Table of Contents Introduction
Similarities in the Readings
Differences in the Readings
Introduction From the ancient times, much significance has been attached to the cultural life of Canadians; this is marked by the attachment to the institutions that seek to preserve and perpetuate culture.
The primary institutions seeking to preserve the Canadian culture are the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the National Film Board and the Canadian Council.
The reawakening moment for Canadian culture was motivated by the need to guard it from absorption by the US culture which has been gaining dominance since the 1980s. Consequently, the desire to activate the culture of Canada was due to the concern that there was no uniform culture that bonded the Canadian population.
The period around 1990s witnessed a paradigm shift in public concern about the preservation of Canadian culture; this exposed all areas of cultural similarities and differences. There was uniformity in public opinion in acknowledging the importance of monuments, national institutions and celebrating local events.
The areas that have attracted controversies are the need to stage musical plays together with the brewing tensions regarding gay rights, art gallery exhibitions and celebrations of cultural festivals. These differences, commonalties and controversies have signaled shifts in the cultural politics of Canada which focuses on balancing of Canadian culture against that of US.
The matters raising conflicts in the quest for independence of the Canadian culture are racial, cultural, linguistic and religious identifications. The cultural politics of Canada has been played at the local and provincial level since cultural issues concern communities (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 2).
The political controversies surrounding the focus and the character of Canadian culture are related to racial, ethnic and sexual identities. This has called for the Canadian people to look at cultural dissimilarities from the perspective of representation and images since culture has become a central area in globalization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, cultural matters in Canada have been subjugated and relegated to questions of identity. Matters of culture were previously centered on issues of morality and the need for equality of cultural experience, whereas cultural intervention targeted cultural diversity.
The striking feature of Canadian cultural matters is that it is a subject of constant debate in cities and predominantly touches on public visibility, community cohesion and social interaction as the main aspects of cultural identity, while the politics of cultural diversities are a subject of debate in the urban areas.
The central part of Canadian culture is the arts; culture provides means of entertainment and provides an opportunity for the Canadian people to celebrate their differences and similarities (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 2).
Similarities in the Readings The three readings emphasize the influences and the effects accrued from culture. The readings appreciate that culture enhances social creativity and stimulates innovation, human progress and well being. All these are an indication that culture is a central engine in human development and a tool to facilitate economic growth and as a means of leading intellectual and emotional growth (Toolkit 2).
Culture has the following effects: it enhances human understanding and has the capacity to trigger action; it fosters the creation and the maintaining of identities; culture also modifies values and preferences for collective behavior and thus enhances of social cohesion. Furthermore, culture contributes to community development and fosters civic participation (Canada Council 1).
Both readings acknowledge the several impacts of culture on the society which include the following: personal development, social cohesion, local image and identity, imagination, vision and community empowerment. From these impacts, it is evident that arts have both individual and social benefits (Canada Council 2).
All the three readings differ on their approach to matters and issues that require modification in order to adapt to the modern changes; in the toolkit bibliography article, there is the introduction of Cultural Pluralism in the Arts Movement Ontario (CPAMO) which has developed a toolkit on database format which is an instrumental source of information for all stakeholders in the sector like presenters, artists and arts organizations in various fields of organizational planning.
We will write a custom Assessment on Cultural life of Canadians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The CPAMO tool kit enables individuals and groups to learn, from previously researched studies, all aspects of cultural policy and theory as well as their implications and adaptations by other organizations (Toolkit 1). Among the fields of cultural pluralist planning are: organizational commitment, community engagement, audience development, employment and professional development.
The toolkit bibliography article dwells a lot on the organizational aspects of culture; it explains how an organization can acquire a culture and how such a culture is nurtured. It defines and explains culture in the following ways:
Organizational planning: this is a body that is concerned with initiating the changes that an organization whishes to make. Their role involves the evaluation of the organization, identification of both internal and external challenges and the opportunities that the organization faces, policy and structure appraisal and organizational strategic plan.
Among the main areas of concern in organizational planning are: a new organization should undertake a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis which reflect on the internal and the external environment.
This is instrumental in allowing organizations to identify its stakeholders, its potential partners and the audience and to systematically review its policies towards promoting cultural diversity. New organizations can develop their culture in line with the requirements and goals of United Nations Environmental and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and particularly their cultural diversity programming lens or the arts council of England.
The following are considered success factors in an organization: cultural vision, a receptive institutional culture and harmony between an organizational and community values, artistic excellence and cooperative governance.
The development of an organizational culture may be hampered by things like cost, institutional resistance and limitedness of human resource. In the development of institutional culture, requisite cultural practices may be obtained from research institutions, government agencies and arts councils (Toolkit 2).
Community engagement: this offers the organization better connection with its environment. This can be achieved through engaging the community and getting its opinion about good organizational practices. This can be realized through the use of art organizations to participate in diverse communities, another one is the use of traditional approach which seeks to involve communities in organizational activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultural life of Canadians by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The assessment of a community’s engagement in issues of mainstream culture can be realized by gauging their interest in current cultural affairs and on the other hand organization’s engagement with diverse communities can be evaluated by assessing its interest in the life of the community.
Programming and curatorial development: this is indispensable and cannot be separated form community and audience development. This is necessary if the organization is to create an all inclusive programming and if it is to execute curatorial decisions. This program has the capability of attracting wider and diverse organizational audience.
Audience development: this involves meeting and engaging the needs of underrepresented audience. This can only be realized with a clear and passionate vision. The two barriers to audience development are representational and intellectual barriers which may result from limited inclusiveness in programming.
Employment and professional development: diversity in the employment and professional cultures is a reflection of an organizational culture and diverse in its background. A homogeneous workforce population is one that is reluctant to change and this homogeneity is a threat to the survival of an organization (Toolkit 8).
Differences in the Readings The Canadian Council for Arts exhibits its difference in the approach to culture, unlike the toolkit bibliography article which dwells on organizational aspect of culture, the Canadian Council for Arts dwells more on the social aspects of culture. The role played by the Canadian Cultural Organization has been criticized for under representing the indigenous and the immigrant population.
On the other hand, the book on cultural identity brings to fore the impact of bi lingual nature of the Canadian society and how it is making it difficult for Canada to have a homogeneous culture. These cultural differences have threatened cultural generations and their perpetuation.
The book describes all the modern and traditional aspects of culture. Unlike the other two readings, it explains the various ways of propagating culture and the things that enable the Canadian population to learn culture. The areas of concern are film and theater industry, music, literature and oral tradition.
Oral tradition: Canada’s cultural politics have had an impact on the language and the definition of Canada’s national cultural traditions. To deal with the cultural aspect of language, there is need to strengthen the English-Canadian culture especially in Canadian institutions.
Preservation and propagation of Canadian culture can only be achieved when it is presented in the linguistic form of both English and French. There is, for example, a theme of unity in explaining Canadian cinema of English origin especially in character motivation.
The theme and specificity of Canadian popular music is a mix of urban and rural influences. There have been various controversial opinions regarding the traditional culture of Canada. There have been claims that the artistic practice of Canada was characterized by preoccupation with landscape and are ambivalent towards nature which undermine their beauty and terror (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 3).
Canadian television programs have been described as lacking or having fewer jolts per minute when compared with other countries like the US. Consequently, culture in French Canada has been described as noble and is manifested in the modernity of Quebec.
There has been controversy concerning the treatment of the social-cultural diversity of the modern Quebec culture which has been considered as a metaphor for urban modernity.
While cultural production in the English language has been considered as unifying, the diversity that is latent in the French- language cultural production has been associated with the fragility of Canadian community and hence derives Canada of continental experience (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 3).
The areas of concern necessary to propagate Canadian cultural tradition are cinema, music, literature and theatre.
Cinema: Canada lacks a tradition of film making. This has been liked to the need of avoiding cultural confrontation that comes with cultural diversity.
The pioneer of film-making was the auteurist feature film movement, prior to that time the English-Canadian film making was only aimed at perpetuating state-sponsored documentaries and the avant-garde experimental film. Since then, cinemas of duty which are conventional in form have gained prominence and are aimed at incorporating those who have been for longtime excluded from the Canadian cinema.
The emergence of the National Film Board has led to various experiments in the quest to enhancing film productivity. This has led to increased politicization of urban scenes and the growth various forms of art like video art. As an academic discipline, film studies have been faced with questions of identity (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 5).
Music: Music, though a cultural instrument is seldom studied in Canadian universities and has long been ignored. Music is a form of folklore and there has been minimal research on various aspects of music. Traditions and innovation are typical of musical life.
Musical lessons are undertaken within the collectors and the fans including those who publish in magazines which are devoted to Quebec pop. Music is a cultural tool whose content is hard to judge and to isolate and it only becomes meaningful when its sound and lyrics meets prejudice.
Music is marked with racial, ethnic and gender identities. Musical videos, for example, introduce the link between musical forms of practice and gendered or racially oriented identities (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 6).
Literature: Literature is the main medium of transmitting culture. There is an aspect of literature called cultural studies which concerns developments in literature, its criticism and anthologies. Canada’s duality nature of languages casts doubts on the writing margins.
The need to define Canadian literature has been plagued with multiculturalism which diffuses cultural and ethnic unrest. There have been some calls to accept the heterogeneous nature of Canada and the culture should be contextualized along that line that should go beyond the homogeneous perception of nationhood in order to eliminate the traffic between language, cultures and religions.
Another introduced aspect of literature is the African-Canadian culture which is characterized by inconsistencies with the definition of Canada.
Canadian literature is characterized by the following aspects: plurality, stereotyping and hybrid. To avoid stereotyping, there should be a need to attack and homogenize stereotypic behaviors which can destabilize the cultural coexistence (Curtis, Gupta and Straw 8).
Importance of culture: Enhance the quality of life. Through culture the quality of life can be improved. Visual arts, for example, can reduce stress and depression.
Music also can lower the blood pressure in people and hence reducing the intensity and the degree of pain. Culture can also have longevity impact. Attendance of cultural events can reduce mortality risks. Culture is also important in understanding the neighbors and how people can co-exist (Canada Council 2).
Conclusion Just like in any other country, culture remains a central part in the lives of Canadian people. It provides them with an opportunity for entertainment, enables them to share their similarities and dissimilarities and more so culture provides them with some sense of attachment.
There are divergent ways by which people can express their culture, it may be through reading of books, attending life performances, visiting art galleries and attending movie theatres. The central theme of culture is that it forms basis for attachment.
Culture enhances individuals’ social body. In the context of theater, for example, race identity carries a lot of weight particularly in our resolve to answering the question of crisis of cultural identification.
Each of the reading explains different aspect of culture. Tool kit bibliography describes organizational culture, the Canadian Council for Arts explains more on the societal significance of culture, its impact and influences to the members of the society. The reading on cultural identity explains various ways of transmitting culture and also how a nation or a society can nurture culture.
Works Cited Canada Council. “Social Effects of Culture: Exploratory Statistical Evidence.” Statistical Insights on the Arts 6.4 (2008): 1- 40. Print.
Curtis, Liane., Gupta Dipti and Straw, Will. Culture and Identity: Ideas and Overviews. Department of Canadian heritage, 2001. Web.
Toolkit. Toolkit Bibliography. Class Notes, n.d. Print.
Definition of Deontology Theory in Philosophy Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
The theory was formulated by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The word comes from the words, “deon” or “duty” therefore, the reasoning behind the word deontology is on the idea that as human beings, we have the duty to do certain things and avoid others (Hugh, 2000, p. 6). This theory does not look at how much good might be realized from a certain action but rather it looks at the actions of the individual.
The principle of this theory of ethics has been adopted in various ways to achieve a common goal. For instance, beneficence principles help or guide one to do what is good. Respect of autonomy principles helps in reaching a consensus and allowing people to make decisions that are important to their lives (Catherine, 2002, p. 5).
Justice principles endeavor to ensure fairness in our actions, while least harm principles help in making choices that are geared at causing least harm to many. Therefore, they help in reaching a common goal.
The theory dictates that individuals need at all time exhibit behaviors or actions that can become a universal rule. Individuals should also act in such a way that they treat humanity both in their own person and in that of another, usually as an end and not as a means (Hugh, 2000, p. 7). Furthermore, morality of individuals is judged based on nature of their actions and will, not on goals attained. This is because we cannot control our future despite of the best efforts we put in.
Therefore, we are usually blamed because of the actions that are within us, our will, but not our achievement. Individuals should always do unto others as they would have them done unto them. The theory emphasizes on respect of persons and should be treated with the respect that they deserve. Therefore, individual human rights should be acknowledged and should not be violated.
In my nursing practice, this theory has been of great importance. I have used the theory as my guideline in respecting the desires of my patients. For instance, I have respected their wish not to disclose their confidential information to third parties.
Virtue theory is an ethics theory which deemphasizes rules, or consequences but it focus on the person that is involved in an act (Catherine, 2002, p. 8). It does not deemphasize on whether the act is right, abiding rules, and good consequences of our actions. The most important thing is whether the individual acting is expressing good character-moral virtues or not. As the person character is the totality of the individual character traits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism theory is associated with the British philosopher by the name John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), who developed it. The theory holds that individuals’ actions are right if only they promote good to majority. The theory, therefore, agitates for the respect of every person through our actions. The critics of the theory question the extent on how the good of the majority goes.
Another ethical theory is the casuist theory. This theory is used in comparing the present ethical problems with the past examples and outcomes of similar ethical problems that was experienced. This, therefore, helps in the determination of severity of a given situation and helps in creating of best solutions in relation to another person’s experiences.
Does justice require universal access to health care?
For justice to be realized there is need for universal health care. Universal access to healthcare as embodied in the health systems of developed countries is aimed at securing an equal access to the healthcare. There have been various disagreements pertaining to the accessibility of health care (Jim, 2009, para. 23). Some people view health care as social good and like any other commodity that needs to be purchased. The healthcare should be made accessible to its entire people.
In most circumstances, those people that are not able to access good healthcare services do not have the money to pay for their health, while those who have the resources can afford good healthcare services. This inequality has created disparities and contributed to injustices. Heath care should be rolled out in order to be accessible by every person in need. Health care is important in fostering justice to the whole society. Therefore, I do agree that justice requires a universal access to health care.
References Catherine, R. (2002). Descriptions of ethical theories and principle. Web.
Hugh, L. (2000). The Blackwell guide to ethical theory. New York: John Wiley
Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help
Introduction In the book ‘You don’t Always Get what you Pay For’ by Elliot D. Sclar, the author examines the merits and demerits of privatizing the public sector in United States. He provides a detailed explanation of how the private sector works in conjunction with the public sector and the assumptions made by supporters of privatization.
Sclar says that although the model of competitive market may be preferred by many, it lacks a full and comprehensive explanation of the intricacies involved in providing public services on contractual basis. This essay will present a critical book review of Sclar’s book ‘You don’t Always Get What You Pay For’.
Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar
The book “You don’t Always get what you pay for’ by Eliot Sclar is a focus on privatization which has seemingly been elusive. In his attempt to analyze the subject, Sclar utilizes case studies to show the advantages and disadvantages of transforming public services into private ones.
After referring to various case studies, his conclusion is that privatization of public services is detrimental to the society. Sclar argues that the perspective presented by neoclassical adherents regarding competition in the market is not clear enough to explain the concept of competition.
However, it is apparent from the way he presents the model that he is against free markets. “The economic playing field is more realistically conceived as mountainous terrain that includes several high peaks from which well endowed corporate and individual warriors swoop down to seize targets of opportunity” 1.
The perspective held by Sclar from this statement is that there is monopoly in the economy where wealth rests in the hands of a limited group of people.
Sclar’s book is easy to read since information is presented in a clear manner. The book lays emphasis on two major issues the first one being that privatization is not the solution to effective and better means of production. He points out that various situations have their uniqueness hence privatization decisions should be based on particular cases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The approach used by Sclar to analyze the concept of privatization basically revolves around the government’s decision on whether it is supposed to buy or make its own goods.
According to him, the efficiency achieved when the government decides to produce its own products is not different from the one achieved when competitive markets are involved. Sclar argues that the focus should not be on economy analysis but on dealing with management organization2.
The case studies he uses present a valid contribution and the challenges he finds out to be inherent in the process of contracting out. For example, identification of the services to be provided by the private companies becomes difficult.
Judging which is better between producing goods privately or publicly also becomes a difficult task. In addition, what determines the production of goods most is the organizational structure as opposed to the question of whether the producer is from the private or public sector.
Sclar points out that the issue is not producing goods privately or publicly but what matters is recognition of the fact that both public and private production of goods can be used in the improvement of public service.
Sclar attempts to make an evaluation of the degree of success in privatization. He points out that privatization should be aimed at reducing the production cost and it does not necessarily reduce the cost instantly. The notion that producers and consumers gain important information from the prices when assigning resources is an extremely simplified one.
Sclar argues that government agencies incur additional costs such as monitoring costs that are ignored by those who support privatization. The cost of the whole agency should also be put into consideration instead of focusing on the section that is under contract.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To sclar, the most appropriate method of making a comparison between work done on the basis of a contract and in-house work is basing it on the avoidable cost. On the basis of this accounting strategy, Sclar views the merits of privatization to be minimal.
Sclar has a feeling that private competition affects the consumers negatively through increased costs. For instance, when trying to analyze the medical industry he points out, “we pay a steep price for this competition. In the United States about 25 cents of every health care dollar is spend on administration and profits.
In Canada, which has national health insurance, the comparable overhead figure is 15 cents”3. Sclar is not concerned with the cost or the quality of the product. According to him, the problem of producing goods for public use cannot be solved by privatization but the solution lies in adopting different organization structures for the bureaucratic agencies.
Sclar argues that the ultimate goal should be improvement of the services offered to the public by public agencies. He uses the view of institutions on the economy and costs of transaction to show how the economy can achieve such a goal.
Sclar is keen to identify some of the problems associated with contracting services although he does not acknowledge the steps that have been taken to solve the problems. He suggests that contractual deals between private and public institutions are usually characterized by immense corruption and interference from the political class.
He attributes this kind of interference to the failure of competitive forces. He believes that corruption takes place when the private sector gets involved in matters of the public sector but is not caused by organizational or competition issues.
This book criticizes the way neoclassical theories explain competition as well criticizing the view that bureaucrats and individuals from the political class can produce goods and services better than players from the private sector.
Sclar argues that analyzing the economy in the right manner and having appropriate organizational structures is the key to determining the most appropriate means of production but not relying on ideologies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Book Review of ‘You don’t Get what you Always Pay For’ by Sclar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He points out that the focus of conservatives is ideology and trimming the size of the government, a factor that causes them to advocate for privatization with little regard on whether it is cost effective with regard to provision of public services.
The contracting method has some problems and can actually lead to reduced government costs but it is not real privatization. He says that the theoretical approach of competition in Austria where privatization involves transfer of resources from the public to the private sector has been successful.
However, to him this should not be an ideology to be emulated by small governments but a factor of appropriate analysis of economic situations4.
Conclusion In the last chapter of his book, Sclar gives examples of privatization in New York as he attempts to explain the challenges of privatization. He outlines several rules that can be used to improve service provision in the public sector.
Sclar points out the negative aspects of standard economic model which is used by supporters of privatization. He argues that supporters of privatization make assumptions that are not realistic. He further argues that they do not have the right ideologies hence ruling out the possibility of reforming the public sector.
Bibliography Calcagno, P. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.
Sclar, E. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Footnotes 1Elliot,Sclar. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.pp.9
2 Peter,Calcagno. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.pp.3
3 Elliot,Sclar. You Don’t Always Get What you Pay For. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.pp.92
4 Peter,Calcagno. You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For:The Economics of Privatization. By Elliot D. Sclar.The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 2001: 83-85.pp.5
E-Commerce Website: Creation, Growth and Security Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The E-Commerce Website Security Features
Securely Managing the E-Commerce Website from a Remote Location
Anti-Theft Protection for Johnny’s Laptops
Introduction Jonny is a potential investor into an E-Commerce website and hopes to be able to create, manage and expand the website even as he takes safety measures to ensure that the website is safely operated and accessed from any location, including remote locations.
He therefore plans to spend an amount of $2 million into the project so as to gain a powerful and perfectly-operating website that may be able to eventually compete with top E-Commerce websites like PayPal (Duran, 2009).
This study seeks to identify the different ways in which Jonny may establish a successful and powerful website, its potential to expand, how he may be able to ensure its security and also how he should organize his budget so as to complete the whole process in the right way.
Executive Summary Electronic commerce (E-Commerce) is the form of trade that involves buying and selling of products and services using such connections as the internet, LAN, WAN and other computer networks.
The process has also developed to include other processes such as online payment options where a client is able to pay for whatever they have bought online, market development, advertisement and marketing for products over the internet, products delivery services as well as many other trade-related activities that occur over the internet.
E-Commerce has been on the acceleration especially due to the vast technological advancements and innovations that have taken place over the recent past resulting to an unprecedented increase in the use of personal computers as well as internet activities.
With the developments that have been established in E-Commerce, internet users who wish to buy or sell products have been able to have an easy connection with each other from all over the world in such a manner that a seller is able to advertise and market for their products online, converse with the client, negotiate on prices and finally sell the product to the client even without them meeting or even seeing each other physically.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same way, a buyer is able to view online many products that he/she has an interest in from all over the world and from different sellers, compare prices, quality and other aspects of the products of interest, choose the one’s to purchase, make online payments and then get the products delivered physically to them.
These processes may take place from the comforts of one’s home or office, provided there is internet connection (Howard
A Change of UK Political Policies Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Cause of Political Reforms
Effects of Political Reforms
Introduction Over the years, United Kingdom politics have generated a lot of interest globally. In the recent past, the centre stage of the UK political arena has been the formation of a coalition government in 2010 between two major UK political parties; the conservative and the liberal democrats.
This paper is going to dwell on the coalition government as a change in political policy that has caused the emergence of the UK political reforms and its effects (Dorey, Garnett,