Cook and Yanow (2005) provide valuable insights on two approaches to organizational learning. The researchers considered peculiarities of cognitive and cultural organizational learning. Notably, Cook and Yanow (2005) single out some shortcomings of the two approaches. Notably, they also suggest specific ways to address these shortcomings.
Thus, Cook and Yanow (2005) focus on cognitive organizational learning. Cognitive approach suggests that “organizational learning entails observable organizational change linked to individual cognition” (Cook
Critical Analysis of Elizabeth I Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction This paper presents a critical analysis of the movie “Elizabeth I “produced by Shekhar Kapur, 1998 in UK (Kapur 2005). The film is also known as “The Virgin Queen”. It is imperative to note that the movie portrays the early years and reign of Queen Elizabeth I (Kapur 2005).
The author of this movie portrays the Queen as a character who has remarkable skills in leadership. On that note, this paper will examine how effective leadership has been portrayed in the movie. Through a careful review of literature and reflection from the movie, this paper will also seek to portray how a chosen leader should demonstrate effective leadership.
A critical analysis of the movie The film “Elizabeth I” is visually interesting as it unfolds by portraying the creation of the Virgin Queen. This makes the movie to appear more fictitious rather than one that highlights the history of Queen Elizabeth (Schumann 2012, p. 24). In the movie, the events began in 1554 during the reign of Elizabeth’s half sister. It commences by exhibiting excellent performance whereby Elizabeth is portrayed as a real woman ready to face impending challenges to establish her reign.
Notably, the author develops other characters such as William Cecil and Francis who were the Queen’s main protectors (Schumann 2012, p. 30). These characters help her to struggle to power. Notably, the author of the film uses other characters to enhance historical accuracy and, to develop themes such as romance and melodrama within the scene (Kapur 2005).
As the plot develops, the author portrays huge divisions that existed in the 16th century in Europe (Gillett 1999, p. 2). These divisions result due to religious differences and wealth. Therefore, Queen Elizabeth is being portrayed as a pragmatic leader due to her performance regardless of the religious and political divisions. As a ruler, she faces numerous challenges including a chronic coup plotted to overthrow her reign.
It is important to note that the movie depicts dramatization of how the Queen succession took place and also captures the adventures that occurred some years after her reign (Schumann 2012, p. 34). Several years after her reign, the Catholics and Protestants were in conflict, a factor that made the Queen to be excommunicated. At this time, she allows Judaism though it was outlawed by the realm where the largest proportion of the population England was Catholics (Gillett 1999, p. 13).
It is evident that the conflicts marked a turning point for the Queen where she tireless influenced the Roman Catholic leaders to allow religious settlement (Kapur 2005). From this point, one can argue that the Queen was very liberal and opposed religious prejudices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Still in the scene, the issue of marriage has been addressed. Notably, most individuals perceive it as a preoccupation for success (Schumann 2012, p. 34). In the movie, the Queen deals with numerous marriage proposals though she fall in deep dilemmas on whom to be in love with. For instance, she could not get married to a foreigner since she would end up handing over her country’s rule to the foreigner (Kapur 2005).
She even feared that if she got a local lover as her husband, he might have turned into a de facto king (Gillett 1999, p. 17). Therefore, she declined the issue and kept it to herself. She claimed that she was married to England (Kapur 2005). Notably, one can deduce that the Queen is a determined public servant who is boundless dedicated to serve her country.
Needless to say, the movie has its legacy on the art and flexible development of politics and religion (Schumann 2012, 40). The reign of the Queen was engulfed by tremendous changes such as rise of new social class, conformity to state and religion. Nevertheless, the Queen emerges as a complex person, an individual with high level of intelligence that scholars could regard as a ruler in post modern monarch (Schumann, 2012, 50).
A critical analysis of effective leadership as portrayed in the movie
Gutted (2011, p. 27) argues that effective leadership begins with self-leadership. This implies that before any leader can think of leading a thriving enterprise, he must first possess and master self-leadership skills. Subtly, self-leadership employs premeditated plans in advance to ensure that the right action takes place at the desired time. Notably, some leaders are more naturally disciplined than others (Gutted 2011, p. 27).
For this reason, there are those that struggle to boost their effectiveness in order to promote their professional will. Needless to say, self-discipline refers to the ability to control your time, resources, thoughts and emotions in such a way that you remain focused on the targeted goal. Hence, effective leadership is crucial in enhancing that leaders achieve the desired ends (Gutted 2011, p. 28).
In line with this, is imperative to note that there are numerous ways can be used to assess the effectiveness of leadership portrayed by a chosen leader. For instance, one can evaluate the cognitive abilities of a leader to determine whether they can make a good leader (DuBrin 2010, p. 71). It is evident from the movie that the Queen was an effective leader. This claim can be supported by the fact that she is able to think and act rationally for the good of her country.
For instance, she stands against religious conflicts and appeal to the Catholic Bishops to allow religious freedom in England (Gillett 1999, 12). On the other hand, personality can be used to assess whether a leader is effective. It is imperative to note that a leader should be impartial yet flexible (DuBrin 2010, p. 106). For instance, the Queen is able to silence her opponents though we find that she have got advisors.
We will write a custom Report on Critical Analysis of Elizabeth I specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Needless to say, an effective leader can be determined by his or her passion to perform a particular task and the flow of experience (DuBrin 2010, p. 141). Notably, one can deduce that the Queen had a passion to serve the country and had a good flow of experiences. For example, she declines getting married to both foreigners and local lovers in order to protect her country. Moreover, as the film ends, it sets a legacy on the Queens ability to safeguard the monarch to an extent that it can be considered as one of the post-modern (Gillett 1999, p. 14).
That notwithstanding, the Queen demonstrates her ability to desert traditional thinking and employs creative strategies for the good of her country. Consequently, she breaks the culture that certain religious doctrines are unacceptable in the realm. Therefore, it is arguable that she has passed the test as an effective leader.
It is imperative to note that there are several attributes that one can learn from the movie on effective leadership. For instance, when considering whether leadership is effective or not, it is important to recognize who holds the power. For example, Queen Elizabeth was born in power. Moreover, during her time, the society she grew in upheld traditional values including monarch (Kapur 2005).
Therefore, once she reigned into power, she modeled the impending values perfectly. In fact the film had demonstrated her ability and commitment to execute duties while upholding traditional values. It is definite that she successfully follows the rulebook with sober personality a factor that makes her to beat all odds. Succinctly, it is arguable that an effective leader should possess a sober personality (Willets 2011, p. 5).
Moreover, effective leaders should have virtues that will enable them to interact with the subjects. These virtues include courage, wit, truthfulness, right ambition and good temper (DuBrin 2010, p. 173). In the movie, the queen is able to interact well with her protectors and other colleagues in parliament. After her reign to power in England she emerges as a mediavel Godfather who understands the nature of her power (Kapur 2005).
She uses political machinations to bring everything in control regardless of few restrictions which engulfed her. As a leader, she finds herself trapped between religious conflicts among Protestants and Catholics (Schumann 2012, p. 30). Nevertheless through her wit and support from the council member she is able to solve impending conflicts. From this analysis if is essential that effective leaders should be gentle but hardy in order to achieve stability.
This will also help them to exert authority effectively and become self-imposed. That notwithstanding, it is essential to note that the Queen possess practical wisdom that enables her to effectively reign and enhance the wellbeing of her people regardless of challenges (Kapur 2005). Inline with this, effective leaders should have moderate temperance in order to ensure that they take reasonable risk for the good of the subjects.
Moreover, integrity is a virtue that builds trust and encourages people to consider ones leadership as legitimate (Willets 2011, p. 5). In line with this, it is imperative to note that virtues, values, morals are the sum total of an effective leader. Nevertheless, scholars argue that these aspects often remain elusive since cannot be defined but they can be demonstrated (Willets 2011, p. 5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Analysis of Elizabeth I by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, it is essential to emphasize that competence and commitment are key ingredients that make a leader effective. For instance, competence determines what a leader can do. Contrastingly, commitment determines what an individual wants to do. Furthermore, combination of the two concepts influences the effectiveness of a leader. Needless to say, character or personality is also a key element and plays a central role in influencing leadership (DuBrin 2010, 202).
Researchers argue that character influences what leaders reinforce, notice or value in the immediate environment (Willets 2011, p. 5). Moreover, character is crucial in making effective decisions. Research has shown that most mistakes committed by leaders have their roots on poor character development. Nevertheless, it is apparent that there is no perfect leader when it comes to character development (Pater 2011, 58).
Evidence can be derived from the fact that majority of them end up making inappropriate decisions probably due to overconfidence. Some aspects in their characters bide their minds to an extent that they fail to consider important contextual variables. In this case, they are led by emotions that hijack their self-control, a factor that results into wrong decisions. Pater (2011, p. 58) argues that even good people can be fallible. Furthermore, there are traits or behaviors that influence the effectiveness of a leader over time.
Examples of common traits include extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to experience (DuBrin 2010, p. 302). Notably, out of the five major domains there are other traits that are worth consideration. These include perfectionism, dominance, rigidity, impulsivity and persistence.
Research has shown that all effective leaders have their own personal style of executing their roles in leadership (Endersbe, Wortmann
Microenvironment Forces Facing the Luxury Brand Industry Essay best essay help
There are many micro environmental forces affecting the luxury brand industry, and these include customers. Customers tend to come from different places hence inhabiting different characteristics and behaviors regarding spending. Depending on how they raise their incomes, consumers tend to spend in different ways. For instance, people with high incomes tend to purchase quality products regardless of their prices.
This means that some people can afford expensive luxurious products while others can only afford cheap goods. This factor affects the luxury brand industry in a great way because if in a given location people are extremely poor then the profitability ends up being high and vice versa. Customers are dynamic, and they change with various factors within their environments and these changes have significant impacts on industry performance (Earl and Kemp, 2000, p.76).
Competitors pose enormous challenges to other players in the industry because they come out to fight for their stake in the market. This is tremendously significant because different players have to make sure that they consider providing the best to their customers. Customers’ purchasing decisions are guided by quality and affordability hence they opt to purchase goods from favorable sellers.
In fact, customers prefer purchasing luxurious goods from providers who offer quality products at considerable prices (Lantos, 2010, p.67). Therefore, competitors play key roles in price stabilization, in the market, because they compete on price in order to offer their customers the best.
Political factors have a lot of influence to the industry, as well. This means that leaders in any country or state may determine the type of business environment in which an industry operates. Politicians make decisions that affect people’s lives. Therefore, their decisions have a direct impact on consumer behavior. For instance, if they develop fiscal policies influencing consumption positively, then people may tend to buy a lot of luxurious brands and vice versa.
In case, there is political instability in any country, consumer behavior is affected, and this affects the luxury brands industry in a great way (Lantos, 2010, p.67). For instance, violence caused by political actions may affect businesses leading to accumulation of losses. Losses can occur where people loot stores taking away stocks or destroying business premises causing losses for the business people.
Factors increasing younger consumers’ interests in luxurious products
Consumption of luxurious good is in rampant increase among young people in the society today. This is caused by the fact that young people are exposed to a lot of online marketing of luxurious brands hence creating awareness among the lot. This means that marketing is extremely crucial as creation of awareness leads to increase in buying.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Young people have a lot to do with the internet as compared to the elderly and this provides a scenario where customers learn about current affairs in the world. For instance, majority of young people are subscribed to social networks such as Facebook and twitter. Through these social networks, they get opportunities to meet and know other people from different parts of the world.
Some of these people are professionals who may be out to look for customers from all over the world. For instance, a marketer may come up with a group in a social network to discuss their products with friends (Lantos, 2010, p.67). This may involve adding many people to the group regardless of where they come from hence creating a platform for advertising their products.
People learn about their products and they acquire as much information as possible from the site hence making purchasing decisions. This has led to the increase in the number of young people involved in purchasing of luxurious brands.
Young people are so much into movies and latest music, and they become fans of given artists. Artists are used by companies to market their brands, and the strategy has actually worked for many organizations. For instance, many young people buy clothes with brands similar to those worn by their favorite actors or musicians.
This is the reason why young people are spending a lot of money to buy luxurious brands. In addition, young people are after showing off to their friends (Earl and Kemp, 2000, p.76). This has led to increase in purchasing of expensive luxurious products because young people want to make sure that they have best brands.
In fact, they compete on brands hence making substantial money for players in luxury brands industry. Finally, young people have few responsibilities hence opting to spend their incomes on luxurious brands. Most young people have no families hence end up with a lot of money due to limited responsibilities.
Reasons for the growing interest in fake luxurious brands among young people
Higher income among the youth has led to increase in demand for luxurious goods. Manufactures have come out to take advantage of the situations by developing products which are not necessarily original to get a share of the increasing demand in the market. They have come up with products which are slightly different from the known ones hence confusing the situations on the ground.
We will write a custom Essay on Microenvironment Forces Facing the Luxury Brand Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, Nokla has been produced to compete with Nokia and the brand has created an uphill task for the original Nokia. Copying well-known brands have made many customers choose brands without knowing about fake products since the difference is slight (Earl and Kemp, 2000, p.76). This means that marketers of fake products are remarkably specific when developing their brand names.
This is because they know darned well that consumers are never keen about products names hence a slight change can work out for them exceptionally well. Governments have been unable to control this copying of brands because they get a lot in terms of revenue generated by fake brands.
In fact, fake products are selling more than original ones because they normally sell at lower prices. In addition, marketers of fake products are extraordinarily sharp hence putting a lot of efforts to make sure that they win consumers’ minds hence influencing their purchasing power.
Fake brands earn consumer credit easily because they are aimed at offering to consumers what the original brands do not. In fact, this has created perfect competing grounds for fake producers as they argue on additional features. Consumers prefer acquiring products with additional features without considering their quality. In fact, most of the fake products have shorter lives as compared to original products.
This is the reason why they sell at comparatively low prices hence becoming appealing to consumers (Michman and Mazze, 2006, p. 46). In addition, many products keep on upgrading their status aimed at increasing perfection and productivity.
This gives fake producers a chance to come up with their copied versions of the original versions hence being able to feature in the market effectively. In fact, products, which do not need upgrading, may not have fake versions since consumers get used to the original version and they enjoy its satisfaction.
Issues that are giving rise to the consumer trend towards ironic purchasing of products
Ironic purchasing of products is instigated by factors such as poverty. This is where people are poor, but they need luxurious goods in their lives. This leads them to purchasing fake products in order to satisfy their urge. These people purchase fake brands knowing exceedingly well that they are purchasing fake products. In many cases, people end up purchasing fake brands thinking that they are purchasing the original brands.
This can be attributed to lack of sufficient information regarding original brands. Majority of consumers in the market today deliberately purchase fake products because of their own reasons. Some may purchase such products just because they are cheap and justify their decision (Michman and Mazze, 2006, p. 46). This happens where people purchases fake products and when asked about the purchase, they defend their actions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Microenvironment Forces Facing the Luxury Brand Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is particularly dangerous because people may end up consuming fake products hence denying original producers their rightfully owned benefits. In addition, there is a lot of marketing on the internet whereby fake products are advertised and displayed for customers on the internet. This leads to increase in purchasing of fake brands as consumers learn about them from the internet (Lantos, 2010, p.67).
In fact, they can even get a chance to learn more about fake products from their marketers. These marketers convince online customers until they buy their products hence promoting ironic buying because customers buy these products thinking that they are original. The perception comes up where they believe that fake products should not be marketed on the internet.
References Earl, P. E. and Kemp, S. 2000. The Elgar Companion to Consumer Research and Economic Psychology. Edward Elgar Publishing, Sydney
Lantos, G. P., 2010. Consumer Behavior in Action: Real-Life Applications for Marketing Managers. M.E. Sharpe, London.
Michman, R. D. and Mazze, E. M. 2006. The Affluent Consumer: Marketing And Selling the Luxurious Lifestyle. Greenwood Publishing Group, New York.
National Debt Continues to Grow in U.S.A Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Abstract As the national debt continues to increase exponentially, the government is grappling with the challenge by formulating new laws and policies to alleviate the alarming trends of national debt.
Increased borrowing by the treasury, massive retirement of baby boomers, and deficit spending are some of the factors that have caused a considerable increase in the national debt.
Literature review has confirmed that, mandatory social programs, such as Medicare and Social Security, are vital factors that contribute considerably to increase in the national debt.
In this case, the Social Security causes the greatest increase in the national debt because of massive retirement of baby boomers who are the principal beneficiaries.
Furthermore, literature review affirms that, deficit spending by the government contributes to an increase in the national debt. Thus, deficit spending has compelled the government to borrow more funds that are necessary for it to meet its obligations.
A survey conducted has shown that, borrowing, deficit spending, and massive retirement of baby boomers are the three main factors that cause the national debt to increase exponentially.
Data collected from the Treasury effectively illustrated that, bonds, notes, and bills have been increasing proportional to the national debit meaning that, they have causal relationships. In essence, borrowing of funds to cater for deficits have been responsible for the alarming increase in the national debt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of secondary data obtained from CBO demonstrated that, deficit spending has been increasing for the last 10 years due to the Congress’ efforts to increase the deficit limit. Ultimately, analysis of data collected from the Social Security has indicated that millions of baby boomers, which are retiring annually, are to blame for the increasing national debt.
Introduction The national debt is growing at an alarming rate, and this trend predisposes the United States to a financial crisis. According to Elmendorf (2011), under the current laws and policies, budget deficits will continue to increase indefinitely and is predictable that, after a period of ten years, the deficits will be over $17 trillion (p.1).
Increasing national debt, coupled with globalization forces, is posing serious financial crisis to the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that economists should conduct research to determine what causes national debt to increase exponentially and give robust recommendations to alleviate the ever-surging budget deficit.
The Statement of the Problem The research purpose is to establish whether high levels of deficit spending, continuous borrowing of money and retirement of baby boomers are factors that contribute to the national debt to grow at an alarming rate.
Results of the research are critical, as they will provide ways of alleviating the debt that has continuously increased for the past decades, and is likely to increase if there are no effective interventions.
1. To investigate whether the national debt is growing due to high levels of deficit spending, as demonstrated by President Obama Pay as You Go Act to control government spending in the Congress.
2. To evaluate if the national debt is growing because the federal government continues to borrow money from foreign countries by selling treasury bills, notes and bonds.
We will write a custom Research Paper on National Debt Continues to Grow in U.S.A specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 3. To establish whether national debt is growing because many baby boomers are starting to retire, as the government budget on social security account for more than three quarters of the budget.
The hypotheses of the study
The first hypothesis is that high levels of deficit spending have no direct influence on increased growth of the national debt.
The second hypothesis is that, increased federal government borrowing from foreign countries has negative effect on the national debt.
The third hypothesis is that high rate of retirement and baby boomers increase social security expenditure of the federal government and increase the national debt.
The delimitations of the study
The study will not examine the effectiveness of Pay as You Go Act to control government spending in the Congress.
The study will not examine the previous levels sales of notes, treasury bills, and bonds for every foreign country.
The study will not determine the federal government decision to borrow from foreign countries and sale of the bills and bonds.
The study will be limited to levels of levels of deficit spending, the continuous borrowing of money, and the expenditure on social security.
The assumptions of the study
The first assumption is that, more deficit spending is needed because the Congress is continually increasing the debt ceiling, depending on economic conditions of the United States.
The second assumption is that the federal government will continue to borrow money from foreign countries by selling treasury bills, notes, and bonds. All these assumptions are perceived to have no effect on the outcomes study.
The importance of the study
The consequences of the high levels of deficit spending, the continuous borrowing of money, high expenditure on social security are little known by many people. More than three quarters of the government budget go to social security.
The study is critical because it will give an insight into why the national debt has continuously grown for decades, despite several interventions put in place by the government with a view of suggesting probable solution.
Literature Review Since the purpose of the research is to establish if treasury borrowing, deficit spending, and massive retirement of baby boomers are responsible for exponential increase in national debt, literature review examines how these have factors have influence national debt.
Literature review attempts to enhance basis of study and gives bearing to the course of research relative to research hypotheses and objectives.
Thus, extensive background information forms the basis of establishing factors that cause national debt to increase. To give a comprehensive view of how borrowing, deficit spending, and retirement of baby boomers influence national debt, literature review explores theoretical, related, and current studies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on National Debt Continues to Grow in U.S.A by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Theoretical Studies According to the dynamic economy theory that elucidates taxation, public spending, and debt, the Congress has responsibility of formulating policies and laws that are essential in management of funds by government. According to the theory, government utilizes budget deficits and surpluses to cushion taxpayers from a rapid increase in tax rates.
Thus, government will operate on deficits when expenditure is exceptionally high and conversely operate on surpluses when expenditure is low.
According to Battaglini and Coate (2007), while proponents assert that the theory restricts politicians from borrowing and spending money inappropriately, opponents argue that, the theory hinders the government from raising taxes when adjusting to spending and revenue shocks (p.25).
Hence, the theory protects citizens from incurring extra tax burden that the government may impose due to budget deficits.
Moreover, dynamic economic theory enables politicians to make appropriate legislations to adjust to changing economic conditions due to local or global factors. Effective legislations are going to guide policy makers in weighing and balancing expenditure and income.
Since the government is more inclined to spending than saving, the theory restricts government from making unnecessary expenditure that may lead to borrowing, and subsequently increase the national debt.
The United States government is experiencing exponential increase in national debt because, policies and laws allow the Congress to recommend borrowing of money, to alleviate budget deficits and enhance smooth provision of essential services in health care system and Social Security.
Battaglini and Coate (2007) assert that, the government can spend more for the interests of public good in times of natural disasters or war (p.2). Therefore, war on terrorism, coupled with disasters such as hurricanes have cost the United States billions of dollars, which add to the national debt.
Usually, the debt of a government increases when it borrows from public finance to run its day-to-day activities, or when it issues money to government accounts such as Medicare and Social Security.
Since economic conditions of the United States have been fluctuating, the government has been operating under intermittent circumstances of surplus and deficits. While budget deficits increase the national debt, budget surpluses decrease the national debt; hence, surpluses help in alleviating the exponential increase, in the national debt.
In times of deficits, treasury may decide to increase the national debt, but the Congress has set statutory limit to restrict haphazard increase in national debt. According to Austin (2008), statutory debt limit gives the Congress powers to regulate federal accounts in accordance with the constitutional mandate of controlling spending (p.5).
Thus, controlling expenditure is one of the ways of mitigating increase in national debt.
Related Studies Federal Reserve
When a government is operating under deficit, it approaches treasury and borrows money in terms of securities such as bills, notes, and saving bonds. After a given period when securities mature, government has to repay them plus appropriate interests. Usually, bills mature within a year and notes mature within two to ten years while bonds mature after a period of ten years.
Hence, these securities have enabled the United States’ government to operate under deficit budget. Rosen (1994) argues that, factors that increase the national debt are social programs such as Medicare and Social Security programs as well as national defense (p.8).
Although national debt seems to have been increasing with time, the United States has a larger economy that can accommodate and withstand colossal debt.
National debt does not indicate economic capacity of a nation, but rather GDP is a significant parameter. Hence, high GDP of the United States has enabled her to cope with increasing national debt that seems to be crippling economic growth in the face of global recession.
Baby boomers consume significant part of Social Security funds; hence, they affect the national debt negatively. According to Nuchler and Sodor (2010), out of over 50 million beneficiaries of the Social Security, retired workers consist of about 64% (p.1).
Projections show that Social Security beneficiaries are increasing gradually due to demographic changes, particularly due to massive retirement of baby boomers.
In late 20th century, beneficiaries of Social Security have been below 30 million, but at the beginning of 21st century, the figure tremendously increased due to massive retirement of baby boomers.
The retirement of baby boomers heralds a phase where there are drastic changes in demography, hence causing significant impact on not only Social Security but also government budget.
National debt is increasing because fiscal policy does not effectively limit the Congress and executive from making unnecessary deficit spending or borrowing.
According to Burman, Rohaly, and Rosenberg (2010), the United States is experiencing serious fiscal challenges because of massive borrowing of funds to stimulate economic growth and finance mandatory programs such as Targeted Asset Relief Program (p.4).
Since national debt is increasing more exponential than economic growth, the United States is thus heading to an economic crisis. In 2009, treasury borrowed about 3 trillion, which formed about 10% of GDP, and increase the national debt to form 50% of GDP, the highest ever since Second World War.
Roubini and Sester (2004) argue that, trend of borrowing exhibited by the United States is not lucrative because it is economically unsustainable in the long run (p.9). Thus, poor fiscal policies are to blame for skyrocketing national debt that is threatening economic stability of the United States.
Increasing national budget reduces the ability of the United States economy to cope with global challenges of the economy such as recession.
In 2009, budget deficit was approximately 10% of GDP, which was the highest ever because of global recession of economy. Economic experts have attributed increasing budget deficit to poor policies and laws that govern fiscal responsibility of government.
Labonte (2010) asserts that, rising life expectancy, retirement of baby boomers and increasing health care costs are factors that are responsible for exponential increase in budget deficits (p.1).
Projections show that Social Security benefits are going to increase from current 4.8% of GDP to 6% of GDP by 2035, and health care costs are going to increase from current 5.3% of GDP to approximately 10% of GDP by 2035.
Increase in budget deficits is going to increase exponentially until when all baby boomers retire, and alleviate budgetary allocation to Social Security benefits.
Projections indicate that current fiscal policy of the United States is unsustainable because of skyrocketing health care costs and Social Security benefits. To cope with the challenge of increasing national debt, the government needs to increase taxes and reduce expenditures.
Adjustment of taxes in advance will significantly alleviate the budget deficits and increase national savings because, it gives individuals ample time to brace themselves for hard economic challenges, by inculcating saving behavior.
Through national savings, government can reduce its national debt by repaying it, buying treasury securities, and boosting businesses.
Labonte (2010) argues that, small adjustment in Social Security benefits such as calculating benefits based on inflation rather than wage growth rate will save the government a terrific deal of money (p.13).
Thus, adjustment of retirement benefits is essential to alleviate the impact of massive retirement of baby boomers, for they cause annual upsurge of budget deficits that have made the United States have a large national debt.
Current Studies The increasing national debt signals an impending financial crisis, which may cripple the United States’ economy if appropriate policies and laws are not in place to reverse the alarming trends of the budget deficit.
It is predictable that, by the year 2020, the rising health care costs, and population aging will place an extra burden on the budget that is already running on deficits.
Such prediction has triggered the United States’ government to formulate new policies and laws, which are critical in curbing the increasing budget deficits and the overall national debt.
According to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), so long as there are no appropriate changes in current laws and policies, there will be persistence of imbalance between spending and revenues because health care costs are increasing while baby boomers begin to tap their federal benefits.
Elmendorf (2011) argues that, CBO projections show that budget deficits will increase from current 10% of GDP to about 16% of GDP in the next 25 years because of increased spending on mandatory health care programs and Social Security (p.3).
Thus, since baby boomers form a significant part of the population, it is plausible that their benefits cost a whopping deal of budget, and thus significantly influence budget deficit.
Given that, mandatory health care programs and Social Security benefits are factors that increase the budget deficit and subsequently increase the national debt via borrowing; these factors need review to alleviate their impact on the national budget.
Medicare and Social Security are mandatory programs that take a significant amount of the national budget, thus causing an increase in the budget deficit annually.
According to Elmendorf (2011), to reduce spending on Social Security, the government needs to use a new measure of inflation because it will significantly decrease mandatory spending by approximately $6 billion by 2016 and $billion by 2021 (p.56).
A new measure of inflation is going to correct overstatement of the inflation rate, and thus save billions that will alleviate national debt.
Economic experts argue that, the United States is yet to face dire financial crisis, since national debt has doubled within a short period of 8 years. Increasing the rate of the national budget is quite alarming because, it depicts impending economic crisis that is likely to strike within a short period of years to come.
Clemmitt (2008) argues that, the Bush administration caused larger annual budget deficits, and restricted government from implementing critical policies and laws to avert financial crisis (p.938).
Currently, budget deficits and global economic crisis is making the United States susceptible to catastrophic economic crisis. Thus, increasing national budget is posing serious economic threat to sustainable growth of the United States’ economy.
Major economic challenges that most countries are grappling with are regulation of revenues and expenditure, and increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means of promoting sustainable economic growth.
The current president, Barrack Obama, has an absolute responsibility of ensuring that new policies and laws are in place to mitigate the increasing trends of the budget deficits, which have perplexed the Congress.
In view of increasing national debt, Obama is in a dilemma whether to use tax and revenues or borrow more money to bolster and stimulate economic growth. According to Clemmitt (2008), when a government operates in deficit mode and depends on borrowing, it will increase interest rates of treasury securities that it offers (p.941).
High interest rate on treasury securities will scare private businesspersons from borrowing, which subsequently slows down economic growth. Therefore, for the government to operate effectively, it has to borrow more money to cater for deficiency in the national budget, hence, causing exponential increase in the national budget.
From 1950s to 2008, budget deficit has been increasing gradually from 0.7% of GDP to current 4.3% of GDP. According to Conetta and Knight (2010), budgetary allocation of funds to Social Security, Medicaid and Medicare increased significantly by 55.9% while defense expenditure decreased by 3.8% (p.4).
This means that baby boomers have caused Social Security benefits to increase tremendously. Hence, baby boomers are not only causing demographic changes in the United States, but also economic changes because they have considerable impact on Social Security.
Moreover, exponential increase in interest payments implies that current economic crisis coupled with retirement of baby boomers is going to increase the national debt because Social Security benefits will increase proportionately.
Hence, it is predictable that increasing national debt is an economic burden that is going to elicit serious political contention regarding expenditure, Social Security benefits and borrowing of money.
Methodology Introduction The purpose of the research is to establish if the high levels of deficit spending, the continuous borrowing of money, and the retirements of baby boomers are factors that contribute to the national debt grow at an alarming rate.
To achieve this purpose, the research conducted a survey by collecting secondary data from Treasury, Social Security, and Congress Budget Office (CBO).
Quantitative research is appropriate because the research objective is to ascertain the extent to which deficit spending, borrowing of money and retirement of baby boomers influence national budget.
Treasury, Social Security, and CBO provide firsthand data that is relevant for research since they have all records regarding borrowing, spending and retirement of baby boomers. Therefore, collection of secondary data provides a robust data that is critical for understanding how borrowing, retirement, and spending contribute to the national debt.
Procedure for Data Collection The research entailed collection of secondary data from CBO, Treasury, and Social Security. To ascertain if the national debt is growing because of deficit spending as illustrated by Pay as You Go Act to control government spending by the Congress, the research collected secondary data from CBO, which provide how the Congress recommends deficit spending to enable government pursue its obligations in spite of deficit budget.
The researchers examined how the Congress has been regulating the deficit spending for the last 10 years, and collected relevant figures for statistical analysis to establish if the deficit spending forms a significant part of the national debt.
Moreover, since Treasury is responsible for borrowing funds, researchers examined trends of issuing securities and collected relevant data for further statistical analysis.
Researchers collected Treasury data of issuing securities such as bonds, notes, and bills, to give a comprehensive view of how borrowing of money may have considerably contributed to increasing national debt.
Regarding the massive retirement of baby boomers, researchers explored the Social Security records and obtained appropriate data, which shows the number of baby boomers retiring and their respective benefits. Trends of retiring for the last 10 years depict whether baby boomers have been increasing exponentially or have been relatively constant over time.
Sampling of Data
To ascertain how borrowing, deficit spending, and retirement of baby boomers influence national debt, the research conducted a survey that involved collection of secondary data from CBO, Treasury, and Social Security.
Secondary data is relevant because it is easily accessible and robust for statistical analysis of national debt trends for a given period. Secondary data from CBO provide appropriate data that show how the Congress recommends deficit spending to enable government run its activities.
Since the Congress has powers to limit spending on the part of government, CBO has robust data that reflect the extent of deficit spending.
Treasury provides secondary data regarding borrowing of money using bills, notes, and bonds that the government issues to raise deficient funds to enable it to conduct its obligations. Trends and extent of issuing bonds, notes, and bills reflect how Treasury by treasury contributes to the national debt by borrowing.
Ultimately, secondary data from Social Security provide significant information regarding the number of baby boomers retiring and amount of money that they get as benefits.
Hence, secondary data from Social Security is particularly valuable because retirement of baby boomers has caused a considerable increase in national debt as government give significant portion of its budget to Social Security.
To determine whether borrowing, deficit spending and massive retirement of baby boomers are considerably responsible for the increase in national debt, the research analyzed collected data using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
The researchers analyzed secondary data collected differentially to determine whether each one of the hypothesized factors contributes to an exponential increase in national debit.
Given that the first hypothesis states that high levels of deficit spending do not influence the growth of national debt directly, the research examined trends of deficit spending for the last 10 years as they occur in CBO records, and analyzed their variability over this period.
To prove the second hypothesis, which states that increased borrowing by the federal government impact negatively on the national debt, the research analyzed Treasury records that show trends of issuing bonds, notes and bills.
Analysis of data to depict trends of borrowing is essential in deriving relationship between national debt and borrowing within a period of 10 years, 2001 to 2011.
To test a third hypothesis that states that massive retirement of baby boomers has contributed to increase in national debt, the research analyzed data collected from Social Security by determining the number of baby boomers retired and amount of money they receive from government annually. Overall, the research conducted a comparative analysis of the three factors to ascertain their consistency with national debt.
Analysis of secondary data obtained from CBO showed that trends of deficit spending are consistent with trends of national debt for the last 10 years. The correlation between the deficit spending with the national debt means that, the deficit spending increases the national debt.
Given that the Congress has the mandate to regulate deficit spending, in 2009 when there was global economic recession, the government increased its deficit spending that reached over $1400 billion from about $250 billion in 2008.
Hence, concomitant increase of national debt and deficit spending implies that they have causal relationships. In a bar graph illustration, (see Appendix A); national debt has been increasing for the last 10 years that the research examined.
The bar graph shows that the national debt has been increasing for the last 10 years and is consistent with deficit spending depicted in a graph (see Appendix B). Critical analysis of deficit spending shows that it relates with trends of national debt. Hence, it is reasonable to state that deficit spending contributed significantly to the national debt in the last 10 years.
Bar Graph (see Appendix C) depicts trends in borrowing by Treasury using bonds, notes, and bills. Comparatively, the trend is consistent with that of national debt, meaning that borrowing has been cumulatively contributing to increase in national debt in previous 10 years.
Usually, when government experiences deficit in its budget, it order Treasury to issue more bills, bonds, and notes to obtain more funds. Thus, borrowing by Treasury is a significant factor that increases the national debt in spite of debt limit because the Congress has been continually increasing the debt ceiling.
Analysis of Social Security benefits show that they are increasing exponentially, (see Appendix D). Increasing trends of Social Security benefits imply that demographic changes have contributed to a significant increase in benefits.
Specifically, baby boomers have caused drastic increase in benefits in 2011 because they form over half of beneficiaries in Social Security. Thus, research affirmed that baby boomers are responsible for drastic increase in national debt because Social Security borrows funds from government to compensate for increasing beneficiaries.
Implications of the Findings
Research findings are consistent with earlier studies, which have proved that extensive borrowing, massive retirement of baby boomers and deficit spending are factors that have caused exponential increase in national debt for decades.
Since national debt has been increasing, the research established that the government has been concomitantly increasing its borrowing rates to enable it to perform its obligations.
Trends of borrowings have been consistent with an increase in national debt, which implies that borrowing is a factor that significantly determines trends of national debt. According to Austin (2008), increasing national debt has compelled the Congress to formulate laws and policies, which empower it to regulate deficits and surpluses in the budget by borrowing (p.12).
Hence, currently, the Congress has a constitutional mandate of ensuring that the government does not spend too much money than it generates to avert impending economic crisis due effects of increased national debt. Excessive spending predisposes government to rely on borrowing, which is unhealthy for economic growth.
Moreover, the research findings did indicate that, the massive retirement of baby boomers demands significant part of Social Security funds; hence, the government has to contribute extra money from its annual budget to cater for the increasing benefits.
Research established that the national debt has been increasing proportionately as Social Security benefits. According to Nuchler and Sodor (2010), about 30 million baby boomers are beneficiaries of the Social Security, and they form about 64% of total beneficiaries (p.1).
Hence, high numbers of baby boomers who are beginning to retire are to blame for skyrocketing benefits and national debt. Furthermore, government also is responsible for increasing national debt because of deficit spending.
The research findings showed that, increasing national debt correlates with deficit spending, meaning that, the government continues to spend more funds in spite of operating in deficit.
Therefore, to alleviate increasing national debt, government needs to formulate stringent policies and laws that will effectively enhance regulation of deficit spending, borrowing, and massive retirement of baby boomers.
Conclusion The research findings have effectively demonstrated that deficit spending, extensive borrowing, and massive retirement of baby boomers are significant factors that have been increasing national debt.
The research findings have rejected the first hypothesis, which states that high levels of deficit spending have no direct influence on the national debt because deficit spending increases concomitantly as the national debt.
Regarding the second hypothesis, the research findings revealed that, Treasury borrowing increases the national debt, hence acceptance of the hypothesis.
Likewise, the research findings accepted the second hypothesis, which states that, the massive retirement of baby boomers has increased Social Security expenditure, hence national debt.
In view of these findings, further research is necessary to determine the extent to which each factor contributes to the national debt and ways on how government can alleviate exponential increase of national debt.
Thus, to reverse trends of increasing national debt, government needs to formulate policies and laws that target borrowing, deficit spending, and retirement of baby boomers.
Appendices Appendix A
References Austin, A. (2008). The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases. Congressional Research Service, 1-20.
In the article, Austin examines the history of federal debt in terms of evolution and its regulation mechanism. He examines the historical evolution of national debt and how the Congress gained constitutional mandate of regulating government expenditure.
Austin asserts that statutory limit empowers the Congress to regulate budget, hence determine the amount of deficits and surpluses of budget.
Reflection of the 2005 Documentary “Just for Kicks” Essay (Movie Review) a level english language essay help
Introduction Sneakers were first propelled out of the play grounds of New York in the 1970s by the B-boys and since then it has realized a metamorphosis from being considered as a means of boosting performance in athletics and sports to a level where it has been considered as a collector’s object of obsession.
This phenomenon was first analyzed by the production of the film ‘just for kicks’ that was released back in 2005. This paper will review the documentary film and give a reflection that reveals the relationship between sneaker revolution and the hip-hop culture.
Reflection The movie is unique in that brings to light the principles underlying between players as well as divers who are deemed to be behind the booming business of sneakers. The business is worth 60 billion.
The film is praised for its vivid attempt to give a colorful and quite comical history of what is considered as the most treasured fashion item in the hip hop culture. The film was directed by Thibaut De Longeville and released in 2005 by Egami studio, those staring included Grandmaster Caz and Garcia Bobbito.
‘Just for kicks’ is a documentary film that digs deep into the hip-hop culture and the relationship it has with revolution of sneakers as a fashion item. The film documents the sneaker movement using interview of big figures in the culture and they include individuals like Hatfield Tinker who is considered as one of the greatest designer of all time, Scoop Jackson as well as Bobitto Garcia.
The film is a detailed examination that looks in great detail at the personalities and culture that drove the fashion and culture of creation of sneaker into becoming the cornerstone of the hip hop fashion. From the film, it is evident that sneaker as a fashion started and still remains linked to the hip hop community whose personalities and beats are dominant.
The film has great graphics, in-depth personality interviews as well as a breakneck pace that not only makes it a novelty item that fits broadcast, but also useful for collectors. Those interviewed in the film display massive personal collections, pop culture analysis, marketers and designers whose contribution is complemented by dynamic editing with musicvid-like sequences that serve to highlight the sharp package.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, the nature of the sales of sneakers has flip-flopped from its traditional breakdown making its sales as an athletic tool stand at twenty percent whereas for lifestyle use at eighty percent. The idea of using sneakers as a fashion statement started during the earlier days of hip-hop.
Conclusion According to the film ‘just for kicks’, it is clear that the phenomenon of break dancing is responsible for making the footwear an essential tool while at the same time facilitating the trend of wearing them as sans laces that mimicked prison convicts with limited choice in the issue.
Also, the increased flamboyant runs of the sneakers limited edition and customized shoes is attributed to endorsement by star athletes including Michael Jordan as well as by rappers in the likes of Run-DMC’s hit “My Adidas”.
This film plays a significant role as an historic recording of a culture that can be of benefit to those who intend to venture into such hobby especially those who can be described as nostalgic collectors fond of looking back at the images in the film and reflect on the past events.
Second language acquisition and identity Definition Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of second language use on identity
Introduction It is difficult to predict or generalize second language acquisition because it is not an isolated activity; this is a culture-specific and identity-bound concept.
A second language user is often introduced into a fresh world that may be radically different from what he or she was accustomed to. One must therefore reconstruct or renegotiate one’s identity in accordance with these new experiences.
Impact of second language use on identity Ethnic confusion is something that second language learners in certain communities and generations can struggle with. If a parent migrated from another part of the world such as the Middle East, and moved to Australia, it is likely that the parent would learn English in order to communicate.
After that parent has stayed on in Australia, and has had children in the country, it is likely that these children may not be very fluent in Arabic. Communication difficulties would arise between the two parties. Such parents may decide to take their children to Arabic language schools in order to prevent the loss of their linguistic heritage (Sugita, 2000).
These second language learners would face unique identity challenges, because they would be learning a language (Arabic) that is assumed to be natural to members of their ethnic group. They have the choice of merely focusing on the language without embracing the cultural component of the Arabic world; which would imply totally abandoning the Middle Eastern part of themselves.
Alternatively, they may choose to forge a bilingual identity where they can take on components of both cultures. Several youths often choose the former option than the latter, and they usually end up going back and forth concerning these decisions. They may ask themselves whether they are Australians of Australia, or whether they are Arabs from the Middle East.
It can be argued that the most comfortable position would be to think of themselves as Australians of Arabic descent. However, this middle-ground status still has its own challenges. The individuals may find it tricky to fit into either culture as other people may not relate to them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sometimes some second language speakers may think of their newly formed status as a gateway for getting into a higher social class. Identities are often predetermined by the nature of social groups that one belongs to. One’s family, choice of school, place of work, and residential area can define one’s identity.
These groups are rarely chosen voluntarily as most people are simply born into them. Society will differentiate these groups by categorizing them as non privileged or privileged. The non privileged normally have fewer life chances, and may strive to alter their fate. One of the avenues that they may consider is learning another language (Shwartz, 2004).
Some languages such as English are regarded as a bridge to a better life. Second language learners often think of this process as an investment. They may assume that doing so will lead to better material resources. In certain scenarios, these changes may even be more symbolic than materialistic.
Whatever the case may be it is probable that second language learners wish to heighten their value in their social spheres. In other instances, the process of second language acquisition may reinforce one’s social status instead of improving it. The affordability of a foreign language can sometimes hamper certain people that may be interested in advancing their social class.
Indeed, members of the privileged classes tend to have more language options than their financially constrained peers. One’s social location does, in fact, determine one’s ability to access the linguistic opportunities.
Lier (2000) explains that language opportunities can be platforms for constraining and enabling others; they invite and reject others; they also offer opportunities and limit others.
In this regard, it can be stated that the process of second language acquisition is a platform for either improving one’s identity (on the basis class) or reinforcing one’s identity as a member of the privileged class.
We will write a custom Essay on Second language acquisition and identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As one learns a second language, one moves from an area of proficiency (in one’s first language) to a place of unfamiliarity.
This may necessitate reframing one’s identity based on the opinions of the people who are teaching the learner the second language, or the opinions of members of the new culture that the person is getting involved in. The beginner may be given a new set of attributes that may not be welcome.
Teachers may not necessarily appreciate the student’s other areas of expertise. Members of the new communities may also judge the individuals’ accent or his grammatical errors. It takes a lot of enthusiasm to keep trying regardless of these negativities and judgments.
One must shed off one’s identity as an authority in one culture (with regard to language) and embrace another identity as a newcomer. This may sometimes lead to exclusion or even alienation.
The person may be considered as an outsider and may be deprived from interacting with the very people he or she needs to mingle with in order to learn the new language (Kramsch, 2010).
As a second language learner continues to become more proficient in the second language, he or she may end up being comfortable with people from the new culture. For instance, a Korean student who has moved into the United States may start spending more time with American students after gaining fluency in English.
This may also involve dedicating less time to Americans of Korean descent, and hence creation of a new peer group identity (Potowski, 2007). However, not everyone will do this; some people have to deal with pressures from their friends to stay close to their native ethno linguistic communities.
Embracing the lifelong learning identity in the second language may come at the cost of losing companionship with the student’s first language community.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Second language acquisition and identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Second language acquisition is a platform for reconstructing one’s identity because it can cause confusion about one’s ethnicity if one is not fluent in one’s native tongue, and is trying to learn it. It can also be considered as a mechanism for social advancement or social class enforcement.
In other scenarios, it may lead to isolation from members of the second language community. Lastly, it can elicit pressure from peers who may want the learner to limit his or her association with the people from the new community. These are all scenarios in which identity has to be renegotiated.
References Kramsch, C. (2010). The multilingual subject. Oxford: OUP.
Lier, L. (2000). From input to affordance: social interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In J. Lantolf (Ed.). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford, OUP.
Potowski, K. (2007). Language and identity in a dual immersion school. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual matter.
Shwartz, M. (2004). The role of identity in second language acquisition. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
Sugita, M. (2000). Identity and second language learning: local Japanese learning Japanese in Hawaii. Retrieved from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks/NW18.pdf
Constructing Thurston (1928) Scale Model Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Constructing Thurston (1928) scale
Thurston’s model in predicting behavior
Introduction Attitude refers to either negative or positive perception about a person, idea or an object. An attitude is comprised of three components namely cognitive, conative affective and often, a fourth component known as evaluative is occasionally recognized as part of it (Ajzen).
Measurement of attitude has been an area of interest to several researchers and Louis Thurston is not an exceptional. He developed the model in an attempt to measure attitude and use attitudes to predict future behavior.
He used a two step model and addressed the issue using three approaches namely; the law of comparative judgments, the method of equal appearing intervals and the method of successive intervals (Maranell, 2007).
An assumption was made in each approach though his model is criticized by many researchers and seems to have dropped. Researchers should pay key attention to their respondents to ensure that they get sincere opinions fro the respondent.
This paper will discuss how Thurston model could be constructed to measure people’s attitude in a ‘stop and search’ knife crime. The paper will also discuss how the model would be used to predict future behavior of people. The method of equal-appearing intervals will be given more attention in answering this question.
Thurston Model Thurston model was developed in 1928 by Louis L. Thurston. The model focuses on measurement of people’s attitude and it can be used to predict future behavior though its ability to predict behavior is criticized.
Thurston’s model for measuring attitude is popularly known as a two step scaling model in which he claims to use psychology in identifying stimuli followed by an examination of how human beings react to statements that build a psychological instrument (Salkind, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statements obtained from the people are the subjected to a continuum of the construct of the matter in question. The two steps involved are stimulus and person scaling. A general overview of the model will prior to describing how the model could be used to measure people’s attitude in “stop and search” knife crime.
The first step starts with gathering of statements and developing constructs of interest that are useful in defining attitudes. Such statements are then jotted down and subjected for review by judges.
It is important to note that the statements are not a true representation of the respondents’ opinion but rather shows the different attitudes expressed by people towards the same situation. Statements are given to the judges for scaling and elimination of the least important statements (Salkind, 2010). This is done by scaling them in terms of weakest through the strongest.
For instance, the scale would have ratings such as strongly negative, negative, neutral, positive and strongly positive. At this point, judges ensure that they are with relevant statements taken at random. The second step entail entails scale administration in which information received from the participants is subjected to the attitude continuum.
Whatever a person scores after the statements are subjected to the attitude continuum scale is interpreted as the mean scale score of participants’ response to the stimuli (Salkind, 2010).
Judges may take any of three approaches when rating the participants’ endorsements and these include comparative judgments, method of equal-appearing intervals and method of successive intervals (Salkind, 2010).
The law of comparative judgment focuses on psychological qualities and this is achieved through simultaneous comparison of two stimuli. The law of comparative judgment is also known as pair-wise comparison since every single stimulus is compared to the rest.
We will write a custom Essay on Constructing Thurston (1928) Scale Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pair ratings are arranged in an ascending manner starting with the most favorable through the least favorable pair. Ratings are then ranked based on proportions. According to Salkind, (2010), “Proportionately, the more a statement is deemed to be more favorable than another determines the distance between the statements; thus the scale emerges through the rating data based on the perceived differences among the entire collection of items, and it is obtained through the complete series of paired comparisons.”
If statistics are applied, individual statement scale value is arrived at through standard errors of the observation and proportions. Based on the fact that the scale is prone to fluctuations by the virtue of the fact that it is an artificial construct, Thurston law of comparative judgment assumes normality.
The second approach is the method of equal-appearing intervals. In this method, stimulus are considered independently and assigned values ranging between1-11(Salkind, 2010).
One side has the least favorable stimuli while the other end is labeled more favorable stimuli. Judgment is based on the ability of the stimuli to portray that future participant has more t less of the quality in question.
Each judge ends up with 11 piles whose intervals appear to be equal in terms of width. Scaling is completed by calculating the median of each stimulus as rated by different judges.
The last approach is the method of successive intervals. This approach is just like the previous one (method of equal-appearing intervals) only that it does not assume equal intervals. This method disagrees with the assumption of equal interval and instead tends to take on the normality assumption.
Salkind (2010) states that, “successive intervals approach begins with the simple proportions of interval judgments for each time. Next, the cumulative proportions of judgment for all items are provided.
These cumulative proportions can then be represented by Z score values via the use of a lookup table to create a matrix of z scores. The z scores in these cells are in effect boundaries of the intervals, and by subtracting the values in adjacent cells, it is possible to estimate interval widths.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on Constructing Thurston (1928) Scale Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Constructing Thurston (1928) scale Constructing a scale involves participants who are questioned about their attitudes towards a particular subject which in this case is the use of stop and search in knife crime. Their responses are known as item or stimuli. Thurston’s method of equal opportunity will be used in describing how the scale can be constructed.
Respondents are requested to give their attitudes on the stimuli by either agreeing or disagreeing with the stimuli from which stimuli falling on the extreme end of either side are nullified. (Crano
Hypothesis of the Pronunciation Words Report essay help free
Initial Hypothesis Critique An analysis of the hypothesis “people pronounce words differently depending on how the words are presented” reveals several problems that would prevent a researcher from successfully completing a concise and adequate research report. First off, the hypothesis itself is far too generalized, the statement “pronounced differently” neglects to specify the degree of difference that would result from having a subject pronounce a certain set of words.
For example, “differently” can encompass diction, dialect, slowly, quickly, incoherently, coherently, whether a person is an ESL student or not as well as a whole slew of dozens of possible alternatives in how a text can be pronounced. It encompasses far too many possible variables that it would be impossible if not highly improbable that a researcher would be able to create a report that encompasses all possible amalgamations related to the term “differently”.
Secondly, the phrase “how it is presented” is ambiguous and creates a similar problem to the previously examined statement. A certain piece of text can be presented in what can only be dozens if not hundreds of possible methods. For example, it can be embedded within a paragraph, made into a list of words, be translated into a different language, utilize local dialects, placed nearer or farther away from the student or be presented in a hardcopy or softcopy format.
From this it can be seen that the term “how it is presented” is far to ambiguous in that it cannot be sufficiently utilized in a research report since it can be interpreted in any manner of ways, all of which would be applicable given the generalized nature of the previously aforementioned text.
Based on the examination of the initial hypothesis, it can be seen that it is both highly ambiguous and far too generalized to be adequate for a research report. What is needed in this particular case is a hypothesis that focuses on a specific subject and concise method of application in order to create a statement that leaves little confusion as to the type of examination that will be conducted.
Revised Hypothesis “People speak in a more prestigious form when reading from a list as opposed to a passage”
Evaluating the Revised Hypothesis
Compared to the old hypothesis, the revised one is far less generalized and more specific in outlining the assumptions made by the researcher. For example, unlike the previous hypothesis which had the phrase “pronounce words differently” which could encompass any manner of different means and methods of pronunciation, the new hypothesis utilizes the term “speak in a more prestigious form” which is indicative of a specific way of speaking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enables the researcher to immediately determine what course of examination to follow and what to look for when examining the research subjects for this project, unlike in the previous hypothesis which made it difficult for the researcher to determine what “different” method of pronunciation was to be examined.
In the previous hypothesis the phrase “on how the words are presented” was utilized in order to indicate the criteria to be utilized in the study. As mentioned before, this phrase is far too ambiguous and vague and can encompass any manner of potential criteria to be used.
This vagueness has been addressed in the new hypothesis through the phrase “when reading from a list as opposed to a passage” which is indicative of a particular criteria to be utilized by the researcher in the examination of the prestigious form of pronunciation utilized by the research subjects.
It is based on the various arguments and facts presented in this section that it can be seen that the new hypothesis addresses the problems and concerns found in the initial hypothesis and as such would result in the creation of far more concise, direct and above all less ambiguous study as compared to what would have resulted from the previous hypothesis.
The design for this particular project was actually quite simple, in order to accomplish the test for this hypothesis the researcher focused on how a few words are pronounced when presented in list form or when read from a passage. As such, this consisted of the researcher creating a list of the following words: “SOMETHING”,” LIFE”,” FORTH”, and “WATER” and placing them within a textual arrangement of various randomly chosen words in order to create a certain degree of variability to the test.
Prior to the start of the experiment, the researcher had the assumption that people would pronounce these 4 words in a more prestigious pronunciation/form when reading them from a list as compared to the way they would be pronounced when read from a passage. The reason behind this is due to another assumption by the researcher that when reading from a list, words are more focused and isolated therefore people tend to pay more attention to their pronunciation thus resulting in a more prestigious form of speaking
What is Prestigious Pronunciation?
Prestigious pronunciation is the method in which a particular word or phrase is pronounced without an altered vernacular. Meaning that it is stated based on the way it is written, the way it appears on paper and the rote manner in which it is supposed to be pronounced based on established standards of pronouncing that particular word or phrase.
We will write a custom Report on Hypothesis of the Pronunciation Words specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From a certain perspective, it can be stated that prestigious pronunciation is the complete opposite of “slang” wherein grammatical rules pertaining to shortcuts, pop culture methods of stating that particular word or phrase and even commonly held (though at times incorrect) methods of statement are eschewed in favor of a “higher” form of word/phrase utilization (Lefkowitz
Why do we see so many depictions of wild animals in ancient Mediterranean? Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Purposes of wild animals depictions in ancient Mediterranean
Meaning of wild animals depictions in ancient Mediterranean
Several animals were depicted in ancient Mediterranean. In Greece, Egypt, Cyprus, Crete and other kingdoms in Persia, animals were depicted for various purposes and meanings. Depictions were in different forms of art.
Most documented information in Egypt, Greece, Crete and Cyprus shows that animals were depicted mainly as statues and figurines. Some are common to all cultures while others are unique to one.
In Egypt, animals living around Nile were depicted although many people had not seen them. Hunters occasionally saw and caught them while hunting. The most dominant animals in Egyptian depictions were falcon headed giraffes and leopards with long necks (Dunn, 2011).
During the middle kingdom, dogs and monkeys were depicted on walls of tombs (homes) of high ranking officials in the kingdom (Edwards, 1977). Double headed bull was on some artifacts (Dunn, 2011).
In Crete, several animals were depicted on walls. The most common animals included goats, monkeys and birds. Several bronze artifacts in Crete had depictions of lions. There were several animals depicted on seals in ancient Crete.
Most seals had depictions of lions, cattle and monsters. Neopalian frescoes had depictions of lions and monkeys (Shapland, 2010). In his article, Kawani (1986) showed that the most common depictions in parts of Greece were large dogs, bulls and goats. Other common depicted animals were lions.
Purposes of wild animals depictions in ancient Mediterranean Depictions on various surfaces had different purposes. The main purpose was to enhance religious connection with gods, and the dead. Sometimes depictions were used for aesthetic value. Others represent events or activities that had occurred.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some were done for intellectual reasons. During Predidynastic period in Egypt, luxury objects showing scenes of fantastic wild animals were made for royal kings and other prominent people. Depictions which represented prestige were made on ivory plagues and knives handles.
In ancient Egypt, some depictions were done to create demonic animal not found in nature. Demonic were not considered evil but had the ability of protecting one from evil deeds. The ones found on ceremonial slates palettes, ivory plagues and knives handles represented inspired models from Mesopotamia.
During middle kingdom, animals represented class. They were found at homes of powerful individuals only. However, some artist did depictions out of curiosity (Dunn, 2011).
After hunting, prominent people made depiction of themselves hunting in the desert to act as reminder. Dogs depicted with features of wild animals increased prestige of the dog’s owner as a fierce, legendary or ferocious hunter.
According to Dunn (2011), some depictions were thought to poses demons and had magical protective powers which frightened malevolent beings. They were offered to young mothers.
The purpose was to protect them from demons which cause sickness. Surfaces of walls depicted with wild animals had scripts of sacred Osiris which showed that they were not considered evil.
Many people in Egypt thought Serpopard had the ability to attack other animals and protect them. And just like in Egypt, bulls were considered a source of protection in Greece (Edwards, 1977).
We will write a custom Essay on Why do we see so many depictions of wild animals in ancient Mediterranean? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In various parts of Greece, sculptures of small dogs were made in buildings mainly for protection. Dogs were chosen because they were faithful. They were also perceived to be a connection between god, man and the dead.
In Athens, dog statutes were erected in front of tombs as guards. Statutes of dogs in several homes were erected to show that the owners were hunters Kawani, 1986). The purpose of some depictions in Greece was to strengthen cultures and ties between kingdoms.
Sculptures of bulls appearing in cultures of two kingdoms showed strong connection between them. Some of the artifacts were made by same artists or were copied from the other cultures.
Bronze and golden bulls were curved for aesthetic purposes. Some prestigious places including palaces had depictions of bulls with no religious purposes. Most of them were copied from Iranian depictions which were considered to have aesthetics value.
There was a great love for animals in Persia which was signified using animal depictions. Wild goats in Persia were a sign of royalty. Depictions of wild goats were common in buildings of royal families and wealthy people.
In Crete, depictions of lions showed that one or some groups of people were hunters. Seals depicted with images of lions were worn by individuals so that they can be identified as hunters (Shapland, 2010). It has been argued that seals were used in documents.
Owner of a seal depicted with a lion showed that he was as fierce as the lion. The seals represented characters of individual owners. Several individuals or groups of people who compared themselves to lions had depictions of this animal. Mycenaean depictions contained men tackling lions with daggers.
This in itself shows that lion hunting was an important ideology for warriors in Mycenaean. Depiction of lions was a sign of strength.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why do we see so many depictions of wild animals in ancient Mediterranean? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Shapland (2010), cattle were depicted more frequently than other wild animals because they had been domesticated. The artifacts reinforced multiple identities of cattle and their users. Various seals had depictions of cattle, goats and other wild animals being speared to show hunting.
These animals were hunted and eaten as shown in some seals. To emphasize on their activities, owners of talisman seals had fish and nets depicted on them to show that they were fishermen.
Depictions of wild goats on rocky landscape illustrated the place they used to hunt. Sometimes, goats were depicted together with women to illustrate females as deities. Various depictions of Minoan art had animals on varied landscapes which suggested a single assumption that the world had a lot to be discovered.
Depiction of various animals on seals in ancient Catalhoyuk was a sign that its people were religious. Various rituals were shown using wild animals on walls. Hunting activities were directly linked to Mortuary in Catalhoyuk. As a result, wild bull horns were depicted on tombs and burial buildings.
Furthermore, a depiction of wild bull and several hunters showed that many hunters were required to capture a bull. Social activities such as dancing, music and feasting were depicted by figurines of wild bulls accompanied with drums and music.
Meaning of wild animals depictions in ancient Mediterranean Depictions on various surfaces had different meanings. Seals with lions depicted on them were used for economic transactions. Use.of lions on some seals meant they were used for legal exchange of property or services. Seals or fresco of lions meant that the owner was strong as a lion.
Depictions on gates of buildings were meant that people could identify places where rulers lived easily. Rulers considered themselves to be strong politically, physically and emotionally. This was depicted by lion’s images on their seals and frescoes.
Some depictions had lions attacking other animals like wild goats and cattle. This was meant to show that a lion was more dangerous than other animals. Some seals depicted with images of lions meant that the user had encountered lions (Shapland, 2010).
Depiction of monkeys on frescoes meant that they were under human control. In some villas, monkeys were depicted climbing trees to show their main activities. In Egypt, Serpopards meant that its owner was a long distant traveler. Griffin depictions for kings meant that they were powerful in ancient Egypt.
Desert animals on artifacts meant that its owner dwelled at the desert. Depictions of rare animals on artifacts meant success in hunting the animals. Lions were hunted and depicted on seals to prove the success. Domesticated animals like cattle and goats were not indigenous to Crete. Depictions showing them being speared, means that they were hunted (Shapland, 2010).
According to Dunn, (2011), depictions of several animals on walls in ancient Egypt meant that the owners were zoologists. Though not entirely true, some prominent people wanted to be known as zoologists or great hunters. Depictions of dogs with lion’s features were meant to make them stronger in their guardian jobs (Kawani, 1986).
Conclusion In ancient Mediterranean, dogs, bulls, wild goats and lions were depicted. Lions were common because of their superiority in the jungle. On the other hand, wild bulls were considered to be aesthetically valuable. Cattle and goats were wild but later domesticated in Crete and other cultures in Mediterranean.
Depictions were generally used to protect individuals and communities against evil. Pride and prestige were common purposes of depiction especially for hunters and rulers. Some were used to pass information.
Meanings of depictions included successful hunting, dwelling environment, power, security and individual activities. The meanings varied from culture to culture but most of them were common.
Works Cited Dunn, Jimmy. Beasts of Ancient Egypt. 2011. Web.
Edwards, Ionwerth S. Tutankhamun: His Tomb and Its Treasures. New York: Alfred Knopf and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977. Print.
Kawani, Trudy S. “Greek Art and Persian Taste: Some Animals Sculptures from Persepolis.” American journal of archaeology 90.3 (1986): 259-26.
Shapland, Andrew. “The Minoan lion: presence and absence on Bronze Age Crete.” World Archaeology 19.3 (2010): 27-109.
Religious Equality in America Essay (Movie Review) best college essay help: best college essay help
It has been established that the United States compared to other developing nations is exceptionally a religious country. Additionally socialists have held that individuals whose lives is at risk are more likely to be religious, thus countries with high degree of poverty are more religious than wealthier nations, this is contrary to America situation. America is home to various religions such as Christianity, Islamic, Jewish, Mormons, Buddhists, Hinduism among others.
From the American constitution, the First Amendment clearly states that the Congress should at no time come up with laws respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise of thereof. This means that all religions were free to speak, engage in activities that suit them provided they do not infringe on the freedom and rights of others without necessarily being watched by the government. This was aimed at fostering freedom and religious equality.
It has been argued that due to differing cultures, norms, beliefs and values, it would not be possible to attain religious equality. If the government were to ensure that there is religious equality, then the uniqueness of each religion will be lost. The task of this essay is to establish whether it is possible or not to have religious equality in America. This will be derived from the movie Aimee Semple McPherson.
It is worth noting that the movie is a tale of the life of an America woman who was famous with faith healing evangelisms. She started her own church known as the Four Square Gospel. The film clearly shows the two sides of the coin of the famous pastor. Aimee is named Semple after she got married to Robert Semple who was a Pentecostal preacher who later died of malaria while they were in China.
Aimee later married Mac McPherson. Her quest to preach resulted in healing of the congregation. This was not taken well by her husband Mac and the two parted ways. Aimee started her ministry where it grew rapidly due to a radio station she owned.
At one time, Aimee disappeared and it was rumored that she was cohabiting with the chief radio engineer who was a married and handsome man. She later emerged refuting the claims saying that she was kidnapped and taken to Mexico. The case was later dropped since the prosecutor failed to prove the case against Aimee.
Closer analyses of the events reveal that Aimee’s mother was not very concerned about her daughter who was missing. Indeed it is depicted that on numerous occasions, she plotted to take control of the church but failed. Additionally instead of the public particularly media houses to ascertain their claims, they wrote bad things about Aimee while indeed she might have been kidnapped and tortured.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is what still happens today in both big and small churches in the world including America. People are fighting to gain control of the church particularly when there is huge sum of monies involved.
Interestingly, it is worth mentioning that when her husband, Mac left her because he could not take the issue of religion in his family, this clearly depicts that the issue of religious equality cannot be realized. Equality means that no one will despise the other person; however this is not the case.
From the review of the issue of religious equality in America, it is evident that despite the fact that the constitution clearly states that there is religious freedom, there are cases of some quotas being treated unfairly particularly when they flourish and prosper. To that effect, I don’t think that it is possible to have religious equality in America.
Economic Analysis of a Common Law Doctrine Term Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief Summary of the Case
Legal Research (Summary of the Law Relating to the Case)
Application of Economic Analysis to Case
Introduction Over the recent times, the relationship between economic endeavors and the law has witnessed an upward mobility. According to Truman, the relationship between laws and economies is preliminarily based on the fact that laws help protect and govern the manner in which economic endeavors take place.
On the other hand, the economy provides the financial backing that is very vital in the process of creating, enacting and implementing laws that protect various individuals or organizations in the society.
As will be explicatively detailed in this paper, laws in countries are majorly divided into common laws and civil laws. Common laws, which are the central focus of this paper, are typical laws not enshrined in the law yet created to protect people beyond the confines of civil law.
There are many examples of common laws. However, in this study, we are going to locus on the law of torts with a legal case (Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar) being used to typify the intricacies of this law.
Essentially, the law of tort arose in this auto theft ring case where the conversion defendants (those who knowingly or unknowingly processed the stolen vehicles) and even went ahead to try to shield the court from finding the truth about the intricacies of the scheme.
So in as much as the fraudsters who stole the vehicles were mainly to blame (and were duly charged in the court); the honorable justice presiding in the case also extended the payment of damages incurred by Insurance Corporation of British Columbia to these conversion defendants. It is upon this background that the discussions presented herein will be given.
Brief Summary of the Case According to the Canadian Legal Information Institute, the British Columbia’s Supreme Court is reported to have commanded fraudsters to repay hefty punitive damages to the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) for claims regarding an auto theft conspiracy by the fraudsters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a written statement by Justice Cullen who was presiding over the case, the fraud ring—which mainly consisted of thieves and forgers—stole vehicles the used forged Alberta Vehicle Registration Certificates (AVRC) to certify ownership of the vehicles.
In essence, using original documents of the stolen vehicles would make it easy for the vehicles to be spotted by the ICBC who had already compensated owners of these stolen vehicles. It is for this reason that the fraudsters’ cartel created new VIN numbers on the forged AVRC.
Once these documents were forged, the vehicles were then sold to new legitimate buyers in BC’s lower mainland and the money then shared amongst all the people involved in the scheme (Canadian Legal Information Institute).
Between 2002 and 2003, this cartel managed to steal several vehicles, make fake identification documents for them and sell them to their prospected buyers while making millions of shillings at the expense of innocent people and corporations.
However, the long arm of the law soon caught with the fraudsters resulting into one of the most monumental cases in Canada with the conspiracy and conversion defendants being on one of the court while the plaintiff government being on the other.
After an overstretched battle in the legal corridors and evidence given by various witnesses; the fraudsters were charged for damages to the ICBC.
In awarding the fines, the court considered factors such as the financial means of the defendants, criminal records of the defendant, cooperation of the defendants during the trials and hearings at the court, whether one was involved in a single or multiple crimes, and the nature of crime (was it planned or deliberate), among many other factors (BC Justice).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Economic Analysis of a Common Law Doctrine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But even more relevant to our discussion, some of the conversion defendants also found themselves being charged on the basis of the count of negligence with regards to the criminal activities of the car theft scheme. Also, those who, in one way or another, inhibited the court or the plaintiff from finding the truth regarding the fraudulent activities were duly charged by the court.
The section below gives an expansive analysis of this common law (tort), with special focus being on the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case.
Legal Research (Summary of the Law Relating to the Case) Generally speaking, contract laws refer to the laws that are instituted to govern contracts. A majority of the contact laws are legally incepted and instituted.
However, there are also some contracts—especially in areas like social, economic, political and anthropology—where the laws used in the contracts are domestic and, therefore, have nothing to do with the well-defined national and international legal statutes.
This is what scholars commonly refer to as common law and civil law—where civil law refers to those laws that are legal laws enshrined in the statute of a country or region while the common laws refer to the laws which are typical of any society—and, in most cases, are not legally mandated like the civil laws.
As a noteworthy point, the common laws and civil laws differ from one country and region to another. It is for this reason that contracts signed between people from varying region tend to be complex and highly sophisticated.
However, it is commendable to state that the progress being made—especially due to globalization and economic progress—has greatly encouraged the formation of contracts by several multifaceted regions and countries.
A tort is a word, with a French origin, which simply means a “wrong” or civil wrong that is committed against someone else. Its main difference with other types of offences is that whereas other criminal offences are generally viewed as a breach of duty to the country; a tort is a breach of duty owed to someone else.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Analysis of a Common Law Doctrine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Examples of torts include slander, health accidents, auto accidents, conspiracies, environmental pollution among many others. In most modern countries, the standard measure of a tort is said to be negligence (Larson).
As for negligence, it generally refers to the failure to act diligently or the omission of responsible behavior when it is your primary duty to do so. Larson states the following three points as the weighing scale for negligence. Firstly, the plaintiff must prove unreasonable behavior of the defendant.
Secondly, the plaintiff must have evidence to show the he/she suffered some loss or damage and thirdly, there should be proof to show that someone failed to act carefully as any normal person would.
These are normally represented in four statutes normally referred to as the elements of negligence which are: duty of care, breach of duty, breach based on a proximate cause and finally, breach causing harm (Find Law).
There are fundamentally two basic forms of defense against negligence. First is comparative negligence which commonly refers to a legal defense that a plaintiff’s negligence is also viewed as a contributing factor in a case, and thus reduces the amount of damages the plaintiff recovers.
Second is the contributory negligence where a defendant is partially or fully held responsible for the damages even if the plaintiff might have contributed to the negligent act.
In the analysis of liability today, most countries tend to like the comparative negligence since it seems fairer and representative of the involvement of both parties as stated above.
However, in the discussions of this paper, the issue of comparative negligence will be avoided as it does not necessarily relate to the specific objectives of this paper and in fact did not actually apply in the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case.
As a key note, laws differ from one country to another. Therefore, in the discussions below, central focus is going to be on the nature of tort laws in Canada—especially those that specifically relate to the case at hand
Economic Analysis In the bid to do a circumspective economic analysis of the law of torts, with regards to our current case, it is unavoidably necessary for us to begin by tracing the origins of the problem—or rather, the factors that duly contributed to the criminal endeavors of the fraudsters.
The 2008 global financial and economic crisis is one of the most devastating experiences ever witnessed in the business world (Bhushan). To most macroeconomics, the signs of this crisis were clearly written all over the world, but for some strange reason, most countries chose to hogwash these signs terming them as baseless and worthless (Truman).
As we now all know, the signs—which were repeatedly documented by many scholars in books, articles and innumerable tabloids—were, actually, true based on the impact that the crisis had, not just in Canada, but to the whole world with many economies plunging down and paving the way for the variant levels of poverty across the globe.
When we talk of the global and economic crisis, we generally refer to the slump of several economies across the globe in the final parts of 2007, the whole of 2008 and the starting parts of 2009 (Bhushan).
However, digging deep into the annals of history, we find that the even as early as the year 2000, an economic meltdown had already started taking place in various countries across the world—Canada being among them.
And since the meltdown was both financial and economic in nature, trade was greatly inhibited which, in turn, led to the downward spiral of economic output and loss of jobs. As a result, most people resorted into criminal activities so as to sustain their livelihood.
A good number of witnesses in the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case used the rather shaky economy of Canada, as of 2002 and 2003 to defend their direct or indirect engagement in fraudulent economic endeavors.
A good example of the above argument is that of buyers who said that unknowingly getting vehicles at a cheaper price from the fraudsters was considered as a huge economic gain for them since other places tended to sell similar vehicles at higher prices.
Another factor that duly contributed to the fraudulent activities was the legal and political landscape of Canada. Notably, since its inception in 1867, the Canadian constitution has undergone tremendous political changes that have transformed it from a power-centralized document to one that there is modicum separation of powers.
Primarily, the constitutional act—which was reinstated to law—gave formal authority to the Queen of Britain (Queen Victoria) and thus making Canada a sovereign, yet democratic, state. This is the main reason why Canada heavily borrows from the British system of governance (Lympany).
As of today, Canada is considered as a constitutional monarch and an independent federation that utilizes the parliamentary system of governance. In some aspects, the separation of powers in Canada has fuelled economic progress through the presence of democratic laws.
However, on the downside, some people have been affected negatively since the parliamentary systems vests a lot of control on top government officials rather than those at the grassroots—which makes it relatively easy for criminals to get away with their activities (Saunders).
This, probably, is the reason why the vehicle fraudsters unnoticeably got away with their criminal activities for over a year. It is however important to note that in order to protect the economic ventures of Canada, specifically related to the discussions of this paper; there exists 2 categories of tort laws which apply relevantly—as is exemplified below.
Firstly, Fridman says that there is the tort of civil conspiracy. Here, liability for an actionable conspiracy is covered under the Cement LaFarge where the following key elements are constituted:
Any form of conspiracy is considered as an intentional tort. This majorly applies to parties who have mutually agreed to act in a particular way, for a particular purpose and with a particular intent (Fridman).
An agreement to participate in a conspiracy is punishable by law. However, this agreement must have a plan to participate in “unlawful” conduct where the conspiracy has elements such as crime, tort, breach of statutes or breach of contracts (Fridman).
There must be prove of damage for one to be considered as having engaged in a tortuous conspiracy with proofs from the plaintiff to ascertain the guilt of the defendants with regards to the damages in question (Fridman).
Secondly, we have the tort of conversion. Fridman says that, in this tort, the following elements are considered hugely vital:
There must be a wrongful act by the defendant involving goods that belong to the plaintiff (Fridman).
The wrongful act must consist of disposing, handling or destroying of the goods in question (Fridman).
The wrongful act by the defendant must verifiably have the intention or effect of interfering with the plaintiff’s right to his/her goods.
If the court is able to prove guilt on the basis of these torts, then one is considered liable for the crime and punitive damages are administered based on the negative economic impact of the criminal activities by the defendants on the plaintiffs.
Remarkably, the liabilities and punitive damages given to the defendants in the Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case were only administered once the court had exhaustively assessed their guilt on the basis of these torts and the aforementioned considerations such as nature of participation or even the defendants’ criminal records.
Below are the names of the main players in the car theft and sales ring, as well as the charges that were imposed on them—as per the reports of the Canadian Underwriter.ca.
Vikram Atwal: Liable for an estimated amount of $113, 365 and damages amounting to $40, 000.
Jaspal Atwal: Liable for an estimated amount of $22, 931 and damages amounting to $5, 000.
Jasraj Bains: Liable for an estimated amount of $96, 510.04 and damages amounting to $40, 000.
Jagjit Gill: Liable for an estimated amount of $68, 730.67 and damages amounting to $50, 000.
In total, the Canadian Underwriter.ca states that the British Columbia Supreme commanded the fraudsters to pay ICBC more than $344, 000 for damages that resulted from the auto theft ring.
Expectedly, these fines greatly helped ICBC to regain on the losses that had been incurred due to the criminal activities of the fraudsters. On the flipside, the corporations and individuals that were involved in the cartel witnessed a down-surge in their revenues based on the charges imposed to them.
Moreover, it is worth noting that the tort laws in Canada have provisions in which clients get to defend their cases.
It is for this reason that Vikram Atwal was found complicit of stealing and converting 7 vehicles while he had claims against 6 vehicles dismissed by the court; Jaspal Atwal was found complicit of stealing and converting 1 vehicle; Jasraj Bains was found complicit of stealing and converting 4 vehicles while he had claims dismissed against him in 1 vehicle; and Jagjit Gill was found complicit of stealing and converting 5 vehicles (Canadian Legal Information Institute).
It can thus be said that the law of tort not only helped in solving the economic problems for related to the case; something which went along way in encouraging economic progress.
Application of Economic Analysis to Case As has been repeatedly detailed in the discussions above, the symbiotically mutual relationship between laws and economic endeavors is an important one that should be continually sustained rather than limited. For instance, in the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case, the tort laws greatly helped in solving the legal dispute between the plaintiffs and defendants.
On the other hand, it is extremely important that the economy is duly regulated so that the engagement into fraudulent endeavors is reduced while the prevalence of criminal activities is curbed. If such economic precautions had been taken, then the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case might have not even happened.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is inherently vital to state that the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar case not only helped in punishing the guilty parties while giving justice to the innocent individuals and corporations.
To this effect, it can be said that courts provide a good avenue for airing out our legal problems or even getting compensation for harms done to us.
However, if crime is to be uprooted or at least stemmed out, it is far much better that each one of us takes the short route of making a commitment to acting diligently and responsibly to avoid taking the long highway of legal justice.
The compensations given in courts merely act as a way of owning up to the mistakes but do not solve the deep-seated feelings of trauma and pain normally caused by certain crimes (whether committed negligently or knowingly).
Nonetheless, more legal provisions like tort laws should be continually developed and better to help protect our endeavors—whether social, political, cultural, environmental or even economic.
Works Cited BC Justice. Insurance Corp. of British Columbia v. Ben-Jaafar. 2011. Web.
Bhushan, Aniket. Lessons from the Economic Crisis. 21 June 2011. Web.
Canadian Legal Information Institute. ICBC v. Atwal, 2010 BCSC 338 (CanLII). 2010. Web.
Canadian Underwriter.ca. BC’s Supreme Court Orders Hefty Punitive Damages in Auto Fraud Ring Case. 2011. Web.
Larson. Aaron. Negligence and Tort Law. 2003. Web.
Lympany, Dave. The Canadian Political System. 2006. Web.
Find Law. Contributory and Comparative Negligence. 2012. Web.
Fridman, Gerald Henry Louis. The Law of Torts in Canada, 2nd Ed. Toronto: Carswell, 2002. Print.
Saunders, Cheryl. Separation of Powers and the Judicial Branch. 2006. Web.
Truman, Edwin. M. The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons Learned and Challenges for Developing Countries. 2009. Web.
How Anthropology Helps to Evaluate Stereotypes Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents How anthropology helps us to evaluate stereotypes
Evaluation of our own western culture
Make relevant changes
How anthropology helps us to evaluate stereotypes The recent study on leadership shows that women have been enlightened and they are up to take their positions in leadership.
Anthropology refers to the study of human kind, his society and all that pertain them. Stereotype is where a person seems to conform to a widely accepted behavior type or attitude. According to the study carried recently on gender equality, it was found that differences between men and women occur naturally.
These are biological differences between the two sexes and each gender has its own unique characteristics. Other anthropologists view equality as the imagery where men seem to be strong and domineering. This is usually not the case because not all men are as strong as stereotypes argue.
In the study on roles of males, men are seen to be typically aggressive, less emotional and more logic oriented. Men are expected to behave in a manner such that everyone recognizes and expect the best from them as argued by (kottak 67). Being the head of the family, a man is committed to the family responsibility of providing and taking care of the homestead.
Women have been noted to be emotional, submissive, neat and children keepers. These gender stereotypes for women are less agreed as more women tend to defy their perceptions. Property ownership is no longer men’s achievement as women have been noted to own large business firms, as well. Proper management of large premises and organizations by women is another role that has been decentralized.
The study carried on an educational basis shows that there has been a considerable change where education has been centralized for both genders (MacLaury, Paramei and Dedrick 98). Women nowadays have equal chances of being educated unlike in the past where only men were supposed to be learned.
Human rights have been fighting for the girl child education. This has ensured that girls are given a chance to go to school. This has led to a tremendous increase in the number of females in higher levels of learning and in some courses they exceed the number of men.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation of our own western culture Cultural studies of different people have noted different activities carried by given tribes depending with the level of interaction they have with other cultures. The mode of living distinguishes each community from others and makes it unique in one way or the other.
Culture has considerably been reserved by some tribes and communities although it is fading away in some others (kottak 67). Different occasions in each community are seen to be conducted in different manners and such occasions include marriage, circumcision and among others.
Languages spoken by different communities widely vary as each community has its own accent. This has conformed people to accept each other and relate widely to one another in order to enhance communication. Community activities have been noted to increase and high rate of interaction at community level has moved to the peak.
Make relevant changes The recent study on leadership shows that women have been enlightened and they are up to take their positions in leadership. Initially leadership was seen as men’s task, but nowadays women have shown their capabilities by challenging men. This has been taken positively in most communities, and more women are being encouraged to show their interest in higher positions in leadership as argued by (MacLaury, Paramei and Dedrick 88).
These enormous changes have been facilitated by high number of non- governmental organizations operating in the world. Their main task is to ensure that there is the uniform distribution of resources and to ensure that individual rights are not violated. They monitor governments’ allocation of funds to various projects mainly in remote areas. These projects include rural electrification, irrigation schemes and construction of bore holes.
Works Cited Kottak, Conrad P. Mirror for Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. London: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print.
MacLaury, Robert E., Paramei Galina V, and Dedrick Don. Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary Multilevel Modeling. New York: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2007. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on How Anthropology Helps to Evaluate Stereotypes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Japanese Confucianism View Point Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Confucianism ideals are popular among the Japanese. Confucianism appoints various philosophical movements that had different views in Japanese culture. For instance, Jukyo explained that Confucianism was a scholars teaching and Jugaku described it as learning of scholars.
Japanese traced Confucian philosophy from ancient history. This was illustrated during the Tokugawa period which characterized politics of Samurai, to the Meiji era. The Meiji era was viewed as a restoration of the colonial rule. However, the most remarkable development of Confucian philosophy was linked to Tokugawa period.
This paper discusses the Confucianism on a Japanese view point. The writer illustrates that the Japanese views asserted that Confucianism was a social system which influenced morality in the society. It was also a practice which enhanced fidelity and devotion, the pillars of ethics. Further, Confucianism was viewed as a practice enhancing wisdom and encouraging effective political leadership.
Discussion Japanese Confucianism was significant in influencing the society. They placed a stronger emphasis on members of the society to embrace moral life for a better living. Hence, respect and love were imperative elements that thrived in a family setting than in the society. On the contrary, human and equality was viewed as vital for a fair society.
Confucianism underlined the model and widespread truth expressed by past sages. They also supported self-improvement. These elements were set in the Confucianism doctrine of Zhong, heart and middle, which suggested faithfulness and Shu, which suggested treasuring the heart, as it belongs to oneself
Social harmony Japanese Confucianism was viewed as a social system embedded on morality than rules. It was viewed that if a person was led and respected the laws to escape punishment, the person had no intelligence. But, if a person was directed by moral guidance and respected the code of conduct, that person had wisdom and was guaranteed of an upright life.
The Japanese culture placed a strong emphasis on group and social harmony. These views were showed in the Japanese ideas of Wa, the idea of being a group and perpetuating harmony. The thoughts of shared responsibility and decision making by consent was fixed to social harmony in the society. Hence, being special from the group was viewed as disruptive manners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethics The Confucian values in ancient and modern day Japan are viewed as a teaching of fidelity and devotion. Fidelity and devotion are pillars to the Confucian ethics. However, equally important is the collective ethical prescriptions such as Jin (humaneness). Humaneness was explored differently in Japanese culture, mostly, Japanese linked humaneness with being careful not to offend others. Humaneness was viewed as model of all Confucian virtues.
Similarly, another ethical view of Confucian ethics was Justice, gi. Justice was translated to mean ‘rightness’ and ‘righteousness’. Gi also showed wisdom in perspective or accountability, commitment and duty. To draw someone was a gi elicited ethical honor, while failure meant conviction. Gi was harmonized with humaneness to form Jingi. Jingi illustrated justice and humaneness. These were political merits that shaped lucid legitimacy of an organization embracing them.
Mind The Confucian viewed mind as supreme to the body because it influenced body activities. When ri, principle, and generative force, ki, were combined, the mind controlled the body. This was because the mind had the ability for lucid and unclouded intelligence.
Political thought A political touch to Confucianism philosophy characterized the political context of Japan. As it was anchored on Confucius himself, the Japanese followers embraced the teachings to direct their rulers. They viewed that embracing Confucianism views guaranteed a successful solution to political crises. Confucianism valued an individual with good virtues connected to royal birth.
Therefore, they looked down on a person who was born in a royal context and ignored the activities connected to self-cultivation. This person, in Confucius view, never advanced the standing granted to birth (Berthrong and Evelyn 173). Hence, understanding the true prince demonstrated those born in a higher caliber must struggle to attain respect, self-cultivation and the choice to exercise influence basing on their standing in the society.
These conditional perspectives of Confucianism on leadership and governance spread among the ruling community in the Japanese history. According to Berthrong and Evelyn (2) to affirm Confucius perspectives, the political teachings were a requisite of the selected few among the ruling elite, rather than being taught to the wider population. However, Confucianism education covered extensively in the country such that the poor began to comprehend the basics Confucianism political thoughts (Berthrong and Evelyn 2).
The poor’s protest activities were embedded on the idea that virtuous leaders needed to embrace the needs of the majority rather than the needs of the selected few. However, when these wishes were not embraced, the poor showed their anger through remonstrations.
We will write a custom Essay on Japanese Confucianism View Point specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Confucius philosophy ensured a leader understands the merits of of self-cultivation (Berthrong and Evelyn (32). Daigaku, which was designated as the Great Learning, was a significant literature which spelled out pertinent instructions for a ruler to follow.
It was compulsory for rulers to embrace Daigaku to achieve luminous virtues. Besides, rulers had to humble themselves with sincere thoughts to simplify acquisition (Berthrong and Evelyn 186). Thus, when these virtues were gained the people would be assured of ordered families, well managed and governed state and great peace. A society with efficient rule strengthened a culture of self-cultivation on the side of the ruling rank.
Education According Berthrong and Evelyn (85) education was one of the significant contributions of Confucius to the Japanese culture. Confucianism highlighted education at all ranks in the society. Confucianism illustrated that education was a requisite for attaining self-cultivation.
At upper level, learning was viewed as a vital constituent in recognizing an organized state and peace in the world. Learning was achieved through emulation. Emulation process was used in early-modern Japan.
Emulation was embraced by heterodox thinkers such as Ogyu Sorai and Ito Jinsai. Jinsai was famous for using calligraphy to elucidate that education can be acquired by emulation (Berthrong and Evelyn 65). Thus, using emulation, a learner was given a teacher’s sample to emulate it. A learner who showed consistent practice and efforts increased his/her chances of comprehension of the task. The growth of education in Japan increased.
Hence, advanced literacy rate in the nineteenth century led to developing mass printing, fixing of schools in various Samurai’s and the rise of learning movements linked to Japanese culture and literature. Learning movements were critical of Chinese style philosophy. The Confucianism view on education was that it was an essential aspect of human life which enabled a person to attain better life and live harmoniously in the society.
Works Cited Berthrong, John H and Evelyn Nagai-Berthrong. Confucianism: a short introduction, Oxford: Oneworld, 2000. Print
Child and Adolescent Behavior: Becoming Attached Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Robert Karen explores the formation of an infant’s attachment to a parent and discusses how this process can affect a child in the long term. Theoretical concepts examined by the author are largely based on the research conducted by Mary Ainsworth who studied children’s reactions to separations and reunions with their mothers.
Following Ainsworth, the author distinguishes several attachment patterns, namely secure, ambivalent, avoidant and disorganized attachments. However, Robert Karen focuses more on how the formation of bonds between an infant and a caregiver can shape the personality of child.
The examples that the scholar gives urge parents to be more attentive to their children’s needs because otherwise they can suffer from various psychological problems.
To prove this argument, the author offers various types of evidence. For instance, he points out that lack of parental support and feeling of insecurity can be associated with the school phobia that many children have (Karen, 221). This is only one example that shows how insecurity during infancy can impact a child.
Moreover, he argues a child, who did not receive support from parents at the time when he or she was distressed, is not likely to ask for assistance even if it is really needed (Karen, 221). Such a person will seek independence even though such form of behavior may harm him or her.
Moreover, the author argues that children, who did not develop bonds of attachment with their parents, can feel ineffective or even ashamed of themselves (Karen, 238). The key problem is that such children feel unworthy of their parents’ love and they eventually suffer from inferiority complex or even depression.
Robert Karen also argues that parents should be able to community their feelings and emotions to the children. For example, they need to avoid sudden fits of anger because they can make a child much more reticent and reserved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, they should also bear in mind that unexpressed discontent may also be dangerous because children and adolescents sense this tacit discontent, but they may view it as a form of rejection (Karen, 242). This is how parents can unwillingly harm their children.
Certainly, the examples that Robert Karen provides should be critically evaluated. The thing is that the effects identified by this author might have been caused by other environmental factors such as the influence of peers, teachers, or mass media.
There can be only a correlation between a certain type of parent behavior and long-term personal development of a child. Furthermore, one should not forget about hereditary factors that also impact character traits. Yet, one has to consider that the entire attachment theory is a developing area of psychology and its methods and results can become more accurate.
The ideas expressed by Robert Karen can find practical applications. For instance, these findings can be of great use to parents who should learn how to treat their children.
By following the recommendations of Robert Karen, parents can minimize various hypothetical risks such as depression of their children, panic attacks, phobias, feeling of insecurity, or inferiority complex. Secondly, these findings should be taken into account by therapists who treat people of various ages.
On the whole, attachment theory can have significant applications for parents, educators, and psychologists. The ideas advanced and discussed by Robert Karen definitely merit attention and further study because they can help people understand how early childhood experiences influence a person at later stages of his or her life.
Works Cited Karen, Robert. Becoming attached: first relationships and how they shape our capacity to love. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.
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Triumph at Kapyong: Canada’s pivotal battle in Korea Essay (Book Review) essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Title of book
Review of events in the book
Strengths and weaknesses of the book
Introduction The ability to effectively write a book with high precision, clarity and robustness will determines the book’s efficiency in communicating to readers and passing required information in the most effective way.
In war history related writings, style and professionalism are critical in determining the impact that the writing would have on the field of profession which is being targeted, an academic profession, and readers in other fields.
It is against this background that this paper provides a review of Dan Bjarnason’s ‘Triumph at Kapyong: Canada’s Pivotal Battle in Korea.
Title of book As already noted at the beginning, the ability of any write up to effectively communicate the required message should be clearly visualized from the initial parts of the reading. The title of the book is indeed self explanatory as it posts the key aspects being featured to the reader.
Besides, the title is augmented in style by the abstract under which it acts as an extension that offers further explanation. The abstract in this case provides an overview of the whole book to the reader.
It briefly sets the stage of the story or event by indicating that the event centered on the battle of Kapyong and goes to great lengths in describing the details of the events that led to the involvement of Canada in the war. Besides, its takes a reader through key leadership qualities displayed among individuals who were in charge of the army.
Of particular importance is the fact that the abstract provides a summary of details and consequences of the war. The revelation Bjarnason of information of factors that caused Canada to join the war to readers at the onset of the story anchors their concentration and promotes their interest to get other details throughout the story or study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Style Style in this book has effectively been employed and is in tandem with the title of the book. It is also notable that the beginning of this book is highly captivating and leaves a reader with the desire to read more form the book.
As a matter of fact, such an arousing writing style especially at the initial pages of any piece of literature is vital in maintain the flow and attractiveness of the given piece of writing. Due to clarity of the book from the beginning, a reader is able to tell what to expect in the later sections.
Besides, the planning of the book is quite impressive in the sense that it starts by outlining factual information on the contribution of Canada to peacekeeping and counter measures against incursions by communists. These are terse details that truly equip the reader with some of the most important details in the book.
In addition; further clarity is inferred from the flow of the history (story) details that cumulatively provide increased capacity of the reader to link the main issues being recounted in the events. Of particular importance in the book is emphasis provided by use of statistics and figures as well as clear referencing on time of occurrence of the events which have been illustrated in the book.
Needless to say, provision of timelines in such piece of writing is quite crucial in enlightening the reader with both flow and content of the book in addition to the relevance of each event. However, lack of consistency in the flow of events is a major undoing factor of the book since it the writing appears as a secondary literature that dwells on the analysis of another book.
Review of events in the book Bjarnason has done an extremely plausible work in reviewing the events that took place during the war in Kapyong and other related matters in the literature of his work. Indeed, every part of this publication adequately provides some systematic flow of events with relevant timelines as well as characters involved.
Nonetheless, the writing seems to be lacking sufficient support of previous works of history. Needless to say, this depicts a clear indication of possible missing links crucial in the book that could be equally crucial towards understanding the book.
We will write a custom Book Review on Triumph at Kapyong: Canada’s pivotal battle in Korea specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the latter may be considered as lethal weakness in the book, it is imperative to note that building of characters’ attributes in the book has been comprehensively done.
For instance, every concept of charismatic leadership such as that of Brigadier John Rockingham has been manifested in such a creative way that Bjarnason’s work becomes an important building block throughout the book.
Strengths and weaknesses of the book To begin with, it is worth noting that the book’s key strengths lie in its presentation and succinctness of different ideologies that have been integrated throughout the piece of literature.
From the start, the introduction is very holistic and therefore offers the necessary insight into the rest of the events discussed in the book as indicated earlier. Besides, it further presents key reference points in terms of time of occurrence of events and individuals involved.
It is also worth noting that the presented cases during the war are further analyzed intrinsically to facilitate greater understanding of the logic behind the decisions assimilated by different leaders. It is imperative to mention that the style employed in the article is highly particularistic and simplified without losing key underlying concepts.
On the other hand, the book is apparently lacking the necessary references at the end of the publication which makes the reader to question some of the sources used in the paper. Despite the clear flow assimilated in the book, it is evident that there is inadequate and incomprehensive of the details that happened during the war.
Besides, the book does not have specific section that elaborates on the problem of interest in terms of how that war was critical. In other words, the recount in the book can be dismissed merely as story capturing the history of the war.
Therefore, in terms of elucidating on the significance of war history highlighted in this piece of literature, it is profound to underscore the fact that the book fails to accomplish the ability to bring out clear significance of the event to the reader.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Triumph at Kapyong: Canada’s pivotal battle in Korea by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though by introducing the issue and providing intriguing evidence on its occurrence and possible contribution to Canada involvement maybe considered to generate a sense of purpose, the same consideration may not always be sufficient especially to readers who seek to establish the significance and uniqueness of the war.
To be able to facilitate interest and intrinsic involvement of the reader in book, the author must be able to clearly bring out the significances of the war. This reduces ambiguities in the results interpretations.
Though the author’s style may be considered to be part of the strategy to promote multiple applications of the results, the style can be very misleading to a reader.
While it has been indicated earlier that Bjarnason did an excellent job in describing the events of battle of Kapyong, his work lacks comprehensive reviewing of other literature sources to support his work, propositions and even recommendations.
By strongly supporting the claim on the story, a reader is able to effectively link the purpose of the story and the reason involvement of Canada in the battle at Kapyong.
One cannot fail to mention the great essence of the literature review in drawing better relationship between the battle of Kapyong and the pivotal role of Canada in the war.
In his review of Bjarnason’s work, Cord Scott brings out the existing gaps which he feel that needs to be worked on to enable readers who have no knowledge of the war grasp adequate information on it.
On a final note, this book lacks a holistic theoretical framework which is very crucial for understanding the relationship between various aspects discussed in the book.
By failing to provide a clear framework on the war, maps of movement of soldiers from both Korea and Canada and relevant support from official histories, a reader is left aloof to decide on the relation between the major variables and the main objectives.
This may be less helpful bearing in mind that it can lead to misinterpretations of the book by different readers due to limited information. Implementation of the recommendations also becomes quite cumbersome since the readers are unable to connect theoretically between the causes and the consequences of events depicted in the book.
Effects of Internet use in Society Cause and Effect Essay essay help free
The internet has both positive and negative effects on society. It has an impact on adults, teenagers, children and the elderly. One needs to understand how the internet affects education, economy, socialization and entertainment in society.
The internet has an impact on how people work, communicate, learn and trade. Therefore, the internet creates a learned and connected society at the same time a lonely society.
The internet is a major source of information for students, researchers, and traders among other users all over the globe. In learning institutions, the internet provides an opportunity to students to access information from all over the world.
It is a source of educational resources and student communities where they can acquire information they never had. It also helps students to carry out their research projects and exchange ideas with students all over the world.
On the other hand, teachers may contact other teachers by the use of the internet to compare ideas on different subjects. The younger children are also able to do their homework and assignments with a little online help. Researchers can be able to access information with ease, and this has led to the development of research.
Internet has had an impact in communication in the society today. Public and private organizations have access to internet; this enables the availability of e-mail and video conferencing.
Therefore, the availability of this technology has enabled organizations to cut costs on transport and communication. Internet connectivity has simplified communication with other organizations around the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hiring of employees has become simpler as a result of internet connectivity. Organizations may use the internet to post vacant positions and applicants are able to apply for jobs online. This has provided an opportunity to people to work in international organizations thus, growth for developing countries.
Communication with family and relatives around the world has become easier and cheaper as a result of availability of internet. Earlier it was expensive to communicate with people abroad over the phone, but these days, one can chat with others using services available on the internet, for example, yahoo messenger and Google chat.
The social network such as Facebook and Twitter help people to communicate and exchange ideas. Therefore, internet communication is cheaper and easier to use within the same area or across continents.
Internet has led to economic development through digital TV and online shopping. Business organizations are partnering with the government and information technology experts to sell goods and products in the living room.
Availability of home shopping channels and business websites has helped economic growth. People are able to order for goods from their living room, and home delivery is done in a short time.
Economic development is enhanced because of the efficient exchange between suppliers and consumers of goods and services. The consumer has access to quality goods that they trust, and at the same time saves time and money because of home delivery.
Business organizations are able to advertise their goods and services on the internet, and customers can select the goods they require and order online. Most business organizations have set up web sites that they use to sell their goods. This service has also helped to reduce the cost of advertising in print media and other means of advertising.
We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Internet use in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internet has enabled users to make money by using the tools and services that are available. One can also work from home and work for flexible hours as a result of internet use.
The internet has also brought about negative impacts on society today. The privacy of an individual is not guaranteed because one user can access another’s account by manipulating the password. Many people have been defrauded by people who hack into other people’s e-mail accounts.
The rate of piracy of copyright material has increased with the use of the internet. People have access to information such as music, books and films which are not easy to protect from opportunists. The producers, artist and government are losing a lot of income as a result of internet piracy.
The internet is a source of unlimited information; therefore, users are able to access pornographic material. The young children learn abusive language from other children as a result of chatting with one another on the internet.
The exposure to this material has devastating effects on the minds of young people and lowers the dignity of humans. The availability of pornographic material to both the young and adults has a negative impact on the moral image of a society.
Excessive use of the internet causes a person to feel lonely and depressed. A person who overuses the internet is likely to isolate him or herself from the real world. Online chatting with unknown people causes a person to spend less time with his family, and this leads to isolation.
The internet may also be used to spread political propaganda, attack communities and promote racism. The information found on the internet may not be true and legal for official use.
Internet use can be addictive to the user, who cannot control the amount of time he or she spends on the internet. Internet addiction can be harmful to the physical and psychological health of the user.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Internet use in Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internet has provided the society with a lot of information both good and bad. The information has also impacted the society positively and negatively; therefore, users should employ effective ways of responsible internet use.
The Assassination of President Kennedy in 1963 Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
A turning point can be described as an event which, if it could have not occurred, would have caused a different course in history. The assassination of President John Kennedy was a great turning point in the history of Americans and the world.
Several Americans remember clearly the place they were when they heard the death of their president. After the death or assassination of President John Kennedy, there were increase in violence and deaths in most parts of 1960s, which were triggered by the death of Kennedy (Dick
Republic of China towards Taiwan Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Feedback on the reading
Introduction In his, book Taiwan: a new history, Rubinsten Murray gives the social, economic and political development of Taiwan. Tracing the historical changes from the Neolithic era, Murray highlights the economic and political landmark in the Taiwan history. Socially, the Taiwan population was constantly increasing thus, putting pressure on its economy.
Politically, Taiwan had strained relationship with its neighbors like the China, an issue, which led to wars. However, the United States of America, declined to weaken the political aggression between the two states. Fortunately, in 1950 the U.S accepted to intervene and assist Taiwan towards creating internal reforms.
Therefore, the next discussion not only gives the summary of Murray’s book (Chapters 11 and 14) but also focuses on the impact of the Republic of China (ROC) towards the political, economic and social development of Taiwan.
Book summary In the mid 20th century, China accelerated the commencement of the civil war. The political aggression in China consequently, affected Taiwan (colony of china). Although the national troops of China seemed victorious, the economic development in both china and Taiwan lagged behind. In addition, the United States, the super power at that time, distanced itself from the civil war in China/Taiwan.
However, the commencement of the Korean War sparked the U.S to assist in reforming Taiwan thus, resulting in the creation of a new political picture. Taiwan became independent from China thus, leaving the ROC and PRC to continue fighting for leadership.
Through economic and military assistance, the U.S engineered Taiwan towards internal reforms. Consequently, bureaucracy, corruption and other evil practices were some of the vices the internal reforms abolished. Some of the members (old) of Kuomintang (KMT) who possessed the aforementioned vices lost their positions and the young members took over.
Surprisingly, there was exodus of political members from China to Taiwan but they had to register with the national party within the allotted time. The central reform committee established the Sun Yat- sen institute, which specialized in instilling policy research mechanisms and political development in the members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, through training and promotion of self-examination skills, disciplines and other forms of virtues, the Taiwan national party assumed a different political structure, which sparked economic and social development.
The national party promoted economic development, which led to a decline in the inflation rates in Taiwan. Subsequently, the government introduced the New Taiwan dollar, which had a higher value than the previous currency.
The government initiated a 7% interest rate in order to attract the excess money that was in the economy. Subsequently, the inflation rate decreased from 3000% to 300% and then to 8.8 % thus, stabilizing the economy of Taiwan.
Secondly, the political reforms also initiated land reforms for instance; property owners had to reduce the rent as per the government’s request and the public land was available to the citizens at a favorable price. Through the land reforms, the landless farmers acquired land at a favorable price, which initiated high agricultural produce.
Furthermore, there was establishment of agricultural reforms and the farm rates in Taiwan stood at U.S $ 114 million. The government controlled the sale of rice (major cash crop in Taiwan) and subsidized the price of fertilizer in the region.
The American joint commissions on rural reconstruction together with the China aid act monitored the farmers and projects in the rural areas. On the other hand, through the U.S military and advisory group the Taiwan government received aid from the U.S. consequently, the national party and Chiang Kai-Shek the leader of Taiwan gladly acknowledged the economic development Taiwan was undergoing.
The introduction and subsequent creation of a new economic and social structure in Taiwan led to the signing of various international agreements. Secondly, Taiwan opted to refrain from either civil or international wars. The mutual defense treaty ensured that the U.S assisted Taiwan during external attacks.
We will write a custom Essay on Republic of China towards Taiwan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, when the people republic of china (PRC) took over part of island Taiwan protected the important areas, which included Quemoy and Ma-tsu. However, the ROC and PRC, which were in constant opposition, faced tough decision in establishing international ties.
On the other hand, through the constitution and strong party policies KMT and the national party adequately controlled the socio-economic development of Taiwan. U.S as a Taiwan ally processed international trade in terms of raw material and establishment of industries. However, the imbalance in the export and import rate led to a deficit in the foreign currency.
Although Taiwan had created good educational, health, military and trade facilities, the political issue of multiparty arose leading to disagreements within the government. Socially, the equal distribution of wealth in Taiwan stabilized the political arena thus, not many people opposed the one party rule.
The sound economic and industrial established in Taiwan ranked it on the forefront of development even after the withdrawal of the United States in 1960. On the other hand, the political competition between PRC and ROC interfered with the inclusion of China as a member of United Nations.
Similarly, the Vietnam War, the relationship between ROC and the U.S and Taiwan strained the political development in China. Surprisingly, the urgency to acquire the mainland from China motivated the National party to concentrate on military party thus, forgetting about the cultural identity between Taiwanese and the Chinese people.
Pressure from philosophers and other writers from both China and Taiwan pushed the National government to allow democracy and Democratize progressive party was the first opposition party established in the early 1980s.
In addition, political democrats (intellects, liberals) pushed for the country’s detachment from the western countries more so, the U.S. The noncapitalist wanted the socioeconomic structure of Taiwan to change.
Due to possible back up from the Chinese ROC or mainland, the Taiwan national party feared that the opposition would destabilizes the political and economic arena in the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Republic of China towards Taiwan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, the social class especially the nativists launched attacks on the Chinese modern writers on the inability to contribute adequately to the political development in Taiwan. Both the Chinese and Taiwan literary writers not only dominated the cultural aspects but also promoted a patriarchal society where the males were superior to the females.
Consequently, the modern writers explore the human relationships in the Taiwan without keeping in mind the element of equality. However, the intellect community blames the influence from the western (United States) for altering the minds of the young writers thus, adopting a different language and writing style.
More over, the literary techniques like nihilism and agonism spread to China in the mid 20th century. Similarly, the Taiwan writers (fiction) adopted realism, which was like formal literature. While the reformist pushed the modern writers to invest in the culture and traditions of the Taiwanese, the young writers preferred to write in a western style.
Consequently, the Taiwanese writers were into two groups, which had acquired different literary and poetic techniques. Culturally, the Taiwan people adopted the Chinese and Mandarin practices in most of the schools.
The national party, which was more concerned on the political and economic development, forgot about the cultural development of the Taiwanese people leading to a deficit in the country. Although the promotion of capitalism and political democracy dominated Taiwan, the rise of political activists motivated the natives to push for a change.
Feedback on the reading Analytically, Murray highlights the landmarks in the social, political and economic development in Taiwan. The author explicitly, outlines the political changes that occurred in Taiwan especially after the defeat of the communist party on the mainland.
Consequently, politicians like Chiang Kai-Shek relocated to Taiwan and established a stable government through the assistance of the United States of America. Therefore, Murray uses simple language to enlighten the society on the political development in Taiwan.
According to Murray’s book, Taiwan experienced political instability up to 1949, after which, the U.S assisted it in attaining independence from China. Thereafter, the push for political democracy changed the political arena in the country.
Competently, Murray gives detailed changes in the political system in Taiwan. He ties each change with a specific year thus, proving his professionalism.
Intuitively, Murray’s book is good for students, who want to embrace themselves with not only the politics of Taiwan but also to familiarize themselves with its ties with countries like China and the United States of America.
Secondly, while highlighting the economic development in Taiwan Murray gives explicit figures of the income and gross development of the country. He focuses on the trade, industrial and agricultural sectors by giving the systemic growth in each area.
Therefore, even economists who have interest in studying Taiwan will find the book useful. Thirdly, socially, he commends on the literary world in Taiwan, which proved to cause a tussle. The influence of America on the Taiwanese literary writers is among the areas he focuses on.
Consequently, the disagreement of the post modern and modern writes about, which area to emphasize in Taiwan are among the areas he highlights. Therefore, Murray does a wide research on the socioeconomic changes in Taiwan to give a well-structured book. Furthermore, Murray refers to other writers thus, giving his work authenticity, originality and realism.
In brief, through highlighting the political, economic and social changes in Taiwan, Murray explores the attitude of ROC party towards Taiwan. The U.S.A is the major contributor to the political and economic stability of Taiwan.
The commencement of political reforms in the mid 20th century was the turning point for Taiwan. Through military and financial assistance, Taiwan rose above other Asian countries and spearheaded economical development in the region.
Although the lack of democracy sparked unrests in the region, the national party solved the issue in the 1980s when it allowed in the opposition party. Murray uses a simple English to mark the major personalities and contributors to the development of Taiwan.
Alluding from other writers, he researches on the economy, political and literary changes in the region. More so, through conducting an explicit research he rates the economic changes in figures (in terms of money/dollars) and the political advancement in years.
Therefore, the book is good for a wide audience like schools, colleges/universities, politicians and economist among other groups.
Doing Business in Hong Kong Report college application essay help
Introduction The report below talks of doing business in Hong King. It addresses the business structure, communication style, and management style adopted by businesses in Hong Kong.
In addition, the report talks of the etiquette of business meetings in Hong Kong, the role of women in business, dress code, and successful entertaining.
Background to Business in Hong Kong Although Hong Kong only has a population of approximately 7 million people, there are over 470,000 SMEs in the country (CIA-The World Factbook 2012). This is an indication of the vitality, hunger and health of the Chinese business community.
If you intend to do business in Hong Kong, it is important to first study the business environment in the country as it will be affected by issues like the decision-making process, management style, and attitudes. These issues may affect the long-term relationship of a business partnership.
Country History and geography Hong Kong is made up of the Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the Stonecutters’ Island, and the New Territories that borders mainland China.
In 1841, China surrendered the island of Hong Kong to Britain (CIA-The World Factbook 2012) Geographically, Hong Kong is located in Eastern Asia and it borders China and the South China Sea.
Business Structures The structure of business in Hong Kong is influenced by the colonial history of the island and the business practices in China. Most multinational organisations demonstrate a ‘managed’ approach (AGC Seminars 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, majority of the SMEs in Hong Kong have been founded and are controlled by Chinese families. The SMEs are characterised by a centralised decision making process owing to the family connection.
Management Style Due to the rich Chinese heritage, Confucian thinking influences the management style of businesses in Hong Kong. Although local ideas have also been influenced greatly by many years of colonial rule, such century old beliefs like seniority and respect for the aged are still upheld by the Hong Kong people (Mayerbrown n.d.).
As such, managers in Hong Kong like to adopt a paternalistic approach while dealing with subordinates and the subordinates are expected to implement instructions given by their seniors with little or no objection. The decision making process tends to be centralized as many local firms are entrepreneurial in nature.
Meetings The etiquette of business meetings in Hong Kong varies markedly, based on the type of firm in question. For example, multinationals are likely to adhere to the standard meeting style with regard to minutes, agendas, etc.
Conversely, small firms are more informal in their meetings (Runckel
Generation Me: Twenge’s Concept Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction According to Twenge, Generation Me refers to individuals (Americans) born after 1970. In her book titled ‘Generation me’, Twenge analyzes the socio-cultural problems facing the 18-to-35-year-old generation.
Twenge asserts that individuals born after 1970 believe that self-esteem is more important than personal achievements. Consequently, Generation Me places the self above everything else. Additionally, this generation believes that every dream is achievable.
However, they are not ready to deal with the fact that some dreams can not be achieved. Hence, young people develop anxiety and depression when they discover that the realities of life do not conform to their expectations. Twenge asserts that individuals born after 1970 tend to be self-centered, disrespectful and more depressed than earlier generations.
Twenge believes that realism is the solution to the problems facing young people. In this context, young people should abandon their belief in self-esteem, and focus on education programs that promote empathy, as well as, accomplishment.
This paper attempts to critically review Twenge’s concept of Generation Me. The sociological perspectives of Max Weber, Simmel and Mead will be used as the theoretical framework for the review.
The Source of ‘self’ Twenge attributes the development of the sense of self to the emergence of an egalitarian society, particularly, in America and other western countries. Twenge asserts that changing social mores have resulted into permissiveness in the society.
The social rules or norms that once controlled the society have become less stringent in the contemporary world. Additionally, social norms are no longer universally accepted in the contemporary society. Compared to past generations, Generation Me are more likely to agree with the premise that “there is no single right way to live”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, the universally accepted standards of earlier generations have been superseded by individual choices in the current generation. The supremacy of the individual has led to the creation of a generation that strongly believes that a person does not have to mind other people’s opinion as long as she believes in herself.
Hence, members of Generation Me have failed to embrace the norms of etiquette that promote respect for others. The self is, therefore, more important since a single right way of doing things no longer exists in our society.
Twenge also attributes the development of the sense of self to the decline of the church and religious teachings. Twenge argues that members of Generation Me are reluctant to uphold the rules or teachings of organized religion.
Her argument is supported by the observed decline in church attendance, especially, among persons in the age bracket of 18 to 29 years. Persons in this age bracket have a highly individualized belief system. In response to this belief system, most churches have developed a personalized type of religion.
Such churches emphasize the belief that Christ is a personal savior and he has plans for every person. The personalized nature of religion promotes the development of the individualized culture associated with the members of Generation Me.
Finally, Twenge attributes the development of the sense of self and individualism to the institutionalized prominence of self-esteem. The self-esteem curriculum has become popular in schools and churches. This curriculum emphasizes the notion that children/ students are unique and independent.
However, emphasis on self-esteem went overboard in the current generation. This led to the belief that “feeling good about your-self is more important than good performance”. Increase in narcissism, thus, became the negative outcome of the self-esteem movement.
We will write a custom Essay on Generation Me: Twenge’s Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this context, individuals concentrate on themselves with little or no empathy for others. Emphasis on self-esteem is reinforced by the belief that a person can be anything she wants to be. Children’s preferences have become more important and parents hardly make decisions for their children.
Twenge gives an adequate explanation of the sources of the sense of self among Generation Me. The adequacy of Twenge’s explanations is demonstrated by the fact that the contemporary culture is both a reflection and influence of individualism and the sense of self.
The cultural shifts towards individualism began before the emergence of Generation Me. Thus, members of Generation Me believe that individualism and the self are more important since they were born and bred under this cultural assumption.
Additionally, Twenge’s explanations are supported by 14 years of empirical studies on sources and outcomes of the culture individualism and self-esteem. Thus, she does a good job in explaining the social conditions that promote the sense of self.
Twenge’s assessment of Generation Me also corresponds to the realities facing individuals in the age bracket of 18 to 35 years. Most of the problems facing young people can be attributed to over emphasis on the self and individualism. Young people are known for being over ambitious in life and setting targets that they can not achieve.
When they fail to realize their ambitions, they become anxious and depressed. This can be explained by the significant rise in cases of depression in America in the last decade. The rise in cases of failed marriages can also be attributed to over emphasis on the self.
Most Generation Me couples tend to put their personal interests before their marriages. This leads to constant disagreements and eventual collapse of marriages. Obsession with social media such as YouTube is the result of a strong belief in the self.
The youth spend most of their time in social media in an attempt to create their identities. Additionally, students have lost respect for teachers since they believe their opinions are better than or as good as those of the teachers. These trends reflect the sources and outcomes of the culture of the self as explained by Twenge.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Generation Me: Twenge’s Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Twenge adopts both interpretivism and positivism in her study. Interpretivism is the main method used to investigate the development of the culture of the individual or the self among members of Generation Me.
She uses a qualitative method to collect and interpret data on the causes and meaning of individualism and the sense of the self. The positivist method is used to justify her findings. For instance, she refers to statistics from quantitative studies to justify the increase in depression among the youth.
In the context of sociological theory, Twenge draws from postmodernism and rational choice theory. Postmodernism is based on the premise that past experiences or norms no longer govern the society. Additionally, the modern society is pluralistic and very diverse.
Rational choice theory asserts that individuals put self interest first. Additionally, they focus on goals and cost-benefit calculations. These theories explain the development of the culture of individualism and the self.
Although Twenge’s explanations are adequate from a sociological perspective; her work in general has the following flaws. First, Twenge over emphasizes the socio-economic conditions of Generation Me.
Her claim that young people are, currently, more miserable than in the past might not be entirely correct. There are a lot of young people who have successfully achieved their dreams and are happy.
Failure to achieve financial independence, for instance, can be as a result of poor governance and not over emphasis on the self. Additionally, the problems currently facing young people existed even in earlier generations.
Second, she does not point out the positive outcomes of high self-esteem and individualism. It is apparent that high self-esteem promotes hard work and facilitates success. Additionally, individualism reduces dependency and promotes objectivity in the society.
Third, cultural differences a long the lines of race and ethnicity is not addressed. Various races and ethnic groups in America have different views on individualism, and self-esteem. Thus, it is not obvious that every young person focuses on his or herself.
Twenge’s studies were mainly done in America and this limits their use for generalization at a global level. Finally, people do not always develop high self-esteem simply because they believe in feeling good about themselves. There are a lot of young Americans whose high self-esteem is based on their past and current achievements.
Cultural Characteristics that Led to the Production of Generation Me The cultural characteristics of America largely contributed to the emergence of Generation Me. The cultural aspects that contributed to the creation of Generation Me include the following. First, Americans value hard work and achievement.
Americans believe that working tirelessly pays off in abundance. This belief is held both collectively and on a personal level. Laziness is discouraged and is associated with low pay, low public esteem and personal failure.
According to Weber’s concept of protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism; pursuit of profits is virtuous and an end in itself. The Protestants believed in worldly calling by giving a religious character to worldly activities such as business.
A branch of Protestantism referred to as Calvinism believed in predestination. According to Calvinism, an individual was considered to have God’s favor if she could successfully accumulate profits and material possession.
Additionally, the Protestants believed that helping the poor through donations was unacceptable. They believed that donations promoted beggary. This belief motivated Americans to work hard and accumulate material possessions. Hence, the modern capitalist economic system was created.
Capitalism promotes individualism and the sense of the self due to the fact that everyone intends to make more profits at the expense of others. Additionally, capitalism promotes individual ownership of private property. This explains why Generation Me lack concern for others.
Second, Americans value their independence. Americans believe that they are self-defined, as well as, self-made. Consequently, Americans discourage similarity of beliefs and thoughts. Americans value independence since most of them migrated to America in order to escape some form of oppression.
Today Americans practice individualism in their personal lives, accumulation of wealth and ideology. Hence, Generation Me find it hard to tolerate other people’s opinion and influence.
Third, pursing personal ambition is also an important aspect of American culture. Every American has a dream that they pursue in order to achieve some status in life. The American dream, for instance, was popular since achieving it meant a better life.
According to Max Weber, class and status are the outcomes of pursuing personal ambition. Class refers to a group of individuals who belong to the same or common class situation. Weber defines class situation as “the relationship of a person or group of people to a particular market that has an important effect on their lives”.
Class stratification is based on material possession, status and power. Consequently, the ambition of most Generation Me focuses on acquisition of wealth, power and status that is associated with the social class of their dream.
According to Weber, status refers to a visible lifestyle that can not be led by all social groups. Acquiring status involves monopolization of wealth and opportunities, hence the creation of Generation Me.
Finally, Generation Me has been created by the culture of inventiveness. Americans believe in making things better, cheaper, sustainable and stronger. The inventiveness of Americans is reflected in their technological advancements, politics, education and health care system.
Inventiveness in America is supported by the culture of risk taking. Americans are more willing to risk anything in order to achieve happiness, and acquire wealth. According to Weber, the modern society is characterized with rationalization and disenchantment.
Rationalization involves “intellectual clarification, specification, as well as, systematization of ideas”. Rational, calculable and predictable ideas have replaced traditional belief system in the modern society.
Weber also asserts that rationalization has led to the decline of religious teachings in the contemporary society. Hence, young people are more likely to identify with liberal religions than conservative ones.
Rationalization leads to disenchantment of the modern society. Disenchantment refers to demystification, as well as, secularization of the society. Secularization promotes the belief that there is no single way or approach of doing things.
Thus, Generation Me make their own decisions and pursue their interests, even if such interests may hurt others. Additionally, secularization has led to experimentation on culture. According to Simmel, secularization promotes objectification of culture.
Objectification refers to the process “by which individuals assign meaning to things, people, places, and activities”. Objectification leads to cultural constructions which shape the behavior of individuals. In the context of America, young people (Generation Me) assign meanings to socio-cultural phenomena on a personal level.
This explains why Generation Me do not care about what others think about their behavior as long as they believe in themselves.
Interactions that Contributes to the Development of the Self According to Mead, the self is developed through social interactions. Mead asserts that the self consists of two parts namely, the ‘me’ and the ‘I’. The ‘me’ refers to the social self. It is formed through interactions, and forms the basis of conformity, as well as, predictability.
Thus, the ‘me’ represents the self as object. The ‘I’, on the other hand, represents the self as subject. According to Mead, the ‘I’ responds to the ‘me’ during interactions. Thus, the ‘I’ describes how an individual responds to the attitudes held by others.
The ‘me’, on the other hand, refers to the standardized attitudes held by others. The interaction between the ‘I’ and the ‘me’ occurs in the mind through the thinking process.
The self described by Twenge can also be characterized in terms of the ‘I’ and the ‘me’. According to Twenge, the ‘me’ develops as young people (Generation Me) interact with their significant others.
For example, children are taught in schools and churches to believe that high self-esteem is the most important thing in life. Consequently, young people adopt the belief in the supremacy of the individual as the acceptable way of life.
The ‘I’ describes how Generation Me responds to the attitudes of the people they interact with. Since Generation Me believes in the culture of independence, their responses reflect their understanding of what is right and good for them.
Thus, a young person is likely to reject other people’s opinions since he believes that personal opinion is respected in America.
The forms of interactions described by Simmel also contribute to the development of the sense of self, as well as, individualism. Simmel notes that fashion develops in cities and it facilitates interactions between individuals.
It enables individuals to express their personal values. Thus, fashion leads to the development of the ‘me’ if a person conforms to the prevailing fashion in her city. Fashion can also lead to the development of individualism if a person decides to deviate from the prevailing culture.
Young people (Generation Me) prefer unique fashion to common fashion trends, thereby intensifying individuality. According to Simmel, money is used in the modern society as an impersonal measure of value. The “use of money distances individuals from objects and also provides the means of overcoming this distance”.
Simmel asserts that money promotes flexibility and freedom that enables people to exercise individualized control over the process of impression management. However, the use of money also creates the problem of personal identity.
In general, the use of money promotes individual freedom. It also creates problems such as alienation, and fragmentation. By using money, Generation Me can conform to the popular trends in their society or they can express their individuality.
Consequently, money enables them to develop both the ‘me’ and the ‘I’ aspects of their self. Finally, Simmel notes that the negative effects of using money leads to the development of the blasé attitude. A person with a blasé attitude tends to be indifferent towards everything.
Simmel points out that using money eliminates the true value, individuality and incomparability of things. The problems created by money compel the blasé individual to search for stimuli that enables him to regain the true meaning of his surrounding.
In the context of Generation Me, the search of this stimulus involves pursuit for excitement or extreme impressions.
Conclusion Twenge uses the concept of Generation Me to describe the problems facing individuals in the age bracket of 18 to 35 years. In particular, she analyzes the development and outcomes of the culture of individuality and the sense of the self among those born after 1970.
Twenge argues that Generation Me consists of persons who value individuality but lucks respect for others. Twenge attributes the development of the sense of the self to over emphasis on self-esteem which was originated by the baby boomers.
The cultural characteristics that promote the development of Generation Me include independence, inventiveness, hard work and personal ambition. Drawing from Mead’s self theory, the self described by Twenge develops as a result of social interactions.
According to Simmel’s perspective on interaction, the development of the self is influenced by fashion, money, and the blasé attitude.
References Calhoun, C.,
Parable of the Cave Essay scholarship essay help
The parable of the Cave is Plato’s elucidation of the transformation of the spirit toward enlightenment. He perceives it as what takes place when somebody is educated to the rank of the logician. He argues that they should “go back into the cave” or go back to the daily globe of politics, voracity and supremacy fights.
Furthermore, the parable molests individuals depending on their minds. The allegory also condemns those who are the captives of the past. The cuffs that truss the hostages are the minds.
The aim of the parable is to attempt to place all the particulars of the cave to an individual’s understanding. Conversely, the parable tries to inquire about the things that guards carry with them. Is it the fire, the struggle out of the cave, the sunlight or the shadows on the cave wall?
Some years later, after the parable had been released, Socrates in Book VII of The Republic informed us that the parable meant our humanity and the fire was our sun. He believed that the conduit of the captive was our spirit’s ascent to acquaintance or civilization.
He compared our humanity of vision with the philosopher’s world of belief. However, the two are below our understanding and knowledge. The power of sight permits us to “see” objects that are not actual for instance corresponding lines and ideal rings.
He describes this as advanced comprehension of the humanity that is, “abstract Reality” or the logical world. He associates this theoretical realism with the comprehension that comes from logic and lastly understanding.
The second thought in this metaphor of the Cave explains how many individuals are ensnared in their own small world, unaware of what is actually happening around them. The narrative mainly consists of five sections, including the shadow, the fire, the common person, the ascending man, and the descending man.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fourth section talks about the ascent. In case an individual manages to come out of the cave that harbours the ordinary person, he or she feels enlightened. Once the person is out, he or she lastly appreciates the varieties of life and happens to be entirely cultured.
He distinguishes that the darkness simply implied the truth of realism. The fire can offer an individual with a blurred thought of what the realism of objects are, but until he or she comes out of it, then he or she could simply witness the “shadow” of realism.
China Reunified Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents China Reunified
China Reunified The Sui dynasty was a powerful Chinese dynasty that existed between 589 and 618 (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). After the end of The Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty emerged and it existed between 618 and 917 (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
On the other hand, the Song dynasty existed between 960 and 1279 and during this era, many positive changes occurred (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). This paper will discuss social, economical, and political changes that occurred in these three dynasties.
Sui dynasty Social structure: After the death of emperor Wen, his song Yang took over the government; he made many social structural changes to the dynasty (Hansen, 2000). Yang extended Sui dynasty and emphasized on Confucianism culture. Furthermore, he restored the Confucianism education system (Hansen, 2000).
Political structure: During the reign of Sui dynasty, both emperor Wen and Yang established strong militaries, which were very successful (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009). Emporor Yang sent soldiers to Vietnam where they became victorious. In fact, the strong Sui’s army was victories against the Champa Kingdom.
Economical structure: Emperor Wen improved the state of economy by building better infrastructures (Hansen, 2000). In addition to this, he established granaries, which were used to store food and regulate market prices; this played a vital role in the Chinese economy (Studwell, 2003).
Tang dynasty Social structure: During the reign of Tang dynasty, the Chinese culture flourished and became more mature (Studwell, 2003). The Chinese poetry and printing became popular; scholars produced great literature and woodblock printing was invented too (Studwell, 2003).
Great painters such as Zuan Xuan and Han Gan produced high quality work popularizing the art of painting in China (Studwell, 2003). During this era, Chinese people also accepted Buddhism culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political structure: During this era, the Chinese population increased considerably and the dynasty established a strong and professional army, which conquered the inner Asia (Studwell, 2003).
Emperor Xuangzong also established new military policies discarding the system of recruiting soldier every three years. Instead, he established a strong and permanent army (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009).
Economical structure: During this era, the government carried out an accurate census to enable effective taxation (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009).
Consequently, the Tang dynasty established crop and cloth taxation. Moreover, the Tang dynasty took over the Silk Road, which was a powerful trading route; this was a major economical boost (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
Song dynasty Economical structure: The Song dynasty was the first administration in the world to issue bank notes (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
In addition, the Song Chinese did a lot of investment in stock companies and the government allowed its citizen to occupy monopoly businesses (Studwell, 2003). In fact, the Chinese occupied the iron industry stabilizing Song’s economy.
Social structure: The social life during this era was good although social classes were noticeable. The upper class traded artworks while the public (common citizens) interacted at public places.
We will write a custom Essay on China Reunified specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The movable type printing replaced woodblock printing and there were many inventions too in fields of technology, science, and engineering (Studwell, 2003). Philosopher Zui Xi and others brought new ideas therefore establishing the New-Confucianism (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
Political structure: During this era, the government established the civil service system of recruiting government officials, which was based on merits (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). Emperor Taizu controlled his military to centralize power at the Song’s court and he also emphasized on the “Confucianism spirit of humane administration” (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
In summary, the Song, Tang, and Sui dynasties represent a wonderful history of the ancient Chinese government. Although the three dynasties existed at different periods, they brought remarkable changes in political, social, and economical spheres. These and other many changes have contributed to the modern China.
Reference List Duiker, W. J.
American Cinema – Movie analysis Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Putting the needs of others first
Introduction The essay is an analysis of American movie titled The Great Escape” released in 1963 directed and produced by Sturges John. It is based on the book written by Brickhill Paul having the same title as the movie.
The story line is about allied prisoners of war who are escaping from one of the German POW camp at the time World War II was taking place. To accomplish this task, a description of how the film reflects the following themes is done; placing the needs of a group before those of an individual, propaganda.
It is worth noting that the plan to escape was initiated by prisoners’ leaders (Royal Air Force Squadron Leader Bartlett among others) who are determined to free about 250 prisoners. The first part of the movie is full of comedy portrayed by prisoners in the quest of outwitting the warden.
For instance, the noise which came from digging the tunnel was dealt with by the efforts of the prison choir master. The other part is full of adventure as prisoners try to find their way out. Majority are killed, some are return to prison while a few managed to escape to safer grounds. It is the setting of the movie that gives it its popularity (Belton 57).
The film was created at Munich in rural Bavaria which had actual tunnels and interior barracks. Since the town had a railway station this gave the producer the capability of linking the escape and availability of such kind of transport.
Additionally since the area had forest, this ensured that the producer managed to link escape of the prisoners and using the forest as cover.
Putting the needs of others first Throughout the movie, there is no doubt that the theme of sacrificing is dominant. In actual sense, in such a situation where individuals plan to escape from prison, there are extreme cases where individuals sacrifice a lot for the sake of others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some individuals might have gone to the extent of losing their lives for the sake of others. The sacrifices made by every individual is seen when each and every individual is assigned a particular task which included digging the tunnels, making civilian clothing, preventing guards from uncovering the plans to escape, forging documents among others (Nixon 73).
For instance through his efforts of developing forged documents, Flight Lieutenant Blythe spent most of his time using candles which threatened his eyesight capabilities. It is worth noting that he almost lost his sight from intricate work by candle light.
It is the desire to help the rest of the team that made Blythe to go an extra mile to risk losing his eyes. Indeed he had an option of not engaging in this task but he put aside his person desired in order to help other prisoners escape.
From film The Great Escape it is evident that when one tries to escape from the prison, it was made very clear that it will not be tolerated and the person trying that will be shot. Despite this warning, Virgil Hilts known as cooler king on numerous occasions irritated the guards by trying to escape several times.
He also exhibited weird behaviors. All these were done in order to confuse guards not to uncover the escape plan too early. Another incident which clearly demonstrated the desire to help others despite risking one live was when Ives tried to climb barbed wire while guards were watching.
He was gunned down while Hilts tried to stop him. The event leading to this was when their plan was uncovered. He solemnly did this to paint a picture that he was the one responsible for the plan.
This was a clever move since the guards will strongly believe that the master planner for the escape is dead hence there will be no more attempts to escape. Having in mind that there are other smart heads that can plan the escape, Ives sacrificed his live to ensure that the plan goes on (D’Este 82).
We will write a custom Term Paper on American Cinema – Movie analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another incident where an individual sacrificed for the sake of others is when Hilts agreed to escape from the camp. He did this solemnly to go and obtain vital data that will help them in their quest to escape from prison. He later allowed himself to be recaptured and brought back to prison.
The information he brought was helpful in determining the nearest transportation network, the railway station and forest cover. While escaping on of the prisoners, Danny is snapped by claustrophobia, this interfered with the time frame of escaping (The Great Escape).
However, instead of leaving him behind, Willie helped him. The sacrifice he made put him at risk of being recaptured but this did not deter him from saving and helping Danny. After escaping, Ashley-Pitt sacrificed his freedom by killing Kuhn who was Gestapo’s agent.
This was after he realized that Kuhn had noticed the presence of Barlett. As a result of this confusion, Ashley-Pitt is hot and both Barlett and MacDonald escaped. However they were later killed (Jenna par. 4).
While shooting the section where the prisoners were escaping, the producer managed to use zoom and camera movement to show how intense and real the whole plan of escaping was. For instance while running, the producer moved the camera so fact and in full extent of the escapees where viewers are capable of clearly seeing what is involved in escaping.
Additionally the use of sound and light helped in developing the major themes in this film. The ‘extreme drama, stunts, extended chase scenes, fights, escapes, non-stop motion and fast editing and pacing’ have been used to make viewers understand that the movie fall under the category of action (Belton 45).
Propaganda Propaganda has been thought as a set of communication directed at influencing the attitudes and perception of a given group of individuals towards certain positions or causes. Ideally it makes individual remember images of dictatorship as well as wartime misinformation.
In this film, the audiences are made to understand that the Germans had the strongest army which could deal with any sort of criminal activities. This can be exemplified by the fact that out of the 70 who escaped, only three managed to escape successfully.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Cinema – Movie analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the film is based on novel with the same title, it tries to depict that it is not easy for one or even a group of prisoners to escape from the camp.
For instance in the beginning of the movie, Colonel Von Luger says “there will be no escapes from this camp” This is contrary to what the books writes where a large number of prisoners got there way out of a prison now Poland (Carroll 123).
Additionally the producer wanted to make the audience understand that any attempt for prisoners to escape is well planned and involves almost all of the prisoners. From the film, everyone had a responsibility however small it was.
It is also worth noting that the producer wanted the audience to know what really happens when people are behind bars and try to escape. It is made clear through numerous scenes where those who attempt to escape are brutally handled.
For instance, Ives was killed by a machine gun while he tried to escape by jumping over a barbed wire which surrounded the camp (Nixon 98).
Conclusion From the review of the film The Great Escape, it is evident that the producer managed to clearly bring forth the themes of sacrificing for the sake of others and propaganda. Numerous techniques are used to attain this.
Works Cited Belton, John. American Cinema, American Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1993. Print
Carroll, Tim. The Great Escapers. London: Mainstream Publishing. 2004. Print
D’Este, Carlo. Bitter Victory. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1988. Print.
Jenna Richards. Movie analysis: The Great Escape. 2007. Web.
Nixon, Rob. Pop Culture 101: The Great Escape. New York: Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. 2008. Print.
The Great Escape. Ex. Pro. John Sturges. United Artists. United States of America. 1963. DVD.
The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde Essay college essay help near me
The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde is the story which reflects many ideas and themes which are interesting and actual for people in the modern world. Answering the question why Dorian Gray was motivated to adopt his life philosophy and to lead a double life it is possible to look at the facts.
Many people in the society have to lead double lives in many reasons. Sometimes these reasons are rather obvious, people want to hide their private life from public, that is why they are looking for the means to do it. However, there are situations when leading of the double life is presupposed by the desire to hide something that is illegal.
The situation with Dorian Gray and his mystic double life is exactly the case. Having killed Basil Hallward, Dorian Gray has nothing to do but to hide his real appearance and lead a double life. However, there are also a lot of other hidden reasons for dualism in personal expression.
Looking at the history of the novel creation and checking the situation which was in the society, it is possible to predict that sexual orientation of Dorian Gray was one of the reasons for his dual life.
However, this reason is not discussed and considered in the novel, even though it is possible to find the lines which prove this point of view, “Dorian is my dearest friend … he has quite a simple and beautiful nature” and “all the candour of youth was there as well as all youth’s passionate purity … no wonder Basil worshipped him” (Wilde 33).
However, the most important reason for leading such a double life was the murder. Having killed a person, Dorian Gray has to decide for himself whether he has to go to police or to make sure that no one gets to know what he has done. The desire to continue the life he has led before makes Dorian Gray change his vision of the surrounding world.
Considering the novel, it is possible to see the whole society in one personality. All people live in this world and they have to hide something. This is the main idea why people wear masks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is impossible to see one person who is trying to live without a mask. Of course, not all people in the society have committed the murders, but all people have the sins they are to hide.
These sins may be considered as simple actions by some people and the cruel and unforgivable ones by others. Therefore, to make sure that no one is going to reproach people in their actions, they prefer to hide them and lead a double life.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that those people who wear masks, whose hidden actions are too serious and they are unable to carry them are going to end in the way Dorian Gray did It is impossible to lead a double life without constant pricks of conscience.
If the reasons people lead a double life are too serious, it is obvious that people will always wait for those who have seen them committing those actions. It is difficult to live under that pressure. The same has happened to Dorian Gray.
Even though the novel contains a number of different themes and the double life was not the main reason for Gray’s actions. Therefore, the new philosophy he pursued, the desire to remain unknown in the world he lived in and the same person for him led to the tragic consequences.
Works Cited Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Plain Label Books, 2004. Print.
Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Budgets as Tools for Planning
Role of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in Planning
Role of Contingency Planning
Strategies Used to Monitor Employees
Introduction Operational planning and management is an essential element in strategic planning. Various firms adopt different strategies in order to ensure that their operations are run in an effective and efficient manner.
Different firms adopt different planning strategies in order to achieve their specific goals and objectives in the short run and in the long run (Eli, 2006). The strategy that a firm may adopt may depend on its operations, size and culture.
This paper will therefore discuss strategic planning and other factors that contribute to successful planning. It shall focus on issues such as contingency planning, budgeting, employee monitoring, and performance indicators.
Strategic Planning A strategic plan is a process adopted by the management of an entity to meet specific goals and objectives within a given time frame. It clearly defines the objectives of the entity and assesses the internal and external environment. Strategic planning takes place through a series of steps.
Development of visions, missions, goals and objectives are but some of the critical steps that are involved in the process of planning. To attain these objectives, the entity devises several procedures. An analysis of changes occurring in both the external and internal environment is critical in ensuring that a company attains its objectives.
After obtaining information from the environment scan, managers are required to match the strengths of the organization to opportunities. The process of matching the strengths with the opportunities is known as strategy formulation. This process ensures that the entity can develop a competitive advantage (Roberts and Neilson, 2003).
Once a company formulates a strategy, they have to implement it. The implementation process is carried out using budgets, organizational procedures and programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategic planning incorporates several aspects of the company to ensure that the company runs smoothly. Budgeting process is one of key processes that enhance the planning process.
Budgets as Tools for Planning In most entities, budgeting is a key element in financial management (Roberts and Neilson, 2003). The use of a budget assists managers to plan and utilize the company resources effectively. Clear understanding of principles of budgeting ensures that managers can formulate a comprehensive financial plan.
Budgeting process is a microcosm element of strategic planning (Roberts and Neilson, 2003). Therefore, after yielding information from strategic planning, managers relate this information to the actual activities of the entity.
This process is recognized as the operational plan and management usually finds a need to value the plan. Companies incur operational costs when they start trading. It is these costs among other costs that appear in the budget. Budgets are usually prepared based on the plan of the organization.
Organizations use budgeting to monitor the cash flow of an entity. Cash flow forecast enables an entity to anticipate the inflows and outflows of cash. Information may be used to plan for future events. A budget maps out the resource flow in and out of the organization.
By watching how the resources flow, it is possible for management to make sound decisions about an entity. Managers use budgets as indicators of performance.
Performance of an entity is important in planning process. Budgets may be highly useful when identifying key performance indicators in an entity.
We will write a custom Essay on Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Role of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in Planning Organizations use key performance Indicators to enhance the process of planning. Key performance indicators are the financial and non-financial measures used by business entities to help in evaluating the success of a business.
The success of an entity is evaluated in relation to the long-term goals of the business. The main role of KPI is to give meaning to the objectives outlined by an entity. Therefore, key performance indicators give meaning to the strategic plan and objectives of an entity.
The KPIs identified must relate to the strategic plan of the entity. This is because many aspects of an entity can be measured to show how a company performs.
Before implementing KPIs, managers are required to consider several important factors. Implementation of KPIs requires an entity to consider several processes that affect the key elements of planning.
KPIs are important in assisting an entity to attain its goals as they have been set in the strategic plan. Therefore, when establishing KPIs, managers must recognize that proper governance is the key to incorporating KPIs into the strategic plan.
Moreover, managers need to understand that these performance indicators are what attract investors. In this light of events, KPIs do not need to be comprehensive but instead they should cover the particular areas of concern, especially areas that investors concentrate on.
To ensure that the KPIs set by an entity remain valid for an extended period of time, contingency planning is necessary. Contingency planning ensures that the organization prepares well for a variety of situations that may occur in the future.
Role of Contingency Planning Contingency planning entails anticipating all the possible scenarios that may challenge a business entity and forming a comprehensive plan that may be used to avoid these challenges (Yuko and Karen, 2001). Instead of managers assuming that everything may be alright, they should identify contingencies and prepare for them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Use of contingency planning ensures that firms are better placed to cope with future uncertainties in the market. When managers plan for contingencies, they are able to avoid the shock that may come with market disability or natural causes.
The use of contingency planning also reduces the risk of delays and indecision due to occurrence of an unusual event (Yuko and Karen, 2001). Unusual events in the market or within the organization may lead to the company halting its operations.
In cases where the company planned for contingencies, it may continue its operations and maintain its profitability. Firms with contingent plans tend to react rationally in unplanned situations.
When coming up with a contingent plan a firm should determine what reason behind the plan. Therefore preparation of a comprehensive, focused and practical plan require expertise and skills.
Managers as well as employees are required to take part when formulating a contingent plan. They should identify the key processes and operations then incorporate them in a contingent plan to ensure the long-term survival of a firm is secure.
Strategies Used to Monitor Employees Employer need to monitor the activities of employees to ensure that they are performing their tasks. Employers use different methods to monitor employees. Some employers use computerized system to collect, store, and analyze employee activities (Mishra and Mathers, 1998).
In most cases employee monitoring is used in projecting the performance of the company. Good employee input and output may be assumed to cause good performance. Therefore, employers deem the act of monitoring employees as important.
Firms perform the process of monitoring employees using contracts. In this case, every employee is given a contract outlining his duties and responsibilities. At the end of the contract, an employee performance is evaluated against those set in a contract.
If he or she has a good performance then the employment contract may be renewed. Another strategy of monitoring employee is being actively involved in the activities they undertake.
From observing the processes used an employer can determine the level of competence. Managers use a variety of methods monitor employees. Each employer chooses the method that suits his or her entity.
Conclusion Strategic planning, budgeting, employee monitoring, and performance indicators play an important role in operation planning. Companies should integrate all these elements in the operation plan to ensure that the company operations run smoothly.
In addition to these elements, companies should incorporate contingency planning in order to safeguard its interests from future challenges.
References Eli, J L 2006, ‘The Importance of Strategic Planning’, Practical Decisions, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 1-3
Mishra, J M and Mathers, S 1998, ‘Employee Monitoring: Privacy in the Workplace?’, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 63 No.5, pp. 4-11
Roberts, K and Neilson, P 2000, The Strategy Focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment, Harvard Business School Press, Boston Mass.
Yuko, M and Karen, C S 2001, ‘Embracing Disaster With Contingency Planning’, Risk Management, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp.18-20.
Environmental Factors and Human Activity Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A growing population will generally put pressure on the available resources. These resources include land, social infrastructure and even employment.
As a result the expansion of these resources and addition of new ones will be called for and this will in return have a negative impact on the environment as the natural ecosystem will be tampered with as people try to get land and building materials for these expansions.
The environmental impact is even worse when the population involved cannot afford the basic services that help minimize the effect of such human activities. This is the scenario when the rate of rural to urban migration is so high that the resources available in urban centers cannot cater for the fast-growing urban population.
In this essay, the causes and impact on the environment and the human population will be discussed. The question of who is vulnerable and why will also be answered.
Over the years, urban centers have played a major role in provision of employment, shelter and better social facilities such as heath care facilities, schools and cultural centers. Opportunities for income generation as well as centers for technological development are better founded in urban centers.
These together with other factors such as; the high rate of population growth, conflict, exhaustion of natural resources and land degradation particularly in the third world have led to an extremely high rate of rural to urban migration (UNEP 2000).
This migration exerts pressure on the available resources such as housing facilities, hospitals, schools and other social facilities, leading to increased unemployment, environmental degradation and lack of basic services (UNCHS 2001b).This calls for expansion to cater for the growing population which is a major challenge due to the high urban population growth rate.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A larger portion of the urban population lives in dire poverty. This group of people lacks the ability to compete for the limited resources and due to the state of living they cannot even protect themselves from natural or human climatic hazards.
The housing market fails to incorporate the poor in their housing plan (UNCHS 2001a); the provisions are mainly for the top and middle class earners hence making the situation even worse. The mismatch between income and cost of housing for the low-income earners has forced poverty to be localized in some locations where it is affordable.
Quite often these settlements are informal, situated in the outskirts of major towns and cities or in marginalized land within cities. In most cases these areas are at a higher risk of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and earthquakes. This means that the poor are more vulnerable to such calamities.
In the event that a natural disaster strikes, there is no way to escape because they lack the means. Hazards such as floods can be reduced by proper drainage systems which are not available in these settlements. These settlements lack basic services like sanitation and clean water supply and the effect is higher risk of infection and disease outbreaks.
Dense population pattern also increases these risks. The fact that they are poor makes the slum dwellers victims of other people’s mistakes. Garbage collectors use the environs of slums for dumping, industrial effluent, sometimes end up in rivers and the same water is used here for domestic chores.
As the economic and demographic growth goes upslope, negative environmental impact is recorded; trees are cut down to give room for more buildings and provide fuel, rivers are destroyed by dumping and building along the banks, quarrying on the large scale as more and more building materials are on demand each day, dumpsites emit poisonous gases into the atmosphere and greenhouse gas emission by cars and industries.
The outcome of these and many more is human health complications, global warming and destruction of the natural ecosystem. Air pollution causes respiratory illnesses, while water pollution leads to water borne disease outbreaks such as cholera, typhoid and diarrhea, intestinal worms and as a result, high mortality rates especially in children (Satterthwaite 1997).
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Factors and Human Activity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These effects are particularly felt by the urban poor (Hardoy, Mitlin and Satterthwaite 1992) whose direct exposure to harsh conditions such as lack of access to clean water, poor waste disposal and dense population (Listorti 1999). Lack of compensatory resources such as money to buy water from clean water vendors increases the vulnerability among the poor.
The poor bear the lion’s share of the negative impact of urbanization; however, the scenario can be changed by employment of a few strategies; first to reduce the negative environmental impact and second to alleviate poverty among the urban population.
As a first step, Good urban planning techniques should be employed. These include planning of settlement areas to hold large populations yet offering the basic services effectively. This will greatly reduce the conversion of wetlands, agricultural and forest lands to settlement areas (Hardoy, Mitlin and Satterthwaite 2001).
Reuse of certain materials will be made possible and less costly, social infrastructure and other services can be provided more efficiently, thus cutting down the cost of distribution making them more affordable. Water resources should be conserved by introduction of strict legislation laws and proper waste management.
Secondly the poor should be supported in an effort to improve their living status and alleviate poverty. By encouraging micro financing and micro enterprise funding, credit services are made available to the poor who are otherwise excluded from credit financing programs.
This helps them to establish businesses that will earn them livelihoods and reduced the number of the unemployed. By subsidizing social services such as healthcare for the poor, the respective government ensure that a larger number of people get access to these services.
The informal sector should also be encouraged as this creates employment while raising the living standards of the people involved. Also by upgrading the informal settlements the government can provide quality and affordable housing to the slum dwellers thus improving their social placement and their welfare.
By developing infrastructure in the urban periphery, the cost of planned subdivision is reduced; minimum standards should be set to affordable requirements that can be afforded by the majority. A mortgage and housing market that recognizes the poor should be developed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Factors and Human Activity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Good governance practices where the parties are actively involved are a key factor (Tuts and Cody 2000). Financing and expertise provision without proper planning and democratic participation by the key players is useless.
Conclusion As the urban population continues to grow at a very high rate, sustainable development of these centers is critical. With proper planning, this can be achieved and it will greatly minimize the environmental impact and the disastrous outcomes associated with it.
Also if proper strategic measures are put in place, poverty will be reduced. This will lead to positive economic growth, environmental conservation and low mortality rates. Urbanization is here to stay and so the question should be how to manage it not how to eliminate it.
References Hardoy, E., Mitlin, D. and Satterthwaite, D. (1992). Environmental Problems in Third World. London, Earthscan.
Hardoy, E., Mitlin, D. and Satterthwaite, D. (2001). Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World. London, Earthscan.
Listorti, J. A. (1999). Is environmental health really a part of economic development – or only an afterthought? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1) 9-12
Satterthwaite, D. (1997). Sustainable cities or cities that contribute to sustainable development? Urban Studies, 34(10) 1667-1691.
Tuts, R. and Cody, E. (2000). Habitat’s experience in Local Agenda 21 worldwide over the last years: approaches and lessons learned. UNEP Industry and Environment, 23(2) 12-15.
UNCHS (2001a). Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 2001. London: Earthscan.
UNCHS (2001b). State of the World’s Cities 2001. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat).
UNEP (2000). The urban environment: facts and figures, UNEP Industry and Environment, 23(2): 4-11.
How the cruise industry has become more competitive with land-based resort Essay online essay help
There are a number of things cruise vacation offers compared to land-based vacation. Cruising is one of the vacations that most people would wish for a second chance compared to land-based resorts because of the following reasons.
Cruising been a new form of vacation many people are eager to have experience.
Cruising is a vacation that is not involving, since one has almost everything at his disposal, unlike the hassles in land-based resorts of logistics. On a cruise, all your logistics arrangements are taken care of, thus leaving one with ample time to do all that he desires during the vacation.
In terms of safety, cruising provides a very safe vacation experience than land-based resort. Land-based resort is very much prone to security threats like robbing and terrorism. The ships environment is very secure from most of these threats.
Cruising is very economical in monetary terms. One derives more utility in cruising in than in land-based resorts. Cruising fare includes nearly everything one will need for a good trip: boarding, entertainment, drinks, food, and transportation.
Lastly, in cruising one pays all his bills in advance. In land-based resort, there are many uncertainties in terms of prices of items like food, drinks and entertainment.
Cruising is an educative experience, even if someone’s goal is merely to have a good time, cruising enables one to visit many places because of the big coverage and stoppages in different centres along the way. On many cruises, geographical experts onboard give lectures that help one understand the origin and history of places.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is not the case in land-based resorts as one is limited to certain areas because of a number of constrains like money, inaccessibility or time
Lastly, planning a cruise vacation is easy since one has to choose the ship and the place to visit. The cruise company handle all the logistics while on vacation. Land-based resort involves a number of logistics arrangement; in terms of accommodation and travelling.
Strategies applied by the cruise companies to get business in resort vacation Most cruise companies have invested in catering for all the concerns of people on-board by providing quality and differentiated services to customers.
Modern vessels are equipped with almost every utility that one could need to use while on board ranging from telecommunication service, sporting activities, shopping malls, entertainment centres, medical services, personal grooming services, swimming pools and any other service that one could get in a land-based resort.
It is through the provision of similar service offered in the land-based resorts that the cruise companies have managed to get customers in the resort vacation business.
Currently cruise companies are now offering their services in different times of the year according to the customers needs, thus they are in a position to compete with land-based resorts that offer their services throughout the year.
Currently cruise companies are offering competitive rates that are affordable to many. Cruise companies have low operation cost due to economies of scale, thus they pass this benefits to the customer.
We will write a custom Essay on How the cruise industry has become more competitive with land-based resort specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, most cruise companies have embraced flexibility in service provision, duration of travel, seasons of travelling and destination of visiting. Cruising now offers all the services one could get in land-based resorts.
Psychological Issue Summary Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Overview
The use of biopsychosocial perspective to evaluate, assess, and treat a patient allows practitioners to view the patient from multiple viewpoints rather than just mental illness.
The effectiveness of the treatment should to cover all areas of the child’s life including his or her family, school, and recreation spheres. In this paper, biopsychosocial perspective will be used to evaluate, assess, and create a therapeutic intervention for a child suffering from emotional disturbances overcome with significant behavioral issues.
Overview Carol, a six-year-old child, is in the first grade. Lately her family has noticed that something went wrong. These feelings were brought to the forefront when her teacher requested a meeting with her parents.
It was at this meeting that the teacher explained that all of a sudden Carol has been unable to catch on to the lessons in class; moreover, she has begun exhibiting problems communication with her peers, as well as unable to communicate with other teachers.
Carol’s mother then realized that she was having a hard time communicating to individuals within the family and Carol seemed to be very unlike herself.
Carol also began to regress, to baby-like behaviors, such as temper tantrums and crying uncontrollably with no explanation; further, Carol has become extremely fearful and anxiety ridden over small things that had never bothered her before. Carol was finally diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders.
Therapeutic intervention To effectively come up with a therapeutic intervention for Carol, it is important to determine her source of distress; the feared stimulus. With the stimulus identified, the anxiety disorder and depression can be managed through in vivo exposure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is, Carol will be gradually exposed to the actual feared stimulus which causes her anxiety. In vivo exposure is both a cognitive and behavioral strategy which will enable Carol overcomes her fears by appealing to cognitive skills through behavioral activities of exposing her to the stimulus.
Depression is mainly caused by a distortion in the patients mind about ideas hence, when the stimulus has been identified, it is important that both parents and teachers help her change her view. This can be done through revealing the positive side of the stimulus through in vivo exposure among others.
Moreover, physical exercise will also help her overcome the depression. This can be done through group therapy where Carol is gradually introduced into a therapy group during the physical activity therapy. This will also improve her socialization capabilities.
Such activities as art, music and dance classes can also help her improve her declining social skills. To further improve her social skills, it is important for both parents, and the teachers to task Carol with duties and exercises that require cooperation with other family members and fellow pupils.
These tasks will force to cooperate with others hence gradually she will begin to social wit others (Martin
Hip Hop Dance Expository Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Hip hop dance specify dance styles that have evolved because of hip hop culture. It entails different styles such as dancing, rapping and scratching, popping, locking and breaking. The hip hop dancing began in the 1970s. During this period, hip hop encompassed urban styles.
The early dance styles included breaking, uprock and the funk. It was popularized by dance crews in the US. The TV shows such as the Wild style, Soul Train and Breakin, Beat Street also contributed in showcasing hip hop dance styles during the early periods of hip hop hype (Hip Hop Network).
The dance industry responded with improved edition of hip hop, which became known as the jazz funk and new style. Traditionally, talented dancers embraced these styles to demonstrate hip hop dances that was often performed on the streets. During the early days, hip hop was linked to rare movements such as the Humpty Dance which was recognized by the inventors of hip hop.
When interest in hip hop music intensified, several movies integrating sounds, beats and gravity- laden moves were established. Although hip hop dance has evolved since it begun, it has upheld significant presence in cities which has established street dance derivatives such as krumping, jerkin and turfing.
Michael Jackson Hip hop dance is incomplete without mentioning Michael Jackson. Michael began hip hop dance life with the Jackson Five group. Evans shows that Michael advanced to be one of the most popular dance icons of the time. Michael’s music was inclined towards soul, R
Free Enterprise Systems Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Moral development
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Economic Development
Free Enterprise Systems
Introduction Free enterprise systems have been adopted by many countries as the main form of business model. This model allows people to transact businesses without excessive government control and external influences from third parties (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011). The free ownership of property, rule of law, competition and free pricing are encouraged in this system (Bastiat, 2007).
The free enterprise system poses different advantages and disadvantages to the society. One of the influences of this economic model is on the moral and economic development of the society. These aspects of the society are important pillars of human existence. Therefore, it is important to understand how the moral and economic fabric of our society can be affected by the free enterprise system.
More importantly, this analysis would improve the understanding of our social, economic and political environments today (as a product of free enterprise systems). From the above understanding, this paper seeks to investigate the influence of free enterprise systems on the moral and economic development of the society.
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Moral development The most notable characteristic of free enterprise systems in today’s society is the fact that the model gives all people an opportunity to be successful. Unlike other economic and social models, free enterprise systems do not offer limits to success. In fact, if one fails, the system always offers another opportunity to try once again.
Subsequently, if someone fails for a second time, he or she can try a third time (and again). It is very easy for people to succeed in such a system but most importantly, the system does not discriminate who is eligible for success (Bastiat, 2007). From free enterprise system, we have therefore seen many people rise from poverty to become some of the richest people in the world.
Certain socio-economic systems such as the caste system in India offers limits to success and almost entirely, the social class where someone is born dictates the socio-economic destination of the individual. Free enterprise systems are therefore fair to every individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The biggest drawback associated with free enterprise systems is the inequality created within such a system. The gap between the rich and the poor can be dramatically wide such that it may be very difficult for poor people to earn a decent living in this system. This situation may be realized through the understanding that free enterprise systems produce gullible individuals who may cannibalize everyone else for their benefit. Rogge (1979) explains that in such a system, there is little concern for the welfare of the majority.
For instance, free enterprise systems have been known to give rise to a wealthy minority who control most of the resources in the society. This inequality puts the poor majority at the mercy of the wealthy minority. Therefore, exploitation, unfair work policies, poor wages and similar practices are likely to be witnessed in such a system.
These are only some of the unfair societal practices we witness today from the establishment of free enterprise systems. Many people would argue that such an unfair and unjust system is immoral in today’s society because it does not uphold good ethical principles. Rogge (1979) observes that the future of free enterprise systems is shaky and there is need to re-evaluate its place in future societies.
Free enterprise systems also erode our moral fabric because it brews corruption and favoritism within the society. For instance, the argument advanced by proponents of free enterprise systems on inequality and injustice is that the poor and the downtrodden are taken care of through charities (Rawls, 1999).
However, the realities of potential success in such a system are extremely low. If charities are set up and donations flow in such systems, people who give such donations receive favor from authorities and all those concerned. Through this understanding, free enterprise systems reward corruption and support peddling. In fact, it is very easy for the wealthy minority to dictate policies in the society by using donations as a tool to wield power over the poor.
From the above dynamics of free enterprise systems, it is important to highlight that the free enterprise systems creates a materialistic society, which is obsessed by the accumulation of wealth (Danner, 1994, p. 63). Through this understanding, free enterprise systems hardly account for everyone’s well being.
Critics of free enterprise systems have cited this drawback as a strong weakness of the socio-economic model. Some have even observed that free enterprise systems will soon collapse because they will lead to the depletion of global resources since people are excessively greedy. This assumption bears a high credibility because the free enterprise system has created the perception that happiness can only be achieved through excessive accumulation of wealth and increased spending (Danner, 1994, p. 48).
We will write a custom Essay on Free Enterprise Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Undesirable traits have therefore sprouted in today’s society because of this assumption. It has therefore been very easy for people to be envious of other’s success (and for those who have acquired wealth to be unreasonably selfish).
The increase in materialism has brought forth a generation that is willing to do anything to acquire status, fame and money. For example, many people are now willing to engage in crime to earn easy money. These statistics show how free enterprise systems have created a superficial society (Danner, 1994).
Influence of Free Enterprise Systems on Economic Development As noted in previous sections of this paper, free enterprise systems support competition. Competition is an important aspect of economic development because it leads to innovation and the production of good quality goods and services. The free enterprise model also ensures that consumers can get the best prices in the market.
The freedom which is evident in free enterprise systems ensure that producers produce the best quality goods and sell them at the lowest prices so that they can be able to stay in business. If businesses do not conform to these requirements, they will be run out of business by others who do so. This business outcome ensures that the economy develops within the principles of quality and fair pricing (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011).
The fact that free enterprise systems do not offer limitations to the number of businesses that can operate within the economy increases the prospects of witnessing rapid economic growth. In addition, free enterprise systems ensure that as a producer, someone can produce whatever type of goods they wish to and sell them at their preferable price.
Similarly, buyers have the privilege of purchasing what they want within the confines of their unique tastes and preferences. The principle of free will is therefore upheld within a free enterprise system. Within such a system, economic growth is likely to be realized (Hayek and Hamowy, 2011).
The influence of free enterprise systems on economic progress is therefore undoubted. Excerpts from economic studies show that over the last few centuries, free enterprise systems have birthed economic growth in most countries. Therefore, some of the world’s super powers we know today became wealthy because of adopting free enterprise systems. For instance, if we use different economic parameters such as gross domestic product (GDP), capacity utilization and the standards of living, we can see that countries, which have adopted free enterprise systems as their main economic model, have the highest GDPs, capacity utilization and standards of living in the world. A few examples are the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), Canada, Japan and other western powers. Economic theorists attribute the increase in economic development to the ability of free market systems to control price and establish free market systems. Rogge (1979) explains that these elements are the main pillars of economic progress in free enterprise systems.
To affirm the above observation, it is important to highlight that within past two centuries, the global economy has grown substantially. Upon further entrenchment of free enterprise systems, it is reported that further economic progress has been witnessed (Rogge, 1979).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Free Enterprise Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During these times, some of today’s economic giants such as Japan were extremely poor nations but after adopting the free enterprise model, they have become formidable forces it today’s deregulated economy. Consequently, there has been a sharp increase in the standards of living (which has been occasioned by better healthcare services, increased food availability, and increased wages).
Conclusion This paper shows that free enterprise systems have offered immense opportunities and limitations to our economic and social lives. Economically, the model has contributed to growth and an increase in the standards of living. Apart from the notable divide between the rich and the poor, free enterprise systems seem to work fine (economically).
However, weighing the moral retrogression that free enterprise systems have brought forth; it is difficult to support the economic model. Comprehensively, we can agree that free enterprise systems are economically progressive but morally retrogressive.
References Bastiat, F. (2007). The Law. Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Danner, P. (1994). Getting and Spending: A Primer in Economic Morality. Kansas: Rowman
Japan’s economy Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help
Japan is a nation in East Asia with a population of 126,457,664. Japan has three ethnic groups comprising of Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Japanese is the national language used in Japan. Majority of Japanese are Buddhist, Shinto and Christians. This paper mainly describes the politics, economic and military/law enforcement on Japan.
Japan has a constitutional monarchy. Its Emperor has limited powers but the constitution defines him as the “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people (Glenn 2010).” The Prime Minister of Japan and elected members of Diet hold power in Japan while Japanese people have dominion over the nation.
The Prime Minister of Japan is also the head of Cabinet and he has the power to dismiss and appoint Ministers of State. Japan’s current Emperor is known as Akihito while the Crown Prince of Japan is known as Naruhito. National Diet which is a bicameral parliament makes up the legislative in Japan.
The Diet comprise of House of Representatives (480 seats) who are elected after every four years or when the house is dissolved by popular vote (Glenn 2010). On the other hand, the House of Councilors which comprise of 242 seats are elected by members and allowed to serve Japan for a term of six years. There is a secret ballot that is used in elected offices and universal suffrage for those who are over the age of 20years.
Japanese legal system was mainly influence by Chinese law. Japanese Constitutions demands that the Emperor be responsible for promulgation of the legislation which is then passed by National Diet. The court system in Japan is separated into four parts: three different ranks of lower courts and the Supreme Court.
The Six Codes makes up the main body of statutory law in Japan. There are seven major political parties in Japan which are represented in National Diet. They include: Your Party (YP), Social Democratic Party (SDP), New Komeito Party (NK), the People’s New Party (PNP), the Japan Communist Party (JCP) and Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) (Glenn 2010).
Japan’s economy is ranked third among the largest in the world. Japan’s economy is competitive and efficient mainly in international trade. However, it has lower productivity in areas such as distribution, services and agriculture. Japan has a free and industrialized market economy with employees who are educated and hard working.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country also has invested in many things and made several savings. Japan had attained several promotions in the foreign market due to its industrial development. This is why Japan has mature and rich industrial economy. Natural resources in Japan are few and that is why the country mainly relies on trade to earn foreign exchange that is used to purchase raw materials used in the country.
Between 1960s and 1980s, Japan had the highest economic growth rate which dramatically slowed down in early 1990s after the collapse of bubble economy which was marked by real estates and plummeting stock prices (Flath 2000). Japan’s real GPD grew roughly to 1% growth yearly and this became consistent until early 2000s when Japanese economy began to fall again until it became in line with the world’s economic conditions.
In 2008, Japan fell into its first recession and in 2009 with the fall in demand for goods all over the world, the Bank of Japan managed to report a growth in real GDP of -5.5%. In 2010, Japan’s economy improved with a growth of 4.4% in real GDP. In 2011, per capita GDP in Japan was $ 34,300 while real growth rate was 0.5% with a GDP of $ 855 trillion.
The main exports of Japan include computers, cars, and electronic devices with main traders being the USA, China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Germany, Taiwan and Thailand. Japans major imports include raw materials such as wood, foodstuff and oil with major suppliers being China, USA, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates and South Korea.
Recently, Japanese has shown greater understanding of security issues. They have also shown full support for Self Defense Forces and this was evident after the 2004 the tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean. Japan participated in the peacekeeping operations that took place in 1990s in Cambodia and also 2003-2008 stabilization/reconstruction efforts in Iraq and lastly in Tohoku disaster that took place in 2011. Japan government has inhibited its military role in international affairs.
Japan and United States have a close relationship; Japan mainly depends on the U.S for strategic protection after they signed Mutual Security Treaty (Alexander 2011). Japan is however interpreting on how they can revise Article 9 in their constitution. The U.S-Japan security alliance is the cornerstone that designs all foreign policy in the nation.
Japan has become associated with America for 19years: they joined Security Council in 1956. Japan is among the G4 nations that are in search of how to become permanent members of Security Council. The Article 9 of Japanese Constitution has given Japanese military the authority to use force or declare war in international disputes. Ministry of Defense governs Japan’s military and it consists of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF).
We will write a custom Case Study on Japan’s economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Alexander, E. (2011). What Keeps the Japanese People Together? New York: Dissent Magazine.
Flath, M. (2000). The Japanese Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Glenn, H. (2010). Japan’s International Relations: Politics, Economics and Security. New York: Free Press.
The Last Supper in the Bible Report college essay help
The last supper is recorded by four of the canonical gospels in the bible namely Mathew, Mark, Luke and John (Harris). Based on the history of religion, there are two analogical interpretation of this religious landmark that bears significance from a theological perspective.
Notably the Hellenistic influence over Judaism from the 3rd century B.C had an impact on most aspects of life, particularly table customs and feasts which relate greatly, if not entirely, to the subject in question.
The initial analogical provision with regards to the last supper was pegged on the reports of the festival as found in the bible—where God is said to have instructed the Israelites to sacrifice a lamb on the 14th day of the month Nisan just before the sunset (Klawans). On that particular night, the Israelites engaging in the festivity were to eat the sacrificial lamb with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (Klawans).
In addition, the lamb’s blood was to be smeared on the Israelites’ house doorposts as an outward sign and symbol of them being part of the festivity. Seeing the smeared blood sign on the doorposts, God would then pass-over these houses (Exodus 12:13). And while doing so, God would smite the Egyptians and non-conforming Israelites (those who did not swab their doors with the blood) with the tenth plague—which entailed killing of the first-born sons.
In the years that followed, this became a Jewish festive meal thereafter known as the Passover. It is commonly perceived to be the frame work of the last supper, offering background interpretation of the actions and words of Jesus that night but as will later be discussed, not necessarily the Passover festival itself.
Essentially, most Christians celebrate the last supper primarily because Jesus Christ told them to do so in remembrance of the sacrifice he made on the cross. The last supper also resembles a farewell meal. As brought out in the context of Luke 22:14-38 and John 13-17 (living bible) Jesus constantly makes remarks that imply his departure.
The solemn words of Jesus such as: “For I will not drink wine again until the Kingdom of God has come….This is my body, given for you. Eat it in the remembrance of me,” create an unmistakable setting of him saying goodbye.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the anchor bible dictionary, Freedman states that the significance of the day varies across different Christian factions. For instance, among the catholic Christians, as well as other historical Christian churches like Anglicans, Lutherans, Episcopalians or even the byzantine Christians; the belief is on the literal words of Jesus that the bread represents his body while the wine represents his blood.
To this group of Christians, emphasis is laid on the principal of hermeneutics and the nature of faith in the apostolic times where biblical interpretations were based literal words.
On the other hand, the Christians who emerged recently tend to be of the opinion that the bread and wine symbolically represent Christians being part and parcel of Christ’s suffering on the cross. To this latter group, God’s passion to humanity through Christ’s sacrifice on the cross is greatly emphasized with all Christians being called to obedience and emulation of Christ’s perfect example.
The other analogical perspective of the last supper as influenced by contemporary Judaism is characterized by the use of eschatological metaphors related to the meal. It is this aspect that sets aside all other earthly meals that Jesus may have had before his death. It explains why, these otherwise normal and common gestures of breaking bread and drinking from a cup bears profound significance that it should be commemorated, terming them as ‘prophetic symbolic signs.’
Jesus identified himself with the bread and the wine, engaging in symbolic interpretation of the events as follows: “Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant’” (Matthew 26:26–28=Mark 14:22; see also Luke 22:19–20).
As highlighted by Leon-Dufour, the word ‘symbolic’ here does not dilute or in any way invalidate the reality of the matter but offers a deeper dimension of the same. For instance his acceptance of sinners and out casts to the table implies forgiveness which became their inheritance following his crucifixion as foreshadowed by the wine and bread during the last supper.
Also, we are told that at some point in the last supper, Jesus says “Go in peace, your sins are forgiven.” Here, Christians get to be reminded that through the sacrifice on the cross, victory over sins is ensued through forgiveness (Freedman).
We will write a custom Report on The Last Supper in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even more importantly, we are informed that in the last supper, the disciples and got to meet together with Christ and fellowship with one another. Here, the significance of fellowship—especially during trying times (just in the same way Christ was undergoing trying moments—is greatly stressed. In addition, the fellowship signifies unity in the body of Christ thus encouraging Christians towards the same (Freedman).
One of the most fundamental questions that have haunted scholars for years and perhaps to date remains debatable is whether the last supper was in fact the Passover meal? This controversy was perhaps born of the conflicting accounts between the Synoptic Gospels that identify the last supper as the Passover and that of John, who does not.
The very word ‘synoptic’ as implied by the Greek etymology means ‘seen together’ meaning these books (Mathew, Mark and Luke) are better studies together. Jonathan Klawens interprets this fact by suggesting that these three accounts are therefore not independent sources at all but a copy of each other (3).
Before indulging into the intricate analysis of the synoptic account versus John’s account to answer or at least attempt to shed light on the Passover and last supper controversy it is important to highlight the journey of the Passover through history. The Passover began before the temple was destroyed, dating to about 70 C.E.
The order of the rituals was as follows: Unleavened bread was broken, wine was served, the diners reclined and hymns were sung. In addition, when partaking of the Passover meal, the Israelites’ Exodus story was retold while the significance of the entire meal and celebration was explained to the audience (Klawans).
It is in fact this order that many scholars use to argue why the last supper was the Passover meal because as noted in the synoptic Jesus and the disciples did nearly all of the rituals (O’Toole). The key word here however is ‘nearly’ meaning it lacks conclusiveness. The breaking of the unleavened bread, serving of wine, reclines of diner and the singing of hymns was part of the last supper.
In fact scholars interpret Jesus’ explanation of the symbolic meaning of the bread and wine to be similar with the re-telling of significance of the unleavened bread, bitter herbs and wine during the Passover meal.
According to Jeremias (15-88), who provides one of the best known studies of the Last supper, points out several parallels of the last supper and the Passover, inclusive of the already mentioned points above. He remarkably notes down that the Last supper took place in the evening, stretching into the night when the Passover was required to be eaten.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Last Supper in the Bible by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving of alms to the poor was customary of the Passover, which as noted by John happened during the last supper whereby Judas was said to have left the room that night to do so. The breaking of wine and the serving of bread, also obligatory to the Passover, were present during the Last supper.
However these parallels are not utterly satisfactory to a significant number of scholars who then oppose the idea on the basis that the argument has a myriad of missing links and facts. For instance according to Klawans, wine and bread, the only foods mentioned during the last supper were the basic foods in of any formal Jewish meal. Where was the Passover lamb or the bitter herbs? In addition, during the Passover individual cups were used but in the last supper one cup was used (4).
Moreover, a good number of scholars speculate that considering that the last supper happened just before the arrest of Jesus when there were security reasons for meeting at night, not that it was necessarily the Passover. It was customary for the Passover meal to be a family affair whereas Jesus shared the last supper with only twelve men leaving out women and children.
It is here that John differs with the synoptic as he points out that Jesus in fact died when the Passover sacrifice was being offered and any last meal recorded was that of the previous night. Essentially, the timing of John’s analogy of Passover events is widely believed to immensely compliment the Christianity claim that Jesus was a sacrifice and that his sacrificial death on the cross heralds a new redemption; just in the same way the Passover offering recalled an old order of events (Klawans).
All these divergent belief therefore begs the question, should we follow John’s assertions or should we stand by the synoptic? Or perhaps the unwavering doubt on both sides should persuade us to plead ignorance of the matter? When push comes to a shove, john’s account is more plausible than that of the synoptic.
However, this does not in any way mean that his account is entirely accurate. Nonetheless, if forced to choose between the two inaccuracies, John’s account and analogy is more believable based on scrutinized facts in history and the timeline of events during that time.
Nonetheless, scholars who reject the idea of the last supper being the Passover try to account for the synoptic Gospels claim. For one the proximity of the Passover itself to the last supper creates one motive. Klawans further points out that Christian communities, who were primarily Jews, began to question how, when and whether they should celebrate the Passover in the years after Jesus’ death.
In conclusion, the last supper might have been the Passover, or not. Without a time-travel machine to determine the case of the matter, the truth becomes rather hard to detect. It could be that the right question is not ‘what it was not’ but ‘what it was or is.’ The last supper was a thanksgiving and a blessing.
It was the indiscriminate acceptance of everyone, sinners and saints, a meal, a communion, a proclamation, a messianic banquet and a farewell in anticipation of the coming Kingdom. But on top of the face-value and literal importance of these activities and ventures to Christians, symbolic significances such as the redemption of humanity, costly forgiveness of sins, fellowship and unity among the body of Christ (and the non-Christians as well), among many other symbolic meanings that were discussed herein.
It is only by considering both the symbolic and literal meanings of the last supper that we can be able to utterly decipher the true meaning of the day and celebrate it accordingly (Freedman).
Works Cited Freedman, David Noel. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Print.
Harris, Stephen L. The New Testament: A student’s Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 2011. Print.
Klawans, Jonathan. Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder? Bar Magazine, 2010. Web. .
O’Toole, Robert F. “Last Supper.” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992. Print.
Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. 3rd. London: SCM Press, 1966. Print.
The Significance of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation in History of Western Civilization Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Martin Luther is one of the greatest men known in history for the many developments he made. Among these developments is the protestant reformation (Bainton 44). In this reformation, Martin Luther strongly opposed the notion that people could free themselves from sin by exchanging God’s punishment with money.
In his attempts to reform the protestant church, Luther wrote several letters to the leaders of the church such as Bishops and the clergy. Nevertheless, after the struggle that proved difficult at times, Martin Luther succeeded in the protestant reformation. This paper therefore seeks to explore the major significance of Martin Luther and the protestant reformation in the history of western civilization. This will be effectively achieved by addressing the questions that follow.
What was the basic chronology of Luther’s breaking with the roman church?
Martin Luther protested on October 31, 1517, reacting to several debates, which he thought were of great significance (Mackinnon 204). He thus sparked a lot of debate from different interest groups and people, particularly with respect to the so-called doctrines. Although his reaction or revolt was not against the church itself, it can clearly be depicted that it was mainly geared towards the general reform in the Church.
Nevertheless, by 1519 he openly reacted to those doctrines he had earlier on regarded as implicit and even denied the mandate of the church in certain religious issues. In 1520, the pope excommunicated him at the time. He defied these religious leaders and particularly rallied against the papacy and the Eucharist.
Why did he do so and what societal factors facilitated the acceptance of his message?
From the proceedings of the events, it is depicted that the significant social factors, which facilitated the acceptance of Martin Luther’s ideas were mainly two-fold. The first one is that there were already some elements of dissatisfaction or resentments coming mainly from the city governments regarding the various clerical privileges and immunities given.
They, for instance, were exempted from tax and even undertaking some civil responsibilities. An example of the latter is their exemption from defending the city despite the fact that religious orders held a big proportion of urban property. These people were therefore keen to eliminate the aforementioned privileges and take the general civil responsibility like everybody else.
In addition, they were also reacting to the poor quality of sermon at the time. Consequently, they established preacherships where men with some good level of education were considered, and where such men were given the mandate of delivering or reading the sermons. This really attracted the protestant style of worship that emphasized more on sermons, and formed the main part of the service as opposed to Catholic orientation of Eucharist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What were the key principles of his critique of Catholicism and what were the principle writings by which he spread his message?
His major critique was directed at the Papacy. According to Luther, the whole idea of Papacy was just but a beautiful false front, and a misleadingly holiness under which most of the evil was hidden.
He therefore called for an urgent reform in the Church. Luther advocated that the papacy be converted to simplicity as well as humble fashion of the former days of St. Peter, and called for reconsideration in the way the finance was managed.
He actually demanded that all finances and estate property be taken care of by the national churches instead of the pope. He also demanded for the complete eradication of clerical celibacy, which the Germans had rejected earlier on.
With respect to the Eucharist, Martin Luther was particularly concerned about the nature of the sacramental doctrine in the Church. He particularly objected the idea of the many sacraments, which the church adopted at the time. The Church acknowledged seven sacraments while Luther advocated for those that were mainly comprised of baptism and the Lord’s Supper under the Authority of Jesus Christ.
According to Luther, the catholic Mass was not a true reflection of the Lord’s Supper. Further, he argued that the whole idea of Eurcharist was not a repetition of the sacrifice of Christ. He believed that wine and bread should only be given to the laity and the clergy.
Again, the view commonly held by the Church doctrine, was that during celebration of the Eucharist, bread and wine are changed to the body and blood of Christ respectively, and that only the physical appearances of the bread and wine remained (Mackinnon 204). According to Luther, this was based on the principal of Aristotle, with whom he actually differed.
He suggested for a more real doctrine that of the actual presence that followed the consecration of the body and blood of Christ in their corresponding form of the bread and wine. He argued that the priest never caused any miracle, but instead Jesus Christ was omnipresent and that he opens the eyes of every believer to Christ
We will write a custom Essay on The Significance of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation in History of Western Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In respect to the Christian Freedom, he advocated for freedom from all priest crafts, with the priest being the only one responsible for carrying out what he had been called upon to perform in a specific office.
Luther mainly employed the use of Hymns, Psalmist and his catechism to propagate his teachings or ideas. These writings entailed mainly basic religious knowledge. A case in print is Hymn‘s Almighty Fortress is our God which was generally easy to remember and evoked strong human feelings.
This was particularly important, as it was able to have a significant imprint of Martin Luther’s central or key points in his doctrines. His catechism contained brief sermons on the main articles of faith and presented succinct explanation of doctrines in form of questions and answers.
What is the most effective means used by the Roman Catholic Church to the protestant challenge and why.
From my own point of view, I could say that one of the most effective and appropriate means the Catholic Church used in reaction to the various challenges was the Protestant formation of ecumenical council. This is because it significantly helped in fostering unity and accommodation from the opposing religions. That way, the two religions were no longer in conflict, but united in most of their doctrines and culture.
The legacy of the reformation and Counter Reformation
The main legacy out of all these is linked to a series of religious wars that eventually resulted in a long civil strife, which had a negative impact on the German economy thus leading to the death of several Germans (Bainton 45). As a result, this meant that the religious believes in Europe had been outweighed by the political and national convictions.
Works Cited Bainton, Roland. Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther. New York: Penguin, 1995. Print.
Mackinnon, James. Luther and the Reformation. New York: Russell
Canadian Immigration Policy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Immigration refers to entry persons into a particular country with an intention of settling there while immigration policies are set of rules, regulations as well as directives set by the government in order to control the entrance of people from other countries. Canadian immigration policies are therefore, acts of parliament that limits individual persons from entering into the country.
Canadian immigration is marked with discrimination in its history. This discrimination was felt in form of class, gender as well as race. The immigration department had an intense bias on those people who were poor and only accepted people on the basis that they were rich and therefore would work into the benefit of the Canadians (Arat-koc, 1999. 208).
The Canadian government had stated racist laws and practices which were meant to restrict certain groups of people in terms of class, race as well as gender. However, these policies changed with the introduction of point system policies which advocated for non-discriminatory immigration hence changing the face of the Canadian immigration policy (Arat-koc, 1999. 209).
This paper critically evaluates ways in which assumptions about class, gender and race shaped Canadian immigration policies before and after the introduction of the points system in 1967. The paper also points out the consequences for social inequality in each period.
How assumptions about class, gender and race shaped Canadian immigration policies before the introduction of the points system
According to Arat-Koc, 1999, before the introduction of Canadian points system in 1967, Canada experienced massive discrimination in terms of gender, class and race (p. 208). This was so intense in that the immigrants were undergoing severe maltreatments instances meted out by the Canadian government. Gender was one of the bases of restriction stated in the Canadian policy.
In history, Canada is known to discriminate against women whereby women were seen as a burden to the society. Only those women who belonged to a certain racial group or from a recognized ethnic membership were treated differently since they were viewed to represent a positive form of Nation building.
Women were generally seen as biological and cultural reproducers. This is due to the fact that they gave birth to children who represent a certain culture depending on the race and ethnic group from which they belong. They were also seen as cultural transmitters since they could be married in different racial background as well as different ethnic group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, they were restricted to make an entrance into Canada to prevent those cultural transmissions. Hence only married women who belonged to a certain race or a certain ethnic group were allowed to migrate in Canada (Arat-Koc, 1999. 208).
In addition, women were seen as dependents on men. This meant that women were not supposed to own anything by themselves including skilled women. They were not supposed to have an identity card, visa or any other legal documents.
They were simply identified by their husbands. In cases where single women were allowed to migrate, they were allowed as domestic workers who would meet the needs of middle class families as well as with the expectation that these women would be married and be mothers with a full citizenship (Carty, 1994.190).
Women discrimination helped in shaping Canadian immigration policies in that it lessened the number of dependents since the Canadian government viewed women as dependents. Women were denied chances to acquire education hence, increasing the number of dependent in contrast. Thus, by allowing women as domestic workers to the middle class families, the policies reduced dependents hence improvement of Canadian economy.
On the other hand, women discrimination in Canadian policies robbed the country of potential investors. If women were given chances to acquire education, they could have equally improved the economy since they had potential to work to the development of the country (Anderson
The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment Research Paper essay help
There are different sources of energy. The speech focuses on effects of fossil oil energy on the environment. It discusses the different types of renewable green energy, which is a better alternative to fossil oil energy.
Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) states that wind power is one of the best sources of the world’s renewable energies. Kooten’s research centers on the description of what makes wind power environmentally friendly.
The research includes differentiating the green power sources and examining the pollution caused by power resources. The wind power has many advantages over the fossil fuel power sources.
Wind energy is classified as green energy. Green energy saves the environment from hazards of pollution. Moreover, green is associated with the trees providing us with the oxygen, the food of the animals, etc.; it can be also viewed as a synonymous of life (Rowlands 2002).
Borowitz (1999) reiterates fossil oil energy is not green energy. Fossil oil produces the car’s carbon monoxide fumes which pollute the earth’s atmosphere. This kind of energy creates health-damaging smog which covers the sky and makes it difficult to breathe for every living being, thus it destroys life.
Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) insists that renewable green energy derives from several sources. First, the sun heat generates renewable solar energy. The people can use solar panels to convert the sun’s energy to the homes’ electrical energy. Second, geothermal energy is another renewable energy, which is generated by the hot springs.
Another source of renewable geothermal energy is the volcanic heat exiting the earth’s soil. Third, Ethanol energy is another renewable energy as Alcohol generates Ethanol. Fourth, wind energy is one of the most popular renewable energy sources which works in the following way. Wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In terms of fossil oil energy, Lovins (2012) insists that fossil oil generates unhealthy pollution. He also states (2012) fossil fuel energy sources are the remains of organics that over millions years, have undergone substantial physical changes induced by pressure and chemical changes caused by the action of bacteria (p. 134). Wind energy reduces the current air pollution increase in major cities of the United States.
Judith Cherni (2002) states the concentration of industrial manufacturing plants’ exhausts immensely contributes to the pollution of the atmosphere. The air pollution significantly derails the average person’s health. Different air pollutant types exert different degrees of health damage to the people.
The degree or concentration of the pollutants has various effects on the average county resident. To reduce the current air pollution trends, the states’ air pollution policies must be effectively and deficiently revised and set into immediate motion.
Likewise, a research conducted by Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) shows that the earth’s wind energy supplies potential can effectively replace the world’s fossil oil needs. However, only one percent of the world’s electricity need is presently supplied by the green wind power. The fact is true even though there is almost fifty percent of yearly growth in the wind producing capabilities over the past twenty five years.
Almost 100 percent of the entire green wind energy had been firmly entrenched in the highly developed nations, including India and China. Further, Cornelis Van Kooten (2009) studied the available wind power that can fill thirty four percent of the global electricity demands when 2050 comes. The research indicated governments must determine the best procedures to reduce the hurdles of replacing the unfavorable fossil oil fuel with renewable energy.
The hurdles include technical, financial, economic, market, institutional, and other realistic obstacles. To overcome the hurdles, some nations have implemented several programs that include tax incentives, capital subsidies, feed-in tariffs, and grid access guarantees.
Aside form these programs, the climate change mitigation initiatives precipitating from the Kyoto Protocol made important milestones in promoting the environment-friendly advantages of setting up the green power using the wind. The Kyoto Protocol came up with an agreement according to which all the developed countries should reduce their CO2 gases.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Mir Hessami’s (2006) research findings focus on implementing both solar and wind energy. Hessami indicates the purpose of the research was to make a blueprint of the advantages of filing the solar needs of society. Hessami (2006) supposes wind power supply system can supply the power needs of the rural residential building occupants.
The system includes the hot water service, space heating service, and other electricity and storage system power needs. The optimum green power design has been achieved by implementing a cost-benefit analysis for each alternative system. Furthermore, Charles Chemel (2011) insists the power generation sector remains to be the major contributor to the global air pollution.
Despite the 1990s agreement to reduce global fossil fuel emission levels, the fossil oil’s contribution to the pollution levels continues to rise as the population increases. The pollutants discharged by the fossil fuel-based power stations include sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (N0x). Specifically, the power generation sector contributes an estimated 50 percent, 25 percent, and 10 percent of the United Kingdom’s emissions of the SO2, NOx and other pollutants only in 2007.
These pollutants have hazardous effects on the human residents of the community, especially causing respiratory or breathing health issues. In addition, the pollutants continue to destroy the already environmentally damaged global environment. The Sulfur and nitrogen pollutants increase the acidity levels of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
In terms of analysis, Charles Chemel (2011) clearly shows that changing the community’s power needs from wind fossil fuel to wind power is a major aim. Consequently, the community must allocate large sums of cash to purchase the wind power turbines. In addition, the society has to discard the community’s current fossil fuel power plants.
The experts should be hired to work in the field of wind power turbine technology. They will install the wind power turbines, then they will monitor, maintain, and fix the wind power turbines whenever the need arises.
William Schlesinger (2011) insists fossil oil generates greenhouse gases. Schlesinger (2011) states that atmospheric physicists show us that rising concentrations of certain greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere should raise the temperature of the planet at rates, times, and places that are consistent with recent observations of ongoing climate change that is global warming.
The unfolding impacts of this climate change will affect human habitation, health, and economics, and the persistence of various species in natural ecosystems during the course of this century. The greenhouse gases prevent the escape of the suns’ damaging rays including the ultraviolet rays from escaping the earth’s atmosphere.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fossil Oil Energy Effects on the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere continues to rise. This is the one of the major adverse effects of the greenhouse gases, which is global warming. Global warming affects the weather. As a result, the weather and temperature changes affect the growth and extinction of the animals on land and the fishes and other marine animals within the depth of the world’s oceans and seas.
Based on the above discussion, there are various sources of energy. The wind power which is green-based does not pollute the environment. The sun’s energy eliminates toxic fossil fumes generated by fossil. Hydro energy eliminates the harmful effects of fossil oil use. Indeed, renewable energy is a better alternative to fossil oil energy.
References Borowitz, S. (1999). Farewell Fossil Fuels: Reviewing America’s Energy Policy. New York: Plenum Trade Press.
Chemel, C. et al. (2011). Predictions of U.K. Regulated Power Station Contributions to Regional Air Pollution and Deposition: A Model Comparison Exercise. Journal of the Air
Divergence between False and True Virtue Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The last days of the Socrates refers to a sequence of four conversations by Plato that illustrates the demise as well as the testing of the Socrates. Plato gets the chance to present as well as build up his accountability’s attitude of a person for his dealings as well as their consequences in their society.
The debate on Socrates trial which was about Euthyphro who had laid blame on his father of assassinating a servant and as well a servant had assaulted another servant. This is the reason as to why the Socrates and the Euthyphro resulted in a dialogue.
It is through this dialogue that the reader gets a bright expression of the Socrates to employ mode of inquiring in order to prod holes a in other people’s declaration. Plato employs his conversation in telling his story concerning the Socrates trial, as well as shielding himself from the charges of deceit as well as the variation of the youths.
Despite his effort to push for the dialogue being put into consideration, the Socrates trial was delayed and this led to him to spend more time in Athens prison. Plato got a friend who was to help him out of prison but the Socrates opposed the argument and thus he had to remain in prison. Due to his royalty, Plato decides not to escape as this would be a betrayal to the Athens as well as causing harm to those he loved.
The wickedness of the spirit is held up by Plato’s conviction on the Socrates he also argues that demise ought to be part of a philosopher since it is through this that he would get do away with the distraction of the deceased as well as achieving true wisdom.
It is through the dialogue that we are able to have a clear view of what true and false virtues are presented as in this community. Plato is brought out as a fighter in the kind of living that was taking place in the region.
The Euthyphro looked into what godliness was all about as well as the manner in which it could be identified. Plato’s friend was on the other hand worried about what obligation under law was all about, while phaedo was determined in exploring the soul of the human soul.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Admission of guilt is also an issue to the Socrates and it is clearly elaborated via the Athens way of pleading with the Athens government with an aim of shielding Plato from the accusations of bringing in new spiritual attitudes as well as misleading the younger generations. This according to the government was a false virtue as this was against the beliefs in the region and as well, no one had a right to go against or include what he felt was right in the community.
This portrayed how the Socrates had no right to do whatever they felt was right but instead go by the set laws by the government. Interfering with what the administration of the area felt was the right thing, led to Plato’s imprisonment.
The dialogue brings Plato as one who loved money as well as someone who was of honor. This portrayed him as a man with false virtual as he stresses that that was one of the characteristic of a philosopher yet on the other hand he is committed to introducing new religions to the youths. For instance in our community today, there are various religious people who act as the role models in the field of religion, yet what they sermon is normally against what they belief or even what they do.
This is one of characteristic of false virtue the religious people among us portray. In his conversation, self-restrain is not a feature of those who look down on the body as it involves one not being keyed up by the fervor an as well being greater to other people and behaving in an appropriate manner.
Socrates is brought out as one who directly attacks its victims without compromise. This is brought out by the way they insisted on Plato remaining in prison despite the efforts of the friend who tried to rescue him from this, they opposed his thoughts and insisted that he remain imprisoned. On the other hand the Socrates are viewed to have true virtue via a conversation between them and Meno where it is brought out as having the particular behavior due to ignorance towards what virtue was all about.
Meno is ironical on how Socrates was going to inquire something it was fully uninformed about. This refers to the ignorance the Socrates had towards what virtues was. This is clearly portrayed in the society where some individuals are unaware of the kind of things they are expected to do yet they argue that they are very informed about such particular things.
In conclusion, Plato’s conversation is portrayed as a theoretical symbol of living rational study in which the shared activities of an individual aid in elucidating the tribulations being tested. This indicates that people’s opinions ought to be put forth despite the divergences that exist among different individuals with varied state of understanding.
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Social influence and anti social behaviour Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How research helps in the understanding of social behaviour
Introduction Experiments on social influence help to determine whether a person behaves in accordance to one’s social context or one’s personality. They emphasise the importance of the implied, real or envisaged existence of others. Individuals spend most of their time in social gatherings and they can exert an influence on group members or the reverse may occur.
Indeed, most people’s attitudes reflect the belief systems of their respective groups. To effectively understand human behaviour, one must fully appreciate the role that social context plays in influencing it. Experiments on social context can demystify antisocial behaviour because they provide a theoretical basis for deviations from the norm.
How research helps in the understanding of social behaviour One classic piece of social influence research is the Asch conformity as carried out by Solomon Asch. He was one of the most important contributors of the antisocial behavioural discipline because he demystified the concept of group conformance (Turner 1991). In his analysis, the experimenter used two types of cards for all the participants. One card had a standard line while the other card had three different lines.
Subjects were supposed to match the lines on the second card with the standard line. This was a relatively simply test that had a clear answer. However, the subjects were placed in the company of others and answered after all the confederates (5, 6 or seven in number) had responded. It was found that twelve out of the eighteen subjects changed their minds when the perceived members of the team did the same.
When these participants were asked to identify the correct line privately, they gave the right answer. This experiment illustrated that members of a group will be under pressure to conform to other’s people’s opinions even when they know that the opinions they hold are wrong.
Ash’s study was critical in illustrating the importance of normative social influence. His subjects deliberately gave a wrong answer because they wanted to adhere to group norms. At the time of the experiment, it was necessary to follow the instructions of members of the group. Their feelings and expectations were imperative in bringing out these outcomes.
In fact, conformance was so important to the subjects that they were willing to support an answer that they knew was obviously wrong (Bond
Comparing and Contrasting Two Theories of Personality: Psychoanalytical Theory vs. Behavioral Theory Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction to Theories of Personality
Psychoanalytic vs. Behavioral theories
Introduction to Theories of Personality Personality refers to a set of organized and dynamic characteristics possessed by an individual. Under different circumstances, such individual characteristics influence a person’s emotions, behaviors, cognitions, and motivations (Olson
The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Today people build their society and relations in it on the principles of ethics which were developed by such philosophers as Socrates and Aristotle in the ancient times. One of the main principles on which the ethical school is based is the notion of virtue as the representation of the moral perfectness of a man.
Moreover, virtue can also be defined as the way which a man should follow to live the better life which is full of light and goodness. Socrates and Aristotle are considered as the founders of the ethic principles. Socrates was the first who determined the notion of virtue, and Aristotle developed his own vision with basing on Socrates’ viewpoint.
Thus, there are many similarities in the philosophers’ interpretation of virtue, but there is also a significant difference in their approaches to the discussion of virtue which is influential for the organization of their ethical systems. This important difference is in determining the source of virtue as the moral category.
Socrates considers virtue as the basis for understanding people’s morality. Virtue can be thought of as the complex of the best human qualities and traits which he develops consciously. Socrates determines four main virtues which exist in people’s lives.
They are prudence (or personal wisdom), justice, temperance, and fortitude (Taylor, 2001). Following these four virtues is the men’s chance to live the better life because they are connected with all the aspects of people’s living including civil life and military service.
However, a man cannot follow the principles of a virtuous life consciously when he does not know them. That is why to live a moral life, it is necessary to know what the virtue is. Having determined four main virtues, Socrates states that prudence can be considered as the major one which is the source for developing justice, temperance, and fortitude.
His arguments depend on his opinion that prudence (or wisdom) is associated with the human intelligence or reason, and intelligence is the knowledge (Taylor, 2001). Thus, Socrates understands virtue and the way to it as the knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Socrates, the real morality and virtue is the knowledge of what is good and what is bad (Taylor, 2001). The understanding of virtue as good is the way to reach the person’s moral satisfaction and live the happy life. A man can acquire such virtues as prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude when he spends a lot of time trying to learn and perceive the world around him and developing oneself.
The human’s perception is his knowledge about oneself and the reality. It is possible to learn to live a virtuous life as persons learn any other norms and rules. Socrates considers virtues and the moral norms and rules which are based on them as eternal and unalterable. Analyzing Socrates visions of virtue, it is possible to say that he understands the knowledge as the source for developing virtues the main of which is prudence as the reflection of person’s intelligence (Taylor, 2001).
Aristotle develops Socrates’ principles associated with the notion of virtue and presents his own structure of human’s moral categories which form the ethics. Thus, Aristotle understands virtue is the balance or ‘golden mean’ between two possible extremes in actions and thoughts (Curzer, 2012). That person who is virtuous should know where this ‘golden mean’ is and act according to it in order to achieve the goal to live the happy life.
Happiness is the notion which Aristotle combines with the idea of virtues because virtue is the human’s way to his happiness and the part of happiness as the whole one. Happiness as a result of following a virtuous life is also the part of the person’s life when his mind controls his will, feelings, and emotions and points the good way to happiness (Curzer, 2012).
Moreover, Aristotle determines much more virtues which influence the people’s life. They are liberality, truthfulness, friendliness, forgiveness, integrity and some others which form the person’s morality (Gottlieb, 2011).
According to Aristotle all the virtues can be divided into intellectual and moral. Thus, intellectual virtues are affected by the people’s wisdom and their will to follow them. Moral virtues are connected with the emotional nature of humans (Gottlieb, 2011). They depend on the people’s desire, will, and motives to realize them.
Virtue is the moral category which can be considered as the motivation for person’s actions and behavior. Therefore, Aristotle understands person’s will, desire, and motivation as the main basis for virtue, but not the knowledge (Curzer, 2012).
We will write a custom Essay on The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Socrates and Aristotle develop the knowledge of virtue as goodness and the combination of the person’s best traits, but their approaches to the issue of the source of virtues are quite opposite to each other and form the main difference in their visions of virtue as the moral category. Socrates’ opinion that the knowledge is the single source of virtue is argued by his successors.
The idea that “virtue is knowledge of what the agent’s good is, and the agent’s good is knowledge” is rather controversial because it appeals only to the rational on in humans and rejects the fact of their emotional causes for actions (Taylor, 2001, p. 69). Socrates does not differentiate between the knowledge and its usage.
He considers that a person can act badly and without following the principles of virtuous life only because of the fact he does not know these principles. This opinion can be considered as rather idealistic because it rejects the natural peculiarities of the people’s behavior which are based on the affective part of the personality (Taylor, 2001).
Aristotle’s vision of the virtue’s source can be considered as more realistic in comparison with Socrates’ one. He is the first philosopher who develops the moral principles with focusing on the voluntary aspect of personality. The knowledge has the general character, and the action is a result of the personal will.
Being influenced by the knowledge, virtues and morality depend on will and desire to live a virtuous life. It is possible to know what is good, but it is important to want to follow goodness (Gottlieb, 2011). It is important to notice that that person who has the knowledge about virtues can have no desire to develop them and to follow them even if she knows these moral principles.
That is why Aristotle’s theory of virtue is “relevant to contemporary life in detail, not just in general approach” (Curzer, 2012, p. 4). Aristotle’s viewpoint that virtues in action are the effects of person’s will can be considered as more plausible in comparison with Socrates’ idea on the rational character of virtues.
The notion of virtue is the basic category of the ethics which was developed by Socrates and Aristotle. The main principles of virtues provided by these philosophers have many similarities in relation to virtue as the moral category, but the main difference is in Socrates and Aristotle’s vision of the source of virtue.
Socrates presents the idealistic visions of goodness depending only on the knowledge when Aristotle examines all the aspects of this notion and focuses on the voluntary factor. Aristotle’s idea can be considered as more reliable because it depends on the natural characteristics of personality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Main Difference between Aristotle’s and Socrates’ Account of Virtue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Curzer, H. J. (2012). Aristotle and the virtues. USA: Oxford University Press.
Gottlieb, P. (2011). The virtue of Aristotle’s ethics. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, C. C. W. (2001). Socrates: A very short introduction. USA: Oxford University Press.
Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” Essay college essay help near me
The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa is a book that takes us through a family in Africa, the joys and the struggles they had to go through each and every day. The book is a humorous piece of literature offering numerous lessons and insights about the mayhem faced in Africa. The author has taken us back when some of the fertile lands in Africa had been misappropriated by the whites.
After independence, the farms, which were occupied by white settlers, were taken over by some enlightened members of the society. As it can be noted from the book, the author’s family was one of the beneficiaries of such farms. Despite the fact that they had almost everything they needed, they faced lots of challenges than the other people in the society (Rogers, 2010).
They could not escape from the fact that they were living in an environment that was dominated by poor and illiterate people. Coping with issues in the underdeveloped country is what motivated the author to come up write the book and explore the kind of life in the contemporary African society. He gives us a feel of what it means to be African, the joy and the challenges that come from a continent that is considered backward by many developed nations.
The ‘Last Resort’ is a book with an African setting that seeks to reveal several issues that are overlooked especially by foreigners. Contrary to expectations that those in power in Africa do not face challenges, the author examines the challenges faced by the rich members of the society. We realize that those endowed with power in Africa have their own challenges that are slightly different from what other developed countries face.
The author reveals more about the poverty situation in Africa affects both those in authority and the normal citizens (Rogers, 2010). Despite the efforts of those in authority to work hard and obtain money, by the very reason of them being among the poor and illiterate they will also have to face the challenges that come with living in such an environment.
Living as if they have everything does not prevent them from empathizing with the situation around them; they aim at inspiring their fellow compatriots that they can also make it in their lives by working harder. The author reveals to the audience some of the challenges that hinder African nations from developing at a similar rate with others in the west.
After reading the work, it is observed that it can be biased based on the perspective in which the information is derived. It is debatable whether the information and revelations presented in the work present the right situations faced in the African continent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The work also offers less reliable resources on the study topic. What the author has done is empathizing with the situation in his perfective as a son of a white farm settler. Most events about poverty and inequality as faced in Africa could be more or less theoretical to the author than practical. This is because the author was brought up in a well-up family.
The information is also based on what he felt about his environment rather than what the real situation is. The rich and those who are in authority in Africa are perceived to be unsympathetic about the poor and consider them lazy people who have become complacent about their situation.
They overlook some of their challenges, which include illiteracy and poverty from their backgrounds. They may not have had the opportunity to advance their studies or get the exposure that requires them to take up certain responsibilities.
The author’s family may have landed on a fortune that enabled them get the needed exposure to be in leadership position. They were endowed with the responsibility of maintaining it. Coming from such a background, the author may be biased with his portrayal of the poor peasants in Africa who are mainly concerned about what their families will have for the day (Rogers, 2010).
The challenges they face on a daily basis do not give them room to think about investments. It takes quite some time and generations for their attitudes to change from simply having daily bread to investing into larger business units. It should be noted that there are different levels of development and as much as a lower class of people in the society is despised, we realize that they have their own benefits.
They take up responsibilities that people in upper classes will not take. It is hence appropriate to appreciate the different levels rather than condemn them. In fact, it is by knowing where you have come from that will make one appreciate where they are.
The last resort highlights Africa on a rich man’s son perspective. The book should therefore be read and interpreted considering from such point of view. This also implies that what has been displayed in the book is just a shadow of what Africa has been and how the people of the land react to the changes and challenges they face on a daily basis.
We will write a custom Essay on Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It will be encouraging to know that what most people are told and know about Africa is contrary to the truth (Rogers, 2010). A person will give a description of something basing on the knowledge and experience they have heard. Their perspective has to do with the attitude of the narrator and how they choose to display what they have seen from their experiences.
The most appropriate thing the author has managed to convince his audience it to get their own experience and derive their own conclusion rather than waiting to be told.
Reference Rogers, D. (2010). The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa. New York: Crown Publishing Group.
Trade Liberalization in International Trade Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impacts of trade liberalization
Empirical studies on the effects of trade liberation
Introduction International trade is the exercise of exchanging products, either tangible or intangible, between different countries across the globe. This involves both import and export trade, both of which have their significant positive and negative impacts in the trading countries. Due to the controversies surrounding international trade, the venture is not fully acceptable in almost every country in the world.
A significant factor that hinders international trade leading to its unacceptability is imposition of tariffs. Although there are several other non-tariff factors that cause hindrance to international trade, tariffs have played a significant role in many countries for such a long time, making them the greatest factors hindering free trading activities between countries (Aguiar, 2002, p 1).
Tariffs are imposed by governments of respective countries in the form of taxes, quotas and duties. This is done as a way of promoting domestic products since the imported products end up with hiked up prices as a result of the imposed duties and taxes. Such imported products have increased prices throughout the whole chain of consumption and as a result, people are left with no choice but to use the domestic products even if the goods are not their preferred choice.
This paper evaluates ways in which tariffs act as barriers to international trade and the impacts of trade liberalization based on empirical studies.
Impacts of trade liberalization Trade liberalization has various effects in various aspects in the countries imposing them. For instance, there are impacts on income distribution, environmental stability, economic growth and development, among others. Some of these effects may have positive impacts on such countries, while others affect the countries negatively.
Based on a broader development impact, trade liberalization has resulted in increased welfare of local citizens due to the improved allocation of local resources. Restriction of importing products creates an anti-export state which promotes local production and thus the improved allocation of local resources. The removal of this restriction leads to liberalization of export-based products and leads to a shift from the production of products meant to substitute imports to the extensive production of export goods (James, 2012, p 1).
This creates both short and long term generation of growth as such countries adjust to new ways of resource allocation to its advantage. However, this process may have limitations due to adjustments of costs, which are more likely to result in potentially unproductive results for the countries as well as to individual entrepreneurs. The most significant effect is the loss of stability of such countries, which result from the difficulties arising from balance of payments and/or decreased revenue from the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others are unemployment effects, which result in low output and the reduction of human capital due to loss of industries and specific firms. However, these impacts depend on the rate with which transitions are made from one sector to another.
Despite these relations between trade liberalization and economic growth, the two have not been completely correlated with each other in a universal manner. There are still controversies surrounding trade liberalization on economic growth of the trade-liberalized countries. Although a lot of literature has linked the two, some studies have failed to deduce a conclusive connection between them.
For instance, a study by Rodriguez and Rodrik (1999) indicates no correlation between the two with the argument that the theoretical analysis is less informative and is nothing close to the real facts on the ground hence regarding to the conclusion of trade liberalization affecting economic growth as being biased (Basu, and Abegaz, 2010, p 1).
Some of these researchers argue that the gap between the theoretical aspect of the matter and the real facts could be a result of other internal factors of the involved countries such a poor performance concerning the economy. However, this does not mean that trade liberalization does not necessarily affect economic growth in any way.
In any case, factors like improved technology, availability of information and the openness of paving way for reduced prices do play a significant role in contributing to economic growth in any country with or without trade liberalization. However, for better economic results in regard to trade liberalization, there needs to be complementary policies specific to each country, which includes availability of infrastructure, level and value of education and policies of financial and other macroeconomic sectors of the particular countries.
The overall impact of trade liberalization is better determined by the complete economic pathway of specific countries. Trade liberalization affects the poor in a similar way that it does to other consumers as it leads to increased prices of imported products as well as ensuring that the prices for substitutes of foreign goods are kept as low as necessary.
This increases the actual income for all consumers, including the poor. One of the most important factors to consider in trade liberalization is price transmission, which affects the way that prices of border products are effectively translated into the actual price changes of the locally produced products. This, however, depends on the competition within the distribution sector of the country importing the products.
We will write a custom Essay on Trade Liberalization in International Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of the imported product also affects price transition as well as the operation of marketing institutions, especially those that are run by the government in those countries. Another significant factor affecting trade liberalization is enterprise, which affects the movement of resources between local industries and this, in turn, creates an impact on employment and, consequently, on wages. This is where trade liberalization affects households through its impacts on employment and wages, thus, affecting profitability of consumers.
There are two different ways through which trade liberalization can affect enterprise. One is when there is full employment and flexible wages during which the changes in price resulting from trade liberalization are reflected in changes on wages but with employment remaining constant.
The other way is when there is no constant employment with pools of employees moving in and out of jobs probably due to circumstances of the jobs. In this case, trade liberalization results to changes in employment rather than in wages.
In the actual sense, the two situations tend to occur simultaneously with a balance between them depending on the flexibility of relative wages and employment as well as the capacity of the respective sectors to absorb the unemployment situation and other declining sectors (McCorney, 2006, p 1).
Trade liberalization also affects taxes and expenditure of countries due to the reduction or the complete elimination of trade taxes, which lowers government revenue. This causes governments to put on efforts to stabilize macroeconomy by cutting off some social expenditure or alternatively, imposing new taxes which, in turn, affect the poor in an inappropriate manner.
Empirical studies on the effects of trade liberation The empirical evidence on trade liberalization has been only directed towards reforms in the general markets due to the relationship between trade reforms and poverty in many countries. Evidence has been presented on eight countries and it has indicated that the countries have had a gradual rate of liberating trade for a period of over 20 years.
These countries are India, Bangladesh, Zambia, Jamaica, Philippines, Malawi, Brazil and Bulgaria. Trade liberalization in these countries was pursued through multilateral, bilateral and regional levels of trade policies through the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. Broader economic policy strategies were also considered, including the structural adjustment program.
After several years of trade regime interventions, all the eight countries began implementing tariff reforms, which resulted in gradual decrease on average tariffs although in a considerable rate. Several quantitative restriction measures were either completely eliminated or transitioned into their respective tariff equivalents (Aguiar, 2002, p 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Trade Liberalization in International Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Manifestation of trade liberalization was also demonstrated in the removal of restrictions on imports and the overall simplification of the export-import activities; the most significant being the elimination of import-export licenses. Generally, the trade reforms created easy accessibility to international trade for the eight countries.
Additionally, all the eight countries have joined partnerships with neighboring trade partners to boost general trade. Each of the eight countries has at least one partnership with a free trade agreement through which they benefit by receiving easy preferential market access. For instance, the two African countries among the eight, Zambia and Malawi, have easy market access to most of the developed countries, a preference that other African countries may not have.
All the other countries out of the eight have trade agreements that have been established between countries within the same locality. With trade liberalization providing essential incentives for trade, the bilateral and regional trade agreements kept particular partners to trade. These agreements have and are still influential in the products to be traded as well as the trade partners.
Another important feature common with the eight countries is that the trade reforms have been greatly promoted by international financial economic institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF (Tussie and Aggio, 2006, p 1). However, some changes have occurred in all the eight countries with some of them getting trade reform promotions from local policies such as the stabilization plan in Brazil, the centrally planned system in Bulgaria and the economic liberation framework in India.
Trade liberalization has been linked to economic growth, not only in the eight countries mentioned, but in any other country with liberty to trade. This is because of the economic policies associated with it, which have impacts evidenced in social and economic indicators. These countries experienced various impacts resulting from the trade policies associated with the liberalization process.
For instance, Zambia and Malawi have had proliferation in the value of their non-traditional export goods representing a significant increase in the total earnings from exported products. However, negative impacts were also reported, especially in Zambia, as quoted by the World Bank, 2008: “The country saw significant progress in the area of structural reforms during the 1990s, but full macroeconomic stability and sustainable growth proved elusive. All the social and education indicators deteriorated. Infant mortality rates, adult illiteracy, malnutrition and poverty remained very high” (McCorney, 2006, p 1).
Bulgaria and Bangladesh have, on the other hand, had institutional reformations. Bangladesh transformed from the previous centrally planned system to a market economy. The impacts of trade liberalization in these two countries were fairly positive compared to those in the two African countries, Zambia and Malawi. They gained economic growth by increasing external flows.
However, in both countries, absolute alleviation of poverty has not been made possible with large populations living beyond poverty line. Philippine and Jamaica have also had gradual economic growth with indicators in the living standards of their population. Brazil and India, on the other hand, have exhibited great economic growth facilitated by the economic policy agreements, which added value to trade liberalization, hence, greater economic growth in those countries.
Conclusion International trade is the process of buying and selling of products between various countries around the globe. Its main operations involve importing and exporting products between various countries. However, there have been controversies regarding international trade as its significant impacts have been divided between the positive and the negative.
As a result, many countries do not allow free international trade and they do this by imposing restrictions widely classified as tariff restrictions and non-tariff restrictions. The tariff restrictions mainly involve taxes, duties and quotas. The most significant effect of international trade causing these restrictions is the deterioration of local markets due to the high competition presented by foreign goods.
However, with the proper implementation of trade reforms, developing countries can actually grow economically and socially from international trade through trade liberalization. This is significant because with trade liberalization and consequent removal of trade licenses, both local and imported goods get to have reasonable prices to the benefit of the poor. In conclusion, considerations and proper implementations of trade reforms and related agreements should be done prior to making the decision of liberalizing trade.
Reference List Aguiar, C. 2002, “Trade and financial liberalization and its effects on growth, employment and income distribution in Latin American countries”, provisional draft: IDEAS conference. Web.
Basu, A. and Abegaz, B. 2010, “The elusive productivity effect of trade liberalization in manufacturing industries of emerging economies”, center for development research, universitat Bonn. Web.
James, B. 2012, “Trade liberalization, profitability and financial leverage”, Highbeam business: journal of international studies. Web.
McCorney, G. 2006, “The effects of trade liberalization on the environment: an empirical study”, department of rural economy, university of Alberta. Web.
Tussie, D. and Aggio C. 2006, “economic and social effects of trade liberalization”, coping with trade reforms: a developing country perspective on the WTO industry tariff negotiation. Web.
International Marketing and Its Challenges Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Global marketing is described as the process through which individuals or companies produce products, offer services, and make them available to customers worldwide (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2006). This type of marketing has brought about development within the world and more so, creating job opportunities for many people.
The purpose of this analysis is to help readers establish more about international marketing and to learn on some of the challenges that this type of market is subjected to. It is also aimed at assisting individuals as well as companies in discovering ways in which they can indulge themselves in this kind of markets (Keegan and Green, 2012).
Companies, which market their products and services globally, are faced with several cultural factors and as such, they either favor or disfavor their global marketing strategies. These cultural dimensions include;
Competition Marketing globally tends to create a great competition especially if many entrepreneurs in the world, who uses the same channel to market, are engaging with the same type of products. Global marketing is largely facilitated by technological development aspects and hence bringing about tremendous development in communication and transport in meeting, the customer’s needs effectively (Johansson, 2008).
As a result, continuous provision of quality products to consumers from different companies and countries is ensured. As such, it means that the competition for a product or service is very high. This can be regarded as a great challenge to entrepreneurs’ as they try to ensure that their goods are presentable and attractive to the consumers.
In response to this challenge, companies pump many resources to try having a competitive advantage and as such, those companies with a small funding capacity can easily back out (Gerbe, 2007).
Political culture The state of governance in countries, which a company decides to trade with, greatly determines how one will run his/her business in that country. In some countries, there exist conflicts in almost every sphere meaning that the political environment is unstable and as such, trading in that country becomes difficult (Gerbe, 2007). For instance, tax charged on imported goods might be very high such that low funded companies cannot meet and hence posing as a great hindrance to trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other countries employ dictatorship mode of governance and as such, some harsh rules are put into place, which tends to suppress the foreign investors and entrepreneurs and therefore, the marketing of a product or service may reduce due to harsh political environment (Johansson, 2008).
Society Lifestyle In any country, the lifestyle of its citizen will determine if the marketing of foreign made goods or services will be successful or not. Some products are not accepted in certain countries because of their cultures and taboos. Therefore, before a company decides to engage global marketing, it is necessary to find out if their way of living does support the use the product or service it intends to introduce.
This decision is necessary as, if a company fails to consider the lifestyle, then it becomes a victim of terrible marketing thus tremendous losses (Hollensen, 2001).
Capital Marketing globally necessitates pumping huge amounts of financial resources. This plays a great challenge to individual or companies who cannot meet the cost. It mostly affects the developing worlds as well as the third world countries (Matt, 2008). For a company to engage successfully into this type of market, it becomes important that there be a continuous flow of substantial income to ensure that there is no delay in the production of the product.
The delay can lead to the collapse of the company due to the high competition from other well off firms where the consumers can turn to at any time. Capital necessary to finance such big investments can be obtained through loans from banks and other financial institutions (Dana, 2001).
A company, for instance, dealing with cosmetic or beauty products, may face a challenge in its effort aimed at marketing its products globally whereby it would be subjected by stiff and unhealthy competition. Such a company should establish criteria on how to deal with this problem in order to survive in the field.
Due presence of an integrated technology, the competition is exceedingly escalating and thus, for a company to survive this competition, it must ensure that its products are readily available to the consumers even at their doorsteps (Hollensen, 2007). The use of Internet makes it possible for enterprise to advertise their products using their website therefore reaching as many market segments as possible without incorporating a lot of resource or energy.
We will write a custom Assessment on International Marketing and Its Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This, in turn, will ensure that the companies make tremendous amounts of profits. Since there are so many companies making use of global markets to market cosmetic products, there is a wide variety of products for the consumer to choose from, the quality of the product also determines how consumers will respond to the product (Kaynak, 2002).
For a company to effectively engage in global marketing and develop a competitive advantage over its competitors, it must recommend ideas and tactics and incorporate them in its global marketing strategy. Such recommendations would include;
Search competition culture information A company dealing with cosmetic and beauty products must take advantage of the existing integrated information technology to search adequately the relevant information regarding the nature of competition existing among companies marketing their beauty products globally. It must get into fine details including the amount of resources capable of giving it a commanding lead as well as a competitive advantage over its competitors. In addition, it must find information on untapped markets and doing all this, it can easily avoid unhealthy competition (Schmidtmann, 2008).
High quality products and services To effectively attract a substantial demand for beauty products and services from customers across the world, it is necessary that a company dealing with such products to ensure that an integrated paradigm in management is put in place. As such, it will ensure that its products pass through quality assurance tests and hence, the products must be of superior quality.
This is a winning strategy, putting competition into consideration, as customers will always prefer quality and unique products. Moreover, quality products are indispensable and will become accepted across many countries across the world (Hollensen, 2007).
Multi level Marketing Beauty products are regarded as basic needs as nearly every person uses them. Their markets are readily available and as such, making use of people globally to take these products and services to their doorsteps becomes an important aspect if a company wishes to attain a competitive advantage.
As such, not many companies indulging in global market trading do employ retailing at such levels. Utilizing diversified marketing levels is an important aspect in establishment of different market segments in an effort to mitigate the presence of stiff competition (Saidin, 2007).
Fair Prices While still maintaining high levels of quality among its beauty products and services, the company indulging itself in global marketing must ensure that it maintains affordable prices of their products and services. As such, the prices must be slightly below the competitor’s prices. Fair prices are used to entice customers and as such, they prove to be effective as large volumes of sales are realized and this means that a company has achieved a certain degree of command in respect to competition (Saidin, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Marketing and Its Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liaison A company dealing with cosmetic and beauty products and services can liaise with specific wholesalers as well as retailers globally to sell its products through them subject to a small merit fee. A company, which intends to achieve an upper hand in issues concerning competition, it is necessary that, it approach various groups of traders to optimize the channels through which its products will be distributed.
From this analysis, it is clear that global marketing is faced with a great deal of challenges positioned by cultural dimensions the major ones being economic culture, that is, capital, competition from the like minded companies, politics in various countries across the world as well as the diversified lifestyles shown by different categories of people, their cultures, tastes and preferences.
A company must be very cautious in engaging into the global market to avoid setbacks resulted by undesirability of its products. As such, it must establish measures to curb these possibilities, especially the case associated with global competition (Mooij, 2009). The most important effort towards mitigation of such issues is making substantial use of the integrated information technology to establish the strengths and the weaknesses of the competitors.
References Czinkota, M.R,
Understanding the Linkage between Aggression essay help free
Introduction Extant epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently demonstrate that aggression is a developmentally salient behavior, which is mostly triggered by situational factors such as the presence of violent cues, parental conflict and divorce, poverty, provocation, and the quality of parent-child relations (Bettencourt et al. 751).
Another strand of existing literature (e.g., Daffern et al. 430; Fossati et al. 24; Latalova
Marketing plan of airline company Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction A market plan is a document that strives to ensure all strategies are implemented to the end (Mcdonald, 2011).The main goal of marketing involves revenue maximization and customer satisfaction. It is expected that when a good marketing plan is adopted and implemented, it should be the turning point for any enterprise.
According to Plunkett, ”The commercial airline industry has always been particularly vulnerable to economic and political changes” (2009). Therefore, investing in the industry needs carefull considerations. A good marketing plan places a firm on a higher pedestal to compete and command a sizeable share of any market that it operates.
Mission statement Fere Airline is committed to becoming a profitable, global, and competitive airline, known for success based on efficiency and effectiveness in all its aspects of operations.
Fere Airline’s Core Purpose:
The Airline strives to make a significant contribution to the sustainable development of Europe.
Continuous improvement of service and product quality to remain competitive
Maintain the highest safety standards in operations
Fere Airline’s Goals:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To become the airline of choice in Europe
To adopt business strategies that will ensure profitability
To place London’s Stansted Airport on the map of the world and develop it as a premier hub in Europe
To achieve a world class status in all aspects of operation, performance, customer satisfaction, and product quality
Airline’s Organization Structure:
For efficiency in service delivery, the airline’s organization structure will comprise of eight departments. An executive director will head each of the departments. The executive directors in consultation with the Group Managing Director will make most departmental decisions. The suggested departments are:
Security and Anti-terrorism
Human Resources and Administration
Fleet 15 Boeing 737 900ER
Image courtey of ComPilots-Aviation Portal
Boeing 737-900ER Technical Characteristics
Wingspan 112 feet 7 inches (34.3 meters) Wingspan w/winglets 117 feet 5 inches (35.7 meters) Cabin width 11 feet 7 inches (3.53 meters) Overall length 138 feet 2 inches (42.1 meters) Tail height 41 feet 2 inches (12.5 meters) Lower hold volume 11,824 cubic ft. (51.6 m3) Volume with 1 aux tank 1,674 cubic ft. (47.4 m3) Volume with 2 aux tanks 1,585 cubic ft. (44.9 m3) Source (Boeing, 2004)
General Strategy The airline industry is fiercely competitive (Cento, 2008). As globalization gains momentum, this already fierce competition is expected to intensify. This means that without proper marketing, the firm will hardly make any penetrations. Therefore, survival in this field means appropriately responding to the changing aero-political environment.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing plan of airline company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the above factors, Fere Airline has committed to investing in a state of the art information gathering system that will ensure the company remains up to date with market changes. As such, the company’s ability to respond to unforeseen threats and available opportunities will be rapid.
In concrete terms, the airline aims to become the leading carrier in Europe with a heavy presence in Africa, Asia, and America in the next 20 years. The company also intends to own a fleet of 40-50 modern aircrafts for these operations. Finally yet importantly, the company intends to forge partnerships with other airlines to increase service efficiency.
Product and service analysis
Fere Airline’s headquarters will be based in London Stansted Airport. As a European short haul airline, its operations will cover France, BCN and ARN. Fere Aitrlines has already acquired 15 Boeing type B737 aircrafts for start up. The Airline will engage in both cargo and human transport.
However, concentration will be on passengers considering the size of the palne. B737 are relatively small aircrafts and cannot, therefore, handle voluminous laggage (Kundu, 2010). To ensure that the airline gains considerable market share, various products and services will be offered.
The company will introduce gift cards to its loyal customers. Customers who win the gift cards will have their journeies fully sponsored to a destinations of their choice. Be it the Himalayas for a holiday with your spouse, Africa to watch wild animals, or the Middle East, the company will take them safely at no pay.
Travel insurance makes airline travelling expensive (Lee, 2006). According to Karr, “The cost of travel insurance varies widely, depending on the cost and length of your trip, your age and health, and the type of …” (2006).
Many airlines use the above mentioned factors to swindle traveller and charge exhorbitant prices. The company will offer comprehensive insurance to its clients at very affordable rates. The comprehensive cover will comprise lost package, travel delays, and trip cancellation insurance.
Apart for the conventional payment methods such as direct deposits, mastercard,and visa card, which are sometimes inconveniencing, the company will offer a varriety of convenient payment methods such as paypal, pyoneer, credit cards, GoodAsGold, Moneybookers, Alertpay, and Mobile Money Transfer. This will ensure that customers can easily pay for their flights using the most convenient method to them.
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Travelers who have a lot of luggage need not worry. The company plans to run a promotional campaign aimed at attracting more clients, especially those travelling with families. Therefore, every paseenger will be allowed to travel with one bag free.
Free onboard services XM Radio
Every seat will have a fixed XM Radio for customers to tune in and listen. Most interestingly, the customers will have a choice of 100 radio stations. This will ensure that passangers tune in to the stations of their choice in terms of presenters, music genre or discussions.
Fere airline’s management knows that travelling without snacks makes the journey boring and long. As such, the company has contracted leading snack companies, Doritos, Jeffa Cakes, Hovis Bakery, and Greggs.
On every seat is installed a 36 channel DIRECTV with leading international channels. Clients who like business news can always catch up with Quest on CNN, sports and entertainment lovers, ESPN among other wolrd class channels.
“Strategic partnerships are being heralded as a sound strategy in the airline industry” (Fojt, 2006). Attaining a world class status with a Boeing 737, is an almost impossible task. As globalization gains prominence, so is air travel (Meskill, 1999).
This means that the demand for air travelling across the world remains high. The company must, therefore, make efforts to tap into this growing market through mergers. As such, the following companies have been contacted for mergers.
Fere Airline and Air France have agreed to share services between London and Paris. This will give the customer a better service experience through regular routes and marvelous experinces.
Fere Airline will share London to Frankfurt route with Aeroflot.
Time schedule is used to advertise the timetable of arrivals and departures. It only includes days when the airline is operational. In this case, the time schedule will cover the period beginning 1st February 2011 to 18th April 2011.
Departing London Stansted Airport
To Departure Arrival Flight nos. days France 2200 2354 CS001 1stFebruary 2011 Barcelona 2200 0045 CS003 10THFebruary 2011 Stockholm 0930 1236 CS007 15THFebruary 2011 France 2100 1100 Cs012 21stFebruary 2011 Barcelona 1715 2000 Cs015 27thFebruary 2011 Stockholm 1035 1500 Cs 014 30thFebruary 2011 France 2245 0500 Cs013 2ndMarch 2011 Barcelona 1545 1830 CS011 5th March 2011 Stockholm 1135 1700 Cs005 10thMarch 2011 France 2025 0400 Cs006 14thMarch 2011 Barcelona 1600 2200 Cs003 18thMarch 2011 Stockholm 1135 1700 Cs004 21stMarch 2011 France 2000 0600 Cs009 28thMarch 2011 Barcelona 1600 2145 Cs008 4thApril Stockholm 1135 1600 Cs007 16thApril 2011 Time justification
Fligh time and distance have been calculated using flight time calculator (https://flighttime-calculator.com/).
London to Paris
Start time:31 Jan 2011 22:00 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:31 Jan 2011 23:54 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
London to Barcelona
Start time:09 Feb 2011 22:00 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:10 Feb 2011 00:45 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
London to Stockholm
Start time:15 Feb 2011 09:30 GMT 00:00
Arrival time:15 Feb 2011 12:36 GMT 01:00 (Local times)
Start time:21 Feb 2011 19:00 GMT 01:00
Arrival time:21 Feb 2011 18:54 GMT 00:00 (Local times)
Budget for advertising
Budget in marketing plan refers to comparison between expected revenue earned as a direct result of advertising and cost incurred in advertising.
Care should be taken to ensure that an optimal level of advertisement is reached. That it is to say marginal costs of advertising should be equal to marginal revenues collected. Too much advertising is not recommended since it will only be effective up to certain optimal limit.
Between February and April 2011, the company plans to spend $ 150,000 on advertisement. The table below show specific areas of expenditure and expected revenue generated from advertising effects.
Marketing expenditure February March April total Online 2000 3000 3000 8000 Brochures 6000 5000 6000 17000 Trade shows – 9000 10800 27000 Print 12000 11000 9000 32000 Radio 10000 12000 10000 32000 Promotions – – 30000 30000 Publications 1000 2000 1000 4000 Sales training 6000 5000 1000 12000 Total spent 50000 52000 48000 150000 Total sales 4000000 4500000 6000000 1450000 Marketing as a % sales 1.25 1.15 0.8 Online advertising
The internet has proven effecteive lately in advertisement. In fact, according to Yeshin, “The web should not be regarded as a substitute for advertising in traditional media” (2005).
Instead, the internet should be taken as a primary advertising method due to its wide coverage, cost effectiveness, and efficiency (Rock, 2005). Use of social media such as Face Book and Twitter and company website can be of great importance to online advertising. Online advertisement will run for 3 months.
“An attractive brochure can be very useful” (Henning, 2008). The company must, therefore, design and print brochures and distribute them to potential customers to aid selling of company products.
Trade shows, if well organized, can prove crucial to a company’s success. It is no wonder that Hisrich claimed that, “The importance of trade shows in industrial sales cannot be overstated” (Hisrich, 2000).
Radio advertisement has remained of great importance despite the emergence of the internet and Television. More still, the advent of FM radio stations has brough in jist among listeners (Mathur, 2005). The company, has decided to use 3 popular radio stations in its advertisements.
From the projections, February, March, and April’s ratio of expenditure to sales would registere 1.25%, 1.15%, and 0.8% respectively. This is a favorable ratio. It shows that returns on amounts invested in advertisement cost are several times the cost. This occurrence shows that advertisement plays a pivotal role in boosting revenues.
Print and radio utilized the highest cost while publications registered the lowest cost.
Marketing strategy refers to causes of actions that are aimed at achievement of market plans (Handlechner, 2012). Such strategies mainly focus on gaining competitive advantage in the market to boost revenues. They also work to ensure customer loyalty to products of a particular enterprise.
Competitive and customers strategies
Fere Airline will strive to be competitive despite the cutthroat competition that exists in the airline market. It faces completion from established airlines such as Virgin Atlantic, Air France, and British Airways. Despite the economic strength of these established companies, Fere Airline will most probably prevail and be profitable because of its highly efficient and effective operations.
Mock press advertisement
We are glad to announce to you the introduction of our world class airline services. The industry is crowded already, but we took this step because we believe travellers deserve nothing less than excellence and comfort. Surely, what we are launching today, Fere Airline, is an epitome of comfort with a touch of class.
It is impressive and highly innovative. This is the reason why you need to fly with Fere Airline. We are introducing a flee of 15 Boeing 737 all customized to meet your comfort needs.
It may be hard to believe that such excellent services would come at low prices, but Fere Airline is determined to make travelling cheaper and more exciting for all. We desire to ply all routes in Europe. However, we will only make direct flights to France, Spain, and Germany.
Conclusion Marketing plan is an integral element of any business idea. Ignoring the need for a marketing plan is business’s own peril (Berman, 2009). A good marketing plan is paramount for success.
It should be designed exhaustively and realistically without leaving out important components. Important components include various competitive strategies,potential challenges and how the business intends to tackle these challenges.
The management needs to go a step further, adopt the components of market plan to the fullest. It should not just be a decorated documents which is not implemented in the business strategic planning. Fere Airline shows good tidings in the future, it should not be complacent.
It exists in a very competitive arena, and no efforts should be spared by all stakeholders, since slight mishap could plummet the tremendous grounds they have covered to oblivion.
References Andrew, T. (2003) Aviation insecurity: the new challenges of air tarvel, Amherst, NY: Promethes Books.
Bayne, K.M. (1997) The Internet marketing plan, New York: J. Wiley
Ecological Imperialism Essay college admissions essay help
Ecological imperialism is a very insightful book based on the fact that it asks the basic question that has continued to attract attention and controversy in equal measure. There has been an argument as per to whether environmental issues of today are historically determined. If this is the case that such issues are historically determined, then there should be some kind of history that is most relevant to questions that revolve around policy making and management.
The main question that Crosby poses is whether the expansion by Europeans would have succeeded without the biota that they brought with them. The book explains that the expansion was successful because the biota that Europeans brought with them succeeded.
It remains to be understood how a few disoriented Europeans were able to overwhelm the new world with their civilizations (Crosby 67). There are good answers to this question that have been posed by Crosby as he explains various aspects that relate to ecological imperialism.
In fact Crosby has been able to popularize the concept of ecological dimension by looking at the history of imperial expansion into the new world. There is a question as per to how Europeans were able to colonize people of the new world with misfiring guns and spears. In this case, Crosby tries to explain that the victory hat Europeans had is not as a result of their political and military might but bacteriology.
This is where Europeans unwittingly carried with them diseases like small pox and measles that were used to wipe out inhabitants of the new world. Therefore a good question that is asked is: did ecology shape European expansion? As far as this issue is concerned, European expansion can be explained by ecological factors (Crosby 59). Ecology was able to create Neo-Europe’s that facilitated the expansion of Europeans in the new world.
Why did Europeans spread so quickly into America, New Zealand, Australia and others is s question that has been well answered by this book in different perspectives that are supposed to be understood? The question is not so innocent because it explains that other things like pests, pigs, livestock and diseases followed Europeans to the new world (Crosby 68).
The most splendid answer is found in the final chapters where there is a definition that weeds can be explained as organisms that thrive on disturbances that are always caused by humans. If this is the case, then humans can as well be described and considered as the primary weed of all.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a disequilibrium that was fathered and distributed by different people thereby creating a potent self replicating system (Crosby 151). There are various advantages that Europeans developed to explain why they are found everywhere. It should be understood that there are other places where Europeans failed which is realistic in one way or the other.
As far as Crosby’s arguments are concerned, his question is very useful and well conceived because it explains to people the ecological and historical impact of various aspects of European expansionism up to the 20th century. The question is well conceived because for Europeans to have decided to expand into new territories, they must have factored into account various aspects like geography and climate.
This has therefore helped to present a fresh insight that can deviate from the normal norms. It should be known that this is a millennia long process that has been well explained by Crosby for all people to understand (Crosby 215). The success of Europeans was as a result of different factors other than weapons which are well boiled down by Crosby. In this case, it builds on a useful question in trying to understand the thesis.
The thesis of the book is clear and well stated because it helps people to understand different aspects that relate to ecological imperialism. This is because the thesis holds that Europe had an unassailable biotic mix that could not be understood by other people. Native people and ecosystems could not understand the biotic mix of Europeans which is clear and well stated thereby helping people to understand the book well (Crosby 90).
This therefore means that the argument is sound and well supported. As much as there might be some reservations about his arguments, it is well thought and explained out because there are real examples that have been used to reinforce it. There is proper explanation because it is quite obvious from the argument that the biota functioned as a team wherever it was taken up by Europeans.
It should be understood that there are various ways by which Crosby might be able to improve upon his argument or evidence. As much as Crosby is trying to advance a good point, the way it has been put forward is problematic in one way or the other. Humans have been excluded from the picture which is not good (Crosby 42).
This work can be improved upon by ensuring that human development is not relegated to the sidelines as Crosby has argued. There should be no dangerously reductive picture of the historical developments that Crosby has tried to argue in favor of.
We will write a custom Essay on Ecological Imperialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This therefore paints a rosy picture that deterministic ecological explanations cannot be held accountable for the European expansion that was witnessed in successive years. All in all, Crosby should not forget that the initial European exploration was motivated by curiosity rather than necessity.
Works Cited Crosby, Alfred. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Print.
UK Airports in Bad Weather Essay best college essay help
It is obvious that winter is one of the most problematic seasons for different companies connected with transport. Transportation is one of the parts most interested in the absence of snow and ice.
Looking at the situation in the airports it should be stated that there are many cases when the flights are cancelled because of the bad weather, but it is twice irritating when the flights are cancelled because the airports failed to conduct their direct responsibilities and clean the snow.
The UK airports have appeared in the complicated situations as they are to consider the best ways for dealing with snow in order to avoid the situations which happened this year. This paper is devoted to the discussion of the problems which have appeared in the UK airports connected with snow and the ways how these problems may be solved.
Considering the situation which has appeared, it is important to check the facts. The cleaning systems in UK and in Europe differ greatly. Thus, “in Germany, no airport had to shut even though Munich saw temperatures plunge to -27C. In Stockholm only six of 350 flights were cancelled.
Copenhagen had four inches of snow but no disruption” (Adams, Hough,
The Bunker Hill Monument Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The Bunker Hill Monument is an emblem that represents the revolutionary war at Breed’s Hill near Bunker Hill. The monument, 67 meters tall, was built out of granite. The Bunker monument was constructed within the year 1827 to 1843, in Massachusetts, at a town called Charleston.
A granite railway was put up purposely to ferry granite form the quarry at Quincy, Massachusetts, to the Bunker Hill. From the base to the apex of the monument, there are 294 steps. The staircase is spiral and is constructed in the inside of the monument up to the pinnacle.
At the top, visitors could have a beautiful and clear view of Boston and the battlefield. At the apex, there are two canons made out of brass that were used in the revolutionary war. Stealth took the canons out of Boston in 1775. This monument was amongst the first to capture and document America’s history.
The site, where the revolutionary war was fought, is known as Freedom. The monument is in the custody of the Boston National Park. This essay explores what the monument represents, why it was built and by whom it was built.
The American government formed an Association in 1823 and mandated it to acquire all the sites where the, June 17, 1775, war was fought (Packard 5). The Association was further tasked to build a fitting park to honor the heroes of the revolutionary war.
The Association commenced its work by setting up a team of artists to design a plan for the monument. The selected team comprised of Engineer Loammi Baldwin, Daniel Webster, George Ticknor, Washington Allston and Gilbert Stuart. About fifty plans were proposed about the design of the monument. The first team could not agree on a plan; hence, another one was constituted.
The new team included H.A.S. Dearborn, Edward Everett, Seth Knowles, S.D. Harris and Perkins T.H. The team agreed on a design called obelisk. It was done by Horatio Greenough. Loammi, the engineer, was praised for modifying the monument.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Construction took off in 1827 under the watch and stewardship of Solomon Willard, architecture by qualification. The materials used included 2 cubic yards of granite block. The obelisk was extracted from a quarry at Quincy through wedging technique. A transportation fee to the construction site was $5.40 on each cubic yard.
Lack of sufficient funds heavily affected the progress of the project. The construction process had to be sopped when the cash budget had been exhausted totally. The only option that was feasible was to sell the acquired parcels of land to raise the required funds to finish the monument.
They sold off ten acres in the year 1838, only retaining the apex of Breed’s Hill. Once the required funds were raised, the construction process resumed hastily. The final capstone was fitted in July 23, 1842. The monument was completed, and in 17, 1843, it was devoted by Daniel Webster, an orator (Webster 37).
The Association remained the custodians of the monument until 1919 when Commonwealth of Massachusetts assumed the management of the monument. This transfer lasted only until 1976 when again ownership was shifted to National Park Service. The monument effectively became part of the Boston Historical Park.
The memorial monument was an honor of the Americans who fought in the revolutionary war against the British. The genesis and development of the war would perhaps explain the significance of the memorial park in the history of Americans.
The British government had accumulated many debts out of the long war between the Indians and the French. The government raised taxes for the colonialists to raise funds to offset the debt. This move attracted rebellion from various colonies protesting the taxation. For instance, in Boston, colonists of the tea party damaged property and disposed Tea to the Boston Harbor.
The government responded by deploying soldiers to Boston to enforce order. Governor Thomas Hutchinson handed over to General Thomas Gage. Thomas effected the application of the Martial law that caused more rebellion from the colonists.
We will write a custom Essay on The Bunker Hill Monument specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Militiamen, minutemen, organized themselves to counter any further advancement of the British beyond Boston. The government commanded the military to annihilate the militia group. In April 1775, the militia attacked British troops in Lexington, Concord. This marked the birth of the American Revolution.
The rebel leaders mobilized men from Massachusetts to organize a battalion. The response was testimony of the unity of the rebels. Men from New Hampshire and Connecticut joined forces with the ones from Massachusetts.
Their objective was to protect Boston from the British. People from all over including Joseph Warren, a physician, came to Boston to fight. About fifteen thousand rebels engulfed Boston where General Gage and the British army were. King George III reacted to the news by deploying Generals Henry Clinton, John Burgoyne and William Howe to Boston to help Gage.
They reviewed the situation and decided to attack the hills in Dorchester and Charleston in order to regain control. The rebels discovered this strategy and set to occupy Charleston. The 16th of June 1775 is the day the war was staged.
Artemas Ward directed the American soldiers to arm themselves with shovels and guns as they left their camp. They moved to Charleston Peninsula, a place that was near Bunker Hill, in Boston. The strategy was to get to the hill from where they could confront the British ships. However, the soldiers headed to Breed’s Hill instead apparently due to improper coordination.
The Breed’s Hill was located closer to the British base. The Americans launched a stern warning to the British about their presence. This triggered what many believed was a revolutionary war. Major General William Howe commanded the British army. The general decided to command to his army to move towards the hill thinking that the Americans would move back.
A group of 28 British forces went through the Charles River towards the hills where the Americans were. The Americans opened fire to the British after they advanced closer to them. A couple of the British died, and others were injured as they retreated.
Another attempt at defeating the Americans on the hill was futile as more were killed. The Americans finally ran out of ammunition and resulted to physical fighting with the British. The British overpowered them and occupied the hill. The consequence of this fight left more than 1054 dead and scores others injured.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bunker Hill Monument by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, General Gage was saddened by the loss they had sustained from the attack. Though the rebels lost, they built their confidence to fight and challenge the British. They had managed to drive the British back two times before their ammunition ran out.
This was a tremendous inspiration since the possibility of reconciliation with the British was minimal. This reality triggered a war that was fought for eight years.
George Washington assumed leadership of the American army in 2nd July 1775. He was mandated to reorganize his troops for an imminent war against the British. The king, who was in London, interpreted the confrontation at Bunker Hill as an act of war.
This opened the window for Britain to stage retaliation. The general Howe prepared his troops in readiness for the war. He also planned on how to incorporate loyal colonials.
During the subsequent years after the battle, the hill was declared a divine place. This sanctity was to be preserved to mark the significance of the place where the genesis of the American Revolution was born. American patriots always traveled there to honor and recognize the Americans who lost their life in the attack.
The exact first monument to be planted at the hill, in 1794, was in accolade of Joseph Warren. Joseph Warren was one of the influential leaders in Boston. Warren had been killed in the fight. There was a need to recognize the efforts of all those who fought at the hill.
Early 1800, an Association was constituted to oversee the establishment of the monument. The Association raised money for that project from the public. The foundation stone was placed in 1825. In 1840, the monument had been constructed halfway when Sarah Josepha Hale organized a fair to raise more funds. Sara was an editor for the Godey’s Lady’s Book.
She mobilized several women to a fair that was held for 8 days. About $30000 was raised to help in the completion of the monument. Amos Lawrence and Judah Touro, men of irreproachable will; each gave $10000 to the Association overseeing the construction.
Three years after, the construction was finished. The monument was unveiled in 1843 coinciding with a memorial of the war. During the ceremony, the president of the United States of America, John Tyler, attended together with about 100000 people including the participants of the war. At the ceremony, there were only twelve survivors from the battle.
Daniel Webster, orator and national leader addressed the gathering highlighting the significance of the monument. He said it represented the past sacrifices, a basis for today and future generations (George 89). The monument was dilapidated with time hence the need for repair.
The process of its renovation cost $3.7 million dollars. The repairs included fitting lighting in the monument. In April 2, 2007, the Bunker monument was reopened for the public. The lights were switched on, in April 20, 2007 since the monument was erected.
The monument has had a tremendous effect on the lives of people: a linkage that connects people to the veterans of the American Revolution. Countless students all over the globe have studied the site. Numerous people including students visit the monument to learn the chronology of events that triggered the American Revolution.
The monument represents an eternal reminder of the patriotic Americans who refused to be enslaved and misused by the British. It represents the American patriots who sacrificed their lives to liberate and defend the American ideals and land. The Bunker monument is a national heritage that emboldens the foundation of the independent America.
Works Cited George, Adams. Webster’s First Bunker Hill Oration and Washington’s Farewell Address. Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.
Packard, Alpheus S. History of the Bunker Hill Monument. Charleston: Nabu Press, 2012. Print.
Webster, Daniel. The Bunker Hill Monument Adams and Jefferson. Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2005. Print.
NuComm Company in China Case Study essay help
Is Duncan Cowie right in his view that China is an “ideal market” for NuComm? Is this the right time to enter?
In today’s world, it has been noted that the internal market in any given single country has been shrinking by the day, hence forcing the firms to search for markets outside their country.
Consequently, globalization has come in handy to help these firms with the much-needed demand for their goods and services, therefore, decreasing their operating costs and increasing the profit margins through economies of scale.
Contrary to many people’s views, going outside one’s country of origin is not an easy task, and it requires strategic planning together with good timing not forgetting enough and extensive research to be sure that the investment is worthy, since the initial costs are high.
NuComm management is faced by the dilemma of determining whether investing in China is a feasible option, and if it is to choose the location and mode of entry.
Duncan Cowie the financial manager of the company who worked in China for around two years, and has some experience in the Chinese business atmosphere, proposed that China is the ideal market for Nucomm.
NuComm needs to diversify from the American and the Canadian markets where it has based its operations for years due to the volatility of the currencies there hence affecting its profit margins. The idea of investing in China was the best at the time given the prevailing conditions.
1. The Chinese workers in North American represent a significant number yet they are not covered by any call center firm, and that would make a good opportunity as they will be more ready to associate themselves with a company which would serve them even when they are back in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 2. China is still an upcoming industrial country where a service industry is just but gaining foot, and that would be advantageous, if NuComm becomes one of the first firms to start offering the communication service.
3. There are a lot of opportunities that are available in China and highlights the meager number of call centers available compelling one call center seat to serve 100, 000 people compared to America’s 700 people.
4. The government of the people’s Republic of China has recently promised to support foreign firms that have the intention of investing in the telecommunication sector, since they want to develop this sector.
The government has indicated the possibility of relaxing laws that regulate foreign investment, including the requirement that a foreign firm must have some percentage of local ownership in order to operate in China, to attract foreign firms.
This is an idea that NuComm should take advantage of because though it is only directed to a specific city, Dalian, the Chinese government has a reputation of implementing all its promises and putting all necessary machineries in place whenever it wants something done.
5. The idea of not going where the market is but where the market is expected to be helped NuComm to succeed in the Philippines. In China, Cowie notes also that the call center service businesses are not so much pronounced, which means that there is a lot of potential, when people there would come to know the usefulness of the services offered.
6. NuComm needs to expand very fast in order to save itself from the financial problems that are imminent. The possibility of growth in China is projected to be just what NuComm needs to be able to set pace for financial sustenance.
We will write a custom Case Study on NuComm Company in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industrial analysts have projected that the call center seats will increase at a rate of 40 per cent per year, which is higher than even in America, where the market is fast becoming saturated.
7. Besides, the cost of operations in China would be far much lower than those of America because wages in China are comparably lower than in the US, and wages make the bulk of NuComm’s recurring expenses. The most expensive town in China is Shanghai, where the wages are $282 compared to America’s $2500.
8. NuComm’s efforts in India failed and going back would be more of gambling given that there is nobody who is experienced as to how business is run there. On the other hand, Cowie has been working in China albeit with another company and therefore, knows how to go about with business in that country.
The timing could not be more perfect than now because the government has just pledged support, infrastructure is good and the upcoming Olympic Games will increase business opportunities.
The Olympic Games will bring a lot of people from various parts of China as well as other parts of the world, and it would be just perfect opportunity to create contacts with various firms which would become the customers. The government is also encouraging the development of the telecommunication sector and has even promised support to foreign firms that are willing to locate in specific places.
Assess Cowie’s five-step entry strategy for China. Does the sequence make sense?
Duncan Cowie suggests a five-step entry strategy which if applied by NuComm will be of great help, according to him. It is important to focus on the Chinese people working in America as the main target, because they are bound to be more willing to have service, since they have been in the American market and have probably used the service at one point in time, therefore, they know how important it is.
The workers also, being Chinese, have information about Chinese’s firms and individuals who may be interested in the service and therefore, will help a lot in giving referrals and enabling NuComm to take opportunities a head of time.
It is also important to have clients that will enable the firm to break even in the early stages of entry. On that note, the Chinese workers in America stand to be the most dependable at the moment given that they have embraced the advancement in technology.
Not sure if you can write a paper on NuComm Company in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Chinese workers will also be delighted to be associated with a company that operates in China and which is ready to offer them services that they have not been receiving.
On top of that, more and more American firms are entering the Chinese market, while others have already established there, and they will all require call center services. These firms will be looking for a more credible company available to contract for the services.
Given the popularity that NuComm has in the US and Canadian markets, it will stand a greater chance of securing deals for most American firms, which based in China. As it is in America, many firms prefer out sourcing call center services and will therefore, definitely need the services even when in the foreign market, more so when it is another American firm that is offering the service.
It should be noted, however, that dependency on American firms only can be catastrophic given that the number of American firms entering Chinese market might not enough to support NuComm’s business.
A large number of the inhabitants of Chinese cities are the natives of China, who also happen to own a substantial number of businesses, which mostly serve the Chinese people, and to some extent, foreigners. China is also densely populated, if population is an indicator of the market that is available.
Therefore, tailoring some of the products for the Chinese businesses will be of great importance to NuComn, if they want to earn from the investment.
It should be noted that in China, English or French is not used, and people there use Chinese language for communication. It will be therefore, a limiting factor, if NuComm does not improvise a way that they will provide services in Chinese language and in fact, this should be done as early as possible.
China is the center for Asian development, and it has put in place a conducive business environment for economic development other than the fact that it is centrally located in the Asian continent. It is, therefore, possible to use it as a center to serve other Asian countries as Cowie is suggesting.
Hong Kong which is one of the cities of China is identified as the epitome of business with various parts of the world leave alone Asia, hence it would not be difficult for NuComm to serve other countries, especially from Asia using China as their point of operation.
Though the five-point strategies make sense, the order is not very convincing to people. I agree that using the Chinese who work in America as the first strategy in entry is quite good given that they present the easiest people of Chinese origin to convince on the importance of call centers.
It is also important to aim at American firms as the second strategy since they have the ideas of the advantages of the services offered by NuComm, and the two strategies have taken into consideration the language barrier that is bound to affect the operations of NuComm.
But at the same time, the Chinese people who are the natives and who are the majorities should not be sidelined for long because Chinese people have a higher tendency of copying, and they might adopt NuComm’s idea to start their own businesses, which will compete with NuComm.
Therefore, the strategy of China for China should come in the third, or second, if possible, to reduce the chances of competition from the Chinese people, and also to prepare for the strategy of supporting American firms to invest in China through Chinese voice services.
What are the risks facing NuComm in entering China at this time?
Though the Chinese venture seems to be profitable, there are a lot of risks that may face NuComm on entry.
1. Chinese people are known to have a culture of copying, if they respect somebody’s idea, which NuComm is not used to and which increases competition.
Intellectual rights are protected in Canada and US, where NuComm is based, but that is not the case in China. The probability of several companies springing up a few years or months after NuComm has set up is high.
2. The Chinese people after realizing that their people have come up with companies that offer the same services as NuComm may choose to deal with their people therefore, decreasing the market for NuComm.
3. The Chinese might customize the services into Chinese language before NuComm does that which will further shrink the chances of NuComm getting hold of the market.
It is, therefore, upon Nucomm to move with speed after entry to ensure they increase their scale as fast as possible so that they get to enjoy economies of scale before competition stiffens.
4. Moreover, the Chinese system of government has proven to be very corrupt and to get assistance one needs to know somebody in a position of influence as opposed to either America or Canada, where corruption is minimal, if not absent.
This is made clear by Duncan Cowie, when he says that he had to party the whole night with Chinese families to get things done his way. The ruling party officials had ties with the so called private firms and offered them favorable business conditions hence an upper hand amongst competitors.
Therefore, it might be difficult for the NuComm firm to operate without having a god father to help in pushing things given that America and Canada are places where protocols are observed.
It is also not clear if there might be someone who is very influential and who might want to copy the NuComm idea and therefore, manipulate the authorities to push regulations against NuComm. But on the same note, Cowie had been in China and knows who is who and how they are approached and what is required for one to succeed in that country therefore, he will be able to help.
5. On top of that, most firms, which had entered China early on have not broken even in the market and hence, they were yet to even recover the initial cost of investment.
NuComm’s case as it is has financial problems and could not afford to tie down any amount of money for a long period of time without realizing any returns from it. It therefore, has to strategize on how to make returns from the very first moment they enter the Chinese market.
6. For service delivery to be efficient and thus, reduce operating costs staff must deliver to their best and this can be through employing well educated and highly qualified people. In China, the call center services are relatively new to some places, where labor is cheap therefore, finding a well trained employee may be difficult.
NuComm should, therefore, choose a method of training employees, so as to get maximum output from them, while maintaining the quality of their services and at the same time keeping operating costs at a minimum. Though wage rate might be lower in China compared to Canada or America, getting the right employee might be an uphill task leading to decreased rate of delivery.
7. It is China’s regulation that a foreign firm cannot operate, if it is fully owned by foreigners which means that any international firm setting up in China must collaborate with the natives. This means NuComm has to look for another firm in China to enter into joint venture with, in order to be allowed to set up in China.
The problem of finding the right company or securing favorable terms of operation sets in and NuComm has to strive to get a company, which is ready to enter into the call center business and give the best terms and conditions.
Entering China can be done through any of the four cities that Cowie suggests but the most convenient city should be chosen for this is a risky process. The situation should be one where the costs are low while income is high and given the financial position of NuComm the returns should be realized as early as possible.
Which of the possible Chinese locations should the company choose, and what should be the mode of entry?
Beijing is the capital city and expects to host Olympic Games besides having reduced costs compared to Shanghai and probability of getting highly educated staff is high. There will be many people coming during the Olympic Games, but this is periodical and after the games business will go back to normal, hence the viability of income after the Olympic Games is not very clear.
Coupled with that is the fact that so far there has not been a firm that NuComm will partner with, in order to start its operations in Beijing. It is also evident that Beijing is the capital of the communist part, whose leaders are known to be very corrupt therefore, increasing the possibility of corrupt deals against NuComm should it be seen that NuComm will succeed.
On the other hand, Shanghai is directly under the control of the central government; hence most of its activities are overseen by government officials. The possibility of the government interfering with the operations of a firm located in shanghai is therefore, very high.
Being a commercial town and a hub of industries in China, it has many businesses, which increase competition and therefore, people are striving to improve their performance hence they will be more receptive to any idea that will help in boosting productivity.
Dalian has come into question due to the outright efforts by the government to boost development in the region thus, offering relaxation in regulations. Many foreign firms have been located there due to the policy that allows foreign investment and more are yet to come given that most policies limiting foreign investment can be relaxed.
Most of the firm there are those, which are likely to offer support to NuComm and the government can be willing to facilitate the registration process. Furthermore, infrastructure is developed and it has the capability of meeting NuComm’s demands.
Hong Kong is the best city to enter china because:
Hong Kong has had ties with the west for a long time now and has the entire infrastructure and other needs for full operation of NuComm.
English is the official language of business therefore, language barrier will not be a problem.
There are many companies, which are ready to assist NuComm in starting up given that collaborating with a local firm is a requirement in China.
Returns to capital are realized at a faster rate in Hong Kong than any other city and this is what NuComm highly needs.
The entry mode will be a joint venture because:
China has a requirement that foreign firms must not be owned 100 per cent by foreigners, thus, leaving collaboration with local firms as the only viable option.
A joint venture will help in minimizing the risks that faces NuComm, if it enters on its own in the new market.
Due to corruption, relationship with top government officials is important in operation in China, therefore, a local firm will help in dealing with issues of relationships.
The cost of entering as a joint venture is also minimal compared to the costs of entering in other means and NuComm is facing financial problems.
Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chehelsouton as a form of art and design
Introduction Using skill and imaginations to communicate thoughts and observations, create emotions, and engage audiences can be referred to as art. Design simply means composition.
These two terms are integrated to establish the concept of transforming what is in mind to a compositional structure that can be seen by others. Features that form a finished artwork may be expressed through drawings or actual creations like buildings and sculptures (Nelson and Shiff, p. 56).
This paper describes Chehelsouton pavilion as a form of art and design it analyzes the creativity used during its construction, the originality of the materials used, the art applied in designing it as well as the intended use of it as a palace.
It seeks to establish the relationship between history and art, how these two variables are dependent on each other and their implications on modern art.
This brings us to the result of art and design, which is the aestheticism, and the appeal it gives to the audience. The audience refers to the people who used the pavilion as well as the tourists who visit to admire and appreciate it as a form of art.
Chehelsouton as a form of art and design Chehelsouton is an ancient pavilion built in 1647 by Shah Abbas II. This pavilion was used by the King and his successors to receive dignitaries and ambassadors. It was built inside vast Royal Park round an earlier building erected by Shah Abbas I.
It was designed with twenty columns at the far end of a long pool, which when reflected in the waters of the fountain appear to be forty. This gave it the name “Chehelsouton” meaning forty columns. It contains frescoes and paintings on ceramic depicting historical scenes like reception of Kings and victories achieved by kings, such as the conquering of the Indian army in Kamal during 1739.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These paintings also express traditions like events of celebrating the joy and love. The pavilion has a brilliantly painted interior with a host of human figures. This includes various battlefield scenes, as well as audiences conducted by the Shah.
This is conducted in conjunction with rulers who bordered the empire from the eastern side. Chehelsouton grew by accretion of new additions such as chambers and halls into the existing structures over the years to come up with the current pavilion.
The palace has become a museum of paintings and ceramics, and this has attracted millions of tourists both foreign and domestic. This tourist attraction has maintained the idea of its conception, which included the reception of visitors, entertainment and hospitality to the palace’s guests (Ruggles, p. 102).
From the above description of the pavilion, the following is an illustration of how history is expressed through art and design. The relationship between material and design in Isfahan exhibited some differences when compared to that in the Western tradition.
It should be noted that painters from the west were known to impose a design on an artificial surface that was limited. This was due to the predetermined space provided to be used in imposing a figure on the material. However, Isfahan painters and sculptors did not adhere to this. They were not known to be limited and controlled by the predetermined space in their work.
On the contrary, these artists made their designs conform to the outlines that were naturally determined by the materials they used. In most cases, these materials included an iwan, talar or portico. Isfahan art embraced naturalism, and this proved to be a critical factor of this form of art.
In addition, this demonstrated outstanding abilities of the artists in incorporating nature into their compositions. From such art, we are able to learn the environment of the Isfahans, as well as their competence as skillful artists (Ruggles, p. 113).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The trend has changed greatly in the modern times. In essence, art history is regarded as an aspect that emphasizes on educating individuals on the evaluation and interpretation of art influenced by their own views. This we can say has been discovered through analyzing the originality of arts that were practiced in the past.
For instance in the case of Isfahan, the technique used in creating the pavilion was original in the fact that it was made out of what existed naturally, the pool, the gardens and the plain woods used to create the columns.
The designers only added their creativity on the nature, and this is what gives art the beauty and appeal expected of it. This form of art shows that the people identified with their environment, this association differentiates natural art from the artificial one (Udo, p. 149).
Emotions have been created in the paintings that were included in the pavilion; for example, in the following picture it is clear that victory in battles called for celebration and brought joy to the people. This joy was communicated by merely using the paintings without words to describe them.
A painting showing the victory of Nader shah over Mohammed of India. It shows the celebration of joy and love.
Source: Persia Articles
Transition has been outlined from the fact that there were additions to the original idea of the pavilion in the past years. This explains that history is a series of events that are connected to one another. On the other hand, art can be used to illustrate the transformation from old to modern times without separating the two.
From this pavilion, Culture of the Isfahan residents is evident. First, the main reason for the construction of this palace was the reception of kings, dignitaries, and ambassadors. This tells us that the Isfahan residents had a culture of treating visitors with the utmost respect and hospitality. From this history of visitors’ reception, it has resulted to the same culture being practiced at a modern setting where tourists, both local and foreign, visit Chehelsouton as an art that attracts tourism. On the contrary, taste is determined by culture, ideas and imaginations that transform to creativity are based on experiences which are as the result of interactions and practices of a given society. This is how culture shapes history (Arnold, p. 54).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chehel Sotoun in Fahan, Iran by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not all art is beautiful to the eyes, but it remains an art. The value of an artist’s creation is in the composition and the expression intended. It can be used to pass a message and may not be accompanied by an aesthetic value. For example in the painting below, the artist has communicated that the people of Isfahan used to go to battles, thus expressing remorse (Ruggles, p. 160).
A painting showing battle
Source: Persia Articles
Architecture is a major historic form of art that has evolved from the ancient, simple structures to the significantly advanced, modern ones. In Chehelsouton, at first the skillful designers were able to base their construction on just a stone, the pool and pillars. Other additions were introduced over the years. This implies that, through observation of historic arts and initial ideas, history gives new, creative ideas to designers. This helps them come up with inventive architectural designs (Ruggles, p. 156).
Specific historical scenes such as the reception for an Uzbek King in 1646 create memorable events that artists and designers treasure. Such histories led to the invention of a veritable museum of Persian painting and ceramics. Therefore, studying historic forms of art creates ideas which further improve this art, for instance, paintings made to treasure historic events led to the birth of museums. It is through the creation of this museum that the idea of maintaining the pavilion, not as a reception for dignitaries, but a tourist attraction came up. Transforming this palace into a museum helps the residents study their history as well as identify with their culture that dates back to the 17th century (Ruggles, p. 163).
Tourists at the entrance of the pavilion
Source: Tamara Ebrahimpour: Isfahan’s Chehel Sotoun: A Reflection of Beauty.
Conclusion History plays a major role in art and design because creativity and composition requires one to compare and contrast it to another work of art. As one explores the fascinating world of art with beautiful collections of thousands of human experience, ideas are born, and this inspires artists to find beauty in man made forms.
It is an aesthetic object which is meant to be admired and appreciated for its value. Individuals cannot escape from viewing works of art in the context of time. This is because it is varied, and cannot be reduced to a given context. Art and design appreciation introduces excitement to life as it is part of history creation.
Works Cited Arnold, Dana. Art History: A very short introduction.Oxford.Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Ebrahimpour, Tamara. Isfahan’s Chehel Sotoun: A Reflection of Beauty. 2012. Web. http://www.payvand.com/news/07/nov/1118.html
Nelson, Robert S, and Richard Shiff. Critical terms for Art History. Chicago.University of Chicago Press, 2003. Print.
Persia Articles. Frescos in the main hall of the Chehel Sotoun in Isfahan. 2012. Web.
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.
Udo, Kultermann.The History of Art History.New York: Abaris books,1993. Print.
Occupational Risk Assessment for Silica Dust Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Acceptable Exposure Limits for Silica Dust
Assessment of the risks related to Silica Dust Exposure
Introduction In the course of the day to day activities, man is faced with numerous challenges right from the areas in which they live to the areas in which they live. These challenges in most of the cases always lead to a danger that is posed to the people who are exposed to these risks; it is therefore very important to identify the substances to which if one is exposed, there is a possibility of their health being affected.
The risks that. Occupational risks are those risks that are experienced at the workplace; one of the distinct characteristics of the occupational risks is that they are the risks that are likely to face the workers in the working environment (Chen et al., 2006). Therefore the occupational risks are calculated based on the total time of exposure that has been identified for the identified risks.
In the determination of the human health risks at the workplace it is also very important to consider the nature and extent of the damage that might be caused by exposure to these risks at the workplace; the ecological risk assessments are meant to consider the health risks in relation to animals and insects (Chen et al., 2006).
They are used to determine the extent to which the human health may be affected by the exposure to these insects as well as extent to which the health of the humans is affected by these risks. The major difference that exists between the occupational risks and the ecological risk assessment is the human exposure to occupational hazards can be considered over a given period of time per day whereas the ecological exposure for the insects and animals may be different.
One of the substances that have been classified as a health hazard at the workplace is Silica dust; silica is found in many of the materials that human beings interact with in the course of their day to day activities. It is worth noting that although Silica as a substance is not harmful, Silica dust has been known to cause many health problems such as silicosis which is an occupational disease.
Occupational risks are the risks that result from exposure to the identified health hazard while at the work place; this hazard is easy to quantify because it is usually based on the time in which the exposed person is at the workplace.
However non-occupational exposure to silica dust does occur and it is not easy to quantify; this may be due to sand storms or desert dust, dust from factories, or industrial activities which involve the use of silica as a raw material (Berry, Rogers
When the State Trembled Essay (Book Review) college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Author’s Main Arguments
Analysis of the Book
Introduction The Winnipeg was one of the tragic strikes that hit Canada in 1919 since it involved many workers. It is approximated that over thirty thousand workers participated in the strike to demand their rights and freedoms from the government and the ruling class. The book When the State Trembled captures clearly, what transpired during the time by reporting the other side of the story concerning the Citizen’s Committee of 1000.
Business autocrats and the ruling class in society formed the committee to check the influence of workers in the industrial sector. The committee was charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the poor do not access the means of production in society. Therefore, the committee had to liaise with state machineries to ensure that the status quo remains intact.
The author of this book exposes the injustices that existed in the Canadian society in early 1900s. The owners of the means of production pressurized the government to form oppressive labor laws that could later be used by the bourgeoisie to subjugate the working class. The bourgeoisie took advantage of the prevailing conditions to unleash terror to the poor.
The poor could work without pay. Furthermore, the ruling class in society utilized other means that affected the unity of workers. Workers could not rise up to the occasion to demand for their rights since the government could always support the elites. The 1919 strike was termed illegal and all participates were to face legal punishments. In the book, lawyer A.J Andrews and acting minister of Justice Arthur Meighen were the representatives of the Citizens Committee of 100 and the state.
This shows that they were hired to demoralize and frustrate the activities of workers in the state. At the end, the leaders of the workers’ union were prosecuted and were charged with sedition. This meant that leaders in government were aware of the dangers of labor movements as regards to governmental power and authority. In other words, the leaders were against radicalism and the teachings of Marxism, which suggested that people had to determine their own destinies.
The working class should always organize for a revolution if it is to salvage itself from the chains of poverty. The book also reveals that the existing social structure is a product of the struggle between the rich and the poor in Canada. In other words, economics and political power are intricate meaning that they are inseparable.
The Author’s Main Arguments The author comments that all capitalists are equivalent since their aim is to maximize profits and avoid losses. They always communicate with each other regarding the market and the plight of workers in organizations and companies. They agree that they should not increase wages whatsoever. The union leaders instruct workers and members of society in general to be aware of this fact and not to be fooled by any one that the interest of the bourgeoisies is to help workers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The owners of the means of production control all aspects of lives since the author observes that Meighen and Andrews brokered a deal between the state and the elites. This would allow easier management of state affairs. The government could not support the workers even though their conditions were appalling. In this sense, the state is always interested in safeguarding the interests of the rich in society. The poor survive at the mercy of the rich.
Even though the representatives of the owners of the means of production had no state powers or authority, they could influence the formulation of policies to favor their employers. This implies that even the intellectuals are properties of the bourgeoisies. The writer shows that private entities and the rich in society usually hold the government at ransom. They force the state to formulate some policies that are considered illegal in the constitution.
For instance, Andrews ordered the state agencies to disperse marauding workers yet he did not have any governmental power. In this sense, the government practices illegal acts, which are contrary to what it is supposed to do. In page seven, the author observes that the committee of 100 was a secret organization whose membership was not disclosed to the public.
Author’s Objective The author aimed at presenting the issue of class conflict in society. The book manages to bring out succinctly the antagonistic parties that try to outdo each other as regards to distribution of resources. The main issue that the book addresses is the issue of resource distribution in society. The ruling class is in control of societal resources while the proletariat tries to access these resources unsuccessfully.
The book is successful in presenting its main agenda, although the author leaves out other important issues that took place at the time. The author presents class conflicts at a time when society was stratified based on ownership of property. In the Canadian society, only a few members controlled resources.
The same individuals influenced the government to enact policies that favored them. The author manages to show the reader that controlling the means of production was the main borne of contention. The conflicting parties could not settle the disputes peacefully since each group was concerned about its own interest.
Throughout the text, the author manages to answer the question ‘why’ by showing that the working class had all the rights to strike. For instance, the author elucidates that strikes had succeeded in other places and the workers had achieved their objective, which was to better their standards of living. During the 1896 elections, the Liberals took control of government and instituted policies that were capitalistic in nature.
We will write a custom Book Review on When the State Trembled specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From 1896 to around 1929, Canada experienced many changes economically and politically. This was a time when the country faced the problem of immigration. Consequently, the economy grew at a faster rate than expected. This meant that wealth was accumulated and some groups tried to monopolize various sectors of the economy. Immigrants were encouraged to invest in various sectors of the economy, especially in mining and in hydro-electronic projects.
The First World War brought other changes that complicated lives in Canada. In 1919, the country had experienced many changes that threatened the social equilibrium. Other countries such as Britain and the US demanded Canadian products implying that the market was available for the Canadian finished goods. Due to this, workers had to produce more but at the same cost. Therefore, the findings of the author are consistent to what was happening at the time. His arguments are supported by facts.
Analysis of the Book The author manages to bring out the relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie during the 1919 strike. He also manages to expose the way bourgeoisies operated in society. Through analysis, it is identified that the relationship between the rich and the poor in society was complex. The rich believed that the world was capitalistic and the poor had to provide labor at the market price. They believed that the poor needed not to change things since it could cause conflicts.
Furthermore, the author showed that the bourgeoisie was also in contact with each other regarding investments and production of important goods. This is actually true even in the modern world. Economists believe that producers and consumers of goods and services check each other frequently leading to a scenario whereby the producer only produces goods that are needed in the market. In the same way, the elites will always ensure that their products have ready markets.
They ensure this through constant communication. On the other hand, the proletariat believes that the bourgeoisie deprives them of their resources hence leaving them without anything. Due to this, the rich are always in conflicts with the poor over the working conditions and wages. The poor think that only strikes can change the existing social structure.
Even though the author manages to bring out conflicts that existed in Canada in 1919, he fails to appreciate that other conflicts existed as well. The author narrates that class conflict was the only major problem in the society. This is not actually true because the state faced other problems such as the problem of gender equality, ethnicity and age conflict. For instance, women were not allowed to own property in society and their culture was not respected.
They had to live according to the wishes of men. Women were considered to be suffering from inferiority complex meaning that they could not be trusted with leadership positions. Both in the ruling class and the working class, only men were given positions of influence. Women faced various types of injustices but the society could not stand up to condemn such injustices. The society reserved some positions for men. Women could only participate in activities that the society allowed.
Such injustices led to the formation of feminist groups. The author does not capture this aspect. As the working class was fighting for its rights and freedoms, women were also busy demanding for their rights. For instance, they requested the state to allow them to vote for their preferred candidates and present their candidature during elections. Through feminist groups, women were incorporated in the financial system, though as underdogs. The author does not mention this aspect at all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on When the State Trembled by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1919, Canada was faced with various problems but the author does not revisit any of them. For instance, the state was faced with the problem of refugees. It was a time when Asia was under colonial rule, which forced many families to seek refuge in Canada. The government had to come up with policies that would guarantee normalcy and constancy in society. The new members were viewed as competitors. Therefore, the local population was always in conflict with them.
The government had to design policies aimed at bringing unity and harmony. The ruling class utilized the services of refugees and immigrants at an expense of the locals. This angered many locals because they felt neglected in their own country. The Canadians had to compete for job positions with foreigners. The author does not capture this aspect in his analysis.
In other words, Canadian society cannot be understood to be consisting of a single problem, which is the problem of class. Foreigners were forced to merge into the mainstream since they were considered to be in the margins. The Chinese for instance were requested to abandon their culture and pick up the western culture that was dominant in Canada. However, the foreigners were reluctant to drop their cultures and opt for other inferior cultures.
Course Commentary After the Second World War, the state witnessed an abrupt economic growth. Polices formulated by the state were socialist in nature because people’s welfare was considered. For instance, the state provided free healthcare services and healthcare programs to the poor.
Furthermore, the aged employees were offered pension programs that would allow them to enjoy life even after retirement. This showed that the 1919 Winnipeg strike achieved its mission. Workers were treated with respect and their wishes were considered when formulating important state policies. By adopting the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation policies, the federal government was confirming that it recognized the existence of trade unions.
As can be observed, the international system changed after the Second World War. Equally, many things changed in Canada. Canada appreciated Britain as the superpower before the Second World War. Afterwards, the relationship between Britain and Canada faded due to the activities of the British settlers in the country in 1919. The book reveals that British settlers had established centers of power that were used to subdivide and oppress members of Canadian society.
Canada embraced the US as its trading partner, though Britain was also involved in trade. The Book explains why Canada opted to embrace the US and not Britain. It was related to the events of the 1919 Winnipeg strike. Canadian foreign policy makers decided to side with the US because of the experiences of the 1919 strike.
The decision makers knew that communist ideas would inspire people to demand for a socialist government. The state was keen to arrest any person who advocated for communism. The state arrested at least 18 people in 1945 since they were suspected to be planning to overthrow the government.
Canada took an active role in the international system mainly to condemn the effects of Communism. For instance, it participated in the Korean War and offered advisory services during the Suez crisis. The authorities ensured that the Bolsheviks in Canada did not access governmental power and authority since they could turn the state to a socialist society.
Socialism was highly detested by the ruling class since it could easily interfere with the societal structure. The rich could lose their status and the society could witness the tyranny of the multitude, which is the rule by the less fit. The book exposes why the state was always advocating for capitalism in other parts of the world.
Again, the book is very helpful in understanding why the state came up with immigration laws that favored some ethnic groups. It is noted that not all communities were treated equally. The government did not recruit those considered to be supporting communist ideas. The strike exposed the realities of capitalism in society but the ruling class was unwilling to allow the proletariat to take over power and authority.
Culture and Organization Learning Essay (Article) custom essay help: custom essay help
The article ‘Culture and organizational learning’ by Cook and Yanow explores the issue of organizational learning and the types of learning that they undergo as well as answers an intriguing question on if organizations learn.
The writer’s argument from the cultural viewpoint is that an important characteristic of human beings is their potential to act or capacity to operate in teams or groups. Groups of individuals, who share a common practice or experience, are considered to be of the same culture.
A culture is constructed on the basis of inter subjective meanings where constituents get across in their joint practice through actions, language, and objects (Cook
Public Art in Education Research Paper college admissions essay help
My background training involves studies on various components of contemporary art and design. Public art as envisioned by Freedman, combines the interests of various stakeholders including artists, local communities, urban planners, city agencies as well as both private and public organizations (Freedman 6). I am interested in understanding the effectiveness of public art in education, creating awareness as well as social identity of communities and uniqueness of towns.
Most communities desire to have an identity especially relating to their areas of residence and their icons such as the totem poles of Vancouver (Fales Library and Special Collections).
However, in the contemporary setting, the major challenge to art is the threat of potential bias by artists and designers who frequently use unconventional means and hybrid strategies to influence judgment (freedman 19). As such, there is need to investigate the effectiveness of public art and the role of communities in coming up with materials that can be placed in the artwork to facilitate social identity.
It is through a clear understanding of the historical contextualization of art by communities coupled with rigorous scholarly research that we can accurately understand its effectiveness in appealing to the public about various issues of community concern and identity (Fales Library and Special Collections).
Thus, by doing more research on effectiveness of the information contained in the public art in promoting social identity or creating awareness, appropriate decisions can be made. In addition, it will enrich the existing body of knowledge in field of art and design.
Works Cited Fales Library and Special Collections. Fales Library and Special Collections: Guide to the Public Art Fund Achive. 2012. Web.
Freedman, Doris. Ten Years of Public Art. New York: Public Art Fund, 1982. Print.
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What is it Designwise to Make a House Home? Essay essay help
There are different types of home that vary in color, features, designs, sizes and the styles. Basing on my perception and comprehension, a home is a sacred and fabulous place that welcomes both spiritual and non-spiritual people. Indeed, a home is a place that shuns diverse violation thus the need to adopt secure designs. As such, I can feel safe, free, settled and calm.
When I am at home, I can shun chaos and find relative peace knowing that I belong there as evident in the security features thus the need to incorporate sound features. I fancy a house that has a modern storey because they are more attractive and updated. I value a home that houses my family members since they always make me welcome.
I equally fancy a home with pets because when I am bored, I can play with them; furthermore, they serve aesthetic purposes. This makes it fundamental to incorporate designs that address animal needs.
A home addresses designs that surpass fiscal capability as evident in the shape and lighting. These make one develop an inner emotional feeling. The first floor of my home has an outsized living room, two bedchambers and one bathroom thus indicating a spacious design. My house is painted with pink colors that are visible as one walks through the front door.
As one enters through the door, a big lively living room welcomes an individual. The design is commensurate to the heart of the house, which is a family room fortified with modern furniture. The living room houses two beautiful pink and white couches with original pillows, a lovely massage chair and an astounding LCD screen.
The textures of my home furniture are soft making them inviting; furthermore, the fluffy carpet delights the guests who prefer taking off their shoes. My living room devours aromatic fresh flowers, which are appealing and bring forth a soothing feeling. Instead of music that distorts the silence in my living room, I use a fireplace that gives rise to a decent atmosphere thus highlighting my fancy design attributes.
Most people consider kitchens as comfortable places; therefore, I transformed the kitchen making it intimate and spacious thus allowing conversations. It has an oversize, colorless bowl that parades my kitchen fresh fruits plus a beautiful flower vase with scented flowers that creates an attractive kitchen atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My bedroom defines my personality in diverse ways. As one enters, he or she will see a stack of my favorite books, a beautiful pink indoor mat, pinkish colored bulb, a big attractive wardrobe that slides sideways and a very huge comfortable bed in the middle of the room with double headboards consisting of shelves and wooden drawer.
My dressing table is located at the end of the room with a wall that has decorations in the form of large paintings. Finally, my bathroom and toilet are separate thus serving different purposes. They both have doors fitted with accessories, scented air freshener, white glittering tiles and new hand towels.
My home includes all the interior and exterior designs that define a home including entertainment, study, sleep, and eating facilities. A box home refers to small residential project, which focuses on constructing a peaceful box house. This home is nonviolent and built using aluminum wooden edging with divergent woods used inside.
The box home is a 19 square meter residence consisting of four rooms with the basic functions of the kitchen, bathroom, living room and bedroom. The room emphasizes the need for excellence space, quality material used in construction, natural light, and reduces unnecessary floor spaces. These attributes define my house outstandingly.
Differences Between Debit Card and Credit Card Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The use of hard plastic cards in transactions has increased significantly over the years; this is because of the increasing cases of thefts and robbery associated with cash, and inconveniences caused by carrying large sums of money.
The form of plastic cards available includes store cards, cash cards, debit cards and credit cards; all these cards are used in transactions, but they are different in the benefits to its users, and on other services that come with the use of each of them. This paper will explore the differences between credit card and debit card.
The user of a debit card makes transactions using funds in his or her bank account, while the user of a credit card makes transactions without funds in his or her account but pay for it later, usually after one month. Some debit cards allow an overdraft, and the overdraft is charged; however, the cardholder has limits on the account spending.
Therefore, it is difficult to overspend when using debit cards; this restricts the cardholder to budget for only what he or she has (Nieuwenhuyzen 89). On the other hand, when using credit cards there are no limits, and the cardholder can easily lose track on how he or she has been spending; this can lead to overspending.
Debit cards are offered by banks without a charge; this remains so as long as the cardholder adheres on the terms and conditions, which includes the bank minimum balance. The same does not apply to credit cards because some have annual charges, and in the case where the credit cardholder fails to pay for his or her full monthly balance, the bank offers a penalty to the cardholder, and an interest is charged on the balance (Whiteley 146).
This means that the credit cardholder can only escape this charges and interest by spending within his or her means. Apart from interest and penalties, there are other hidden charges, which include card replacement fees and balance transfer fees; this makes credit cards more expensive to maintain than debit cards.
Debit cards have received competition from credit cards in terms of the fee charged for the cards; however, this has been countered by the increase of the debit card rewarding programs. Some of the programs help the cardholder to save small funds from time to time; this means that as the owner of the card spends every day his or her savings account gets better every day as well (Nieuwenhuyzen 153).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the debit rewarding programs are not more valuable than those offered by credit card companies and banks. Companies offering credit cards make more profit when compared to those offering debit cards, and this contributes to the high-valuable rewards received by credit cardholders.
Credit card rewards include bonus airline miles, they also offer cash back on the cardholder purchases; a card holder only needs to use his or her credit card and pay the balance in full to earn more of these rewards (Gitman, Joehnk
The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the Inferno, Virgil is a guide and the voice of reason in the poem. He serves the purpose of reinforcing Dante’s Christian responsibilities in his pilgrimage. If it were not for his contribution, the journey may have overwhelmed Dante.
Virgil’s role Virgil is highly knowledgeable about many aspects of hell. Without him, Dante would not have understood the historical, spiritual or geographical significance of the things he was seeing (Bergin 55). In Canto 14, Circle 7, Round 3, Dante asks Virgil about the river that they can both see. Virgil replies by affirming that:
“In the middle of the sea, and gone to waste, there lies a country known as Crete, under whose king the ancient world was chaste. Once Rhea chose it as the secret crypt and cradle of her son; and better to hide him, her Corybantes raised a din when he wept.” (Dante XIV.7.3)
Virgil, therefore, contributed towards a better understanding of the journey because he tells Dante about the history behind the events and features that they are witnessing. As such, he is a guide to Dante.
Sometimes Dante was uncertain about the next step. These were all unfamiliar things that were potentially dangerous. Dante needed someone to assure him that he was going in the right direction. The journey would have been extraordinarily scary without Virgil.
In fact, it is likely that Dante would have turned back at the entrance to hell if it had not been for Virgil. Dante’s own assertions emphasize these sentiments: “Thy words have moved my heart to its first purpose. My Guide! My Master! Now lead on.” (Dante II.133). Virgil reminded the main character about the importance of his mission and thus propelled him to achieve it.
In certain scenarios, Dante even consider Virgil as a father because of the things he did for him. For instance, when they got to Dis, some furies threatened to turn both Dante and Virgil into stone. Virgil quickly urged Dante to cover his eyes and turn around.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Dante took too much time to respond, Virgil himself turned Dante around and covered his eyes for him. In such an instance, Virgil acted in a similar manner to a father. He cared about Dante and would not allow harm to come to him.
Many Christians may ponder about the fate of non Christians who lived before Christ’s coming. Some contend that the non believers do not merit their place in hell because nobody gave them a choice. This controversial subject also troubled Dante, and as he travels inside hell, he gets answers to this troubling question. Through Virgil, Dante learns that Christians must make no apologies for their faith. Furthermore, there is no room for exceptions.
Virgil helps Dante to realize that all pagans’ lives are condemned regardless of whether they existed before or after Jesus’ coming. In fact, famous thinkers and ethicists such as Aristotle, Socrates and Homer were all condemned to hell even when they all lived honorable lives. “Their honor wins them ease in Hell out of God’s favor. “ (Dante IV. 76-78). Consequently, he settles a moral dilemma that Dante, and many Christians struggle with frequently.
Virgil’s pagan status emphasizes his role as a guide and the voice of reason. He was an ethicist and a writer that lived before the rise of the Christian church (between 70 and 19 BC). He wrote a world-renowned poem called Aeneid in which he talked about morality and evil, honor and the underworld. At the time, there was no reference to Dante’s faith. Dante chose Virgil – a pagan – as a guide in his journey in the afterlife in order to bring out the relative objectivity of his arguments.
If Virgil had been another famous Christian mentor, then one would analyze his arguments on the basis of his faith. The logic behind them would have been irrelevant. However, because he was a pagan, everything he said must have come from a place of reason, and that was why he played that role in the poem.
A guide has the responsibility of ensuring that his pilgrims are safe. People assume that such an individual knows the ins and outs of the chosen site. In this case, Virgil was familiar with the twists and turns of Hell since he had been there before. As a result, heaven entrusted him with the responsibility of ensuring that Dante passed through those territories safely.
In fact, he protected Dante in a number of scenarios in the poem. In some cases, he looked for mechanisms of penetrating the various barriers in their way. For instance in Canto III, he told Charon, whose main duty was to prevent living persons from entering that territory, that Dante must pass through the place since it is God’s purpose for him to do so.
We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Virgil uttered the same statement when they met Minos. He silenced protests against Dante by explaining their mission in the place. He lets everyone know that the divine power mandated their purpose.
One must realize that although Virgil was an authority in hell and purgatory, he still had a number of weaknesses. These flaws meant that Virgil was not fit enough to guide Dante through heaven. Someone else who was worthy of that responsibility took it up. In fact, Virgil’s weaknesses are highlighted in various instances in the narration. In one instance, Dante and Virgil encounter the demon Malacoda.
The creature convinces Virgil that he will do Dante no harm by dropping his weapon (Dante XX1.106-111). However, he never gave them truthful information concerning the next bridge. Virgil was naive enough to believe a flimsy character like Malacoda. In another situation, Friar Catalano tells him that evil agents are creatures that cannot be trusted because they are so proficient at hiding their real intentions.
Virgil is not all-knowing as one may be tempted to think (Hollander 99). The poet probably chose to portray him in this manner in order to demonstrate the limits of reason. He wanted to prove that, in spiritual matters, it took more than just logic to enjoy the most supreme rewards that heaven could offer. Virgil’s role as a guide and a voice of reason could only go so far; it needed to be completed with another force, which was faith.
Perhaps, one of the most vital things, to remember about the character of Virgil in the poem is that logic and reason play a vital role in one’s spiritual journey. It allows one to understand one’s supreme power better. In this poem, Virgil’s point of view was not adversarial to Beatrice’s point of view.
These two schools of thought played complementary roles in the process of completing Dante’s spiritual journey. Therefore, while Virgil was an crucial piece of the puzzle, he still did not signify the ultimate message in the poem. Dante himself represented the main theme. He had completed a journey towards getting to know God.
Conclusion Virgil is a guide to Dante because he offers a context or explanation to the events in the journey. He is a mentor and protector in several instances and ensures that Dante sticks to the mission. Nonetheless, his inclination to reason over faith limits his influence in the narrative.
Works Cited Bergin, Thomas. Dante. NY: The Orion Press, 1965. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Virgil in the Inferno by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dante, Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. 2009. Web. ‹http://www.everypoet.com/archive/poetry/dante/dante_contents.htm›
Hollander, Robert. Dante’s Virgil: A light that failed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. Print.
Marketing Plan Critique: Xeros Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The present marketing plan focuses on the new product (washing machine Xeros) marketing strategy. The plan covers the major points necessary for making decisions on how to market the product. The marketing plan provides a thorough market and customer analysis revealing opportunities and possible threats.
The marketing plan also contains a particular strategy to put the product on market. It is necessary to note that the marketing plan is quite detailed and profound; the author also suggests effective solutions and strategies.
The plan touches upon all important points which will help to market the product effectively. However, the marketing plan has certain downsides. Though, the flaws of the plan are not that crucial and the plan can be improved.
Strengths of the Marketing Plan Market Overview
The present marketing plan includes a detailed market overview. The plan presents precise statistical data which enable the management to draw certain conclusions concerning the present state of the market. It is noted that it is possible to focus on two markets, i.e. residential and commercial.
It is concluded that the development of the residential washer market depends on the development of real estate market. As for the commercial market, the statistical data presented confirm that there is quite slow but still steady growth in this sector. Therefore, the market overview is well-grounded which is very important for a marketing plan (Kumar
Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting Essay online essay help: online essay help
Tintoretto’s Susannah and the Elders takes as its topic the Apocryphal tale of an honorable young Jewish matron sexually blackmailed by elderly public servants and saved from execution by Daniel’s literally divinely inspired interrogation . Tintoretto chooses the moment when Susannah’s lustful admirers try to spy on her while bathing, to encapsulate the longer story and showcase a stunning nude in a private moment.1
With a cramped focus and high contrast in brightness, it is superbly effective at riveting the eye on the gleaming skin of the heroine and providing a sense of impending doom for the dutiful woman.
The picture thus succeeds admirably at capturing the materiality of glowing fleshskin, water, silver, mirror, and greenery, while still being very clearly much an artificial construct of the studio and paintbrush, because the artist’s most urgent purpose is to explore and represent a magnificent woman’s figure.
Although probably originally much brighter, the colors nonetheless seem muted. The natural items pictured; for example, vines, trees, and duck pond, exhibit the same color intensity and range as the bodies and bald head of the dirty-old-men magistrates.
The only exceptions seem to be the glowing body of Susannah, and her “ornaments of display”2. This is a clear signal of the artifice of the artist, but it does not detract from the picture, because these elements of the setting merely set off and highlight the nude’s serene self-absorption.
These muted background colors, combined with the nude’s brilliant paleness, focus attention on her. The lurking perverts are almost a second thought, concealed behind the fragile-seeming espaliered wall, and blending in, as they do, with the underbrush3. For the artist, they are less interesting than the central figure, and their lack of obtrusiveness both fits the narrative and helps attention to concentrate on Susannah.
The clothing of the left-hand elder forms a pumpkin-colored mass, with a fungus-like bare pate thrusting out towards the viewer. This figure appears to be the ground to the left of the espaliered wall .4 The figures and objects in the landscape are clearly delineated with both line and hue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The most striking example of this, apart from Susannah, is this mushroom-like elder’s cranium, outlined perhaps with a brush, to distinguish it from the background.
Figuring out this background takes effort. Unlike in a Da Vinci, such as La Gioconda (or Mona Lisa) wherein the landscape, although not always strictly realistic, is at least plausible, the background seems almost irrelevant.
Susannah’s setting evokes, for modern viewers, simplified theatre-in-the-round sets: the vining plants espaliered onto the (notably skinny5) wall are the only explic. It reference to an orchard sweltering in the full heat of summer, as the Biblical story indicates.
However, her small supposedly private space is beautifully detailed, and this draws the eye to admire her body and to the intimate personal objects next to her feet. This is not the way space presents itself to the eye in the natural world, and is clearly showing the imprint of the artist, but it works to create a sort of tunnel vision on the naked beauty.
The space in the painting seems very shallow, in spite of the vistas of garden and pond visible to the rear. The attention of the painter and of the viewer is funneled dramatically in on the constricted bathtub-sized area where Susannah is bathing.6
This cramping really leaves Susannah with nothing to do but give herself a sponge bath and admire herself7 Since the artist is not as concerned with the action of the narrative as he is with exploring the pleasure of a lovely woman revealed, the claustrophobic space is not a detriment.
The light is uniform and nearly directionless. The body of Susannah is bright but without any indication of the source of illumination. From the artist’s perspective, since his goal is the elevation of her form, this otherworldly illumination is not a drawback.
We will write a custom Essay on Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is in the use of reflective surfaces that the Venetian touch is perhaps most evident. The mirror could enhance beauty, reveal something not otherwise visible to the viewer, or tell some moral truth8 Susannah’s mirror reflects only her toiletries and towel, not her nakedness.9
This habit of the Venetian painters of titillating expectations using mirrors and then disappointing them or fulfilling them in unexpected ways is described by Cranston. The light reflects from the shiny pate of her Peeping Tom, too.
The water reflects her thigh as well as the rocks or hummocks on which Susannah is sitting. It is clear, lucid, clean-looking, and still. Tintoretto uses a very thin line of blue-tintedish white to delineate where the water surface is broken.
The actual water of Venice would have been darker10, and opaque.11 A and additionally, as Hills points out, the tidal waters would have been moving.12
All this play with reflection is a tour-de-force, a demonstration of the artist’s mastery of the medium. It also fits into the pattern set by other Venetian painters such as Titian, of using reflections to send a variety of messages about reality, truth, identity, age, beauty, purity and deity, as detailed by Cranston. The subtext of the mirror, which is a very artificial element in the painting, would not be missed; the nude at the center of the picture is self-sufficient
Although neither artist’s brushwork nor the canvas substrate is obtrusive in this, painting, the use of canvas rather than board represents a new direction for Venetian artists . It was appropriate to the locale. It is not a fresco, which would be appropriate for the dry mountainous area of Florence, and the canvas was apparently a better match with the wet environment of Venice.
Tintoretto’s use of oil-based paint was also part of a growing trend away from tempura at the time. This medium may explain the fact that most of the scene appears to be viewed through smoked glass.13
The tea-dipped atmosphere, everywhere but the figure of Susannah, endows the scene with antiquity and unreality. It is yet another way to focus the eye on her beauty, or what Tintoretto presents as her beauty. Her muscular appearance seems to reflect his lack of female nude models.14 As a result, although magnificent, she suggests a man with breasts added.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Color and Materiality in Venetian Painting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This problem does not apply to her lovely face and elaborately braided hair, however, and the overall effect is one of sensuality.15 Here again, whether we notice that the lighting and color seem like artifacts of the studio, or ignore it, Susannah as an almost sculptural nude is the central point of the picture, not the realism of her setting or female secondary sexual characteristics.
There are a number of objects clamoring for tactile appreciation: beads, delicate linen cloth, and silver containers all suggest the merchant wealth of Venice. The water looks deliciously cool and clean to touch or drink. However, in general, it is Susannah’s own flawless, and uniformly- colored, flesh that appeals most strongly to the sense of touch.
How the picture balances the challenge on the one hand; representing material things, people, and places and on the other hand; being a made, material item is, as for all paintings of that era – and perhaps all paintings of all times – a work in progress; a continual striving. Although the scene is, overall, not very naturalistic, and seems to reflect some sort of studio set, this does not detract from the impact of the picture.
Susannah almost floats above the hummocks, and only her submerged leg seems to actually touch the surface of the planet. It seems likely that her figure was sketched and perhaps pre-painted from a model in a studio, not in any sort of outdoor setting. The physical location of her observers also seems uncertain and uncommitted. They are part of the substance of her landscape rather than actors in her surrounding setting.
However, none of this diminishes how the composition involves the viewer in the heroine’s quiet moment of comfort and relief from the heat. In a more modern painting, with no need to justify a nude, no surroundings would even be needed. Her observers could appreciate her beauty16 without backstory or moral lesson.
As a painting, in an era when artists attempted to portray the material world with maximum fidelity, while also conveying multiple layers of deliberate meaning and spiritual truths, this painting it shows its craft; its materiality. The cues to the fact that this is a painting include the vagueness of the perspective, the loose relationship between the figures and gravity, the mysteriously source-less lighting, and the masculine proportions of the studio nude.
However, Tintoretto captures with loving accuracy her peaceful, contented expression, her gleaming trinkets, their peekaboo in her mirror, the fragility of her towel, the subtle feel of still water on skin, and water reflecting skin.
The result of the artist’s artifice is a frankly erotic glimpse into the private toilette of a lovely woman possessing enviably beautiful (or desirable, depending on one’s gender) skin, hair, and easy acceptance of self, in an all-too-fleeting moment, in a setting that is almost irrelevant in its admittedly loose connection to nature or reality.
Works Cited Cranston, Jodi. The Muddied Mirror: Materiality and Figuration in Titian’s Later Paintings. State College: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010. Print.
Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris. Oil on Wood. 2012.
De Young Family Foundation. “The Novelty of Painting in Oil on Cavas.” 2012. De Young Family Foundation. Web.
Hills, Paul. Venetian colour:marble, mosaic, painting and glass, 1250-1550. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. Print.
Knickerbocker, Amy. “Tintoretto’s “Susanna and the Elders“: Image vs. Text, Part II.” 2012. Artist in an A-Frame. Web.
Larmann, Ralph. Painting in Renaissance Art. 2012. Web.
Raffety, Michael. “Masters of Venice Show Brings Paintings Never Before Seen In USA.” 2011. Mountain Democrat Newspaper. Web.
Reisch, Bruce I. and Philip Stewart. Grape Breeding. 2001. Web.
The Holy Bible. “The Book of Susannah Chapter 1.” King James Version. Vol. Apocrypha. University of Virginia, 2012. Web.
Tintoretto. Susannah and the Elders. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Oil on canvas.
Titian. Venus with a Mirror. Natonal Gallery of Art, Washington. Oil on Canvas. 2012. Web.
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The Resurrection in the New Testament Term Paper college application essay help
Introduction One of the main differences between human beings and animals is the ability of people to have a sense of belief in the existence of a super natural being that controls all the activities and events in the universe. Human beings have developed a very complicated belief in the existence and work of these super natural forces that has led to the establishment of different religions in the world.
Some of these religions include Christianity which is practiced world wide in various forms. Christianity is derived from the word Christ which refers to Jesus Christ and is therefore used to mean behavior that is similar to that of Jesus Christ that is emulated by those who follow the Bible’s teachings.
This term paper is aimed at outlining the background and interpretation of the resurrection in the New Testament as is evident in Christian’s lives.
Definition of Resurrection Resurrection refers to the process where a dead body comes back to life. It is a very unique and shocking occurrence that medical scientists and contemporary philosophers have failed to understand or explain. This is due to the fact that death marks the end of human life and therefore breaks the association between an individual and the rest of the community.
Death is a phenomenon that has no empirical formulae of studying or analyzing and it is only through religious intuitions that human beings try to unravel the mysteries behind the occurrence and aftermath of death and the life after.
Background of the Resurrection The history of the resurrection is dated back to the beginning and life of Jesus Christ and is marked by a sequence of various events that hinted on the coming of Jesus Christ. Since life begun on earth people had always been born and lived for very many years before their death occurred (Keener 201).
There were no strange occurrences of deaths as most of them involved the very old people who had reached their life expectancy limit and in fact gone beyond their time on earth. However, with time things and events changed and prophets came and went until the coming of Jesus Christ that was foretold by many prophets including Elijah and John the Baptist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the cases of resurrection were unknown before the coming of Jesus Christ very few of them were actually recorded like the dry bones in the ‘Valley of Death’ that were prophesized by Prophet Elijah and they got muscles and became live human beings.
With the coming of Jesus Christ that is heavily documented in the New Testament very many cases of resurrection were experienced and they were climaxed by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Jesus performed many miracles regarding the resurrection of the dead and some of those people include Lazarus who had died, was buried and his body had stayed on the tomb for several days until he had begun to decompose and smell awfully.
These events of resurrections taught many Christian believers many lessons and this led to the many interpretations of resurrection that are discussed in the following stages.
Sacrifice for Human Beings The resurrection of Jesus Christ is interpreted by all Christians as being a great act of sacrifice for the deliverance and forgiveness of sins committed by human beings through the various generations. When God created Adam and Eve and placed them in the Garden of Eden, He expected them to be very loyal to him and follow all His words to the latter.
The worst sin that Adam and Eve committed while in the Garden of Eden was disobeying God’s command of not touching or eating the fruits from the tree in the middle of the garden.
Their disobedience was triggered by the serpent that cheated them of the value of the fruits and this led to their excommunication from the Garden of Eden marking the beginning of sin and suffering in the generations that followed.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Resurrection in the New Testament specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, due to the love that God had for his people He was not pleased to see them suffer and continue sinning and therefore, he sent his son Jesus Christ to come and die for the sake of human beings (Licona 2010). This act shows a lot of sacrifice by God and Jesus Christ who endured very painful experiences which led to his death.
Christians interpret the suffering, crucifixion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as a great sacrifice for their sake and continue to celebrate this through Easter holidays in their calendars. It is not easy for someone to lay down his life and suffer for the sake of another human being, but Jesus Christ proved his love for human beings by sacrificing his life for them.
Proof of Power over Death Every human being is always confronted by a hard fact that one day they will die and leave this world regardless of their wealth or fame. Very many people spend countless nights thinking about their future and the inevitable occurrence of death that has made them think that death is so powerful and strong that no one can overcome it.
However, with the death and resurrection of Jesus that is widely documented in the New Testament people are made to believe that death is not supreme over Christians.
They believe that Jesus conquered death through resurrecting other people like Lazarus and through his resurrection (Beale 2011).
They interpret all these resurrections as manifestations of the Christian power over death and that they should never be worried about dying since it is just a transitional stage that they have to pass through in order to attain the higher glory of the Kingdom of Heaven.
Proof of Life after Death Many people have always known death as a mark of the end of life and therefore when one dies it becomes the end of the person’s story of existence, accomplishments and failures in life. When a person dies the family, relatives and friends are usually filled with sorrow and mourn for days on end due to the loss of their loved ones.
However, Christians believe that death marks the beginning of a happier and everlasting life and so people should never be worried and mourn whenever it occurs to their loved ones but instead be happy and pray very hard for them to go to heaven when their time comes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Resurrection in the New Testament by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Christians believe that the resurrection of the dead marks the beginning of such life that will be celebrated throughout their life in heaven (Ivy 2010). The resurrection of Jesus proved to the millions of believers that death is not the final stage of their living but just a transitional stage to Heaven.
Therefore, Christians interpret his resurrection as a clear indication that when those who believe in him die, they will resurrect and join him later in life. This gives them more hope to continue believing and worshipping him as they wait for their death that will connect them with their Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ.
Foundation of Hope and Christian Faith People usually have very many questions regarding what will happen when and after their life on earth ends. This has led people to various beliefs and practices that aim at giving them the assurance of good life after death. Christians believe that the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus were as a result of their sins and so they affirm their faith to having life after death through the resurrection of Jesus.
It is upon these grounds that people get saved and declare Jesus as their savior since he died for the sake of their sins. This continues to attract thousands of people to the Christian faith as the resurrection of the dead provides solace and promise of life after death to them.
This also enables them to continue reading the bible, attend churches and Christian crusades to know more about the Kingdom of God that awaits them after death.
Challenge to Christian Declarations The suffering, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus serve as a great challenge to the Christian faith with regard to their declarations and affirmations of their faith in God.
It acts as a guide to the behavior and conduct of all Christians with regard to their faith and beliefs (Carson 2012). Christians usually have personal declarations, obligations and commitments to God and are always obliged to follow and adhere to them all the days of their lives.
In addition, the Ten Commandments that were offered to Moses on Mount Sinai act as a vey important tool for every Christian to follow and respect. This together with the resurrection of Jesus helps many Christians and in the process of assessing their faith and stand in Christianity.
Companionship All human beings are social creatures by nature and require each other for companionship and socialization. It should be noted that people need each other to provide emotional support to each other with regard to the experiences that human beings encounter in the daily association with their friends and environment.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ and his ascension is interpreted by Christians as a connection between him and them although in the spiritual realm. Christians believe that Jesus is constantly and always with them throughout their lives as they too await their death (Carson 2012).
It should be noted that Christian faith is largely penned on the fact that Jesus Christ suffered, died, was buried and resurrected to be with them for eternal life and those who trust and obey the Christian rules will be rewarded by eternal life.
Christians are thus comforted that even though Jesus died he resurrected and is with them together with the Holy Spirit that was sent to watch over and be companions to all who believe in Christ.
Future Assurance All human beings are always guided by a desire to achieve the set goals with regard to all their commitments, efforts and dedications. People who believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ are guided by the assurances that the bible and other Christian publications offer them with regard to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The main assurance of the resurrection of Jesus Christ is the fact that all who believe in him will enter the kingdom of heaven. When Jesus resurrected he ascended to heaven to prepare a place for all those people who will affirm their faith in him and continue to proclaim his work through their lives.
This means that they are expecting better and good things to come after they have died and resurrected. First, they are guided by high hopes of resurrecting just like Jesus did. Secondly, they are expecting to enter the Kingdom of Heaven where Jesus is seated at the right hand of God awaiting their arrival.
Thirdly, they are expecting a good life without pain or suffering but one filled with praises, worships and celebrations of lives well lived.
The Christian faith strongly advocates for its followers to ignore their present sufferings and temptations as they are stepping stones towards achieving their dreams. They are guided by the fact that the death of Jesus Christ paved way for their deliverance and all those who believe and follow the teachings of this faith will enter the Kingdom of God after death (Licona 20110).
This assurance pushes all Christians to prepare to meet their creator and enjoy all that the Bible promises all those who will keep the Christian torch burning in them until when their death occurs.
Conclusion The Christian faith is largely attributed to the life and times of Jesus Christ as many Christians try to emulate his behavior. The resurrection of Jesus Christ serves as a turning point for many Christians who were destined for eternal punishment due to their sins while on earth.
It should be noted that Christian faith is very much affirmed on the belief that just like Jesus Christ they will die and resurrect and join the many prophets and people who died for the sake of preaching the gospel and those who never allowed suffering or persecution to deter their quest for the word of God.
References Beale, G. K. (2011). New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New Testament. New York: Baker Academic Publishers.
Carson, D. A. (2012). The Intolerance of Tolerance. New York: W. M. B. Erdmann’s Publishers.
Ivy, J. (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus Christ: A Biblicist’s View of the Resurrection. New York: Noiz Inc. Publishers.
Keener, C. (2011). Miracles: The Credibility of the New Testament Accounts. New York: Baker Academic Publishers.
Licona, M. (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiography Approach. Oxford: I.V.P. Academic Publishers.
Wireless Power Transmission Implication for the Environment Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Wireless power involves the transmission of power without using wires or cords. Use of Wireless power transfer technology can lessen or eradicate the need for batteries and wires. Although wireless power has several benefits to the community and the environment, it, also, has negative implications.
This paper will focus on some forms of wireless power transmission, as well as, negative and positive implications of wireless transmission for the environment.
Nikola Tesla introduced the idea of wireless power transmission, in early 20th century. Tesla came up with the notion of electrostatic induction, which entails making exceedingly high potential and alternating variations amid two bits of metal using a tool similar to a Tesla coil.
A field that is electric would be rotating back and forth liberating energy to be arrested by a receiver, among these metal bits. Tesla believed this could be valuable as it would be possible to move the lights anywhere without a cord.
Besides, Tesla hypothesized that by structuring two vast Tesla coils, it would be possible to create this outcome in the entire world. Since then, many notions about the same have emerged, with resonant inductive coupling being the most potential technology.
Resonant inductive coupling uses the basics of wave harmonics to form a strong connection of magnetic waves, which resonate at a similar frequency of harmonic magnetic waves, from 2 coils. Several studies reveal that this technology is extremely competent.
Wireless power transmission can be used in many areas, where the wired power may be unsuitable. However, wireless power technology has many demerits, despite its many applications. Similar to wired power, wireless power has a restricted range.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the range of wired power is clearly visible, since it becomes restricted by a chord, whereas the range of wireless power is not visible as it becomes revealed by a signal. The range of wireless power that gets created by resonant induction coupling can be established from the radius of the coil. High efficiency occurs near the coil’s radius.
Besides, considering its 80% effectiveness, wireless power is less efficient than the usual wired systems. This is because a wireless system some power gets utilized in forming the magnetic field that relays the power from one coil to the other while in a wired system much of the power that becomes directed into a circuit gets to its destination (Glindogdu
Sport and money Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free
Which sports should not have received any money and/or as much money?
Each sports developed in Australia deserves further advancement to introduce the highest professional level at the world level. However, inequality of funding allocations leads to uneven distribution of resources and inadequate development of sports in Australia as a whole.
Funding selected sports, therefore, does not provide fair and transparent development for sports infrastructure. In this respect, I believe that such sports as soccer should not receive as much many as possible because part of this money could be spent on developing the Australian basketball.
Unequal allocation of funding resources for sports hampers the overall growth of Australian professional sports.
In this respect, Hayes (2012) agrees with the former South Wales premier Kristina Keneally who insists, “this sort of major expenditure cannot continually be made on behalf of a select few sports at the expense of other high-participation codes” (n. p.).
Raising questions about funding specific kinds of sports was important because there was an unequal distribution of finance, specifically when it comes to great expenditures on football.
While estimating the statistics received from the ASC, the situation with basketball funding has significantly been changed. Hence, the total investment in sports equals to over $ 5 million per year whereas football funding amounts to about $ 3.5 million (Australian Sports Commission 1).
Such popular sports as hockey and football should have received so much money merely because they are highly popular among people. The money, first of all, should be spent on developing the Australian sport as itself, but not promoting individual athletes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Which sports should have received any money and/or as much money? Why?
Paralympics games should be financed with greater resources because this sport provides incentives for personal and professional growth. People with disabilities taking part in professional sport are much more ambitious and straightforward than people with no physical impairments.
Therefore, the Australian Sports Commission should be more concerned with delivering wider opportunities for people with limited possibilities. Judging from the statistics, blind sports receive $ 65 thousand, deaf sports receive $ 85 thousand, and disabled winter sport has only $ 60 thousand (Australian Sports Commission 1).
All these investment are significantly lower than the funding of football in Australia. Shortage of resources and unequal allocation creates significant problems with sport development in the country.
Judging from the above-presented consideration, sport should be regarded as more than just a game and, therefore, it is worth of governmental funding. In this respect, people who do not make sense of life without sport should be financial supported by the government to sustain their successful professional sport career and fulfill themselves as talented athletes.
Aside from money spent on sports involving disabled people, such sports as basketball and swimming should also be taken in deepest consideration so as to promote promising basketball players and swimmers (Balym, n. p.).
Specifically, corrupted ways of allocating resources on individuals rather on the overall development of sports will not contribute to successful promotion of professional sport development in Australia.
In this regard, more funding should be spent on the equipment, facilities, and coaching rather on individual needs of famous swimmers. Because swimming is a well-developed kind of sports, money should be more spent on engaging new swimmers and promoting new talents to the professional sport.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Sport and money specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Australian Sports Commission. NSO/NSOD 2011/12 Grants and Allocations. Web.
Balym, Todd. Australian Swimmers Angry at Money Spent on Combacks of Ian Thorpe, Michael Klim. Foxsports. 2012. Web.
Hayes, Mark. Kristina Keneally says it’s time for basketball to receive more federal funding. Herald Sun. 2012. Web.
The Impact of Scientific Management in the 21st Century Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Critical Analysis of Scientific Management
Fundamental principles of scientific management
Influence of scientific management in the 21st century
Application of scientific management in organizations
Limitations of scientific management in the 21st century
Introduction According to the theory of management, scientific management refers to strategies that are used to determine how best a certain job can be performed in an organization. Scientific management can also be technically defined as management thought primarily concerned with the physical efficiency of an individual worker (Harris, 2002, p. 377).
According to Ritzer (2010, p. 22), “scientific management is a procedure aimed at production of nonhuman technology exerting control over employees or workers in an organization”. Nowadays, most organizations in the industry make use of scientific management.
Some of these organizations include hospitals, car and computer manufacturing industries, processing plants, hotels and restaurants among others. Despite many criticisms and theories that dismiss the relevance of scientific management in modern times, this paper analyses the impact of scientific management in the 21st century.
Although scientific management has a great, positive impact in the 21st century, it also has some disadvantages. This may influence of scientific management in the current work environments leading to inefficiency.
Critical Analysis of Scientific Management Taylor who is referred to as the father of scientific management developed the theory of scientific management. Before the invention of this theory, most business organizations used the rule of thumb. This is where the worker had the initiative and control.
In the application of the rule of thumb, it was the efforts of the worker which gave results of the business productivity, either a success or failure. According to Taylor (1911, p.133), “the rule of thumb is inefficient such that it cannot not give the desired results as per the industry expectations”. His aim and motion to develop the theory of scientific management was to replace the rule of thumb which was unproductive and inefficient.
Fundamental principles of scientific management There are key principles of scientific management. Some of these principles include time study, functional foremanship, and use of equipment and implements of a high standard in trading, use of standard acts of workmen, use of functions that are uniquely planned among many others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The key principle of scientific management is geared towards ensuring that employees and employers prosper to the maximum. Scientific management not only ensures large revenues to the company, but also ensuring that every branch of business has developed to its high state of excellence.
Again, scientific management does not only ensure higher wages received by the employee than the usual wage of his class, but also the development of each employee for maximum efficiency. Taylor argues that there should be a machine like operation in an organization portrayed by employees in order to ensure efficiency which is directly proportional to profitability.
Scientific management theory asserts that workers should be trained and scientifically selected. This enhances increased profitability in an organization. This is because a highly trained and qualified worker means quality production (Taylor, 1911, 133- 135).
Also, according to the theory of scientific management, the employer should ensure that there is maximum cooperation with the employee. This gives an assurance of perfection in the job. In addition, each work performed by every employee should be tested to ensure that it has utilized the best procedure. This ensures production of quality work hence high profitability (Blake
High Court of Australia Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The Australian High Court is a national monument with historic, judicial and architectural significance to both the people of Australia and scholars. Its architectural design is unique to its time of development and is especially significant as it seeks to portray the important role the judiciary plays in the lives of Australians.
This discussion will especially focus on the importance of the building’s design as well as the use of construction materials within the confines of architecture to bring forth the desired judicial posture of the Australian judiciary.
Precisely, there will be a brief look at the history of the building and as well as the location and site selection. Importantly, the discussion will focus on the Brutalist architectural style that was used to build the structure the rationale behind adoption of this style and the intricate use of materials to produce an architectural finish that reflects the overall Australian judicial aspirations.
There will be an overt emphasis on concrete which is the main building material in the building and an analysis on how concrete is used to bring out the Brutalist style of architecture. Part of the information used in this discussion was provided by an Australian High Court clerk who answered a list of pre determined questions that were asked to him through a phone interview.
High Court of Australia building
The history of the High Court building dates back to 1950 when Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies pushed through plans develop Canberra to a national city where government offices are to be located (MacMahon 2001, p. 147).
In 1972, the government through the NCDC conducted an international architectural completion for the building’s design. Out of a total of 158 designs that the NCDC received, only six made it to the final stage with a winner- Edwards Madigan Torzillo and Briggs Pty Ltd- announced in October 1973 by the Premier Whitlam.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The NCDC advertised for contractors for construction of the building with the tender awarded to PDC Constructions Pty Ltd. The Prime Minister unveiled the foundation plague in 1975 and the project was completed in April 1980. Its official opening took place on May 26th the same year.
Site and Location
The eventual location of the Australian High Court is a result of the original plans by Walter Burley Griffin’s 1911 designs that envisioned a new national capital with a section specifically meant for a group government buildings that astride the Land Axis at the lake side Water Gate.
The designers of the building were fronting for a large building that will effectively reflect the constitutional status of the High Court instead of its actual work related needs.
The Australian government decided in 1968 its decision to transfer the principle seat of the High Court to Canberra whose building was to be located next to the Parliamentary Triangle and the National Library Service. According to Edquist
The Alhambra’s Structure: Buildings and Gardens Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The transformation of the Alhambra
The Alhambra as a metaphor of Paradise
Introduction The Alhambra is now considered to be a real masterpiece of Islamic architecture; to a great extent, it represents a conception of Paradise as it was imagined by Muslim architects of the Middle Ages. This paper is aimed at examining the structure and relations of buildings and gardens in the Alhambra.
In particular, it is necessary to show what kind of purpose various elements of this complex serve and how they complement one another. The main focus will be on such components as the use of water, the selection of plants, architecture, and decorations, especially arabesques.
Overall, it is possible to say that in the course of its history, the Alhambra transformed from an ascetic fortress into a beautiful palace and garden complex that was supposed to recreate or reflect the image of Paradise in various ways.
The transformation of the Alhambra It is worth noting there was no master plan according to which the Alhambra had to be constructed. Its construction began in the middle of the fourteenth century, but since that time this complex was redeveloped and expanded several times (Mauriers
Representation of gender in media Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender and media representation
Representation of role models
Women and men representation in media
Introduction It is amazing to note that some people spend more time feeding on media content than doing an assignment, exercising or even sleeping. While this may be a leisure activity for some people, the impact of media cannot be underestimated today (Bennett 2005, p. 12). This assessment essay focuses on the issue of gender representation in media, with regard to image, roles and stereotypes.
Media representation What is media representation? According to media theorists, representation refers to any model in any medium that defines a real aspect, say, people, events, objects, places and cultural identities among countless abstract concepts. Such representation may be written, spoken or expressed in moving pictures.
In defining media representation, the end products are also considered through the construction of one’s identity. For instance, an issue like “gaze” may consider how women look at images of women, men at women or even women at men (Bennett 2005, p. 12).
An important point to note is that all texts are always constructed irrespective of how realistic they may appear. They do not represent mere recordings or reproduction of pre-existing circumstances that are real (Briggs
The Role of Interactivity to the Success of Reality Television Shows Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Over the years television programs were meant to inform, educate and entertain listeners. Most programs were mostly transmitted in a one direction way.
However, this has changed as most television programs nowadays continuously seek to involve the listeners either to ask questions or to give their opinions and comments concerning the program. The aim of this essay is to investigate the importance of such interactive programs to the listeners. This study is going to use two reality formats of the British television programs.
“As Seen On TV” The Celebrity Expert: How Taste is Shaped by Lifestyle Media
This was a work of art that was created by Helen Powell and Sylvie Prasad. The two have vast experiences in working with the media and are both professionals in the same field. Helen had in the past worked in the advertising industry and is currently employed by the university of East London as a senior lecturer and program leader in advertising.
On her part, Sylvie is currently lecturing media and cultural studies at the University of East London besides being a leader in media practice. The two have explicitly examined and documented the importance of the role of interactivity to the success of the reality television show (Powell
Reproductive Choices Expository Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Anthropology of gender is a discourse that places focus on the social and the cultural construction of gender, and the ideologies surrounding the construction of gender. The field also features the flexibility of gender and the execution of the aspects of gender. Reproductive choices fall under the rights of individuals or groups, with regard to the subject of reproductive rights.
The entitlement to these rights fall under the lawful freedoms, related to the reproduction and the reproductive health of individuals. Reproductive choice, rests upon the regard, accorded to the basic rights of all individuals and couples, in the area of deciding liberally and responsibly, the timing, the number, and the spacing for the desired children.
Any individual is also entitled to the access to information, and the means necessary for their attainment of the highest possible standards of reproductive and sexual wellbeing. These choices, also guarantee that, any individual, will have full liberty to make any decisions about their reproductive nature, without the influence of discrimination, violence or coercion.
Some of the choices accorded, under the bracket of reproductive rights, include the choice to do a safe and legal abortion; the right to use birth control means; the right to receive superior reproductive health services; and the entitlement to access education; so as to reach informed reproductive choices.
Reproductive choices, also give individuals, the entitlement to information on STIs, contraceptives, and freedom from coerced sterilization. Reproductive choices, which fall under reproductive rights, began to be recognized as a subject under the human rights bracket, at the 1968 UN global conference on human rights (Edmeades et al., 2010; Gutmann, 1996).
Discussion The area of reproductive choices is a central area in the study of gender anthropology, mainly because men are key contributors to the reproductive choices available to them, and their women. They also form a substantial aspect of the reproductive choice statistics.
Demonstratively, men’s reproductive health, has become a central area for development and population programs. Further, understanding the reproductive health of men, requires a clear evaluation of the biological and the cultural aspects surrounding the case.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there is an intersection between masculinity and health; as well as the availability of reproductive choices to women, with reference to their male partners.
For instance, different studies have portrayed a larger proportion of women, as not able to dictate the usage of contraceptives during lovemaking. In such cases, many of the women will cooperate with the demands of the men, though it may be putting their reproductive health on the line (La Font, 2003; Nyblade, Jeffreym,
Affect and emotions in consumer decisions Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction What is the difference between the two words, affect and effect? The difference is that effect is used when a causative agent is involved. In psychological realms, it is used in the technical sense of it, e.g., in explaining why a wall has collapsed. An explosion caused by dynamite can be said to be the cause of the collapse (Shapiro and Emde, 1992).
Affect is not easily substantiated as opposed to an effect. It is among the top-notch senses in the human psychology. Affect is a sense found in humans but not in any way affected by pheromones such as smell or taste. It is from the subconscious part of the brain where the affect action takes place.
A person who does something that is attributed to affect only realizes the probable consequence of the action after its execution. Affect does not just represent a feeling; it also encompasses the interaction of the individual with the surrounding environment. This is referred to as cognition in psychology.
Thrift explains that affect is a product of the events that people experience. There exist four approaches used in describing affect. The first one (which was first done by Darwin) includes the study of emotions. This approach has a short coming; it does not include the effect, which is a result of communication. The second one uses a psychoanalytical approach, with an emphasis on the psychological processes of the brain.
It is more biological and revolves around issues such as the desire for something and sexual libido. The third approach uses of an individual’s physical state of mind; it also uses emotional and psychological aspects. Finally, the fourth approach looks at how affect influences other people around it, for instance people and animals (Shapiro et al. 1992).
Among the things that can influence the decisions that an individual makes is emotional status; the emotions that people exhibit are in some way related to what has just been explained as, affect. Emotions give way to the making of a choice by identifying and knowing the cause of a given occurrence. An example could be when a person is angered by a thing, person or situation for being offensive.
Affect does not imply the reverse of human cognitive ability neither is it an irrational way of making decisions (though it may be easily confused for this). It is another way of choosing between the different options that are presented to an individual. Affect and the cognitive ability of the humans have got some influence on each other (Redding 1999). Affect is devoid of any consciousness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there roles that affect plays in the making of decisions? An individual who has to make a decision about walking a tight rope for instance will have to undergo two processes before making this decision. The first part is the reflection on the essential requirement of walking on a tight rope, which is the ability to balance.
There is thought by the visceral side which may raise fears about the consequence of falling down. The ability to rationalize consciously will only take place after there has been some fear on the person due to affect. There is then the preparation of the body by emotions that prepare for anything that could happen.
We can also say that affect happens to people as a result of their interaction with others, or other beings in their environment. It is thus an occurrence between more than one thing and person. Brennan explains that there is an atmosphere that can be described as coming from affect.
That is to say the occurrences outside ones’ body can interfere with the occurrences inside. Affect has got a strong influence on the feelings of a person. This often brings out emotions (Redding 1999).
A feeling can be regarded as a sensation within one self. It could be that of happiness or sadness or even of fear. Emotion can be termed as an exhibition of what one feels, for example, laughing as a result of happiness or shaking as a result of being afraid.
The expression of emotions could either be genuine, or not (Preece and Keller 1990). Whenever people want a product and go for it, the expression of emotion cannot be a result of pretence, in almost all the cases because it costs them. What then is the influence of the two instances affect and emotions in designing of a product with the user in mind?
This can be done by creating need-fulfilling products and services; these have to consider the influence of affect and emotions in their choice in the way that consumers make their choices on the products to buy or use. There are a number of hormones that are involved in the process of decision making by consumers.
We will write a custom Essay on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is from these considerations by designers of products and services that the science of affective computing came into being. Its emphasis was in the link between emotions, and the ability of individuals to make decisions as they learn. Another bit was the incorporation of some functions of the memory.
It was around this time that people with disorders of the mind and those who could not express their emotions were found to be unable to make decisions. Affect has been noted to lack the human mental ability of recognition; it is this property that can be said to be critical as people make decisions about the things that they want (Preece et al. 1990).
In the designing of products, there is the incorporation of a number of aspects; affect being one of them. For instance, the ease of use by the consumer and any form of beautification that can complement this is factored into the design.
It is this beautification that stimulates the senses of the potential consumer as he makes a decision concerning the product, e.g. the design of glasses used in drinking wine and the design of auto teller machines. Other than this, the beauty of any product has to be oriented towards its use. The use of the product should be considered by manufacturers in designing its beauty.
Emotions and affect (which is a form of sense) have to be related to the way an individual is expected use the product. The design of a product or a brand is considered to be a success if it has an effective appeal to the buyers. Product designers have to incorporate another aspect of the human mind as they strive to achieve sales.
These are the emotions that can lead to a reduction in the cognitive capabilities of the human mind. They include fear and anxiety. It is thus necessary for the designer of any product to consider some of the feelings that can be aroused as a result of the design of a product.
For example, when the product is a gadget, for example, a computer and is not easy to use. The design should capitalize on possible emotions as a result of well designed products that may translate to increased uptake by consumers.
An example of such an emotion could be happiness or arousal of the user as a result of the experience of using the product. In short, products should be fun to use (Shanahan, Qu and Wiebe, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Norman (who has written a lot about affect) asserts that products designed in a way making them attractive to people bring about a relaxed feeling and an increased level of creativity to those who use them. The consideration of affect and emotions is not to be limited to the designing of products only, but also to the creating of names that buyers of the products will use in identifying them.
As a result of the appeal to the user or buyer of a product, the name brings the two closer together based om emotions. The trend nowadays among the makers of a commodity is to create a relationship with the buyers of that product that is built on passion and affect.
This is how; companies have been able to exploit the affect of their consumers in order to achieve sales. One of the ways that have been used to achieve this is via the increase in contact between companies and buyers (Shanahan et al. 2006). How this is increased contact achieved?
The increased contact between the two can be achieved through a design of the products that factor in sensory aspects of the human being. For example, fragrance has been used by laptop makers in order to make them smell in a way that is attractive and appealing to consumers.
The other human senses can also be incorporated into the designs, for example, attractive colors, or even cars that are designed in a sexy way. It is these senses that lead to an emotional contact between the consumer and the product. A further explanation on this (i.e., affect and emotion) is that affect can be used in designing a product to make it appealing to the customers.
It is also important to look at the Tardeshian theory in order to understand this further. This theory states that passions are passed on through media unknowingly to people. This can be attributed to cultural interaction and how people have been created biologically (Shanahan et al. 2006).
Both of these can be manipulated. This is useful in the strategic decisions that are used in politics and business. For example, politicians in the United States of America use empathy in their efforts to align their policies with what the majority of the population desire. In this way, they manage to gain substantial amounts of support. It is this strategy that designers of products use when making products.
It is essential to mention that there are emotions that are involved in most potential customer’s decision making. One of them is the emotion that relates to how and what people think. The other is when a person feels satisfied while using a purchased product.
The manufacturers of products have the obligation of making sure that their products will satisfy customers. Users of products in this way get some emotional experience. This is a crude way of one learning about the way he, or she acts as a result of his or her emotions. These people may notice changes in their physiological processes which act as indicators of various emotions.
They may be going through some of these as they make critical decisions on the products that they are to buy. Consumers think that they have a feeling in their gut that directs them to choosing a given product, as opposed to the other. This is based entirely on the emotional value of the product. Little do consumers know that they only choose a product that adds emotional value to their lives (Preece et al. 1990).
Conclusion Clearly, there is an influence of a psychological kind on how people choose the experience to undertake. Moreover, this applies to the choices that they make on the products and services that they buy or use. The psychological influences could be attributed to affect and emotions. These have made consumers have some influence in the design of a product.
Product designers and branding managers have a duty to ensure that their products will arouse an emotional feeling to the end user. Consumers only buy a product based on their emotional experiences with it, and only when its previous use was satisfying.
This is not in the literal sense of it but in the way that those products are in sync with their emotions and affect. Emotions and effect are very crucial in the study of consumer behavior.
References Preece, J and Keller ,L 1990, Human-computer interaction, Prentice Hall in association with Open University,New York.
Redding, P 1999, The logic of affect,Cornell University Press, New York.
Shanahan, J ,Qu,Y and Wiebe,M 2006,Computing attitude and affect in text: theory and applications, Springer,New York.
Shapiro, T and Emde,R 1992, Affect: psychoanalytic perspectives, International Universities Press,Detroit.
The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Increase in the speed of internet
Transformation of media business to digital form
Age and privacy based content restrictions
Introduction A lot has changed in the world of mass media since the introduction of the internet technology. In every step of the internet evolution comes a corresponding change in mass media owing to the fact that most people consider the internet to be the best source of information as the prerogative goes ‘if it is not in the internet it does not exist’.
This means that many people rely on the internet for information and since information provision is the highest mandate of mass media, they have to be at the same level with their audiences.
Convergence in relation to mass media is defined by Benkler (2006, p. 33) as “the interrelationship that has occurred in the development of the internet as a result of association between communication networks, ICT facilities and the media”. This is believed to have played a major role in the recent developments in the media industry as far as communication and broadcasting are concerned.
The concept of convergence is better understood when it is dissected into four subsections. The first is in the view of technology which in the words of Benkler (2006, p. 49) involves “the combination of computing, communications and content around networked digital media platforms”.
Second is the industrial view of convergence which involves the growth and development of digital media space that has allowed online companies to flourish, some of which include Microsoft, Google among others. The third view is social based which involves the evolution of the social network characterized by the coming up of social media of the likes of YouTube, Facebook and Twitter.
Finally is the textual view of convergence which involves the reproduction of media into what is commonly referred to as transmedia. This according to Benkler (2006, p.50) is a platform where “stories and media content such as sounds, images, written text and so on are dispersed across multiple media platforms”.
From this it is clear that the internet evolution has played an explicit role in the development of convergence media in a number of ways as explained in the paragraphs that follow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increase in the speed of internet Research findings conducted by Lister (2006, p.125) and documented in his book The Wealth of Networks: How social production transforms markets and freedoms, indicate that “as of December 2010, there were 10.45 million active internet subscribers in Australia, of which 8.15 million were household subscribers and 2.3 million were business and government subscribers”.
This figure is considered to be a 17% growth from the previous years’ figure of 8.95 million. Besides, it was discovered that more than 3 million people above the age of 14 used their mobile handsets to access the internet in December 2010, and this is considered to be a rise compared to the previous years’ 1.9 million.
From this we can deduce that households which were the highest targets for the mass media have now found another source of information and entertainment which is the internet.
These statistics also indicate that in the recent past, the number of internet users has increased partly due to the universal availability, convenience and high speeds. The availability of the internet through mobile devices, specifically phones, has played a major role in the development of convergent media.
Most people can now access the internet in the comfort of their homes unlike earlier on when internet services were only available in cyber cafes. The internet speeds have also increased incredibly and the cost reduced to make it even more convenient for households.
People are able to get information real time while travelling or when they are in the comfort of their homes. As a result, it has dawned on the media personnel that the best way to transfer information to the public is through the internet, mostly on social networks.
This explains why platforms such as twitter broadcast breaking news and it reaches the world over in a matter of seconds after the occurrence. Before it would take a number of hours before the journalists themselves get the information so that they can relay to the public within their region.
We will write a custom Essay on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For news and information to reach people across boundaries, it would take days and at times even fail to reach owing to logistical complications. From this, it is clear that the internet has played a major role in media convergence and in the alteration of the core tendencies in the mass media business.
Transformation of media business to digital form The incredible increase in internet usage among the masses has seen to it that the most valuable and believed information is what is obtained from the internet. Most people seek information concerning various subjects on the internet and they take what they get as the gospel truth.
Examples of the most commonly sought information includes slimming tips, body building and exercising tips, ideas on nutrition, medical advice and information on various diseases and health conditions and so on.
Earlier on, this information was being sought from magazines and those people offering these services would buy into the advertising space. This however changed with the evolution of the internet; hence indicating that print media is almost becoming a forgotten thing.
Digitalization of the media has provided a more convenient platform for obtaining information, since it is just a matter a click and one gets all the information they need. Video platforms such as YouTube ensure that video adverts and other information presented in visual form can be accessed as well.
It is even possible to stream television programs from the internet, hence rendering TV’s obsolete as well. The internet in this case is considered more convenient owing to portability and reliability.
This is what fits into the lifestyles of most people nowadays: characterized by more things to do and less time to do them. This means that most people are unable to sit down and catch up on the evening news, hence preferring the best alternative, the internet, which they can access while on the move.
Media globalization In the recent years, the wave of globalization has been experienced in the world over and this credit is owed to the internet. It is now possible to catch up on the happenings in other continents across the oceans with just a click. Globalization has also encouraged the businesses to be conducted globally, from a focal point.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While carrying out businesses in different parts of the world, it is no longer necessary to make the frequent travels to these regions, thanks to the internet. Conferences are conducted across continents through teleconferencing facilities, orders are made through the electronic mails services and payments made through e-payment platforms such as PayPal.
The entertainment industry, particularly, has benefitted from the whole concept of globalization since they are now able to reach the entire world in a matter of seconds. This industry is considered as the backbone of mass media since people are in constant search for relaxation and fun.
Recently, mobile devices which allow users to watch movies online and stream music from various radio stations across the continent have been developed. As a result of this, competition in the media industry is no longer local but international.
This has led to the increasing rate of international broadcasts as opposed to the local broadcasts done before. In order for the media houses to obtain this information that they need from other regions, they need the internet so that they can be in correspondence with their agents around the globe.
This explains the rise and growth of international media houses such as CNN and BBC whose success is greatly owed to the internet innovations. These media houses rely on satellite technology to send and receive information real time such that it can be viewed in many other parts of the world just like it is being viewed at home.
In other words, a person watching CNN news from the United States is watching the same thing with someone else in another continent; say Africa, all owed to the internet technology.
Enhanced innovation The other way in which the internet has contributed to the development of media convergence is by increasing the rate of innovation. With the introduction of the internet, it is now possible to develop products and test them in a matter of days. Software developers are always coming up with programs to be used in different industries to ease the process of production.
The media industry is no exception in this. Earlier on, obtaining information especially in visual form required a travel to where the information is being obtained from.
This has however changed since pictures and videos are being posted on the internet in a matter of seconds. These contents are used to make news even on print media, since all there is to do is to obtain permission from the owner and publish the information from the internet.
The media is also widely known for using the social network as a broadcasting tool. This is one innovation that has proved successful as far as communication is concerned. Events all over the world are made known to the entire world in seconds.
Intellectual property is becoming more and more famous with most countries being forced to adapt to the rules governing this kinds of property.
In the bid to explain the extent to which the internet has contributed to media convergence as far as innovations are concerned, Benkler (2006 p. 137) asserted that “there is an interrelationship between developments which include the growing share of intangible capital, growing speed and intensity of innovation and the increasing diversity of sources of innovation, the ICT revolution and the rise of knowledge based communities and global knowledge networks”.
All these have contributed to the media evolution over the years and still remain to be the highest ranked drivers to innovation in the media industry.
Age and privacy based content restrictions In the earlier years, it was possible for the media people to conceal some information for the sake of underage audiences as well as information that was considered discrete for privacy purposes. This was mostly done by airing adult programs late at night or giving a disclaimer before the program begins and leaving it upon the parents to enforce the rules.
This however changed with the internet era since everything on the TV can also be viewed through the internet and even worse, teenagers no longer wait for their parents to go to bed before they sneak into the living room to watch pornographic videos.
They have this at their disposal wherever they are with their mobile phone devices, not only for viewing but also sending to other people. This means that the media efforts of maintaining morality in the society have been rendered useless.
In the history of the media, there has existed a tighter regulation regarding the widely used media such as television, cinema and video as compared to print media. This is owing to the fact that the latter is more discrete and concise in the information presented therein.
As a result, changes related to convergence have affected the former to great extents. In fact a report presented by Lister (2003, p. 78) in his book New Media: A critical introduction book observed that “the public own the airwaves; and since frequencies are scarce, and the broadcast media are influential, to grant a broadcast license is to bestow a privilege.
This privilege carries with it an obligation to provide the public with programs which meet the standards it expects”. Since a majority of the viewers are young people in their teens and early twenties, the same generation greatly influenced by the internet technology, the media houses have to be at par with the information available on the internet.
The internet in this case might work for them or against them. It works for them in the sense that they are able to get updated information from all over the world promptly. It can however work against them in the event where their potential audience obtains all the information they need from the internet and this can happen if the media proves to be an unreliable source of information.
Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that the major changes experienced in the mass media industry have been as a result of the internet evolution. The internet has influenced the media in both negative and positive ways and despite the damage brought about by this; it has proved difficult to control.
The internet is open to the public and most attempts to privatize information on the internet normally prove futile due to the existence of hackers. It is also not possible to have a viewers’ discretion policy since it is mostly controlled by a series of systems unlike human control.
The only place where this can be possible is in the cyber cafes which are also becoming irrelevant with the advent of mobile devices. Most homes today are connected to the internet and it has also been proved that people spend more time on the internet than watching their favorite programs on TV.
This has therefore forced the media personalities to up their strategies and use the internet for their good before it down plays the industry completely.
References Benkler, Y 2006, The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Lister, M 2003, New media: a critical introduction. Routledge, London.
Program Planning and Evaluation Proposal custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Needs Assessment and Rationale
Program Goals and Objectives
Introduction Program planning is an indispensable responsibility of field workers. Program planners not only plan but also implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of their programs.
According to Waterston, (1965), program development is viewed as an ongoing process that consist of a study of the situation, thinking about long range and immediate objectives and choosing learning experiences that would be constructive as far as the target audience is concerned.
On his part, Kettner, Moroney and Martin (2008) viewed program planning as the process of constructing various actions to shed light to community development. Blair (1998) does not divert from the views of Kettner, Moroney and Martin since he defines program planning as a set or a number of related events that portray some needed actions aimed at achieving certain objectives over a specified time.
In his view, objectives show what are to be attained. The same objectives can be revised as new knowledge is generated. Knepper (2010)argues that there are a number of factors that must be considered when designing a program. Firstly, the planner must work with the lay advisory committee.
Again, the program planner should explore and describe the general situation of communities being planned for. Other factors include identification of problem areas and their prioritization, stating of objectives, preparation of a program document including work plans and finally monitoring and evaluation of the program.
From the above information, it is evident that a good program requires careful planning whereby the planner should set goals and objectives, evaluate the effectiveness of the program, implement its tenets and monitor the implementation process.
Program planning is not an easy task hence it is imperative for a project planner to come up with various techniques that would help him or her counter the challenges associated with implementation. In this paper, the planner would wish to introduce an online help center where clients could acquire information pertaining to community services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Program Description With the emerging technologies the world, Skype has turned out to be a new phenomenon in the cyber world. In fact, it is almost a necessity, just like the email address. In this proposal, the planner intends to use the tool in relaying information to the locals as regards to health, especially mental health.
The planner would set up the Skype center so that people with mental problems can easily seek for advises. The service is very efficient since it permits the planner to communicate with the locals without any difficulty. It has an advantage over the local phones since it transmits both analog and digital information without any interruptions.
For this reason, the planner will have to register an account with the service provider in order to make calls with other registered users. For this case, community members would be encouraged to open accounts with the service provider for easier communication (Glauser, 2011). The service has one more advantage, which is related to the cost.
It is relatively cheap as compared to other means of communication. This would suit the wishes of the planner since this program suffers from funding. The terms of payment for Skype service is friendly to the user since an individual goes for the one that best suits him or her.
Community members would be comfortable reporting their health problems without necessary using many resources. The transportation costs would be reduces since the community members use money to seek advisory services regarding their health.
However, the planner would need initial capital to put up structures that would house employees. Communication equipments would also be installed.
Needs Assessment and Rationale There are two concepts that are central in the process of planning. These include planning and projects. In the preparatory phase of any project, the planner aspires to establish various stages that are critical in the project planning. Each stage has its own importance. Stage one entails a decision to adopt planning. The planner needs to establish this in advance before proceeding to fulfill any other task.
We will write a custom Proposal on Program Planning and Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The subsequent stage is the organization for planning stage. This stage is only arrived at after the planner has adopted the program. In the second stage, the planner would consider coming up with a program that would suit the demands of the audience, which is provision of information regarding health and mental awareness information.
For this to happen, the planner establishes the work force and determines how much resources are available to accomplish the task. For the Skype program, the planner would need adequate resources for financing website formation and advertising the same site through the social media such as yahoo and twitter.
The third stage in need assessment and rationale would be setting goals, objectives and targets. The performance of the program is measured in terms of its ability to achieve goals and objectives that are set for it. Goals are abstract and specify what planning should ideally achieve in the medium and long term.
Based on the Skype program, goals would be both short-term and long-term. On the other side, objectives are more precise implying that they are operational statements that represent specific steps necessary in attaining chosen goals. They are different from goals since they are specifically achieved in a shorter period.
Progress toward their attainment can be measured and evaluated. Targets are least specific since they are clear statements about what should be achieved over a given time period. It should be noted that in advance that goals, objectives and targets change, especially in the medium to long-term.
As implementation, monitoring and evaluation go on; they generate new lessons that help in changing these stages in the planning cycle. At the third stage, the planner needs to assess various variables that may affect project implementation. Each goal and objective should be rationalized, implying that a sensible reason should be given for its existence (Celotta,
Hudson’s Alpine Furniture Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Daily operational issues
Introduction The following analysis explores the production and operations management approaches employed Hudson’s Alpine Furniture. This critical evaluation would give some detailed account on some of the production and operation management issues that adversely affected the profitability of Hudson’s.
Therefore, it could be argued that the company made serious management strategy of adopting its new line of furniture business. Though, the sales were increasing the costs of holding stock rose to a bigger margin. The applicable approach to this case analysis is the use of theory of constraints, which is very critical in the production and operations management of Hudson Alpine Furniture Company (Steyn 2000 p.363).
The constraints theory is relevant in the production and operations management of this company since it would help in solving the issues witnessed in adopting the new commercial furniture deal. Under this theoretical approach, Hudson’s performance could be evaluated based on its production output in terms of sales revenue earned, inventory, and operational costs.
The variations in these three measures would be critical in assessing the performance of the company. The incorporation of this theory of constraints would be important in assessing the rate at which the company is capable of generating money through its furniture sales against the amount of money invested in producing the furniture inventory and the operational expenses.
These theoretical approaches to the production and operation management principles are essential in determining the necessary conditions, which ought to be reached first. In this case, it can be ascertained that its goal is that of making profit, which is the necessary condition (Steyn 2000, p.367).
Therefore, it is important to understand the most applicable procedures that are necessary in making the best financial decisions, which are based on the sales revenue earnings, operating expenses as well as the inventory (Schragenheim, Dettmer
Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes Analytical Essay essay help online
Introduction Several incidents concerning medical waste being spotted on public and private beaches have drawn a lot of public attention on the issue of management of medical waste. One such incident happened back in June 1987, when in Indiana polis, twelve children were found playing with blood vials that they had picked from a bin placed outside an HMO medical office.
Two of these vials were infected with the AIDS virus (10). These issues and others raise concerns on how medical waste is handled, treated and disposed.
Medical waste can be defined as all the waste that is generated by health facilities and other sources such as funeral homes, research laboratories, doctor’s clinic funeral homes, nursing homes and veterinary facilities.
These wastes consists the hazardous (radioactive materials), infectious also referred to as red bag waste and any other waste generated within the facility (4). Medical waste although not voluminous, is infectious and toxic and leads to serious environmental pollution (1).
Background Information According to Environmental protection Agency (EPA), hospitals generate around 3.2 million tons of medical wastes per annum. (10). 10 to 15 0percent of this medical waste generated is infectious. In most hospitals, the non infectious waste is land filled while the infectious one is incinerated.
Medical waste requires proper handling, disposal and treatment to minimize the environmental and health risks associated with it. Illegal or careless disposal of medical waste not only creates an aesthetic and health problem, but also increases public apprehension on the existing medical waste management methods.
Due to the liabilities and the safety related concerns, some municipals refuse or ban any medical waste from their incinerators and landfills. Various states have prohibited all un-sterilized infectious waste from the municipal landfills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The states have also banned construction of commercial incinerators handling medical waste. These afro mentioned bans, have made it increasingly difficult for medical facilities and hospitals in the country to properly manage medical waste (3).
This situation is further complicated by the lack of clear and concise regulatory climate. These inconsistencies are present in the Federal guidelines laid down by the States with regards to the definition of medical waste and the management options available for handling, transporting, treating and disposing medical waste (5).
The current situation can only change if the Congress adopts bills relating to medical waste management. In the meantime, most states have been mandated to devise their own plans and programs of managing the medical waste generated. This means that there are a lot of variations between different states and local requirements.
This paper aims at looking at the disposal problems posed by medical waste for both the local government and hospitals, the methods used in disposing medical waste, the long term implications medical waste has on the environment and the conclusions drawn from the discussion (2).
Classification of Medical Wastes Medical waste is heterogeneous in nature as it comprises a variety of materials ranging from general waste such as food, office waste and non-infectious waste from patients. It also includes infectious waste e.g. contaminated sharps and blood products, hazardous waste generated from pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic chemicals from chemotherapy, mercury as well as radioactive wastes.
Classifying infectious waste has proved difficult due to the variations resulting from different State regulations (10). These different classifications lead to inconsistency in storage, disposal and treatment practices across different states. The variations also influence the preferred treatment methods, cost of management and eventually, the possible environment and health hazards created by these wastes.
Around 10 to 15 percent of all medical waste is infectious but this percentage can differ from 3 to 90 percent, depending on the definition and procedure adopted (10). The state entities, EPA and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have all tried to find the proper definition of infectious waste based on the characteristics of the waste.
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to EPA, infectious waste is any waste with the possibility of causing an infectious disease. EPA has broadened its category of infectious waste compared to CDC. This has led to the adoption of EPA instead of CDC guidelines, in hospitals and other areas that generate medical waste, helping in minimizing potential environmental and health risks (4).
Another concern is whether to classify infectious waste as hazardous which will increase the cost of managing it due the construction of special facilities. Such a move would improve the management of medical waste, but lead strict regulations and prosecution of illegal dumpers.
Some of the wastes recommended to be included in the infectious category are waste from dialysis, stocks and cultures with infectious agents, blood products and human blood, contaminated sharps, soiled dressings, surgical gloves sponges and other surgical waste (6).
Varied definition of infectious and hazardous medical waste has led to the public being exposed to this hazardous waste that poses a health risk. For example, the public was barred from accessing beaches in the East coast after bloody bandages, sutures and needles were found in the shores.
Infectious waste is sent to the incinerators, thus if the category was broadened as discussed above, such waste would not have ended up in the beaches (10).
Handling of Medical Waste There are various occupational hazards associated with handling medical waste. Waste handlers and health workers are primarily exposed to this type of risk as they more than often handle this waste. Handling hospital waste include packing, storing and transporting it properly to avoid any contamination and littering as discussed below;
Packaging- before packaging any medical waste, it must be sorted into different categories and packed accordingly. This is a time consuming activity and quite risky to the handler. Bulk waste is put in polythene bags and colors used in differentiating different categories of wastes. Infectious waste is placed in red bags and all the waste is securely closed in readiness for storage or transportation. Sharps are put in puncture proof containers due to their infectious capability and also due to their prick injuries (7).
Storage- hospitals must designate special areas for storing the waste before it is transported or disposed. The area must be regularly disinfected and kept at the right temperature. According to EPA, storage areas must have the bio-hazard symbol and sufficient packaging to prevent vermin’s and rodents from accessing the area. The waste must also be stored for the shortest period possible, although EPA does not give the stipulated period, leading to a State disparity in specified temperatures and times. Lack of uniformity in regulating storage temperature and time can sometimes lead to increased rates of putrefaction and microbial growth (8).
Transportation- EPA guidelines address the movement of infectious of waste on-site briefly, and provide limited information on how to move this waste off-site. Such recommendations involve using leak proof and rigid containers to move the waste and not using mechanical loading devices that can rapture packed waste. There are no guidelines on how to handle and transfer medical waste off-site. Although EPA, recommends that hazard labels be put on all medical waste in accordance to Federal, State and municipal regulations, the energy and transport department limit the use of this label, confusing commercial waste handlers (10).
Varied definition of infectious waste across different states complicates the matters and increases the likelihood of improper disposal and potential exposure to the public.
For example, if a state does not classify bloodied sutures and bandages as infectious waste, it can dispose this waste from another state in the municipal landfill. However, such waste can be washed by storm water to the beaches and pose a health risk (9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Methods Used In Disposing Medical Waste Incineration
As hospitals generate a lot of waste, both non-infectious and infectious wastes are incinerated together. There is no data on the exact waste incinerated in hospitals or information on the number of current medical incinerators available.
Municipal incinerators burn a large volume of waste compared to hospital ones. However, hospital incinerators are situated in highly populated regions, leading to a greater probability of public exposure to toxic fumes and air pollutants.
These small incinerators emit higher levels of pollutants, although few risk assessments are carried out, making it impossible to evaluate the risks emanating from these incinerators in comparison to other sources e.g. the municipal incinerators (10).
Moreover, the short stacks in hospital incinerators might permit emissions from the incinerators to go into the hospitals via windows and air-conditioning ducts. Hospitals in US use three types of incinerators namely: rotary kiln models, multiple chamber air and controlled air.
Most medical waste incinerators are closed air, since they are associated with lower costs and lesser pollution. The advantage associated incinerators is that they can reduce large volumes of waste, sterilize it, and make it possible for it to be disposed traditionally through landfills. Secondly, modern incinerators harness the heat created during the process and use it to power generators within the facility (8).
Autoclaving uses steam sterilization in treating wastes before they are sent off to the landfills. Autoclaving is done in closed compartments, where pressure and heat are applied generating steam, within a given length of time so as to sterilize medical apparatus.
All microorganisms found in the medical waste are destroyed by the steam generated and then disposed off disposed in landfills. After autoclaving medical waste, it undergoes compaction through shredding so that it is not used for any other purposes and then later on disposed in the landfills.
However, autoclaving is not recommended for pathological waste due to the presence of low levels of radiation. The advantage of this method is that it can be used in processing 90 percent of medical waste and compaction reduces the volume of waste after (7).
Long term Environmental Implications of Medical Waste Improper disposal of medical waste have far reaching environment impacts. Disposal of medical waste in oceans or other water bodies can lead to contamination of water by the pathogens found in this waste. Medical wastes such as soiled bandages or plastic gloves destroy the aesthetic appearance of the environment when they litter the beach or other places.
On the other hand, the disposal methods used in getting rid of the medical waste causes serious air pollution. According to a JAMA study carried out in 2009, the health sector accounts for 8 percent carbon emission (8). Most of the medical waste is plastic that produces furans and dioxins during combustion.
Most old medical incinerators have no equipment for controlling pollution. The incinerator ash generated from combusting contaminated waste may contain potentially toxic chemicals that will end up in the landfill and cause environmental pollution.
When autoclaving is used in disposal, the waste might not completely sterilized since the density and volume of material being sterilized determine the effectiveness of the process (7). There is a possibility of incomplete sterilization if the autoclave is overloaded and these pathogens will end up in the landfill, polluting the environment and posing a health risk to the public.
Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that poor regulatory framework has hindered proper management of medical waste disposal. Medical waste is disposed through incineration and autoclaving, but both methods cause environmental pollution and pose a risk to the public health.
Incineration releases toxic gases, while in autoclaving there is the risk of incomplete sterilization, transferring pathogens to the landfills. It is important for medical facilities to adopt new technology in waste disposal to reduce the environmental pollution.
References Landrum, VJ. Medical waste management and disposal. California:William Andrew; 1991.
NBCE. Medical, municipal and plastic waste management handbook. New Delhi: National Institute of Industrial Re; 2007.
Office of technology Assessment. Finding the Rx for managing medical wastes. Washington DC: Diane Publishing; 1990.
Friedman, M M and Rhinehart, E. Infection Control in Home Care. Sudbury: Jones
Sustainability project – Amcor site best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Murray Basin River
The AMCOR housing and parking project
Differences in the two projects
Scale and other aspects
Introduction Climate science is an area of science where virtual methods are widespread and the political stakes are high, because climate change as a result of emission of anthropogenic GHGs seems to demand a cessation of fossil fuel combustion and the use of alternative energy sources so dear to environmentalists.
It is important to note that climate change is an area of science where models inevitably play an important role (Kellow 2007). Environmental conservation for sustainability is an important aspect in the day to day activities on the globe.
This paper discusses environmental conservation for sustainable management of resources. It utilizes the examples of the Murray River water conservation project and the AMCOR housing and parking project. The two projects differ in different aspects that include scale and sustainability.
The Murray Basin River The Murray Basin River is composed of a large area that is estimated at approximately 1,000,000 KM2. It is approximately one-seventh of the total land mass of Australia. A large part of the basin is flat with extensive plains that are less than 200M in altitude above sea level.
The basin has been transformed by major constructions of water storage facilities along the river system. The water storage facilities are meant to regulate the flow of water, conserve water and also for hydro-electric power generation. The major storages include Dartmouth and Lake Victoria.
Hume and the Menindee Lake are also other major water storage facilities that regulate the water flow. These structures make it possible for water to be stored during the wet periods. This water is later released during the dry season (Haisman, 2004). There have also bee important development in agriculture due to these facilities.
Natural inflows in the reservoirs vary from seasons to season especially in the Hume reservoir. Thus, the Northern darling System flows generously throughout the summer while the Southern Murray system is actually a winter rainfall system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to facilitate all these, the Commonwealth Government has set aside funds that are distributed throughout the territories. The funds are distributed on the basis of progress of implementation of reforms. The council of Australian governments predates the national competition policy in that there is close interaction between the states that aim at achieving the goals of sustainable and efficiency of the rural and urban industries in Australia.
The council of Australian governments has enacted policies that control the water pricing system, ecological conservation, and enactment of comprehensive systems of water allocation. The council is also charged with the mandate of water allocation, trading and cross border sales of water, and separation of resource management from water service provision.
The AMCOR housing and parking project The Amcor site is housing and parking project that is predominantly a residential community project that will involve several aspects of environmental conservation for sustainability. The achievements of the project are meant to show how ecological sustainability and environmental management can cause sustainability of the environment.
The project is also meant to interface with the Yarra River corridor. This will act as a refuge from the built environment thereby buffering the indigenous vegetation and wildlife. The project also incorporates convenience retailing services and community facilities within walking distance of homes.
This will also create employment opportunities along the Heidelberg Road. It is also important to note that the project will restrict space that is paved for roads and parking. This will maximize the availability of land so that the remaining land can be used for other productive activities.
It will also make sure that cars do not dominate the roads in the area thereby reducing traffic and creating a safe haven for children. It is also meant to make walking around the place a pleasant experience. At the end of the project there will be homes for a diversity of households including some affordable housing.
There will also be respect among the existing neighborhood character whereby there will be cohesiveness in the community across south Alphington and south Fairfield (Australian Government. 2011).
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Cause and Effect of Poverty Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Effects of poverty on health
Effects of poverty on educational attainment
Effects of poverty on migration patterns
Poverty can be described in a number of ways. For example, the disparities in income and wealth are considered as a sign of poverty since the state is related to issues of scarcity and allocation of resources and influence.
Although poverty is most prominent among developing countries, studies indicate that the condition is also noticeable among the developed countries. Poverty may also be defined as the combined status of poor individuals (John
Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy Essay college essay help
Introduction At the moment, the business environment is characterized by a high rate of dynamism as a result of technological advancement, coupled with a high rate of globalization. To survive in such an environment, firms operating in different economic sectors are increasingly considering ways through which they can develop a competitive advantage in the facing of the mounting competition.
A firm only attains a competitive advantage over its rivals after the implementation of a unique competitive strategy. A competitive strategy refers to the decision regarding how a firm intends to establish itself in a certain domain. The competitive strategy entails both offensive and defensive mechanisms which are aimed at dealing with the five competitive forces (Vallabhaneni, 2009, p. 15).
These forces include barrier to entry, rivalry from firms in the industry, the threat of substitute, supplier bargaining power and lastly, buyer bargaining power. There are a wide range of competitive strategies that firms may decide to incorporate in their daily operations. The main strategies include cost leadership, differentiation strategy, cost focus, broad differentiation, and low cost strategy (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.223).
Firms adopt different competitive strategies depending prevailing environment in the market. For example, Fiat Motor Company integrated a broad-line competitive strategy in its operations. This competitive strategy means that the car manufacturer is a regional producer of a wide range of automobiles.
Through an effective implementation of a competitive strategy, a firm is able to create value for its products. The resultant effect is that the firm attains a high competitive edge over its rivals in the market. On the other hand, to survive in the long run, it is important for firms to ensure that they implement a sustainable competitive advantage.
In the 21st century, the purchasing behavior of consumer has undergone a major change and if at all firms do not keep pace with these changes, they are likely to lose a large share of their market to their dynamic rival companies that have embrace the changes.
The change in the purchasing behavior of consumers is worsened by the increase in the degree of complexity within the business environment as a result of technological advancement arising from innovation and the high rate of globalization (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To attain a high competitive edge, firms have deemed it appropriate to adopt the integrated cost and differentiation strategy. The research paper endeavors to examine whether or not it is suitable for forms to implement integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy in an effort to attain competitive advantage.
Arguments for integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy According to Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2009, p.147), a firm which has adopted integrated cost and differentiation strategy is more efficient in its operations compared to a firm that has incorporated only one business-level strategy.
For example, a firm that has incorporated an integrated strategy is able to respond to the changes in the business environment more effectively. This is due to the fact that the firm is not constrained in the implementation of its strategy. However, the firm can easily change its competitive strategy depending on the prevailing business conditions.
An integrated cost and differentiation strategy also provides a firm with an opportunity to enhance its human capital. For example, the firm’s employees can easily learn new skills. According to Ogbor (2009, p.254), developing the skills of a firm’s employees play a vital role in the firm’s efforts to attaining a competitive advantage in the market.
Alternatively, a firm can also easily take advantage of technological advancement in the industry. The acquisition of current technologies and new skills means that there is a high probability for firms to advance in their core competences.
The result is that the firms will be able to produce highly differentiated products that add value to the customers. Currently, consumers are increasingly demanding differentiated products and services at low prices (Manning 2001, p. 32).
Further, the integration of new technology may result in a firm undertaking its production cost effectively. Consequently, the firm in question is better placed to attain competitiveness owing to the low cost of its products.
We will write a custom Essay on Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy greatly enhances the attainment of competitive advantage through low pricing and ensuring that customers attain value for their money (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121). For example, the differentiation strategy can enable a firm to adopt an integrated premium pricing strategy.
On the other hand, the cost leadership contributes towards a firm being effective in its pricing strategy. For example, a firm can be able to set the price of its products at a relatively low point compared to its competitors. This may culminate into an increment in the firm’s sales revenue considering that consumers are price sensitive in their purchasing patterns (Viney, Winchester
Ethical Concepts in Business Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities
Introduction Ethics is a term used to refer to something that is beneficial to people. In other words, it creates a notion of doing the right thing. In business field, ethics entails adopting values that are beneficial to the business as well as the society. Ethical principles should therefore be based on human respect, integrity, being compassionate, caring and honesty. This means that individuals and businesses should be involved in promoting and protecting human rights. In addition, it calls for responsible citizenship (Chun 281).
Ethical Concepts The ethics of virtue is one of the concepts that relate to hiring of people with disabilities. It argues that human acts are observed intentionally. They are not achieved as result of chance. It entails application of good values such as tolerance and understanding. In other words, business ethics concepts revolve around virtues.
Fairness, honesty and integrity are among them. Fairness as the ethical concept has a big influence in this case. The computer technology industry goes against the ethical concept by not hiring disabled veterans. The concept puts it clearly that all businesses should treat all people equally in any commercial dealings and especially during recruitment.
Ethical Philosophy Research has shown that disabled veterans are best employees. They are not expensive to employ and maintain. For example they are cheaper in terms of insurance and safety. Moreover, accommodations provided are cost neutral because they act as morale to workers hence high productivity (Barclay and Markel 338).
Disabled veterans are also beneficial to the business. They have ability to learn given a new environment. This is due to their previous exposure and experience, they can adapt to the new environment fast. Their diversity and flexibility to work as team or as individuals allows them to be a mark higher than the ordinary workers. In addition, being veterans is a clear indication that they uphold integrity and thus the best in today’s business industry.
Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities Hiring veterans with disabilities requires a given organization to provide certain reasonable accommodations. This is because their conditions are demanding and the organizations must put that into consideration for them to be productive.
Providing reasonable accommodation to veterans with disabilities is beneficial to the business. This is because their skills, experiences and educational qualifications are actively utilized by the organization in order to realize its goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like the other employees, disabled veterans exhibit reliability and trustworthiness and acceptable business ethics. In addition, they portray positive values such as being passionate about what they do with a positive mind as well as going extra mile.
Ethical approaches can be employed to realize Advancement in the workplace of workers with disabilities. For example when businesses uphold integrity, fairness and honesty, it means that they have respect for both humans and the environment.
They will therefore assume the social responsibility as it is required. For disabled persons, the business will provide the necessary accommodations in order to make the maximum profits. Various accommodations in this case include transport, availing necessary facilities, flexible time schedules and modifying the work environment in general.
Conclusion In business ethics it is unethical to discriminate workers on basis of their disabilities. In fact, any business practicing such as in the case of computer technology industry mentioned above, can act as tool to bring it down. Hiring veterans with disabilities exhibit acceptable business ethics and can be used to improve an image of a given business.
Veterans with disabilities are potential workers with skills and experience just like other people. They should therefore not be discriminated at all cost. Instead, they should be provided with favorable accommodations that will enable them to be productive.
Works Cited Barclay, L. and Markel, K. “Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Disabilities.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2009: 333-345.
Chun, R. “Ethical Character and Virtue of Organizations: An Empirical Assessment and Strategic Implications.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2005: 269-284.
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American Government’s War on Drugs Essay a level english language essay help
History of war on drugs The issue of drug usage and supply has dominated the public domain throughout the 20th century. This was mainly because the drug market was purely unregulated. As a result, accessing drugs and substances containing derivatives of various drugs was also easy, including medical prescriptions that contained cocaine and heroin.1
During early years of the 20th century, legislation played a major role in regulating the use of drugs in the United States and all over the world.
For instance, the Pure Food and Drug Act, adopted in the year 1906 was to guard the society against poisonous drugs before it was amended in 1912 to address the issue of drugs carrying wrong labels. In 1914, the Harrison Tax Act was passed to prohibit the sale of heroin and cocaine.
By the mid of 1930s, the Marihuana Tax Act was adopted and aimed at imposing taxes on marihuana. Although this drug was considered to be safe, law enforcers believed that if allowed to be supplied freely, it would become a gateway for other drugs like heroin.
It was during the tenure of President Dwight D. Eisenhower that the war against drugs began, with the Narcotic Control of 1956 heightening the penalties associated with supply and usage of drugs. In 1954, the president called for a national war on drugs.
Similarly, President Nixon’s regime demonstrated the willingness to fight drugs by ending the importation of marijuana from Mexico through tight cross-border security measures. Additionally, the formation of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 was a milestone in strengthening the war as it gave federal government an upper hand in fighting drug abuse.
In 1971, President Nixon declared that drug abuse was “the number-one public enemy,” and stepped up efforts directed on fighting the scourge. Besides enforcement of the law, the president emphasized the need to treat drug addicts.2 He also engaged celebrities in spreading the news about the negative effects of drugs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970s, drug abuse was considered by many as a law enforcement problem that required criminal-justice strategies to fight. The inclusion of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) into the federal law equally boosted efforts to save the society from the dangers of drug abuse.3
Nancy Reagan is also remembered for her campaigns in schools, teaching students about the effects of drug abuse. Her activism drew huge attention and became the core of the anti drug war. By focusing on the impact of drug abuse on children, it was easy for anti drug administration to formulate stronger legislation that would protect existing and future generations.
During that time, cocaine was th most abused drug followed by heroin, which usage was rampant among African-Americans. The popularity of cocaine continued to grow among middle-class Americans as it was processed into smaller blocks to enhance easy acquisition by people from different social classes.
As a result, the Antidrug Act of 1986 was established to discourage the use of “crack” by introducing the 100:1 ratio, which meant that a person found with 50g of crack would be imprisoned for ten years, an equivalent sentence for being in possession of 5000g of the powered “yuppie.”4
The war on drugs has continued to intensify in recent decades, and leaders of that war adopted better rules and ways of dealing with the problem. For instance, Joe Biden’s 1994 Omnibus Crime Bill allowed the death penalty, symbolizing the seriousness of the war, comparing its victims to other offenders like murderers and rapists.5
Additionally, the arising confusion between the definition of legal and illegal drugs became evident in the implementation of the drug policy legislation. For example, the law recognized narcotics as illegal, unless they were medically processed and prescribed.
Importantly, not all prescribed drugs were safe. Illegal narcotics are those used without professional prescription. Despite the existence of this unstable definition, the issue has not been confusing. The only confusing thing in this scenario is the government legalizing the use of a particular drug and goes ahead to hunt its users.
We will write a custom Essay on American Government’s War on Drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This occurred in 1996 when marijuana usage had been authorized in California before successive American government arrested several marijuana distributors in the same state.
In his first term, President Barrack Obama continued with the war on drugs, with his drug policy coordinator suggesting the rebranding of the war as harm-reduction strategies. This is believed to have been based on the need to rehabilitate addicts and manage complications associated with drug abuse.
In general, the Obama administration has not deviated from the Bush administration even though the war remained a rhetorical convention with regard to the view of enforcing the country’s drug policy enforcement. Nevertheless, rebranding of the policy as harm-reduction strategies has been viewed as a step forward in managing drug abuse.
Success of the war on drugs Analyzing the success of the war on drugs in the society, it is important to understand the drug control rhetoric, which is aimed at realizing a drug-free society. Based on this analogy, it is believed that the war on drugs has not been successful since a democratic society cannot be 100% drug-free.6
This argument affirms that the campaign lacks practicality in addressing complex issues surrounding drug usage. Additionally, the use of illegal drugs has far-reaching implications besides the mere usage. For instance, consumption of alcohol and tobacco by underage children, and unlawful use of prescribed drugs has become a burden to the society.7
Although many people are not aware of it, the cost of cocaine exceeds that of the combination of other drugs. In this view, the war with this social problem is interpreted as an application for general illegal drugs.
Goals The war on drugs has mainly been led by the national drug control which strategies have not been changed significantly since 1989, when it issued its initial annual strategy volume.8
The initial strategies of the NDC were aimed at controlling the overall usage of drugs, initiation reduction and management at every level, including casual users and addicts. In addition, the agency was aimed at the reduction of hospital admissions by addressing import availability and local production of drugs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Government’s War on Drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1990s, NDC simplified its goals and targeted the reduction of drug usage considering the consequences that were related to the use of drugs. Nevertheless, today the administration puts more weight on measures that target usage of these drugs.
Unlike previous strategies, the current blueprint incorporates the need for education, treatment and disruption of the market through national policies. In its application, the current national drug control is principally motivated by the desire to reduce the impact of drug abuse on the society.9
Nevertheless, no explicit efforts have been witnessed to handle other consequences like overdose, HIV infection, and lost productivity. As a result, there is a difficulty in accounting against broader objectives of the NDC.
It is important to reaffirm that the national strategy towards winning the war on drugs is by reducing drug abuse consequences. In this approach, success with light users is more likely than with addicts.
It, therefore, follows that the progress towards the use-reduction goal may not necessarily indicate a similar change in a consequence reduction mode.10 This is to say that, reduction of casual marijuana users may not show a decrease in drug use consequences.
Consequences of war on drugs The war on drugs has been conducted for more than fifty years, without focusing on ways of establishing long-term strategies of dealing with drug usage and supply. Besides this has seen a failure, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime observes that there is a host of negative effects, which have been precipitated by this war on drugs.11
These consequences are based on a punitive approach that has allowed criminal gangs to be in-charge of the trade and criminalized several drug users. The following points are considered to be major effects of drug abuse.
National development Since its launch several decades ago, the war on drugs has continuously undermined development and security in most parts of the world. It has been found that drug traffickers can have a reliable supply of illegal drugs if honest politicians, government employees and security agents like armies are not involved.
Additionally, this can be achieved if farmers have a limited access to money to acquire enough farm inputs like fertilizers.12
Traffickers, therefore, thrive in cases where there is little governance or presence of poor infrastructure. As a result, they target at weak countries, which are easy to manipulate. With this target, they are able to equip private armies, merge and fund revolts, and corrupt police, government officials and politicians.
Examples of such countries, which have been affected by drug traffickers, are Afghanistan and Colombia among others.13 After destabilizing a country, they disrupt the operations of international and non-governmental organizations and divert resources and aid into enforcement.
The same consequences are replicated during the shipment of other drugs like heroin, undermining governance, security and economic development of the country.
Human rights It is doubtless that human rights of most drug users and farmers who plant these crops are rarely addressed by the United Nations or at the local level during the fight against drug abuse. As a result, this war is always characterized by serious violation of human rights, including but not limited to mass incarceration, torture, inhumane treatment, extrajudicial killings and denial of basic health services.14
Most of these policies further discriminate people, who use drugs. As a result, they impede them from access to drugs, harm prevention, and HIV treatment.
It is important to mention that young children have also been exposed to these human rights costs. Moreover, local communities involved in drug-producing usually receive cruel treatment during the process of eradicating the crops from farms.
Stigma and discrimination Like with any other form of war in the world, the negative effects of the war on drugs are mainly felt by marginalized, vulnerable and those that are excluded from the society. Children and young people are always placed on the frontline by individuals or groups of people dealing with drugs.
Amazingly, most of these children are forced into the business because of poverty, drug war casualties or as a result of being orphaned, due to incarceration of parents.15 Women equally suffer from exploitation by the drug business. Women with young babies are usually separated from their children, especially when they are put in prison. This detachment may affect the child due to limited resources for him or her.
Drug enforcement has also promoted social prejudice, where some minority groups of people are targeted and punished for being stereotypically labeled as drug users or distributors.
Threat to public health Historically, the war on drugs has been perceived to protect health of people by limiting the accessibility and usage of illegal drugs. However, research has revealed that this target has not been met, based on the increasing number of drug users and the existence of market that allows individuals to purchase the drugs cheaply.16
Additionally, the policy has increased the risk associated with the use of drugs through exposure to contaminants and risky behaviors like injection.
As a result, drug users are exposed to overdoses, blood-borne diseases and poisonings among others. To a worse extreme, some victims have contracted HIV via the above-mentioned health risks. 17
Increased crime Instead of eliminating crime, drug control policies have promoted the establishment of a drug market, which was estimated in the year 2005 to register a turnover of $300 billion in a year.18 The truth behind this is the fact that all the profit and wealth derived from these sales is enjoyed by drug traffickers and kingpins.
Consequently, producing countries may become unstable and corrupt while consuming states may experience an increase in gangsters and drug addicts.
Additionally, the expansion of the market contributes to the destabilization of the world financial system through money laundering and overstretching the criminal-justice system, emanating from an exponential increase in the number of criminals to be sent to prisons.
Biblical approach Based on the analysis presented earlier in this paper, it is evident that the war on drugs has not been successful. From the increasing prison population to the immense cost and implication of the war both to the society and economy, there is a need for a better solution to be considered.
This is important in reassuring people that it is not “war” as perceived but strategies to avoid initiation into drug usage and rehabilitation programs to help the addicts.19 Nevertheless, this has to be coupled with other institutions like criminal justice, in achieving a safe living environment that has minimum risks.
In addressing the question of drug abuse from a biblical and ethical perspectives, it is paramount to ask ourselves the morality of drug abuse and the ethical implications of the war. Can Christians be drug addicts?
Does the biblical approach support or oppose the war on drugs? One of the main facts about the bible is that becoming a Christian does not automatically shield an individual from danger and tribulations.
In other words, a Christian can suffer a worse tragedy similar to non-Christians. Unlike other people, the bible guarantees Christians a path to be taken in order to avoid temptations, sin and criminal behavior.20 It advocates for obedience, respect to authority and law and doing what is right in the presence of God.
According to David, a major character in the bible, who is believed to be an ancestor of Jesus, God created human beings in their natural state that allows natural functioning of the body without use of artificial substances like drugs.
In doing so, God knew that men would live a full life without finding satisfaction in drugs and related behavior in the society. We are therefore supposed to avoid conforming to the patterns of the world because of the natural state of our creation.21
According to the bible, men and women are controlled by God every time because He is all-knowing and omnipresent. Importantly, God does not spy on human beings but gives them free will to decide on what is right and what is wrong.
As stated in the bible, God considers our bodies as His dwelling places that are supposed to remain clean and well nourished. At this point, we need to ask ourselves how marijuana, nicotine, cocaine or heroin nourish our bodies in preparing a “fit dwelling” for Him. Does the use of these substances make us better or worse than before? If human bodies are God’s temple, can he cohabit with drugs?
One of the ways through which drugs operate is the way they alter the normal functioning of the body, by affecting the manner in which a person thinks and behaves, sometimes in a dangerous way that threatens an individual or a group of people.
It should be understood that the bible does recognize the medical use of drugs in restoring the normal status of a person promptly. This, therefore, supports the use of prescribed drugs with a prescription from a professional medical doctor. Besides this authorization, these drugs are to be used responsibly without sharing with friends or family members.
Another biblical aspect is that human bodies are created as a unity of body, soul and mind.22 The existence of the three aspects of the human body defines the functional ability of a person, although normalcy is only enjoyed when the three are in sound states.
The implication if this formation is that disruption of a single segment of the body that affects normal performance of the body as a whole. Additionally, the bible teaches about self-control and the need for human beings to take control of themselves.23 This virtue is completely uninstalled whenever a person is under the influence of drugs, due to distortion of the mind.
Besides the bodily make-up, the bible equally emphasizes on godly behavior and the need for one to maintain good behavior. Definitely, drug abuse cannot fall under good behavior. This kind of behavior mentioned in the bible benefits individuals and those around.
The bible, therefore, advocates for role models in the society to shape morality, set standards and correct those who stray from desirable ways of God.24
As such, Christians are called upon not to be stumbling blocks to other people in the society but to behave responsibly. With regard to the use of drugs and its “unsuccessful” war, one needs to think of the effects of abusing drugs before going for them.
How then does the bible view the war on drugs? Basically, this is seen as a way of restoring sanity and morality in the society. From this perspective, drug abuse alters the normal body operation of an individual, rendering him/her unfit to belong to the family of God.25
Drug users and addicts gain a state that does not accommodate God as his temple through contamination and infections. Based on this interplay between the teachings of the bible and the war on drugs, it is important to mention that drug abuse has an array of negative effects and needs to be curbed to save humanity.
By the fact that God appoints leaders into authority, they ought to use wisdom from God to lay down workable, human and achievable strategies to drive the agenda of fighting drugs in the country.26 This is necessary in eliminating loopholes in the current war plan, that have given the opponents of this idea a platform to prophesy doom over the initiative launched several decades ago.
Contrary to this perspective, it has been argued that there are more than enough reasons drawn from the bible, which condemn and oppose the war on drugs. This is not only on the manner in which the strategy has failed but also about the lack of biblical background.
According to Laurence M. Vance, a U.S. theologian, the use of alcohol is the only condemned thing by the New Testament and not all the drugs which are listed as illegal. Vance notes that the bible does not allow excess consumption of alcohol but instead recommends that one should be filled with the Holy Spirit.27
Despite this biblical recognition of alcohol, it has been branded and treated like other drugs. He further argues that not all crimes are sins and that the war on drugs criminalizes every act of drug abuse. As a result, he believes that Christians ought to oppose the war on drugs.
Bibliography Caulkins, Jonathan. “How Goes the War on Drugs.” RAND. Web.
Gospel Way. “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety.” Gospel Way. Web.
Hagen, Bernhard. The War on Drugs. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004.
Hartstein, Max. The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All. Indiana: iUniverse, 2003.
Lyman, Michael, and Gary Potter. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010.
Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia, and Sarah Gallagher. War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights. New York City: IDEA, 2004.
Mauer, Marc. “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs.” The Sentencing Project. Web.
Rowe, Thomas. Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole. London: Routledge, 2006.
Thomas, Kelly. “A Model for Success in the Drug War.” The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 8 (80): 1-31.
Vance, Laurence. “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs.” LewRockwell. Web.
Watton. “The Biblical View.” Watton. Web.
Footnotes 1 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 4.
3 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 88.
4 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 5.
5 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 92.
6 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Sarah Gallagher, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.
7 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 88.
8 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.
9 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.
10 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.
11 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 96.
12 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 10.
14 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 77.
15 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.
16 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 3.
17 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.
18 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 11.
19 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 53.
20 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.
21 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.
22 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.
23 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.
25 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.
26 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.
27 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.