Talcott Parsons explains cultural strain as the change that occurs to social systems by trying to establish new equilibriums from the expected norms. In explaining this Parson stated that systems at any given time were expected to be in a point of equilibrium (Allan 69). This he stated was called the first law of social progress. Occurrence of structural differentiation was explained to be a major cause of social strain; which was a movement from the status quo or expected behavior.
Cultural strain is a concept of much importance. This concept is not only important in explaining the expected behavior patterns in a given society but also lays a basis for a shift from the conditions of equilibrium that exist in society.
Certain expected behaviors in society are well known by the people living at that place and they are expected to follow them. Conflicts will always come about among the various components of the society with any deviations from these norms. At the same time there exist needs for revolution from some norms that may be demeaning or backward. This is explained by culture strain.
For cultural strain to operate there is need for certain conditions to be in place. Society may at times be exposed to some goals that they are to achieve. These goals may not be easily achievable considering the available resources within the reach of the members in society.
This pressure may force people to deviate and engage in activities that are out of the norm just so that they may get to those goals and targets that are set for them. The goals may be in terms of money one has to have, the most desirable jobs in society or even education levels.
Greed may also cause people to act in ways that are deviant from the societal norms. Corruption for example finds its root in the greed of the perpetrators. This is the desire of people to achieve more and amass more for themselves at the expense of others.
Futility also acts as a cause of strain in society’s culture. This is where people fight and work so hard to achieve yet the systems in place just wont support them to achieve. It is this hopelessness that crops up that makes the people in society to deviate from the otherwise equilibrium activities of society. The absence of adequate coping mechanisms has played a role in enhancing social strain.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current society is ripe for cultural strain. This is because there are several aspects of society that hinder much progress. Society needs a makeover in many aspects that surround us.
There needs to be some revolutions in some aspects of people’s lives ranging from the notions that are developing towards crime, marriage, divorce and corruption. Evils in society are on the rise and to some extent the society is finding ways to permit these evils and excuse negative behavior by people. In some countries like Zimbabwe, corruption is soaring yet the leaders can just get away with it. Impunity is equally on the increase.
Several kinds of cultural strain prevail. Violence is on the rise with daily bank robberies that are witnessed. This is because of the goals that the society has placed on people as relates to the money and wealth that people are to own for them to be considered of class.
Go slows and strikes in institutions of learning form another example of cultural strain. This is caused by the different ideological perspectives that people have. The police have also in some situation been on a go slow since from their perspective, they felt undermined. Corruption is a menace that represents a strain in culture. This majorly is caused by the pressure that goals in society have placed on the people to achieve.
Several effects of social strain are to be expected. Parson is of the opinion that institutions are mandated to have rules in place that govern the structure of society. According to him, each social system is has interdependent structures and operates to maintain a level of stability. The changes that take place do not essentially cause a total assimilation to the new position established. Rather some degree of status quo is expected.
A revolution change may work against corruption to some extent but still there are likely to be some elements of corruption that will remain. Equally, in as much as some people would buy into the ides of avoiding divorce and abortion, it is highly unlikely that all the components of the society will be willing to take the same stand. Another effect would be that sustaining the revolution and change would not be smooth flowing. Equally, challenges are to be expected with numerous conflicts at hand.
In conclusion, society is at equilibrium at any given time. Some pressures will cause people to act in way that is intended to set new points of equilibrium. The problem that arises is that some of the causes of strain may result in negative ramifications.
We will write a custom Essay on Cultural strain according to Talcott Parson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Allan, Kenneth. The meaning of culture: moving the postmodern critique forward. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., 1998. Print.
Strategy Formulation in Start Ups Essay essay help online free
Strategy designing and management is a process through which organizations, at whatsoever level of growth, guarantee desired results in the future. It provides long term goals and defines ways of attaining the desired. Proper strategy designing and implementation ensures start ups break even and compete favorable as they grow to maturity. Failure to plan is recipe of failure. To succeed in the long run, long term plans and strategies or tactics have to be instituted or put in place.
The strategy process is standard whether the business in question is a start up or an established entity. Business strategy begins environmental scanning and then business modeling so as to suit into and control the business environment (Dess
Management Consulting Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Strategic commercial challenges and possible solutions
Introduction British Petroleum (BP plc) was initially called The British Petroleum Company, and after a merger with Amoco became the BP Amoco plc, and currently, BP plc. As the third largest global energy company, the British global energy company is also categorized as world’s 4th largest company. Being a major oil company, the multinational oil company BP is the largest corporation in UK. In addition to the oil exploration, the company also deals in natural gas and marketing of petroleum products (Buono, 2009).
BP’s global presence was promoted by the merger with Amoco in 1998 making it BPAmoco, which changed to BP in 2000 to date. However, Condon (2002) believes that in the US the grade BP gasoline is available as Amoco Ultimate. Most of the other gasoline centres in the US were faced with a number of challenges caused BP to exit the Southern market. Instead, BP has targeted its oil exploration activities in the Soviet such as the Russian TNK-BP that provides for BP’s 20 percent of its global reserves (Burgess, 2002).
Strategic commercial challenges and possible solutions As a global producer, BP has to contend with the strategic commercial challenges such as fierce competition for markets and talent; investors’ expectations and market demands for sustained competitive performance; and scrutiny and in some cases public doubt.
Additionally, changes in the global economy present a cadre of new challenges, which include the absence of a framework of global rules; the organization and management of companies; cultural diversity; and the question of corporate responsibility for the externalities linked with business activity (Cox, Clegg and Grazia, 1993).
According to Daft (2009) the global environment is a threat to a company’s survival especially in foreign countries. Therefore, BP just like any other player in the market has to wrestle with its weaknesses and threats while capitalizing on the strengths and opportunities.
As such, firstly, the absence of the framework of global rules becomes a disadvantage to businesses that normally operate under regulation and legal clarity. The absence of this legal umbrella is associated with the fact that the international companies are basically established for a different age (DePalma, 2002).
In business, trade issues are mostly based on agreements with the exception of investment protection, environmental issues and the aspect of intellectual property, which are yet to be incorporated. In this context, the unforeseeable consequences of climatic changes result in lack of agreements on most aspects of trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The operation at a level of integration devoid of the law means that a company established in a given country is required to obey the jurisdiction rules while at the same time abiding by the law of every place it is operating in. in the process of staying up to date with the policy requirements, certain companies will be forced to adopt own rules prior to the formulated regulatory standards.
Because there will be need for a global company to keep understanding and interacting with new policies in every country of operation, companies ought to ready themselves by creating mutual advantages and not only pursing their interests. BP should therefore encourage its workforce in the various countries to watch out for likely mutual interests in addition to the primary interests in the country of operation (Doh, 2005).
Secondly, the problem of how companies are organized and managed is pegged on to the fact that competition on the international scale requires a widespread design of operations. BP for instance has the distribution scale with its spread in over 24 time zones and 110 national jurisdictions.
In the case of BP’s distribution scale, Dunning, (1997) asserts that the commonly used command and control model would not work effectively. Instead, efficiency can be achieved by the use of delegation of authority, thus establishing what a given manager is tasked with. There is also the need for the managers at different levels to understand the framework that dictates how their jobs will be conducted (Dunning, 2002).
Consequently, with BP’s more than 100 countries of operation, there will be unforeseen from one place to the other; especially, with the diversity in the cultural differences and cultural orientation. Unfortunately, unpredictable circumstances that call for urgent reaction might also cast more doubt in the quality of judgement of local managers and team leaders.
Away from the mistrust for the judgement of local managers, most situations often suffer the urgency and the limited time to get the concerned manager to respond immediately. In this case, the presence of a localised managerial team at the various establishments will help hasten decision making and resolving of unexpected circumstances (Grabinski, 2007).
Therefore, the command and control model of management will be replaced by a new combination of corporate culture, standards and values that present a universal ground over which people can confidently make decisions and judgements as expected of them. With the understanding of such a management model, the company’s growth and expansion in the global scale is highly assured (Hitt, Ireland,
Bach and Vivaldi Essay custom essay help
The music of the Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741) and the German genius Johan Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) is perhaps most representative of Baroque epoch. This period, spanning from approximately 1600s to the middle of the eighteenth century, is characterized by especial pompousness and ingeniousness in all kinds of art.
Architecture and music are the two branches of Baroque art most demonstrative of the contemporary cultural trends. In music, composers explored and developed new genres and performance principles and techniques entailed by them. Among the typical genres of Baroque music is instrumental concerto, which involves the principle of artistic competition between the performing instruments.
This genre was developed by Italian masters and became widespread in the whole Europe due to its grandeur and broad scope of imagery and emotion that attracted audiences of all nationalities. This report focuses on two works that are representative of the genre and have astonished me with the beauty of melodies and the wide range of rendered emotions: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (ca. 1721) by Johann Sebastian Bach and The Four Seasons (ca. 1723) by Antonio Vivaldi.
The set of six Brandenburg Concertos was created by Johan Sebastian Bach in the period around 1720, when due to change of working place he had more time for composing not primarily church music but more secular instrumental genres. Searching for new perspectives, Bach sent his concertos as a musical offering to a possible employer, Margrave of Brandenburg (Steinberg 12). Although the margrave never accepted the composer’s services, he still kept the manuscript and allowed the future generations to enjoy their special charm.
Among the six concertos, the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto is singled out for its developed part of the harpsichord, which acts not only as a usual accompanying basso continuo instrument but rather performs extensive solo fragments and demonstrates a virtuosic playing technique in the big cadenza that ends the first movement of the concerto.
This cadenza, apart from demonstrating the performer’s technical mastery, also serves as an embodiment of the Baroque improvisational principle. When it was performed by the harpsichordist, I had the feeling that he was pouring out his splendid virtuosity as if impromptu. The other solo instruments, the flute and the violin, also receive space for self-expression, especially in the second movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, where they merge with the harpsichord in a lyrical meditation.
When listening, I managed to trace some genre allusions to the dances of Baroque suite: the dotted-note tread of the second movement reminds of the solemn sarabanda procession, and the three-beat lively motion of the final movement resembles the traditional gigue dance. Throughout the first and the last movement, the solo instruments seem to compete among each other as well as with the accompanying strings for thematic prevalence, which reflects the competitive nature of concert.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the genre of instrumental concerto there were no rivals for the Italian master Antonio Vivaldi. Under the conditions of his employment with Ospedale della Pietà he was supposed to write two concertos per month: from here, inter alia, stems the enormous quantity of the works in this genre written by Vivaldi (“Antonio Vivaldi”). At times employing the method of descriptive, or program music, Vivaldi created concertos that were dedicated to rendering a certain event or phenomenon, often reflecting scenes of nature.
Among those program concertos, The Four Seasons gained especial popularity already in the eighteenth century with such prominent people as the French King Louis XV and the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (“Antonio Vivaldi”). This popularity is not surprising, since the concertos provide a vivid and expressive musical rendition of their literary program that is based on four sonnets probably written by the composer himself (“Antonio Vivaldi”).
The text of the sonnets is closely followed by the musical material reflecting all the changes in the scenery, the weather, and the atmosphere of the situation (Cunningam and Reich 382). Due to this outstanding descriptiveness of musical language, The Four Seasons were especially exciting for me to listen to and to track the change of time, place, weather, and mood that correspond to each season.
The first movement of Spring, inspired by the feeling of the nature’s awakening, bursts in the energetic movement of trills and staccatos of singing birds and the smooth passages of streaming water. The following movement, through its peaceful melody, illustrates a sleeping shepherd; the quiet scene is interrupted only by a barking dog, rendered by a violin.
Next, the peasants celebrate the beginning of year in an exciting folk dance that reminds of traditional Italian tarantella. Summer is all about heat and thunderstorms: the heat is depicted in the slow, as if lazy, phrases of the violin. The thunderstorm approaches throughout the two first movements in far-away roars of thunder (sudden loud bangs of the whole orchestra) and bursts through in the last part in the streaming passages that depict flowing water.
Autumn is yet another fest: the peasants celebrate harvest and again dance to a melody that reminds of the opening movement of Spring. Tired and drunk after their party, they fall asleep in the second movement, where only rarely the quietness is disrupted by occasional reminiscences of the festive melody (obviously some joyful revelers) — an especially comical effect that nearly made me laugh.
Finally, Autumn is concluded by a stylized scene of hunt, with horns blowing the attack on the wild. Winter sets in with a series of trills and repetitive motion, as if howling cold wind sets teeth chattering. After a peaceful second movement, which warmed me up with its placid melody of violin against a soft orchestra accompaniment, the chills return, reminding me of the inevitability of the nature’s events.
We will write a custom Essay on Bach and Vivaldi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited “Antonio Vivaldi; The Four Seasons.” baroquemusic.org. 13 March 2009. Web.
Cunningham, Lawrence S., and John J. Reich. Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings, 7th edition. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2009. Print.
Steinberg, Michael. The Concerto: A Listener’s Guide. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Abstract After an extensive study on pertinent issues on British airways, the report brought to book strategic commercial challenges facing the BA Company particularly after profits started plummeting after 11 September attacks. commercial challenges facing the giant BA company include, turbulent global economic times, competition from cheaper Asian airlines, unpredictably rising fuel prices, environmental, mass industrial actions by employees as envisaged in a BBC news report(2010), strategic management plans, and threats from other cheaper alternatives such as railway transport.
It was reportedly determined and recommended that company employees be treated fairly and be included in decision-making according to (Marketing plan strategy and objectives,1997).
Elimination of wastes, was recommended and that management strike a balance between sustainability and environmental issues, improved strategic planning for sustainability, employee productivity, and sustainability and increased performance as coined by (David, 1989). In addition, the report presents a SWOT analysis of the company to help determine the diagnosis for problems plaguing the company especially on employee unrests (Thinking Managers, 2010).
Introduction Synonymous with air travel, British Airways is a strong international brand that has been in the air travel business since its inception in 1947. The company, a key player in the industry has undergone radical changes, made high profile decisions at managerial levels deemed controversial and at times attracted mass industrial actions by its employees.
In addition, it has had to go through periods of dispute resolution in the industry. The company faces diverse strategic challenges that the report evaluates and provides a diagnostic approach to the challenges, and reports on how decisions made affects the company, employees, the environment, and as a player in the transport industry.
In addition, the report analyses the key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the company and looks at ways to address these issues while maintaining a strong customer base, a large market share, and market lead. It analyses the company’s corporate social responsibilities, and emphasizes on the worth of these issues in relation to the global economic and environmental challenges as determined by (Bazerman and Moore, 2009).
Problem Statement Commercial challenges facing the British Airway company including turbulent economic times, rising fuel costs, environmental issues, substitutes, and employee strikes calls has caused it to experience reduced customer base, employee dissatisfaction, and plummeting profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation of the Challenges and Practical Solutions Challenges
The British Airways is a company that has been in business for a long time since its inception in 1947. With innovative business minded executives, the company has undergone changes both at management and employee levels.
The company’s strategic business interests are global. Despite that, it faces a host of internal and external commercial challenges related to its operations, market position, employee retention, fading customer numbers, cheaper Asian competitors, stringent landing rules in other countries, and environmental issues; all these challenges translating to reduced profitability and market share.
Quinn (1980) determined that these challenges call upon management to make radical decisions to steer the giant company to a realize profits, stay in the market and maintain the lead it has enjoyed over the years. According to Gincell (2004), external challenges faced by the company include alternative and cheaper means of transportation, such as the railroad, and road travel, and turbulent economic times.
For the company to remain successful in the market and continue raking in profits, it has to integrate a strategic plan for that purpose (Plan Your Marketing Strategy, 2010). A strategic plan would make the company win in the current economic times. Quinn (1998) asserts that a well-formulated strategy helps a company win against economic challenges such as plummeting profits, a reduced customer base, and unnecessary costs.
A well-formulated strategy entails certain elements that steer a company to win. BA is resource intensive. Quinn (1998) asserted that a good strategy must be extensively formulated and opponents do a lot of strategizing. In addition, if the management of BA formulates strategies relevant and realistic to the global down turn of many economies and reduced household incomes. It would enable the company utilize its resources efficiently without incurring wastes, according to Baker (2008).
Strategies and Policy goals
Quinn(1998) identifies five levels of strategies, including policy goals, which require that a statement of what the management wishes to achieve both in the short term and long term be laid out. In this case, besides profitability, the airliner has to competitively stay in the market despite the turbulent global economic times.
In addition, the company should formulate policies regarding reduced extravagance on the available resources generated from profits, and adds that a link of strategy and performance was vital (Prescott, 1990). BA is a company that has been in business for many years, to determine whether the new strategies formulated can be measured against profitability of previous years and identify whether they have eliminated wastes or not as explained in the Strategic Management of British Airways Company (2008).
We will write a custom Report on Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Non-executive directors of the company should also contribute constructively challenge the current strategies and constructively contribute to the development of new and well-formulated strategies.
Quinn (1998) concludes that by implementing well-formulated strategies at the five levels in the company, challenges of economic down turn could be combated to allow the airline stay in the market. These levels of strategy include, policy goals, overall goals of the business concern in line with the global economic down turn where each strategy should work towards achieving the laid down objectives, and that the goals of the BA company be well spelt both at management and employee levels.
According to Dibb, Simkin, Pride and Ferrell (2008), goals and objectives of the company should be specific, well formulated, achievable, within a properly laid down period, while keeping the interests of the company at heart according to (Marketing plan strategy and objectives, 1997).
In addition, the objectives set should be measurable to eliminate waste and induce profitability at this difficulty economic times. It was also noted that the goals set by the company be measurable and attract all employee participation to elicit quick response from the management down to employee levels, then to the community.
This done, the management should look at those policies that cannot be compromised and those that cannot be compromised. The paper, Marketing plan strategy and objectives (1997) asserts that managers should be keen about when to implement those policies, strategies put in place to test the strategies if they have worked, where they need adjustments as noted by (Prescott,1990).
BA management should decide on the cost of implementing cost-cutting policies and determine to what extent they have to be implemented and the level, to which they have to be implemented. Some policy decisions are place a business at an awkward position, particularly the decision to cut on salaries or lay off employees.
The management, faced with that cost cutting strategy, at times is in a dilemma. The impact of those decisions have implications of poor decisions on the brand name of the company which translates to reduced profitability, a bad image, consequently leading to a reduced market share and profitability which in the end translates to reduced profits. One decision sparks a chain of events in a business organization.
It is vital for management to make long-term projections of their strategies, and integrate logistical support for their implementations. Despite the economic down turn, there is growth potential for the company. This could result from appropriately formulated strategies, use of efficiently skilled work force to implement the company’s strategies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic planning
According to Edward and Heller (2006), to steer the company and vigorously make it a leader in the market, a strategic plan could enable it develop a large overall ambition for the company. According to Investor relations (2010), Management at the same time should come up with operational plans that answer the question on how the company should win while operating is an economic environment that is pushing profits down, so uncertain, and facing other competitors in the market.
According to the article, Corporate planning case (1996), the report affirms that the company should endeavor to determine how it will be organized resourcefully to stay afloat, how to respond to challenges such as reduced passenger bookings by initiating intensive marketing campaigns to attract more customers, how to face competitors in the business.
According to article on Strategic Management (2002), the company should develop and conduct an internal and external analysis of the company. In addition, the Value Based Management (2009) asserts that despite the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by a company, it should positively and effectively and analyze its internal and external SWOT.
The management of BA should embrace the five stages as asserted by the Value Based Management (2009), including setting long-term performance targets for the company, form the right product matrix, which includes, the suppliers of fuel, and a right marketing mix. By investing on the activities correctly, the company may realize an upper hand against its competitors in the market as is determined in Marketing Plan Now (1997).
It determines that management has to invest in those activities that steer and crest a good reputation for the company. In addition, the company needs outsource other activities that are not core to the business of carrying passengers in the global scenario.
Challenges of employee treat met also play a role in negating on the BA business activities. Management should reduce employee discrimination and grant them equal opportunities. Reducing employee discrimination could reduce largely to which employee find them demoralized, but rather motivate them.
Despite British airways (BA) being a key player in the air travel industry, it has had to undergo a series of problem that eventually escalated to mass industrial action by its employees. BA has faced internal and external challenges over time.
Some of the problems are self-inflicted while others stem from the environment. One of the self-inflicted problems included the decision to scale down employee salaries. This reduced to low employee morale and attracted mass industrial actions with disastrous consequences. It had adverse effects on customer retention. The company lost many customers who opted for alternative and cheaper means of transportation.
The company is capital intensive. Its operations are expensive in the current economic turbulent times. Fuel for the fleet of its aircrafts comes from an unstable Middle East region. In addition, profit realization depends on the ever-changing prices of fuel in the oil market. In the recent past, fuel prices have soared, causing increased transport costs. This too influenced the number of customers travelling by BA. This could reflect on administrative activities of the company as defined on the article (What is Business Administration, 2008)
Well-implemented practical innovative solutions remain the key to maintaining the position of the Airways Company. Employee satisfaction contributes to a successful business organization. Satisfied employees remain motivated as the worries and anxieties associated with retrenchment, salary reduction, and other forms of lay offs, be they temporary or long term influence employee productivity.
A satisfied and fear free employee may be expected to give the best to the employer by way of productivity and innovation. Dissatisfied employee in business organizations may undermine organizational activities that lead to loss in profitability consequently negating any gains made by the business organization.
Resolutions of worker’s grievances need timely attention. Management may engage employees in speedy grievance resolutions that would curb scenarios like mass industrial action that translates to loss of income in the way of profits. In addition, the brand name of an organization whose employees settle their disputes in the way of mass industrial actions and other forms of boycotts suffers reputation.
BA management has to make deliberate efforts to listen to employee disputes and create excellent channels of communicating their grievances to the management in a timely manner to avoid disputes spiraling out of control (Strategic Management of British Airways Company, 2008).
Another challenge facing BA are the alternative low cost airways and the global economic crisis. Profits have ever been plummeting as passengers search for alternative low cost means of travelling. To help address these, the airline could opt for a merger with other air transport companies.
As Sekaran (2004) argues, this universal approach coupled with cost cutting approaches such as using smaller aircrafts on shorter routes could address the threat from substitutes. The report call for a radical shift in its external environment policies could revive its profit margins and make the airline more profitable. Policy formulation could provide a framework on a balanced implementation of its strategies (Policy Formulation
Baroque Music: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 by J.S.Bach and The Four Seasons by A.Vivaldi Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
In music history, the fifteen-decade long Baroque (from the early 1600s to the mid-eighteenth century) was perhaps the first period when professional music started to enjoy great popularity.
Professionalism was seen, inter alia, in such aspects as writing according to certain genre standards of form and melody, as well as developing a virtuosic performance technique on various instruments. On the one hand, composers experimented with combinations of instruments and timbres, opposing and merging them: that was how the genre of concerto appeared.
On the other hand, the connection of music with real life was not lost, and whole series of dance-like pieces appeared crystallizing into the genre of suite. Among the most prominent composers of the age were the German Johann Sebastian Bach and his Italian colleague Antonio Vivaldi. Two of their works, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (1721) and The Four Seasons (1723) are in the focus of the present report on baroque music.
Initially, the originators of the instrumental concerto were Italians: their natural bright character favoured the development of this playful genre that involved the key idea of competition between the soloists and the accompanying orchestra.
From Italy the genre of instrumental concerto travelled onwards to the rest of Europe where it “became one of the defining forms of Baroque music attracting composers and audiences of all nationalities” (Buelow 524). The genius of Bach could not overlook the curious genre since the latter concealed vast opportunities for composer’s self-expression.
Bach experimented with concertos and his tests of the genre resulted in a series of six Brandenburg Concertos. Among them, researchers single out the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto for its untypical instrumental cast: written for violin, flute, harpsichord, and strings, “it is only when it is played on the correct instruments, and with a single instrument to each part, that its intimate, undemonstrative textures make their effect” (Boyd 91).
And indeed, it appears that the intricate dialogues between the individual instruments would only be lost in the massive sound should the concert be played by a bigger cast. The solo instruments — the violin, flute, and harpsichord — as if play hide-and-seek with the accompanying strings, now stepping forward in obviously solo fragments, now merging with the other instruments in a melodic development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the most prominent solo fragments of the concert are the virtuosic harpsichord cadenza of the first movement, and the whole second movement where the accompanying strings are silent, letting the three soloists develop a lyrical conversation. After the reserved intimacy of the second movement that in its motion reminds of a solemn procession, the final bursts out in a graceful three-beat dance that involves both the soloists and the accompanying strings.
As it has been mentioned, the originators of the instrumental concerto genre were Italians, and in this sphere Antonio Vivaldi has no match. Among his works, an extreme popularity was and is enjoyed by his violin concertos The Four Seasons. Vivaldi employs the tactics of the so-called program music that is aimed at portrayal of certain events which are announced in the title or the literary commentary to the music (Booth 79).
For the four violin concertos, Vivaldi chose a theme connected with the natural cycle of the seasons and reflected in poetic sonnets supposedly written by the composer himself (Booth 79). In addition to the title and the poems that clarify the contents of music, Vivaldi also left detailed prescriptions in the musical text that instruct the performers of the necessary sound effect: for example, in Spring he ascribes the role of “the sleeping goatherd” to the solo violin and of the “barking dog” to the second violin (Booth 79).
Each dedicated to a certain time of year, the four concertos consist of three movements in a traditional tempo scheme fast-slow-fast. By means of musical representation, Vivaldi reflects the soft murmuring of the spring waters and the cheerful singing of birds in the opening movement of Spring by writing a violin part full of light staccatos, repetitions, and trills.
The last movement of the season is a folk festival that proceeds in a swirling three-beat movement of Italian folk dance, tarantella. Summer is all concentrated around the central image of thunderstorm, which is predicted in two first movements by sudden tutti strikes and passages that imitate the peals of far-away thunder.
Streams of rainstorm that breaks through in the final movement are rendered through endless descending passages and gammas against a sharp harmonic background. Autumn reminds of Spring in its initial scene of another folk festival: but this time the old thematic material is re-tinted into minor keys, as if nature has withered and is not as fresh and luxuriant as at the start of the year.
After the festival follows a period of rest, interrupted by fragments of the festive songs, and the final movement illustrates a scene of hunt with blaring sounds reminding of the hunters’ horns.
We will write a custom Essay on Baroque Music: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 by J.S.Bach and The Four Seasons by A.Vivaldi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chills of Winter enter with the howling passages of the violin and the trembling repetitions or the orchestra. This cold unfriendly picture gives place to a scene of homely coziness inside a house — the warmth of the hearth is rendered through a calm, placid melody of the violin. But winter reminds about itself in the final movement, with return of rhythmic repetitions in the orchestra.
Works Cited Booth, John. Vivaldi. Townbridge, Wiltshire: Redwood Books Ltd, 1989. Print.
Boyd, Malcolm. Bach, the Brandenburg Concertos. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.
Buelow, George J. A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004. Print.
Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Gaius Julius Caesar remains one of the most important figures for his prolific conquests that he made during his life as an emperor and probably his untimely-preplanned death. This was a genius in making, combating with not only the minute Egypt but also with world giants like Germany, Gaul, and Britain (Appian 1949, 115).
Nevertheless, his ingenuity did not save him from death in the hands of his enemies in disguise as friends, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinu, when they descended on him on Ides of March. These two men, in company of a pack of others, carefully designed the death of Caesar behind his back. However, why would they want to kill their friend?
It is important to note that, Caesar’s leadership or tyrannical rule policies had nothing to do with his death. Despite his leadership skills, all seemed to be well with Romans. All the indicators of a thriving economy were prevalent in Rome.
From creation of thousands of employment opportunities to economic stimulation through export and import, confidence levels amongst Romans were rising by the day and every one seemed to be happy save for some leadership flaws here and there, which are common in any leadership. These leadership flaws could not move anyone to rebel against and plot assassination of the emperor.
Even though there are many schools of thought giving different reasons as to why Caesar was assassinated, the most compelling school of thought is the one stating that, Caesar was assassinated because his assassins wanted power. All other malicious claims directed to Caesar were only to cover the truth. Brutus and Cassius were formerly enemies to Caesar and after he defeated Pompey, they swore allegiance to him but their initial rebellion did not go away and this is evident from the assassination they carried out.
Why Assassination The fact that the men that assassinated Caesar wanted some grounds to accuse him and justify their assassination, implies that they had to plot how to win other people’s hearts and allegiance. Unfortunately, Caesar made many gullible mistakes exposing him to the wiles of these assassins. Many a times he failed to read signs that would signify impeding danger. In the opinion of the writer of this paper, nothing Caesar would say or do that would avert his inevitable death.
Brutus and Cicero were very much aware of the damage they would cause to Caesar once they managed to brand him a tyrant (Yavetz 1983, 186). Therefore, the only thing that these two men needed was to come up with a strategy that would subject Caesar to public ridicule and then attack him after gaining enough support. To do this, they had to convince other senators to get into their scheme; fortunately, they got huge backing from senators, who joined them for different reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Nicholas of Damascus (1964), the chief principals of this plot were men who knew for sure that if Caesar were dead, then they would gain power to run the nation. This persuaded many senators to consent to the plot of killing their emperor. Other people agreed to the plot because they were still angry because of losing their relatives and friends in the civil war. Therefore, to end such impunity, they wanted to be led through democracy, not despotism.
However, Nicholas of Damascus (1964) notes that these were mere cover-ups, the fact is that these people were hypnotized by the promise of ascending to power and they would find any excuse to assent to the plot. Moreover, some people joined the plot not because they had anything against Caesar, but because they loved the pioneers of the plot. Interestingly, men who had been genuine friends to Caesar also took part in the plot. How did this happen?
After Caesar forgave the likes of Brutus and Cassius who had been his enemies and gave them powers in his authority, the men who had remained loyal felt betrayed. They could not understand this form of kindness. When Cassius approached them to take part in the plot, they gave in easily for they wanted to revenge what Caesar had done to them.
It is unfortunate that these loyal Caesar friends could not enjoy the good reaps from the war and by joining the plot; they knew they would access power and finally enjoy what they had labored for all that long. Finally, after spurring people from all lifestyles into rebellion, Brutus and Cassius had to fool Caesar into stupid acts that would leave him exposed (Taylor 1949, 173). This opens up the next element of this conspiracy; that is, the plot.
In the Greek culture, no man was to become a king as long as he lived (Yavetz 1983, 193). Wittingly, these assassins painted Caesar as a king by offering him several honors. Unfortunately, Caesar gave in to the ill plans of these brutes and as time went on, he started acting against the law, something that would cost him life.
The disregard for the law would give the assassins a foothold to censure him. The conspirators started by voting on how Caesar would appear in public. According to the vote passed, Caesar was to appear in all public places wearing exultant attire and sit in the chair of state. The aim of this vote was to make bring him close to people who would easily fault him as he mingled with them often.
Additionally, they bestowed on him the power and right to “offer the so-called spolia opima at the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, as if he had slain some hostile general with his own hand. To have lectors that always carried the laurel and after the Feriae Latinae, to ride from Albanum to the city mounted on a charger” (Cassius Dio 1949, 12). This meant that his status was elevated almost to a state of a king. This was just but the beginning of the honors Caesar received.
We will write a custom Essay on Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To hypnotize Caesar completely, the conspirators named him the father of the nation. This was followed by inscribing his image in all the coins used in Rome around that time. Additionally, they passed a vote that Caesar’s birthday was to be celebrated by offering public sacrifice and his statue was to stand in all cities.
Two of Caesar’s statues were to stand in all temples one signifying him as a savior of people and the other as a savoir of the city under siege. A temple was to be built in his honor to symbolize peace. To cap it all, they appointed him the high priest and conferred powers to censure life to him alone.
Mistakenly, Caesar accepted all these accolades with unfathomed gullibility. This saw the passing of the law that required prayers be made to him and he accepted the garbs worn by kings. Finally, after a series of honors that Caesar accepted readily, they “addressed him outright as Julian Jupiter and ordered a temple to be consecrated to him and to his Clemency” (Cassius Dio 1949, 16).
The motive behind all these awards was to paint Caesar as a king or a god, something that would attract disapproval readily, hence justifying their assassination.
Actions of these people spoke loudly and it was evident that they did not have any good faith in what they were doing. “Others, and the majority, followed the courses mentioned because they wished to make him envied and disliked as quickly as possible, that he might the sooner perish” (Renard 1987, 568). This explains clearly the motive behind these accolades. However, this was not the only reason why these senators gave Caesar all these honors.
Going back to Caesar’s life as an emperor, he was always under the watch of a guard. This meant that the senators could not meet him whatsoever; hence, they would not get chance to carry out the assassination. After receiving many honors, Caesar was convinced that these people would never try to eliminate him (Taylor 1949, 175).
Therefore, he let his guard leave for he was now comfortable in the presence of the senators, who had apparently become his friends. As time went by, he dismissed all other guards and now he would remain under the watch of knights and senators. Caesar’s gullibility continued to portray itself as he consistently became mesmerized by the “kindness” of his subjects. However, it did not take long for these power-hungry assassinators to find a loophole in what they would easily exploit at the expense of this gullible emperor.
One evening these conspirators approached Caesar to explain why they would carry some of the house businesses in his absence to show that they worked involuntarily as opposed to compulsory duty (Suetonius 1913, 77). However, Caesar did not wake up from his seat and this dismayed many of them. Sympathizers of Caesar tried to explain that he could not walk because he had a bout of diarrhea; nevertheless, they could not justify these claims because he eventually stood up and walked without support.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These assassins pretended to be dismayed by this act of pride; however, this is all they wanted from the beginning; a foothold to accuse Caesar. Well, they got it fully later when Caesar accepted to be made a dictator for life. Nevertheless, the end was yet to come. Some of the people still supported Caesar and the conspirators had to look for a way to embitter them. The next course of action was well plotted.
As aforementioned, among the Romans, there could not be a king for this was outright scorn to the tribunes. Then the time came, and the senators tried to brand Caesar a king but he refused vehemently. However, after scrutinizing the events, it appears that Caesar wanted the title. Firstly, it would be expected of him to rebuke such people, put them into prison, or worse kill them (Adcock 1951, 693). However, he did not do anything to them.
This showed that he was pleased by the title; something that caused many people to disdain him. To cover up his behavior, Caesar told people that he was not a king but only a Caesar. Even though he took some actions against the first people to call him a king, the measures were not severe as expected for he only relieved them of their duties as tribunes and banned them from public speaking. He went ahead to rub their names from tribune-ship; however, this did not quell the mounting disapproval among citizens. Did he really dissent the title?
The answer to this question is no! If Caesar were totally, against the title, he would come out clearly and refuse it. However;
Antony with his fellow priests saluted him as king and surrounding his brows with a diadem said: “The people give this to you through my hands.” He answered that Jupiter alone was king of the Romans and sent the diadem to him to the Capitol, yet he was not angry and caused it to be inscribed in the records that the royalty presented to him by the people through the consul he had refused to receive.
It was accordingly suspected that this had been done by some prearranged plan and that he was anxious for the name but wished to be somehow compelled to take it, and the consequent hatred against him was intense (Cassius Dio 1949, 17).
This shows that he somehow accepted the title “king”; hence, making him a tyrant. Thus, the assassination would not be branded as such, but it would be called tyrannicide. However, Caesar was still popular amongst middle and lower classes and they vowed to fight Brutus and his team. The fact that Brutus went to organize troops in Greece to topple Antony is a clear indication that all he wanted was power.
Conclusion Despite his ingenuity in conquering his enemies, Caesar could not deal with his closest enemies who disguised as friends. They led him into believing that they liked and honored him by awarding him with several accolades until they won his trust. First, they had to win his trust to a point of him letting go of his guards.
This would ensure that the senators gained access to Caesar and have the opportunity to kill him. Luckily, this worked well for them as they accomplished it. Secondly, they had to paint Caesar as a tyrant in the eyes of the citizens to justify their assassination, which in effect it would be termed as tyrannicide. They also accomplished this by branding him a ‘king”, a title that he was not supposed to hold. Their craftiness was aided in part by Caesar’s gullibility and failure to read the two sided of the coin.
There is clear indication that Caesar wanted to be called a king and this was the biggest mistake that he made. However, this assassination was inevitable and nothing he would have done to prevent it. It was a political attack where the assassinators were power hungry and the only way they could gain it was through assassination. However, they failed in their bid to rule Rome as opposition mounted against them leading to a series of wars.
Bibliography Adcock, F. 1951. Caesar’s Dictatorship. Cook, S.
Islamic Society and beliefs Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Islam and its Scriptures
The Five Pillars
Introduction The human civilization is characterized by its high levels of diversity. These variations which are as a result of our cultural diversity and socialization are not only evident in our ways of life but also in the religious tenets that guide us. Religion is a system of faith that is based on the belief in a god(s) and the subsequent worship of the god(s). People practicing a religion follow practices that are believed to be agreeable to their deity.
Holy Scriptures may also exist which are used for worship. While there is no scientific evidence that proves the existence of the gods on whom religion is based on, there is agreement by general consensus that religion plays a key role in our lives. This paper shall give a detailed discussion of one of the world’s major religion, Islam. An in-depth look at the Islamic society and beliefs shall be provided so as to provide a deeper understanding of the Islamic religion.
Islam and its Scriptures Islam is the religion practiced by Muslims and the name Islam means “peace through willing submission to Allah” (Gerner 5). The BBC records that the Islam faith has over a billion followers making it the second largest religion in the world only surpassed by Christianity. Islam is based on the teachings in the seventh century of the revered Prophet Muhammad. Muslims are monotheistic (believe in one god) and their core beliefs can be summed up as “believe in one god, Allah, and that Muhammad is the last prophet” (Gerner 6).
While many people view Islam as being inherently contradictory to the Christian faith, it is interesting to note that Islam embraces most of the Biblical teachings including the Bible’s Old testament prophets such as Moses, Elijah and Joshua to name but a few.
However, Islam believes that Jesus was but a prophet and his message was for people to surrender to the will of Allah and not follow him as Christianity teaches (Ammenah). The Prophet Muhammad is believed to have been the last and greatest prophet of Allah and it is through him that the Quran was manifested to man.
The Quran is the Islamic Holy book and it is believed to be the exact word of God. This Holy Book is regarded as one of the few legitimate sources of Islam and its authenticity and originality are utterly unquestionable in the eyes of a practicing Muslim (Real Islam). The Quran forms the basis for Muslim laws and code of conduct.
The Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in its original Arabic language over a period of 23 years. In the early years, the faithful committed the Quran to memory both out of reverence to the Holy text and for its preservations since few copies of the Holy Book existed
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to the Quran, there are other sources of religious material that are held as sacred by Muslims. One of these sources is the Sunnahs which are practices that the Prophet Muhammad carried out in his lifetime and how he acted in his everyday life (Real Islam). These were written by the followers of Muhammad about his life and they provide daily living examples for all Muslims since they tell the story of the great Prophets life history.
Another equally important source of religious material in Islam is the Hadith. Hadith has been the lens through which the words of the Quran have been seen, interpreted and acted upon (Cornel 5). For the non-Muslim, the Hadith contains an introductory into the world of Islam. The Hadith are documentations of what the prophet Muhammad said and approved off in his life as reported by his followers. The Hadith was codified as a source of legal guidance for the Muslim Faithful.
The Five Pillars The Islam faith consists of the Five Pillars which consist of the most important practices in Islam. The First pillar is the Shahada which is the creed that expressed verbally once commitment to the basic ideals of the Islamic Faith. Gerner articulates that the Shahada consists of reciting “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger” (15). Only by reciting this in earnest can one become a fully fledged Muslim.
The next pillar in the Islamic faith is the Salat which is the mandatory Muslim prayers that are offered by the followers of Islam five times a day (Cornell 11). The prayers are offered from dawn just before the sun is up and at intervals through the day and the last prayer is offered between sunset and midnight. The Salat is one of the unifying universally embraced Muslim ritual and even Muslim children as young as 7 years old are encouraged to practice it.
Zakat is the third Pillar in Islam and it is concerned with being charitable by giving alms to the poor and needy in the society (Ameenah). This practice hinges on the Islamic belief of brotherhood and that it is the responsibility of those who are well off to share with the needy in the society. Zakat obtained by annually taxing the property of a Muslim and distributing the proceeds to the poor.
Fasting (Sawm) is the fourth Pillar of Islam and it required one to maintain a fast during the Holy month of Ramadan. All adults are obligated to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking or sexual activity during the fasting hours. The main reason for Sawm is to strengthen one spiritually as well as teach self discipline.
The last pillar of Islam is the Hajj which the annual pilgrim to Mecca. It is desirable that a Muslim faithful undertakes the journey to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they can afford to. Mecca is the Holy city of Muslims and the first pilgrimage to Mecca was done by the Prophet Muhammad with his followers in the year 628 AD (islamworld). This practice has been carried out from that time to date. This ritual strengthens the bond between Muslims and as such, the ritual is of great significance.
We will write a custom Essay on Islamic Society and beliefs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Practicing Islam As Islam is based on peace, a Muslim faithful is supposed to be at peace with all mankind. The character of a Muslim should closely emulate that of the Prophet Muhammad as recorded in the Sunnah and Hadith. Muslims are supposed to exercise justice to all and treat everyone as an equal since everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah. Islam dictates that sex outside the confines of marriage is unlawful (Haram) and is therefore forbidden (Ameenah).
Sex is only allowed for married people and it plays the role of procreation thus ensuring the continuity of the human race as well as creating a bond between a husband and wife. Family life in Islam is mostly patriarchal and the man is the head of the family. Islam accepts the practice of Polygamy and a man can have a maximum of four wives if he so wishes and can provide for them. The man is obligated to protect and provide for his wife/wives and children.
Muslims have two Holy festivals which are Eid ul Fitr and Eid Ul Adha. Eid ul Firt marks the end of Ramadan and the festival begins when the new moon is sighted in the skies (Cornell 21). Eid ul Adha which is marked by a four day holiday in most Islamic Nations remembers the prophets Ibrahim’s devotion to Allah by his willingness to sacrifice Isaac.
Conclusion Religion is a very important aspect to us as human beings. It has been known to instill virtues and values to all and help man cope with the hardships that come with life. This paper set out to give a detailed discussion of the Islamic Faith. To this end, the religious texts used in Islam have been identified and elaborated on.
The practices that make up the pillars of the religion have also been stated and the character of a Muslim faithful highlighted. It is hoped that an understanding of Islam as a religion will led to a deeper appreciation of Muslims leading to a more harmonic coexistence among the various religions in the world.
Works Cited Ameenah, A. “The True Religion.” 2006. Web.
BBC. “Religions, Islam at a glance” 30 June 2009 Web. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/ataglance/glance.shtml
Cornel, J. C. “Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition.” Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Society and beliefs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gerner, K. “Islam.” Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Print.
Real Islam. “Muslim Belief”. 2009 Web. Web.
Gender argumentative essay help
Basing on Michel Foucault’s view on the body as that controlled in terms of space and time, Sandra Lee Bartky in her article “Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power” reviews the way female bodies are controlled in terms of space and appearance and emphasizes that in modern conditions women are more than ever restricted by those factors (22).
On the one hand, standards of feminine behavior presuppose that woman demonstrates submissiveness and deference, which is done through taking more humble poses than men and smiling much more often (Bartky 22–23).
On the other hand, demands to appearance result in women considering their bodies as enemies that should be monitored through diets, exercise, and cosmetic procedures to keep up to feminine standards (Bartky 22, 23–24). In this monitoring there remains no place for self-expression since every procedure corresponds to standardized rules.
The especial tragedy of this constant monitoring situation is seen by Bartky in the fact that in their attempt to control and monitor their feminine compliance, women become objects of male ridicule (Bartky 24). Male society pretends to keep away from giving any standards or prescriptions as to female standards, and only scoffs at the typically female attention to fashion and make-up trends.
The disciplinarians of women appear to be “everywhere and nowhere”: whereas ideas and standards of female ideal saturate everyday environment at work, school, in the street or mass media, nobody takes the responsibility for intrusion of female standards (Bartky 24).
Women actually carry out constant self-monitoring and self-surveillance, and in this respect turn out to be their own disciplinarians (Bartky 26). Such situation results partially from the “revision of femininity” when not female duties and obligations characterize a woman as belonging to female society but her appearance outward behavior is the crucial factor defining her ‘membership’ (Bartky 25).
The issue of whether women display compliance with social standards of femininity or engage in self-expression by following the fashion trends is quite a debatable one. It cannot be justly claimed that such interest for the outward appearance is only a recent phenomenon: women have taken care of their appearance throughout history.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, men are nowadays doing it no less than women, attending spa salons and tracing trends in clothing. The art of dressing and applying appropriate make up indicates the taste of the woman, her sense of beauty and measure. It is true that certain part of female population is obsessed with copying some conventional standards; but that does not mean women do not express themselves through clothing or make-up. Following a standard means lacking in personal fantasy but not limiting it in any case.
Involving in the modern feminist-political debate, Rose Weitz in her article “A History of Women’s Bodies” characterizes the historically dominant attitude to female body as an object constituting men’s property (4). Seen as defective and even dangerous already from the ancient times, female body, together with its frailer constitution, was vested with such degrading qualities as “less developed brain and emotional and moral weaknesses that could endanger any man who came under their spell” (Weitz 4).
In the Middle Ages this view of female body resulted in witch-hunt, with the situation changing but a little in the eighteenth century when women still have no civil rights and fully belonged to their husbands. As a counter reaction to women increased access to education or employment, nineteen-century men proclaimed them too frail to be involved in any men-equal activity, and this degrading treatment lasted till 1970s (Weitz 6–8).
As feminists emancipation movement activated in the second half of the twentieth century, there has been observed a series of backlashes to the changing of social view on female body (Weitz 9). Firstly, women are held in great pressure as to maintaining the “acceptable appearances”: large amount of exercise, cosmetic surgery, and dieting have become essential for keeping up to the standards (Weitz 10).
Secondly, PMS condition is by large controlled via medical services since it is considered an illness to be treated. Thirdly, abortion rights are debated as contrasted to “fetal rights”: abortive mothers are often prejudiced in society as baby-killers (Weitz 10–11). Such social attitudes to appearance, PMS, and abortion issues actually limits the woman’s right to fully control her own body.
In the long run, it appears that feminist struggle for recognition of equality or even superiority of female body over the male one has led to a double result. On the one hand, women have attained opportunities to involve in activities that were previously considered typically male, such as politics or large-scale business.
Nobody is supposed to make an allowance for gender when deadlines project have to be met or important decisions taken: women take equal responsibility as men for the result of their professional activities. On the other hand, the male society still executes control over the female body by prescribing certain hardly achievable standards of appearance and by treating the monthly PMS as an unhealthy state. Those are the prejudices to be yet overcome.
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Maya Angelou’s “Champion of the World” Essay essay help online free
The story has a home setting, which is a good depiction that most people throb for; a better, safe place to embark on after the long day activities. The author utilizes the power of narration to bring out an extremely interesting diction just as Martin Luther King did in his “I have a dream” speech as written by Eidenmuller (2008).
They both make a common theme of racial differences come out lively. Using descriptive strategy for the events, Maya is able to capture the readers, drawing them to feel as part of the action. She takes a perspective of an outsider to analyze the white Americans life in relation to Africa Americans. This is a concept that assists her to avoid describing personal inner feelings and capture the reader’s implicitly to experience the events.
The author uses the narration of a fight as a literal symbolism of struggle against racial injustice. It also and gives a faster style of unfolding the events to trigger emotions. The most important aspect of the narration is its emphasis over the power of having a personal reflection and the importance of sharing. (Angelou, 4, 1993)
Sharing makes one stronger and as the author makes the narration, she drains her emotions in the writing; therefore, the process is a therapeutic experience of confronting racial oppression. The aspect of equity is evident today especially in leadership, people share experiences orally with friends and thus enhance the bond and common factors, consequently triggering the aspect of equality. People belong to a common human race and thus should enjoy bonded lives through shared events.
The irony at the end of Maya’s narration is the way she brings forth the aspect of happiness. People feel and know better than they had. They feel spiritually and morally motivated than they did in the beginning. Her ending is equally triumph because logically as she hints, the fight is merely a diminutive victory because the problems the people have are still there and will still be present in their lives until they fight to feel morally uplifted.
Like the poem “Dream Deferred” by Langston Hughes, Maya’s narration is ironic because it utilizes the negative aspects to oppress racial injustice and violation of rights. The outcome is an absolute change of events while the racial perception comes slowly.
An act may be very hidden or isolated but if it is a hurting one, it continuously reverberates within in an immeasurable manner until people address the matter. I her narrations (4, 1993), Angelou references defeat to the historical injustice but these are however small events that cannot champion the victory over obstacles licked to the racial backgrounds.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Angelou has an oppressing feeing as a white young African-American woman fighting racial discrimination and segregation, in a white society especially before the establishment of the civil rights movements. One would expect a caged bird to sing a song of powerlessness or defeat but it is still as vibrant as before with a strong hope of freedom. Her narration provides hope for the oppressed but still emphasizes the need for struggle.
In his poem “Dream Deferred” (1996), Langston Hughes takes in hand the query over the outcome of a destroyed dream. A strong imagery depicts the impact, which has a negative and vicious ending for that person who is not able to dream any more. In comparison to “I have dream” Speech by Martin Luther King, Jn, Langston Hughes writes of African Americans struggle for equity.
By pondering the outcome from a destroyed dream, like Maya Angelous in the “champion of the world” he illustrates many negative possible outcomes such as “a raisin in the sun,” symbolizing hardening of the heart. Second symbolism shows infection to the mind and thirdly, the rotten meat image. All this aspects describes incomplete dreams.
These are the various outcomes a dream has for driving people to accomplishments. Jeopardizing the dream gives negative results. All the three writers lived racial lifestyles thus the call for people to face racism. Allowing personal dreams to explode gives different thoughts thus making life better. The three writing “I Know Why the Caged Bird sings,” “Dream Deferred,” and the “I Have a Dream” speech, have a similarity in encouraging people to find equality by fighting injustice.
Work Cited Angelou, M. “Champion of the World,” I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. 1993. Bantam Books publishers.
Eidenmuller, Michael E. Martin Luther King, Jr.: “I Have a Dream.”Delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C. McGraw-Hill. 2008. Retrieved from
Langston Hughes: A Dream Deferred. 1996. Web.
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How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The habitable zone
Methods of Detecting Extrasolar Life and Their Limitations
Proposed solutions for extrasolar life detection
Abstract Extrasolar planets are planets that are found outside the solar system. Mathematical probability shows that some of these planets may contain life. However, this needs to be proven using credible scientific evidence. The current scientific methods to search for extrasolar life heavily depend on telescopes. The available telescopes however are not big enough to provide the necessary precision needed to detect signs of life on extrasolar planets. By February 2010, no signs of extrasolar life had been detected.
Introduction The increased detection of extrasolar planets has led to a lot of optimism on the existence of extrasolar life (Bekwith, pp 1). It has acted as an incentive to search for life in other galaxies. Extrasolar planets are planets found outside the earth’s solar system and extrasolar life is therefore the life found on such planets.
The possibility of having extrasolar life is just hypothetical and no scientifically credible proof has been put forward. In fiction, life on other planets is shown to exist and this has led to a lot speculation from majority of human beings. Stories of disappearances, unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and mysterious green organisms find their way into public media.
Detecting life on extrasolar planets is not an easy task. It has many limitations and major technological advancements are still required. This research shows that the current techniques and available equipment cannot detect extrasolar life. However, plans by space exploration bodies are promising to shed more light on the issue in the coming few decades. This will revolutionize the current scientific and religious believes.
The habitable zone Searching for signs of life cannot be done haphazardly; a target approach must be employed. A home for the life must be detected (which is the planet) and signs of life on that home are searched.The planets are commonly detected using indirect methods (astrometry, radial velocity or Doppler method, circumstellar disks, pulsar timing, eclipsing binary, and gravitational microlensing) and direct imaging (“Space science”).
Life in these planets can take many different guises and this makes the basis of their detection quite complex. It is therefore logical to first search for signs of life that are similar to those on earth. The habitable zone is the region occupied by a planet that is similar to that occupied by earth in relation to the sun.
Searching for signs of life on all detected planets is not feasible. A criterion is needed to determine the candidates that can possibly support life. Life as we know it can only occur within a certain zone around the mother star (a main sequence star), the habitable zone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important because around this region, the temperatures are around 273K and 373K (Beckwith), which is necessary but not sufficient for the support of earth like life. At these temperatures, water is in a liquid phase. The temperatures are determined by the distance of the planet from the star, which gives the planet warmth. After detection of the planet, it is analyzed for signs of life.
Methods of Detecting Extrasolar Life and Their Limitations In the solar system, scientists detect life using direct and indirect methods. In the direct methods, the scientists search for forms of life on the planet by direct imaging. Direct observation of the extrasolar planets is difficult due to their low light reflection and proximity to their stars, which are brighter than the planets (Beckwith, pp 2).
The star light therefore creates a glare that washes out the planets light. Another direct method is the monitoring of radio frequencies in space by organizations such as SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence). This method has been used in the search for intelligent life.
Monitoring for radio signals from other extraterrestrial civilizations is not a very promising method due to the great distances between earth and the extrasolar planets. The nearest extrasolar planet is 10.5 light-years from earth. Radio communications between such distances would take too long. This is further limited by the fact that the life on such planets must be intelligent life that is using the same radio signals for communication.
Therefore, these direct methods are more productive for planets that are in the earth’s solar system such as Jupiter, mars and Venus. For planets outside the solar system, they are not very efficient and application of indirect methods is necessitated.
The most productive indirect methods involve telescopic analysis of the extrasolar planets’ atmospheres for the basic molecules of life (methane, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water). These compounds were detected in the atmospheres of two extrasolar planets. However, the physical conditions of the planets cannot support life for they are hot gases. In the current search for life on extrasolar planets, ‘life’ refers to carbon based organic life whose survival depends on water (Beckwith).
For a planet to support this kind of life, it must meet two main conditions: it must lie within the habitable zone of its solar system (where the water is in liquid form) and it must retain an atmosphere (it is rocky). Mathematically, there is a high probability of existence of such planets within the habitable zone but detecting them remains to be done (Bell, para 6). This is because, the resolution of the current generation of telescopes is not high enough to detect and analyze planets near a star and those similar to earth in size.
We will write a custom Report on How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many extrasolar planets have been detected with Doppler method being the most productive technique. However, the extrasolar planets detected using Doppler method do not fall within the habitable region of the main sequence stars.
They are mainly large gaseous planets that cannot support life although two of them were found to contain compounds that are some of the ‘markers’ of life; these were water, methane and carbon dioxide. All these planets apart from twenty-five of them are 10 times the size of earth with most of them being larger than Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. This further clarifies that technologies developed so far are unable to detect smaller planets.
Large planets are most likely to be gaseous and therefore their surface temperatures are too high to support life, as we know it (Kleefman). Apart from the Doppler method, other indirect methods have also detected huge planets with the same characteristics; they are not rocky and therefore cannot support life.
The slightly more than twenty-five Earth like masses and solids already detected are not within a habitable zone of their stars. They were detected when using pulsar-timing method and they have been found to be orbiting pulsars. Pulsars provide even more extreme conditions for life. They are radio sources that regularly emit very short bursts of signals; they are highly magnetic and there is no likelihood of a habitable zone (Kleefman).
The other planets of smaller sizes that have been detected are known as ‘brown dwarfs’. They are of low temperatures and luminosity and do not become hot enough in the core to cause thermonuclear reactions. They therefore are not actual planets but stars that were not completely formed. These objects cannot support life. Even if chemicals needed for life are detected in these planets, life cannot exist on them and they probably were formed from other processes.
Even if a planet within the habitable zone were detected, detection of life on it would still be constrained. The actual methods for detecting signs of life in extrasolar planets have limitations too. The most promising method involves analysis of the atmosphere of the planets for signatures of chemicals necessary for life (Beckwith).
It is based on the fact that on earth, the chemical components of its atmosphere have been altered by life; therefore, the proof of life on earth can be detected from afar in the spectral signatures of molecules such as oxygen, water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide. By employing this fact, the atmospheres of extrasolar planets are analyzed for spectral signatures of the above-mentioned molecules. The analysis is done using large telescopes.
The limitation of this method is that the planet must be abundant in life forms for the molecules to be detected by the current telescopes. The large number of life forms would be able to cause detectable changes in the atmospheric composition. This is especially possible for higher forms of life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If low numbers of simple life forms exist, changes in the atmospheric composition would be minimal and therefore, detection would be minimal too. The precision of the current detection methods needs to be improved a great deal before such forms of life can be detected.
Microlensing is a more accurate method for detecting planets that may fall within the habitable zone, but it also has limitations. The occurrence of micro-lensing events is very rare and for that reason, detection of such planets may never be achieved (Kerins, para.3). Another problem is that even if the micro-lensing event occurs, there is only one chance for recording data. If the chance is lost, data is never recorded.
Proposed solutions for extrasolar life detection It has been proposed that the use of direct methods may also be possible to detect signs of life on extrasolar. This may be achieved by use of well-designed searches for life forms of microbial nature (Knuckle).
This could be based on remote sensing techniques to search for signatures of compounds associated with life such as chlorophyll and other photosynthetic compounds; conversely, such observations would require to be done through strong, interfering absorptions and scattering radiances. The precision of such observations would be low due to the current resolution and signal to noise ratio constraints. This means that direct observation of extrasolar planets is still impossible at the current generation of telescopes.
The current propositions to build huge telescopes for space exploration are promising to eliminate such constraints. The building of a huge telescope named OWL (OverWhelmingly Large) is expected to revolutionize astronomy (“OWL”). It is proposed to have a diameter of between 60 and 100 meters.
This gigantic telescope will be able to detect an object that is 1500 times fainter than the faintest object observed currently. The telescope and others proposed to have 8 meters diameter will make it possible to characterize more extrasolar planets but until then, extrasolar life remains a mystery.
Conclusion The search for life beyond earth started over 50 years ago. It has been marred by controversies from scientists, religious leaders, media and the common person. It is important therefore to review critically the available information to determine what the truth is about life in the extrasolar planets.
This paper looked at the current techniques employed in detecting life on extrasolar planets. Their productivity so far and possible future improvements was also reviewed. The detection of life on extrasolar planets depends on ability to detect extrasolar planets themselves so techniques to detect these planets were briefly discussed.
Not all extrasolar planets can support life. In fact, only a small proportion of extrasolar planets can support life, as we know it. These planets must lie within the habitable zones of their stars and must also be rocky. So far, no such planets have been detected and therefore, no extrasolar life has ever been detected.
Although compounds necessary for life (methane, carbon dioxide and water were found on two extrasolar planets, no life form can exist on the planets’ conditions. Scientists have discovered that these compounds were probably formed through other processes.
The available techniques of detecting life on planets beyond the solar system are not up to the test. The distance between Earth and those planets is too great for the available equipment. The technologies are also not able to remove interferences that increase the signal to noise ratio in life detection processes.
The precision of our current detection technologies need to be increased a great deal before we can detect extrasolar life. However, if telescopes like OWL are built, useful data may be obtained in the near future. Until then, likelihood of life outside our solar system remains an open question.
Works Cited Beckwith, Steven W. Detecting life bearing extrasolar planets with space telescopes 2nd Ed. California: university of California press. 2008.
Kerins, Eamonn. “Microlensing.” The university of Manchester. 2008. Web.
Kleefman, Mark. “Could life exist on discovered extrasolar planets?” Life on other planets. 1997. Web.
Knuckle, Roger “Possibilities of detection of microbial life on extrasolar planets”. Pubmed new and noteworthy. U.S. national library of medicine. 2003. Web.
“Owl- a future milestone in astronomy”. Eso telescopes division. European southern observatory. 2006. Web.
“Space science-how to find an extrasolar planet.” Feature. European space agency. 2007. Web.
Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Is there evidence of life on Martian meteorites?
Is (was) there life in Mars?
Abstract The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteorites
Is there evidence of life on Martian meteorites? According to Buseck et al, Nanocrystals of Magnetite(Fe3O4) compounds in meteorites found from mars are the strongest, yet the most controversial indicators that there is extraterrestrial life in Mars(13490). The allegation attached to the Fe3O4 is that they resemble crystals found in Meteorite ALH84001, which are formed by specific terrestrial bacteria. The ALH84001 was found in the Antarctica and later recognized as meteorite whose origin was Mars(Mckay et al 924).
McKay Et al authored startling report based on chemical and structural features of ALH84001 (295).The report indicates that there was indeed life in mars. McKay Et al based their arguments on four chemical and structural features of the meteorite and although they admitted that the individual features could not prove their allegation, they sought to convince the general public as well as scientists that the four features taken collectively were evidence enough that there was indeed life in Mars(Friedmann et al 562).
The first basis for their conclusion was the “igneous Mars Rock”. According to their report, the rock was of unidentified geologic context and had pores and fractured spaces that were permeated by a fluid. Their second reason was that the igneous rock was older than the carbon globules found there in. The third reason was that the TEM and SEM images captured of the carbon globules had features that resemble microfossils, terrestrial-biogenic-carbonate structures, and terrestrial micro organisms.
Fourth, the Fe-sulfide and magnetite particles indicated that the oxidation and other reductions reaction had occurred on the compound, thus indicating the presence of microbial systems and finally, there were Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs)on the compound thus indicating that its original surface(Mars)had carbonate globules(McKay et al 930).
Buseck et al, notes that although the McKay et al theory has been criticized and largely questioned, no one scientist or researcher has been able to disapprove it(13490).The report starts by acknowledging the fact that the 1975 Viking lander experiments managed to negate the possibility that there was life on Mars.
However, the report states that the conclusion from the tests cannot be meant to conclude that there was absolutely no life in Mars. This was especially because the Viking experiments were too localized to offer a conclusive report regarding life or lack of it in Mars(McKay et al 924).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deduction by McKay Et al that meteorite ALH84001 has enough evidence regarding life in Mars has been criticized by many scientists with Thomas-Keprta et al(2164) saying that the evidence offered was based on “presumptive bio-signatures”. In their own research, Thomas-Keprta et al classified Fe3O4 crystals and identified them to be similar to the intracellular magnetite released by MV-1(a magnetotactic bacteria-strain).
In the research, Thomas Keprta et al states that the magnetite populations are chemically pure and from a single-domain(2164). They also observe a “unique” crystal habit, which they define as truncated hexaoctahedral(2164). They argue that since there are no known reports which could explain the truncated hexaoctahedral observations, the presence of the MV-1 strain of bacteria was most likely as a result of Natural selection rather than organic activity.
They however argue that the only possibility where the magnetite crystals could be used to indicate that there is life in Mars, is if there are “unexplained inorganic processes on Mars that are absent on Earth and hence forms the truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite” (2165). Overall, Thomas-Keprta et al manages to support rather disapprove the McKay et al deduction that the ALH84001 is an indicator that there is life in Mars.
Their argument does not however go unchallenged. Buseck at al, states that the “Truncated hexa-octahedral” crystals they refer to are not as unique as they make people to believe (13494).Buseck et al argues that the term means that the crystals of ALH84001 have a combination of octahedron, dodecahedron and cube faces. These according to them had been observed in other meteorites and hence were not a unique aspect at all.
Buseck et al(13490) criticizes both studies done by Mckay Et al(929)and Thomas-Keprta et al(2165) saying that the two arguments are flawed. He claims that without the micro structural or chemical evidence to back the allegation that the features in the ALH84001 are indeed magnetite crystals, then any evidence produced thereafter is inadmissible.
He further argues that magnototactic bacteria are ever-present on the Earth, despite the fact that intact chains of the nano-sized magnetite crystals from such bacteria are hard to find in earthly geological samples.
As such the intact chains as found by McKay et al(925)would be hard to find because it would be unlikely that they would survive biological processes. Friedman et al acknowledges that it is quite difficult to understand how the magnetite chains hypothesized by McKay et al survived in their intact form(2176).This only serves to cast further doubt on the allegation of McKay et al and subsequent research conducted and documented by other authors like Friedman et al and Thomas-Keprta Et al(2164-2169).
We will write a custom Essay on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Golden et al neither refute nor support the allegation by McKay et al(370-375).They however proved that just as much as the formation of carbonates, sulfides and magnetite on ALH84001 could be attained in temperatures that support life, the same can be formed inorganically. Golden et al through a combination of precipitation and heating processes developed simple inorganic process, which they claim can offer an alternative explanation to the carbonate, Fe-sulfide and magnetite found in the meteorite ALH84001(370).
The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteorites.
Discussion By2007, there were 12 meteorites that had been studied or still were being studied for ingredients that would suggest life on Mars. The meteorites were thought to have originated from Mars due to their unique(often peculiar) chemistry (Kimball 1). Of all the 12, the ALH84001 has been the single most meteorites subjected to extensive study.
The three most cited ingredients in the ALH84001 that suggest that there could be indeed life processes in Mars are the presence of PAHs. However, scientists note that PAHs are not unique to meteorites from Mars only. According to Kimball, meteorites from other places in the solar systems are known to have PAHs too even though it has been established that there are no traces of life there(1).
The mineral within the meteorite(magnetite, carbon and Fe-sulfide)is the other indicator that some scientists use to suggest the presence of life activities in Mars. However, as seen above, some researchers have proven that it is quite possible to generate the minerals without biological processes.
The time that the minerals were deposited in the meteorite is also suspect because as Kimball(1)indicates, the minerals seems to have been deposited in the specific rock later in its history, which raises the question, is it possible that the rock picked the minerals on earth rather from its origin? Stephan et al notes that the rock had fusion crusts, and mineralogical and well as chemical differences(113).
These differences could have led to the contamination of the inner rock through the cracks, which could have happened during handling or in the Antarctic environment before the rock was discovered.
An answer to this question is provided by Stephan et al, who after a study concluded that it was highly unlikely that the PAHs in the ALH84001 had an extraterrestrial origin(113). The study further provided evidence that the meteorite was contaminated by lead, which is evidently a terrestrial material. Studies by Golden et al also allude that ALH84001 continues to be contaminated with terrestrial microbial materials hence suggesting that ‘maybe’ the PAHs had been picked in its Antarctica location (374).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third reason that some researchers like McKay et al (924) and Thomas-Keprta et al(2164)suggests indicates some signs of life are the objects that resemble fossils in tiny micro-organisms when observed under a microscope.
This argument is however discredited by Kimball, who argues that the fact that the largest of the “nano-fossils” got from the rock had a diameter of 100 nanometers, is evidence enough that it does not have the necessary volume to support life(1).The Smallest microorganism on earth is the Mycloplasmas and has 300 nanometer diameter. Scientists indicate that a micro-organism would need at least a 200 nanometer diameter in order to support life (Kimball 1).
In addition to the ALH 84001 meteorite, other meteorites of Martian origin include “Shergotty, Nkakhla and Chassigny”. Nakhla was the first meteorite of Martian origin to be found on earth(Glavin et al 8835), and just like the LAH84001, the meteorite contained carbonates and some hydrous minerals. Research on Nakhla indicated that the rock had been exposed to some aqueous solutions after its formation, and this was the first indication that researchers need to conclude that in deed there were aqueous processes on Mars.
The length of time that such processes persisted however remains a pertinent question to this day. As opposed to ALH84001 meteorite which had an estimated terrestrial age of almost 13,000 years, the Nakhla meteorite fell on 9 am 40 kilometers to the East of Alexandria in Egypt in 1911. The fall was observed and most of the specimen rocks were collected within days of the fall (Glavin 8834).
On observation, Nakhla was found to contain d-amino acids, which were not present in the ALH84001 meteorite. According to Glavin et al, the d-amino acids were not extraterrestrial in nature and had been deposited into the rock when it hit the ground in the Nile region (8836).
This conclusion was reached because in addition to finding similar d-amino- acids around the Nile soil, the amino acids would have been racemic if they were formed on Mars(Glavin 8836). The D/L ratios, which could have determined the amino-acids of Martian origin in the rock, were not possible due to the low concentration of the same.
Another meteorite EETA79001 was found to contain l-enantiomers components of amino-acids (Mcdonald
The US and Japanese Constitutions Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The contribution Americans in the making and enactment of the 1947 Japanese constitution, which is still in use to date, has been an issue for debate since the adoption of the constitution.
Of special significance is Article 9 of the constitution which renounces war by stating that “… the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes…” For this to happen, Japan had to give up its military on land, air and sea. It also gave up the right or need to develop or keep military weapons. More to this, article 9 states that “the right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”
Article 9 is an issue of civil rights concerns because of several reasons: first, there were and still are concerns about America’s involvement in changing the military constitution that were present in the Meiji Constitution coming soon after World War II. Secondly, there were concerns about the haste through which the United States through its Supreme Commander McArthur proceeded to enact the Potsdam Declaration and demilitarize Japan.
In a statement sent to General MacArthur by the US government, it is clear that there was clear comparison between the provisions of the Japanese constitution that did not match the US constitution. In the statement titled “ reform of the Japanese System SWNCC 228” and classified as top secret, the US government stated that her forces would not leave Japan until a ‘peaceful and responsible government” had been put in place .
However, for this to happen, the statement clearly stated that some of the Japanese institutions and practices had to be eliminated. The statement insisted that the “allies” (referring to the Supreme Command for the Allied Powers led by MacArthur) in accordance to provisions in the Potsdam treaty were at liberty to insist that the basic law in Japan be altered in order to make the Japanese government responsible to its people.
The statement highlighted the lack of an effective system through which the Japanese government could be responsible to its people. Comparing the Japanese system to the US one, the statement noted that while the executive government in the US was answerable to the president, who was in turn answerable to the people who elected him, and had to work within a judiciary- enforced constitution, the Japanese system lacked such accountability measures.
Citing the Meiji constitution the statement by the US government to MacArthur stated that the constitution in Japan then had been framed with the intention of “stilling popular clamor for representative institutions” and “fortifying and perpetuating the centralized and autocratic government structures”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the constitutions contained some of the trapping contained in the US constitution such as the three branches of government (judiciary, legislature and the executive), the checks and balances that would have made Japan a democracy were lacking because the constitution granted too much power to the Emperor thus making the country an absolute Monarchy.
The Meiji Constitution reaffirmed the inviolable and sacred status of the emperor, and vested powers such as supreme command of the navy and the army on him. He also had the powers to determine the military and civil salaries in the country.
While this was of concern to the American people, the question among civil right activists remains- did the United State have a right to impose its believes and democratic concepts to Japan, especially seeing that Japan was a sovereign country? Of more concern is the argument that Gen MacArthur and SCAP imposed a constitution on Japan instead of letting the country goes through its own sovereign process of constitution making.
Of special concern to opponents of the provisions of article 9 is the right for Japan to have self defense forces. The argument by such groups is that Japan had a right to a military because military forces by countries are mainly used for defense rather for perpetuating aggressive acts.
A review of literature on article 9 indicates that opinions on whether Japan should have a military are divided into two groups both inside Japan and outside her bonders. One group holds that the article prohibits Japan from having armed forces for any reason. The other group holds that Japan has a self-defense right and hence a recourse to have a military when necessary.
This study is intended to evaluate the controversies surrounding article 9 of the Japanese constitution and evaluate whether there is the necessary political will needed to revise or amend the same. The study will also look at the effect of article 9 and the impact it has had and continues to have on the US-Japan relations.
The study concludes that even though the international community, especially the UN and the US would prefer a more military-independent Japan, the article which was initially put in the constitution by the American framers has been adopted by the Japanese and is now viewed by a significant population to be their only assurance that Japan will not revert to its notorious military past.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The US and Japanese Constitutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, amending the same especially considering that it needs two thirds political support in Japans legislature (Diet, House of Councilors and House of Representatives) is a near impossible task.
Discussion The Japanese people have “learnt to ‘Japanize’ the constitution” through localized interpretations when applying it to the local context even though it was originally framed by the Americans. Overtime, the Japanese have found a way to go about even the most controversial article 9 and have since developed and expanded a significant military force that is seen by some as a contravention of the constitution.
The American framers of the Japanese constitution placed enormous hurdles for the revision of amendment of the constitution. Among them is article 96 of the constitution, which states “amendments to this constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring of two-thirds or more of all the members of each house and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall requires the affirmative vote of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such elections as the Diet shall specify”. This provision is seen as making amendments to the constitution as a near impossible task.
It however must be noted that the Japanese people had a chance to change everything the American Framers had put in the constitution before enactment in the period between 1948 and 1949. The Japanese people however did not lay much emphasis on the constitution and even the review commission that was set up by the government only introduced some few and minor revisions. This therefore nullifies the claim that the constitution was imposed to the Japanese.
Later in 2000, amid raised concerns over the need to review article 9, the Diet created two research commissions in the House of Councilors and the House of Representatives to consider the possibility of revising article 9 . By 2006, the two houses had made recommendations to the house, but it was expected that as stipulated in the constitution, the recommendations would then be discussed by the diet, and if found favorable by a majority members, would be subjected to a national referendum.
The framers of the Japanese constitution seems to have had a clear intention of making sure that Japan would in future pose threats to other countries. In the constitution preamble, one notes that the language used is similar to the same language in article 9.
The preamble states that the Japanese people “shall secure for themselves and the posterity the fruits of cooperation with all nations” and resolves to never again to “be visited with horrors of war through the action of government…” The preamble also states that the “the people of Japan have determined to preserve their security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of peace-loving peoples of the world.”
Controversies surrounding article 9 The right to use force as a defense mechanism
Although Japan does not have a military, at least in theory, article 9 has been interpreted to mean that Japan has the right to have a self-defense form. Right after the attack of South Korea by North Korea in 1950, Japan put together a National Police Reserve. This was later renamed to National Safety Force two years later and the Security Defense Force in 1954.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The US and Japanese Constitutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The constitutionality of the SDF can be argued either way. While establishing the SDF in 1954, the Japanese government at that time argued that article 9 does not prohibit self defense forces just as long as they are not used for aggression to other countries. The argument was that although the first paragraph of article 9 prohibited aggressive “acts of war”, it did not prevent them from having self-defense forces.
Research into the constitution making indicates that the phrase “in order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph…” was deliberately included by a committee formed to discuss the draft constitution, deliberately with future purposes in mind, whereby the Japanese would be able to maintain a self defense force. A different school of though states that the SDF is completely unconstitutional and lack the legal backing and should thus be disbanded and replaced with a civilian force.
The relations between the US and Japan largely rely on the provisions of the Mutual Security Treaty, which was enacted in 1951 and later revised in 1960. The treaty has an understanding that just as long as Japan does not have a military of its own, it would be under the security Umbrella of the United States.
Under the treaty, Japan is obligated the troops with Military bases and under the “Host Nation provision”, it is supposed to defray costs emanating from stationing the US troops in Japan. In the wake of missile technology and nuclear development in North Korea and the risk that this poses to Japan, the Japan-US relationship has strengthened over the years.
China’s growth in both economic and military capabilities also gave rise to a need for better strategic positioning of Japan security wise. This is despite the fact that the end of the cold War had marked a re-evaluation phase of the relationship by Japan.
Japan also sent an approximated 600 troops to assist US forces in Iraq and is also known to have cooperated with the United States in the development of a defense system largely thought to be ballistic missile in nature.
Notably, Japan declined a UN request to send troops to the Persian Gulf War in 1991, but after the 9/11 terrorism attack the country announced its support to the US efforts to fight terrorism. It even dispatched naval forces ostensibly to aid the US with logistical support during the former’s offensive against Afghanistan. Although the support offered to the US so far is logistical in nature, one gets the impression that Japan is achieving through the United States what is prohibited by article 9.
Under George Bush administration, Japan and the US held meetings relating to their security cooperation and resolved the need for Japan to take up more active responsibilities in global stability. This would however be pegged on the US military. The meetings also resolved that there would be a reduction of US troops in Japan.
More to this, Japan agreed for an X-band radar system deployed to the country, as well as a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Japan however has to foot the bills associated with US troops based in the country. Among critics of the US-Japan relationship is a group of thought that argues that the relationship favors the United States, and need to be revised in order to address the concerns of the Japanese people more comprehensively.
This study notes that Japan’s relations towards the United States are probably based on the fact that without a military provision in the constitution, Japan knows that the United States is the best bet for providing it with the security it needs against aggression, while the US knows that its relations with Japan has a central role to play in ensuring its interests in the Far East.
This however does not mean that Japan agrees with everything that the US does. For all intents and purpose, this study surmises that the Japan-US relationship is strengthened by the culpability placed on the latter by article 9. If the country had a military however, may be the relationship would not be as strong.
Post war Japan has relied on the United States to provide it with security within and outside its borders. The United States’ troops in Japan alone for example are approximately 53,000.
Considering that Japan is a strategic economic contributor to the US economy ( Japan is the second largest export market for the US, the second-largest imports source and the second-largest foreign Domestic investment source) one wonders if contravening article 9 would have any significant reaction for the United States especially considering the need to protect the economic interests of the country.
Collectively, Japan and the United States represent about 40 percent of the world’s Gross Domestic product. This means that the two have a mutual relationship that impacts not only them, but the entire world. Their interconnectedness stretches from trade in merchandise, services, and foreign direct investments (FDI). It is therefore highly unlikely that the United States would sever its relationship with Japan based on the revision or amendment of article 9.
Considering Japan’s strategic position in Asia, article 9 appears like a prohibiting factor more to the US interests in the region than it is a concern for the Japanese. Since the enactment of the 1949 constitution, Japan has lacked both the political and civil will to change article 9. Constitution interpreters argue that Japan has interpreted the article to suit their position by allowing the establishment of the SDF, but prohibiting the country’s involvement in outside war or peace interventions even as a third party country.
The United States is especially constrained by the same Article 9 that its framers put in the Japanese constitution because it cannot develop a closer defense cooperation with Japan as it would like, especially in light of the rising threats posed by North Korea’s and China’s emergency as military and economic powers.
Japan’s role in international security
Being a member of the United Nations, Japan cannot comply with article 51 as stipulated in the UN’s charter, which gives UN member countries a mandate to intervene where another country is being attacked even though the country itself may not be under attack. Justifying their resolve about non-intervention, Japan cites paragraph 1 of article 9 and argues that its constitution prohibits it from interfering with international disputes unless deliberation, negotiations and diplomacy are the only tools in use.
The argument by the government is that although the country is permitted by the international law to engage in “collective self-defense”, its constitution does not permit it to engfage in activities that flout the “minimum necessary level for the defense of the nation”, which is only applicable when; 1) Japan faces an illegitimate and imminent aggression against it, 2)when every other mean of dealing with the aggression has been tried without success and 3) when only the minimum necessary level of armed strength is to be used by Japan.
With rising global security concerns, Japan has in the past engaged in a series of bilateral security agreements, which among other things pledges the country’s cooperation in disaster relief, peace-keeping, maritime security and counterterrorism. The first was an agreement with Australia, closely followed by another agreement with India in 2008. Though not military alliances, the pacts establishes a framework that allows Japan to cooperate with Australia and India.
The United States however is an ever present force in these pacts and one gets the impression that Japan would not have signed these pacts if they did not serve the US interests well. This is especially so because the United States was at the time of the bilateral agreement signing spearheading a campaign that sought to strengthen strategic alliances among its democratic allies in hopes of countering the ever growing military power emanating from China.
Japan has however been accused of using the provisions of article 9 to stay off collective-defensive exercise and only intervening where the situation suits them such as when helping out the US, which is a strategic partner in both trade and security .
Those who counter-argue this assertion state that article 5 of the security treaty between US and Japan allows the two countries to aid each other when either faces external aggression. Article 5 of the treaty reads “Each party recognizes that an armed attack against either party in the territories under the administration of Japan would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional provisions and processes”.
Critics of Japans involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq argue that this article allows Japan to act only within areas within its borders or near its borders. In both Afghanistan and Iraq cases, this was far from the criteria observed by Japan. Supporters of Japans decisions to send troops to Afghanistan and Iraq argue that what the constitution prohibits is the dispatch of “armed forces to foreign territorial land, sea and airspace for the purpose of using force”.
With rising pressure from the international community especially after it failure to send troops to the UN operations in Congo; Japan’s Diet formulated a provision that allowed the country to send peacekeeping troops in UN missions in future
Is it a good or bad idea to change article 9
The debate on whether to revise or amend article 9 of the Japanese constitution in order to at least Japan re-arm in the height of increased international aggression seems to be favored more by international players rather than the Japanese. In a survey by the BBC, 64 percent of students in Universities in Japan favored that Article 9 be retained just as it is in the constitution.
It is however notable that there are at least four distinct opinions regarding the amendment or revision of article 9 in the Japanese constitution. The pro-revisionists have been advocating for the revision of article 9 arguing that Japan should have a fully-fledged military that is able to protect the country against external aggressors. This argument is supported by people who view Japan’s geographic location especially next to North Korea and China as something that needs the country to take some armament measures.
The pro-revisionists also argue that being a member of the UN, Japan should have the ability to send troops to the UN whenever the need arises. A different group of pro-revisionists are against the militarization of the country, but argues that article 9 should be revised to legalize the SDF and give it some more mandate. This school of thought argues that the SDF‘s mandate should be restricted to defense and disaster relief.
The anti-revisionists are divided in to two groups: 1) those that prefer the status quo and 2) those who argue that the SDF is unconstitutional. The first group states that the present interpretation of the constitution is enough and any revision would only serve to create more room for broad interpretations, which would in turn lead to an escalation and expansion of Japan’s military power.
The second group argues that the SDF should be banned because it’s not only unconstitutional, but its mere existence threatens neighboring nations. They propose that the SDF should be dissolved into a “disaster relief operation force”.
The study opinionates that Japan should revise article 9 to support the first pro-revisionist position because, Japan no doubts needs some military power in order to contend with the rising risks posed by its Asian neighbors. The fact that the United States, which is responsible for framing the constitution, is encouraging the country to revise the article is a clear indication that time is ripe for the country to reconsider its position regarding re-armament.
As noted elsewhere in this study, there have been complaints within the Japanese government about the money that the country spends in order to maintain the US military forces in the Japanese archipelago. This alone is a testament that though Japan may deny the need for a military, it is getting the same through a second country, and is paying dearly for the same. The expansion of the SDF mandate over the years is also a testament that Japan has realized the need for self-defense although article 9 remains a prohibitory factor.
The study however acknowledges the sentiments expressed in the reality that de-militarization of countries through provisions such as article 9 would result in a peaceful nation. However, the reality of the world today is that giving up arms cannot be a consideration that stands being given any considerable thought by military powers who perceive their military capacity as an assurance against external aggression.
Conclusion It is no doubt that MacArthur and other Japanese constitutional framers gave Japan a pacifist constitution. Over the years however a significant percentage of Japanese have grown accustomed to the constitution and “made it their own”. Having learnt vital lessons about aggression and the effect that the same can have on the country especially in the Second World War and other wars preceding WWII, analysts argue that Japan chose to concentrate on economic expansion rather than military power.
Taro Kano, a lawmaker in Japan was quoted by the BBC saying that the bureaucrats who translated the constitution from English to Japanese left a lot of room for interpretation maneuvers thus explaining why Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi justified sending troops to Iraq, yet an earlier Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru had always maintained that the constitution of Japan has no provisions for the government to have any Soldiers.
The ambiguities in the constitution thus emanate from the different interpretations that the politicians are able to associate with the passages and the meanings they attach to the same.
The reality on the ground regarding article 9 and other controversial sections of the Japanese constitution is the fact that the American Framers made it absolutely hard for the Japanese to enact any alterations unless the change had a majority backing in the Diet, the house of Councilors and the House of Representatives. The two thirds majority is especially a near-impossible tasks especially considering that the Japanese people are divided over the need to change the article.
As such, the only remaining actions that respective government can take lies with individual interpretations, which for example allowed the formation of SDF, and the sending of soldiers to Afghanistan and Iraq.
The probability that the Japanese people will review article 9 cannot however be overruled especially considering the geographical position of the country and the increasing military powers from the N. Korea and China, increasing international pressure and the need for the Japanese people to possess a sovereign right to collective security.
References Berlin, Noah. “Imperial Role: Accession, Yasukuni Shrine, and Obligatory Reformation.” Journal of Constitutional Law. 1(2). (2006): 383-413.
Chanlett-Avery, Emma, Cooper, William,H., Manyin, Mark E.,
Relating to International Business Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Taxation and fiscal policy
Support for the Industry
Government regulation and laws
Introduction The political economy refers to the relationship that politics, the legal systems and the economy have and the effect of this relationship on the overall economy of a country. Political institutions can determine the stability of an economy by putting in place certain economic policies (Jensen, 2006).
Foreign direct investments into a country can be affected by the policies in the domestic market. The policies instituted by the government and other governing bodies have an effect on foreign firms and thus affect their operations (Ferguson
The American Dream in The Great Gatsby Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In 1925, Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby after many years of academic problems and indifference that prevented him from graduating from college.
The Story The Great Gatsby is told by Nick Carraway, who comes to settle in New York from Minnesota to learn the bond business. These events are happening during the summertime of 1922. Nick rents an apartment in Long Island, in the district of West Egg. Nick’s neighbor is Jay Gatsby, a rich and mysterious man who loves giving spendthrift parties to his friends.
After spending some time in this neighborhood, Nick finally attends Gatsby’s exuberant parties only to realize that Gatsby organizes these parties to impress Daisy, Nick’s cousin, and wife to Tom. Gatsby had met Daisy in Louisville, and they had a relationship, but it broke later. Gatsby pleads with Nick to mediate his reunion with Daisy, although he is not sure of the repercussions.
Nick finally invites Daisy to a coffee where she meets with Gatsby, and they reignite their affair. Unfortunately, Tom finds out about Daisy’s affair and confronts Gatsby. He reveals Gatsby’s dirty dealings as an alcohol bootlegger, after which Daisy swears she loves Tom.
Further Research When and Why Did Gatsby Change His Name? 4.4 817 Why Did Daisy Marry Tom in The Great Gatsby? 5 214 What Does Gatsby Want from Daisy in Chapter 6? 5 48 Is Nick from The Great Gatsby a Trustworthy Narrator? 5 98 How Does Nick Describe Himself at the Beginning of The Great Gatsby? 5 68 Who Attended Gatsby’s Funeral? 5 92 Ironically, Tom is cheating on Daisy, for he is in another clandestine affair with Myrtle, George Wilson’s wife. In a turn of events, as they drive through the valley of ashes, Nick and Tom realize Myrtle has been run over by Gatsby’s car. Nick finds out that Daisy hit Myrtle; however, Tom is ready to take that responsibility. Tom rushes to George, tells him that Gatsby was driving the car when it hit Myrtle.
George hurriedly concludes Gatsby had an affair with Myrtle and vows to kill him. George shoots Gatsby as he relaxes in his mansion by the pool. George then shoots himself dead. Nick buries Gatsby; however, he moves from East Coast. He concludes that Gatsby’s dream to have Daisy was perverted by money and knavery. Nick equates Gatsby’s vision of the American dream. He, however, notices that both dreams have decayed into the quest for riches. These dreams are dead, marking the end of the power of imagination.
Message The author is trying to say that the American dream is dead. “There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams – not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion” (Fitzgerald 69). Daisy stands for ordinary Americans going after riches. They are lost in this compelling desire to have more money, and these riches are delusional.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gatsby stands for those who are already in riches. They have “thrown” themselves into these riches without thinking hence killing the American dream. Americas lack creative passion in pursuing riches. This passion is supposed to bring happiness; unfortunately, as Fitzgerald observes, this passion is no more. Therefore, the characteristics of the American dream, like happiness, are nowhere to be found in the lives of Americans.
Conclusion The Great Gatsby is about the dead American dream. Fitzgerald is concerned about the newfound wealth that seems to drive people crazy, especially on the East Coast. The American dream was about innovation, laissez-faire, and the quest for felicity; unfortunately, this dream is dead.
The slow death of the American Dream started immediately after World War I, and now it is dead and decomposed. Unfortunately, some people are still dreaming; however, the writer concurs with Fitzgerald that the time for dreaming is gone. The closest American dream can come to reality now is that; dream.
Works Cited Fitzgerald, Scott. “The Great Gatsby.” Prigozy, Ruth. Ed. New York; Oxford University Press, 1998.
Marine conservation and coastal development Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Building on Singapore’s existing track record of balancing terrestrial conservation with development, Singapore can, with additional effort, position herself to become a global example of sustainable development in the coastal and marine environment. We can, thus show the absence of mutual exclusivity between marine conservation and coastal development.
A holistic approach to conservation including studies, research and best practices related to ecosystem preservation should be adopted. Biological, economic and social objectives should also be balanced in the effort to conserve natural heritage for future generations in Singapore (Chee 2008, p. 1). The social objectives are being achieved by Singapore’s relentless effort in the sustainable establishment of world-class living conditions with sensitivity to the existing ecosystems.
This will, in turn lead to attraction of valuable clients across the globe. Conservation is our responsibility in order to preserve biodiversity for our future generations. The coral reefs, like our natural, cultural and national heritage-has to be kept alive. This will enable future Singaporeans to enjoy the biodiversity beauty of their country and give them a chance to make a difference in conservation (Goh 2009, p. 1). Let us have a look at more detailed conservation recommendations.
The following are some recommendations for balancing coastal development and marine conservation in Singapore. First of all, a government agency should be identified to be reviewing coastal development plans (Helvarg 2006, p. 32). It should establish a carefully developed policy for EIAs (Environmental Impact Assessments) to be conducted on all coastal projects as well as significant inland projects with potential effects on coral reefs and marine life.
The government agency should also have an independent committee for coordination of reviews on coastal development plans. The committee should comprise of a balanced membership for holistic review of the coastal development projects (Knoell 2005, p. 17). It should have representation from state bodies, academic institutions, businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGO).
NGO membership is to ensure that ideas of corporate social responsibility are implemented in development projects in an effort to conserve marine life. The central government agency should institute a monitoring programme aimed at implementing preventive measures against marine interference (McKenzie 2007, p. 1). The monitoring agency should have prosecuting powers in order to perform its duties effectively.
Reduction of land reclamation and maximization of the use of existing land could also help in preserving marine life (Onn 2007, p. 1). This may be achieved by development of biodiversity rich areas to discourage environmental degradation through eco-tourism. This will also have financial gains to the stakeholders. There should also be a regulatory board whose objective is the limiting of recreational activities of corporations to check their effects on the environment (Chou 1997, p. 21).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government agency should also implement appropriate measures to reduce siltation levels. This can be achieved by setting up of silt screens during reclamation and avoiding careless deposition of silt during drenching. The last recommendation is the identification of islands with commendable biodiversity and making them MBAs (Marine Biodiversity Areas) through implementation of thorough protective measures (Ray 2004, p. 23).
From the discussion above, it is evident that an integrated conservation system is desirable for marine protection. However, the establishment of such a system faces a myriad of limitations. Firstly, the activities of the government agency require highly skilled personnel. This translates to more capital for the implementation of these recommendations (Chou 2008, p. 1). The lack of legislation related to marine conservation is also a major setback.
Lastly, coral translocation does not have guarantee of success due to problems of manpower, technique and time (Lim 2009, p. p. 1). It is therefore important for the government and other stakeholders to put these limitations into consideration before implementing these recommendations in order to achieve the positive impacts that the recommendations are designed to have.
Reference List Chee, D. (2008). “Conservation Activities in Singapore.” Web.
Chou, L. (1997). Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation in Singapore. U.K. Bell
The Characteristics of the Fashion Industry and How They Influence Supply Chain Report essay help
Executive Summary The fashion industry has been the latest to adopt the use of the internet as a marketing platform for its products. This is associated to the nature of the products in the industry.
People buying apparel products would probably want to feel the texture of the material, try it on to confirm the size, check the color of the material before making a decision (White, 2000, p. 95). These buying characteristics can not be carried out online. It has taken time to change this mentality and create the possibility of online shopping of apparel products among customers.
This paper examines the characteristics of the fashion industry and how these characteristics influence management of the supply chain. The paper also discuses the application of information technology in the collection of data on sales and how the data can be used to predict demand shifts. A further focus is on how information technology can be used to augment the effectiveness of an order form.
The Characteristics of the Fashion Industry and How They Influence Supply Chain Management The fashion industry thrives on the efforts of retailers who mostly take up the role of supply, sales and merchandising of products to the consumers. The retail process of the fashion products heavily relies on the spending power of the consumers. When the consumer purchasing power is high, the sales volumes go up.
The sales consequently reduce when the consumer purchasing power reduces. Fashion markets are unpredictable i.e. the market experiences frequent shifts depending on the fashion tastes of the consumers (White, 2000, p. 87). In order for the retailers to keep up with the market dynamics, they need to be keen and master the fashion trends. They also have to develop a good management system for their inventories in tandem with the needs of their.
The fashion industry is more about designs and quality. Fashion designers spend time and resources to develop and come up with fascinating fashion designs. The law has not been structured well to protect designers from piracy. After a long time laboring and struggling to come up with a striking fashion design, photographs and drawings of the same are quickly taken and whisked to china where they are reproduced at a much cheaper cost than what the original producer would want to sell it at (Fernie
Bernard Williams The Self and the Future and Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity Essay online essay help
The vast majority of philosophers have already made many considerable contributions in the field that discusses the psychological continuity theory of personal identity. The idea of personal identity is closely connected to the idea of personal survival under certain conditions.
Personal identity comes from two different conditions and their connection to each other: pre-mortal condition when a person’s survival is under a question and post-mortal condition when a person’s survival is already the desirable answer. Some psychological continuity theorists are eager to argue about the type of continuation, physical or psychological, is more appropriate to this case.
The researches and ideas of Bernard Williams are focused on the necessity of personal awareness about the experiment; “they [Person A and Person B] may even have been impressed by philosophical arguments to the effect that bodily continuity is at least a necessary condition of personal identity” (Williams 80).
Williams makes a wonderful attempt to demonstrate how the idea of body-switching works and what the role of personal identity is if “one’s fears can extend to future pain whatever psychological changes precede it” (Williams 91); he also follows Locke’s example and tries to clear up how psychological continuity theory defines personal identity and what factors are considered to be influential in the chosen case.
Psychological continuity theory is one of those theories which may be aimed to explain the idea of personal identity taking into consideration both event memory as it is demonstrated in Williams’ work and some additional psychological traits as it was proved by means of behavior of the person A during the experiments.
The value of this theory turns out to be evident when Williams tries to compare the conditions of person A and person B. The case of amnesia makes a person A forget about his personal interests, traits, and awareness about what is happening to him right now. However, the peculiar feature of this case is this person’s awareness about this amnesia and its predictable outcomes. Of course, it is impossible to feel comfortable about the expected processes.
A person is told about the ongoing case of amnesia. He is also informed that all these tortures and memories will be forgotten after the experiment is over. Though Williams admits that such information could hardly alleviate person’s fear but still this awareness provides a person with a chance to wake up and not remember who you are, what you are, and what kind of torture happens to you if any.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Does this fact increase person’s fear? Sure, it does. However, it is also necessary to define whether person’s level of fear is identical in all cases. Foe example, the person is informed about such torture as amnesia and about the following tortures that will happen to him. In my opinion, person’s fear before the first operation is regarded to be as the most serious.
And then, A should fear the following tortures because each torture is not as serious and comprehensible as the first one was. It is also possible to draw a principle line between the case (i) and other cases because only this case distinguished person’s past life (pre-mortal condition) from his future life (post-mortal condition). As a result, the cases (ii) – (vi) are considered to be that distance that promotes personal identity, where psychological continuity (fear) does not play that crucial role.
Personal identity has many definitions, offered by different philosophers. However, the main idea of personal identity is to provide a person with a chance to identify him/herself through time. Personal identity usually deals with such questions that arise about people: what I am, who I am, what I am doing here, etc.
When we talk about the case of psychological continuity, it is necessary to admit that personal identity is regarded as transitive but memory continuity cannot take the same traits. Psychological continuity theorists face some problems with defining personal identity. They cannot come to the same conclusion whether identity is the relations of all or nothing and whether the relations between person stages can or cannot exhibit this continuity.
Bernard Williams’ experiment is aimed to evaluate the situation when two persons A and B undergo memory and personality switch. These people are informed about the torture and about their future financial reward. One of Williams’ main purposes is to focus on persons’ behavior before and after the experiment that consists of 6 stages.
The results of this experiment help to comprehend that personal identity is somehow bound up with the psychological continuity that is inherent to these people’s respective memories. The psychological entity is certainly sustained by physical processes: brain of one person and brain of the other person are interchanged, “putting the information into A from the brain of B, by a method which leaves B the same as he was before” (Williams 84).
This is why during these experiments, it becomes clear that psychological continuity theory of personal identity is not that important as physical (phenomenal) one, and the possibility of body-switching serves as the best and the most powerful evident. Psychological criteria is considered to be rather subjective, and the superiority of bodily (physical) continuity becomes evident.
We will write a custom Essay on Bernard Williams The Self and the Future and Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Williams shows that physical continuity plays an important role for personal identity that is possible through time. He tries to reject the necessity of psychological criterion by means of evaluation of person’s memories. In becomes possible that several person are able to have the same memories and truly believe that their memories are also identical in the past. And identical relations have to be one-to-one but not one-to-many.
In his experiment, Williams demonstrates that it is possible to transmit the memories of one person’s mind to another person’s mind and not to omit some important facts and events. Psychological continuity theory aims at incorporating what material has been learnt by means of inconsistency and insufficiency objection. And the cases, offered by Bernard Williams, are all about bodies and the possibility to interchange their minds and memories by means of amnesia.
In general, Bernard Williams offers to evaluate personal identity and the idea of body-switching from two perspectives: the relations between mental states and body-possession and the relations between mental states of a person and his internal state of the organism (his brain state). With the help of body exchange, the idea of personal identity should not be defined as something purely mental only.
Peron’s mind has to be associated with person’s body because their behavior and demands also depend on physical condition. Embodiment of behavior is crucial for determination of identity. This is why psychological continuity concept of personal identity cannot be regarded as the most powerful one in Williams’ experiments, and his evaluation of person’s state of mind helps to define when personal identity takes place through time.
Works Cited Williams, Bernard. “The Self and the Future.” In Raymond Martin and John Barresi Personal Identity. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 75-91.
The Success of Dell Company Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Scope and brands
Introduction Dell inc. is a corporation that deals in and supplies information technology products and services. Their main products include personal computers; servers and other assorted computer hardware. They have been a major player in the industry for decades.
High definition TVs, printers, cameras and mobile music players are among new products at Dell inc. Dell inc. was largest seller of personal computers in the 1980s and 1990s and in 2009 was ranked third in computer sales with only Hewlett-Packard and Acer Inc doing better than Dell. Dell inc. was in 2006 ranked by Fortune magazine as one of the best companies in the United States.
Dell has also been recognized as one of the few companies that have done better than their main competitors in the industry for years (Economic Times, 2010).
Scope and brands Dell inc. has a marketing strategy that entails marketing particular brands for specific market segments. It has different classes for these markets; Business/Corporate class, Home Office/Consumer class, Peripherals class and service and support brands are the main classes. The Business/Corporate class targets large clients like corporations. Long life cycles, reliability and serviceability are where most focus is laid upon in this package.
The products under this class include OptiPlex, Vostro Latitude, n Series, PowerEdge, PowerVault, PowerConnect and EqualLogic. OptiPlex handles desktop computers while Vostro is designed for small business computer solutions and mini computers. N series on the other hand are desk top and notebook computers delivered with Linux or freeDOS (Menchaca, 2008). Latitude covers business focused notebooks. PowerEdge are business servers and PowerConnect for network switches.
The Home Office/Consumer class targets the ordinary PC (personal computer) users. Good value, excellent performance and expandability are emphasized in this class to ensure customer loyalty. The brands in this class include Inspiron, Studio, Studio XPS, XPS, Alienware and Adamo.
Inspiron are budget PCs and mini computers, Studio brand is for mainstream PCs and portable computers, XPS are top notch desktop and mini computers, Studio XPS are PCs designed to meet top notch multimedia requirements, Alienware was dedicated to bringing the gaming experience to a whole new level by allowing excellent gaming options. Adamo on the other hand is a brand of laptops designed for the sophisticated class of clients as a luxury laptop computer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The peripheral class includes the accessories department that produces USB drives, plasma TVs, and output display screens. Dell also has a brand of high end monitors under ultrashap.
Dell like any company has plenty of competition. Other major market players include HP, IBM, Apple, Samsung, Gateway, Acer, Sony and Toshiba. They compete mainly for the PC and server market. Dell has about 18 percent of the market share. Hewlett Packard on the other hand has 15 percent of the market.
In the year 2006 Hewlett Packard took the lead in the PC business from Dell. Dell grew by 3.6% in 2006 in while HP went by 15% during the 2006 period. Gartner and IDC in 2006 indicated that HP had exported a lot more units around the globe than Dell. In the fourth quarter of 2006, Gartner again estimated that Dell exports had gone down 8.9% while HP’s had grown by 39.9%. By the end of the year Dell’s market share was at 13.9 % in comparison to HPs 17.4 % (Bert
Alfred Lord Tennyson – ULYSSES Essay essay help online
Introduction Ulysses is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson expressing dramatic soliloquy. In this poem, Ulysses, addressing himself, declares that he cannot afford to stay at home for it is of little profit. He says that, “I cannot rest from travel” (Tennyson Line 6). He feels obliged to get out and face the world maximizing every moment. This paper looks into the structure and form of this poem from a critical point of view.
Structure This poem consists of four sections-like paragraphs and each section contains a discrete theme. The lines are unrhymed probably to enable flow of the speech. Most of the lines end midway in what Shapiro calls “enjambment” (20). “Once the structure of this epic is revealed, the meaning of the episodes become intelligible as part of the narrative structure” (Shapiro 23). For instance, lying to the natural divinities amounts to lying to the “civilized traveler.” Each section as aforementioned tackles a different idea.
Lines 1 – 5
The poem opens with Ulysses coming back home from after a thirty-year adventure which saw him take part in the Trojan War. The narrator comes out clearly with his discontent towards everything around him. It starts by “It little profits that an idle king /By this still hearth, among these barren crags” (Tennyson Line 1-2). This king rules “barren crags” the wife is old and nothing seems positive around this place.
The description here fits animal behavior. “The only thing they do that might require human thought, the capacity to see beyond the immediate moment, is the greedy act of hoarding (Shapiro 25). Towards the end however, it becomes apparent that neither the king nor his subjects are responsible for these shortcomings. On contrary, this emanates from the fact that these two parties cannot match mentally, because “they know not me” (Tennyson Line 5).
Lines 6 – 21
The enjambment of this poem comes out clearly in this section. Here Ulysses idolizes his travels condemning the act of staying in one place for a long time. He says, “I cannot rest from travel” (Tennyson Line 6). This travel; as aforementioned, included fighting in the Trojan War.
This experience seems to have shaped Ulysses’ character greatly for he says, “I am a part of all that I have met” (Tennyson Line 8). Going back to line 6, the semicolon in “…travel; “, is a structure that shows that Ulysses has more to say. This form of structure is repeated in lines 11, 15, 17 and 18. In line 7, the “lees’ refer to deposits found in the bottom of a wine glass. “Drink life to the lees” (Tennyson Line 7).
The implication here is Ulysses is ready to “experience all things, good and bad” (Shapiro 26). There is unusual diction in line eleven when he says, “I am become a name” (Tennyson Line 11). To this, Shapiro posits that, “it grants Ulysses the glory of the legend that is associated with his name but it also reduces his existence to just one word” (26).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Line 22 – 32
To this point, Ulysses decides to leave Ithaca and resume his adventures. Life is ‘dull’ as per line 22; however, in line 23 there is imagery of unpolished sword. The implication here is that Ulysses’ life is not only boring, but also useless as unsharpened sword. Therefore, staying in this place will only add pity to his useless and unproductive life. Ulysses cannot afford to just “breathe’ and pass through life quietly, he will, “follow knowledge like a sinking star / Beyond the utmost bond of human thought” (Tennyson Line 32).
Line 33 – 53
Ulysses starts addressing some audience concerning his son Telemachus. He says, “This is my son, mine own Telemachus, to whom I leave the scepter and the isle” (Tennyson Line 33-34). There is no compromise here and Ulysses has to leave his throne and hand it over to his son. He praises his son’s qualities of leadership. After all, Telemachus has to lead the island, while on the other side, Ulysses sojourn in the seas, “He works his work, I mine” (Tennyson Line 43).
However, ambiguity sets in this poem. Ulysses uses words like “gloom’ in line 45 and he does not address a particular audience. “Some critics have identified his apparent inconsistency in the narrative voice as a flaw in Tennyson’s presentation” (Shapiro 27). However, this is unrhymed iambic pentameter full of blank verses makes Tennyson’s writings peculiar.
Line 54 – 70
Ulysses finally leaves the island to “seek a newer world” (Tennyson Line 61). Going nowhere in particular, they head west, “beyond the sunset, and the baths / Of all the western stars” (Tennyson Line 65).
This reverberates with line 31 where Ulysses is ready to pursue knowledge to the end. Finally, Ulysses reaches Happy Isles, the destiny of all the blessed after they die. Ulysses “feels he is a victim of his fate that he and the mariners who sail with him must go through” (Shapiro 29). This poem is about “Braving the struggle of life” (SparkNotes Para. 23).
Form of the Poem The entire 70 lines are a dramatic soliloquy whereby Ulysses addresses himself. It is hard to tell the location of the narration and to what audience. However, ambiguity of the poem sets in when in section three; Ulysses introduces his son Telemachus. The way he puts the first line, “this is…” indicates clearly that he is not addressing himself there has to be an audience; however, Tennyson does not come out clearly to state the audience.
The issue of audience arises again when Ulysses moves to the seashore and starts addressing his fellow mariners. “In this interpretation, the comparatively direct and honest language of the first movement is set against the more politically minded tone of the last two movements. For example, the second paragraph (33–43) about Telemachus, in which Ulysses muses again about domestic life, is a revised version [of lines 1–5] for public consumption’ a ‘savage race’ is revised to a “rugged people” (Shapiro 31).
We will write a custom Essay on Alfred Lord Tennyson – ULYSSES specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, other critics think otherwise. “Ulysses is a dialectic in which the speaker weighs the virtues of a contemplative and an active approach to life…beginning with his rejection of the barren life to which he has returned in Ithaca, he then fondly recalls his heroic past, recognizes the validity of Telemachus’ method of governing, and with these thoughts plans another journey” (Culler 277).
Conclusion Ulysses is a dramatic soliloquy where the narrator starts by addressing himself. However, as the events unfold, there appears to be an audience. The structure of this poem entails four sections with enjambment in every line.
Most of lines terminate midway as opposed to general poems where lines terminate at the end to rhyme with each other. This explains the form of the poem, which is unrhymed verse, composed of sections that cannot qualify to be stanzas. However, there are different opinions about this poem with some people suggesting that it is a soliloquy while others say it is dialectic.
Works Cited Culler, Dwight. “The Poetry of Tennyson.” London: Yale University Press, 1977.
Shapiro, Michael. “Politicizing Ulysses: Rationalistic, Critical, and Genealogical Commentaries.” Political Theory. 17(1); 9-32, 1989. Web.
Spark Notes. “Tennyson’s Poetry.” 2010. Web.
Tennyson, Alfred. “Ulysses.” The Victorian Web.
A 3000-Year-Old Artifact Discovered Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Since the major catastrophe of 2009, little has been known of previous civilizations, and archeologists have been lost in guesses at what the previous civilizations could have looked like. However, last Friday the veil was lifted by a group of children who discovered a completely intact lodgment that once obviously belonged to the pre-2009 population. Now we have finally obtained at least some clues to what life used to be like before.
To start with, it appears that people used to live separately, in small detached abodes divided into even smaller fragments that performed certain functions. One of the cells contains a horizontal piece of furniture that could have been used for sleeping.
Since it is covered with a down-filled piece of cloth, the guess that it used to be a bedroom seems to be right. The special intimacy of the room is emphasized by several half-burnt candles in shape of heart around the sleeping place. Even then, people would have barely used those for making light since they already had electrical lights all over their place.
Another specialized cell contains a set of three ceramic tanks, all of different shapes. Their construction suggests that they could have been used for water treatment; this assumption is bolstered by a number of bottles that contain washing agents. Yet another cell, all filled with containers and cutting devices of all kinds, was obviously utilized for food processing: remnants of food-like substances have been discovered in the multiple drawers and cabinets.
Finally, the purpose of the biggest cell was the hardest to define, since it contains too many variegated objects: a big screen in the wall, a device for sitting, an abstract image in oil on canvas, an upright cupboard with white and black keys and two pedals — this list gives something to think about. There have been suggestions that the latter device could have been used as an ancient computer, but no evidence of its connection to the big screen has been discovered yet.
As for the inhabitants of the lodgment, there appear to be at least two of them: a male and a female. This conclusion was possible on the basis of the cloth items found inside the big storage in the sleeping area.
The shape of the clothing reminds of male and female anatomy, and the amount of clothing for both sexes suggests that females were the dominant sex, since female clothes are countless. One of the most revealing clues as to the ancient civilization was a collection of printed images that probably represent the inhabitants of the lodgment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same male and female appear in almost every image, which suggests they formed a stable couple. They were still young, and obviously fertile, as the female kept a pack of contraception pills in the sleeping area. The fact that the couple had a common dwelling evidences that neither of them was each other’s slave; perhaps, slavery did not exist in that society at all, since there are no images of slaves anywhere on the printed images.
The same images suggest that the couple had a diversified social life, since the locations depicted vary from dark crowded caves enlightened by occasional colored flashes to natural landscapes including plentiful water and sand. The couple in the images are accompanied either by creatures of their age or older, which leaves unsolved the issue of whether they had younger generations at all.
Further investigation is carried on by the archeologists who still have more questions than answers about the remote civilizations. A huge amount of strange devices that were obviously used by the people of the past are a mystery for the modern generations. In addition, nothing of the past religious practices can be concluded yet, since the ancient books are written in unknown language. The results of in-depth research shall be reported in the coming issues.
A Review on Religious Viewpoints Essay essay help: essay help
Diverse analytical methods can be applied in populations study. Population appraisals are practical information gathering mechanisms in research. Reviews, as research techniques, are generally preferred in psychology studies. Individual self-reported information is gathered from surveyed respondents. Targeted information depends on the research objectives. A review might be centered on an individual’s details or be based on personal attitudes.
Appraisals can be prepared by applying comprehensive techniques. Prearranged quizzes are developed and the studied populace queried. Alternatively, a set of questions may be issued, in the form of a questionnaire, to the surveyed population. The two survey methods are acceptable in population research. However, the investigator is required to select the most suitable technique for the intended study.
Study reviews are usually regulated to establish research dependability and legitimacy. Controlled surveys have significance and their outcomes are realistic in a bigger populace. Enormous information quantities can be gathered in a modest interval. Review exercises are inexpensive compared to alternative information gathering methods. Appraisals can be developed rapidly and operated without difficulty.
Population assessment methods are applied in various subject areas. Individual details, opinions, historical conducts, and viewpoints are researched by reviews. On the other hand, inappropriate management of reviews can weaken research outcomes. Individual responses might lack precision and have biases. Reviews may be conducted in varied ways. Most commonly applied techniques include correspondence, phone, internet, or door to door visits. Whichever survey method applied a successful outcome can be expected.
Global human populations have a tendency of judging life aspects based on religious beliefs. Fundamental spiritual opinions have been incorporated across cultures that guide a member’s judgment. Religion has influenced various human social attributes. World attitudes towards life have greatly been directed by religious teachings and practices.
Scientific surveys ought to be conducted with exactness. Well-designed reviews are astute, edified, and largely relevant in development. Selected survey method for a study is dependant on the desired outcome. Internet-based reviews have extensively been applied in psychology studies.
Online survey techniques are advantageous compared to conventional methods. However, challenges with the methodology have been noted. Data accuracy, internet accessibility, and inferior answer speeds are obvious setbacks experienced in online surveys.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, various aspects have improved data collection outcomes. Individualized email correspondence, summarized prompts, preannounced assessment aim, and uncomplicated designs are some major steps taken in the improved survey structures. Although the method might be attractive, prudent steps should be adhered to as partiality might arise (Solomon, 2001). Respondents in an online survey might not portray seriousness in their answers. Skewed responses might have consequences of false information.
A specific study question was required for a survey on religious attitudes. The reviewed subject and aims were determined based on historical scientific data. A justification statement was formulated that validated the study. Support data was collected and compiled from examined texts.
The information gathered was relevant to extent of spiritual mind-sets among specified populations. Study question and purpose were planned and approved by the researcher. Other study techniques were considered in the selection of a research method (Draugalis et al, 2008). A definite study question was critical for the religious attitude research. The religious attitudes survey was a significant study.
Most of the global populations have diverse spiritual opinions. The existing dissimilarity on religions has impacted societies across the world. Humans are opinionated over certain religious beliefs. A review of public outlook on religion can be utilized to perhaps investigate the cause and effects of society upshots. A common cause of study failures have been attributed to ambiguity in the study questions.
Data on religious attitudes among populations was gathered by use of questionnaires. Techniques applied in the questionnaire plan incorporated three investigation descriptions and strategies. Information included in the questionnaire stemmed from the reviewed study text.
Literature searched was centered on world population’s spiritual outlook. The reviewed information widened the extent of the survey document plan (Spencer et al, 2009). A survey document can determine if the study objectives are realized or missed. A well crafted questionnaire facilitated the study of the spiritual mind-sets of populations. The questions were specific to reviewed articles and intended objectives.
Items were formulated for insertion into the survey document. The topics addressed were based on the spiritual mind-set study question. Underlined cluster meetings were convened and items for the spiritual mind-sets review created (Burns et al, 2008). Specific study subjects were formulated from the focus groups. The meetings provided avenues for primary data on which the research survey document was based upon.
We will write a custom Essay on A Review on Religious Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The religious attitude review population structure was chosen based on the study aims. Availability of resources had an effect on the type of sampling technique applied. A cluster sampling method was set up to investigate the population’s attitude towards religion. The populace was divided into mixed clusters.
Respondents in the research groups had diverse backgrounds of race, age, and gender. Grand speedy answers guaranteed a universal application of the study (Burns et al, 2008). Sampling technique chosen for a survey study required a large representative population. Group sampling secured a varied population structure that could possibly represent most members of the populations. Religious affiliations are usually varied among populations. Therefore, a large sample has increased chances of representation.
The survey document consisted of a graded against scaled answers. Graded answers assisted the surveyed population to attach precedence scores. Scaled rejoinders enabled the population to range their specific likings (Spencer et al, 2009). Statistical scores assisted the researcher in quantifying the responses.
A score range of 1-10 specified the respondent’s viewpoint on a question. Alphabetical letters from A-D were applied in the extent of a respondent’s preference. The questionnaire was simple and could be filled accurately in the shortest time possible.
Conclusion Survey oriented studies require precision from the methodology applied and targeted objectives. Careful interpretation of the study objectives must be carried out. A systematic run down of similarity from the reviewed texts, the research question, objectives, and sampling procedures require consideration. Survey protocols have to be adhered to for a formidable outcome. Psychology researchers have attributed failure of studies to poor choices of research techniques.
References List Burns, K. E. A et al. (2008). A guide for the design and conduct of self administered surveys for clinicians. Web.
Draugalis, R. J. et al. (2008). Best Practices for Survey Research Reports: A Synopsis for Authors and Reviewers. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2008. Vol. 72 (1). Web.
Solomon, D. J. (2001). Conducting Web-Based Surveys. Practical Assessment, Research
City Government System paper: Perris California Essay essay help
The city of Perris is situated in California, 90 miles south east of Los Angeles. The Perris local government is structured according to the Laws of the Californian state. Under the Californian constitution, Perris city falls under the municipal governments. Majority of the cities in California have plenary powers which are outlined in the California constitution.
Plenary powers are powers which enable a state function independently from the influence of the federal government hence, Perris city has original jurisdiction powers and what it decides remain bidding to all (Eclock, 1968).
The municipal government of Perris is constituted to reflect the population size of the residents of Perris city. Thus the administration of the city is constituted to represent the number of inhabitants it serves. There are several functions that the local government is mandated to provide to the city inhabitants.
They are responsible for the transportation and provision of security services in the city. In addition they construct and maintain the city’s infrastructure while creating recreational zones in the city. The local government also employs city workers as well as provision of dwelling units to cater for the residents (Eclock, 1994).
The city was named in honour of Fred T. Perris who was an engineer of California railroad. The city’s social and economical growth was brought about by the construction of the rail road in the region that resulted in new economic activities thus migration of people into the region from other towns during the 19th century. In addition the discovery of coal and gold in the region boosted the local economy of the region resulting in development of the city’s infrastructure (Hawthorne, 2007).
The city is managed by a council that operates like a form of government. The city manager is directly appointed by the council whose mandate is to run the operations of the city. In addition to the city manager the council appoints the city attorney whose role is to advice the council on the legal matters that affect the administration of the city.
The council members consist of five residents of Perris who apart from making council appointments also oversees the running of two city commissions, planning commission and public safety commission. The city runs as a closed system of administration, whereby the decisions are only made by the council members and not subject to public opinion, therefore the Perris residents do not take part in decisions that the city administration makes (Chalouist, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cities are free from the control and influence of politics and the federal government, they are not entirely absolutely free though the state constitution indicates so. Perris city relies on money from the Federal government to run its operations.
This money is given to Perris city in form of grants, in order for grants to be awarded, there are certain conditions that must be fulfilled by the council of Perris, and therefore the Federal government dictates the terms for those conditions to be fulfilled. The Federal government is run by politicians who oversee the implementations of those conditions and therefore in order for Perris to receive grants, they should fulfil the conditions set by the politicians hence the city of Perris is not entirely autonomous.
Through the influence of politics and the Federal government they promote the development of projects without bias and encourage the residents of Perris to engage in government decision making and implementation process thus overlapping the functions of the Perris local authority with that of the Federal government authority ( wood
How Data Analysis Can Benefit Marketing And Marketing Research Process In Apple Corporation Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Data collection tools
Introduction Data analysis applied in marketing and marketing research process can greatly benefit the Apple Corporation to increase sales and reach in a wider consumer base. Currently, Microsoft Corporation is Apple’s biggest competitor controlling about 72% of the market share (Kunkel 36).
Marketing is the process through which organizations determine the products or services which may be of interest to the consumer hence verifies the strategy to be used in the sale of the product, communication to the consumer and overall business growth. Marketing is therefore an important fundamental process through which an organization can generate value for the consumer as well as create strong customer relationships so as to seize value from the consumer.
Marketing research on the other hand is the methodical collection, documentation and analysis of all the data that is of importance to the marketing of given products and services (Mohan 56).
The Apple Corporation manufactures its own computers known as the Macintosh also known as Mac and also creates the operating systems that run on Macs, for instance the Mac OS X. in addition, Apple autonomously develops Mac compatible software which is bundled with the Mac computers hence the organization basically locks in its market share (Kunkel 36).
Microsoft on the other hand develops operating systems for almost all brands of computers the main one being the Windows operating system. Most computer brands like Toshiba, dell, Compaq and Panasonic are compatible with the Windows operating system for instance the latest Windows 7 unlike the Mac Os which is only compatible to the Mac brand of computers (Mohan 61). Consequently, Microsoft controls a large portion of the operating systems market when compared to Apple.
Furthermore, software created by Microsoft is compatible to the Windows operating system making it common among most computer users hence Mac users have to purchase Mac compatible Microsoft software for example in 1997, Apple partnered with Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, hence Apple was buying part of Microsoft’s products which consequently benefited Microsoft to the sum of $150 million worth of non-voting Apple stock (Kunkel 39). There is therefore a need for Apple to widely market its products in order to lock in a wider market range and compete on the same level as Microsoft.
Data collection tools In-Home product testing is an excellent way to market a product and at the same time carry out marketing research. This method could be used by Apple in order to obtain fast responses in the form of consumer opinion data based on in-home product trial and evaluation (Lewis 94).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apple could for example offer an individual a Mac computer to a Microsoft user and ask the individual to compare the two operating systems (Veryard 90). The organization can also place a number of individuals in an office environment and instruct them to complete specific tasks using the Mac computers and afterwards answer a series of questions or fill in a questionnaire to determine the performance of the product in the market (Kunkel 48).
Focus groups are another potent way through which Apple can learn more about the performance of an impending product. Through focus groups, the organization gets in person interaction with consumers for dynamic, qualitative marketing research (Mohan 58). Apple for example can set up a marketing research team at every Apple store and the role of the team would be to engage the customers in conversations about and existing product or a sample product yet to be launched (Mohan 59).
For instance if the organization has a new operating system or needs to market a given system the marketing research team should have an active space where consumers can talk about the operating system as they point out the strong and weak points of the operating system(Lewis 98). The marketing research team should be trained on how to approach the customers and how to interactively engage them in order to extract honest answers (Mohan 68).
New product promotional and testing social gatherings are another way that Apple can present new products for public scrutiny in a controlled environment before the product is officially launched. Recruited group leaders are required to host a social gathering where they present a product to a limited number of individuals who are required to spend a given amount of time with a given product then give responses at the end of the social gathering (Veryard 92).
This a good way for marketing research on portable products such as the iPhone and the iPod since the research group can easily interact with the users and offer assistance where necessary(Veryard 95). This method incorporates the elasticity of Internet based marketing research to a friendly and familiar in-home or in-office environment for group product testing hence precipitating a wide variety of opinions which are vital in marketing(Lewis 102).
Conclusion There are several ways in which Apple can benefit from the data analysis of information collected through market research. However, the marketing process needs a number of veto points laid out between the overall processes. The first step would be to analyze the data regarding a product immediately a prototype is released.
Once the model of a new product is unveiled, Apple should have a team of technical and creative analysts within the organization to separately scrutinize the product and make independent observations regarding the product (Mohan 63).
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Data Analysis Can Benefit Marketing And Marketing Research Process In Apple Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The data collected from the analysts can then be analyzed and the necessary adjustments made (Veryard 97). Once the adjusted model is complete, a sample model should then be distributed to the marketing research teams in all Apple stores for further analysis (Kunkel 79).
The teams should inspect the products independently and make objective observations regarding the product, and the information collected from the teams together with the sample models should then be sent back to the department responsible for production for analysis (Veryard 99). Necessary adjustments can be made depending on the majority of recommendations and new samples then dispatched to the Apple stores.
The new samples can then be introduced to a few members of the public through In-Home product testing, focus groups and product promotional and testing social gatherings where further data regarding the product is collected (Lewis 102). The data is then sent back to the production department for analysis and adjustments made according to the recommendations obtained (Veryard 98).
Marketing research teams can also hold sample models with them and introduce them to random members of the public like friends and family. After the individuals have carefully studied the product, the researchers can then ask a series of questions or offer a questionnaire through which data regarding the product can be collected. Consequently, the final product to be released has a much greater potential to impact the market since the overall make up is based on the consumer’s opinion.
Works Cited Kunkel, Paul. Apple Design: The Work of the Apple Industrial Design Group. New York: Macmillan Press. 1997. Print.
Lewis, Michael. Data Analysis: an Introduction. London: Sage Publications Inc, 1995. Print.
Mohan, Joshi. International Marketing. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Veryard, Richard. Pragmatic data analysis. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984. Print.
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SWOT analysis: Air Arabia Company and IKEA Report argumentative essay help
SWOT analysis This is the abbreviation that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is a tool that is used in determining the core areas of competencies in a business organization at a given time. It is used in the process of auditing market situation hence helps in identifying key issues that requires attention. Swot is one of the fast analytical approaches that reveal various issues that need intelligent approach.
It involves scrutinizing the marketing structure that surrounds the organization. Valentin (2001) said that the SWOT analysis involves searching for insights into ways of realizing the desired solutions. The SWOT analysis is no doubt a valuable tool in the field of business strategy because it makes it possible for decision makers to consider important aspects of their organization’s environment and helps them organize their thoughts (Valentin, 2001, pp 54-68).
The main objective of SWOT analysis is that it helps in identifying the internal and external factors that are core to the performance of the company. The internal factors are the strengths and weaknesses while the external factors are the opportunities and threats from the external environment.
Internal factors focuses on the organization itself, the employees, capital structure, assets, how the market is organized, core competencies, the product lines, what the company manufactures and is capable of doing. The external factors on the other hand comprises of both direct and indirect forces. The direct forces are the competitors, suppliers and the clients while the indirect forces comprise the economic, social and political factors (Matt, 2010, pp 1-36).
Introduction Air Arabia was set up in 2003 and is one of the airline company’s operating from Sharjah airport in Saudi Arabia. It has nine planes that fly to different destinations across the Middle East, South and Central Asia and some parts of Africa. It is one of low cost carriers which offer only economy travel cabins. The company recorded a revenue growth of 27.4% between 2007 and 2010 which produced a net income of 22.8%. The company has extended its operations to meet the local needs by distributing tickets through their sale shops alongside currency exchange bureaus (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
The airline boast of some key strength that is rare with most of the companies, its management structure is not that big and comprises of experienced team, it has a well established tie with the base where it operates which is Sharjah Airport. The airport is located close to Dubai which is a good business centre.
The company enjoys first mover advantage because of its low cost and hence faces low competition. They offer online bookings and no-frill services at low costs, the low prices is what makes clients from different sectors to use Arab Air, they also offer complementary services such as air cargo services (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
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The opportunities that the company enjoys are the extension of its Sharjah hub by purchasing new aircraft. There is also the plan to develop some operations that supports the airline like the hanger for maintenance and constructing a hotel to accommodate the clients. The rapid economic and population growth offers a good customer base in the Air travel, there is also tremendous growth in the tourism sector which is a further boost to Air travel (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
Arab Air has low number of aircrafts that do not fully satisfy the huge customer base it commands. It is currently operating on nine aircrafts but has since planned to increase the number to thirty four by the year 2015. This puts the company in a low situation when it comes to dynamic response.
The company still depends on the short haul routes and uses a single type of Air craft, airbus A320. This means that any small interference to its operations could adversely affect its income. This is contrary to other air lines that offer multiple aircraft types with classes of travel of the passenger’s choice. The air line still do not own any ground handling service, but as per now is planning to enter into a joint venture with Sharjah Airport Authority to improve on these services (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
The company faces some threats that it must contend with, one of them is more rapid development that is expected on the market sector that has not been utilized for quite long. This comes as a result of the expected higher economic growth. There is also the global economic downturn that might affect its operations due to increase in fuel prices.
The company faces very stiff competition from other airlines, the delivery of the airplanes it hopes to acquire might delay, not forgetting the challenge it might get during the roll-out of the company’s brand. The Middle East records the lowest rates of e-ticket usage despite the region being at the fore front in the air travel growth; this presents Air Arabia with some instances of low potential in travel (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
Both companies have a plan to utilize the website to improve on their services. IKEA is building online help to guide customers on how to maintain a more sustainable life. Their program offers customers tips and ideas through the website on how to reduce their effects on the surroundings.
Arab airlines on the other hand plan to improve on their e-ticket sales to customers. This will offer the customers cheaper means since they will not need to travel long distances to obtain air tickets or make hotel reservations (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
We will write a custom Report on SWOT analysis: Air Arabia Company and IKEA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both companies offer low prices to their services and products. This helps them to counter the wave of other competitors who still value high pricing of products and services in the market. The low prices attract most customers especially during difficult financial times. In order to improve its performance, IKEA has established a good brand name that is recognized globally, this has helped in maintaining the strong growth it requires in order to have a strong market identity amongst the clients.
Air Arabia being the first low cost air company in the Middle East, utilized this opportunity to create a strong brand name that secured it favour amongst the travellers in the market (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
Air Arabia is working in partnership with other companies in order to strengthen its acquisition of some essential assets like the ground handling venture which is a partnership between Air Arabia and Sharja Airport Authority.
On the issue of catering services it plans to partner with Alfa Overseas Holdings. IKEA on the other hand despite being a home furnishing retailer, supplements its income through its constituent stores which are the restaurants, cafes and food shops (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).
References EFG-Hermes UAE. 2007. Air Arabia. Accessed at https://www.efghermes.com/en/Pages/default.aspx . Dubai- UAE pp 2-39
Faculty of Business Studies. 2010. Undestanding Business Functions I: IKEA case study. Arab Open University. Web.
Matt, E. 2010. Competitive Intelligence; Excellence in Financial management. Accessed at https://exinfm.com/ pp 1-36
Valentin K. 2001. SWOT analysis from a resource-based view. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. 9(2): 54-68.
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