when such transactions are within the boarders, it is known as local trade and when they go beyond the boarders then it is known as international trade.
Due to globalization, many business entities have been forced to change their business practices in a bid to ensure that they compete effectively in the global scene. Technological advancement has therefore been the main determinant towards the success of any organization trading in the international markets.
This is attributed to the fact that all business entities are aggressively embracing capital intensive methods of production in order to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals in terms of quantity and quality of production. However, the assimilation of technology in trade has had diverse impacts on the poverty levels experienced by different economies across the globe.
Das and the IMF institute (2007, p. 14) asserts that on a daily basis, the world is constantly experiencing some form of technological advancements geared towards improving human interaction. However, these advancements come at a very high cost. Small and medium sized businesses which at most times lack the financial backing required to update their technology regularly are therefore at a loss in comparison to their financially able counterparts.
As such, small businesses and some developing countries are inevitably forced to trade locally since they cannot compete with multinational companies. Consequently, they never grow or realize their full potential. In addition to this, due to the technological divide, multinational companies are able to infiltrate and dominate domestic markets especially in developing countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According Lipsey and Mucchielli (2002), this has led to foreclosure of small businesses which cannot compete effectively with these FDIs. As a result, most of the local businesses end up without markets for their products, many employees are left without jobs and these factors lead to increased poverty within these economies.
In addition to this, through the use of technology, multinational companies are able to acquire scarce resources much faster than the local companies which lack the technical know-how. As a result, the local businesses cannot compete effectively for these resources, meaning that their profits and quantities are lower.
On the same note, Cypher and Dietz (2004, p. 166) claim that due to the expenses incurred in updating the technology to international standards, many business organizations have over the years been increasing the prices of their commodities in order to cover the costs incurred in transporting, training and installing these new versions of technology.
The rapid increase in prices reflects badly on the consumers because their salaries in most cases are not increased and as a result, they are forced to spend more than they save; a factor that has increased poverty in the world. Most of the third world countries are still in poverty despite the fact that international companies invest in them.
One of the greatest advantages of FDIs is technological transfer. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002, p.95), foreign investors bring in new technology which can be used to develop and improve the economic standing of the host nations.
However, many countries are still not capable of affording such technology and they are stuck on using the little that they have. In addition to this, these FDIs in most occasions repatriate their profits back to their parent countries instead of investing them in the host nations. As a result, the hosts are left in a poverty ridden state while the wealthier countries and companies become richer.
Communication is the key to success in any business venture. Statistics indicate that by December 2009, 26.6% of the world population were conversant with the internet and had mobile phones. The number has ever since been growing at an alarming rate. Through communication mediums such as the internet, telephones and facsimiles, businesses are able to identify new markets, make mergers and other transactions with ease.
We will write a custom Essay on Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics indicate that internet advertisement grew by 20% in the last year. However, many countries have not yet gone digital and as a result, they loose out on business opportunities which could have been at their disposal. On the other hand, wealthier countries and companies which have adopted these means of communication take advantage of the situation and record millions in profits while their poorer counterparts wallow in poverty.
In addition to this, technological advancements have enabled many companies to market and advertise their products on the international scene. It goes without saying that worldwide publicity is good for business. Through the internet, investors are able to identify viable investment opportunities in different countries.
For example, currency traders have highly benefited from the internet because they are able to update the rates and inform their clients on the changes in real time. As such, technological advancements have therefore helped such businesses make profits in the international markets.
Without such technology, such businesses would never thrive because they would otherwise have to deal with the local market which in most cases does not offer much opportunity and market. Therefore, the assimilation of technology in this sector has helped alleviate poverty in these businesses and subsequently; economies.
France states that, ‘technological advances in the transportation industries have also benefited wealthy countries more than poor countries’ (2006:p.102). Due to the development of cars and airplanes, the transportation of goods and services has been made faster and easier especially in international trade. However, the costs of these modes of transportation are too high and small businesses cannot afford to use them.
As a result, most poor countries and their businesses use ships as the main mode of transport for international trade. They take too long and are not entirely reliable. On the other hand, wealthier nations and their businesses use airplanes and automobiles to transport their goods and services to foreign markets.
On average, a ship travelling to Africa would take up to 4 weeks on the ocean. Within that duration, a company using airplanes as their primary mode of transportation would make more than 20 trips within the same period. This means that by the time the ship arrives, the market will already be flooded with goods and services brought in by other means. Poor transportation and communication infrastructure are closely related to the poverty levels of a given economy. In addition to this, France (2006) reports that:
‘If a country does not update its transportation industries, international companies will not want to build warehouses and distribution centers within that country. This, in turn, creates high unemployment rates, driving the people further and further into poverty,’ (p.102).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most of the developing countries especially in Africa and Asia are characterized high unemployment and lack of creativity and innovation. This is because they mainly depend on agriculture as the main source of income and trade. The Africa research bulletin (2006, p. 6911) assert that due to poor technology, infrastructure and methods of farming, most developing countries which primarily depend on agriculture are facing high levels of poverty.
The authors acclaim that this is due to the fact that climatic conditions are worsening, and they lack formidable links to international markets due to poor transport and communication channels. However, due to technological advancements, countries like Thailand and Kenya have been able to develop agricultural provisions which can withstand the harsh climates.
This has seen the economies of these countries thrive because they can produce as much as they can and market their products abroad. In addition to this, most of the agricultural economies have also been able to access machinery which they use to produce their products (tractors, harvesters and soil analyzing equipments).
As such, they have over the years been able to produce quality agricultural products which fetch good markets on the international scene. Arguably, it is therefore a fact that technological advancement in the agricultural sector has helped alleviate poverty in the economies that rely on agriculture.
In most cases, technological advancement determines the standards of quality for the products in the international markets. Without adequate technology, a country or company cannot produce the right quality and quantity. Low quantity/ productivity is considered as a major source of poverty.
This is because it has negative effects on the standards of living of the households within a given economy. In addition to this, low productivity within such economies makes it Nevertheless, countries and businesses must always work to increase the speed of difficult to compete on the international scene.
As such, if a country or company cannot update their industries and technologies then they will not be competitive and will have a considerable increase in its poverty levels. Rivera-Batiz and Olivia (2003, p.576), state that technological advancement and transfer has contributed to the success of globalization. Through technology, many organizations and countries have in the recent years been able to form economic alliances and integrations.
However, it would seem like the countries that have benefited the most from such alliances are the wealthier ones while poor countries and small organizations are left to suffer. Statistics indicate that the establishment of trade agreements and treaties among countries has contributed highly towards the development of international business and technological transfer.
However, the establishments of such business relationships have to a larger extent contributed to increased poverty in countries that have no claim to these economic benefits. France reports that, ‘such business agreements cause the economies of many countries and smaller companies to collapse’ (2006:p.103).
In a bid to encourage equality and competition in the world, technological advancement and globalization have single handedly made it difficult for some countries and companies to venture in international trade. In as much as they may be fairing well in the local scene, the cost of going global is too high thereby rendering their efforts fruitless.
In addition to this, the use of technology in businesses has also led to high unemployment rates especially in developed countries where businesses are opting for capital intensive methods of production than human labor. The use of robots in the industrial and manufacturing sectors is slowly replacing human beings whose livelihoods depend on these jobs.
For example, ATMs are increasingly replacing human attendants in the banking sector, smart buses have eliminated the need for bus conductors and robots and other assorted machineries are currently being used in the manufacturing sectors to handle activities that human laborers are capable of doing.
Conclusively, the assimilation of technology in to trade has had many impacts on the poverty levels of many economies. Poorer countries and small sized businesses have a long way to go before they can realize the economies of scales brought about by technology. From this paper, the impacts of technology on trade have been discussed.
The fact that technology has enabled economies to rapidly advance due to efficient transport and communication systems has also been highlighted. The impacts of the assimilation to poverty have also been analyzed. Arguably, technology does present the business world with a chance to excel even more.
However, wealthier nations must ensure that they assist their poor counterparts embrace technology in order to create a business environment characterized by fairness and equitable distribution of resources. This will not only promote healthy competition, but will also have a hand in the global war against poverty and its associated vices.
References Africa research bulletin. (2006) Africa research bulletin: Economic, financial, and technical series. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers.
Product Innovation Thesis best essay help: best essay help
Salient features of the product for innovation emphasized on the continuously changing market needs and trends in the market. The trends identified the need to implement an innovation strategy on Rexona which had been a leading bathing soap and household brand for many years.
Due to the changing times, need, customer behavior, and substitute products, the first phase of innovation on Rexona commenced. Emphasis was on the kind of soap that addressed the problem of an oduor due to sweating, a problem associated with different physical and psychological effects. The parameters included
According to the article Innovation Zen (2006), a radical innovation made the toilet soap unique and synonymous with household use. Unique characteristic features of the soap, a common toilet soap, included an attractive smell and ability to maintain that status for a number of hours in addition to other extras. According to Innovation Zen (2006), an innovative approach on the product included analyzing the chemical characteristics of the soap and technologies available to address those concerns.
Chemical Researched Scientific research was conducted to bring to light the chemical processes involved when human beings sweated with an emphasis on the type of sweat involved and the chemical composition of the sweat. According to Innovation Zen (2006), human beings responded to two kinds of sweat, sweat due to stress or anxiety and sweat due to emotional stress.
According to Innovation Zen (2006) Rexona, a popular soap and household name synonymous with bathing was innovated along the line of the different types if human sweat. Modular and radical approaches to innovation were used in undertaking the innovation on the deodorant article (Innovation 2010).
The article Innovation (2010) asserts that research findings pointed to the arms and hands as the specific sources of the unpleasant smell. In addition to that Information and previous knowledge on the deodorant was collected and analyzed to identify various stages of product improvement in relation to research findings on the sweating of the body and the available technology to develop and innovate the deodorant.
According to Innovation (2010), technology was readily available and an innovative approach to product development commenced. This included developing an anti-perspiring chemical formulated in the house hold soap. The micro-capsules formulated into the innovation acted by blocking instant and long term chemical perspiration reactions which could result in unpleasant odours. This could in the end make the user feel fresh for a long time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Innovation (2010) “Our Rexona deodorant uses body-responsive micro-capsule technology that kicks in when it’s needed most, giving people the confidence to face the day’s more stressful situations.” This innovative approach was supported by scientific formulations and relevant technology to address instant or long term perspirations.
However the innovation has been incremental based on market needs and changing trends in addressing customer needs, tastes, preferences while remaining competitive in the market over the years. According to Innovation (2010) the innovative approach could impact well on the personal needs of individuals who use the deodorant in their homes.
The Market Today According to Timeline (n.d) the soap was developed back in 1899 and has undergone successive innovation till today. Currently the deodorant has been innovated to address scents varying from silver ice to extreme scents as critical needs in the market toady.
References Innovation. (2010). Intelligent Deodorant. Web.
Innovation Zen.(2006). Henderson – Clark Model. Web.
Business Research Methods Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Sample Design
Customer Service Levels
Areas of Improvement
Impact on Family
Sample Design Home Depot stocks a variety items for home use. When a customer checks in at the Depot, customer service representatives readily provide professional assistance on the products they intend to purchase. The buying process begins when a customer makes informed decisions on the kind of product to purchase and the options available including warranties.
The study and analysis was based on qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a questionnaire administered on customers who called in to help identify areas of business process improvements for Home Depot. This formed the source of primary data used in the study. Ethical considerations formed an important aspect of the study (Bryman
Instruments to encourage or discourage FDI and their implications for international business. Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Economic hardships like the recent economic meltdown, call for ways of jump starting different areas or aspects of a countries economy. It is for this reason that many countries have in the recent past designed packages to help breathe life into an otherwise failing economy. Foreign direct investment comes in handy to support government efforts at growing an economy. Ireland is a good example of a country that benefited immensely from FDI. From the brink of bankruptcy, FDI enabled it to transform its economy into a very promising one.
FDI becomes necessary because many governments especially in the developing and third worlds cannot afford the kind of capital necessary for setting up of industrial facilities or singly rolling out infrastructural projects like airports development.
Convincing foreign investors to invest in a country is not easy. It is for this reason that governments engage public relations firms and carry out fully fledged marketing campaigns. The aim of such campaigns is to help potential investors realize the investment potential in given countries. To effectively campaign and create awareness about investment opportunities, many countries have well organized agencies that promote investment. IDA in Ireland has been very instrumental in helping attract FDI through its promotional programs.
Foreign investors are not philanthropists; therefore, they do not invest where they do not foresee awesome returns or profits. Therefore, to discourage or encourage FDI, a government has to look into the attractiveness of its economy and play around with its control on industries in the economy.
Some of the control measures a country can manipulate include taxes, licensing, laws regarding partnerships with foreigners, risk security etc. By manipulating such measures, a country encourages international trading or discourages the same completely.
One factor that largely attracts foreign direct investment is availability of natural resources. However, availability of resources alone is not enough; government policies on resource management either attract or discourage investors. Much foreign direct investment goes into the oil well in the Arab world.
However, some oil rich countries have over time attracted more FDI than others. For example, for a long time, UAE has been the centre of the Arab world; attracting the bulk of FDI. However, in the recent past, small countries like Qatar have become the centre of focus. The countries attract FDI because they have natural resources (oil) but, most importantly, they have instituted friendly government control or policies with regard to the resources. When a country with resources applies anti-FDI policies, it affects growth of international trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor that a government has to look into to attract foreign direct investment is the infrastructure. Depending on infrastructural developments, a government indirectly controls what sectors are invested into. Investors only go into a country where operation costs allow for a handsome return on investment. Therefore, when a country improves its airports, road transport and has good water access (ports), it is more likely to attract higher FDI than another with poor roads or one that is landlocked.
Privatization policies also attract or discourage FDI. In the recent past, due to the structural adjustment programs demanded of Africa by the IMF, most national companies were privatized.
A consistent privatization policy often attracts foreign investors. For instance, most telecommunication companies in Africa are owned in part by foreign investors. Taking Kenya as an example, Vodafone from the UK has a majority stake in Safaricom a leading telecommunication company. Privatization and participation of foreign investors helps integrate small economies into the international business.
Benefits/Advantages Of Outsourcing And/Or Off-Shore Outsourcing That Outweigh The Disadvantages Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Outsourcing and “off-shore” outsourcing provisions have currently intensified in the business arenas. According to Raman (2009, p. 16), outsourcing refers to contracting out a business process to another organization, which is independent, competent, and deemed fit to accomplish the agreed obligations.
Concurrently, off-shoring is described as the shifting of business processes to a different country. When corporations or businesses employ subcontractors in a foreign nation, then off-shoring becomes analogous to outsourcing. However, the difference sets in when corporations shift jobs to a similar company in a different country.
There are several benefits of outsourcing and/or off-shoring. This explains why most corporations and institutions in developed nations such as US and UK outsource their tasks to different organisations overseas (Herath
“What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Creativity in the work place
The P Cycle of a Successful Business Idea
Introduction In an interview conducted by Ubiquity, Laurence Prusak (a researcher, scholar of management and a consultant) provided a few meaningful insights on management generally and specifically on the content of the book he co-authored with Thomas Davenport titled “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking,” published by the Harvard Business School Press.
In this interview, Prusak identifies that the people who generate business ideas are not exactly superhuman with unprecedented capabilities rather, they channel and direct their thinking and mental faculties in a specific area that most people will consider unproductive or wasteful. The result of their effort is the generation of ideas that can transform the fortunes of an organization.
Prusak further observes that idea generators in a business environment are not necessarily gurus, but they are most often the unsung heroes whenever the idea picks up. Others may simply be agents who pass over the idea rather than the originators of the same (Rodgers,1983).
Ideas are gathered in a number of different ways and these ways are neither formal nor structured, one may gather insights from reading certain literature, newspapers, journals having discussions with colleagues at work, whenever or even while attending conferences. The whole process need not be planned, Prusak further discussed the entire cycle and ecology of business idea generation, the origin of these ideas how they come about to be introduced into the organization and their final resting place (fate) after being disclosed.
The main problem with most executives and people in management positions in most organizations is the fact that they always like to maintain the status quo. A number of top executives are conservative and lack the spirit of adventure and transition (change). People tend to be comfortable with the current state of affairs as long as it still generates the requisite revenues and enables the entity to break even.
This in essence explains why a number of newly generated ideas will never live top see the light of day. In a number of business organizations, there exists a certain state of affairs that is considered stable, most executives are usually unwilling to disrupt this steady-state and therefore refuse to accommodate new ways.
An idea though attractive; its sustenance in an organization can only be guaranteed by an adventurous chief executive. Idea practitioners in most entities will, therefore, find it increasingly difficult to break this conservative barrier; some managers may be extremely intolerant to the extent that persistent idea practitioners who threaten the current state of affairs may be fired.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since ideas will always tend to be in competition with each other, it is advisable that a number of ideas be picked up at the same time, this is because an idea may be hot this minute and then other factors or ideas come into play and neutralize the anticipated gains. This is why it is essential to focus on either three or four ideas and assess progress so that when one of them comes out to be predominant, then it can be selected at the expense of the rest.
Creativity This is essentially a process involving the mind. It is concerned with the generation of fresh insights and knowledge in a given field and may occur either consciously and systematically in a programmed manner or out of the subconscious mind (accidentally).
Many fundamental discoveries and inventions that changed the shape and destiny of the world today were purely accidental inventions a case in point being, Sir Isaac Newton’s discovery of the location of the centre of gravity being in the earth’s crust while enjoying the shade of an apple tree.
It is of fundamental importance to distinguish between creativity and innovation. Since both may be used synonymously to mean the same thing, there exists a small distinguishing aspect. Where as creativity is involved with the generation of new thoughts, new ways and fresh products unprecedented before, innovation by contrast takes the new ideas further to implementation. It encompasses the entire process of creating and converting the said ideas into viable products or services that will find commercial application.
Graham Wallas in his 1926 publication of the text titled Art of Thought. The entire system of creativity can be explained in five staged model that starts from preparation, incubation, intimation, illumination and verification. At the preparation stage, the individual mindset focuses on the problem in question and tries to discover a number of avenues to solve it.
During incubation, the process is synthesized internally with no external manifestation of actions or happenings, at intimation, the solution is just about to be discovered and at illumination or insight stage the idea bursts out after it is conceived. The verification stage involves a further elaboration and explanation of the idea by putting it into action and proving/ assessing its viability (Wallas, 1926).
Creativity in the work place In the context of the workplace, creativity may result into both positive and or negative effects. Particular mood changes that may precede idea generation may be experienced. Research has shown that the activities succeeding the process of creativity are often associated with happiness, jubilation and emotions of elation, this can be justified by the breakthrough that was advanced by Albert Einstein in the field of physics, asked about his discovery of the theory of relativity, he mentioned that it was the happiest thought of his life.
We will write a custom Research Paper on “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The more positive the working environment is the more creative an individual becomes. It should, therefore, be an important lesson for line managers and chief executives to maintain a positive work environment to provoke calmness of mind and creative mental activity. This can be achieved in an organization by removing any obstacles that may cause anxiety or uncertainty. For example, a manager may remove instances of uncertainty on job security by guaranteeing security of tenure to the workers.
Further research has also indicated that people tend to be more creative when they are faced by an aggregate of positive and negative conditions, as a manger, therefore, it is essential to strike a balance between these conditions, while maintaining and sustaining a positive and conducive work environment, in order to incubate more creative ideas and thoughts a few negatives should be systematically and artificially introduced into the work environment to enhance thinking this can be achieved by introduction of complex problems to an individual with a few clues on how to solve the problems.
The process of introducing complex problems should be systematic in the sense that it should be done progressively and in phases so that the individual is not overwhelmed.
Teresa Amabile, a scholar of management, proposes that within the context of an organization three variables are required as key components to enhance creativity.
One of them is Motivation; motivation provides the urge and impetus to do certain things. Motivation can be used to moderate behavior within an organization and is either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivational attributes originate from the individual (employee’s) personal orientation. Aspects that can be used to determine whether an employee is intrinsically motivated include the level of job satisfaction and personal gratitude as well as enjoyment of the work one does.
Extrinsic motivational attributes are manifested from the events surrounding the job and include elements such as money and the operational reward system as well as threats of being sacked.
A number of managerial practices can, therefore, be employed to encourage motivation and thus creativity: First, Organizational Support through deliberate actions that are aimed at collaborating and cooperating with top management through which an organization can enhance creativity, the top management should encourage and be interested in any new ideas that are advanced by workers.
Secondly, Challenges in the workplace, in as much as it is important to match the available work assignments with the right personnel and the various jobs available, jobs and tasks should be slightly varied so as to not only reduce monotony of work but also expose employees to fresh challenges.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, Freedom is also important to maintain tolerable levels of autonomy within the work environment to enable workers stretch and experiment with new ideas, freedom of thought and expression should be encouraged so that workers can be allowed to reason without fear of victimization.
In any successful business organization the levels of creativity can be fostered through among other things, providing the right levels of training to equip workers with the requisite competencies, providing moral and material (resources) support to creative minds, encouraging self-confidence and an attribute of taking up risks as well as providing an unlimited opportunity to explore new horizons. Management needs to change its mindset and attitude towards risk and be more receptive to agents of change (Thomas et al., 2003).
Knowledge Management This includes a number of strategic management practices that an organization should adopt in order to help in the creation, distribution and eventual adoption of new ideas, insights and fresh experiences. Proper knowledge management is important in among other things helping an entity achieve its strategic objectives of increasing productivity, reducing costs, minimizing wastages and idle time, increase innovation and creating a suitable competitive advantage against rival firms within the same industry.
Organizations should try and develop new knowledge development and management strategies incentives that should include putting up measures that encourage the dissemination and sharing of organizational information.
Making such sharing a mandatory requirement will encourage synergy and cooperation in the development of business solutions, this also enhances collaboration, interdependence and unity of purpose. Another way to encourage an effective knowledge management scheme is also through the incorporation of performance reward schemes in an organization. A problem that is shared is considered half solved and a desirable incentive should be set aside to the creative minds that provide workable solutions to complex organizational problems.
Another way that could effectively contribute to the management of knowledge within the organization is through the consultation of authorities and experts in a given field. Expert guidance and advice received from such authorities should be considered and their applicability assessed as this could be one of the ways problems can be solved.
In order to encourage the dissemination of knowledge, the organizational should develop a culture that encourages passing of information that includes even historical information about prior organization heroes, heroines and legends through acts of storytelling. In many organizations, this rich history is preserved in artifacts and cultural monuments and the knowledge of important personalities and their deeds or contributions to the entity retold in what can be considered as the entity’s folklore.
History can also be preserved through naming of important buildings or structures within the organization after influential individuals who contributed in developing certain skills or competencies or management that helped the organization sail out of tough times in the past through their acts of creativity and innovativeness.
Management may also adopt the best practices transfer as a method of maintaining knowledge and insights. In settings that are divided into a number of departments or regions, a pilot project that was a result an individual’s creativity may be set up and operationalized, results of this project may then be assessed and if they are found to be satisfactory, then knowledge transfer should be encouraged to other departments or regions experiencing similar problems.
The culture of apprenticeship should also be encouraged by managers. An apprentice is an individual who learns about the execution of tasks or acquires varied skills in an organization through observation (Rodgers,1983).
An apprentice works under supervision of an experienced employee. This apprentice-master relationship may be adopted by an organization if they want to socialize new employees into the system. Using this strategy, knowledge is transferred from one employee to another and key attributes about the functions and operations are established by one worker as transferred to another.
Experimentation is also a key variable in both the management and acquisition of new knowledge and competent solutions to organizational problems. A number of entities have invested heavily in research a fact which should be emulated if information about new product lines, efficient markets or better production methods is to be obtained.
Experiments encourage new inventions that may be useful in among other things integrating and establishing the desirable mix between new and old technologies, establishing a balance between the use of manual labor and automated labor and establishing which combination of goods should be produced to optimize returns and/or minimize production expenses.
The results of the research can also be disseminated in an s-curve model so to reach other persons outside the organization in a diffusion process. The s-curve model of knowledge transformation is used to match the growth in output against the increase in firm revenues.
The Innovation Life Cycle Curve, Source: Rodgers Everett M (1983) Diffusion of Innovation p.18
The assumption in the above framework originates from the fact that a newly invented idea will undergo the birth, growth and eventual decline phase. A newly invented idea will not sell much, but constant growth in the demand of a product resulting from this invention shall expand the market and sufficient levels of technology will be introduced to expand and thus yield more revenues over time.
With the stabilization of the newly introduced technology, steady-state equilibrium is attained whereby there are visible manifestations of a constant production process, output is optimized and a better level cannot be attained. Costs are moderated and there is minimal input in terms of new trends, modifications or adjustments.
People are used to the technology at this point and especially executive management now fully understands the innovation. As the confidence levels increase, it is important to start out researching and developing fresh ideas and technology because the current technology will soon level off and become largely obsolete.
It is of great importance to note that the technological failures witnessed in most organizations are largely because of timing; management should time and accurately determine a new technology is supports to replace an existing one. Certain evident characteristics like a constant return to scale or declining returns and increased cost of repairs and maintenance should be enough to signal to the executives and line mangers that a shift in technology is required.
At that point when an existing technology becomes obsolete, a new form of technology emerges to replace the obsolete level and therefore maintain the prior output levels witnessed and the innovation cycle continues.
The P Cycle of a Successful Business Idea Davenport and Prusak illustrated a continuum through which creative business ideas move from their initial inception and introduction into the entity to the final level where the new ideas are seen to be too common and pervasive to the extent that no particular individual in the organization feels that they carry any new significance.
At the progenitor stage the idea is conceived by an individual in the enterprise, it is at its initial levels and the originator still considers it young. It may or may not materialize depending on the external environment around the organization and particularly the attitudes of line managers towards encouraging newness, this is a delicate phase of the idea and in case the idea finds the ground to be unreceptive, just like a newborn who is not taken care of, it will shrivel and die.
At the Pilot Phase the idea is first brought into action and practically applied in management. At this point, the level of credibility is quite insignificant and the scale is equally modest. The idea is still being explored to establish deeper insights and understanding.
The Project Phase sees the idea gradually emerging from the closet, there is a tentative awareness of this new idea operating and this captures the attention of top management. Key executives within the organization just appear to notice this new development but no keen interest is taken to acquire further knowledge.
At the Program stage changes begin to appear to the organization as a result of the implemented idea, the invention hits the ground in a massive way and there is a much-broadened awareness of the successful effects of the new idea. The levels of credibility rise and at this point the idea receives perfect response from executive management.
The next stage is the Perspective Phase where the innovation is established. There are sustained levels of progress and success. At this point a new equilibrium is established because the idea has been tried and tested, executive managements are unwilling to let in another new from of technology that is not tested and whose results cannot be easily predicted (Andriessen, 2004).
Executives will rather stick to the current form of technology in which they have full confidence in terms of performance and returns rather than introduce something else that will destroy the status quo. The Pervasive Stage closes the cycle and by this time several years have elapsed, the level of awareness of the invention suddenly drops to zero, no one seems to notice it because it has become too common. Executives become unconscious that the idea ever existed in the organization.
Conclusion Knowledge and creativity management is of great significance to managers and employees of an organization. The obstacle that is with management is the fact that they fail to recognize the need for change and struggle to maintain the status quo. This is a characteristic that stems from the executives being uncertain about the impact of the new technologies on profits. They will not be willing to accept any idea that will tamper with this (Amabile, 1996).
Top executives should be in a position to allow change to happen, they should also be able to adopt appropriate management styles that will not only attract but also retain highly motivated and creative employees. It is generally a difficult task to manage workers that are creative.
Management of brainpower is fundamentally different from managing other non human factors of production like land and capital. In most cases the generally accepted and largely bureaucratic approaches that are currently used in the management of organizations may not find any meaningful application when managing creativity and brainpower (the human intellect).
In order to breed new ideas it is important that management provides a perfect condition that will encourage conception of fresh ways. This can be done by modifying the working environment both internally and externally in order to provoke creative ideas. In order to reduce boredom and instill change that will keep workers on toes, new elements should be introduced in what is commonly referred to as job enrichment.
Employees could also be reshuffled after a given duration of time in order to expand their knowledge in a particular field. When a person is moved into a different job they tend to think differently and this may spur them into deducing new strategies and methodologies to be applied in providing solutions.
Re-engineering in itself may have started off as a good thing with well-intended purposes but it later grew into an undesirable evil. It was meant to re-do a number of old processes using modified technology and skills but ended up causing majority of people to be sacked or laid off because of redundancies.
Quality movements have since been established in the place of re-engineering and this coupled with knowledge management has been successful in helping individual employees in asking lead questions such as “what do we really know about this organization?”, “how much are expected to know about this particular production process?” “How do we know what we know?”
In the interview alluded to in the introductory pages, Prusak himself identifies the origins or causes of the P cycle as either being innovation, efficiency or effectiveness. This is all attached to the fact that everything is in wary or another inter-connected to the quest of finding a solution to current day problems in organizations.
Therefore the above three elements that give rise to the Ps in the cycle must be considered objectively and comprehensibly by both line managers, employees and top-level executives in the dominant coalition (decision-makers).
Reference list Amabile, T. et al. (1996). “Assessing the work environment for creativity”. Academy of Management Review 39 (5): 1154–1184.
Andriessen, D. (2004). “Reconciling the rigor-relevance dilemma in intellectual capital research”. The Learning Organization 11 (4/5): 393–401.
Rodgers, M. (1983), Diffusion of Innovation. New York, NY: Learning
Thomas et al, (2003) What’s the Big Idea – Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
Wallas, G. (1926), Art of Thought. New York, NY: Willey publishers
Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company Proposal online essay help: online essay help
Executive Summary The assessment of the quality of service delivery in an organisation is important as it allows consumers to make informed decisions. It also helps the organisation to respond appropriately to improve its services.
In the past, service quality has been defined as “the extent to which a service meets customers’ needs or expectations” (Asubonteng et al., 65). A common definition is, “Service quality is the difference between customers’ expectations of service and perceived service” (Fitzsimmons and Mona 25).
In order for this to be achieved, an analysis of the organisation using the SERVQUAL methodology is necessary. SERVQUAL methodology evaluates five dimensions of quality service delivery. They include reliability, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and responsiveness (Fitzsimmons and Mona 26).
A gap analysis in service delivery is also important as it allows the identification of “causes of service quality shortfalls in each or all of the dimensions” (Fitzsimmons and Mona 28). A service quality gap analysis for Oman Insurance Company was carried out with the aim of establishing the quality of services offered by the company.
An analysis of the five gaps identified followed with calculation of the weighted and un-weighted values of SERVIQUAL scores for each using the recommended formulae (Fitzsimmons and Mona 26).
The data used in the calculations was obtained from the analysis of the responses from questionnaires issued to both the customers of the insurance company as well as the employees.
The results showed a small but significant gap in service delivery for which recommendations were made on how to reduce it. This essay therefore discusses the procedure of analysing the gaps in service delivery in the company, the results of the analysis, and the recommendations towards improving quality service delivery at Oman Insurance Company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Service Quality Gaps The service quality concept constitutes about seven major gaps with three (Gap 1, Gap 5, and Gap 6) being important “since they have a direct relationship with customers” (Luk and Layton 113). Gap 1, which deals with customers’ expectations against management perception (Luk and Layton 114), was partially evaluated in the study.
Gap 2 deals with management perceptions versus service specifications while Gap 3 comprises service specifications against the delivery of those services (Luk and Layton 115). The fourth gap is the difference in service delivery and external communication (Luk and Layton 114).
Gap 5 highlights the difference between the perception of the customers of the services delivered against their expectations of the services (Luk and Layton 114). This gap formed the main approach in the survey.
Gap 6 focuses on the discrepancy between the expectations of the customers and the perceptions of the employees while Gap 7 highlights the discrepancy between the management and employees’ perceptions (Luk and Layton 114). These were evaluated using the questionnaire issued to the respondents for the study.
Methodology The analysis of the service delivery quality was made using data obtained using a questionnaire. The questionnaire prepared constituted two parts, which evaluated customers’ expectations and opinions about insurance companies against their perceptions of service delivery at Oman Insurance Company.
Confidentiality was guaranteed in the questionnaire by ensuring that there was no place for the respondents to fill in their personal details. Thus, their answers were anonymous. A score of 1 to 7 was assigned to the responses with 1 representing those who strongly disagreed with the quality and 7 representing those who strongly agreed with it.
The five dimensions of SERVQUAL methodology, which evaluated the quality of service delivery, were assessed. These included reliability, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and responsiveness. The questionnaire was pretested before the start of the analysis that involved the use of 20 individuals with knowledge of the insurance company.
We will write a custom Proposal on Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recommendations from the pre-test were then incorporated into the questionnaire with printing of the final drafts being made for issuing to the respondents.
The questionnaire was issued to clients who received services from the major branches of the Insurance Company. Selection was randomly made. This means that the sample of people selected was representative of the actual number of people receiving services from the insurance company.
The number of respondents was 200 clients. The survey was carried out over a period of five days. The results were then analysed with presentations being made from them.
Appropriate conclusions were also made. The making of recommendations on how to improve service delivery at the firm followed. The recommendations were mainly addressed to the management of the company.
Results Out of the 200 questionnaires prepared, three were not answered. The respondents did not fill two of them appropriately. As for the demographics, 146 respondents were male while the rest (54 respondents) were of the opposite sex.
The ages of the respondents were varied with the most common age being above 40 years, which constituted 59% of the respondents. Most of the respondents also had a level of education above college level with most being undergraduates. The results of the five dimensions of SERVQUAL methodology are as follows:
Tangibles The assessment of this factor of the company involved the assessment of customers’ perception of equipment, personnel appearance, and physical facilities in the company. The customers strongly agreed with the idea that an excellent insurance company should have modern looking equipment.
The average score was higher than the perception of the same in Oman Insurance Company. They agreed, though not strongly, that Oman Insurance Company had modern looking equipment though this was below their expectations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As for the physical facilities, the customers also strongly agreed that these should be visually appealing, but their perceptions of the same at Oman Insurance Company fell below their expectations. The appearance of employees in Oman Insurance Company was as per the customer expectations.
They therefore agreed strongly that they were neat. The average scores were, however, negative for the above factors. For an excellent insurance company, the customers agreed strongly that their materials such as pamphlets or statements should be visually appealing.
Their perception of this in the Oman Insurance company fell below their expectation. Thus, the average score was negative for the company. In general, the average score for the tangibles in the Oman Insurance Company was negative. The score was at -1.40. This represented the best score of all the five factors assessed on service delivery in the company.
Reliability On reliability, the questionnaire assessed the ability of the company to perform the promised service dependably and accurately (Wisniewski, and Donnelly 359). In the first question on reliability in the questionnaire, the expectations of the customers on an excellent insurance company was high, as they strongly agreed that it should fulfil promises by the scheduled time.
A number of respondents held the same sentiment about Oman Insurance Company with most of them strongly agreeing that the company fulfilled most of its promises to them on time. However, the average score was lower compared to their expectations.
The quality of problem solving for an excellent insurance company also featured on reliability with most of the respondents claiming and agreeing strongly that such a company should show strong interest in solving its problems.
Against this expectation, the Oman Insurance Company scored lower in the degree to which this characteristic was true for the company. The company was scored as being good at listening and solving problems in the services it offered though this was inadequate time for most of the respondents.
The performance of services for the first time by the company was also below the expectations of the customers, and so was record keeping in the company.
The overall expectations of the customers on reliability received a strong agreement with a score of 6.06 with the company scoring 4.26 on perceptions on the same by their clients. This means that a gap of -1.70 existed in the company in the area of responsibility. This was the largest of all the areas.
Responsiveness The assessment of responsibility was done by using questions, which focused on the “willingness to help customers and or provide prompt service” (Dick 28). In the first one, customers strongly agreed that adequate information should be given to them in the case of an excellent insurance company regarding when the services would be performed.
This was against a poor perception of the same in the Oman Insurance Company, which though above average, customers perceived that the services were not as good as their expectations of an excellent insurance company.
The employees were also a little less willing to help them as compared to their expectations of an ideal insurance company. This situation elicited a negative score.
The employees of the company also received a lower rating in their ability to attend to their clients compared to an ideal insurance company. Employees of an excellent insurance company were expected never to be too busy to respond to customers’ requests.
The respondents agreed strongly to this opinion. Oman Insurance Company, on the other hand, received lower scores in this aspect of service delivery making the overall score negative. The responsiveness gap score for the company was at -1.69.
Assurance The perception of assurance for the Oman Insurance company was weighed against the expectations for an excellent company in the same field. This involved evaluation of “Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence” (Valarie, Parasuraman, and Leonard 39).
It included factors such as competence, credibility, security, and courtesy (Dick 28). In the evaluation of employee behaviour, customers strongly agreed that, for an excellent insurance company, this should instil confidence in customers. In comparison to this case, the company received lower scores on the same with a negative score being obtained.
The customers also strongly agreed that employees of an excellent insurance company should be consistently courteous with customers. They felt that this was slightly poor in the Oman Insurance Company with a negative score being obtained.
The knowledge of employees in the insurance company was assessed in this section of the questionnaire with customers being asked if it was adequate to answer their questions. They strongly agreed that, for an excellent insurance company, employees should have knowledge to answer their questions.
Their perception of this in the Oman Insurance Company was lower thus earning it a negative gap score. The overall gap score in this category was -1.55.
Empathy Empathy is the last dimension assessed in the SERVEQUAL instrument. It involves assessing the “Care and individualised attention that the firm provides to its customers” (Wisniewski and Donnelly 363). Constituents include communication, accessibility, and understanding of the customer (Wisniewski, and Donnelly 363).
Oman Insurance company customers strongly agreed that the organisation offers them individualised attention. However, this perception of customers was not as good as what they expected from an excellent insurance company.
They strongly agreed that an excellent company should offer individualised attention to the clients’ needs. The resulting gap score was negative for the company.
The operating hours for an excellent insurance company should be convenient to all customers. They strongly agreed with this opinion. The company also received a negative score in this suggestion since most of the customers perceived the company as not offering convenient hours compared to an ideal company.
The employees were also described as giving special attention to each customer. Again, this was below their expectations of an ideal company. Upon evaluation, they had customers’ interest at heart since the score was the same both for the Oman Insurance Company and for an excellent insurance company.
Customers responded that employees of Oman Insurance Company understood their specific needs though their score was below that of an excellent insurance company with the overall score being negative. This dimension of the SERVEQUAL instrument received a negative score, which was at -1.52.
Discussion The results of the survey found an existing gap in service delivery at Oman Insurance Company. The Gap scores were -1.40 for tangibles, -1.70 for reliability, -1.69 for responsiveness, -1.55 for Assurance, and -1.52 for Empathy.
The un-weighted and weighted averages for all the dimensions were later calculated and presented in the table below.
Dimension Expectations Perceptions Gap scores Weightings Weighted average Tangibles 5.66 4.26 -1.40 19.8 -0.28 Reliability 6.06 4.36 -1.70 29.6 -0.5 Responsiveness 5.74 4.05 -1.69 19.9 -0.34 Assurance 6.13 4.58 -1.55 15.2 -0.24 Empathy 5.97 4.45 -1.52 15.7 -0.24 From the table, the average of the Weighted SERVQUAL score was -1.6
Conclusion Therefore, based on the above expositions, it suffices to declare the evaluation of service delivery in a company a crucial exercise that comes in handy to direct any changes that should be instituted in the company. The paper has used Oman Insurance Company as a case example to demonstrate the role of assessment of the quality of service delivery in the company.
In the analysis of service delivery for Oman Insurance Company, various aspects of the company were compared against an ideal insurance company. A questionnaire was the tool of choice for this task with respondents being the clients of the company.
The results highlighted an existent service delivery gap in the company. The company should use the results of this survey to alter its services in a bid to ensure that the gap is closed and the services delivered are up to the expectations of the customers. This outcome will go a long way in improving the performance of the company.
Works Cited Asubonteng, Patrick, Karl McCleary, and John Swan. “SERVQUAL revisited: a critical review of service quality.”Journal of Services Marketing 10. 6(2000): 62-81. Print.
Dick, Schaaf. Keeping the Edge: Giving Customers the Service they demand. New York: Plume Penguin, 2006. Print.
Fitzsimmons, James, and Mona Fitzsimmons. Service management: operations, strategy, and information technology. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print.
Luk, Sherriff, and Roger Layton. “Perception Gaps in customer expectations: Managers versus service providers and customers.” The Service Industries Journal 22.2(2002): 109-128. Print.
Valarie, Zeithaml, Autor Parasuraman, and Berry Leonard. Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. New York: Free Press, 2004. Print.
Wisniewski, Michael, and Moris Donnelly. “Measuring service quality in the public sector: the potential for SERVQUAL.” Total Quality Management 7.4(2000): 357-365. Print.
Field research in luxury beauty products Research Paper scholarship essay help
Studies have shown that of all luxury markets, beauty products industry is among the fastest growing markets in the world. Retailers and other industry players, such as designers have reported a booming demand for luxury beauty. United Kingdom is one of the countries with a well established luxury beauty products industry. Beauty products market segmentation in the UK includes, use of pictures, detailed company information, special offers, customer ratings and reviews.
There are many types of brands in UK beauty industry depending on the products attributes, benefits and symbolic dimensions. The consumers make decisions both rationally and emotionally, hence for retailers to achieve proper branding they have to combine both the rational and emotional components.
Two common types of brands used in beauty industry are: functional and symbolic. The functional brands focus on the visible benefit of the product. For example, Nivea products are functional, in that they are meant to care for the skin. Symbolic brands are emotionally dimensional because the customers consider the effect of the product in the future or on their health, For example, a mother will be very keen when buying cosmetics for her child.
Globalization of brands has been attained because of the fast growing communication links, transportation and easy flow of money. This has enabled greater access to larger markets, but there are also specialized brands for specific locations that are not global (L’Oreal International 2010).
The beauty market offers various categories of products, which include; First category, skin products, these are; body oils, creams and lotions. These products are used to make the skin smooth and cure skin conditions like stretch marks, cellulite, acne and spots. Facial creams e.g. cleansers, lotions and toners are used to make the face smooth give a uniform color and texture. Hair care products like; relaxers, hair oils, lotions and sprays are used to make the hair more strong, beautiful and natural.
Men’s products like shaving creams, toners and after shaves are also available in the market. This is new in the industry and has received positive regard from the men. There are also products for oral care like gels, pastes and mouthwash. They are used to strengthen the teeth, improve mouth breath and also some of them make them whiter. Bath and shower products; body wash, creams, gels and soaps for bathing. They help kill germs and treat the skin.
Second category are generalized as make ups, they are used to refine facial appearances. “These products include; lipstick, lip gloss, liner, balm, conditioners and boosters all for the lips.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other products are; foundation, which is used to level out the face, plaster spots and patchy skin shadow; mascara, a liquid, cream or powder, is used to dim, solidify and elongate the eye lashes; powders used to set the foundation giving a fine finish and conceals small flaws; “Rouge, blush or blusher used to reveal the cheeks’ color and also makes the cheek bones look more define. It comes in powder, cream and liquid forms.”
Other beauty products are deodorants. They are applied to the body to bring out a pleasant body smell. Though some people are allergic to deodorants and may experience skin conditions if they use them. Deodorants are divided into many types, including: antiperspirants that prevent bad odor and reduce sweating; eye liners, shadow and shimmer used to emphasize on the eye lids. They make eyes appear larger and give a youthful look; and other products like nail polish, concealers and emulsions, etc.
In the fashion industry products are identified with their brand name which distinguishes them from the other products in the market. A brand is the identity of a specific product or service. It is the personality of a product and how it relates to key constituencies. Brands are very vital in marketing of products.
A good brand will communicate the information distinctly, making the product look credible, connect to the target audience, motivate the buyer and build customers goodwill. The beauty products named above come in different brands.Some of these brands are Dior, Armani, Chasnel, Clarins, Clinique, Estee, Lauder, Guerlain, Kenzo Saint Laurent, Versace, Sisley, Shisedo, Lancome ,La Prairie Mac ,Borghese, Smashbox.
The price for these products ranges from low, medium to high depending on several factors like quality, quantity, availability, and demand of the product. There are sales offers to enable people to buy what they term as expensive to them. Most of the stores have assistants that help customers get what they want then pay at the cashier’s desk while others pay directly to the assistants.
Luxe corp says that “These beauty shops also offer other services to enable them meet their customers’ needs. The beauty shops offer other services like massage manicures pedicures, spas facials and body treatments.” An example of these shops is Beauty 2000: it offers acne and aging treatments, tattooing, facial care, skin care and others. The beauty shops are located in all types of locations both exclusive and commercial where they are easily accessible and discoverable (Luxe corp 2010).
The luxury beauty products industry has grown enormously all over the world. It has even been diversified by having products for men too and not focusing on women only like it was a few years ago. More men-targeting products should be introduced and marketing done to convince men to use them as some of them have not yet agreed to use of luxury products they argue it is gay.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Field research in luxury beauty products specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The branding of products has been major element that has assisted in marketing of luxury beauty products Beauty products have been known to transform people and even build their self esteem; hence the industry has also helped solve psychological problems.
Some of the big beauty stores in London are Harrods on Brompton road Knightsbridge founded in 1813. It started as a linen store and later was bought by a distributor of branded goods. It is well known for its fashion and beauty accessories made by prominent designers. Other major store in the UK is the Selfbridges, a chain of department stores founded in 1909.
These big stores have faced criticism, for example Harvey was once accused of harassing a man who was selling a magazine that had bad information about the store. Selffridge was once accused of using rotten raw materials for enhancing the products which were health hazard.
Due to the culture and economy of UK, fashion has always flourished despite the economic crisis witnessed recently, as indicated by the many high end fashion stores emerging all over London in a bid to satisfy the ever fashion hungry capital. These stores have recognized that the world of fashion has changed significantly due to globalization and melting of once diverse cultures into one.
The London inhabitants shopping trends have also changed in relation to this. This has been due to many fashion options for them to choose from and also availability of major fashion houses in the world are located in the UK. In addition they are style cautious which is boosted by the healthy economy that allows them to spend on such luxuries. Hence for any shopper looking for high end fashion and style products, London is a city that avails this all at once.
The fashion industry is a major revenue source in the UK. It brings in revenue through the beauty shows, trade events, and expositions on beauty products. The Natural and Organic Products of Europe Conference was leading event on lifestyle products. It led to an increase in sales for organic supplies and personal care products sales went up by 53%London’s beauty industry is attractive and has great potential.
However, during the 2008-2009 global economy recession, worldwide luxury beauty industry sales fell by 8%. Luxe corp (2010) notes that “the recession was bad news for luxury brand owners, with consumer spending hit hard, with on online sale of luxury goods being one of the major contributors of the recession.” This led to an increase in digital marketing in the industry, but some brands are still reluctant due to fear of losing control of their brands. The recession led to a cultural drift in terms of consumers’ attitudes and preferences.
L’Oreal International (2010) shows that “luxury brand owners have become more relaxed on allowing people to talk about their brands in social media. This has created openness in the sector which was a rare trait before the recession. The brand owners were manipulating, protective and conservative, as a result tension existed between the desires to capitalize on digital platforms and hence the fear of losing control of their brands.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on Field research in luxury beauty products by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major drivers of the industry whom are the stakeholders, that is, the government, manufactures, the distribution stores and the designers should put more energy creativity and diversity in the industry. That way they can bit their major competitors since they have the advantage of trust that these products are safe for their health.
However, with the dynamism of the cosmetic industry in UK, improvements need to be made to match up to the bigger industries, such as the United States. Companies should diversify their products to a wider range in order to cater for the different needs of the customers globally.
The beauty industry in London needs to come up with pricing strategies, methods and models for their products, which meets the demand of the market and satisfy all customers exclusively. One of the strategies is the price theory. This theory emphasis that the business has to break even, that is, the price charged should cover both the fixed and variable costs.
From the price theory, a company can choose from the three ways of pricing; first, maximum pricing, this is setting the price a little above the breakeven point, make a small profit per unit but sell more. Secondly, skimming strategy whereby a firm sets the price as high as the customers can pay with hope of getting back the value of the costs incurred as soon as possible. This involves different prices for the products depending on their attributes (Kiehl, 2010).
Companies need to come up with an effective marketing strategy adaptable to their specific industry. The four commonly applied elements of marketing include: first, segmentation, this is dividing the markets into various groups.
Specific products should be sold with the consumer group attitudes and preferences in consideration; for example, some people shop to release stress, others to keep up with new trends or addicted to shopping, while others prefer advertisements that are informative not flashy or vice versa.
Secondly, targeting; this is identifying the audience of to whom the product targets. The retailers should know the spending capacity of the target group, and the age to avoid being irrelevant. Importantly, the products availability and price features need to be communicated to the group targeted.
Thirdly, are the channels of distribution, promotional tactics and mode of communication. A beauty products company can reach its target audience through advertisements on radio TVs, magazines billboards and the internet too; a company can also organize events like fashion shows and beauty pageants (L’Oreal International, 2010). Companies should also embrace online marketing as a means of reaching to their customers and boosting their sales volumes.
Types of digital media being used are social media like face book, Twitter and mobile phones service. Lóreal a major luxury beauty product distributor is one of the brands that have embraced digital marketing. “It has highlighted modes for digital marketing strategies for all its goods, by adopting a more integrated approach abandoning previously piecemeal strategies.”
Due to the vulnerability of the fashion industry to economic situations, companies need to adopt new, creative and more sophisticated ways to market their luxury and fashion products. There are mainly two means of approaching the industry situations: Firstly, the blue ocean strategy, which is aimed at improving creativity.
The economy is taking deviations and the players need to find new means of growth and remaining relevant in the market. Secondly, pull strategy, this is the main driver of the demand for luxury products and is aimed at holding the company’s clients even in cases where customer’s attitudes and preferences are varying.
For companies to meet the demands and challenges put across by the fashion cautious city, they need to catch up with the ever changing fashion trends and embrace flexibility in their production by diversifying their brands, mode of retail, marketing and service. This has been witnessed in the kind of products that the design and fashion houses are always producing, for example D
Dyslexic Students: Success Factors for Support in a Learning Environment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Dyslexic people have been misunderstood in the past by the people who are involved in their training and correction. Some of them have been labelled as thick or even people who cannot spell. However, research has proved that dyslexia is not a representation of one’s intelligence.
The condition has a number of causes though the presentation is different in individuals with varying levels of inability to read.
This essay reviews the literature on dyslexic students, the available methods for their support in learning, and the factors determining the success of these methods in the learning environment.
Literature search and review Brief topic outline
The subject of information studies is broad. There are a number of possible studies in each of the fields. The topic for this study is ‘Dyslexic Students: Success Factors for Support in a Learning Environment.’ The paper presents a search of literature with information on the same.
During the search, some of the related findings on the topic are the diagnosis of the condition, the causes, and the prognosis of this condition. However, the interest of the search is on the success factors in the learning environment when correcting the condition.
Some of the topics that still need review in this area include the pathological signs in the brains of dyslexic students and the effects of social factors on the condition. Therefore, the research questions include:
What are the types of learning environments for dyslexic students?
What factors support learning in this environment?
Literature search strategy
The search strategy used a combination of methods. Electronic databases were preferred for the search. The key words were dyslexia, dyslexic students, learning support, and learning environments. The search was conducted in more than one database followed by analysis of the results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The references of the results were then searched with the relevant ones being analysed for the study. The search for relevant books was through the COPAC library catalogue, which yielded useful publications for the study. A systematic approach was used in the search.
A targeted approach was later adopted for use to eliminate the less useful publications. The bibliographic tools used to carry out the search included the library catalogues and the databases. Since knowledge is constantly accumulating on the subject under study with research findings being published regularly, a limitation in the search was made.
The search, therefore, was limited to the research publications made since the year 2000. They were deemed to be current and useful to the study. For the purpose of ease in the compilation of the search results and a detailed analysis of the literature, only literature published in the English language was considered for review.
From the original search, a number of results were obtained. These were then scrutinised followed by a final list of 20 references, which were then used for the study.
The results include Bell, J 2010, Doing your research project : a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, Blaxter, L, Hughes, C
IT Security and Control Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
According to Hawker (151), IT Security and Control include physical, logical, and administrative measures organizations put in place to ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability to authorized users. Information system avail data to authorized users through validation and verification procedures.
These procedures are defined an organization’s information system policies. In addition, data integrity standards should be enforced when data is being transmitted to prevent it from unauthorized access, intentional or accidental modifications, and malicious damage.
Comprehensive approaches subject organizations’ information systems to regular security checks and system audits (Peltier 2). Regular system audits ensure that responsible organizational managers are able to track users and establish potential threats and sources of malicious attacks, unauthorized access, eavesdropping, and other security-related measures. These measures are implemented within and outside organizational boundaries.
Organizations benefit from IT Security and Controls by integrating and aligning them to organizational goals and objectives. Peltier (1) argues that organizations have defined standards, policies, and procedures for implementing security measures and controls to prevent data loss or damage. Information can be sold or mined to enable radical decisions to be made.
Peltier (2) argues that users should form informed decisions on system usage when login sessions commence and should be made aware that they are being monitored.
Peltier (11) asserts that security and control measures such as firewalls implemented at different levels, risk analysis, encryption of data using different techniques, e-mail and other communication policies ensure that organizational information is kept confidential and made available only to the intended parties. Firewalls filter outgoing and incoming data to ensure no corrupt data, malicious software or computer programs accesses an organization’s information system.
Organizations impose administrative controls on data, which is a valued asset, at different levels to ensure accountability and responsibility for system users. This may include passwords verifications and access rights’ mechanisms. Data integrity is maintained organization-wise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Logical controls ensure firewall protection for outbound and inbound data. An organization may not be at risk of loosing sensitive information to the outside when software is installed to control access to information in addition to implementation of access privileges to system users.
Organizations benefit from the use of physical controls by enforcing policies such as the use of cameras and clear definition of duties. Thus organizational activities are monitored to avoid potential incidents and threats to data corruption, espionage, and damage.
Information is a valuable asset to any organization. It should be managed well. Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (27) asserts that the movement of traffic in both directions enables a system performance evaluator to determine the vulnerability of system components and controls.
Such performance measures can also be evaluated against the policies and objectives of an organization. Deviations from established benchmarks determine the degree to which performance of the information security controls are effective (Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous 57).
Other measures include the use of software tools to evaluate performance standards of networked computer systems in addition to conducting tests to evaluate effectiveness of system security. A performance evaluation plan is developed by an organization and tests conducted against benchmarks to identify security loopholes.
Information security and controls are embedded in an organization’s culture at personal and organizational levels. Tests should be consistent with organizational management security control goals and objectives (Gallegos, Senft, Manson, Daniel and Gonzales, 124). Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (101) argue that data integrity should be consistently maintained in line with an organization’s information security policies. These could ensure that the quality of data remains consistent with overall organizational requirements.
Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (101) argue that “security, integrity, real-time processing” are vital information systems elements that are enforced to ensure that an organization’s data is not compromised. Accurate, consistent, and reliable data are elements integrated in an organization’s approach to data integrity and availability to ensure system processes and contents are reliable.
We will write a custom Essay on IT Security and Control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different organizations have different approaches to information systems security. They may be on a logical, physical or administrative level. According to Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (98) administrative controls and security policies include legal aspects and regulations by governments and organizational measures. On the other hand logical and physical controls heavily depend on an organization’s information system’s administrative policies.
Logical controls rely on software that provides controlled access to information in addition to the use of other devices such as firewalls to filter incoming and outgoing and data. Other measures include data encryption. Data encryption standards are well specified by an individual organization. Measures are constantly put in place to ensure logical security measures are not violated.
According to Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (98), physical controls envisage controlled access to computer rooms, lock and key, among others. A combination of these measures data integrity. These measures are enforced on applications, the host, and on an organization’s network. They are visualized as being implemented on different levels of an organization’s information systems.
Land O’Lakes International One of Land O’Lakes International information security policies emphasized on systems users to log in with their ID’s and passwords as a stringent security requirement. Other security measures included controlled access to the server room in addition to maintaining rigid organizational information security policies.
An interview with Land O’Lakes International IT manager revealed that a cost-benefit analysis and an evaluation on the return on investment (ROI) on the IT infrastructure indicated that the current system was compatible with the security needs of the firm. These basic IT security measures and policies ensured that the company’s information system was secure from free from unauthorized access, data modification, information and data disclosure. In addition data integrity, availability, and privacy were maintained (Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (27).
Research findings indicated that the company was subject to information security threats, including viruses and malwares. A further analysis of the company’s information systems security was adequate to address security requirements.
However, information is a key and sensitive asset to any organization.
Potential threats still existed on the security requirements of the organization’s management information systems. Therefore, the need for an advanced security system was vitally important.
Not sure if you can write a paper on IT Security and Control by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research findings further indicated incident records and their frequency to monitor security-related issues (session audits).
Delta Delta IT’s approach to IS security and controls started on the administrative levels of the company. Information Systems security policies were implemented on the Network server and on database access with limited privileges. Access privileges on writing to files, reading files, and updating them on the same folder could not be accessed from a similar server.
A further security measure included firewall implementation to filter outgoing and incoming data to ensure authenticated data and users accessed the network. These included the use of p2p, wireless a/p, and wireless computers which could be accessed remotely.
The company’s approaches to system security included a logical and administrative approach. Legal requirements and information security policies were defined and implemented organization wise. This approach ensured data and application integrity. The company’s network was also protected from unauthorized access and this approach provided an in-depth defense for the company’s information system.
The information systems security manager was always on the edge in updating and implementing new information security and controls that emerged in the market enabling the organization address emerging trends on information systems security and controls.
The report established that the use of USB flash drives by organizational employees had the potential risk of exposing the system to viruses and malware software. In addition, the current IT security systems, policies, and controls were effective based on results from continuous tests and system audits.
The information systems manager affirmed that the organization evaluated system security effectiveness by continuously carrying out system audits by monitoring the server and wireless and network log in relation to security
Comparative Analysis Land O’Lakes International and Delta
Land O’Lakes International security policies were implemented with special emphasis on user ID and password schemes as validation and verification measures in addition to rigidly enforcing physically implemented security policies On the other hand, Delta implemented information systems security policies on its network such as controlled access to reading, writing to files, and other transactions with associated policy privileges.
Land O’Lakes International emphasized on physical security policies while Delta’s approach to network security policies emphasized an e-approach, thus, data validation, verification, authentication and authorization mechanisms characterized the organization’s management information system.
While the information systems manager of Land O’Lakes International did not see a proactive need to keep the organization’s security updated on a continuous basis, Delta’s information systems manager kept the company on the edge in keeping with emerging trends in information security and controls (Lane 1). Thus, there was need for Land O’Lakes International to improve and update its management information systems in line with current information systems threats and potential risks.
Literature Analysis Hawker (151) argues that information system should ensure data integrity and implementation on physical, logical, and administrative levels. Land O’Lakes International’s IT manager proactively implemented the organization’s security policies on a logical and administrative levels (Lane 1). However, Delta’s security policies were on a physical approach.
Land O’Lakes International’s were more prone to security threats and risks as no logical security implementation mechanisms were in place as opposed to Delta that ensures logical security controls were enforced (Peltier 11). Delta’s information security controls were on the administrative levels ensuring tighter information security audits and controls contrary to Land O’Lakes International’s security systems (Gallegos, Senft, Manson, Daniel and Gonzales, 124).
Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (57) argue that organizations should continuously subject their information systems to regular security audits and critically evaluate such systems on their compatibility and compliance to organizational business goals and objectives. Both companies have not clearly outlined strategic plans, alternatives and contingency measures to meet the ever-changing trends in the software industry. On interest was Land O’Lakes International strategic plans and policy documents in implementing newer security measures and tools.
Both IT security managers need to review their policies and make them compatible with emerging trends with information systems security needs in a dynamic environment. These make management and systems users accountable for their actions.
A strong, reliable, and secure information system must provide complete security and in depth defense for an organization’s information system. Overall, security must be on administrative, logical, and physical levels. These measures ensure data and information security are maintained according to organizational policies and procedures.
Logical controls need to be implemented to ensure data and information integrity and authentication mechanisms are sound, while physical controls asset provide security and administrative controls assert an organization’s consistence and enforcement of information systems legal requirements and policy implementation.
These information systems security controls could ensure information integrity, classification, access control, identification, authentication, authorization, and in depth information system defense.
Further still, this approach could enable companies implement information systems security governance to ensure leaders and other systems users are accountable for their actions. Systems audits should be conducted on a continuous basis to ensure users are tracked and are aware that they are continuously monitored. Adequate resources should also be made available to policies are well enforced and no information security lapse or loopholes exist within an organization’s information systems setting.
References Gallegos, F., Senft, S., Manson, D P.,
Activity Based Costing and Its Main Advantages Report (Assessment) college application essay help
Table of Contents Traditional Costing Approach
Activity Based Costing Approach
Discussion and Analysis of Details
Traditional Costing Approach Using the traditional costing method, the total cost of each product will be as shown in the schedule below. The total cost column represents a summation of the variable and fixed costs.
Number of Units Variable Cost Fixed Cost Total Cost 0 0 3,000 3,000 1 1,100 3,000 4,100 2 1,200 3,000 4,200 3 1,300 3,000 4,300 4 1,400 3,000 4,400 5 1,500 3,000 4,500 6 1,600 3,000 4,600 7 1,700 3,000 4,700 8 1,800 3,000 4,800 9 1,900 3,000 4,900 10 2,000 3,000 5,000 Because the relationship between price and output is such that a selling price of 3,000 yields zero sales and a reduction by 100 on this selling price increases the sales units by one; the selling price and the associated profits/(loss) for each unit will be as represented in the schedule below:
Unit Selling Price Total Unit Cost Associated Unit Profits 0 3,000 (3000) 1,100 4,100 (3000) 1,200 4,200 (3000) 1,300 4,300 (3000) 1,400 4,400 (3000) 1,500 4,500 (3000) 1,600 4,600 (3000) 1,700 4,700 (3000) 1,800 4,800 (3000) 1,900 4,900 (3000) 2,000 5,000 (3000) Activity Based Costing Approach Using Activity Based Costing, the fixed cost is assigned to each particular product thus whereas the selling price shall remain as established, the associated profits will change significantly as a result of the apportionment as shown below:
Number of Units Variable Cost Fixed Cost Total Cost 1 1,100 3,000 4,100 2 1,200 1,500 2,700 3 1,300 1,000 2,300 4 1,400 750 2,150 5 1,500 600 2,100 6 1,600 500 2,100 7 1,700 429 2,129 8 1,800 375 2,175 9 1,900 333 2,233 10 2,000 300 2,300 Discussion and Analysis of Details This model of determining cost is involved with the identification of all necessary activities of the entire production process and allocating the associated cost of each activity to the entire products produced. This allocation is based on the actual uptake or consumption of each activity onto a product.
The main advantage of activity based costing model is that it helps to identify and pinpoint the products, processes or activities which are not operating efficiently. This will be done through comparing their output and consumption. Activity based costing will also be useful in helping to pinpoint the unnecessary costs in the entire production process which the entity can do without.
This model of estimating costs is also key in the allocation of resources in the production process, using the model, more resources can be assigned to the more efficient products, activities or processes while fewer resources can be assigned to the inefficient activities.
The model can also find application in the cost control strategy adopted by the entity because it will provide the necessary information to management on the departments or individual products that are operating below the acceptable (ideal) standards. This method may also be of importance in helping to fix the selling prices of the output. Based on the estimated cost of the product and the level of profits that are expected by the firm, the entity is able to know the price at which sales will be most.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main limitation of this model however is that it might be extremely difficult to determine and accurately apportion certain costs in the entity to each particular product, for instance the salary of the chief executive officer may be difficult to be accurately assigned to products because the chief executive’s input is not easily and directly traceable on the particular product.
The CEO’s efforts are evenly balanced on the general well being of the firm and are hard to establish a particular criterion that will accurately apportion these efforts. It has also been argued that the ABC model of cost estimation is increasingly expensive and complicated to be used in the management and control of costs (Horngren, Datar
Advantages of Anonymity in New Media World Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Anonymity services have become quite popular with the emergence of the World Wide Web. In particular, anonymity software services allow users to conceal their real names. Concealing real information on the Internet because it is helpful for users who are willing to know that the site they surf remain anonymous for the Internet provider.
Such a function has an advantage for enhancing user’s security because it prevents the public organization from illegal invading their database. Consolidating security contributes to the prevention of web bugs and invisible GIF, which passes information from user’s personal computer to the Web site’s third parties.
Hence, restricted access to computers allows users to increase security and remain anonymous. There are many other benefits of anonymity in a virtual space, including undesired publicity, avoiding excess attention to details from personal life, and increased safety of private information.
Giving publicity to some aspects of famous people’s life can have negative consequences for their reputation and welfare. Therefore, anonymity establishes certain rules that ensure safety and privacy of surfing the net and attending certain sites.
At this point, educators should assist students in developing appropriate online behaviors and explaining why online ethics is important for users (Hsu et al. 2011). Although free speech has always been important since the emergence of the Internet, anonymity should still be protected to prevent the leakage of confidential information (Rigby 1995).
Therefore, anonymity should be protected as a product of social tolerance to private space of individuals who strive to be anonymous, yet reachable.
There are many occasions when bloggers suffer from commentaries or even threats concerning the content of their websites. Therefore, they often prefer being anonymous to avoid complications (Tanowitz, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, there is a growing tendency in removing the boundaries between the readers and the reporters, which attracts the audience and contributes to the reliability of information posted online.
Nevertheless, many of the pseudonyms are still quite popular among the readers and, therefore, there is no need for revealing your name. The assumption that anonymity does not contribute to the reliability and credibility of the content is false because posting information online is strictly regulated by cyber law (Cook, 2010). Thus, anonymity is the matter of personal preferences.
In defense of internet anonymity, specific attention should be given to privacy issues because most of individuals reject to reveal their real names for the purpose of security. This is of particular concern to the victims of criminals, educators, and many other individuals whose rights should be protected by law (McElroy, 2011).
At this point, most of the problems often arise because of inappropriate use of personal information, which can have much more serious consequences to user’s welfare. Moreover, revealing personal information is also the matter of ethics because some of the issues of personal life can damage career or reputation.
In conclusion, defending anonymity is not only beneficial for users in terms of concealing their personal life, but also in terms of their security and welfare.
Due to the fact that most of the online space is used by journalists who often unveil provocative information about governmental or political affairs, it is highly important for these users to remain anonymous to minimize the risks for their lives.
Anonymity should not be confused with security and illegal content placement because there are many other means that ensure the validity and truthfulness of facts.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Advantages of Anonymity in New Media World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Cook, M. (2010). In defense of Anonymity Online. The Guardian. Web.
Hsu, J-L., Hwang, W.-Y., Huang, Y-M.,
Beef industry in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The beef industry is the biggest agricultural activity in Australia. Moreover, it is the second biggest beef exporter after Brazil internationally. Every state and territory of Australia sustains breeding of cattle in an extensive scope of climates.
The Australian “small population means that consumption is low, which allows Australia to export a significant volume of beef each year mainly to Korea, the US, and Japan, while cattle production in the country covers a region of more than 200 million hectares” (Hammond 2006, p.190).
The beef industry in Australia achieved an advantage following the detection of BSE (mad cow disease) in Japan, Canada, and the US, since Australia is without the disease. Contrary to breeding systems in different parts of the globe, cattle in Australia feed on pasture as the chief source of food (Bell et al. 2011).
The aim of this analysis is to assess the beef industry in Australia, find opportunities, and threats, and recommend ways to better the industry. The beef industry in Australia encounters several challenges like increasing salinity, vegetation control, and degradation of soil among other internal and external factors.
The execution of the recommendation practices could necessitate reaction to particular subjects. In degraded regions, re-vegetation could help, or a modification in farming method. This paper discusses the analysis of the industry and recommends ways to reduce emanating threats.
Industry analysis At a domestic strategy stage, the macroeconomic as well as the regulatory environment might have a powerful impact on factors of competitiveness of the industry. Domestically, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on input costs courtesy of its influence on several aspects, for instance, rate of interest and inflation.
Worldwide, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on real exchange rate. A broad range of other environmental factors may affect the effectiveness of the industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental factors that are likely to result in failure or success of the beef industry in Australia are the ones that affect transport, processing, and communication systems as well as the ones that affect access to information and innovation.
For the beef industry, the chief primary resource is land for grazing. In the entire land limitation, competition from other farm animals (Dairy industry), crops (cotton and horticulture industry), and non-agricultural activities is crucial (George et al. 2009).
The beef industry in Australia encounters great competition from South America in markets like Canada and Korea. Brazil stands as the leading exporter of beef in the world and the second major beef producer following the US.
The beef industry in Brazil has grown powerfully in the last decade, with production rising by 36 per cent to 9 million tonnes in year 2009. Over the same period, exports have rose at a much quicker rate, rising by 227 per cent to 1.6 million tonnes.
The sturdy growth of the beef industry in Brazil has been the outcome of significant new venture in infrastructure and cattle breeds, which is anticipated to promote growth in the near future. The beef industry in Brazil has a powerful competitive level in international markets where it has access, mainly due to its cheaper cost arrangement.
Distress concerning foot-and-mouth disease in several provinces in Brazil has affected the export capacity of Brazilian beef (Ferraz
Mix Methods Analysis in “Seeing From a Different Angle: The Role of Pop Culture in online essay help
The Article Main Concern The article in question considers the issue of entertainment media influence on the adult education, its influence on the educators in their personal and professional life. This article provides issue analysis in terms of the mixed method research approach which makes it possible to consider the issue from different facets and, thus, examine it more thoroughly.
The Article Purpose and Problem Statement The purpose of the article under consideration is to explore “US adult educators’ consumption of entertainment media” and to define “how it affects their thinking about group identities, and how they draw on it in their teaching and learning, particularly in regard to teaching about diversity issues” (Tisdell
Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Types of storage tanks and flammable and combustible liquid stored in them, their fire protection systems, and brief servicing in case of spill
The devastating and costly experiences involving fire and flammable and combustible liquids have led to formulations of better guidelines and storage facilities for handling such liquids.
Practically, protecting flammable and combustible storage tanks from fire involves “the use of fixed or semi-fixed foam fire protection system” (NFPA 23).
Systems with proper installation and maintenance tend to be reliable. The foam is useful in “preventing, controlling, or directing extinguishment of any combustible or flammable liquid fire within the tank” (NFPA 27).
The fixed system refers to an installation system running from the main foam location through permanent systems to the hazard under protection. This system is complete and has permanent installation. On the other hand, a semi-fixed system installation has fixed discharge systems. It links with pipes, which end in a safe location from the hazard.
Open Top Floating Roof Storage Tank This storage tank is like cone roof tank. It does not have a fixed roof. The “pontoon roof floats above the flammable or combustible liquid” (OSHA 50). There is a rim that seals “the space and the shell or side wall of the tank” (OSHA 50).
Cone Roof Storage Tank This storage tank has a fixed cone-shaped roof. It also has vertical sides. This tank meets API standards. The tank’s design allows the roof to “blow off and leave the tank shell intact when internal explosion occurs” (OSHA 52). Thus, the tank can retain the liquid as the resulting fire will only burn the top of the exposed content.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal Floating Roof/Covered Floating Roof Storage Tank This type of storage tank has both the “floating roof tank and cone-shaped roof” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof lies directly on the tank’s liquid content. It has open vents at the sides. The internal floating roof can be “pontoon type or steel double deck” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof may also have a sealed design area protection.
Ground/underground tanks There are also flammable and combustible liquids stored in horizontal style tanks. These are underground and aboveground tanks.
These tanks have steel construction and meet specifications of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Uniform Fire Code of the International Fire Code Institute (IFCI). Still, underground tanks may also have different materials from steel.
However, these materials master meet standards of steel or conform to design standards for storage of flammable and combustible liquids.
The operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond “the design pressure of the tank” (NFPA 343). These tanks have systems that release excessive internal pressure that may result from exposure to fires. Such relief systems must meet the standards in the NFPA provisions.
These tanks also have dikes and drainage systems as required in the NFPA guidelines in order to prevent any accidental discharge of flammable and combustible contents. This is usually to protect nearby facilities and waterways.
Underground tanks must meet NFPA standards and other provisions. These tanks must undergo thorough tests before installation. Underground tanks must also meet corrosion standards as different states require (NFPA 343).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of Flammable and Combustible Liquids stored in the tanks The NFPA 30 Code provides minimum standards for flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks, storage, transportation, and handling. In addition, it also provides various classifications of flammable and combustible liquids.
This classification uses boiling point and flash point of these liquids as set by “American Petroleum Institute (API) or American Society for Testing and Materials methods” (NFPA 467).
Flashpoint refers to a “minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid” (NFPA 467). A liquid, in this case, refers to any material that has more than “300 fluidity of penetration asphalt” (NFPA 467).
We can apply two common methods to classify flammable and combustible liquids. These are non water miscible (hydrocarbon) and water miscible (polar solvent) methods.
Hydrocarbon liquids include jet fuels, gasoline, and crude oil among others. On the other hand, polar solvent liquids consist of esters, alcohols, and ketones among others (OSHA 53).
Classification of Flammable Liquids Flash Point Boiling Point Class IA Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IB Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IC At or above 73 0F Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.
Classification of Combustible Liquids Flash Point Class II At or above 100 0F (37.8 0C) and below 140 0F (60 0C) Class IIIA At or above 140 0F (60 0C) and below 200 0F (93.3 0C) Class IIIB At or above 200 0F (93.3 0C) Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.
Source: 29 CFR 1910.106
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fire protection systems of flammable and combustible liquid tanks The first step to fire protection requires the use of approved tanks for storage and holding of flammable and combustible liquids. Thus, storage tanks for flammable and combustible liquids must meet NFPA 30 Code and the OSHA standards.
Storage tanks have steel walls approved for storing flammable or combustible liquids. However, different materials for these tanks (underground) must meet standards of steel as well as required design.
Manufacturers and operators of these tanks must ensure that normal “operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond the design pressure” (OSHA 54). Atmospheric pressure tanks cannot substitute low pressure tanks.
During installation, engineers must ensure that the “spacing (shell-to-shell) of aboveground tanks must not be less than three feet” (OSHA 54). This is the distance between two tanks of flammable and combustible liquids.
The distance between two adjacent tanks is crucial during installation. This is necessary to facilitate firefighting in cases of fires. Thus, irregular arrangements or compact tanks need wider spacing between them for ease of accessibility.
The tanks must also have a distance of 20 feet between them if they are flammable or combustible liquid tanks and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. This distance depends on the pressure at which the tanks operate.
For instance, it will be different if the pressure of a flammable or combustible tank exceeds 2.5 psig, or in cases where the tank has emergency venting. Emergency venting allows the pressure to go beyond 2.5 psig.
There should be no accumulation of flammable or combustible liquids next to liquefied petroleum gas container by any means. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) container cannot share the same dike with flammable or combustible liquid tanks. The LPG container must be 20 feet away from a flammable or combustible liquid tank. In all, LPG can never be installed in diked areas.
Fire protection from storage tanks also accounts for atmospheric pressure. The designers must ensure that atmospheric storage tanks have adequate vents to eliminate developments of pressure or vacuum.
Pressure and vacuum can damage the “roof of a cone roof tank or can go beyond the tank’s design pressure” (OSHA 54). This may occur due to filling, emptying, and changes in atmospheric temperatures.
Normal vents must conform to three provisions. First, they must meet specifications of API 2000. Second, vents must also conform to other accepted provisions. Finally, vents must also be larger than or equal to withdrawal and filling pipes. The recommended vent diameter should not be less than 11/4 inch.
Storage tanks also have protection mechanisms that inhibit “overpressure which may originate from pumps discharging liquid into the tank” (NFPA 45). This is necessary because discharge pressure may surpass the design pressure of the tank.
Aboveground storage tanks have devices that relieve “excessive internal pressure, which may result from exposure to fires” (NFPA 45). Relief systems must also meet NFPA 30 set standards.
Storage tanks have drainage systems. Drainage systems cater for any accidental discharge and prevent flammable or combustible liquids from getting into waterways. As a result, there are dikes that retain flammable or combustible liquids around the tank. The size and volume of dike must also meet certain standards.
First, volume of the dike must be able to contain the amount of liquids that the tank can release at a given times when it has a full capacity. This method considers “the volume of the tank and height of the dike” (OSHA 54) in order to determine the capacity of the dike.
Second, tanks with fixed roofs, which have liquids with boil over tendencies, consider the volume of the largest tank that an enclosure serves so as to determine the carrying capacity of the dike if these tanks have full capacities. At the same time, this process must also consider capacities of “all tanks within an enclosure where the dike is” (OSHA 54).
Dikes must meet specified construction standards. This takes into account the location and weather factors such as flooding. There are also emergency procedures in case of flooding at the site. Overfill protection systems are above the ground as recommended under IFC and NFPA Codes.
The system also ensures that all sources of ignition are under control in accordance with the “OSHA standards and other applicable codes” (OSHA 51).
Sources of open flame are under strict restriction with visible signs of “NO SMOKING BY ORDER OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT” as stipulated in the IFC 2003 standards (OSHA 57).
Installed electrical devices meet the standards of NFPA 30 current version, ICC Electrical Code, and National Electrical Code. Electrical pumps also have control mechanisms, which allow them only to function when the dispensing nozzle is out of its normal area or bracket.
The control uses a manual switch for activation. These control mechanisms stop nozzles once they are in the bracket, or not in normal positions of dispensing.
The storage tanks of Class I or II liquids also have mechanisms which minimize accumulation of static electricity during dispensing. This uses proper grounding and bounding systems.
The storage tanks also have corrosion control methods that meet OSHA requirements and other standards.
The storage tanks meet material specifications and quality recommended for piping, pipes, and valves.
All underground tanks have connections at the top. In addition, all vents terminate at the end as required under the OSHA standards.
Servicing flammable and combustible liquid tanks in case of a spill The NFPA 329 sets standards and recommendations for handling all releases of flammable and combustible liquids, and gases (NFPA 45). The most important recommendation is to find the source of the spill, and then conduct a thorough cleanup and disposal.
All tanks storing Class I, II, or IIIA liquids must avoid cases of accidental spills so as to protect nearby property, facilities, and waterways. Storage tanks must also have remote impounding and impounding tanks with dikes. In some cases, storage tanks may require both remote impounding and diking, and a closed-top diking.
The NFPA Code and other applicable standards provide specifications on spill control and secondary containment. Storage tanks located outside and exposed to rainfall have design to contain spills from the single largest container.
At the same time, it must also have the capacity to hold “a volume of a 24-hour rainfall based on a 25-year storm” (NFPA 234). The system also has channels to drain accumulated water.
Controlling spills also requires maintenance and inspections of storage tanks regularly. Locations prone to flooding need constant “inspection and review of the emergency plan provisions” (NFPA 234). This is because floods may weaken foundations and other supporting structures. This also applies to areas prone to earthquakes.
Storage tanks maintenance and operating procedures must conform to set standards of approved codes. There should be a prompt cleanup of any spills and proper disposal.
The codes do not have any specific training requirements. However, the industry must ensure that it improves compliance through regular employees training on safety standards.
These trainings should focus on popular areas like handling, storing, and transferring flammable and combustible liquids. In addition, trainings should also include regular maintenance practices.
How to putout fire and control spillage using different methods People operating storage tanks for storing flammable and combustible liquids must be familiar with the hazards and characteristics of such liquids. Spills can result into costly fires.
Therefore, before any fire occurs, the person responsible for the spill should act promptly and cleanup the area. This is because acts of carelessness during cleanup can cause injury, illness, spread of the liquid to the environment, fire and severe damages to property, or even claim lives.
It is important that people handling flammable and combustible liquids know essential steps in handling spills and controlling fires. Therefore, adequate training, supply of cleanup materials, and protective equipment must be available in the location.
Flammable and combustible liquids need cautious handling, storing, and transferring. However, the general rules to eliminate cases of fire from flammable and combustible liquids involve avoiding sources of open flames such as “smoking, avoiding static electricity, ensuring electrical gadgets are compliant, and preventing hazardous mixtures” (OSHA 53).
Eliminating cases of hazardous mixtures of flammable and combustible is necessary in preventing cases of explosions and fire. Therefore, it is necessary to label all containers used in storing flammable and combustible liquids. It is also important to keep distance between storage tanks and classes of different flammable and combustible liquids.
It is also fundamental to prohibit “smoking and other sources of open flames in areas with flammable and combustible liquids” (NFPA 473). This is the basic step to reducing cases of fire and explosions at such locations.
Therefore, people should not smoke, use matches, lighters, and other materials which may produce flames or sparks when dealing with flammable and combustible liquids. Location of signage must be visible for all people visiting the plant.
Location of fire extinguishers should be conspicuous for all employees for accessibility during a fire. Employees should be familiar with operating instructions of fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers also need regular inspection and maintenance to ensure that they are functional.
According to OSHA, inspection of fire extinguishers should be at least once a year (OSHA 57). There should be a date of inspection and the next date of inspection clearly indicated on the extinguisher.
OSHA recommends that fire extinguishers should be placed facing up and regular inspection of hose for any blockage. Seals should not indicate any sign of tampering.
Employees must also learn how to face a fire with an extinguisher. The NFPA recommends that people should recall “PASS” when handling fires (NFPA 469). These are the steps to observe when extinguishing a fire.
They are pulling or pressing the lever or pin of the extinguisher, aiming at the base of the fire, squeezing the handle to release extinguishing agent, and sweeping from side to side until the fire goes out.
NFPA also indicates that it is dangerous to turn back on a fire. This is because the fire has the potential to flash up again. NFPA and OSHA warn that people should leave the facility in case of a large fire that they cannot handle with available facilities.
They must call the fire department immediately. This should be clearly indicated on the emergency plan in case of a fire. The fire department must provide training on dealing with fires in extreme cases.
Fire fighting remains a dangerous undertaking. It is necessary to invite a fire department to train workers on various methods of handling fires. At the same time, they should also tour the plant and provide recommendations as necessary. It is necessary to identify faulty areas and potential sources of fires.
Cases of poor services of fuel tanks that led to catastrophic disasters: what was wrong or poor service? No fires are similar based on their causes and patterns. However, they have same destructive effects on the environment, property, and sometimes on lives of people. These are the cases of BP Texas City Refinery Explosion and the Buncefield fire of the UK in 2005.
BP Texas City Refinery Explosion The CSB report indicates that BP failed to “implement all the safety recommendations about the blowdown drums before the explosion” (CSB 1). Initial reports had indicated that the company was familiar with the issue of blowdown drums.
Previously, Amoco proposed to replace blowdown drums that vented into the atmosphere. However, there were budget strains changes, and it did not make any changes. OSHA had also expressed its concerns about unsafe design of such pressure releasing system. BP ignored safety issues in order to cut costs.
Blowdown drums and stack operate by means of carrying “the mixed liquid, and or vapor hydrocarbons from venting relief and blowdown valves during unit upsets or following a unit shutdown” (CSB 5). Usually, remaining hydrocarbon vapors detach themselves from the liquid and rise to the top of the stack and escape to the atmosphere.
Heavy, hydrocarbon vapors condense and fall back to the bottom of the blowdown drum for subsequent collections. However, according to the report based on the industry provisions, this method of discharging vapor is hazardous. The codes and other acceptable standards recommended that such facilities should discharge their wastes directly to the sewer.
The company knew that the vapors, which passed through the blowdown drum, were highly inflammable liquid contents, and thus, any explosion could be highly risky. Further, blowdown drums were also sources of fire hazard.
The company heavily depended on the blowdown drum. However, it failed to implement any recommendations from various inspection reports.
Specifically, CSB report put it that the company “failed to replace the internal baffles, decommissioning the quench system, and adding more inlets, which possibly reduced its effectiveness” (CSB 32).
Earlier reports had indicated that the company should install flare systems or closed relief systems. These designs have abilities to reduce such risks considerably.
Many reports have indicated failure of the company to upgrade its systems to acceptable safety standards even after recommendations. Blowdown drum should not vent into the atmosphere due to their risks to the flammable and combustible liquid facilities and the surrounding environment.
The BP Texas City Refinery safety standards of 1977 noted as follows “the industry standards did not permit new blowdown stacks, and BP ought to have connected the blowdown drums to closed systems or flares when the operations of the company outgrew existing facilities, or when it made major modifications to the units” (CSB 67).
The company made changes to the blowdown drums in order to increase their carrying capacities. However, the company did not include any connection to a safe disposal system such as a flare as recommended.
In the year 2002, engineers from the company recommended that BP should connect relief valves to a flare for discharging wastes in order to conserve the environment. However, the company disregarded this recommendation in order to save costs on maintenance.
BP Texas City Refinery Explosion shows the importance of upgrading systems that handle flammable and combustible liquids. It is clear that the explosion resulted from poor and outdated blowdown drum, which could not meet increased activities at the refinery.
Thus, it is important for companies to build their storage facilities to meet acceptable standards in the codes and regulations of various states.
The Buncefield Fire 2005 The report showed that the explosion probably emanated from ignition of a vapor cloud suspected to have originated from a storage tank. This could have happened from overfill of unleaded petrol. However, the report cannot account for the violet blast that occurred at the facility.
The finding points to a failure of the shut down system that lock tank when it is full after delivery. It also focused on the composition of the liquid. This case resulted into a serious environmental concern due to its impacts on the groundwater.
The Buncefield Fire raised issues relating to three areas. This included “design and operation of storage sites, emergency response to incidents, and advice to planning authorities” (HSE 18).
From the design and operation point of view, the facility failed to contain fuel and water (firewater) used in firefighting at all levels. Thus, the facility failed in containment standards. The primary aim of a containment structure is to ensure that the liquid does not spread outside the vessel and dike area.
This indicates that future designs must consider building dikes and other methods of containing the liquid to prevent it from leaving the tank and forming flammable or combustible vapor. The report recommended bund and drains as means of providing secondary and tertiary containment strategies.
There was also a case of “overtopping”. This practice has the potential to produce dangerous and explosive mixtures from flammable and combustible liquids. The report also noted that the design of the tank could have also been a source of vapor formation.
There was also a problem with the location of the pump house. This is the main source of cooling water for the whole plant. The pump house was close to storage facilities and also downhill. The reported indicated that it could have been the source of earlier ignition.
The pump house acted as the source of firefighting for the facility. Its earlier loss left the site with no means to fight the fire. The Board noted that pump house could have exploded internally from the vapor that entered it after escaping the vessel. It posed a threat to fire pumps.
The Board noted that the response to the situation was “very impressive” (HSE 21). It has shown how effective emergency response works in case of a major incident.
It also showed the need to improve in responding to emergency incidents across the UK and other places. The Board noted that the facility, residential, and commercial development should not be near plants like Buncefield.
Works Cited CSB. BP Texas City: Final Investigation Report. Texas: CSB, 2005. Print.
HSE. Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board. London: Crown, 2006. Print.
NFPA. NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 2012 Edition. Quincy, MA: NFPA, 2012. Print.
OSHA. Regulatory Compliance Guide. Washington, DC: OSHA, 2002. Print.
Toyota Corporation Issue management plan Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Evaluation of Results
Introduction Toyota Corporation is a Japanese automobile manufacturer that is involved in robotics, biotechnology and financial services. The corporation has been in the industry since 1937, and has had a stain-free history and experienced an unprecedented growth in its operation, currently with over 500 subsidiaries and a labor force of more than 300,000 globally; however over the recent times, the corporation has been facing nightmares of all sorts.
The company has been encountered by a number of crises ranging from leadership crisis, public relations, diminishing returns, and the global economic meltdown to the most recent crisis, the accelerator pedal defaults. In counter to these unanticipated situations threatening its continuity and in an attempt to recover from these crises, the corporation’s public relations department was necessitated to formulate an issue management plan.
In developing the issue management plan, the corporation has identified the important aspects that need consideration: the crisis management methods to be adopted, the Toyota communication plan, and the corporation’s management team. It consists of ways of response to the crisis in reality and perception and metrics to define what scenarios are to be handled as crisis (Gottschalk 2002).
Issues Identification The company’s issues identification approach takes into consideration the entire process of ascertaining the financial, political, legal, government and communication problems associated with the crisis at hand. It all started with the financial warning that was issued by the corporation anticipating its first ever loss since its operations commenced close to seventy years ago.
A financial forecast that revealed the first ever operating loss was attributed largely to the slump in sales of the manufactured automobiles and robotics and the fact that that the value of the Yen was continuously becoming inferior to the dollar and other major world currencies.
Toyota problems was compounded by stiff competition from other automobile manufacturers notably Honda and the slump in the global economy occasioned by the events in Wall Street. Manufacturers of automobile around the world were faced with a tough challenge due to a shake in the operating environment that caused a sharp shift in demand because of the deepened financial crisis that spread over consumers in worldwide.
According to The Economist (2010), “the entity had reduced its operating estimate to a loss of 150 Billion Yen in its fiscal year that ended March 2010; the reduced estimate was subsequent to surprising the international economic markets by decreasing its group working earnings predictions by an unparalleled 1 trillion Yen.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota’s situation was further aggreviated by the recall crisis of its recently manufactured automobiles with supposedly faulty braking systems. This all started on 28th August, 2009 when a Californian highway patrol officer was travelling on Highway 125 in Santee California with members of his family when the Lexus ES350 they were travelling in unceremoniously accelerated out of control hitting other vehicles and rolling over an embankment bursting flames, killing all the four occupants.
The incident was said to have been caused by a stuck accelerator that made the vehicle speed uncontrollably. This was followed by a series of similar accidents and complaints from customers over the issue, which led to the recall of over 8.1 million with US reporting 5.5 million cases and also led to suspension of sales of about eight of its best selling brands costing the corporation at least $54 million every day on lost sales.
These crises coupled together have rely had a negative impact on the company’s operations in terms of moneys spend in rectifying the faulty pedals, lost sales, reduced profitability, decreased production and also its public relations. Notably the devastating impacts of these crises are evident on the company’s share, which has hit a new low of $71.80 in the New York stock and the corporation has reduced its networth by about $25 million.
Issues Analysis Due to the proneness of the corporation to variations in the industry, the corporation has adopted a crisis contingency plan to cover uncertainties occurring, unlike in earlier times the corporation operated without a contingency plan that left the corporation at the risk of bad reputation, public scrutiny, even compromising its continuity in case where a crisis erupts.
The recall crisis took the American market by storm because of the negative publicity and anxiety caused to other customers with the latest Toyota models, the public went into a frenzy with many fearing to use our automobiles and discussions on social networks, televisions and print media reaching fever pitch.
The management of the corporation in the US market went into a crisis meeting to evaluate the accuracy of the allegations and possibly do some damage control. The mangled wreck of the vehicle was collected and taken to the Toyota laboratories for investigations. However, preliminary reports on the crash from both the corporation and independent local authorities indeed showed that the Lexus ES 350 was acquired on a loan from Bob Baker Lexus Showroom of San Diego where the personal car of the victim was being held for repair in return. It was also clear that the Lexus may have been fitted with the wrong floor mats thereby interfering with its gas pedal.
From these investigations, management learnt of the inherent risk in the latest automobiles from the American plant supplied into the market. In October 2010, an article in The Economist highlighted the level of hazard caused by the company’s automobiles.
We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those affected were mainly individuals who had purchased their latest automobiles from the American plant. It was also reported that nine other separate incidents where local authority investigations on other accidents involving Toyota vehicles were done.
Majority of the accidents were a consequence of wrong bottom mats and a number of others due to the spruce pieces on the Sienna models. Investigations reported also revealed that the other fatality accidents were as a result of unintended acceleration of the vehicles.
“In depth investigations and analysis by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) further revealed that the mats used on the floor of these automobiles were specifically meant for the RX 400 SUV Toyota Lexus but these were erroneously used on the ES 350 model.” This manufacturing error resulted in the accelerator gearshift to wedge against the rubber mats causing the vehicles to speed up abruptly.
Strategy Options The issues management plan shall incorporate specific management strategy options to be taken during crisis, depending on the nature and extent of the crisis, to minimize the impact of a looming crisis and provide a response mechanism that will mitigate any crisis occurring.
The strategic options should address diverse scenarios of crises ranging from environmental crisis, natural calamities, and technological mishaps; confrontational crisis such as industrial action or crisis arising from management goofs and skewed management values.
For effective strategic positioning in anticipation of crisis, the corporation should provide for crisis planning. Since most crises occur within the predictability of a corporation, for the anticipated crisis, it should identify the dangers or risks involved in its market and come up with an issues management plan, which shows the measures to be put in place when crises strike.
Crisis planning is aimed at minimizing the impact of the crisis and provides a response system and also aims at putting the organization at the best possible position to counteract and recover from crises. However, when planning, the crisis team should be inclusive and not limited to specific disasters, although it can lay more emphasis on the anticipated crisis. A more effective way for the organization to take is creating a crisis management function within its operations.
This operates as a division in the organization and its functions includes; predicting any occurrence of a crisis, planning to curb crisis, communicating and advising the management about the vulnerability of the organization. Issues planning will address matters like crisis management methods, communication plan, management team and the evacuation team.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another option is creation of a crisis team that is well prepared to combat any crisis. The management should identify the main players to take positions in the team, based on their specialty, character and ability to work.
The crisis team responsibilities include: restoring information networks, control and commands in times of a crisis while acquiring information, so as to provide the senior staff with adequate information on the situation. To enable teamwork and to solve the crisis, the crisis team needs to adopt crisis management, for example performing drills or scenarios to create an imaginary crisis, to evaluate how the team would respond in times of a real disaster.
At the post-crisis stage, the management should put in place a crisis recovery plan. This involves steps that are necessary to bring back the organization to its functioning position. This involves: existing backup of important information, logs, staff and other lists; conducting an insurance review to make sure that it can adequately compensate all risks incurred; exploring legal elements of recovery with the legal department; and reviewing all current service agreements and check for post-crisis provisions and recovery support.
In a case where the company has experienced enduring crisis, which hinder the company’s operation, it could consider discontinuing the business segment, brand or subsidiary affected by the crisis for sometime or forever; or engaging a strategic business combination, such as merger, takeover or amalgamations.
Although this may seem unwise in the short-term, in the long-term it makes sense to the company in terms of; the crisis may spread to other segments, savings in future losses, company reputation and improve on the company’s return on investment (Reid 2000).
Action Plan For the organization to successfully implement the strategic options at hand, it needs to adopt an action plan. More importantly the action plan should incorporate an elaborate and well-structures communication plan. The communication plan involves coordinating, directing and communicating and providing the levels of command and channels of communication among the crisis team, the stakeholders and media when handling a crisis.
Crisis communication can transform the unexpected into the anticipated and save the company’s credibility and reputation. More importantly is the media management strategy. Media centre is set up that will be headed a chief spokesperson or a senior communications and public relations officer.
From this centre, the Chief Executive Officer and the Managing Director will be personally available to give media updates on the state of affairs. The chief spokesman is supposed handle the media while the rest of the staff are advised to keep off not to communicate with the media personally or give any information that could interrupt the process.
However, the adopted action plan should not be static rather flexible and adaptable with pertinent inclusion of issues and specifics that have come up. The action should ensure inclusion of a clear hierarchy of command that mentions by name and authority assigned to a given position in the case of an emergency. The contact of such personnel both physical addresses, postal addresses and cell phone contacts shall be part of the list to ensure information is conveyed expeditiously.
Evaluation of Results This will entail establishing a mechanism for setting an agenda for evaluation and review. In evaluation of results, feedback is an important pointer. In the midst or after a crisis, the company should institute a corporation feedback mechanism where affected parties will forward their responses and feedback on how they think the situation was handled and ought to have been done or not.
On the corporation’s official website, the management should place a commentary or feedback portal that is interactive and offers necessary information. Also the corporation should design a facility level stakeholders’ scorecards” managed by the corporation’s CSO (The Economist 2009).
Reference list Gottschalk, E. (2002). Crisis Management. Melbourne: John
Mediation in IT Outsourcing Report essay help
Table of Contents Mediation process
Issues in Mediation
Mediation process Mediation process is an exercise aimed at bringing two parties into an agreement in an outsourcing deal. Vendors or suppliers of Information technology products and services are made to agree on the terms of their relationship with the organization(s) requiring these services.
This mediation process is usually supported by an expert who will at all times ensure that the parties focus on their main goal of entering into a mutually beneficial outsourcing agreement rather than their differences (Rost, 2006). In the mediation process each party will come up with its terms of references and the mediator will facilitate the negotiation process (Sparrow, 2003).
Negotiations between organizations like Condy software services and WeRunIt is usually very challenging because Condys’ agenda will be profit maximization through high sales while WeRunIt will be aiming at maximum profitability through low cost production.
According to Hale (2005) in most cases parties are in agreement as regards the ultimate formation of the outsourcing relationship but the cost and terms/ conditions of engagements usually bring in contention. It is in here that mediation process brings in sobriety to the parties so that their discussions will be directed towards achievement of their ultimate goals.
Issues in Mediation The mediation between WeRunIt and Condy software services mainly focused on the contractual price, period and other conditions. The two organizations debated for a long time over the pricing structure and payment frequencies. This was the most contentious issue but finally the parties came to a crunch and an agreement was arrived at.
Condy agreed to take the responsibility of creating and maintaining WeRunIts’ website. It also signed in to put up an e-commerce module in the website to facilitate online payment and maintain databases of entrants to different promotions. Condy was not able to accept the responsibility for supporting accounting systems of WeRunIt since they did not have expertise in the area.
Contractual period and the termination rights were also discussed and both organizations agreed on a five years renewable contract only to be terminated by a five months notice period by either party. Condy actually lobbied for a longer period of time since the initial capital required to roll out the project was high while WeRunIt wanted a shorter contract period so that it could test the competency of the vendor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The service level agreements were also agreed upon and remedies on cases of downtimes were discussed. WeRunIt actually rooted for an absolute 24 hours a day uptime for the website and e-commerce module but with negations from Condy 2% allowable downtime was agreed to be normal. The service level agreement actually focused more on the quality and reliability of service by Condy software services which WeRunIt was actually assured.
The two parties agreed that ownership of the e-commerce software used would belong to Condy, while the domain name and the web site to WeRunIt. Condy accepted responsibility for the WeRunIt s’ data safety at their premises and therefore it was mandated to ensure that they have proper disaster recovery and back up plans.
Lessons learned During the mediation several lessons were learned and these includes;
The role of mediator is very challenging and requires a person who is impartial and is able to keep both parties in to discussing relevant issues to the agreement (Greaver, 2000).
Mediation agreements are not the making of the facilitator rather the parties consequently they are more binding and results in an amicable settlement.
In mediation not all the expectations are usually satisfied.
References Greaver, M., 2000. Strategic outsourcing: a structured approach to outsourcing decisions and initiatives. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Hale, J., 2005. Outsourcing training and development: Factors for success. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Rost, J., 2006. The insider’s guide to outsourcing risks and rewards. New York: CRC Press.
Sparrow, E., 2003. Successful IT outsourcing: From choosing a provider to managing the project. New York: Springer.
We will write a custom Report on Mediation in IT Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
African identity Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
American scholars studying the topic of slavery and in particular African slavery have engaged each other on the issue of African identity. Many of these debates have focused on the ethnological labeling of Africans based on their ethnic identities. One such ethnic grouping that has managed to draw a lot of attention is the Igbo ethnic identity.
The issue of Igbo ethnic identity was brought to the fray by the story of Olaudah Equiano, who in his autobiography claimed to have been born in Igbo land but an American slavery scholar by the name Vincent Carretta disputes Mr. Equiano allegations stating that he was born in America, South Carolina to be precise.
Despite this controversial assertion, Mr. Equiano books managed to attain global acclaim due to its depiction of 18th century African Atlantic identity.
According to his autobiography, Mr. Equiano was captured in Nigeria and sold to American slave owners. Mr. Equiano was later able to purchase his freedom and as a freedman, he was able to travel to different parts of the world learning the various cultures before deciding to settle permanently in England.
Mr. Equiano story is one such depiction of how many of the Africans who were enslaved in various parts of the world during the eighteenth-century slave trade were able to form their identities. As a slave, Mr. Equiano got to travel to the United States and stayed there for quite a while serving his master.
During this time, he was able to learn various aspects of the American culture. As a freedman, Mr. Equiano was able to travel to different parts of the world including Central America, the Caribbean and the Arctic and in these places; he also had an opportunity to learn new cultures of the people that were leaving in these areas.
After deciding to settle in England finally, Mr. Equiano also was able to learn aspects of the English culture and integrate it into his own identity. The story of Mr. Equiano is an essential illustration of the many debates that have been held over time by African slavery scholars on the twin issues of creolisation and retention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some opponents of creolisation argue that even after arriving in America and other foreign destinations, Africans still were in a position to retain their African identities and maintain contact with their African heritage.
However, both sides of the divide seem to concur that the process of African identity development involved the integration of new cultures into the existing African cultures resulting to the new African American and other such corresponding cultures.
One of the specific aspects of African identity during the eighteenth century slave trade period is the aspect of group identity. Group identity was most notable among the well-traveled African slaves who had an opportunity to live in different cultural settings and consequently learning the cultural aspects of the people living in these places.
In order to clearly illustrate this aspect, the story of Domingo Alvarez is used, a Benin born man who was able to live in various parts of the world, including West Africa, Brazil and Portugal. Domingo Alvarez worked as a slave in Brazil and during this time, he was able to apply his knowledge in matters of divinity and healing which he acquired from home to help other people.
This uniqueness enhanced his reputation making him one of the most popular slaves in the farm. However, after using his powers to poison his master Domingo Alvarez, was jailed and on completion of his jail term sold to another master.
The new master wanted to apply Domingo Alvarez in the healing of his wife, but when this failed to materialise, Domingo Alvarez was sold to a third master who in turn wanted to profit from his slave’s talents.
After saving some money that he got from going into business with his master, Domingo Alvarez was able to purchase his freedom and practiced freely before being arrested by Portuguese authorities on charges of witchcraft; this saw him spend time exiled to a remote part of Portugal.
We will write a custom Essay on African identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the trial in Brazil, the issue of Domingo Alvarez identity arose several times and various people who were called to testify made different assertions as to the origin of this man. Domingo Alvarez himself testified that he was born in Nangoˆ on the Mina, however various people who were called to testify had different claims about Mr. Domingo Alvarez birthplace.
This was because Domingo Alvarez had traveled far and wide and consequently, he was able to learn various cultural practices that formed the basis of his identity. During his interactions with the people, Mr. Domingo Alvarez was able to deploy the most convenient identity that resulted in these people making presumptions about his birthplace.
For instance, many people who interacted with him assumed that he was from Mina Nation. However, one of his long-time friends asserted that Mr. Domingo Alvarez was actually from Cobu.
After all, is said and done, the story of Olaudah Equiano and Domingo Alvarez reveals the complexities that went into forming the Atlantic African identity.
These were people whose lives were periodically changed whereby they were taken from one socio-cultural setting to another and consequently, they had to make appropriate adjustments in order for them to fit into these settings.
Therefore, a study that seeks to analyse the African Atlantic identity should place more emphasis their complete life stories as opposed to simply focusing on their ethnic origins.
The Gods Must Be Crazy Essay (Movie Review) essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Interpersonal communication forms
Introduction Interpersonal communication has several meaning according to its application ranging from personality traits, interactional tools, and the mind orientation. To date, there has never been a universally accepted definition what it is thus challenging for one to define his/her meaning.
However, through the life process one acquires a unique collection of experiences and ideas defining who or what they are, and in my opinion, this is a suitable definition of cultural origin and practice. Interpersonal communication trends entail those patterns that revolutionize and changes over time, which can be within days, months or years.
Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly establish the effects of interpersonal communication patterns, perceptions, verbal codes, nonverbal codes, social episodes, and roles on personal communication in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy by Jamie Uys in 1980.
Interpersonal communication forms In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, the director presents an interesting cultural interaction between the native San tribe living in the Kalahari Desert and the western culture. The plot of the film focuses on the San relatives headed by Xi who are ignorant of modern life outside the Kalahari Desert. Along the story, there is a blossoming love between a scientist and a teacher, poachers, and nature reflection.
The San tribe has everything they need and the gods are fair to them until the Coca-Cola bottle threatens this unity (Uys, scene 18, 1980). The journey to return the Coca-Cola bottle ends up with a long search for two sons who boarded a water track belonging to poachers. Xi displays his survival skills to the modernized parties and the film ends with a happy reunion between father and his two sons.
The cultural patterns in the San tribe directly affect their communication. Being a relatively primitive society, they seem to worship the sky and believe that the jet lanes in the sky are roads made by the gods who were very kind to drop for them a Coca-Cola bottle.
Being a patriarchal hierarchy, the male is the head of the family cluster and makes the crucial decisions. For instance, Xi had to make the final decision to return the bottle since it was bringing a ‘curse’ to his household (Uys, scene 12, 1980).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a communal living culture, the children are expected to play together and have to bow their heads when speaking to the adults. In fact, the communication of visual information and ideas for the last four centuries has been the function that has enabled science to advance, has it has helped people to see how things work.
The members of this culture have different sounds for different occasions. For instance, hunting which is a preserve for the males is organized and executed in a unique communication signs. Whenever the hunting is successful, the young adult children would be the first to make it into the village and the adults would share the catch to all the households.
The male adults have their special caucuses where they spit on the ground as an approval sign or sigh to reject an opinion. Thus, Visual representational meaning of the communication conveys the relationship between the parties and the depicted structuring.
The creation of a visual representational meaning proposed the space-based model for analysis centered in the placement of objects within the semiotic space as controlled and regulated by culture of the parties involved.
In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, several events connote the nonverbal communication of the San tribe culture. For instance, when the younger son of Xi has to face the hyena threatening to kill him, he reaches for a rod and places it on his head to extend his height probably because hyenas don’t eat adults.
On the other hand, the throwing away of the Coca-Cola bottle by Xi could be translated as a sign of disappointment or anger. Besides, throwing food on the ground before and after eating would symbolize feeding the ancestors who provided for their daily needs.
Across the film, Xi is fond of placing his left hand on either the forehead or the chest of the person he is communicating with to symbolize peace, blessings, or love for humanity (Uys, scene 16, 1980). Moreover, the marking of animal footprints would represent the nonverbal communication of tracking animals.
We will write a custom Essay on The Gods Must Be Crazy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are several special features to the verbal and nonverbal codes used by the members of the San clan in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy. There is gradual transformation on the film. The only difference in culture lies on the degree and multitude under which it is applied and actively recognized by the community in their proactive reorganization for relevance and meanings of the codes used.
For instance, the San culture has embraced dependence as families and adopts extended affiliations as opposed to nuclear family ties. As these families grow bigger and bigger, the majority has finally accepted every member of their families as equals when allocating resources, opportunities, and roles.
This trend has necessitated the adoption of cognitive descent, which is a fusion between traditional and spiritual belief orientation that ensures continuity (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).
Basically, the verbal and nonverbal codes within this culture are controlled by a collective responsibly and common understanding of what is expected of each member who is assigned a unique role.
There are three kinds of meanings that are concerned with building relationships between the communicating parties that clearly come out in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy: those of (1) attitude, (2) social distance, and (3) contact.
Contact is one of the most important visual systems as it enables the viewer to distinguish between images that depict different objects, such as person or animal. Contact visualization is commonly achieved by use the plot that introduces the characters at the beginning of the story (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).
Being a predominantly conservative society, the San tribe in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has distinct social episodes that are governed by specific cultural rules. For instance, in episode 12, when Xi finally makes it to the cliff top surrounded by low lying clouds, he automatically assumes that he had made it to the world’s edge and releases the bottle down the cliff (Uys, scene 19, 1980).
He then makes it back to his family and the whole clan welcomes him with a warm reception. In this episode, it is apparent that making a journey to the edge of the world and coming back a live is equivocal to going to war and coming back alive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gods Must Be Crazy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This symbolizes the blessings and protection from the gods and must be celebrated. In addition, the San clan believed that they are the only human being on that world and Xi reacts very strangely and assumes that the people he met outside the San clan are actually gods who seemed comparatively huge and had road vehicles.
Unlike this uniform social structure of interpersonal communication exhibited by the San Clan, it is apparent that the same would not be possible, especially in the Middle Eastern social structure of interpersonal communication that functions in class system stratification though inclusive of hidden discrepancies associated with caste system such as discrimination of the minorities due to skin color, gender, race, nationality, and religion since it is a state acquired in life and not determined by birth.
Being an intriguing idea, the film focuses on social norms as a mirrored reflection of what a society would like to visualize from a string of intertwining ideas. Social norms involve impersonal consciousness, stepwise process, and absolute necessity assumptions aimed at creating a sustainable, friendly, and acceptable irksome feeling (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).
The film seems to propagate the significance of culture in interpersonal communication. To begin with, the story line is thought-provoking. On the other hand, it has an interesting struggle premise taking the route of a thought-provoking to venture down the path of action and belief scenes.
Reflectively, this creates a feeling of imaginative casting. Factually, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy is very fascinating in aligning beliefs to culture and how the same is interpreted in the interpersonal communication through symbols and codes. This is a vicissitude of life, items that Xi and his two sons turn about to be a necessity for their survival (Uys, scene 21, 1980).
Conclusion Generally, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has an interesting plot besides its richness in augmenting interpersonal communication as a component of culture. The director has fused a documentary approach and humor to present a favorable piece of art that would be of great benefit to an individual interested in exploring intercultural communication and its variable at micro and macro levels of a geographical setting.
References Alder, R., Rolls, J.,
Debate of Gun Control in America Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Gun control issue
Views of opponents
Views of proponents
Gun control issue The issue of gun control raises a very contested debate whenever any act of violence is committed and a gun is involved executing it. Several stakeholders, including politicians, policy implementers, gun lobbyists, and the civil society have been engaging in the discussion for over a century, but an ultimate response is yet to be reached.
Those suggesting that ownership of the gun is illegal and unethical observe that the local authorities and the federal agencies in charge of the gun control policy are not doing enough in terms of policy formulation because the rate at which people acquire guns and use them to destroy life is alarming.
Indeed, it is a threat to the national security. For the advocates, they present a dissenting view by noting that the law goes too far, which amounts to infringement of individual rights.
Opponents of gun control defend the argument that each American should be allowed to own a gun since introducing control measures prevent individuals from protecting their lives and property. For instance, hunters, sport shooters, and recreational gunmen should be allowed to acquire guns since their aim is not to harm anyone, but instead to enjoy their lives (Lavery
Early intervention programs Research Paper essay help: essay help
Abstract The number of children whose academic, social and intellectual life is affected due to mental and developmental conditions is on the rise. Most of these conditions develop to uncontrollable levels because of ignorance or negligence. The many myths surrounding mental or developmental conditions are a major cause of families of affected children to develop bitterness and to shy off from seeking appropriate help in time.
Several early intervention programs have been put in place, and the number of beneficiaries of these programs is increasing by the day. Affected children are given a different perspective in life and their families are helped to deal with any form of intimidation and shame they may be going through.
This research seeks to look into early intervention programs and their effectiveness. Other factors tackled herein include the memory functions that affect reading comprehension as well as the various developmental factors that influence reading acquisition.
Introduction Young children are more exposed to attack on their health, and are therefore more likely to have disability or handicap of any form. If such a discovery upon a child is made, early intervention is put into application. It either includes helping the affected child and his immediate family to prevent development of such a condition or assisting in control of the condition, in cases where the condition has already developed.
Early intervention is not only restricted to hospitals and health care centers, but it is also practiced in schools, homes and in other relevant units. It also covers children in all stages of life including new born babies. Early intervention is not merely done for the child’s welfare, but also for the child’s family and for the society at large; a child on whom early intervention is done tends to be more productive and profitable to his family and the society.
Importance of early intervention Research reports from reliable sources indicate that parents of children who have a handicap or a similar condition are more likely to divorce or separate than parents of non handicapped children (Sousa, p 54).
It is also reported that the careers of the parents are greatly affected, and one of the parents ends up being laid off or resigning early from work. There is also a tendency of such families to keep to themselves because of shame and low self esteem (Lapp, p 98). All of the above effects are likely to be a major drawback to the child’s mental and emotional growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also easier to shape a young person into anything, and the ease with which one can learn and do an acquired thing decreases with age. Since children gain knowledge and grow physically, mentally and psychologically faster when young, it is recommended that early intervention is carried out the earliest possible (Sousa, p 101).
A child’s conscience is innocent, and it is easier to teach a child to adapt to a handicap without developing self pity than it is to teach an adult or an older person. It is therefore advisable to implement an early intervention program as soon as any development of a condition is suspected (Sousa, p 101).
How successful is early intervention? It has been proved that early intervention works, as gathered from collected data, parents, teachers, and siblings of affected children. The beneficiaries of such programs are said to perform better in school, to have better proficiency in employment and to have better relations with people than those who did not undergo the program (Richardson, p 243).
According to research findings, those that do not have early intervention practiced on them are very anti-social, and they show no appreciation for education. Most of them also repeat classes and lack motivation for pursuing studies beyond O-level (Lapp, p 132).
There are various early intervention programs that have shown efficiency over the years. Such programs are different in what they tackle, and they affect different classes of conditions that affect children and their families. Successful programs include: those that cover children between the age of three and six years inclusive who show problems in how they behave (Lapp, p 152).
An example of such a program is Exploring Together Preschool Program (ETPP). Another type of early intervention programs are those that deal with helping children who are at a risk of getting certain diseases because of being overweight. Other programs help children who have mental problems and children who are hyperactive and are at a risk of having emotional crisis and are in need for excessive attention (Sousa, p 146).
For children who are a bit older and they have difficulties in reading, programs are implemented to assist them to have fluency and to build their vocabulary. This is done by giving them passages to read over a period of several weeks or even months, depending on the rate at which the children are learning.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Early intervention programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The complexity of these passages increases with time as the children develop “automatic decoding.” According to Richardson, reading done persistently and consistently over a period of time eventually develops the ability in the child to be fluent and sharp without any effort to think about it, something he calls “over reading.” The two most effective ways of assisting such children are the use of reciprocal teaching and the use of self questioning (Richardson, p 310).
Brain based factors using memory functions to build reading comprehension The working memory of the brain is what in to read, to understand and to reason argumentatively. The information one reads is developed in the brain and laid up in the memory (Sousa, p 155). For a child to have full comprehension of what he or she reads, several functions of the memory have to be in place.
The receptive memory enables the child to have the decoding ability of what they read. After decoding, the contents of the material are not yet home. The proper functioning of the conservative memory will enable the decoded message to be retained in a specific part of the brain, after which the message is developed and built upon in the multiplicative memory (Richardson, p 245).
The significative memory will help the child to compare or relate the information they read with any other related information that may have stored in their memory. Both the restorative and the determinative memory functions process the read information so as to give it more meaningfulness (Richardson, p 247). How meaningful a piece of information is will be seen by the output seen from the child. These functions enhance the child’s remembering ability and his application of the knowledge (Lapp, p 149).
Basically, reading comprehension entails the ability to not only read a particular article, but to also acquire meaning from it and to have a helpful interpretation of the contents therein. For children who may have sustained mild or severe brain injuries, reading comprehension becomes somewhat challenging.
Most of these children suffer from dyslexia, a condition in which a child may be able to read any article with fluency but with difficulties in understanding the contents of the article. Brain health and fitness is important if one is to have accurate comprehension of what they read (Richardson, p 65).
Developmental factors that interact with the acquisition of reading The development of a child is influenced by various factors which in turn influence the way in which the child will acquire reading skills. The relationships that surround a child determine how the child will develop mentally. Such relationships include those between the child and his parents, siblings and other influential people in the child’s life.
The child also watches how the parents relate to each other, how elder siblings relate to each other and how teachers relate to each other (Lapp, p 105). The above mentioned relationships have a way of programming the neurons of the brain to produce positive or negative development of the child. This directly affects the performance of the child academically and in other areas (Sousa, p 204).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Early intervention programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rate of development of the brain in the lifetime of a child is determined by the developmental rate of his brain in the first three years of his life (Richardson, p 196). In these three years, the development of the child’s brain is mostly determined by those who give care to the child.
In most cases, a child has both parents working the whole day, and the child is left in the hands of a nanny or in a day care nursery. Research shows that children who pass through day care nurseries have better reading acquisition skills than those who do not. This is because in such nurseries, the child is not just looked after before the parents get home from work, but they are also prepared for pre-school (Sousa, p 121).
Another developmental factor that influences how a child will acquire reading skills in their academic lifetime is the kind of socioeconomic status they are brought up in. Poverty in a family slows down a child’s development, and it has been found to have direct traumatic effects on the child.
It limits the child’s thinking capacity and it draws out the morale of developing themselves by learning (Lapp, p 43). Such children have a low self esteem and they believe that they cannot achieve what another child can. The effects of poverty on a child follow that child in other areas of his life and up to an advanced age (Lapp, p 49).
Because of lack of money, the child’s parents may also not be in a position to pay for the child’s fees or to buy resourceful materials and books. Therefore, the efforts of a child who has self motivation to read are invalidated.
Poverty also has indirect effects on a child. Poverty has been a known cause for domestic fights between parents, which adversely affects the child’s development and perspective of life. Parents who result to drinking, drug abuse and prostitution become a bad influence to the child, who may end up adapting a similar lifestyle (Richardson, p 476).
Poverty translates to under nutrition and malnutrition. This means that the child does not have the opportunity to eat foods that contain nutrients which enhance brain development (Lapp, p 174). As a result of malnutrition, the child is also prone to deficiency diseases. This affects the child’s development in many ways.
For example, the sick child is not able to participate in outdoor activities that go a long way in helping a child develop. He is not able to play and interact with other children. Sickness may also mean that the child will be out of school many times. This may lead to the child having to repeat some classes; a major cause of low self esteem and a poor self image in the child (Lapp, p 186).
Conclusion Conditions pertaining to the child’s mental wellness are influenced by various factors, some of which are unchangeable. It is virtually not achievable to make a child immune, or so to say, from development of any condition that may affect their thinking, reasoning and developmental capacity, but it is possible, upon suspicion of any development, to change the course of a child’s life using a suitable early intervention program. Early intervention programs are not only effective and beneficial to the child, but also to their families and to the society at large.
Works Cited Sousa, A. David. How the brain learns to read. California: Corwin Press, 2005, p 246.
Richardson, S. Judy, Morgan, F., Raymond
Volunteer tourism Essay essay help
Introduction Volunteer tourism is undertaken by the tourists in the local communities where they volunteer to help the by helping eliminating material poverty. It is an alternative form of tourism because the tourists opt to make their travel locally.
Motivations for participants in volunteer tourism The main motivation of this kind of tourism is to volunteer in working for the host community as the tourists learn more about their culture and other things. They satisfy the desire to work but not to be just tourists. They work for no pay in the communities that they travel to and this benefits in providing free labor, though short term to the host country or community.
There are other tourists that are motivated by the desire to give (Sin, 2009, 487-491). When they visit these communities they try to alleviate poverty materials by giving items to the people. The needy people benefits from these items and the tourists are satisfied. They argue that they feel good when they give. There are other tourists that participate in volunteer tourism in order to contribute to the host community in any way possible.
This is done through community service activities that these participants undertake. They do volunteer work that help the community and they themselves feel that they have contributed to the community.
Others argue that they learn a lot through community service because they get a chance to interact with the people in the community and learn a lot from them. They learn cultural differences between different communities and how they differ from each other. They also learn how the reception is done by different communities and how they differ from each other.
According to (Sin, 2009, 487-491), volunteers in this kind of tourism are also motivated by the desire to try themselves out in doing something.
There are people who engage in it in order to try whether they can do volunteering. This is mostly for people who are doing it for the first time and who are curious to know whether they are capable of doing it. This motivation has increased volunteer tourism in most countries. People also do it in order to try their ability in doing some activities. They test their capability in doing that particular activity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of volunteer experience Volunteer experience causes intrinsic motivation which is a result of mutually beneficial interaction. The intrinsic motivations tries to satisfy intrinsic needs like self actualization and therefore the tourists will feel satisfied when they are in volunteer travels. This is basically for people seeking self actualization (Stebbins
Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview
Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan
Risk Management Plan
Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview Kudler Fine Foods was established in 1998 and deals with food products. It has been growing and expanding steadily over the years and it now plans to diversify on its products portfolio. This is in addition to ensuring that the customers are being served effectively and efficiently (Atkinson, 2008).
The company is planning to improve on its catering services and open another store. This will be enabled by effective marketing and strategic changes within the company. By carefully studying the internal and external environment of the company, it will be possible to carry out a marketing campaign that will improve the competitiveness of the company in the market.
It needs to integrate modern technology with its operations to enable it reach out to many people through the internet and thus increase its market base. This will also make operations faster and efficient (Atkinson, 2008).
Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan The main aim of the draft Strategic plan for Kudler Fine Foods is to provide a framework for improving its catering services together with coping with the growth and opening of another store.
The first action in the formulation of the strategic plan is to re-draft the vision and mission statements to reflect the values of the company and make it relevant and competitive in the market. The vision will be focused on offering a variety of food products to cater for the diverse nature of the clientele’s culture. This change in vision will result in a corresponding change in the mission statement in order to pursue the new vision.
The second step will be a SWOT analysis of the firm. This will involve the review of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the industry within which the firm is operating within. This analysis will help in the drafting of new company values and aligning the same with the new vision, mission, objectives and goals as mapped out in the company’s strategic plan (Keizer, 2009).
A market analysis is required to determine the feasibility of expansion brought about by the opening of a new store. The expansion plan is the major part of the project. This will involve the marketing strategy and many other important aspects related to the new establishment (Alkhafaji, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the final step in the expansion plan. Once the new food store is established, the project will be considered as complete. The company will have a website through which it advertises all its services, in addition to a fan page on Facebook and MySpace. The different outside catering services and new outsourcing activities like mid-morning catering for tea and snacks will also be introduced (Lumbourgh, 2009).
The Vision The vision statement should focus on the diversity of the clientele. This is given that the customers are mostly drawn from the working class, students and travelers. They all have different preferences; for example, the travelers will prefer take-away snacks, working class customers are likely to eat from the joint whereas the students fit in both categories.
The idea of outside catering also needs to be embedded in the vision statement to highlight Kudler Fine Foods’ prowess in providing outside catering services. This will directly affect the mission statement.
The values of the company include offering first class service to its customers and an established good customer relation. The cordial relations extend to the business environment to include the suppliers and community at large.
The employees of Kudler Fine Foods share a familial relationship. Innovation and diligence amongst the staff will be highly rewarded. This should be maintained at all times to foster a working environment conducive for invention, innovation and a productive working culture.
SWOT Analysis 1. Strengths
A competent management team which is self motivated
A positive track record in the community
An established and wide customer base
Growth in corporate clientele base
Competitive advantage over other food stores because of the variety of foods offered
Location in the Central Business District
Extensive sitting space which can accommodate a large number of customers
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inadequate members of staff
Increased operation costs, for example electricity and license fees
A financial management system that is prone to errors
Provision of services on a twenty-four hour basis since the bus companies in the vicinity have buses arriving and departing late in the night and at dawn
Increase in the number of events organizing companies providing opportunities for outside catering
Market is very sensitive to price fluctuations
New competition in the market from new establishments
Lack of enough experienced staff
Market analysis Improvement of Kudler Fine Foods’ stores is included in the plan for expansion and restructuring of the company to deal with the competition in the market. In order to successfully capture customers’ preferences and needs, a market analysis will be carried out for a period of two months.
This is in order to analyze customer satisfaction, needs and experiences that will help determine the scope of operations in the new store (Alkhafaji, 2003). The new foods’ store will be four streets away from the parent store and will be named Kudler Fine Dishes.
It is targeting clients drawn from the establishments on the other side of town, clients interested in subjecting their palates to nice food. This will take the services near the client in addition to attracting new clientele. Kudler Fine Dishes will have a new look. Branding and enhancement of staff appearance will also be carried out.
Training on members of staff will be carried out to improve customer relations and management skills amongst all the new and old members of staff. This is in line with previous feedback on the conduct and quality of services provided by staff.
An analysis will be carried out to discern different food preferences during different hours of the day. It will also include gauging the perception of new services, for example outsourcing to a different company the mid morning catering services. The new establishment will have a smaller sitting capacity.
The project is feasible and Kudler Fine Foods is in a position to successfully implement the project of opening a new food store. This feasibility statement is aimed at highlighting the position of the management on the project and the unanimous acceptance of the same.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new food store is scheduled to open in five months’ time and its operations will start immediately.
Success Factors for Implementing the Plan
A strong financial base
A competent and focused management team
Self motivated and hardworking staff
Pre-amble planning and analysis of the project
A wide client base
A positive track record in catering services
Activity/ Product Units Allocated Cost (US$) Real Cost (US$) Space Rent 1 600 Interior design
Institutional Implementation of Technology Coursework scholarship essay help
The interviewee, an instructional technologist, works in a training facility that provides instructions to teachers on how to incorporate technology into their class plans. From the interview it was established that the major forms of technology being put into use are computer systems and networking facilities.
The interviewee trains teachers on how to use computer software to draft lesson plans as well as ensure proper delivery of lecture material. Some other forms of technology that are implemented include projection systems, interactive whiteboards, interactive tablets, wireless responders, laptops, digital cameras, iPods, flip cameras, televisions and document cameras.
These teachers go through sessions of training to show them how they can use the likes of power-point presentations while delivering lectures. They are taken through all the basic operations that are associated to a particular technology so that they can put it into use as effectively as possible.
With most forms of technology, reliability and stability is heavily dependent on the expertise of the handler and the frequency of use (Jonassen, 2005). The more acquainted to a particular technology a person is, the easier it is for him to use it reliably. The security of the technologies mentioned above depends on a number of factors.
Computers systems especially those with connection to external networks are prone to attacks by viruses and Trojans, as well as invasion by hackers who may end up maliciously locking up the systems. Fortunately, various antivirus and firewall software have been developed and these can be used to maintain the integrity of the systems. Other machines such as projectors and televisions are prone to break-downs occasioned by power surges (Maier, 1998).
The interviewee offers most of his training on location and most of the time she is the sole member of staff. Being a trained professional, she can easily operate the various systems that are installed in the schools she visits to offer the training.
Once she has departed from the institutions after providing the necessary training to the teachers, the users of the technology at a particular time then become the only required staffs. In some instances, the teachers may decide to employ the services of an assistant especially in setting up things like projectors and monitor screens. In this case the assistant and the teacher become the two staff members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the interview, the technological integration training is ideal for individuals with experience in classroom teaching and who comprehensively understand the curriculum. This is understandable because for most of the time the tutors will be the only staffs attending to the specific technologies. In schools with computers connected to an outside network, the services of a network administrator may be required.
I have been able to learn that there are professionals out there who specialize in training individuals (specifically teachers) on how to properly use technology in a classroom setting to further enhance their delivery.
It was interesting to note that entrenching the use of technology into classroom activities can serve to lighten the work of passing the message across. I have also been able to learn that the teachers while putting into use network related activities can work in tandem with network administrators to ensure that the sites they intend to have their students conduct research from contain material that is appropriate.
Reference List Jonassen, D. (2005). Modeling with Technology: Mindtools for Conceptual Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Maier, P. (1998). Using technology in teaching