Cryptography Research Paper Scholarship Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Keeping Information Private

Computer Systems and Networks Threats

Cryptography and Protection of Privacy and Public Safety

Policies in the use of Cryptography



Introduction Cryptography signifies that which is concealed or hidden. It is writing or a description in a brief manner that secretly conveys a particular intelligence or words that we may wish to communicate. Cryptography may be used as a form of clandestine communication. The art of cryptography is a legitimate form of communication that is acknowledged in the world.

This is because there can be some times of danger and stress between individuals or nations that will make the use of cryptography inevitable especially when there is need to carry out a successful operation, by ensuring that the enemy does not get to understand the deliberations or communications between various agents of government (Ashchenko, 2002).

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques for different dimensions of security. The other words that are closely related to cryptography are cryptanalysis and cryptology. Cryptanalysis is the science that is applied in defeating the mathematical techniques while cryptology is the study of both cryptography and cryptanalysis. The terminologies that are applied in cryptography include:

Encryption: this is the action of concealing or disguising a message with an intention of hiding the information content. This may be achieved through encoding or enciphering.

Protocol: this is an algorithm which can be defined by series of steps and can specify the series to various parties.

Plain text: this is the message that can be transited or that can be stored whether encoded or decoded.

Cipher: this is a map from a space of plain text to a space of cipher text

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Encode: to convert a message into a representation in a particular standard alphabet

Decode: to covert the coded message back into its original alphabet.

Keeping Information Private Secrecy of communication can take many forms just in the same way that the perception regarding the movement the eye can be interpreted to give different meanings.

The key features of information that can enhance the security of information are confidentiality, privacy, integrity of data, authentication and non repudiation. Security of message is always addressed by cryptographic standard methods. Any information that is stored on a data base can easily be accessed and shared by the intruders (Privacy and Human Rights, 2003).

Privacy of information is an inherent culture of every individual. The emergence of computer technology and especially communication transmitted through computer networks have raised a lot of ethical concerns regarding privacy due to the volume of information that passes through a computer in one day. Computer privacy raises several ethical and moral dilemmas.

There are several technologies that have been developed to enhance privacy during communication. These technologies include cryptography, authentication and digital signatures.

Cryptography, for example, is a technology that can utilize several firms of algorithms and protocols in computer networks. Computers have raised few and new privacy problems mainly resulting from communication and storage of information (Diane, 1997).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cryptography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The technologies that enhance privacy have raised several concerns among governments and other authorities due to the difficulty of the interception of the encrypted communication that is transmitted through computer networks.

The main ethical issue is the dilemma between the privacy of a group and individuals and their safety and security, for example, on what side the government would want to maintain the privacy of its citizens but at the same time it would wish to have knowledge of the information that is transmitted for security purposes.

There are therefore several devices and techniques that have been developed to enhance interception (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 2009).

At this age of computer, private or personal information which has been transmitted through the computer can be stored through a data base, this database can be searched and accessed by any person and it can be used for purposes of advertisement without the knowledge of the communicating parties.

Consequently, privacy is not perceived in similar manner and it is not viewed in the same dimension, various countries and several individual have different perceptions of what privacy is (Diffie


Impacts of Information Technology on Global Operations of Businesses Essay argumentative essay help

William Shakespeare, the famous writer and poet, referred to the world as a stage and all the people in it as players in the game of life (Dimitrova, 2002). At that time, these words seemed to be sophisticated because of people found it difficult to truly understand what they meant. However, as time has passed by, these words have become clearer to us. The world has become very informed.

There is a smooth flow of information from one end of the world to the other. At the same time, the boundaries that separated nations are now permeable. People travel easily from country to country. At the same time, the production of goods and services has also expanded. The world has a variety of goods and services from which a consumer can choose from. As a result, the rate of consumer satisfaction has greatly increased.

Lastly, the economy of many countries has grown and expanded beyond their physical borders. Countries from far and wide can now trade with one another at ease. With the advancements in technology, a person in South America can easily strike a deal with another one in Russia without the two of them coming into physical contact.

A simple word can be used to describe all this; Globalization. It is due to the effect of globalization that the world is operating on a global scale. It brings people together to work as a team in order to achieve specific goals and objectives.

Finally, it ensures that there is socioeconomic and political development in all states of the world. Globalization has made the world to be uniform due to the synchronization of social, cultural, technological and commercial aspects of life which originate mainly from western countries and spread to the rest of the world.

The advancements that we have been experiencing in the field of information technology have played a critical role in ensuring that businesses operate on a global scale. The innovations of new technologies especially in the field of production and communication have made it easier for businesses to operate on a global scale. This is what is termed as techno-globalism by scholars (Jugger, 2009).

Techno-globalism has made it easier for businesses to produce their goods or services and market them at ease. As a result therefore, businesses are now earning more profits and stand a higher chance of growing and developing as compared to the times when many organizations did not embrace information technology (Jugger, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Information technology has developed the operations of businesses to operate on a global scale. As a result, businesses are able to produce, market and sell their products in almost any part of the world.

On the other hand, technological development has become a key factor in the determination of the future prosperity of businesses. A business that has the latest technology has a competitive advantage over another business that still uses inferior technology.

This could be either in production, sales and marketing or internal organization. As a result, the business that has superior technology will grow and develop at the expense of those businesses in the same field that still embrace outdated technologies.

The level of trade has grown remarkably over the last few decades as a result of the advancements that are being experienced in the field of information, communications and technology (ICT) (Jovanovic, 2011). These advancements have also increased the number of tradable services in the field of IT and ICT which have made the offshoring and outsourcing of services to be much easier.

The ease in the tradability of these services and the increased independence of the location has contributed to the offshoring of services by many companies in the west (Kapila, 2009). Companies are now outsourcing services such as support, customer care, research and consultancy.

The main reason behind this is that outsourcing for services is much cheaper and the end result is desirable. The development in IT and ICT has led to the globalization of services all around the world.

With the revolution in IT and ICT, the location of companies is not of a high concern as it used to be. The advancement in technology has made the transmission of inputs and outputs to be much easier. These processes can now be conducted digitally and transmitted via electronic means. Companies have therefore offshored much of their services especially white collar jobs to improve their sustainability and efficiency.

We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of Information Technology on Global Operations of Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The customer care for the giant computer manufacturer Dell, for example is located in India (Kurtz, 2010). When local residents call the customer care, they are being served with an operative who is located in India. Many employers have embraced this move and replaced much of their staff in the US and UK to reduce their operating expenses.

Globalization and information technology have also influenced the manner in which companies market their products and interact with their customers. Companies have embraced the use of technology in order to survive the stiff competition in the specific markets that they operate in.

Some of them, for example, have incorporated the use of social networks and brand communities as a communication strategy of reaching and engaging customers. This because social networks and brand communities are the easiest and most efficient ways through which consumers can be reached as a result of technological changes that the world is currently facing.

Most organizations and business companies therefore have stopped stop using outdated methods of reaching out to consumers. Some have incorporated the old methods with the latest ones.

Businesses can create a competitive advantage through the use of information technology. Information technology has greatly affected the manner in which businesses operate. Normally, it has been the organization which influences the manner in which it uses and integrates IT in its operations.

However, due to the technological advancements, many organizations depend on IT in the normal running and operations. As a result, it is information technology that affects the manner in which a business operates. Information technology has managed to create more options and opportunities for businesses in the markets that they are operating in.

Through the use of this technology, managers can easily determine their strengths and weaknesses. This in turn makes such organizations to operate in manner that is more effective and efficient. The management of an organization plays a critical role in ensuring that their organizations operate in a smooth and efficient manner. Through the use of information technology, the management of an organization can improve on:

Business strategy

Organization structure

Organization culture

Management process and working conditions

These are essential factors to ensure that a business operates in an effective and efficient manner hence stand at a competitive advantage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impacts of Information Technology on Global Operations of Businesses by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through the use of information technology, organization can be able modify their business strategy in order to meet the needs and requirements of their customers. Through the use of various strategies and techniques, an organization can be able to meet these needs and demands hence maintain its customers and earn new ones in the process.

Information technology is also useful in ensuring the sustainability of global operation of a business entity. A business can, for example, modify the services that it used to provide on a personal scale and deliver them through the use of networks, RSS, blogs and so on. With the use of information technology, a business entity can have systems that operate throughout.

This will make the accessibility of product information to be much easier. In addition, it will bring the product closer to the customers. This will in turn reduce the operating costs and increase the market share of businesses (Andidas, 2003).

For a business to have a competitive advantage, it must have a strong organization culture that is valuable, rare, inimitable and organized. Information technology has played a critical role in ensuring that organizations have a strong organization culture.

Through the use of electronic mails and group wares, information technology has increased the ease and efficiency of communication within an organization and externally with other stakeholders. With the use of these technologies, information can flow in all directions of the organization without being distorted.

This makes communication between employees, their suppliers, customers and other stakeholders to be much easier. This has made all the parties who are affiliated to the business to feel as part and parcel of the organization. This has in turn increased cooperation, motivation and team work amongst them. As a result, they work together as a team to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization.

The management of organizations has also benefited a lot from information technology. While using the technology, the management of many organizations finds it easier to monitor the conduct and progress of its employees (Kauppien, 2004). In addition, the management can access the information of proper management tools and system that it can adopt and apply.

Finally, through the use of IT, the management of an organization can record, store and retrieve information of its employees, customers, suppliers and stakeholders either on the internet or other databases. This in turn makes the running of an organization to be more effective and efficient (Kauppien, 2004).

From the discussions that have been presented, it is evident that information technology has modified the manner in which organizations operate in the world. IT has enabled businesses to have a global effect.

This is due to effective and efficient production and sales and marketing techniques that have been discovered as result of embracing IT. Information technology is therefore a resource which an organization can use to have a competitive advantage over its rivals (Millon, 2007).

References Andidas, K. (2003) Toyota Prius: Marketing Communications Plan. Journal Of Technology, 4 (12), 31-55.

Dimitrova, A, n.d., Challenging Globalization: The Contemporary Sociological Debate About Globalization. Web.

Jovanovic, M. (2011) International Handbook on the Economics of Integration: Competition, Spatial Location of Economic Activity and Financial Issues. Sacramento: Edward Elgar Publishing

Jugger, S. (2009) The Power of Advertising. Admap Magazine, 14 (2), 51-55.

Kapila, U. (2009) Indian Economy since Independence. New Delhi: Academic Foundation

Kauppien, H. (2004) Communication Strategies and Market Entry. Helsinki: Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.

Kurtz, D.L. (2010) Contemporary Marketing 2011. New York: 2011

Millon, D. (2007) Piercing the corporate veil, financial Responsibility, and the limits of limited Liability. Emory Law Journal, 56 (5), 1309-1382


Six Sigma Process to Increase Efficiency Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Problems with Six Sigma

Changes that will occur


Introduction Six Sigma can be described as a process which increases efficiency and decreases defects in production or operational processes with the end goal being an overall reduction in costs for the company in terms of resources saved. Taking this into consideration any company that suffers from consumer complaints regarding product quality can benefit from implementing various aspects of Six Sigma into their operational structure.

On the other hand what isn’t outright stated is the fact that Six Sigma can be thought of as a constraining and limiting form of management since it requires products, services and methods of operation to conform to a singular overriding plan that emphasizes a particular method of performance in order to achieve a certain end goal.

Problems with Six Sigma This means that it at times limits management methods related to initiative, thinking outside the box or utilizing methods of management that aren’t necessarily a part of the company’s original management procedure. Based on this, it becomes a question of whether Six Sigma management methods are a necessity instead of an option in a company’s operational structure.

In the case, example provided it can be seen that high product defect rates reported by consumers necessitates the need for significant process change and as such, it can be seen that the implementation of Six Sigma in this particular case is a necessity in order to improve product quality and thus a company’s brand image.

Changes that will occur Through the use of Six Sigma, it is expected that daily operations within the company will undergo drastic changes in the form of increases to efficiency and reductions in resource wasting operations.

This would involve department restructuring, removing redundant teams or operations, distributing roles among existing staff so as to increase human resource utilization without having to hire more workers, as well as the implementation of new production overseeing processes to ensure compliance to new standards.

Approaches to new projects under the new Six Sigma process would have to coincide with how adaptive such projects can become with the company’s new style of operations, whether they can be implemented quickly, efficiently and at low cost and how to ensure compliance with Six Sigma processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overall it is expected that my management style and method of deductive methodology will actually be severely limited in terms of utilizing methods outside of established company operational procedures as dictated by Six Sigma.

In fact, it is expected that across the entirety of the company’s management structure decisions and methods of operational implementation will take on a “top-down” structure of management resulting in limited freedom in decision making however this should increase operational efficiency and reduce product defects.

From a certain perspective thought it can be stated that the use of Six Sigma cannot be considered entirely good for the company. Its confining and regimented use of statistics and metrics turns employees into numbers rather than people.

In a way, it can be stated that the Six Sigma process stifles creativity in favor of efficiency, which cannot be considered the best possible process in which to proceed in a technology-oriented business environment where innovation is prized above all else.

In fact, the very company that started the Six Sigma process “Motorola” failed to capitalize on changing smartphone technologies and innovations within the past decade resulting in its rivals such as Nokia and Apple, which place greater emphasis on innovation, effectively reducing Motorola’s market share to a third of what it used to be (Colvin, 2011).

It is based on this that while I do agree that greater efficiency and reduction of wasteful resource utilization is an advantage for the company the fact remains that regimented and procedure-oriented methods of management cannot be considered an ideal process to be implemented in light of current market trends where there are fewer barriers to entry and the need for constant innovation.

As such, this necessitates the implementation of certain vertical and horizontal management processes instead of a regimented top-down approach.

We will write a custom Essay on Six Sigma Process to Increase Efficiency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Colvin, G. (2011). Motorola’s Uphill Battle. Fortune International (Europe), 164(1), 34. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.


Random and Systematic Errors college application essay help

Look at the example of the Bogalusa Heart Study on page 440 of the text. In your one- to two-page journal entry, think about and address the following listed items:

Which type of error was of greatest concern for the investigators?
Which type of error—random or systematic—was controlled for in the research?
How could systematic errors arise in blood pressure measurement?
Propose your own methods for controlling for random and systematic errors in blood pressure measurement.
Please use Friis, R. H.


Effectiveness of BlueSky Airways Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

BlueSky Airways is one of the leading companies in the British airline industry. The firm faces a number of challenges including stiff competition. This paper analyzes the position of the firm in the market.

Several airlines are competing for supremacy in the UK Short Haul Market. In the entire Europe, it is believed that UK significantly generates more air traffic as compared to other countries (Bamber


Week Six Journal Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

At the beginning of this course, you wrote an introductory post that included your opinion of what two or three aspects of epidemiology you thought most important for public health. Please do not review your Week One post yet. Instead,

Compose your answer to this question now that you are finishing the course.
Once you have finished writing this down, reflect in your two- to three-page journal entry:
How and why your answers may have changed?
How your understanding of the importance may have changed even if the aspect(s) you first wrote did not change?
How you think these changes affect your actions with regard to dealing with health risks?
please use Friis, R. H.


Company Analysis: Hewlett-Packard Report essay help online free

Executive Summary Hewlett Packard (HP) has grown steadily to have its presence felt all over the world. Wal-Mart has experienced phenomenal growth since inception due to embracing sound strategic management practices. Most successful organizations make effective strategies as central aim to their operations.

For Hewlett Packard, it has established a series of effective and elaborate management ranging from, bureaucracy, and contingency, cultural and technological approaches which has maintained its success and business achievements over the years.

Thus, these management processes has enabled the HP to counter competition threats posed by its competitors, increase organization management practices and guaranteeing customer satisfaction.

Introduction Business operations in the modern world are experiencing drastic and unequivocal changes that are unprecedented. Fierce and sustained competition prevailing in the global market has exacerbated idea generation and action strategies as a means of securing business going concern.

While the majority of the CEO uses historical concepts to manage business, the new generation managers are blending the new ideas with pre-existing principles to step up competition.

To understand better business operations in the modern world, this reports endeavors to elaborate on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Company application of four perspectives, Bureaucratic, Contingency, Cultural and Technological approaches. The HP Company has market tremendous success over the last two decades to assume its zenith position as a world leading computer producers.

Hewlett-Packard at a glance Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard both graduates of Stanford University established the HP Company in 1939. The two continued to operate their electronic garage under their new name (Hewlett-Packard) until its incorporation in August 18, 1948. The Company sold its share to the public in 1957 to attain public connotations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s notable technological contribution was the launch of audio oscillation (light bulb) in 1972. The audio oscillation was temperature dependent resistant that makes it more stable compared to competitors outputs that were unstable. Despite its stability, the company adopted a low-price strategy to enter the market by a blob. HP sold each oscillation at $54 while competing firms sold unstable oscillation for over $ 200.

The company started diversifying globally in 1960’s when it formed a partnership with Sony and Yokagawa Electric of Japan. The steady progress in discovery and innovation enhanced its global brand name. In 1970’s the company produced the fasted hand help electronic calculator, developed screen labeled function keys.

In the same period, Steve Wozniak, a co-founder of Apple came up with the master plan of Apple 1 computer. Later, innovations accelerated to the current position where the company is enjoying world dominance.

The success of HP since its inception to date is vested in employing skilled, levelheaded management and investing heavily in innovations and technological prowess. The company’s growth matrix includes internal development through innovations, acquisitions and, mergers. The key mergers and acquisitions are Appollo Computer (1989), Convex Computer, merger with Compaq in 2002.

The company’s outstanding performance has attracted steady earnings and steady growth. Despite the stead performances, the company has been changing its CEO with the latest been the resignation of Mark Hard in June 2010 and appointment of Leo Apotheker on September 2010.

Bureaucratic Approach Hewlett-Packard has been using conventional management where leaders are elected to fill vacant positions. However, this is not always the case as the company also bureaucratic perspectives where officials are not elected. For instance, the company appointed CFO Cathie Lesjak as the interim CEO after the resignation of Mark Hudd.

The appointment shows that the company at times deploys leaders from internal and grooves them to world-beaters. In essence, bureaucratic leadership is one of the most influential leadership strategies in terms of influencing the employees, motivating them and shaping their performances.

We will write a custom Report on Company Analysis: Hewlett-Packard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other prominent and most prominent is the democratic attributes contained in the leadership model. While the leaders strive to encompass the opinion of others, rarely, do leaders establish personal opinion prior to obtaining the teams perception.

At HP, the CEO just like other department managers works in consultations with other board of directors who furnish him with their perceptions and ideas on policy issues. Although, the CEO receives an opinion from others, he uses all the facts at his disposal to make a collective decision.

Ideally, bureaucratic leadership follows the rules to the letter and endeavors to foster the trend to the entire organization. Although, HP adopts several leadership models, rules are at the core of its operations. There are clear rules that govern the conduct of employees at the place of work, operation criteria, job description and reporting.

The line managers are entitled to ensure all rules are adhered to while errant staffs are subject to punishment stipulated in company’s statutes. While rules state the norms, conduct and ethics that bind its employees, often, these rules are violated. For Instance, the former CEO was forced to resign after being alleged of sexual harassment and corrupt deals. While this move fulfilled the law, his replacement Mr.

Apotheker was alleged to take part in multi-million fraud at SAP. This is high profile contravention of the same principle that is dearly held by the organization.

While the approached is deemed worthwhile, managers and business analyst have posted valid and increased criticism of the model. For example, the slow operation and substandard quality produced by Apple Inc is down to Steve Jobs up and down leadership approach. While the engineers’ detected defects of the Apple antenna a year earlier. They did nothing to correct the problem but continued with the production.

On several accounts, Steve leadership was coupled with cruel and manipulative characteristics that often reduced employees into tears. This was a disincentive as the staff morale was negatively affected (Filloux 2011).

The contingent approach The contingent management approach asserts that no single approach is sturdier enough to run a successful business. Proponent of this approach contends that for a business to be effective, organized, profitable and motivating, several approaches should be put together to achieve the collective goal. However, the biggest challenge that emerges is how to condense the entire organization under one control.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Analysis: Hewlett-Packard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This prompts a question on whether the company requires a mechanistic or functional structure to meet its goals profitably. However, through experience, HP Company has struggled to come up with a single perspective that best fit them. The prevalence of risk and uncertainty advocates for diverse approach to cater for unseen variables. The unstable economic environment requires adoption of mechanistic approach with a centralized structure that best offer stability and consistency.

Thus, contingency perspective best fits with such environmental eventuality by providing the most sought after flexibility and stability in the business. In addition, the approach also fosters efficiency and flexibility in operation. Whereas, uncertainty calls for random and unstructured approach in solving problems for non-routine tasks contingency perspective offers best remedy for the problem.

Technology classification Technology is diverse and encompasses both the approach of doing tasks and the mechanistic diversity, skills and inherent ingenuity of transforming raw material to products. According to Joan Woodward, technology may be classified according the scope of operation namely batch, large scale, continuous process and mass production.

Charles Perrow puts forth a competitive approach by describing tasks in terms of variety and analyzable. He also asserted the need to have structural alignment in organizations. Finally, James Thomson technological approach is based on interdependence of among departments (pooled, sequential and reciprocal).

The success of HP is attributed mainly to its ability to adopt and utilize different types of technologies. The rich investment in technology, management diversity and increased innovation provide the basis of continued sustainability and stability across the organization production line.

While technology is chore element in the HP operation, integration of both technical and organizational technical disposition remains the bedrock of company’s success. Nonetheless, the continued success does not shelter the company from facing fierce rivalry in the international market due to adoption of state-of-the-art.

Structural Limitations Hewlett-Packard is known to have recorded immense profit margin over its rich history. However, the company has being facing stiff structural limitations that have slashed the company’s performances. For instance, the projected annual profits are expected to decrease by up to negative 3.26 per cent compare to last year (Sandholm, 2011).

The slump has been attributed to heavy expenditure to revamp computer productivity, enhance maintenance and increased high-level consultations. After taking the helm, the current CEO Leo Apotheker blamed his predecessor Mark Hurd of failing to institute proper policies to improve structural problems. According to him, the company focus was on production at the expense enforcing strong operational foundation.

The effect of proper structural foundation at HP is vividly manifested by employee turnover. By the end of 2008, the company reported a massive lay-off of 24,700 jobs. Owing to the fact, Mark Hudd was compelled to mitigate the alarming joblessness by instituting pay-cut across the board. A double-digit drop in revenues from printers, serve and PC sales instigated the move.

He reduced his salary by 20 percent, while the senior executive remunerations were slashed by 15 per cent while other executives received 10 per cent cut while the lowest grade got a 2.5 per cent pay cut. The desperate move to mitigate unemployment only aggravated the situation since it adversely affected staff morale and commitment (Fiveash 2009).

The solution to the underlying structural abnormally requires total overhaul of operation and adjustment of organization policies. The first step in reversing the situation is carrying enhancing cost savings and setting salary ceiling.

The company should also enhance an error free environment as a means to enhance operational margins. Other measures into consideration include strengthening control measures and tightening loopholes to enhance efficiency.

HP culture Each company has a unique way of that distinguish it from others such as unique dress code, Staff Corporation and customs. Hp is no exceptional. However, narrowing down to a specific culture is a stellar order since the company assumes a multifaceted approach. The company host several business frontiers that have unique qualities and dress codes ranging from suits to jeans, casual and official, technical and nontechnical.

Amidst this diversity, the company has a common culture of hard work, uniqueness and conquest. Each employee strives to stand out, add value and by engaging the intellectual and ingenuity ability to the fullest.

The resolute and determination portrayed by the HP staff stands out in an extraordinary way. As the world moves faster, so does the HP drives the IT revolution equipped with passion, curiosity, and desire to concur even the impossible. The HP culture accords significance attention to knowledge as the potential unlocking key for innovative endeavors and outstanding creativity.

While intellectual skills are vital, HP builds its potentiality in dealing with common sense and doing things right. For instance, each employee is trained to understand customer needs before embarking in developing solutions. In a wider perspective, the company strives to keep its customers at the forefront by projecting the current and future needs before producing the product.

It is not a coincidence that HP has a global outlook. The company draws staff from across the globe and enhances its international ties by outlook pool the best brains in the world. With such diversity, HP enhances international integration, fights racism, and religious discords among its staff.

The company nurtures its team and set their mind to focus on the infinite opportunities and occupation development. The human resource department inspires employee through global integration and a chance to expand their potential beyond ordinary to extra ordinary.

Smart thing to do However, the company had effected various changes to its culture since the appointment of its new CEO, Carly Fiona, and each CEO injects a new insight into the team. As a result, the team is more competitive; more service oriented, and enhanced engineering focus. This legacy has been carried over since the company was founded.

Nonetheless, the rich management intellectuals each with diverse ambition, and the way of achieving his objectives, the company requires a unifying policy to have common perspective. Unless, the company harmonizes its mentality and a consistent way of executing matters, the culture portrayed to the global market will always be diverse.

Hurwitz (2011) suggests that optimal thing to do is for the company to cultivate a unifying culture. This might be done by forming a team to aggregate diverse approaches to enhance the HP culture.

Political Perspective Politics and leadership is part of any organization. Since HP is not exceptional, the organization has all the channels of distributing power and responsibility. The company organization structure assumes a network portray that encompasses hierarchical format. The mechanism is such that commands and authority flows from top to bottom and responsibility flows in the opposite direction.

Leo Apotheker is the senior most people in the organization structure and is followed by an executive body that helps him in policy formulation. The company has conventionally used the structure for a long time. However, in June 13, 2011, the company announced a change of structure in line with the company strategy that was announced in March 2011.

The new structure not only fosters transparency, but it also equips executive with numerous checks and balances. The structure also strives to redirect attention to customers and enhance collective responsibility. The move saw one of the most successful executive, Livermore, joins the Board of directors.

While the move elevates the global outlook of the company, the change also inspire other leaders to increase their contribution earn promotion Thacker, 2011).

The company’s top leadership has been male dominated as all the CEO in the company have been men. However, the trend is changing quickly since women contribution is highly appreciated and is becoming significant each day. For instance, Meg Whitman appointment as the new chief executive reveals transformation in the helm of leadership.

Her leadership ability is evident in the way she handles issues head on and her iron-will to venture even in difficult issues. Her determination has made her be nicknamed a power woman for her leadership strategy she calls “a bias for action” (Forbes 2011).

Gone are the days when organizations were led by autocrats. The current world requires intelligence, focus and high psychological understanding to bring out the best out of the employee. While some CEO take pride in running things with an iron-rod, organization is evolving and appreciating new leadership method such as participatory leadership, autocratic, or laissez-faire leadership.

In most cases, the organization opted for laissez-faire and democratic leadership where employees are given space and time to express their views and participate in decision-making. Conventionally, the leadership method had helped the organization to mold a coherent working environment that free expression and participation.

Conclusion Hewlett-Packard is the leading world electronic producer in the world with quality and unique products. The sustained success has been attributed to steady leadership, excellent leadership, and investment in the in innovation and research. In addition, the company has enhanced its market dominance through internal grooving of leaders to replacing retired employees.

The company has enhanced its global reputation by employing employees from across the globe. HP has an ambitious culture, hunger, and desire to produce exceptional quality against all odds. Just as the case with any company, the HP Company has internal politics that governs and determine the way orders and instruction are conveyed across the company.

While the company has been male dominated, recent appointments shows a change to accommodate women in high management levels.

References Forbes, M., Meg, W., 2011. Hewlett-Packard’s New CEO: Leading With A “Bias For Action“. Web.

Filloux, F., 2011. Apple’s Antitrust Problem (Part 2). Web.

Fiveash, K., 2011. HP Imposes Staff Wage Cuts: Mark Hurd lowers the foloor to saver workers. Web.

Hurwitz, J., 2011. Can Hewlett-Packard Make its Own Luck? Harvard Business Review. Web.

Sandholm, D. C., 2011. Hewlett-Packard’s Problems Are ‘Severe’. Web.

Thacker, M., 2011. New Release. HP Press. Web.


Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Sociological, Legal, and Organizational Issues Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Problem Statement

Gender Discrimination in Job Promotion

Causes of Gender Discrimination in the Work Place



Reference List

Introduction In every organization, strategic staffing process is vital as it helps an organization in identifying and addressing the staffing implications of their respective business strategies and plans. Over the past decade, the issue of promotion barriers in the workplace has been a critical one. Although considerable effort has been put to promote equality in the workplace, gender inequalities remains a major issue in many organizations.

In strategic staffing, breaking the glass ceiling has been the main concern in human resource management. Although many organizations have been promoting equity in their practices, there still remain obstacles for some groups of employees to occupy upper posts in an organization.

As a result, many qualities and performing employees have been denied upper positions despite of the fact that they have the necessary qualifications for such positions. This has also denied organizations the chance to benefit from the expertise of such individuals. Employees’ productivity has also decreased as a result of lack of motivation.

Problem Statement Over the recent past, there have been a growing number of women entering into the workforce occupying various positions. For instance, a significant number of women have entered into careers in professions where they occupy various positions.

Despite the fact that the ratio of the women I workforce is becoming increasingly big, the issue of gender inequality remains a problem that requires an urgent solution. It is important to mark that unsettled, the given issue poses a great threat to the women employment, because women will be discouraged, which may affect their performance in their duties.

Employees’ motivation plays a significant role in determining the productivity levels. By practicing gender discrimination in the work place, women employees will be discouraged and consequently perform poorly in their responsibilities.

This has threatened the performance of many organizations both in the long and short run. It is also important to mention that discrimination in the workplace is also often based on racial differences. For instance, a white supervisor may discriminate against the black people, basing his/her judgments on the widespread stereotype concerning the black workers’ performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both kinds of discrimination have posed a major threat in the modern business and management sphere. The practice has denied employees a chance to advance in career, which results in the stagnation of their skills.

Gender Discrimination in Job Promotion As already noted, the issue of gender equality has been one of the major concerns in many organizations despite the increasing number of female employees joining the work force. A number of people have carried out studies on this issue.

Over the past years, women have been facing a number of barriers which have blocked them from rising in certain levels in various organizations (David, 1998). Although some women have managed to break the glass barriers, they have not managed to access more senior positions in their respective corporations.

The majority of women have made all the efforts in an effort to achieve their goals only to find a glass wall preventing them from reaching their goals (Gluck, 2011). The presence of the invisible yet quite tangible obstacle has significantly affected the women’s performance.

According to the resent research, most women lose their morale after failing to realize their dream. In other words, women are kept from advancing to higher positions just because they belong to a different gender, which is, no doubt, the most outrageous.

The barriers depicted above may exist at different levels in an organization. For instance, it may be a general manager level. In many organizations, there is no woman in a senior management position. However, more women are now determined to break the glass ceiling in the contemporary world.

However, it is important to keep in mind that they will obviously encounter recurrent barriers even after overcoming the prejudice concerning women in the workplace and the most widespread kinds of discrimination in the workplace.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Sociological, Legal, and Organizational Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The major obstacle concerns the fact that women have been continuously facing is the barriers of stereotype and traditions that are based on prejudice, which, in its turn, has diminished women’s ability to occupy top positions in an organization.

In many organizations, supervisors have applied the existing notions about the abilities and roles of women to the process of making promotion decisions (Gluck, 2011), which has significantly undermined women’s efforts to advance their career. For instance, a male supervisor may discharge a qualified and experienced female fire fighter employee under the pretext that men perform better in such positions.

According to Bradstreet (2005), gender inequality is a critical issue in every organization because it negatively affects the company growth, economic prosperity, business development and recruitment processes. The gender issue has adversely affected the performance of a number of workers in many organizations.

Due to gender discrimination in the workplace, a considerable amount of organizations have missed the opportunity to utilize the talents of many women employees for the company’s benefit, which has to some extent undermined the performance of organizations.

It is worth mentioning, though, that in some places, women have control over a significant amount of wealth. For instance, 43 percent of Americans earning income above $500,000 are women (Bradstreet, 2005). It is necessary to add that women also have a significant role in making purchasing decisions.

Therefore, denying women a chance to advance in their career poses a major threat to the economic performance of an organization.

Still, there is no doubt that the issue of women discrimination in the workplace remains a problem that demands urgent solution. Unlike the other problems that arise in the company, it involves both the aspect of human rights and the company’s ethics, which means that the issue is rather complex.

According to the most recent researches, discrimination against women in the workplace can take various shapes and have the most versatile consequences, yet in every single case, certain measures could have been undertaken to prevent the humiliating situation from occurring.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Sociological, Legal, and Organizational Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is essential to ark, though, that discrimination at work can take different shapes, changing from the most subtle forms to the most severe cases of hardened prejudice. As Dipboye


Nursing Competencies in Texas Essay (Article) essay help

Differentiated Essentials Curriculum (DECs) has its own unique history. The practice of Nursing in Texas runs with a range of practice scale based on learning and training from the Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) to the doctoral trained and Registered Nurse (RN). The latter is attributed to the fact that demand for more nurses has been rising over the past few decades (Ferguson, 2007).

Its premier history can be traced back from 2000 when the Board of Nurse Examiner directed the Advisory committee on Education to evaluate and improve the inventive competence manuscript on 20th January, 2000.

This committee formed a sub committee comprising of six nurses who would represent Diploma, ADN and BSN categories. They brought unique and positive contribution to the entire program (Vallano, 2008). They were chosen to bring such contributions to the committee.

The charged subcommittee met on 9th August, 2000 and begun their tasks as was earlier directed. They evaluated two important documents namely ‘Essentials of Baccalaureate Education’ as well as the ‘Educational Competencies for Graduates of Associate Degree Nursing Programs’.

Their findings were that the fourteen competencies in the original document were in the same line with these two documents. They also realized that nursing schools had already used the fourteen core competencies in various ways in a period of more than seven years. Besides, the schools had revised their course objectives and statements. In 2002, this revised document was approved and updated.

The purpose of DECs project was to offer new directions to nursing training programs for curriculum progress. This purpose played an important role in preparing graduates effectively in order to offer good, proficient and concerned care. The project was set to accomplish its purpose because nursing is widely known as a patient- oriented career (Sacks, 2003).

Besides, the project was slated to run from 2000 to 2010 when the executive gave their updated report. In addition, the personnel competencies involved in this Nursing Workshop included Member of the Profession, Provider of Patient-Centered Care, Patient Safety Advocate and Member of the Health Care Team. These premises provide good management in individual’s efforts (Rigolosi, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The project is currently organized in such a way that there is clear cut difference of what goes on there. It has evaluated all the nursing programs for efficiency. Its current status is working as a bridge and has helped many nurses to realize that nursing is more of a service industry (Turner, 2007).

Its management system is undoubtedly good since it has moved from strategic planning to the level of implementations and proper supervision of its organizational details. The project will be implemented by following the set down procedures and practice in all levels.

It is not enough to put in place strategic planning without a comprehensive implementation phase. Good management usually practices constant and complete responsibility to implement its plans and objectives (Zimmermann, 2002).

On a final note, it is also profound to note that this project has personally and positively impacted me as a future nursing educator in Texas.

References Ferguson, J.G. (2007). What Can I Do Now? Nursing. New York: InfoBase Publishing.

Rigolosi, E. (2005). Management and Leadership in Nursing. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Sacks, T. (2003). Careers in Nursing. New York: The McGraw-Hills Companies Inc.

We will write a custom Article on Nursing Competencies in Texas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Turner, S. (2007). The Nursing Career Planning Guide. Ontario: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Vallano, A. (2008). Your Career in Nursing: Manage Your Future in the Changing World of Healthcare. New York: Kaplan Publishing.

Zimmermann, P. (2002). Nursing Management Secrets. Philadelphia: Hanley


NHC: The Importance of a Human Resource Manager Case Study scholarship essay help

Table of Contents The Trouble at NHC

Most Effective Solution



In a poor community one of the most important things to have is a health facility. Health is wealth as the saying goes, a simple statement but true. A successful career and all the material wealth that comes with it is incomparable to health. But poverty provides barriers for those who are not insured and could not afford to pay the fees of a medical doctor or avail of the health services of a private clinic.

Thus, in poor places like North Suburbia it is imperative to maintain the Neighborhood health clinic (NHC). However, the NCH is plague with monetary and employee-related problems. There are many solutions that NHC leaders can consider but it can be argued that hiring a competent human resource manager is the most effective solution that can create an immediate positive effect.

The Trouble at NHC There was a time when North Suburbia was an attractive place to live. Due to an economic boom in the 1980s, Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics began to replace the American-Indians that used to dominate the region. After a while, and because of significant shifts in the economic climate of the place, African-Americans became the majority.

However, this trend did not last for long because high cost of living and expensive housing drove many away and the vacuum left was soon filled in by Hispanics. The only common denominator is that most of the residents are poor regardless of their ethnic background.

Poverty easily creates a chain reaction of negative effects. The workload increases but the patients that come to NHC cannot afford to pay the bills. The NHC cannot run on good will and compassion alone. It must have a steady cash flow in order to buy medicines, purchase necessary equipment and pay for the wages of the health workers.

Thus, the members of the board and top leaders of NHC must also divide their time to not only manage the facility but also to raise funds for the health center. But aside from the lack of funds other pressing concerns threatens to shut down the NHC.

There is a culture and communication issue. There is a need to have equal representation in terms of ethnic composition of the work force.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If NHC fails to attract African-American workers then the members of the black community would not be encouraged to use the services of the said facility, thinking that the place is run by Hispanics. If the situation is reversed the same thing will happen to the sentiments of the Spanish-speaking members of North Suburbia, they too will feel uncomfortable in availing the services of the NHC.

The most sought after members of the community that should work in the health center are African-Americans; however, they are some of the most unreliable groups of workers that can be found at NHC. These are undependable workers because they are the byproduct of an environment struggling with a high crime rate, gangs, and drug use.

According to one health officer: “some potential employees also had criminal records, were recovering from problems with substance abuse or had complicated family issues that could potentially interfere with their work schedules” (Denend, 2005, p.65). The situation calls for an expert in human resource management.

It is of great importance to upgrade the workforce and the leadership core of NHC, nevertheless, “despite the tremendous need for training, NHC had been limited in the amount of time and money it devoted to staff development” (Denend, 2005, p.65).

There must be continuous training to update the skills of the health workers. At the same time it is also crucial to bring them to a level of maturity and confidence in order to minimize the risk of errors.

Most Effective Solution At first glance the root cause of the problem is poverty and the lack of funds. But in truth these are social issues that NHC must not focus on. Surely it is important to increase the earning capacity of the members of the community but the main task of NHC is not to stimulate the economic recovery of the said region.

At first glance it seems that members of the board must work harder when it comes to fund-raising endeavors. But weighing all the problems there is one action that can address a major portion of the issues. The leaders must put their heads together to attract and hire a competent human resources manager.

We will write a custom Case Study on NHC: The Importance of a Human Resource Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The core problem was echoed by one employee who said, “There’s no HR here, so everything goes to management” (Denend, 2005, p.66). Imagine the confusion and the burden carried by the officials of NHC when they try to put out fires without solving the root cause of the troubles that they face.

They have to realize quickly that even if they raise funds, the money will be wasted on hiring the wrong people and the added cost of errors in the workplace, not to mention work-related violence, can close down the NHC.

Members of the board must remember that there is a close connection between employee performance and customer satisfaction (Buttle, 2004). This is the domain of an HR manager. They are able to deal with an assortment of employment problems. The first order of business is to develop the correct strategies in order to hire the right personnel.

It is therefore imperative to hire a competent HR manager because the HR department acts like a filter that will sift through the application data, in order to choose the right candidate for the task at hand.

It is important to realize that recruitment processes and strategies must be enhanced to adapt to the challenges faced by the community (Buttle, 2004, p.9). The HR manager must learn to use information to be able to predict to a certain degree that an applicant possess the right characteristics suited for the job.

A competent HR manager possesses the right qualification to provide the necessary training for the employees. A competent HR manager also understands the ethical issues that are in existence.

Therefore, the hiring process as well as the methodologies used for training the employees must be carefully studied so that there would be no complaints from the community. Nevertheless, it is not enough to hire the right people and train them; an effective motivation program must also exist.

HR managers know the value of motivation and the need for employees to work at the highest levels. They are aware that motivation enables health workers to strive for a higher standard of service excellence (Moynihan


Capital markets in India Essay college essay help: college essay help

First, the country has not strengthened its capital markets fully. Currently, the National Stock Exchange (NSE) has not reached out to retail businesses and institutional investors properly. Furthermore, the stock market is dependent on metro cities; only about ten cities account for eighty percent of the trading at the NSE. This leaves many rural and semi rural areas untapped (Mohan, 2006).

It has been shown that the Indian people have a very good savings culture. If the retail sector can be engaged, the capital markets will have better prospects for growth. Such an approach is quite imperative especially because the bond markets are growing at very good rates (Sharma


Strategic Management Essay essay help online free

Introduction The business environment has in the recent past been experiencing tremendous growth and development. The growth in technology and globalization has significantly impacted on the business environment through increased global activity. These developments have opened up new opportunities and means of production for the business society thus leading to success.

Nevertheless, the increased global activity as well as the technological innovations have not come singly but have rather raised new challenges for business organizations. The issues of competition, environmental management, and sustainability have emerged thus putting unprecedented pressure on the business community. With this in mind, there has been every need for business organization to identify and develop strategies so as to ensure business success and sustainability.

The automobile industry has not been exempted whereby the levels of competition have multiplied over the years. The issues of sustainability and efficiency in the use of petroleum oil as the sole source of power have also risen thus calling for adoption of new technologies. Other issues emerging in the automobile industry include the ever rising customer demands on innovative, luxuries and distinctive products.

These issues have put undue pressure on the various business organizations operating in the industry thus calling for more efficient and sustainable strategies. BMW which is a key player in the automobile industry has been demonstrating success over the last century. In this essay, key strategic issues in BMW will be reviewed and appropriate recommendations made to enhance the success and sustainability of BMW.

Background information of BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke (BMW) is a German Automobile, engine and motorcycle manufacturing company which was founded back in 1917. The company has its headquarters in Munich, Bavaria, Germany and also owns and produces the mini marquee.

The massive production and success of the company has been acknowledged across the globe with a production record of 1,481,253 automobiles and 112,271 motorcycles in 2010. The strong brand name and capital potential of the company is the core elements of the company’s success and popularity across the globe. BMW primarily focuses on the premium segments of the global motorcycle and passage car market (Hill 2008; Martin 2010).

The business operations of BMW are diverse with key concern on automobile and motorcycles as well as the provision of information technology services. A point worth of consideration is that BMW markets its products through various channels including company-owned showrooms, subsidiaries, independent dealers and importers. T

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More he production activities of BMW are undertaken across 23 production and assembly plants in 13 countries, whereby it sells its products in over 140 countries worldwide. The massive research and development operations of the company have been of great concern whereby it has been able to adopt the recent technologies in automobile production thus leading to product and service differentiation (Hitt et al. 2009).

SWOT Analysis BMW has reported commendable performance and success in the automobile industry for a couple of decades. Being the leading luxury car manufacturer across the globe, the company has been able to position itself among the consumers. The strong luxury car brands owned by BMW, Roll-Royce and Mini have enabled the company to attract and retain a wide population of customers.

The competitiveness of the company has been felt across the automobile industry based on the strong brand names and market share commanded by the company. The company has also been under due pressure due to the ever increasing steel prices, competition and need for better technologies (Gerry et al. 2008).

Table 1. SWOT Analysis.

Strengths Weakness Strong brand image Diversified operations Strong financial performance Efficient and extensive production and distribution network Strong focus on R


The Marxist Theory on Class Struggle: The History of Human Relations has been one of Class Struggle Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Historical Materialism

The Communist Manifesto: The Proletariat and the Bourgeoisie

Dialectic: Hegel’s Romantic thought

Continuing class struggle



A continuous struggle is going on in the world of Karl Marx, for as long as there is an exploiter and an exploited. Karl Marx lived and struggled all his life for the emancipation of the working man who was reduced to a common serf. There is continuing class struggle as people with the same interests form a class to fight for their freedom.

Class struggles exist in any given society when its production powers are falling. This is what happened to the cities of Europe during Marx and Engel’s time. By contrast, primitive societies have no class because their labour tends to be similar and all members of society work hard for their daily subsistence. Unlike in a class society where there is difference between labour and capital; one has to work while the other produces the capital. Here, class struggle is evident. (Wood 2004, p. 97)

Commentators and Marxist critics do not have only one interpretation of the term class struggle. Many would say that it is about material struggle of the classes in society. Others would say that it is used as a metaphor. In the true sense, it is economic in nature. But it is material because it is a struggle for the material means that members of society desperately need. The social order depends upon the results of class struggle, or there cannot be order if class struggle causes social upheaval or conflict or chaos.

In the Marxist philosophy, class struggle means battle of opposing classes. There have been class divisions in society based on the relation of individuals to property and means of production. Because of these class struggles, changes are inevitable. (Chatterjee 2010, p. 24)

Marx believed that world history has been characterized by class struggle. Class struggles are the result of economic development or of society’s forces of production. Tools, technologies and industries are the driving forces in history’s class struggles. These forces can change human relations. (Lowi and Harpham 1997, p. 255)

What are classes? Classes are ‘economic groupings’ in society that depends on their relation to the production process. The moneyed class or the capitalists, those who own the means of production are grouped into one class, while the labourers and the proletariat belong to another; they are also known as the exploiting and the exploited classes (Erckel 2008, p. 6).

Marx’s concept of class is first based with objectively defined interests which are the results of exploitation and oppression in production: the capitalists or the moneyed class dominating the labourers or the have-nots. To talk of it objectively, people have an interest not to be exploited or oppressed, or under control by others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More And this kind of domination can only be countered by collective action. Individual welfare can be realized by upward social mobility at least by some people but not by many people. It forms a class. Class interests motivate people into forming organized interest groups. Marx’s concept of class is not definite although he clearly defined the terms proletariat and bourgeoisie. (Elster 1986, p. 123)

In understanding human societies, Marx considered the economic conditions and how people acted in answering the necessities of life. Stratification is the result of the power struggles due to scarce food or materials. (Tischler 2007, p. 208) Likewise, in understanding societies, Marx also examined how production was organized, which depended on the forces of production, like raw materials and technology, and who took control of production. (Gasper 2005, p. 24)

Moreover, class divisions always exist in a society at any given time. The state was created by capitalists, the owning class, to defend their interests and to oppress the labourers of production, by means of a legal tool, the police. In the Marxist view, therefore, the state was created to serve the interests of the ruling class which is the minority. (Chatterjee 2010, p. 24)

Members of a class are in a similar economic situation and a class is formed because of the members’ ‘economic determinism’, or the members have the will to advance economically. (Erckel 2008, p. 5)

Historical Materialism Marx’s concept of history is unique; unique in the sense that he has a pattern for it, although he disregarded progress when talking of history. He would talk of material history. In his writing, The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Marx defined human beings as producers.

Human production is composed of material and social. Men and women met their needs by transforming nature. They organized and needed tools in the process. In production, people cooperate with each other. Through this process, they form the forces of production and the social aspect which is the relation of production. (Callinicos 2011, p. 92)

Marx and Engels formulated the materialist concept of history. Historical materialism states some bold theses about factors of historical change. According to this theory, social development is triggered by progress when social needs are met because of the presence of productive forces, which are the means of production and labour power).

We will write a custom Essay on The Marxist Theory on Class Struggle: The History of Human Relations has been one of Class Struggle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this process of production, the workforce composed of men and women, enter into social relations. This economic relation is called the economic structure of society, and the economic base is called the mode of production.

This mode of production undergoes change because of internal tensions and contradictions, termed by Hegel as dialectic. The productive forces come into conflict with the rest of the forces of production. The result is a class struggle. It also creates a social revolution. (Derek et al. 2011, p. 1072)

The Communist Manifesto: The Proletariat and the Bourgeoisie In The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels divided humanity into two social classes – the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The book is a history of how classes struggled and survived. (Marx and Engels 1994, p. 157)

The Communist Manifesto sets the tone that we are living in a class society. History states that this is so. The classes, bourgeoisie and proletariat, were hostile to each other. They are related in the sense that one cannot exist without the other: the labourer works for his existence, the capitalist provides the food, but the labourers must work for the capitalist. But their historical relation is that of a class struggle.

By this background, Marx sets the real intention of the Communist Manifesto, that the only way that the proletariat could be saved from poverty, slavery, exploitation and oppression, is to overthrow capitalism, abolish clash society, eliminate the state and establish a communist order through the formation of a communal ownership wherein there is no more class.

The proletarian revolution was what Marx was aspiring for. It would be the end of capitalism and there would be a new world order where private property does not exist. (Rühle, Paul, and Paul 2005, p. 131)

By 1848, Marx publicly announced that they had no country. At a time when Europe was being ruled by kings and nobles, and in the United States there were millions of slaves, Marx had in mind that the bourgeoisie was taking over; taking over because the capitalists will fall by the continuing mass actions of the united working class.

Bourgeoisie originally meant people living in urban cities. In short, Marx called the members of this class ‘the owners of means of capitalist production’ (Randall 1964, p. 25). They are the professionals and owners of small businesses, what we call now entrepreneurs. During those times, small businessmen were capitalists who could oppress people in their own way.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Marxist Theory on Class Struggle: The History of Human Relations has been one of Class Struggle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Communist Manifesto pictured Europe as being in the midst of a social and political upheaval between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. This social upheaval was marred by strikes and lockouts, sabotage and bankruptcies, problems in businesses, trade unionism, the ‘class consciousness’ of the proletariat, and so on.

The Romantics of the time would announce that progress was brought about by conflicts of opposing views. It was inevitable because by that development would be brought, although the word development was not yet known at that time.

Dialectic: Hegel’s Romantic thought Marx thought that what was happening in Europe at the height of the industrial revolution was only a chapter of the universal history. Marx followed Hegel’s Romantic teaching that the struggle was a ‘continuous evolutionary sequence’ of events between opposing classes and that the struggle would produce something higher.

The process of struggle and evolution was termed by Hegel as ‘dialectic’ and it included absolutely everything about God and man (Randall 1964, p. 27). Because of the contradictions of partial truths, which are termed thesis and antithesis, a higher truth (synthesis) can be reached (Erckel 2008, p. 5).

Marx expounds his concept of historic materialism through economic determinism, but this is contradicted by Wilfredo Pareto (as cited in Erckel 2008, p. 5) who argued that there are factors in pursuing a common interest, and these, aside from economic determinism, should not be disregarded.

Marx’s division of social classes pointed only to the workingmen and the middle class, but in contemporary time, we have the upper, middle and lower classes. Although this division is influenced by economic factors, there are other reasons such as education or profession. (Erckel 2008, p. 5)

Continuing class struggle Hegel’s philosophy included God and spirit in the concept of dialectic. But Marx did not believe in God and spirit, thus he focused on the material things and the material world, the earthly, visible, and tangible. Communism focused on material things; it proposed that private property should not be practiced in society.

The bourgeoisie was worried about losing their property. But why should they be? asked Marx. They stole those properties from the hands of the proletariat, the farmers and labourers. It is they, the bourgeoisie, who oppressed the proletariat and reduced them to the level of a commodity. (Marx, Engels, Tucker 1972, p. 56)

The proletariat should struggle so that in the final countdown, it becomes the most powerful. That is the concept of Hegel’s dialectic, without God and spirit. Hegel’s dialectic is Marx’s scientific way of contemplating the world. (Boudin 2008, p. 20)

According to Marx, the bourgeoisie cry out that the communists want to abolish the people’s freedom when it fact they are the ones who have enslaved the majority in factories and industries? The bourgeoisie cry out that communism wants to abolish the state, culture, religion and belief in God, and even the family, but it is they who have deprived the workers of a state, culture, a true religion and a decent family because of their oppressive character against the workers.

The bourgeoisie has objectified the worker or made him into an object, a commodity, in fact, he is lower than an object. The worker is not concerned of money and profits; he is after his and his family’s survival. He is after food for him and his family. The capitalist member of the bourgeoisie is concerned of profits and more profits. More good and products have to be produced to create more profits; the labourer must work double time. The products and commodities are more important than the workingman.

At the height of the industrialization, labourers were dying in factories. Workers received no benefits and health programs for themselves and their families, and they received very low wages. The workplace was like a dungeon – no safety measures, no ventilation, etc. In the process of class struggle, the proletariat is reduced to an animal, like a horse. Human labour is like animal labour. Man is paid only for the work he has done. He has to eat in order to work again the next day. Man’s humanity is lost. He is now like an animal.

Conclusion When Marx announced that they had no country, he was expecting a reaction from the motivated working class, the working class and the members of the unionized group. But Marx and Engels over reacted in staging a revolutionary atmosphere for The Communist Manifesto. There was no reaction in the cities.

A Marxian revolution is the result of class struggle, when the oppressed overthrows the oppressor, the capitalists of his time. Karl Marx conceived of political emancipation for the working man whom he said was not yet called human being.

He said a major step ahead is political emancipation wherein the class struggle will move forward, but it is not yet human emancipation. Real human emancipation will be conceived when the alienating and oppressive nature of capitalism are gone and class oppression is no longer possible, and the ‘bourgeois property’ has been eliminated. (Parla and Davison 2004, p. 95)

Marx, Engels and Lenin conceived that a revolution of the working class, after a long history of class struggle, would finally be realized after the global spread of capitalism. Marx was waiting for this, a real revolution of the working class not of the middle class Europe. The spread of capitalism would intensify the horrible and piteous conditions of the majority of human beings. But it did not.

Technology prospered. Information revolution and globalisation spread like wildfire. Capitalism is like a virus that spreads with considerable speed to the four corners of the world. The capitalist soared to the skies with his vast wealth. The ordinary labourer today remains exploited. Karl Marx is long gone and his class struggle continues, for how long, nobody knows.

References Boudin, L 2008, The theoretical system of Karl Marx, Wildside Press LLC, London.

Callinicos, A 2011, The revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx, Haymarket Books, London.

Chatterjee, A 2010, International relations today: concepts and applications, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Derek, G, Johnston, R, Pratt, G, Wtts, M,


The Role of Spirituality in Overcoming Addictions Essay essay help: essay help

Addiction can simply be defined as a state of being captive or enslaved towards doing something that leads to development of a habit or certain behavior of which to some extend one has no control over. Surely, addiction comes with strong feelings of attachment and desire for something or to certain specific behaviors. Every human being to some extend has a form of addiction which may range from trivial to life-threatening forms.

They may either be psychological, neurological or even spiritual. These addictions act as a driving force from within that tends to enslave and abuse our freedom, hence one ends up acting in a manner that is contrast to what he or she would wish to. As it has been deduced, addiction can really take charge of someone‘s life to the extend of being life threatening.

When it gets to such extend, quick measures should be taken before the situation gets out of hand. Documented research has shown that in the same way one gets addicted to alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, one can get addicted to ideas, power, relationships, religion (May, 1988).

If one gets obsessed with a certain idea or even with another person and cannot control the feelings or thoughts, has been enslaved and hence addicted. One can also be spiritually addicted in the sense that he or she is entangled by the doctrines and can not have an independent thought or think logically outside the governing doctrines and law hence obsessed by the religion and considered as an addict.

Addiction can be perceived from different angles, addiction of the mind, body or spirit depending on the prevailing situation that leads to the addiction (May, 1988). Some of the substances, drugs and behaviors that one can get addicted to include alcohol, cocaine, nicotine for example cigarette, sleeping pills, marijuana, caffeine, aerosols. Behavioral addictions may include computer games, gambling, overeating, love for money, power, sexual addiction, relationships or even ideas.

There are signs and symptoms that come with various addictions and could be used to detect development of addictive behaviors. Some of the symptoms to checkout for include: tendency to do something repeatedly over and over again so as to obtain pleasure, when the individual stops using the substance they tend to feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with a sense of lacking something vital.

Another symptom is having difficulties in controlling and managing oneself and spending most of your time to acquire the substance or indulging in certain activities. Signs of addiction are the outward expressions that emanates from the addictive substance or behavior that one has.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These signs are not universal, they may differ from one individual to another. Some of the major signs of addictions include mood swing where one tends to be anxious and at times relaxed; happy at one time then sad the next moment, changes in the size of the eyes and the pupils, tendency to over sleep, sudden weight loss or gain, change of friends, becoming confined and secretive. These and other signs can act as perfect indicators of individuals under the influence of drug and substance abuse.

Human beings were never created to be fully satisfied. There is always a desire to have more and more. There is a need to have self control and know your boundaries and limits so as to avoid going overboard and becoming victims of addiction. Most of the

things that chain and enslave us in life are mostly our own makings. We have come up with our own ideologies and objects that we worship and attach strong emotions and feelings on them, this has made mankind to drift away from God’s love and the love for one another and end up investing all the time in finding pleasure and satisfaction from drugs, addictive substances and behaviors which ends up eroding our dignity and scrapping away our freedom by enslaving us (May, 1988).

It is through the harsh life and bondage that comes with addiction that leads one to learn and appreciate the peace of mind and freedom that God has bestowed on us. It enables us appreciate the grace of God which is a freely earned favor emanating from God’s loving nature upon mankind.

To overcome these addictions, spirituality plays a very vital role. It comes from the believe and faith that we have in a supernatural being who is able to restore the dignity and peace that we have lost in the course of satisfying our humanly pleasures and needs. The faith and trust that we have in God is able to redeem and save one from the jaws of addiction.

Though there are many ways to deal with addiction like seeking for counseling and advice from professionals, going to the rehabilitation centre, joining help groups, having treatment program, it all boils down to you as an individual and your relationship with God and other people that you associate with. If one can amend these relationships then they are on the right lane towards attaining self freedom, redemption and control of their lives.

Through salvation which according to Greece or Latin means safety, one is made whole in Christ Jesus that is according to Christians, hence they become new creatures. With this faith, one is able to overcome any kind of oppression and slavery. Also getting involved with the right group of people with upright morals and who believe in God can help one change their bad habits and addictive behaviors.

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Spirituality in Overcoming Addictions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Spirituality aids in promoting and upholding integrity and good moral values that may enable us shade away bad addictive behaviors and lead straight forward life, again we may have the will to do that which is good but the power to do it is not in us, so we ought to acknowledge God who is the giver of all powers and whose grace is sufficient to keep us safe from any kind of bondage and slavery.

In conclusion, addiction can be regarded as bondages that are of our own making and that are basically out of our control hence to sufficiently deal with any kind of addiction one has to submit to an external source of power that comes from God and through His grace that He has freely outpoured upon those who call on Him and follow His laws and commandments.

God’s grace is the ultimate hope and solution to the countless oppression and addictions facing mankind in the current times, hence there is hope for those who have been entangled by their own desires that have ended up being their worst enemies. Through grace has humankind found peace and satisfaction, for the heart of men will forever be restless until it finds rest in God.

Reference List May, G. G. (1988). Addiction and grace: Love and spirituality in the healing of addictions. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.


Author Study and Project on Works of Judy Blume: Blubber, Iggie’s House, It is not the End of the World Research Paper cheap essay help

Book Talks Blume’s book seem to uncover very urgent topics that can be interesting and provoking for middle school students, but the identified stories provide a valuable experience in challenges that each teenage might face. Blume’s life does not look similar to the life of other famous contemporary writers.

She is a model wife and mother and she always has time for herself. Therefore, her books are about real thing that happen around her (Jane, 2008; Redmond, 1982). In the class, it is possible to talk about such urgent problems as bullying that is vividly described in Blume’s novel called Blubber. Though the story provides negative consequences of bullying and teasing, the role of a teacher is to make students understand how to behave and communicate in the classroom setting and outside it.

DEAR Blume’s literary works often explore very challenging topics, including growing up, puberty, racism, and generation gap problems. All these problems must be discussed for children to realize that these periods can be experienced by every child and there is no reason for giving up in critical situations. In particular, a teacher can discuss race discrimination and identity conflicts in the story called Iggie’s House (Blume, 1970).

Hence, DEAR activity is an important activity for students to understand how reading can help them realize important things. For instance, students can divide in pairs and choose a passage of the book.

One student chooses a passage that he/she has already read whereas another student should read this passage and retell it to his/her neighbor. Deenie is another story where the emphasis is placed on growing up and understanding the surrounding world (Blume 1991). Students can also be provided with passage to read aloud and understand the content.

Read-Aloud Teachers can choose a specific passage from Blume’s work called It’s Not the End of the World and pose a number of questions that have been prepared before. For instance, it is possible to ask a student to read the following quote: “Suppose there aren’t any more A days once you get to be twelve? Wouldn’t that be something! To spend the rest of your life looking for an A day and not finding it” (Blume, 2002, p. 185). Using this quote, a teacher can provoke students’ imagination and deliberate on the situations when grades not important.

Subject Area Activities While reading Blume’s stories, three major topic can be explored – adolescence, growing up, and coming of age (Redmond, 1982). All these subjects can be studied while reading the identified stories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, Blume’s (1974) Blubber reveals a contemporary problem of searching for identity and following stereotypes. Based on the example of the story, a teacher can encourage students to make conclusions that bullying is an attempt to conceal personal disadvantages (Garber, 1984). In fact, they should not be afraid of accepting personal weaknesses.

Stereotypic thinking can also be eliminated while reading the story called Iggie’s House where the problem of racial discrimination is explicitly explored (Blume, 1970). Teachers can address this story to make students’ understand that each person has equal rights irrespective of their appearances.

Finally, Blume’s (2002) It is not the End of the World introduces a positive insights into complex relations in an ordinary family where the main heroines strives to look at the world positively and hopes that it is not the end for her becoming happy. At the same time, conflicts within a family makes Karen feel uncomfortable about the idea of getting married. She believes that marriage makes people suffering.

However, the task of a teacher is to explain that divorce is the matter of adults and it should not affect children’s view on future family relations (Conner, 1972). They are not to be blamed for parents’ mistakes. Similar to the heroine, there is another young adult novel called Tiger’s Eyes where the author account a story about a teenage girl who lost her farther and who strive to overcome her grief and go on living further. This can also be discussed in class (Blume, 1982).

Games Making dialogues

While discussing the reading, students should make up dialogues on the highlighted topic so that a teacher can understand how well the topic is conceived.

Writing down theses and ideas

Notes making is a powerful tool to developing critical thinking skills because students can visualize specific concepts read in the novel. Besides, it is advisable to write down chains of ideas on separate sheets of paper for students to arrange those in an appropriate manner.

Making questionnaires

Making up questions to the content of the stories is also a valuable tool for understanding the main ideas and themes discussed. In such a manner, students can clarify the aspects that seem to be ambiguous in the course of reading. Asking questions to other students can generate a more fruitful discussion.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Author Study and Project on Works of Judy Blume: Blubber, Iggie’s House, It is not the End of the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reflexive Feedback

All these activities can be implemented while reading the book mentioned above to demonstrate middle school students that they should not be afraid about their problems and concerns.

References Blume, J. (1970). Iggie’s House. US:Yearling.

Blume, J. (1974). Blubber. US: ABC-CLIO.

Blume, J. (1982). Tiger’s eyes. US: Laurel Leaf.

Blume, J. (1991). Deenie. US: Laurel Leaf.

Blume, J. (2002). It’s Not the End of the World. US: Atheneum/Richard Jackson Books.

Conner, J. W. (1972). It’s not the End of the World by Judy Blume. The English Journal, 61(6), 936-937.

Garber, S. M. (1984). Judy Blume: New Classicism for Kids. The English Journal. 73 (4), 56-59.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Author Study and Project on Works of Judy Blume: Blubber, Iggie’s House, It is not the End of the World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jones, J. (2008). Judy Blume: Fearless Storyteller for Teens. US: Enslow Publishers.

Redmond, J. K. (1982). Young Adult Literature: Is There Life after Judy Blume? The English Journal. 71(3), 92-94.


The Effects of Differences in National Cultures to International Companies in Saudi Proposal best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Questions to be Answered

Research Interest

Literature Review

Relation to Previous Studies



Works Cited

Abstract Cultural difference is a fact that cannot be assumed in the world today, given the fact that organizations are going national each and everyday. In Saudi Arabia, national culture difference is more pronounced because there is no separation between the state and religion (Bowen 2008). Religion determines what is regarded as acceptable behavior in Saudi Arabia, and also prescribes the kind of business people can engage in because some products are not permitted by the Quran.

The effects of the cultural differences to firms especially those in the oil industry is far reaching, and goes from determining the employees a firm can hire to influencing the schedule of work because prayer time has to be observed. On top of that, mode of dressing is regulated by the Islamic laws and depends on the gender of the person thus influencing even the office attire (Long 2005).

Studies done earlier have tried to bring out the existing cultural differences, their causes, effects and strategies to deal with them but have failed to be specific. Along with that, data used by most of them has become obsolete. A multi-dimensional research methodology will be used to collect recent data which will be specific to ensure that the research addresses specific problems.

The results will be compared with conclusions from initial studies to highlight crucial points and thus draw conclusions which will help current and future players in the drilling industry who want to invest in Saudi Arabia or other countries with similar culture.

Introduction For most multinational companies, cultural difference is a fact they have to deal with in their day to day operations given the fact that they operate in different countries which not only have different social orientation, but also varying religious backgrounds (Tehranian and Jeannie 2006).

Among the most affected companies are the oil and gas companies which have to produce in one country for example Saudi Arabia and sell to several countries across the world. It is therefore very difficult for any company to venture into international markets without taking into consideration the cultural differences that exist, how the differences will affect performance and how the same could be managed (Sylvie 2003).

Questions to be Answered To get an idea of the topic, literature review of existing research is important to help in answering the following questions:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is culture?

What national cultural differences exist?

And through empirical research:

What is the preference of cultural differences in Saudi Arabia?

Is there any relationship between national culture differences and productivity?

How does the Islamic culture affect organizations?

Research Interest Oil and gas companies are multinational thus they operate in more than one region and are therefore highly affected by cultural differences. On top of that, most of the major oil and gas companies that operate in Saudi Arabia are foreign and in most instances owned by Europeans. It can be noted that, in Europe there is separation of religion and the state while this is not present in Saudi Arabia (Maddox 1993).

These companies therefore, operate in regions with two very different cultures thus they make good study examples of how culture can affect organizations. In addition to that, Saudi Arabia is a country that holds its culture with high regard and has a more or less uniform culture among all its citizens which is guided by the Muslim teachings (Ramady 2010). These make Saudi Arabia the best country for the study because many other countries have sub –cultures which could make the study a bit clouded.

Literature Review Culture can be defined as the collection of common believes, values and norms among a group of people which influences the behaviors, reactions and day-to-day activities of these people (Nelson and James 2012), besides determining what is generally accepted as proper conduct within the community.

It should be noted that, culture is not a trait that can be acquired by birth because it is not determined by hormones but is rather imparted into a person through the process of socialization as one interacts with other people. On top of that, it is important to note that culture is not very dynamic and the differences that exist have therefore remained relatively similar over a long period of time (Lewer and Hedrick 2007).

Along with that, Saudi Arabia is a strict religious country where almost everybody follows the religious requirements to the latter. This is different from most countries where there is a separation of the government from religion and most firms find this fact difficult to internalize.

While in most countries the rules and regulation are formed putting religion at the periphery, in Saudi Arabia religion is the ultimate determinant of what decisions will be adopted by the government (Triandis 2004). On top of that, while in the other world people mingle freely and have the freedom of doing whatever they want, in Saudi Arabia there is restriction on socialization especially on women.

We will write a custom Proposal on The Effects of Differences in National Cultures to International Companies in Saudi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though this has somehow been eliminated, women are restricted not to work alongside men and in situations where these cannot be achieved then they should be separated from men using partitions (Schnelder and Barsoux 2003). Additionally, women are not allowed to take up some professions like engineering, driving and law thus the drilling companies will have to employ men only for these jobs. Along with that, women can only be served by fellow women or be accompanied by a male relative when they have to shop.

Time is not given so much importance among the Saudis as it is in other parts of the world. On the contrary, in Saudi Arabia people take there time talking before embarking on the business of the day and consider anyone who tries to be time observant as being intolerant as well as uncouth. In addition to that, it is the Saudi culture to keep their family and home affairs private which is contrary to what is practiced in other parts of the world (Javidan and Robert 2001).

Consequently, they do not allow business partners to visit them at home though, while at business meetings they casually invite their friends unlike other places where business meetings are private. On the same note, it is paramount to note that given the strictness with which the Saudi people observe their religion, foreigners are bound to experience cultural differences because religion is a very strong shaper of people’s attitude and behaviors (Moran, Harris and Sarah 2010).

Given the cultural differences that have been depicted to be present in Saudi, it is important for people to be aware of the effects they may have on their firms. Culture determines how people conduct themselves and these includes the attitudes that people will have towards work and how they will manage time.

On top of that, culture also influences national issues such as the socio-economical factors, political aspects as well as international relations (Kwok and Solomon 2006). It is the common belief in Saudi Arabia that personal relationships comes first before business and this highly affects the outcomes of various business dealings.

It is also important to note that, since culture involves internalization of norms it ends up influencing the social life of people thus determining the materialistic and individualistic aspects of life, as well as the willingness of people to change. This highly influences the probability that people will adapt to a certain way of life which is beneficial to an organization (Adler and Allison 2008).

In addition to that, the Islamic law requires that men and women cannot work together therefore, compelling separation of working stations if both men and women have to be employed which not only increases expenses but also prompts the change of rules of employment (Light 2003).

On the other hand, strict Muslim teachings discourage accident insurance and thus require businesses to operate by faith in God. Though the government has repealed this requirement, it is still practiced in some other places and highly affects organizations incase of accident where they might not have enough capital to start again.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Differences in National Cultures to International Companies in Saudi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For organizational development and enhancement to take place, cultural change is important (Cercik 1992) but Saudis are not ready to change that easily. Their culture gives status positions a high preference thus encouraging them to give priority to higher positions. Since drilling firms have more manual jobs than managerial positions, and given the fact that Saudis seldom accept labor jobs, firms will have a problem getting labor supply from the local people.

The language difference is also another cultural factor that highly affects information flow between people (Sun 2009). The drilling industry requires improved technological know how but Saudi Arabia suffers from dire shortage of skilled labor.

Though the companies will want to pass the knowledge to the local people, this becomes a problem because Saudi Arabia uses Arabic which is not so common with international companies. Researches which have been done show that transfer of information and knowledge highly depends on language and the rates are higher when people use the same language (Christopher 2006).

On the same note, culture affects other functions of an organization including the responsibilities of employees and not only how they relate to each other both in and out of the work place, but also how they relate to the organization in general.

In the Saudi culture a woman comes second to a man and thus men believe that they should always be the ones to lead. It will be therefore difficult if not impossible for the companies having departments headed by women to thrive because the morale of men working under women will be affected thus affecting output.

On top of that, the way employees are treated must also conform to the Saudi culture because the Saudis view their culture as being superior compared to other cultures (Ball and Walter 1999). They will therefore be unwilling to work under certain conditions, for example together with women, which means that any firm must have separate working stations for both women and men. This is in it self a problem because, nowadays there are many women graduates than men in Saudi yet they are not supposed to handle some duties.

To thrive in a foreign country, managers have to study the ways of the people there and ensure that they understand them. It is therefore paramount that managers should avoid ethnocentrism and parochialism but be rather ready to adapt to the local culture.

Trying to bring a total overhaul of affairs will not only meet resistance from the locals, but will also make it difficult for the company in a place like Saudi Arabia (Inglehart and Wayne 2000). In Saudi Arabia religion comes first before other issues for example, work which is contrary to other cultures where work is given priority to religion. It is therefore vital that any organization gives this a serious thought.

It is a routine in Saudi Arabia that men should pray five times a day and companies should provide for these. But some of this prayer periods fall on work time and company’s precious time might be wasted if the men are allowed to go out. Managers can therefore provide the men with places to pray within the premises of the company.

This will save time that would have been wasted moving to look for places to pray as well as send information that the company respects the Muslim religion thus, improving the morale of employees and consequently their output (Abdallah 2001). On the same note, Islam religion which the Saudis observe requires that people should fast in the month of Ramadan and Muslims are taught to be inactive at that period.

On the contrary, research has shown that despite activities being low during Ramadan, the productivity of the Muslim is not affected. However, firms which feel that employees do not perform to their best during the day when they go without food may introduce night shifts to get the maximum out of each employee (Deresky 2008).

Saudis are quite unwilling to do manual jobs (Kogan 2003) which are the bulky and the main jobs in the drilling industry and thus, for a company which will entirely depend on Saudi labor there will be a problem. Companies can choose to employ foreign people who will be more willing to take up the jobs.

On the same note, the foreigners will in most cases either have the knowledge required or will be willing and easy to teach since language might not be an impediment. Along with that, reward based on performance can be a good strategy to motivate the employees in Saudi because this increases productivity of people from all cultures (Russell 2007).

It should however be noted that, the international firms can also include the locals in their management team to ensure that cultural issues can be addressed accordingly. Additionally, continuous training on matters appertaining cross-cultural issues is really important in improving capabilities and flexibility among the employees (Mead and Tim 2009).

Relation to Previous Studies The previous studies carried out concentrated on the use of cultural frameworks to study national cultural differences yet the frameworks are known to be subjective. Additionally, the studies generalized the results of one country and assumed the same could be used to all other countries of the same region (Hodgetts, Luthans and Jonathan 2005) which is not necessarily true.

In addition to that, most studies were carried out a long time ago and the data used is outdated and does not reflect the recent changes in the Saudi government, for example the loosening of restrictions on women. Other than that, some of the strict Islamic rules are not observed nowadays and the effect of this is not depicted in earlier researches (Ahlstrom and Garry 2009).

It is also important to note that culture is specific and cannot be studied from one side only which is a mistake done by many earlier researches. The cultural difficulties encountered by other firms in other Muslim countries may not be the same as those faced in Saudi Arabia’s drilling industry as other studies may put it, hence the need to carry out the study specifically for Saudi Arabia.

Methodology The research proposes to employ a multi-dimensional method of study whereby surveys, interviews, literature review and cultural frameworks will be used. This has been chosen because of the ability to get a variety of results thus enabling comparison across the board to increase precision and validity of the results.

Literature review will help in providing knowledge into existing information about the topic as well as providing an idea of what exactly has been studied regarding cultural differences and organizational performance (Pagell, Katz and Chwen 2005). The literature review will therefore be concentrated on books, journals, credible websites, newspapers and other peer reviewed scholarly articles about the topic.

On the same note, cultural frameworks have been used by many scholars in the past to study the cultural differences (Sirmon and peter 2004), and though they are not as objective as may be required they will provide a good platform to understand national cultural differences (McSweeney 2002).

On top of that, surveys and interviews will provide first hand information of what is actually happening on the ground, besides presenting the opportunity of participating and thus fully understanding the effect of the cultural differences. Additionally, the two will enable collection of recent data as well as paving way for understanding how recent social-cultural changes are affecting organizations.

The research will interview 20 people comprising of company managers, employees and other independent people in the oil industry using questionnaire to increase objectivity. The interview questions will mainly focus on the difficulties that managers face in Saudi Arabia compared to other areas, whether employees are satisfied with the mode of management and what they could like to be changed.

Language, masculinity/femininity, individualism and religion have been chosen to be cultural aspects of study because of the weight placed on them by cultural frameworks. On top of that, results on these aspects are easy to compare with result from previous studies. On the same note, the research will carry out 50 company surveys which will ensure statistical significance of the data collected. Data collected will be tabulated and graphed to generate results to compare with results from previous studies.

Conclusion Saudi Arabia is a country that has strict rules and guidelines based on Islamic religion and every citizen is expected to follow the same. On top of that, the Saudis are ethnocentric and expect that every foreigner should adapt to their way of doing things without any objection.

Any organization setting up there is expected to conform to the Islamic expectation and conduct its operations within the provided framework no matter what the situation maybe from the mother country. It is therefore interesting to study how multinational firms especially the oil and gas industries carry out their operations in Saudi Arabia given the cultural divergence with the other countries where they operate.

Works Cited Abdallah, WM 2001, Managing Multinationals in the Middle East: Accounting and Tax Issues, Greenwood Publishing, Westport.

Adler, NJ


Compensation and Organizational Culture Essay essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Linking compensation to organizational culture

Reward and Compensation system in Microsoft Corporation

Problems in Compensation and Reward System



Abstract This is a research paper that is based on a case study. The paper seeks to explain the compensation strategies in a company and how they impact on the culture of the organization. Microsoft Corporation is used in this case. The paper establishes the link between organizational culture and compensation policies.

It justifies in the explanation how these components of organizational health impact on each other. The compensation and reward system of Microsoft has been identified and analyzed. Each side of this component has been included in the analysis. In the final analysis, the paper links the compensation and reward system to the prevalent organization culture of Microsoft.

Introduction Organizational culture is built on a number of things, one of them being the reward system. This is a crucial exercise because it improves the performance of employees in an organization (Heneman, 2002). Research has revealed that many companies have been working on setting up compensation systems. Compensation is one of the prevailing demands of the business environment in the modern business scenario.

However, many firms keep failing in implementing the compensation systems because there are problems in the payment systems (Driskill


Top ten reasons why large companies fail to keep their best talent Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Brief Article Overview

List in order of Priority

How to know if these things are happening

Action Plan to prevent the 10 Things

Measuring Success



Brief Article Overview The article “Top ten reasons why large companies fail to keep their best talent” by Jackson Eric sets out to highlight the reasons why major companies find it hard retaining staff. The article begins by stating that while large organizations have vast resources that they can use to retain their best staff, they still fail to keep their most talented staff from leaving.

Loss of talented staff negatively affects the organization’s performance and for this reason, it is important to know the reasons why employees leave. Jackson (2011) therefore goes on to provide a list of ten reasons for this failure in staff retention by large companies.

The reasons articulated range from those that are as a result of the company being large to personal reasons by both the managers and the staff. The article concludes by noting that with a scarcity of talent being expected, organizations need to overcome this issues that cause talented staff to leave.

List in order of Priority Big Company Bureaucracy

Who’s the Boss?

The Missing Vision Thing

Poor Annual Performance Reviews

No Discussion around Career Development

Failing to Find a Project for the Talent that Ignites Their Passion

Lack of Accountability and/or telling them how to do their Jobs

Shifting Whims/Strategic Priorities

Lack of Open-Mindedness

Top Talent likes other Top Talent

How to know if these things are happening Being able to know if these things which cause top talent to leave are happening is of great significance. If the activities mentioned below are taking place, then you will know that these things are happening in your company.

The organization has inflexible procedures and demands that a rigid hierarch and chain of command be followed at all times and decision making is entrusted only to the top company employees. In addition to this, the company’s vision and strategy is come up with by the top management and then imposed on the rest of the employees who have no say in the company’s vision.

The company’s managers are overwhelmed with work and therefore do not have any time to engage in conversations with the employees to find out their passions or even provide feedback on their performance reviews. The company lacks clear goals and objectives and it keeps on moving the top talent to work on the latest project without giving them time to complete previous projects they may be interested in.

The organization also lacks any well defined career development plan for its employees and the talented staff cannot see any clearly set out career path for them. Promotions and advances are also given in a haphazard manner and at the discretion of top management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company avoids hiring top talent since they demand more competitive payment packages and as a result of this, the company is filled with average employees and a few talented staff who end up feeling frustrated. When hiring managers, the company does not deeply review the competence of the new manager in dealing with high talent. The company also does not providing executive coaching for the new manager and he/she is expected to be adept at working with his staff.

Action Plan to prevent the 10 Things An action plan is needed to ensure that the reasons for talented employees leaving are mitigated or eliminated altogether. Decision making should be more decentralized with employees being given an opportunity to voice their suggestions. This will demonstrate that the organization values the input of its staff and appreciates them as valued players in the organization. In addition to this, the organization should inform of even consult employees when changes that affect them are about to take place.

While money is a major motivation for employees, they are also concerned about their professional growth (Donaldson-Feilder, et al. 2011). This is in line with Herzberg’s two-factor theory which states that in addition to monetary rewards, work conditions also act as incentives for workers to be more productive. The organization should therefore come up with schedules for career advancement and managers should take on mentoring roles to the employees and encourage growth.

The organization should also carry out regular evaluations of the performance of their employees and the evaluations should be focused on improving the productivity of individual employees. Moss and Sanchez (2004) assert that feedback on the evaluations is therefore crucial since without feedback, employees will not be able to improve on their shortcomings.

Selection of managers should not depend entirely on skill-based analysis. A competency analysis should also be engaged in to ensure that the candidate has solid authoritative personality and prior managerial experience. The managers in the organizations will be encouraged to adopt leadership styles that do not alienate them with the employees.

For example, transformational leadership which looks for “potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower” will be most appropriate (Harris


Planning Execution and Control Case Study essay help: essay help

Executive summary Many nations are now realising the importance of diversifying their economic trends and options for the benefit of its citizens. Dubai, like many other countries within the Middle East, has a strong economic strength in oil production. Oil, being the rare commodity, enables economies of countries producing it to blossom to envious levels.

Most countries in the Middle East like Qatar, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia are recording huge and tremendous growth in the economy because of the available oil deposits. The same is true with the United Arab Emirates. But, owing to the growing concerns of diversification, many have a realisation to invest in other upcoming sectors of the economy as well. It is against this backdrop that Dubai is putting attention on the infrastructural investments in the real estate (Pacione 2005, p. 259).

As one of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates, Dubai has cut a niche to be one of the most desirable destinations in the real estate segment to tap the economic potential in this area. The real estate projects are actually growing very fast in this emirate. In fact, the current reports have it that about a third of all the cranes in the world has a role to play in building properties in Dubai. Incidentally, according to the Interpol statistics, the Emirate ranks as one of the safest places to live in the whole world.

This safety makes the investors rush to the Emirate with various development projects. Key among these projects includes tourism and real estate development. However, in order to realise the efficient execution of any real estate project, it is paramount to institute in place adequate planning and control capabilities. The main aim of this paper is to underscore various planning, execution and control problems in a specific real estate project in Dubai. The project under study apparently is the city of Arabia in Dubai (Pérez 2007, p. 38).

Introduction The city of Arabia is a multi-billion dollar investment in the Dubai suburb at the heart of Dubai land. The projection is that it will offer residency and homes to more than thirty four thousand households upon completion. In addition, it contains the world’s largest Mall, the Mall of Arabia together with the Restless Planet, which is an internationally known dinosaur theme-park.

This makes it assume the position of key destination within the new Dubai. Other important pillars in the region are the restaurants, shopping malls, clinic, administrative offices, and schools that exist within the city (Cooper 2008, p. 103).

The city of Arabia is majorly divides into four elements, which include the Mall of Arabia, the Restless Planet, the Wadi Walk, and the Elite Towers. On the other hand, the Wadi walk consists of a water front community with outdoor cafes, stylish apartments, and attractive retail outlets while the elite tower is a group of thirty four impressively residential and commercial apartments (Bagaeen 2007, p. 183).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Upon completion, the city of Arabia is planning to have its own monorail system for purposes of reducing on the increasing number of people using cars within the city. Other major planning considerations for the city include thirty thousand eight hundred residents who will occupy eight thousand two hundred residential units. In addition to that, there is hope of installing a catchment area that would have a total population of 1.87 million people.

Aim of the study The aim of conducting this research is to determine the implications of project planning, execution, and control capabilities on project development and progress according to budget, schedule, resource management, and identify opportunities for improvement for water treatment in the city of Dubai.

The city of Arabia has effective strategies of ensuring its real estate sector attain a given threshold that not only meets the ever growing demands owing the new comers in the sectors for investment purposes. The sector is on the rise in terms of turnover rate and the scale in which construction work rates effect from across its growing fronts. In that, it is important to elucidate issues that may hinder effective execution of plans and controlling capacities in this sector.

This is therefore the main area of concern for this case study. The finding would be helpful in guiding the policy makers arrive at a constructive deliberation of not only improving the sector to attain the economic recognition it requires but also boost the entire economy of the emirate. To that end, the following objectives serve the purpose of achieving that mandate:

To use a study dimension in competitive identification and contraction of the best company to design, develop, and install a water treatment system adhering to the CPM chart, cost estimates, and earned value for the project. The process will ensure the best company with value and price consideration wins the contractual basis in installing this program.

To identify possible outcomes of the implemented project in terms of project success based on initial budget, schedule, challenges and opportunities for improvement, and appropriately manages available resources.

Compare the method of installing water treatment system plant with other possible options in an effort of giving reliable and applicable recommendation for the most cost effective alternative.

Project background Fully functional real estate must have adequate supply of water and effective method of ensuring the sewerage is getting out without polluting the environment. Poor functional sewerage system coupled with lack of water supply could hinder the growth of real estate and therefore act as a stumbling block for the investors interested in this economic segment.

The city of Arabia has the most vibrant real estate mechanism in the world to a level that most investors are currently flocking the country to channel their funds in this sector (Pacione 2005). The rapid growing trend attributes to the fact that the city of Arabia is politically stable and therefore it is among the safest place to live in the world. Investors would in most case analyse the stability of the place they want to invest their funds prior to making decision.

Tourism is flourishing from this flocking of people in the city of Arabia. This continues to mounting pressure on the available accommodation hence the need to keep the real estate sector on the rise. This calls for the need to build more houses to accommodate the ever growing business ventures and the increasing tourism population in the area. These factors are the pillars of increased activities in the city’s real estate development.

We will write a custom Case Study on Planning Execution and Control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Investors have a realisation that they can invest in the sector and the returns would be blossom. The main challenge however, is the ability to effectively supply water and sewage system to these housings. Supply of water and installation of functional sewerage system are an important aspect of maintain the hopes of investors to channel more funds in the real estate section. Without close monitoring of both supply of water and sewage system the entire process would spell doom and drive away the potential investors (Pacione 2005).

It is therefore paramount to identify a company that cannot only design, develop, but also install a water treatment system that adheres to the CPM chart, cost estimates, and earned value for the project. The process will ensure the best company with value and price consideration wins the contractual basis in installing this program.

This project attempts to help clients come up with an appropriate company for these chores. This will save the community and the government lots of funds while also attracting investors to increase their amount of funding and investments in the sector (Project Management Institute 2004).

Problem definition Real estate’s needs efficient and effective means of ensuring water and sewerage systems function well. This is the most important aspect of real estate business, although the process of installing a plant in the apartment may be expensive for those investing in the business other options of acquiring a contractual person or company to intervene is usually the best option.

The problem for this case study is the ability to acquire and identification in a competitive manner contraction of the best company to design, develop, and install a water treatment system adhering to the CPM chart, cost estimates, and earned value for the project. The process will ensure the best company with value and price consideration wins the contractual basis in installing this program (Lyneis, Cooper,


Communication Campaigns Enhancing the Understanding of the Epidemiology and Control of Chronic Diseases Essay college admission essay help

Some of the chronic diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes and brain tumors have threatened the society so much. As a result, the medical society and the government have taken serious stapes in dealing with the challenge. Communication campaign is one of the initiative tools used against the spread of these diseases. Over time, this has proved successful for example, in curbing cancer; consistent flow of information has lead to early treatment which minimizes fatality cases (Hester, 2012).

The community health organizations in collaboration with the government and other nongovernmental organizations give basic health care to the needy. This helps in keeping the child and chronic diseases mortality rate at a minimum point. On the other hand, treating terminally ill individuals is more expensive than controlling the spread of terminal sicknesses. According to the effects of terminal conditions in terms of economic value due to sick offs in firms.

Through consistent communication, the health and medical department are able to educate the public on some of the various forms of diseases that are most dangerous. An example is the breast cancer campaigns for women and prostate cancer for men. In third world countries like Kenya, the campaigns have helped a great deal in the control of the spread of diseases such as HIV virus and tuberculosis (Hester, 2012).

Long term strategies and goals are also put in place through programs like the national diabetics programs. This ensures that, there is stability in resources utilization to minimize wastage and stabilize resource allocation based on the needs of a particular state. If all this operations are put in place, the disease prevalence and spread will be easily managed (Rollnick, 2008).

On the other hand, the ministry of health has also established diabetic educational programs and resource center. The center is mandated to provide diabetes tools and information including, free diagnosis services.

It has a special brunch for the health care experts, school personnel, managed care experts and business professionals. It facilitates networking between personnel and collection of information on diabetes. Furthermore, it educates people on the importance of doing regular checks for diabetes and offers diabetic materials to families (Rollnick, 2008)..

There are also established centers that are concerned with anti smoking campaigns, with counseling services and rehabilitation facilities. The centers provide license for CDC advertisements, developing through the collaboration of over 10 state health departments. In addition to this, there is another department that is concerned with the general affairs in state health, their associates and other community organizations. They are concerned with the development of the programs meant for the welfare of the general public (Rollnick, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Through mass media, the medical health personnel are able to pass a lot of information to the community. This enables people to seek early treatment in case of early diagnosis which increases the probability of the patient being cured. The society is taught how to care for a cancer patient.

For example, they are given details on the kind of diet the patient as well as the individuals are supposed to maintain to minimize the chances of being infected. Like the ‘Fruits and Veggies-more matter campaign’ educating citizens on the importance of including fruits and vegetables in the diet. The citizens are also educated on the causes of cancer (Rollnick, 2008).

References Hester, J. T. (2012). Academic medicine campaign. BMJ Group, 15, 10-30.

Rollnick, S. (2008). Motivational Interviewing in Health Care: Helping Patients Change Behavior. New York: The Guilford Press.


Effective Organizational Communication – A Competitive Advantage Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction This paper gives a summary on organizational communication as a competitive advantage based on the provided SHRM article. The article relays essential information on organizational communication with an aim of providing requisite incentives to enable advancement of holistic communication guidelines in institutions. Its discussion is categorized under various sections to aid understanding of the concept.

Effective organizational communication as a competitive advantage As presented in the case study, communication is an imperative element that fosters performance in various facets of operation, especially in the current century, where organizations are strangled with stiff competition. It holds the capacity to advance institutions competitiveness through adoption of realistic and attainable guidelines.

Evidently, institutions that are set with strong performance orientation should embrace superior communication in order to enhance performance. This is vital since effective communication is critical in ensuring that relevant policies and operational ideals are communicated promptly to stakeholders. It also opens clear channels of communication that advances employee’s participation in decision-making. This acts as a motivational element.

According to researchers, employee’s exemplary performance is evident when involved in the policy formulation. This instils a sense of identity between him/her and the institution. This is earned through development of effective communication channels based on democratic principles.

Managers of institutions are under obligation to formulate and integrate superior communication guidelines to boost conveyance of set policies and production guidelines to ensure that no one acts ignorantly.

This is critical since inconsistent execution of activities due to inadequate communication might be detrimental to the institution’s growth. Effective communication fosters marketing activities, public relations, corporate advertising, and environmental engagements. The elements are crucial in advancing productivity and general performance in institutions.

Communication in organizations As noted in the case study, communication is central in ensuring realization of exemplary performance in institutions. It enhances formulation of routine policies; builds trust and advances productivity. It is a concept that holds relevance in this century. Indeed, corporations should develop strong internal and exterior commutation channels as a performance measure to aid conveyance of marketing policies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Particularly, marketing entails promotion and advertisement of the institution’s products. Its success relies on the communication capacity and identification of viable market segments that can be attained only through adequate coordination. This can be achieved through integration of superior communication techniques capable of coordinating marketing activities.

Notably, poor coordination of marketing activities does not yield superior results that might steer an institution to greater heights. It delimits market expansion, awareness regarding products, and contributes to inefficient distribution of commodities. Managers in their pursuit to advance sales should initiate clear-cut communication channels between departments and external stakeholders as a requisite measure to facilitate awareness of goods and services provided by the institution.

Consequently, communication channels should be integrated to improve relationship between stakeholders, including investors, customers, and employees. This is to ensure mutual understanding and execution of duties under respectful guidelines where every individual has a room to air his/her views on diverse issues.

Effective communication enhances innovation and creativity in institutions. It facilitates sharing of ideas that advances performance capacity and formulation of superior policies that are technologically oriented to steer execution of activities in diverse sectors.

Clearly, institutions that records high performances and viable competitive advantages operate under innovative ideals that facilitates production of commodities. This ensures that items undersupply conform to modern specifications, an element that is achieved through participatory processes.

Communication channels Superior communication instruments depend on diverse factors, which should be considered before integration by managers. It requires proper evaluation of the institution’s capacity and strength to ensure adoption of relevant and sustainable internal and exterior channels. It should adopt human resource and technical perspectives to boost efficacy. Sustainability is imperative to facilitate a lasting performance without unwarranted complications due to resource constraints.

Managers should consider the institution’s operating scope, network, and aspired performance levels, including physical capacity. This is to enable integration of viable communication channels that matches available resources. Possible communication channels that institutions with growth aspirations should integrate includes the internet, media, bulletins, use of boards, newsletters, and e-mail systems.

We will write a custom Essay on Effective Organizational Communication – A Competitive Advantage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These channels hold relevant limitations and pros thus require proper evaluation based on various dimensions. Such dimensions are effectiveness, cost efficiency, ease of use, and reliability. These elements are crucial in ensuring adoption of relevant channels that hold requisite capacity to guarantee effective internal and exterior conveyance of information to earn a competitive advantage.

Indeed, managers should acquire clear distinction between media channels that are relevant in conveying internal massages and best channels that are appropriate in relaying external information. This is crucial to ensure that right channels are adopted for relevance. For example, internal massages can be conveyed using bulletins and billboards while the use of internet and newsletters can be applied to aid exterior communication.

It is imperative to note that communication channels are vital in advancing organizations competitiveness. The channels provide viable mechanisms propel marketing and sales’ activities critical in advancing awareness of the institutions products, including advancement of the market share. Therefore, managers integrate superior communication channels vibrant and effective in promoting growth in institutions.

Functions of organizational communication Organizational communication presents varied functions including conveyance of human resource policies in institutions, competitive advancement, enhancement of employee involvement, and improvement of corporate advertisement. Indeed, human resource department is a crucial department in corporations coordinating relationships and terms of engagement essential in building cohesiveness.

The department formulates and communicates working policies, guidelines, and modern interrelations geared in revolutionizing the institution’s affairs. Information from the department is vital and holds the capacity of stalling performance at various levels. This is possible if poorly managed.

The author also states that earning competitive advantages is dependent on the institution’s communication prowess. This is to ensure that performance policies are timely conveyed to enhance choice-making and execution of actions based on conformance ideals.

Variably, it plays a significant function of fostering employee participation in daily activities that motivates their inner ability to superior performances. Ideally, the article provides insightful information seeking to improve performance in institutions through adoption of superior communication techniques. Managers should realize the importance of establishing strong and sustainable communication channels.

Conclusion It is imperative to conclude that communication is a central element that promotes performance and productivity in various institutions. It aids conveyance of human resources and enactment of general operational policies. These ensure timely delivery of basic information designed to boost performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effective Organizational Communication – A Competitive Advantage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, it enhances employees’ participation in policy formulation and choice-making that improves innovation and creative mindset. Communication also aids marketing and investor relations through advertisement and creation of product’s awareness that expands the market share leading to exemplary returns.

Managers should adopt sustainable communication channels based on the institutions capacity to ensure effectiveness. This can be achieved through proper evaluation of the existing strengths and resource availability. Clearly, the case study provides insightful information with in-depth capacity to advance competitiveness in various institutions.


Employee Retention Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Abstract


Relationship between Employee Retention and Success of a Firm

Strategies of Employee Retention


How to Recruit New Employees

Employees to Retain

How to Retain Employees


Abstract For a long time, labor has not been given its rightful position in many organizations. Many of the managements have not thought of viewing their employees as very important asserts. However, the happenings of the recent past have proven that labor force is one of the most important asserts to any given organization.

When the management lays down objectives to be achieved, it is always the employees who are expected to implement the policies that would bring the desired results. It is this work force that would be expected to turn the policies from paper to reality. Therefore, retention of employees is very important. Employees should be retained within the organization to ensure that the firm’s operations are consistent. High turnover rate of employees is not healthy for the firm’s prosperity.

This is because it does not only affect the smooth implementation of policies within the firm, but also leads to increased cost of training new employees. It is even worse that the employees would go away having learnt the strategies of the firm, making the firm vulnerable to its competitors. The management should therefore device methods of hiring qualified employees and retaining them within the firm. One of the best ways to achieve this is through motivation.

Introduction In a normal business set up, there are always four factor of production, which includes land, labor, capital and entrepreneur. All these factors are very important and they are interdependent of each other. They cannot operate in isolation. However, it is very unfortunate that labor has not been given importance with which it deserves. People have not considered labor as one of the most important aspects of any given organization.

According to Chopra (2002), for a long time, people have not viewed employees as being very important to the organization. The management have treated their employees very poorly, a fact that has seen majority of the employees move from one job to another. They feel uncared for and unwanted. Human being would want to be appreciated. Under a normal circumstance, human being is very sensitive to the way he or she is treated within the society.

When given proper care and made to feel that their contribution is worthy in the organization, and that they are considered as part and parcel of the organization, they would tend to work very hard. They will double their effort and ensure that they go beyond the previous achievements just to earn the appreciation once more. The firm would thus be in a position to not only retain such an employee, but also make him or her more motivated.

It is very important to retain employees to the organization. Anderson (2004) notes that employees are the driving force of any given organization. They help define the future of the organization. When the management develops specific objectives and goals to be achieved by the firm, the policies that would lead to the set benefits are always implemented by the employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management must explain to the employees the policies and the goals that are intended to be achieved. It is the employees who will carry out the actual task. When the implementation is done appropriately, the credit would not only be given to the management, but also to the employees who made this process possible.

One factor about employees that is always important is experience. One may have the academic qualifications in a given field. However, the most important factor to consider is the level of experience. Experience in a particular job makes an individual very efficient in his or her duties. It takes years for an individual to gain experience. When a company employs a new person as their employee, it would always be prudent to take such an employee through an induction process.

Such employees would have to be trained at work in order to understand how to handle specific tasks within the firm. This process of making the employee gain experience while at work is not only an expensive venture, but also time consuming. Training a single employee would cost the firm dearly in terms of time and finance. Such an employee would therefore be a valuable assert that should be highly treasured and carefully taken care of by the management.

It should not be lost because in so doing, the firm would not only be forced to spend another time and finances to train another new employee, but it would also lose the skills and techniques to the opponents. When an employee is lost to a competing firm, such an employee would carry away the techniques of that firm to his or her new employer. For this reason therefore, there are all the reasons to ensure that employees are retained within the firm for as long a duration as would be possible.

Relationship between Employee Retention and Success of a Firm Armstrong (2002) says that employees are the implementing arm of the organization. While the top executives formulate the policies to be implemented by the organization, most of their tasks always end in the paper. It is upon the employees to make these blueprints a reality. In his words, employees are the engine of the organization.

When well taken care of and put in a proper condition, they would always give the best of the results to the organization. However, when they are neglected and left to ‘rust’ they will always give leap service and the output will be very disappointing. Retaining employees within the organization is very important.

There is a direct link between employee retention and success of a firm. It is very important that a firm reduces the rate of employee turnover because of a number of reasons. In most of the occasions, policies are always developed to last for one whole year. However, these policies are always units in the larger vision of the firm.

We will write a custom Report on Employee Retention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A vision may be developed to be achieved in a time span of say thirty year or so. This duration is long and the firm may not take a direct approach towards achieving this vision. It therefore has to split this vision into yearly strategic objectives. When the year begins, the firm would plan with its current work force. When some of the employees leave along the year, it would be a blow to the success of that year’s strategic objectives.

The firm would be forced to look for a replacement and train them and make them understand the objectives to be achieved. This is time consuming and costly venture that would reduce the success of the organization. Changing the employees on a yearly basis is not good either.

This is because in so doing, the vision of the firm will be lost. It will not be possible to realize the vision because every year, the firm would be forced to start with new employees who may not understand the vision, and how it was developed in the first place. This minimizes chances of achieving expected goals within the organization.

Retaining employees is another way of cutting cost. It is always necessary to train new employees to the firm on how to manage various forces that affect the organization. It would cost the management time and money to ensure that new recruits understand the working environment and are able to perform what is expected of them.

Retaining employees would eliminate this cost. It is also easier to form a community that understands itself with a workforce that last for over five years within the firm. Everyone would know exactly what is expected of him or her, and therefore the task of directing them would be much easier.

Strategies of Employee Retention To attract and retain the right workforce, it would require the management to employ the right strategies that would ensure that it succeeds in this. It may appear as a simple task of making employees happy. However, it goes beyond this. To retain the right employees within the firm, there are a series of strategies that a firm should employ in order to ensure that employees are constantly satisfied.

The secret behind this retention lies in ensuring that the employee is satisfied and feels challenged with the present task. This will cause the drive in him to want to come tomorrow and beat the challenge. The recommendations below gives a detailed strategy of how to employ the right individuals to the firm, and how such individuals should be retained, once employed.

Recommendations The core of this research is to determine how best a firm can retain its employees. Having categorically looked at the importance of retaining the employees, it is prudent to determine ways through which a given firm can ensure that its grip on its employees is not shaken.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employee Retention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there are some factors that must be considered before determining how best a firm can retain its employees. It is an acceptable fact that for a firm to retain employees, it must start by employing some of the best talents that would help it achieve its goals. As such, it is important to understand how best a firm can recruit new employees.

After recruiting the best of the employees, as per the measures that have been put in place, it is also important to appreciate that not all of them would leave up to the expectations. As such, it would again be appropriate to determine who to retain because a firm can only retain the best of the workforce in order to be in a position to achieve the maximum. It is upon the determination of the best workforce to retain that a firm can now develop the best ways to retain such employees.

How to Recruit New Employees It is true that there are some instances when an organization cannot avoid to lay off some of its workers. When the modern tools and machines were invented, many firms found out that it was better to reduce the capacity of their workforce, and in its place, have the machines perform their functions.

According to Barrows and Powers (2008), the invention of computers was a turn-around to many firms and organizations around the world. It was realized that the computers could be coded in a way that would make it possible to run various duties without the need to have human presence. Many had thought that with such developments, human labor would not be required. As such, many organizations had developed plans on how to lay off its workers.

This was to take place in various faces, as Chopra (2002) reports. This scholar notes that many of the American large firms had laid down structures of how they would replace human labor with the computerized machine. However, as time went by, they came to realize that labor can never be replaced.

The more the inventions were made and the more sophisticated the machines became, the more the need for skilled labor increased. As at current, there are countries that are running short of labor. A firm should consider observing the following recommendations when recruiting employees.

Recruit employees who have experience in a particular area where their services are needed. The experience should be reasonable enough to be met by reasonable number of prospective employees. It is true that experience alone is not the determining factor when assessing the effectiveness of an employee. However, having experienced employee makes the work of the organization much easier, especially when it comes to training.

The Human Resource Management should keenly check the mobility of the prospective employee. In the resume of the employee, it would be clear how often such an employee has been moving from one employer to another. An employee who has been very mobile in the past- switching jobs annually or so- is not the right candidate. If he or she has been switching jobs from one firm to another with high frequency, chances are high that even at this firm, he or she will not stay for long. The management will therefore incur the cost of training such an employee, only to lose him or her after a short while when he or she has become efficient enough to serve the firm.

Innovative and technology oriented individuals would make good employees. The firm is interested in finding the best of the workforce that it would be able to retain for long. The firm should therefore employ the best. The world is getting transformed by the emerging technologies. The emerging technologies have seen completely new trends in the world of business. For a firm to be in a position to keep pace, it should be in a position to understand these emerging trends and respond to them as would be appropriate. It is the workforce that understands this technology that can help the firm. This way, the firm would find it easy to retain this workforce.

One other factor that should be taken into consideration when hiring new employees is their health. The aim of the Human Resource Management is to retain employees for maximum period of time. One may consider this as a discriminatory requirement. However, it has been noted that there are some health complications that may not allow an individual to work within a specific section of the firm. In various occasions, employees have to be released from the hospital to seek medical attention because of the exposure to some conditions that their healths do not permit. In some many occasions, employers are held liable for such complications and therefore obliged to pay for the medication. In this case, it is not just the resources put on the employee to train him or her that will be lost. The company would have to incur other financial costs, and a possible loss of image within the corporate society.

Employees to Retain As stated above, the need to retain employees within the firm is very necessary. However, a firm may have to determine which employees have to be retained in their current assignments, which to transfer into new assignments and which group to lay off.

Chuang and Liao (2010) say that although many people view the process of laying off employees as a discriminatory act, it is one of the best strategies a firm can use to sieve employees and retain just the best that would be in a position to provide the firm with the best of the service. When considering how to rearrange the employees in a new set-up, the following recommendations should be put under consideration.

Ensure that each employee is retained in his position unless there is a clear indication that he or she cannot perform as expected within that department. To achieve this, the firm can set manageable targets to be achieved by the employee within a specified period. If after a given period an employee shows, through his performance, the he or she is way below the expected limits, then the firm should consider moving such an employee to a different unit where he can perform better.

When making a decision on moving an employee from one unit of the firm to the other, the employee should be involved as much as possible. This is especially important when the decision to move him or her to new position is not because of underperformance in the previous department, but the feeling that his skills and expertise is needed more in a different department. This way, they would feel appreciated and would work even with more determination than before.

The decision to lay off any member of the staff should be done in a very systematic manner. Employees should be informed immediately they are hired that there is a given limit that is expected of their performance. They should then be informed of the minimum allowable output that would be expected of them. Upon failure to meet this target, the management should let the employee appreciate that he or she was given the opportunity by the firm, but failed to meet the expectations. It leaves such an employee with hope that next time when he become competent enough, he may be considered by the firm for employment. This is very important because it is not only an assurance to the competent employees that they have job security as long as they remained competent, but also an encouragement to all those that are remaining within the firm that their effort is appreciated and the firm looks forward to having better performance from them. The public image would also be retained for the firm would not be accused of indiscriminate firing of employee. This way, the firm would be in a position to sieve the employees and retain some of the best within the firm.

How to Retain Employees This has been the core of this research. The researcher was interested in determining how best to retain employees within a given firm. According to Griffin and Moorhead (2009), the secret behind the retention of employees within a firm is through motivation. Human being by nature wants to be appreciated. This way, they feel that their effort is recognized. They feel motivated, and this way, they are in a position to perform better within the firm. Motivation comes in various forms.

Promotion in the place of work. People always feel so much appreciated if they are made to raise a step or two in their workplace. However minimal this rise may be, it would be appreciated by the employees and this would make them work harder in order to be given even higher ranks the firm. They would remain in the firm with the hope that one day they would rise to the highest position in the firm

Giving employees financial incentives. Although there are many factors that would encourage an individual to get employment, the ultimate goal is to earn good salaries that would enable him or her be in a position to take good care of the family. Financial incentives are some of the best ways through which a firm can ensure that they make employees feel that their efforts are appreciated. It would motivate them to work harder and will not make them think of leaving the firm.

Personal appreciation from the management team would be a high motivation to the employee. It would go a long way in ensuring that the employee is retained within the firm.

Public praises. It is important that when an employee performs exceptionally well, the management should praise such employees publicly. Such public praises will make the employees attached to the firm

High involvement and clear communication. The management should always ensure that employees are involved. They should be made to feel that they are responsible for every task they have to undertake. This way, they would always want to see their departments excel, a fact that may make them stay longer within the organization.

Team building seminars. One of the best way of motivating employees and ensuring that they work as a team is by organizing team building seminars. Though such seminars, employees would form very strong bonds amongst themselves and with the firm. As such, they would not think of leaving the firm for another because the bond would always keep them together.

The management should also foster trust. The employees should have trust in employees. They should be made to feel that the management is caring. The management should always ensure that they keep trust by always honoring their promises.

Challenging experience. Human being, under a normal circumstance, work best when provided with challenging tasks. They feel that they have something to accomplish tomorrow, because they feel that today’s work is not satisfactory. Such an employee would always be thinking of ways to beat the deadlines other than looking for alternative source of employment.

References Anderson, T. (2004). Research Methods in Human Resource Management. London: Chattered institute of Personell Management Publishing.

Armstrong, M. (2002). Employee Rewards. Trowbridge: CIPD Publishing.

Barrows, C.,


DB week 4 We all have biases of one nature or another, positive and negative. When working with young children, you will be working with parents of various socio-economic backgrounds, family composit argumentative essay help

 When working with young children, you will be working with parents of various socio-economic backgrounds, family compositions (including single parent, grandparent, foster parents, gay parents, etc), religions, and ethnicities. Parents will range from those you consider good parents to neglectful/abusive parents and may have issues with substance use/abuse, be on welfare, homeless, etc. Think of your biases. Think of some of the school’s biases, such as forms asking for information on mom and dad. Is this bias against single parent households or gay families? What about Christmas celebrations in school? Is this bias against our students of other faiths? How do you think young children feel when they cannot participate due to religious or cultural reasons? Discuss  biases and how they negatively impact young children.


Effectiveness of Broad, Merit-Based Scholarship Programs Essay (Article) best essay help: best essay help

Although various scholarship programs aim to alleviate the disparities that exist in accessing education among socioeconomic groups, the structure of the programs could affect the achievement of such a goal. Contributing to such an observation, Kash and Lasley (2011) examined how demographic and socioeconomic factors affect the utilization and retention rates in merit-based scholarships.

The study arose from criticism, cited by the authors in their literature review, that such merit-based programs could have a retrogressive effect in addressing the existing inequality in accessing higher education among different socioeconomic groups.

Accordingly, the authors hypothesised that the decline in socioeconomic status of schools would be positively associated with the level of utilization and retention rates in a broad merit-based scholarship program.

To test this hypothesis, the study used a convenience sample based on the data from the Kentucky Education Excellence Scholarship (KEES) awards. KEES uses two measures for assessing a student’s eligibility to receive initial and subsequent scholarship awards – “a base amount that is calculated from students’ high school GPAs and a supplemental amount based on students’ ACT scores” (Kash


Theory Critique of Bureaucratic Politics on Public Administration and Public Policy: Rational choice theory Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rational Choice Theory in Politics

Institutions and Identities

Voting As a Rational Choice

Alternative Perspectives

Recommendation and Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Rational choice theory is also termed choice theory or still rational action theory. It is an approach by social and political scientists to understand human behavior. This approach was formerly applied by economists; but has recently become popular in other disciplines such as sociology, political science, and anthropology.

The spread of the rational choice theory into political science first appeared in 1962 in William Rikers Theory of political coalitions (Amadae


Computer Technology in Education Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Behavioral Learning Objectives

Assessment of the ABCD Objective 1

Assessment of the ABCD Objectives 2 and 3


Behavioral Learning Objectives Instructional Issue: Students have problems with memorizing new Spanish vocabulary and pronouncing new Spanish words.

Technology-Based: Multimedia software is going to be used for helping students remember new vocabulary and practice pronunciation.

Major Outcome: Voki and Digital Dialect flashcards will help students remember new words by means of constant repeating those and practical exercises based on listening and repeating will help students memorize how new words should be pronounced (Moore 1996).

ABCD Objective 1: after using multimedia software, Voki and Digital Dialect flashcards, students will be able to memorize new vocabulary (15 words) and match those new Spanish words with cards on the screen with 100% accuracy.

A = audience; the students

B = behavior; students will be able to remember all new words which comprise vocabulary from one unit.

C = condition; after having used the multimedia software students will be able to name 15 words of the new vocabulary which appear on the screen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More D = degree; 100% accuracy

ABCD Objective 2: having used multimedia software, teachers will be able to increase participation of students up to 100% and reinforce lessons which involve the use of the computer technologies at least twice a week.

A = audience; the students

B = behavior; students will have more desire to attend classes as the use of computer technologies increases their interest in learning

C = condition; visiting computer classes students will get a first hand experience from using computer technologies in learning (Korsvold 1997).

D = degree; 100% attendance of lessons, reinforcement of the lessons which involve innovative technologies twice a week.

ABCD Objective 3: students will be able to pronounce new Spanish words correctly with 100% accuracy by means of using practice exercises on the basis of multimedia software.

We will write a custom Assessment on Computer Technology in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A = audience; the students

B = behavior; students will read and pronounce new Spanish words correctly.

C = condition; after using the practice exercise directed students are able to pronounce new Spanish words correctly

D = degree; 100% accuracy

Assessment of the ABCD Objective 1 Writing Selected Response Assessment Items

The main idea of this assessment is to check how well students have remembered 15 new words from a new vocabulary after having used Voki and Digital Dialect flashcards. The assessment procedure should be conducted with the use of the following steps.

A teacher prepares a short a text (about 200 words) which contains new words. The teacher reads it to the audience for the first time with pointing at the pictures which define the new words. Students just listen without making notes.

When a text is read, a teacher asks general questions about the context of the text trying to use new words for students to hear them.

A teacher reads the text for the second time without pictures. Students are allowed to make notes to make sure that they remember everything.

Students are offered three types of tasks, Multiple Choice, Matching and True/False ([Anonymous] n.d.). The tasks should be organized in such a way that students are to use all 15 new words they have already learnt.

Multiple Choice Task. Students are offered a statement and a list of answers which are to be of the similar length, plausible, and without “all options” response.

Matching Task. This assessment tool should consist of two columns. The first column should be a list of the new words, and the second column should be the list of the definitions of those words. The task for students should consist in matching a word with its definition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Computer Technology in Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More True/False Task. The task should be based on the content of the text, however, the stress should be made on the new words and the use of the vocabulary by students ([Anonymous] n.d.).

Assessment of the ABCD Objectives 2 and 3 Students are to use the computer for completing this task. Students should be notified that the task should be completed any time they want during a week after the new vocabulary was learnt. Students are offered a list of new words in Spanish.

Using a microphone, students are to pronounce a word and give a system an opportunity to record it. Each student has only one attempt to complete one vocabulary unit. Thus, at the end of the week a teacher will have a list of students who have completed the task and the results of their pronunciation skills.

Moreover, here is a list of more assessment tools which may be used to check how well students have learnt to pronounce new Spanish words:

Vocabulary quizzing (one student says a word in Spanish and another one should respond in English, students should switch roles after one has pronounced all 15 words correctly.

Picture identification (a teacher shows pictures and students are to pronounce the words drawn at the picture correctly.

Pronunciation and spelling (one student says a word and another student should spell it without looking at the word, a student is interrogated until he/she is tested for all the words). Students should not have the vocabulary list before their eyes while being tested (Buttner 2007).

References [Anonymous] n.d. Selected response. Classroom Assessment. Web. Available from

Buttner A. 2007. Activities, games, and assessment strategies for the foreign language classroom. Larchmont (NY): Eye on Education. 189 p.

Korsvold A. 1997. New technologies in language learning and teaching. London: Council of Teaching. 156 p.

Moore Z. 1996. Foreign language teacher education: Multiple perspectives. New York (NY): Multiple Press of America. 337 p.


Critical Analyses of the Climate of Fear Report from Southern Poverty Law Center Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The climate of fear report was a report prepared by the southern poverty law center following a pattern of hate crimes against Latino Immigrants in Suffolk County. This report revealed the continuous hatred and prejudice against the undocumented Latino immigrants culminating in the murder of Marcelo Lucero.

The report also revealed how this pattern of bias and prejudice instilled fear among these immigrants, leading to the brutal murder and other perpetrated hate crimes. This paper will critically analyze the climate of fear report, seeking to explain how bias, fear and input of leaders fueled discrimination of Latino immigrants and the ultimate murder of Marcelo Lucero.

Background information For several years, thousands of Latinos immigrants have continuously settled in the village of Long Island in Suffolk County. Their settlement in the village sparked tension hatred among the residents and the surrounding communities. The Suffolk’s county politicians and the police accelerated this hatred against these immigrants and to some extent, they even attacked them (Long Island Press, 2010).

By 2008, the native residents of the Suffolk County had already started organizing and forming groups that were against the Latino immigrants. On November 2008, a group of armed youths carried out the execution of Marcelo Lucero, who was an Ecuadorian immigrant, in Patchogue, New York.

After investigations, the police disclosed that the gang of youths who killed him called themselves the “Caucasian Crew” and their major agenda was to raid and kill the Latino immigrants. Hatred grew stronger towards the immigrants, who did not have documents to identify themselves (Potok, 2009).

The murder of Marcelo Lucero was just one of the targets of the racists youth gang, which targeted more people and the attacks became a pattern nation wide (Cook


Nash Equilibrium Theory Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction Nash equilibrium is a challenge that has acquired many increasing applications in both the internet and economics. It is evident from the internet that it is hard to count all the Nash equilibrium of a two player game. This is so even if the entry of the matrix is 0 or even 1.

Nevertheless, the complexity which is involved in finding the Nash equilibrium is open and has been actually opposed as one of the most significant wide open problems in the complexity theory today. There is a new polynomial reduction given in finding the Nash equilibrium in the general bi-matrix games in finding Nash equilibrium in the games where all the playoffs are either 1 or 0 (Kim, 2004).

Once a given problem is shown intractable in the in complexity theory, the research for the same shifts towards the directions of polynomial algorithms for approximation or modest goals and the exponential bounds which are lower for the restricted algorithm classes.

We however conclude that Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally (Kim, 2000).

Algorithm for the Nash equilibrium In calculating the Algorithm for Nash equilibrium, we give out a common algorithm for calculating the Nash equilibrium of the bi-matrix game within an exponential time.

The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated. In the question, we will calculate the Nash equilibrium as follows:

Let Si1 be the ith row of S1, and Sj2 be the jth column of S2

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We then solve the linear program based on the 2n 3 variables:

The variables: a, b ≥ 0, U, V, ᵟ

The solution is then shown to the given conditions in a Nash equilibrium having the supports (S1, S2). The set of the constraints demands that the probabilities ai be non-negative and add up to one. They should also be 0 outside the required support with at least ᵟ within the desired support (Freund, 2006).

The following charts show the Nash Equilibrium tables.

The steps I used in calculating the Nash equilibrium.

I examined the payoff matrix and determine what payoffs belong to whom

I determined each player’s best response in all other actions of the other players, this process is done to all other players

The Nash equilibrium hence exists where each player’s best response is similar to the other player’s best response

For instance

Step one

Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) 2000(A) 101(B) 60(A) Step two

We will write a custom Essay on Nash Equilibrium Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) (2000) 101(B) (60) Step three

Cooperate Non cooperate Cooperate 2000(B) 1500(A) 4000(B) 50(A) Non Cooperate 100(B) 2000(A) (101) 60(A) Proof of equilibrium

The algorithm is simple and enumerates all the pairs (S1, S2) where by S1 is the sub set of the pure strategies of the row player while S2 is the pure strategies for the column player. For every pair, the equilibrium is used to find the Nash equilibrium in case one exists with the specified supports.

In case no Nash equilibrium exists with the supports, the algorithm terminates within the polynomial time and either asserts that there is no solution existing or for one with a ᵟ = 0.

In the case latter case described, the solution to the problem will be a valid Nash equilibrium therefore the algorithm will find necessarily Nash equilibrium whenever it uses the initial algorithm on the support of the described Nash equilibrium. Hence, there exist at most the following in the solution:

The 2m × 2n kind of pairs of the sets, therefore we get a total of (n m) 0(1) 2(m n) total time (Kim, 2000).

Proof of negotiation algorithm

The original proof of the existence of the Nash equilibrium is the Brouwer’s fixed point theorem. The proof is as follows: we can have the best of all correspondence for all other players with the relation from the set of the probability distributions over the profile of the opponent players to the set strategies as given in the supports, the profile of the mixed strategy of all the players except for player Si1.

Analysis of negotiation algorithm

Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by an assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally (Freund, 2006).

Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nash Equilibrium Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In calculating the Algorithm for Nash equilibrium, we give out a common algorithm for calculating the Nash equilibrium of the bi-matrix game within an exponential time. The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated.

Autoregressive models

The basic structure of an autoregressive model of the order p is indicated by the notation AR (p). It is defined as

When the formulae are broken down into different sections that are used to determine the natural phenomena, its sub sections are as follows:

are the parameters of the model in use

C is the constant

Is used to define the white noise (Friedman, 2001).

For the prediction of natural phenomenon to occur using this formula, the model has to incorporate the whole autoregressive moving average model (Kim, 2000).

Autoregressive moving average model

To describe a standard ARMA equation we will use the example below which further breaks down the equations used in the autoregressive models.

This model refers to a model with p autoregressive terms involved in an equation and q moving average terms in the same instance. Its combines the AR (p) and MA (q) of which the moving average model in the above equation is explained below

MA (q)

This model refers to moving average of the standard model of order q

This is broken down into the following sectors of the equation to determine the outcome of moving averages in the combined model.

θ1,…, θq are the limits

μ is the expectation of the time series model

εt,εt-1 is the white noise error terms.

Example equation

The path-order AR (AR(p)) Random Process is given by

x(n) = −a(1)x(n − 1) − a(2)x(n − 2) − ・ ・ ・ − a(p)x(n − p) w(n) (1)

where by;

w(n) is white noise having variance σw2

(k), k = 1,… , p are the AR parameters.

We assume that x(n) is real. The autocorrelation function of the AR process, rx(k), also satisfies the autoregressive property, this leads to the well-known Yule-Walker equations for the AR parameters


(k-i), k>- 1

Suppose the measurements used to estimate the AR parameters can be modeled as ˜x(n) = x(n) v(n) where v(n) is white noise having variance ¾2v, then the parameter estimates derived from the Yule-Walker equations will be biased since, r˜x(k) = rx(k) ±(k)¾2v where ±(k) is the Dirac delta function.

It has been shown that the biased AR parameters produce a “flatter” AR spectrum since the estimated poles of the AR process are biased toward the center of the unit circle [1]. A number of methods have been described for estimating the AR parameters using noisy measurements, some of these methods are surveyed in [1, 5] (Freund, 2006).

The Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations are defined as

(R˜x − ¸B) u = 0p q (3), Where the dimensions of R˜x,B, and u are (p q) × (p 1) , (p q) × (p 1), and (p 1) × 1, respectively. The unknowns in (3) are u and ¸, so clearly, equality holds when ¸ = ¾2v and u = · 1 a(1) a(2)… a(p) ¸T.

We observe that the first p equations are nonlinear in the AR parameters, u, and the measurement noise variance, The next q equations however are linear in u. In general there exist p distinct (¸, u) solving (3), the solution is taken to be that which corresponds to the minimum real value of ¸ solving (3).

A number of authors have observed that solving the p nonlinear equations, in addition to the q linear equations can improve the parameter estimates [2, 3, 4]. In [5], a matrix pencil method based on the Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations was presented which was found to out-perform several other methods for AR-in noise parameter estimation.

None of these papers have established the minimum number of linear equations that are required for the solution of the NCYW equations to be the unique, correct solution. It is clear that q ≥ p linear equations are sufficient to insure that the solution is unique, in this case, all other (¸, u) solving (3) are complex.

However, the minimum value of q needed to insure a unique solution has not been established. This is an important consideration because using a large value of q, which would guarantee a unique solution, also implies computing more high-order autocorrelation lag estimates which can reduce the solution accuracy since these tend to have a larger estimation variance.

Hence one would like to choose the smallest value of q that still guarantees a unique solution (Friedman, 2001).

One might expect that since there are a total of p q equations in p 1 unknowns, fewer then q = p linear equations are needed. In other words, if only one linear equation were used, q = 1, this would still give p 1equations in p 1 unknowns, hence a unique solution could still exist. In this correspondence, we show that this is not the case and q ≥ p is also a necessary condition for there to exist a unique solution (Friedman, 2001).

Conclusion The coalition proof of the Nash equilibrium concept applies to specify non cooperative surroundings where by players can freely share and discuss their game strategies but cannot make any changes or even binding commitments. The concept emphasizes the self enforcing immunization to deviations. The best response in the game in Nash equilibrium is therefore necessary for self-enforceability.

This is not sufficient generally when players can deviate jointly in a way that is beneficial mutually. The proof Nash equilibrium refines the concept via a stronger conception of the self-enforceability that gives room for the multilateral deviations (Freund, 2006).

Nash algorithm is a concept of solution of a game that involves two or more players in it, where by assumption has been made that every player understands the strategies of the equilibrium for the players and that not even one player has a thing to gain by altering his own strategies unilaterally.

To describe a standard ARMA equation we will use the example below which further breaks down the equations used in the autoregressive models. The calculation relies on the proposition that; given the existence of a Nash equilibrium with the supports S1 = Supp (x) and S2 = Supp (y), there will be a polynomial time of the algorithm in order to compute a Nash equilibrium with the definite supports stated (Freund, 2006).

A number of authors have observed that solving the p nonlinear equations, in addition to the q linear equations can improve the parameter estimates [2, 3, 4]. In [5], a matrix pencil method based on the Noise-Compensated Yule-Walker (NCYW) equations was presented which was found to out-perform several other methods for AR-in noise parameter estimation.

None of these papers have established the minimum number of linear equations that are required for the solution of the NCYW equations to be the unique, correct solution. It is clear that q ≥ p linear equations are sufficient to insure that the solution is unique, in this case, all other (¸, u) solving (3) are complex.

In summary, Nash equilibrium is challenge that has acquired many increasing applications in both the internet and economics. It is evident from the internet that is hard to count all the Nash equilibrium of a two player game. This is so even if the entry of the matrix is 0 or even 1.

Nevertheless, the complexity involved in finding the Nash equilibrium is open and has been actually opposed as one of the most significant wide open problems in the complexity theory today. There is a new polynomial reduction given in finding the Nash equilibrium in the general bi-matrix games in finding Nash equilibrium in the games where all the playoffs are either 1 or 0.

In complexity theory, once a given problem is shown intractable, the research for the same shifts towards the directions of polynomial algorithms for approximation or modest goals, exponential bounds which are lower for the restricted algorithm classes (Friedman, 2001).

References Freund, S. (2006). Adaptive game playing using multiplicative weights. New York: Prentice Hall.

Friedman, S.(2001). Learning and implementation on the Internet. London: Springer.

Kim, C. (2000). Fixed Point Theorems with Applications to Economics and Game Theory. London: Cambridge University Press.

Kim, C. (2004). Infinite Dimensional Analysis: London, Springer


Business plan for Star Fitness Center. Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help

Executive Summary Star Fitness Center is a facility that will offer fitness program. It will be equipped with modern technology and trained coaches to assist clients meet their fitness needs. It has specialized fitness programs for the different people of different ages with different needs.

Star Fitness Center will be located in California. Those living and working in the city will have the opportunity to use the facility that is equipped with the latest technology for body fitness. Star Fitness Center goal is to making fitness a lifestyle for the community.

The company has highly qualified trainers who assist the client gain fitness. They assist the client to use the facility to attain maximum benefit by assigning the best equipments. The programs are different and progress from one level to another.

Clients are assisted to gain cardiovascular fitness, balance, swiftness, flexibility, accuracy, strength, resistance, alertness and power. Basic training proceeds before the client is placed in a group. The client learns every time they come for the fitness program. The clients are supported to attain fitness, lose weight and build muscles.

The company will offer free training at parks, sponsor sports and join clubs in the community. The company will use the website for advertising, blogging and accessing interactive social networks. It will advertise on bill boards and make flyers. The website will be used to inform members and others on services available and allow on line booking. The company has daily, monthly and annual packages as well as discount for the companies.

The company management will be hierarchical. All employees must be trained and certified. More employees will be hired as the company experiences growth. Ethics will be followed. The company wishes to get credit to purchase the facility and equipment. The credit will be settled in four years. The company targets a membership of 70 clients by the end of the first year and 400 clients at the end of six years.

Star Fitness Center will register with the secretary of state and have a confidentiality agreement with the partners. The company plans to open other centers and expand the facilities to neighboring states.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opportunity According to Schwimmer et al (2003, p. 1814), the number of people suffering from fitness related illnesses has increased. A large number of them have been advised to engage in fitness activities. The cost of treating the illnesses is high and can be prevented. More and more people have gained interest in fitness activities. Singh and McMahan (2006, p. 209) argue that people are likely to perform well if they engage in fitness activities.

People who are likely to join are young adults and the working class. Others who are likely to use the facilities are the residents. The special groups are the pregnant mothers and people with medical problems like heart problems. The fitness program will also appeal to the youth and young children to join. Training for different groups depending on age and needs will be offered.

The main focus of the company is to ensure that the services offered have an impact on the clients. The experienced expertise train on fitness in the following areas: balance, cardiovascular fitness, accuracy, swiftness, resistance, flexibility, alertness, strength and power.

Depending on health and desire, clients will move from simple to more complex exercises. Besides assisting the clients meet their needs in the gym, Star Fitness Center will encourage the clients to make fitness a lifestyle and make it enjoyable.

The owners of the company have a passion for fitness. Besides the desire to make an income from the facility, the owners are committed to ensuring that the facility is of great help to the neighboring community. They will ensure that the company shares adequate dividends and pays off the loan within the stated period.

California has a number of competitors. The competitors include San Simeon California Gym, California WOE Xperince, California Fitness Hong Kong among others. The competitors have established their businesses and have a wide range of services that can be classified as generalized. Star Fitness Center aims at making the fitness program individualized and specialized for groups.

The goal of Star Fitness Center is to enable the community make fitness a lifestyle. The objective of the company is to increase its membership by around 70 members in a year and have a membership of 400 clients in six years. The company plans to begin operation in January, 2012.

We will write a custom Assessment on Business plan for Star Fitness Center. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Company and product plan Star Fitness Center is a centre for comprehensive fitness for diverse people. The company program will cover the needs of growing children, youths and the old people. The program has services for the special groups like antenatal and postnatal mothers and patients with special needs. Fitness based on exercise will be achieved with the use of expertise and the latest modern technology. This company will be located in California.

Star Fitness Center has designed fitness program that will enable different individuals to attain fitness. The program involves highly qualified and experienced coaches and modern equipment. The program has different sessions at a convenient time for different clients. Moreover, special programs are offered according to individual needs.

Star Fitness Center groups individuals so that they can exercise as teams and make the exercise enjoyable. The groups encourage social relationships which in turn make the participants exercise on daily basis.

Training can be given at different levels. Training on the appropriate diet, strategies on weight loss, building muscles and on injuries will be made available. Depending on the goals, the individual will be assisted to attain fitness.

There will be levels of training depending on the needs. The beginners will be given basic training and then progress with complex levels. The fitness programs will help people live healthily, reduce weight and build muscles. Moreover, it will also be a social place where people can interact and share experiences after they are grouped.

Health is important and even before engaging in some of the fitness program the client will provide a medical certificate. The certificate will enable the coaches to choose together with the client the appropriate program. The certificate is compulsory for the antenatal mothers to avoid any complication during training. The client will be encouraged to learn every time they come to do exercise.

The clients will have individualized training with the qualified coaches. The training will go on from one level to another as long as the client is comfortable. Only after learning and being comfortable with the exercises with the individualized training will the client join a group.

Staffing Plan The company will adopt a hierarchical order of the organization structure. Mr. Shake and Dr. Matthew will be president and the vice president respectively. Ms. Sherry and Mr. Rom will be in charge of the facility.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business plan for Star Fitness Center. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company will have additional management staff after three years or after gaining a membership of 250 clients. The additional staff will assists in marketing, expenditure, exercise among other department that will emerge after growth of the company. There will be permanent employees and employees on contract.

All employees will be required to have the highest level of training. Those who join without will be required to be certified before the end of the first year. The management and the owner will make payments to employees.

The recruitment will be conducted by an external human resource developer. The company seeks to employ both experienced and fairly experienced coaches. Since the coaches are important in providing the services, the company will receive refresher courses from time to time. The company plans to train inexperienced coaches and hire them after they have passed the test.

The company also plans to compensate employees in time and make necessary arrangements that will enable them perform their duties without destructions. The employees will be expected to uphold morals and observe the code of conduct. Disciplinary measures will be taken where the code of conduct and morals are not adhered to.

Marketing strategy To attract participation, free training will be given in nearby parks for a period of one month. Moreover, corporate organizations that register more than six employees will be given a discount on their first year. Registration for the training will be free for six months. The free training and the discount will be an appropriate avenue to demonstrate the services offered and to spark the interest of more clients.

The company will advertise on the websites. The members of the community will interact in an online blog. They will express their experiences and attract more members. It will also make use of social networks such as twitter and face book to make.

The client will be allowed to choose one of the different modes of training packages. The client can pay daily. The mode is convenient for those who are visiting or working in the city for a few days. The client can choose a monthly package or an annual package.

The company will ensure that the company will constantly have internet access. The clients can learn and register for the ongoing and forthcoming programs. The company can communicate to clients and possible clients via emails on the programs. To win new clients, the company will hold free training in the parks.

The company will take part in charity work and sponsor sport and athletics. The company will also be involved in the local clubs and acquire membership. The company will advertise on bill boards and newspapers. Flyers will be used to circulate information to neighboring colleges and companies.

The clients who choose to have a longer package will have a large discount than those who chose to subscribe to the monthly package. While most of the competitors offer fitness services for a certain time, Star Fitness Center offers individualized training programs for a one time monthly fee of unlimited training. Paying a onetime fee encourages the client to make fitness a lifestyle.

The fitness program takes care of the physical and mental health. The programs guarantee comprehensive exercise for the whole body. They are designed for people of different age groups and patients with diverse health needs. The experiences are varied and are exiting.

The coaching team will be composed of well trained individuals who have experience. The company is interested in coaches who are interested in research. Moreover, coaches are encouraged to keep track of developments in the fitness area. They make a judgment of the safe equipments that can be used. They are also responsible for prescribing the best equipment to meet individual needs.

Special programs will attract different groups. The fitness program for loss of weight will be ideal for women of 25 years old and above who struggle to maintain weight and keep fit. Men can have additional athletics program since many demonstrate interest.

Women enjoy exploring and trying fresh ideas. Women individualized fitness progress will also attract them since the services will be offered at the same price. Women have a tendency to enjoy company are have no problem if they are unable to try out new ideas.

The one year package will encourage many to register and obtain unlimited individualized training. An additional of 70- 100 clients every year will be sufficient to sustain and develop the facility. Our research reveals that many people are interested in fitness.

Some have registered and others are willing to register. Others practice in their homes and have been unable to have tangible outcomes. Consequently, training with professionals and within a group is likely to cause a positive impact on the individual’s health.

Star Fitness Center emphasize on quality of services. The fitness centre will meet the modern standards of practice and equipment. The equipment will be assessed so that they are used appropriately. The client gets to utilize the best equipment in the market to attain and maintain fitness. The company will review the existing equipments to ensure that they are the best and replace them whenever there is a need.

The use of the website will enable clients to communicate effectively with the company. The client will be able to make arrangements for training and choose the best program that suits them. They will also make use of the information available and be able to make appropriate choices.

Star Fitness Center seeks to assist people to overcome the challenges that make people withdraw from going for fitness program after enrolling. The website will make people feel like they are in a large group and give them a sense of belonging.

It will encourage social groups who will play an important role of encouragement and following up. The company will make each program a learning process even for those who have continuously attended to maintain their motivation.

The company is new and may take a while before it becomes a household name. The company plans to give quality services and maintain good relations with the clients. The services are going to be quality and will target people with an income.

The prices are cheaper when compared with private coaching. The challenge is that the market is flooded with competitors who have already been established. The company will insist on making the fitness program exiting and useful.

Fitness practices have shifted from ordinary workouts to group programs. Companies have also initiated fitness programs for their employees. As a result more people can have access and have developed interest to join and practice fitness in a group.

Imitation of programs offered poses a threat to the company. The company recognizes that the economy is deteriorating and clients may be careful with their spending. The company will give affordable prices to clients.

The staff is knowledgeable and is gracious when dealing with the clients. They ensure that the client gains what they desire and devote their energy to give more than the client required. They are full time employees who are devoted to give training at a pace that the client is comfortable with.

Funding strategy The Star Fitness Center will require $80, 000 credits to purchase the facility. The amount will be enough acquire the equipment and meet advertisement costs. The remaining amount will be used to meet the costs before the company realizes its revenue. The credit will be refunded by the end of four years.

The company target to have 50 clients after six months and 100 clients at the end of the year. The revenue targeted will be $130,000. The target clients are 400 after six years. The company will strive to observe business practices and make a steady growth. The business model seeks to maintain the revenue in forthcoming six years.

Legal and IP strategy The company will register with the Secretary of State in California. The company will be registered as Star Fitness Center as a limited liability corporation. The company has conducted research on the existing services in the fitness companies to ensure that it is in line with the law concerning IP rights.

The company seeks to conduct an Intellectual Property (IP) audit with an aim of identifying the most important assets of the company. The creative ideas and information will not be shared. The company will monitor the company creative ideas and information to avoid infringement.

The company will contact a lawyer if the IP rights are breached. In case there is partnership in carrying out field research with another company, the ownership of IP will be clearly stated. The company has also made arrangements with its partners to ensure that secrets are not exposed.

The partners have signed a confidentiality agreement. The company plans to patent before the ideas are taken over by a competitor. The company has also ensured the trademark and its name are unique. The company owners are Mr. J. Peterson and Mrs. R. C. Pluto.

Growth strategy The company has made plans to encourage the participation of those working and living in the area. The company targets a membership of 400 clients in four years. The company will extend the discounts to people who register for the fitness training programs as a group.

Star Fitness Center plans to open another facility in other areas to meet the the growing needs. The aim is to bring the facility to a closer location. The company has plans to train tutors and is doing a research in the area. The training will cover fitness program, physical exercises and sports.

Other plans include collaborating with other organizations to offer programs where needed. For instance, a company can contract the services of the tutor to assist them in fitness programs carried on in their organization. Moreover, the company is seeking to become a consultant for fitness program.

Conclusion Star Fitness Center will reach out to the population living in different locations far away from California. Using the website will help feature the services offered. The company plans to make annual seminars with different themes. The themes will go hand in hand with programs offered like nutrition, workout, physical exercise, weight loss and building muscles. The growth will largely depend on the amount of revenue collected.

Reference List Schwimmer, J. B., Burwinkle, T. M., and Varni, J. W. 2003. ‘Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents’. Journal of American Medical Association, 289, 1813-1819.

Singh, S. and McMahan, S. 2006. ‘An Evaluation of the Relationship between Academic Performance and Physical Fitness Measures in California Schools’. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 2, 207-221.


South Africa Investments Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The corresponding principles of the utilitarian benefits of Caltex plant creation was reckoned to be a violation of rights of some particular layers of the society of the past century. Racial prejudices became the greatest obstacle not only in interpersonal relations but also in the rapid developments of the building of the plant.

The management of Texaco and SoCal companies that jointly owned Caltex Petroleum Company thought that benefits should be expanded and remained in the country for the population. It highlighted improvement of the economic working conditions of blacks working for the company.

They also committed to the implementation of the Sullivan principles drafted by an American reverend Deon Sullivan. The Investments in South Africa played an essential part in the development of certain benefits accrued to the major population in South Africa.

The Sullivan principles basically stated that there would be no racial segregation within the work premises, equal opportunities for employment for people of all races and equal pay for equal jobs regardless of race. The code also suggested increase majority holders of supervisory positions and welfare facilities for the non-white workers outside the work set up.

The management of these companies was not ignorant to the fact that some of the principles would go against the law of segregation in the country. They pledged to use the required channels for any modifications required. All these good intentions for the majority groups were noble and good on paper but it was evident that their implementation would be impeded by the law of segregation in the country.

Regardless of these new policies, the majority groups are still faced violation of rights and justice. The white government would still implement its laws barring Africans from becoming apprentices. Oppression in regard to job opportunities and payment of wages was not going to end seeing as how blacks and whites cold not hold equal positions.

The principles were out to slightly improve conditions for the minority groups at the workplaces only. This would not greatly impact their lives since their basic rights had been denied in all aspects of their lives and from all the points of view.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They had no claim to the land they were born in, they could not vote for their leaders or hold mass action. The management of Texaco and SoCal would therefore not help improve the condition for majority groups in South Africa. Several resolutions were proposed by human rights activists.

The first proposal was for Caltex to terminate its activities on South African soil. As a shareholder, I would have voted for this proposed resolution. The white government had been inflicting a tremendous amount of suffering on the majority groups. The rest of the world just watched seemingly helpless. The liberation of South Africa would have been achieved by collective responsibility of corporate organizations and the world at large.

I believe a vote for this resolution would have ideally been a vote for the majority groups in the county. Though, it would probably have been criticized as a drastic measure, it would have certainly been called for given the extreme nature of the situation. It would have been a selfless and humane move that would have transformed South Africa.

The second resolution asked Caltex not to sell the military or police of South Africa. I would have voted against. It was naive of the activists to imagine that the white government would have allowed that.

The country was not in anarchy, and any corporation operating on South African land had to obey its laws. It would not also have prompted the government to liberate the majority but only achieved hostility given that it targeted government forces.

The third proposal was asking the company to implement the Tutu principles. This proposal to me would have been more practical than the first and I would have voted for it.

This is because it addressed the lives of the majority as a whole and not only their work related issues. It would ensure that the black people lived with their families, recognition of black labor unions, fair labor practices and investment in education. This would have made positive change in the lives of the majority.

We will write a custom Essay on South Africa Investments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The managers of Texaco and SoCal, I believe, would have responded differently to the proposed resolution. The management should have endorsed the proposal to terminate its activities in South Africa. They should have made the decision to leave the country within a specified period of time. Within this period, they should have planned on where to relocate their business to.

By doing so, they would have fulfilled their moral obligation to end oppression. By making the alternative business plan, they would have fulfilled their primary business objective which is to make profits for their stockholders.

Management should also have considered the second proposal by issuing an ultimatum to the white government. This might be considered arm- twisting, but it would have enabled them fulfill their obligation to society.

This could result in a situation whereby the need for negotiation and dialogue would have been inevitable. They would have gained a forum to address the plight of the majority in the country. This would have brought them a step closer to liberation

Tutu’s conditions should have been a primary objective to management more so because it involved different aspects of the lives of the black people. Texaco and SoCal should have led by example and adopted these conditions.

This would probably have been an incentive to other corporations in South Africa to do the same. It would have been a milestone in the liberation of the country. They would have gone down in history as having initiated positive change in South Africa.

The entire management of the Caltex Company has a wide range of duties that lie in the basis of ensuring the impacts of and for stockholders. It has a responsibility to its consumers and society at large.

It has a duty to its consumers to ensure high quality goods and services, provide after-sale services and adequate product information. To the society, management has the responsibility to support development projects and help in environmental conservation efforts. There is also provision of recreational facilities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on South Africa Investments by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Management should think twice before making the corresponding decisions as for the development of the company and do not pay much attention to the investments but act according to the most possibly successful criteria. It should therefore also seek to act responsibly to its society.

It should abide to the business code of ethics and seek the good of everyone in its environs. Management should not turn a blind eye to issues such as political instability and oppression. By doing so, it will gain the goodwill of people that in turn may contribute to the success of the business enterprise.


The Use of Evaluation Tests Essay argumentative essay help

The No Child Left behind (NCLB) Act is an act that was proposed and enacted by President Bush’s regime in efforts to try and make sure that the funding offered by the government in all the public schools was used effectively and that everyone in charge of offering educational services to students performed their duties in an impartial and in an accountable manner.

This act hence advocated for the use of evaluation tests that were to be developed at the states level and were to be administered to both the junior and high school students in an annual basis. The main condition for the tests was that they had to be administered to all students at the same time and under the same conditions so as to make sure that there were no external factors that interfered with the evaluation process.

Through the use of Annual Yearly Progress (AYP), all the public schools that benefit from federal funding have to be graded every year so as to determine their progress and output as per the expectations set by the state they are located in. failure to meet with the requirements of the AYP would result to closer evaluation and re-evaluation as well as taking of corrective or even restructuring measures.

In extreme cases, the school may be closed or handed over to a different management, specially the management by the state office of education (Meier, 2004).

Some people in the USA oppose the NCLB law with claim that it tends to discriminate between different states and also that it may be biased since it is not a country-wide activity.

On the other side, while the law is actually intended to determine the commitment and accountability of the staff in public schools, the tests are usually applied to the students, even at early stages of education, a factor that subjects the students to a lot of pressure especially due to the fact that the school staff usually tries to make sure the students perform well so as to give their institutions a high rating and consequently a good reputation.

This hence deviates from the initial plan of the law since it places pressure on the students rather than on the intended group, the school staff. (Caucuses, 2007)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, I differ with the negative claims that have been raised against this law and actually support the law mainly because it is intended to be non-partisan and undiscriminating as well as the fact that positive results have already been realized from the utilization of the law.

Research has shown that there has been a positive improvement in service delivery and competitiveness of the public schools as compared to the private ones (Politics TV, 2008).

Also, there has been a rise in the commitment of the staff in public schools resulting not only to better performance of these schools but also to a rise in the standards, attitudes as well as a creation of a positive attitude towards education and life in the students who attend public schools (Meier, 2004).

It is now a known fact that while private schools mainly concentrate on academic excellence among their students, public inst5itutions seek to enhance all the facets of life for their students including their academic, social, spiritual as well as physical development.

The NCLB law is undergoing a heated debate as different groups disagree on its authenticity and effectiveness. The government is under pressure to ensure it undertakes some reforms that will ensure it does not have negative pressure on students so as to ensure it effects positively as intended (Graner, LaCava


Leading Change in Health Care Practice Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction In the recent past, nursing profession has become a widespread career choice as more high school and college graduates are looking forward to embracing the profession. However, only effective management/leadership roles can help to achieve success in the nursing profession, since these roles play a critical role in shaping the goals of the health care organizations.

More over, leadership helps to define the overall culture of the health care organizations, and it motivates the behavior of the nurses towards accomplishment of goals.

Since the goals of a clinical staff must be patient centered, the managers are tasked with the role of ensuring that the implementation of the relevant leadership style is effected. This can be achieved by identifying a change initiative, and then coming up with viable ways that influence all team members in the medical circle to provide proficient services.

Critical Analysis Of The Role Of Leaders As Agents Of Organizational Change Analysis of Change Initiative and Intended Outcomes

The practice of nursing is compounded with a number of challenges, with needle stick safety practices emerging as one of the leading challenges. According to Centre for disease control and prevention (2009), there is a positive correlation between the use of sharp needles and diverse risks at various stages of their use.

The high levels of risks are attributed to the following factors, among others: physical appearance of the needles, the methods of disposal used by the medical practitioners, the level of education of the medical practitioners, and the working condition for the medical practitioners.

One thing that is of importance to note is that needle stick injuries pose a major threat to the health care workers, since they do not only expose them to blood borne diseases, such as the hepatitis B and C, but also to HIV/AIDS. Therefore, this calls for a change initiative within the health care institutions.

There are a number of initiatives that have already been employed to improve the safety practices in a clinical setting. One of the initiates includes eradicating unsafe medical practices through providing education to medical practitioners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that many healthcare institutions have already provided education for handling sharp needles, the efficacy of this education has not yet been practical enough due to divergence of attitude amongst the health care workers (Van Knippenberg


The global financial crisis of 2008 Essay essay help

The global financial crisis started in the year 2008, and it is set to continue unleashing devastating effects on the global economy. The magnitude and the level of disruption of the global economies have led to speculation of various causes that has contributed to its occurrence. The major factor that explains the occurrence of this crisis are the loose monetary policies (Bean, 2008).

John Taylor argues that interest rates were well below the ones implied by Taylor’s rule. In addition, large current accounts surpluses in emerging economies with underdeveloped financial markets. For instance, China has largely driven the interest rates up (Caballero


Corporate Governance and Social Responsibly Report college application essay help

Corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities are competitive advantage strategies that focus on the social, economical, and political improvement of society/community where organizations operate (Moon, 2001). This paper discusses how corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities affect economic, social, and financial elements of organizations and their stakeholders.

Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities are central to the success and effectiveness of organizations; when making decisions, leaders should consider the social, economic, financial, and political effect of the decisions; timely, effective, and responsive decision should ensure continued improvement of the above considerations.

When conducting business, organizations affects their habitats environment positively or/and negatively; modern strategic management puts emphasis on improving business-environment relationship where emphasis is on corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities.


There are numerous stakeholders that are affected by corporate governance, they include the target markets, the community of which the organization operate, government, employees, tax authorities, potential investors, environments, and shareholders.

The holy trinity of good corporate governance is the notion of shareholders’ right to question board/ management decisions, transparency and board’s full accountability for their actions. This is ethical behaviour in its true sense (Rasmussen, 2005).

Strengths of corporate governance

Transparency and accountability force management and the board to be disciplined and ethical in everything they do. Therefore, ethical boards and management are high in effective corporate governance.

There is a direct link and positive correlation between a company’s competitiveness and financial performance on one hand and the effectiveness of its corporate governance and its ethical behaviour on the other hand. Organisations that adhere to corporate social responsibilities and corporate governance build customer confidence that facilitate business and boosts its competitiveness (Machan, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reform of Corporate Governance In contemporary business environments, there is need for management to keep changing their corporate governance model to fit the demands of the market. When companies have embarked on CSRs, they have no option than considering ethics and good governance in their business, when these two have been attained, then future disasters are likely to be prevented.

In line with CSRs operations, companies make efforts geared toward social enabling efforts like developing infrastructures, providing primary health care, developing education systems among others in developing countries. In wakes of disasters, the company will be ready to assist. Corporate governance and CSR projects should be aimed at improving the operating environment.

Internally, it will also aim at making operations safer and enhancing disaster recovery. These efforts will not only benefit community and environment but also enhance the organization image, thus increasing business.

Corporate social responsibility manager establish frame works to enhance compliance with internationally recognised CSR standards like Triple Bottom Line (TBL), People, Planet


The Effects of Oil in the Development of the UAE: Digging for the Gold Mine Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Nowadays one of the most successful companies in the entire world, the United Arab Emirates has faced a number of complexities on its way to the realm of prosperity and wealth.

Tracking its peculiar development and understanding the social, economical and financial challenges that the country had to encounter, as well as the specific tactics used by the governors of the country to make the maximum use of its natural resources, one can draw certain valuable conclusions concerning the wisest way to use the values of nature that the state has at its disposal.

Therefore, it will be a useful experience to trace the specific pattern of the UAE development and the role which its main natural resource, that is, oil, played in the progress made by the UAE.

In the proposed study we seek to examine the general development of the UAE, comment on the landmarks of the country’s progress, clarifying the reasons for the shifts in the country’s state and the outcomes of the events, and examine the role of the UAE’s main natural resource, that is, oil, in the country’s incredible progress and the impressive rise.

Knowing what predetermined the UAE fast and successful development, understanding the country’s strategies that led to the economical rebuff, and assessing the role of the natural resources in the state’s development, one can obtain valuable experience and also generate the prognosis for the further progress of the country.

Hence, the given research offering a detailed analysis of the role oil played in the UAE development seeks to explore the historical development of the country together with the economical progress and the use of oil.

Basing on a number of sources concerning both the history of the UAE and its current economical and political position, the given research considers five main sources. With help of these papers, the research can provide a versatile analysis of the UAE development and the role of oil in it. Therefore, the sources in question provide the data on both the current UAE economics and the strategy used over centuries in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With help of the data provided by Potts, the research can embrace the entire history of the UAE economical development starting from the time when the state was in its embryo. In addition, Potts offers the information concerning the “rules of history” (25) that predetermined the specific way the state developed.

With El Malakh’s contribution, one can see distinctly the general development of the state, its political and cultural rebuffs, as well as the periods of decay, thus, providing the sufficient background for the plausible factors that affected the UAE economics and the oil production, trade and consummation at a particular period of the state history.

Another essential source that adds to the general information about the UAE and its history and yet emphasizes the importance of the oil production and trade for the country’s financial and economical wealth is the book by Abed.

Making a general overview of the role of oil production in the history of the state, the author still emphasizes the importance of the product in the XXI century, when the world economy is often threatened by a number of various crises.

It is also important to mark that the change taking place in the UAE society is also somewhat enhanced by the current economic policy, which is aimed at oil production. Thus, the data offered by Rostin, are of great use for the given research.

The last, but not the least is the research conducted by King. Outlining the main stages of the state development, the author considers carefully the place UAE take in the modern market, providing the most up-to-date information for the given research paper.

Even though the researches mentioned above seem to cover all existing topics concerning the economics of the UAE and the development of the oil trade, the given researches still do not outline clearly enough the importance of the oil industry in the development of the country.

We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of Oil in the Development of the UAE: Digging for the Gold Mine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Making certain connections between the given phenomena, the authors of the researches do not offer a detailed explanation of the way the oil industry development enhanced the progress in the country.

In contrast to what might be expected, the authors of the researches miss the link between the country’s well-being and the oil industry that helps people thrive and prosper in the UAE. Therefore, the information gap must be somehow filled.

It is also essential to mark that the economical development of the UAE has never been considered before incorporating the entire history of the state and the oil industry, which also contributed to the novelty of the research.

It must be admitted that the effects of the oil resource use in the UAE have been completely astonishing, if comparing the life standards in the country before and after the oil discovery, which means that the given natural resource has played a vast role in achieving the country’s current prolific state.

Hence, in the given essay, the interconnections between the current economical state of the country and the oil resources, oil industry and oil trade are going to be considered. Providing an analysis of the oil industry impact on the state, one can see certain links between the two elements. Thus, the effect of oil in development of the UAE will be fully considered. In addition, the risks concerning the oil investments must be taken into account:

Key Risks to Exporters and Investors. Image © Efic

According to the recent researches, the effects of the oil industry development on the progress of the UAE economical and political state have not been researched well enough. First of all, it is essential to mark that the positive effects of the oil industry development on the state’s situation have been considered in rather nonchalant fashion.

In addition, only the positive effects of oil development have been considered so far (Rostin), while the less favorable aftermaths have been left unnoticed. Therefore, the positive and negative effects of the oil development on the state of the UAE must be observed and analyzed in the given paper.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Oil in the Development of the UAE: Digging for the Gold Mine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To outline the problem of the paper, one must realize that the effect of the oil industry development on the progress of the state has not been stated yet, which means that the absence of the formula that could describe the UAE path to the progress and prosperity the state is witnessing now must be compensated.

Filling the gap in the description of the UAE history, one can contribute greatly to the further understanding of the history and policy of the country, as well as realize the reasons that stand behind a certain political move made by the country authorities.

Thus, the gap in the information concerning how the vast recourses of oil helped the country to elevate above the rest of the African states and become one of the richest and the most prolific state of the world must be filled.

With help of the knowledge obtained, one can not only provide the prognoses for the further development of the UAE, but also help to offer a flexible policy for the other countries that have certain oil resources in disposal. Hence, the given paper researches the problem of the positive and the negative effects that the oil industry had on the development of the UAE.

It is important to emphasize that the paper deals with the problem that has been essential for the UAE since the state started using the oil resources and is still topical for the country. Thus, the problem proves to be incredibly important for the modern UAE society. In addition, the results obtained will hopefully outline the prospects of the further economical development of the UAE.

Considering the objectives of the given paper, one must mention that the research is supposed to deal with the factors that were triggered by the upheaval of the oil industry development and caused certain changes to the economical, financial or political state of the UAE throughout the state development.

It is crucial to mark that the paper deals with both the positive and the negative effects of boosting the oil industry development, if any are found, for the paper to be most objective and not to exaggerate the role of oil industry in the history of the UAE. Therefore, the given paper is restricted by the topic of the effects of the oil industry development in the UAE.

To outline the limitations of the paper, it is necessary to admit that the current state of the UAE well-being will be quite problematic to trace, since the economic development, like any other form of progress, is continuous and unstoppable. Hence, the research offers the data that is topical for the year 2011 in general.

Figure 2. OPEC. Crude oil.

OPEC, Crude Oil, Lease Condensate and NGL Supplies. Image © Business Insider

Another important limitation that must be kept in mind is the impossibility to conduct the analysis taking into consideration every single economical, political and social factor of every single epoch in the state development. However, picking the landmarks of each epoch and analyzing each carefully, one can reach the desirable effect and provide a close analysis of the UAE state progress rather precisely.

Offering the plausible hypotheses for the given research, one must mark that the development of the UAE was quite complicated and tangled (King), which allows a lot of suppositions and theories concerning the role of the oil production in it to be created.

However, it goes without saying that the effect of the oil industry was of crucial importance for the UAE, and the country obtained considerable profit from the oil trade. On the one hand, the aspects of the oil trade that had the positive effects on the UAE development are obvious and indubitable; on the other hand, the country did face certain obstacles that appeared when exploring the industry that brought the state its wealth.

To prove the existing dual nature of the effects that oil had on the UAE development, one can drive a number of examples of the decay in the UAE economics when the other countries started producing and exporting oil; for instance, King drives the example of the 1980s:

In the 1980s there was a glut of oil on the world market, and the prices of petroleum products dropped sharply. This jolted the economy of the UAE, as well as other oil rich Gulf countries. The UAE found itself, like other countries of the world, building up a sizable national debt. (52)

Therefore, there are considerable reasons to think that the oil industry had not only the most positive, but also quite deplorable effects on the UAE development and its state within the country, as well as in the sphere of foreign affairs. Boosting the oil industry, the country could also have neglected certain issues that needed attention, which could have also had its effect on the UAE state.

However, the positive results that the oil industry brought to the state are also to be mentioned in the research paper, Since the UAE owes a lot of its wealth to the national resources it possesses, each of the positive results are to be marked. As it turns out, the country is built basically on the efficient work of the oil industry, yet the latter has both the positive and the negative effect on the country.

Thus, it is obvious that the given research offers important and original hypotheses concerning the problems and the positive outcomes of the oil industry work that have their impact on the UAE development, political, economical and social.

Solving the issues concerning the aforementioned problem, one can predict with considerable credibility probable prospects of the state’s further development, which is quite essential. Therefore, the problem stated above needs thorough researching.

Another element of immense significance for the given research is the method used to investigate the problem under the consideration. The basic method of the research is the historical one. It is also worth mentioning that the given paper comprises several methods of research for the results to be as objective as possible and provide all-embracing and exhaustive explanations for the phenomena in question.

For the paper to provide an objective observation of the existing facts and introducing them to the audience, the exploratory method is used. To figure out the possible solutions for the problem researched, the given paper exploits the constructive method. It is important to mark that the paper does not involve the empirical research, since the scale of the research does not allow to conduct the one.

Comprising the above-mentioned methods of research, one can come to the most objective results and at the same time create an original hypothesis. Moreover, the methods used help not only to identify the problem, but also to outline a pattern of the country’s development to base the further predictions on.

Another issue that must be outlined is the fact that the given paper offers a secondary research, for the paper is based on a number of additional sources. Without these sources, reaching the objective results would be impossible.

Among the probable data sources for the given paper, one should mention such sources of information as the First Data Sets Regional Office at Dubai, and the resources of the like.

Collecting the data from the most up-to-date sources and providing the information that will reflect the UAE situation as close to the current state of affairs as possible will make the given research paper most objective and provide a more reliable material for analysis.

In addition, the given data source offers a plethora of facts concerning UAE from every possible angle, touching upon the economical, political and financial issues that are relevant for the UAE in the given time period.

Alternatively, the given research can address such data sets as the UAE sites that offer statistics concerning the financial and economical information, which will allow to estimate the country’s outcome per year and draw a comparison between certain stages of the country development.

Using this sort of resources, one can obtain the most useful information and classify it according to the requirements of the given paper. Moreover, predictions for the future changes can be made.

The Economical Forecast for the Future Image © Risk and Forecast

Moreover, it will be necessary to consider the data sets concerning the UAE oil industry. Offering precise numbers and verified data, such data sets will provide the most precise information on the researches made in the given sphere and the people who have contributed to discovering the peculiarities of the UAE state development.

Hence, the aforementioned data sources will be used in the given research. The data sources that offer academic papers providing detailed information on the existing state of the UAE oil industry and oil trade will be required for the given paper. Thus, the above-mentioned data sources are going to be located and used for the paper writing.

Researching the problem of the link between the UAE economical state and the oil industry in the country, the given paper provides thorough considerations of the UAE historical progress and analyzes its most significant stages. Offering an overview of the UAE establishment and the way the country had to go on the way to its final formation, the research deals with important aspects of the present-day issues of the UAE economics.

In addition, the paper also touches upon the issues of the UAE society, which is quite important for reconsidering the role that the country plays in the modern world.

With help of the thorough analysis of the current position that the UAE possesses in the modern world, one can understand that the current position is predetermined by the economical factors that concern the country’s valuable minerals, namely, one of the most worshipped resource, that is, oil.

It must be also mentioned that the given paper will assess the importance of the oil industry and the positive and negative effects that the oil industry had on the state in rather superficial way. Since it is impossible to consider the revenues of every major enterprise working in the UAE in a certain time period, only the GDP of the given year can be considered to estimate the financial and economical stability of the UAE in a certain year.

In conclusion, it would be reasonable to say that the given paper considers the entire development of the UAE and its oil industry, which means that only the most essential elements of the state progress are taken into account.

Since it is impossible to consider every single peculiarity and the tiniest shift in the economical or financial state of the UAE in the given time period, it is evident that the paper offers only general data on the country productivity. Nevertheless, stating the relations between the oil industry and the pace of the UAE development, one can obtain the information that will help to forecast the plausible changes in the economics of the country.

Works Cited Abed, Ibrahim Al, and Peter Hellyer. United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. London, UK: Trident Press Ltd., 2011. Print.

Business Insider. “OPEC, Crude Oil, Lease Condensate and NGL Supplies.” Business Insider. n.d. Web.

EFIC. “Key Risks to Exporters and Investors.” EFIC. n.d. Web.

King, David C. United Arab Emirates. Singapore, SG: Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Print.

Mallakh, Ragaie, El. The Economic Development of the United Aram Emirates. New York, NY: Taylor


Managerial Practices Found in the Contemporary Technology-Intensive Enterprise Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Managing Teams across Borders

Environmental Management

Developing New Business – Innovation and Application

Reference List

Managing Teams across Borders As indicated by Thanlain (2005) there are four characteristics that are in demand within a technology-oriented enterprise, namely: high market responsiveness, fast developments, low cost, and finally high levels of creativity, innovation and efficiency (Thamlain, 2005).

What must be understood though is that such characteristics are dependent upon the type of technical teams that are the backbone of the company wherein through the utilization of a variety of management practices a seamless integration of vertical and horizontal means of collaboration need to be implemented in order to create a stable organizational structure for proper operations and product development.

On the other hand what must be taken into consideration is the fact that though globalization and the process of outsourcing and off shoring technology teams are no longer isolated to merely being within the same building, state or country but rather are scattered across a wide breadth of countries, cultures and business cultures which management practices of contemporary technology-intensive enterprises need to take into consideration (Bhalla, Sodhi


Disruptions Effect on Productivity Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Proposed Reduction Workforce Hours

Limiting Operational Capacity



Introduction The inherent problem with interruptions to business is that not only does it create problems from an operational cost standpoint but it also causes problems from a labor standpoint since if the company has the same workforce yet has fewer orders this represents a gross mismanagement of human resources. When examining how a disruption will affect productivity several factors need to be taken into consideration.

The first factor is how long the company can maintain its current rate of operations before operational costs exceed profitability. A “shut down” of the Federal Government can last months to just a few weeks or even days and as such a company cannot just simply cease all operations only to find out that Federal Government is back a few days later.

Proposed Reduction Workforce Hours As such one strategy that is necessary is to determine how long operations can continue under their current rate before the company needs to scale it back.

Estimates need to be done as to when would the Federal government be reopened, what size would the workforce reduction need to be, how will the company gradually divest itself of unneeded staff and what sort of strategy can be implemented in order to get the company back on track once things return to normal.

One alternative strategy that could work while maintaining some semblance of normal operational capacity is to drastically reduce the number of hours employees come to work for during the shut down period.

The advantage of this method is that while it drastically reduces labor costs it enables the company to maintain its current workforce so that once the shut down ends it can return to full operational capacity within a short period of time.

Laying off people has the distinct disadvantage of not only resulting in costs related to recruitment in the future in order to replace the lost workforce but it also entails the company having to pay significant costs in severance packages (Hollett, 2003). It is based on this that limiting the number of work hours seems to be a far better solution as compared to merely firing people en masse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Limiting Operational Capacity Another factor that should be taken into consideration is the possibility of discontinuing certain aspects of the company’s operational capacity during the shut down. What must be understood is that certain aspects of operations entail a significant resource cost in terms of utilities, raw materials and other such factors that contribute to normal company operations.

If a shut down does occur it would be necessary to partially reduce services to these operational areas by first reducing the number of employee hours as indicated in the previous section and by slowing down operations to at least 20% of its previous operational capacity.

The reason this is done is so that at least some products can continue to be produced which can then be subsequently stored by the company and utilized at a later date once the shutdown ends.

Conclusion Based on the given strategies presented in this paper it is likely the company will be able to come through the storm of a possible Federal government shutdown and continue to operate normally in the future. It must be noted though that this particular strategy of reducing work hours while maintaining the same amount of workers is feasible only with the short term.

A prolonged shut down will result in several workers either transferring to other companies or the company firing them due to lack of overall business. As such this particular solution cannot be considered the best possible resolution but rather a stop gap measure to maintain operations to a certain extent.

Reference Hollett, B. (2003). Preparing for Uncertainty: Guidelines for Laying Off Workers and Creating Equitable Severance Packages. Employee Rights Quarterly, 3(3), 70. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.


Essential Foundations of the Public Relations Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Over the last three decades, a lot of scholarly research has been accomplished in the field of public relations. The framework under which the early researches were based on has, however, in the modern day, faced a lot of criticism with the majority of the critics claiming that the PR model of communication presents a two way communication, which stands out as utterly symmetrical (Karla 177).

Early scholars set subtle grounds for the subsequent researches. In their natures, these foundations have taken rigid dominance in the theorization of the public relations’ scholarly researches. This dominance has served to give rise to pros and cons of the initial and hence the traditional theories of public relations.

One specified pro of the theories stems from the fact that, over the years such theories have undergone numerous tests, with most of the scholars confirming their claims. Consequently, the theories have remained in force and viable within a wider public spectra. In line with this argument, Karla claims that, “dominant research theories are furthered and new theories emerge” (178).

If, an organization has to excel in its public relations endeavours, a prerequisite is placed on it to change its behaviours and approaches to the discipline so as to become part and parcel of the organization’s “dominant coalition or decision making body” (Karla 179). In this context, therefore, a magnificent endeavour of the early, PR theorist was to enhance professionalization of the PR (Grunig 29).

Conflicting roles of the PR professional have also been registered with some scholars claiming that, PR managers have, at times, concentrated in execution of duties, which could have otherwise been delegated to the technical PR staff. As a repercussion, the PR concerns may be argued as a represented differently in theory and actual practice.

More recently a lot of enthusiasm has emerged especially in attempts to scrutinize the position of PR in an organization as part of the management function.

According to Curtin and Gaither, there exists four main criticisms of the paradigm of the public relations: “the definition of public relations as a management function; the reliance on functional, transmission models of communication; the emphasis on organizational-level theory; and the failure to recognize the primacy of power in relationships” (110).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emerging perspectives about the new media have given rise to lots of enthusiasm in some quarters. This paper seeks to scrutinize whether the existing enthusiasm to the new media is justifiable, explore the various implications, on the one hand, public relations practice relating to traditional media and on the other for, long term future of those media.

However, to explore this topic, endeavours are made to unveil whether, if anything is distinctive about new media technologies from a PR practitioner’s perspective and what benefits to PR practice they bring. The critics of the PR are also essential to be given a glance especially those which attribute it to profit making endeavours.

New media technologies from a PR practitioner’s perspective and the benefits they bring to PR practice From a wider perspective, there exist no broad distinctions between traditional media and the new media (social media) in terms of relations. In case of traditional media, “practitioners identify reporters and editors and build relationships with them in order to get client news disseminated” (Horton 5).

On the other hand, in the social media, the main objective of the practitioner is to identify likely influential participants and the rest of the approach is just like in the traditional media: build relationships for the purposes enhancing communication.

Opposed to the old media technologies such as the newspaper, radio or television, the emerging technologies such as face book or twitter are more essentially social based. Horton posits that, “newspapers are withering; net work television has watched audiences decline, radio is splintered and magazines are shrinking” (1). On the other hand, more human traffic in social networks is on the rise.

Consequently, with this form of trends in communication, PR practitioners have no choice other than shifting to new media means of communication, particularly with the number of the reporters of the traditional medial escaping from their traditional occupations. Despite incredible call for change with time, the new media pose lots of challenges especially in terms of effectiveness and efficacy in communication.

One evident challenge is that, the initial attempts to departmentalize communication have altogether been eroded. In fact, “ the public and the universal nature of social media means that all the audiences can read communication intended for any one communication” (Horton 1). As a way of compounding this problem, practitioners are always unsure that the communication reaches all the intended audiences.

We will write a custom Essay on Essential Foundations of the Public Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is perhaps due to existences of communication fragmentations in case the practitioner opts for the new media to deliver messages. As Horton observes, “social media are so fragmented that an individual may not see the information in a blog or a face book page or tweet” (1). In actual sense the new media, serves to disperse information just like some traditional media for instance newspapers and magazines would do.

The fact that some information was posted in a newspaper does not guarantee that the target audience would read it. This is what new media serves to propagate on a large scale globally. However, through perhaps deployment of mathematical concepts of probability, it standouts more likely to read some article in a newspaper than it would to read it in a social media carrying millions of blogs.

Consequently, it may be argued that, the new media worsen the problem of information dispersion. Furthermore, new media ensures information accessibility, but does not provide a warrant that the information will be viewed. In actual sense, an immense effort by a practitioner to reach a wide range of audiences turns out as of little results due to the evident communication fragmentation in the new media.

Despite the existence of technologies that permit an individual to determine the influence of a certain blog posted on a social media site, such techniques are been argued as not straight forward. Such technologies enable one to determine the nature of friends who are subscribed to a new media site such as face book or twitter.

Unfortunately, none of such technologies provide a warrant that one would reach the audience that he or she is targeting. Worse still, there exists no bureau that can carry out auditing of the information under circulation through the social networks. Additionally, social media present a challenge in terms of information distribution time.

According to Horton, “ to use social media effectively requires learning ones way into each medium and building trust with participants, do campaigns and clients allow one to spend that form of time” (2). Social media demands the practitioner to have established a relationship with the audience.

Unless the practitioner had had communicated with such audience for some time before, to orient the audience so as to embrace his or her attention, it would clearly call for commitment of a lot of time: something that may not be so desirable from the practitioner’s perspective point of view.

As Horton comments, “agency practitioners especially face the challenge of communication timing because they often work on multiple accounts in different industries” (4). However, such challenges need not make a practitioner rule out the possibilities of using social media in communication since rewards exists in employment of the new media in communication.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Essential Foundations of the Public Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As Spicer notes, “Facebook users build audiences of like minds and interests and thus one can reach these self-identified audiences with a laser-like focus to communicate client messages effectively and efficiently” (115).

New media circulates information without an individual’s knowledge, something that serves as an additional advantage especially bearing in mind that the message sent will not require the practitioner to pay for such circulations.

Critique of public relations Over the years, several critiques have been advanced in relation to public relations. Many of these critiques see public relations as a profit making administrative endeavour opposed to the perceived intents of improvement of the service delivery. Miller and Dinan see public relations as, “a means of taking risks out of democracy” (11). To them the perceived risks entail seeking a mechanism of taking full control of a pool of workers.

The modern public relations consequently, seems to stem from the need to extend such functions of the public relations in an attempt to constitute “ a cutting edge of campaigns to ensure liberal democratic societies do not respond to the will of people and the vested interests prevail” (Miller and Dinan 12). In this context, PR is depicted as propaganda oriented form of democracy.

New media technologies may not thus escape criticism especially when PR concerns are incorporated into it. Somewhat some of the criticism that is crucial to consider includes the ones raised by Carl Byoirs. Carl Byoirs was particularly interested in adoption of third parties techniques deemed subtle for the manipulation of the public debates.

“Front groups could be created by influencing the leaders of the co-placement group and by forming new fronts” (Grunig


Impact of Technology on Teaching Case Study college application essay help

Abstract Our growing dependence on technological innovations in our daily lives is unstoppable. Technology has had a positive impact in the education system. In phase one of this project, the teaching and learning problems were identified and presented. Additionally, a brief narrative of the district, instructional profile and student population involved in the study were also presented.

The instructor introduced a technology-based solution to the education system, the target group, the rationale behind the chosen solution and the relative advantage for selecting the proposed technology.

Through appropriate use, having technology incorporated into the curriculum of school systems gives children the opportunity to develop their intellect to a higher level and in the process enabling them to become well-rounded individuals (Meskill, 2002). Multimedia programs offer a natural combination of the benefits that facilitate foreign language education.

According to research findings, computer technology has really helped in improving students’ comprehension and memory in learning Spanish vocabulary (Moore, 1996). Students are able to have a good understanding of foreign languages through the use of technology.

Introduction The current teaching curriculum seems very complex and therefore many students find it difficult to cope with it. Things become even more complicated when students are supposed to grasp information that is completely strange. The current curriculum changes make it difficult for students to remember what they are taught in class.

Teaching a foreign language is very challenging to the teachers because students take a lot of time to comprehend the class materials. Teachers are forced to spend large amounts of instructional times in reviewing materials while students struggle to keep up with the speed of the class.

This project entirely focused on the need to develop relevant educational tools that can enable students to comprehensively learn and master the Spanish vocabulary. In an attempt to test the recommended solution, teachers were required to master the lesson plan and how to use multimedia technology before introducing any new vocabulary to the students.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only one day was given for every vocabulary lesson that the students were supposed to learn. The one day timeline was supposed to stop time wasting in the continuous review of materials in previous lessons.

Student and School Information This research was done in one of the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools. The Department of Defense Education Activity is government agency that that is charged with the responsibility of managing the academic affairs of schools in all the U.S military bases (Carmona, 2007). The agency has both local and overseas districts and strictly admits students of military service members.

Schools within (DoDEA) have programs running from prekindergarten up to the 12th grade. Students are tested in each of the subjects they undertake at the end of every grade level. The DoDEA agency is divided into three major areas namely Guam, Europe and Cuba.

The approximated number of students in these schools is 86,000 with 87,000 teachers on board (Carmona, 2007). Language and culture studies are emphasized in these schools with the students being introduced to the language and culture of their host nation right away from the elementary level. Advanced language courses are taught in high school.

The department’s website provides all the relevant information about its progress as well as the description of its educational enrolment and staff. Schools within (DoDEA) offer kindergarten, middle school and high school education (Carmona, 2007). The information about student enrolment and staff is well presented in details.

The statistical information about the (DoDEA) schools helps us have an overview of student enrolment and staff information of all the schools that are within the Department of Defense Education Activity. The curriculum, systems and operations of the DoDEA schools are fully regulated by the U.S government.

Approximately 8,700 educators serve 86,000 Department of Defense Activity students (O’Neil, 2003). The demographics of the Department of Defense Education Activity schools highlight the nature of students and the expected challenges in both teaching and learning.

We will write a custom Case Study on Impact of Technology on Teaching specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More White students form the majority of the student population with approximately 46.7 % composition (O’Neil, 2003). The other bulk of students consist of both African American and Multiracial students. The staff members in these schools are predominantly White forming 75% of the total teaching and support staff members. The majority of the students’ parents serve in the Army and the Air force.

This project focused on one of the DoDEA institutions located in Germany. In this study a Spanish language class was selected for testing the multi-media technology in teaching and learning the Spanish language (Carmona, 2007).

Classroom and Participants The Spanish classroom had the following resources available: 10 desktop computers with SPAM and filtering software, antivirus, Microsoft office suite, Ethernet ports with Internet capabilities, retractable overhead projector screen, LCD projector, headphones


Literacy of women in Europe and Middle East Dissertation college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background of the studies

Rationale of the research

Objective of the study

Scope of the study

Structure of the dissertation



Introduction This dissertation revolves around the issues based on the literacy of women in Europe and Middle East and the way advanced technology has contributed to this factor. Women’s leadership and women in the telecommunication businesses are some of the points that need to be put into consideration and women’s contribution to the economic opportunities that may affect each and every one of us in one way or another.

There is the need to fully understand women, gender and the telecommunication sector. Economy growth made by women may never be noticed or appreciated unless there are policies put into place for all mainstreaming efforts that take gender into consideration. Some of the factors that mainly affect the ratio of women to men are as follows:

Background of the studies Illiteracy has always acted as a hindrance to success for women; it is estimated that two thirds of the world’s illiterate are women. According to statistics, women’s place has always been in the kitchen as considered by many cultures, therefore, denying an access to proper or formal education for women (Christina


Conflict in the work team Case Study essay help

A work team consists of six members who apparently share jobs and adhere to the roster system. The case study under discussion represents the conflict caused by the leader, Kim, who changes an agreed schedule without notifying other members of the team. As a result, some members disagree with the new schedule.

The changes in the roster create great problems to Palo who has already created some plans for weekend and it seems inconvenient for him to get up at 6 am on Saturday.

Moreover, the conflict is supported by the fact that the roster has been altered several times, creating inconveniences to the team members. The remaining four members of the team, Chris, Pat, Sari and Tuan are angry with a leader as it is not for the first time when Kim changes the arranged planes.

The case study under discussion point at some specific problems considered un class. Generally, the case study and the lectures are devoted to the teams. The problems of communication in teams and conflict management are the issues which connect the lecture material and the case under discussion. Conflict in the team is caused when group norms are broken and one person violates the principles of team norms.

The nature of the conflict lies in the inability of the team leader to communicate with other members of the team and arrange the changes in such a way that all remain satisfied. The main communication problems which occur in the group are connected with a failure to distribute the roles appropriately and disrespect.

Thus, it appears that all of the members believe they work in a group with democratic leadership style, while the leader works in autocratic style and does not want to listen to team members.

The conflict can be managed be means of several strategies. The first strategy is being aware of the ways in which conflicts can occur. Had Kim known that conflict would have occurred due to alterations made to the roster, he would have first communicated to the team in order to curb any form of conflict arising.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The team leader then should use verbal and non-verbal signs, apply to twelve conflict resolution skills and provide a platform for constructive feedback after communicating with the team members. The brainstorming technique may be used for solving a problem. Each member should have an opportunity to express personal opinion about the roster, make corrections and support the ideas of each other.

Team members ought to respect each other instead of arguing. They are to give descriptions of their role in the intended roster system. The team members can put across their ideologies for developing options and establishing a preferable resolution on the subject matter which is the roster system. In case where the members cannot agree on a reasonable solution, it is advisable to turn to a third party to mediate.

This work team can apply effective procedures to prevent unnecessary conflict which includes implementation of a win-win approach where team members are contented with the decision made as well as the team leader.

Cooperation in decision making and ensuring that all members of the team participate in decision making process and also treatment of team members with respect is a procedure that prevents unnecessary conflict from occurring one.


Precise Gnss/Gps Positioning And Applications Essay online essay help

A global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is defined as a system of satellites that provides geo-spacial positioning with a global coverage. The system offers global coverage using electronic receivers for calculating positions and time. The GNSS positioning system has been undergoing tremendous improvements because of the need to expand its applications (Gleason, 2009).

The modern Global Positioning System has been operating fully for almost two years. The GNSS technology was first utilized in the 1960s by the US military. The Transit system was the pioneer satellite system that was operated using the Doppler Effect in the process of locating positions. Compared to the early systems, the modern systems are more precise and direct.

The orbital data is normally used in calculating the exact position of a satellite. Apart from showing position, the GNSS system has to show the exact time of signal transmission. The information about time is communicated through data messages (Grewal, 2007). The time-of – flight is very essential normally calculated using various GNSS positioning methods such as relative positioning and the baseline concept.

A GNSS satellite system has got internal clocks specifically for measuring the reception time. A fix is generated by measuring the distance between the broadcaster and the receiver. The position of the signal often changes as the speed of receivers increases.

A precise GNSS system of positioning is the one that uses a single GPS receiver for accurate determination of time and position. The speed of radio signals of a satellite system is affected by the ionosphere present in the path.

The radio signals tend to slow down in the case where they encounter the ionosphere in their path. GNSS systems with multiple corelators and satellites tend to be more precise in the global coverage of both time and position (Singh, 2011). This system works with a centimeter accuracy of both the clock data and a GPS orbit. The clock data is very important in reducing some of the errors in GPS positioning (Samama, 2008).

The most notable errors in a GNSS system are the orbit errors and the clock errors. When a satellite system has a combination of precise frequency receivers and clocks, the first order effect of the ionosphere is completely removed. Precise GNSS/GPS positioning has a wide range of applications different industries. There are many applications of the precise GNSS/GPS system but we will only mention a few of them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To begin with, precise GNSS receivers are used in the automobile industry to display accurate speed, location and direction of moving vehicles (Zekavat, 2011). This information is normally displayed in moving maps. The GNSS receivers are also utilized in autopilot systems that are essential for air navigation.

The precise GNSS system is used to calculate glide paths and winds speeds that help the pilot to make some vital decisions (Zekavat, 2011). Precise GNSS positioning is used by hikers, mountain climbers and miners instead of maps.

The baseline concept and relative positioning are two major precise GNSS positioning methods. The baseline concept is normally applied in underwater positioning systems for tracking underwater targets (Gleason, 2009). The accuracy of the baseline positioning system is normally fixed and its improvement depends on the spacing of the transducer.

The relative positioning method is also preferred because it has minimal measurement errors (Zekavat, 2011). The relative positioning of two stations takes place after the derivation of relative baseline vectors. Relative positioning is used in mapping and control projects because of its accuracy.

References Gleason, S., 2009. GNSS applications and methods. New York, NY: Artech House.

Grewal, M., 2007. Global positioning systems, inertia navigation, and integration. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.

Samama, N., 2008. Global positioning technologies and performance. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.

We will write a custom Essay on Precise Gnss/Gps Positioning And Applications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Singh, P., 2011. Encyclopedia of snow, ice, and glaciers. New York, NY: Springer.

Zekavat, R., 2011. Handbook of position location: Theory, practice and advances. New York, NY: Wiley-IEEE.


Consumer Behaviour: Paper-less society through reduction of Yellow Pages and increasing online books Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents How we can reduce the yellow pages

How we can expand online books rather than bookstores



How we can reduce the yellow pages The use of internet Yellow pages reduces the use of printed yellow pages. In fact, with proper employee training, the business owners are assured of approximately 300% ROI for $12,000 modest investment (Amanda 2008). Switching to online yellow pages is a move that promotes a paperless society that is environmentally friendly.

After all, since the year 2007, print usage of the yellow pages stagnated at 13.4 billion according to Punjabi M. K. et al. (2008). This corresponds to a declining 87 per cent of people in the United States using the Print Yellow Pages since 2007.

Thus, the use of online yellow pages proves that they are cheap, convenient and environmentally friendly. In fact, not only this fact results in a paperless society because it also encourages green computing where papers and energy are conserved.

Use of opt-in and opt-out strategy advances to reduce or ban print yellow pages delivery. For example, in San Francisco, one is required to opt-in in order to receive the print yellow pages; otherwise, such deliveries are banned since passage of the ordinance. The development of an online advertising campaign to search for engines as well as the internet yellow pages is significant in this endeavor.

According to the report filed in the year 2000 (see Appendix), the use of online search engines resulted in 67 per cent including online yellow pages. On the other hand, the printed yellow pages had a response of 55 per cent as compared against the cost, convenience and user friendness (Chiras 2009).

Ultimately, as it is suggested by Boutin (2011), 80 per cent of the directory costs are saved if yellow pages are recycled. The waste reduction initiative will cuts down on paper and yellow pages consumption by 25% compared to other newspapers covering 70 per cent.

How we can expand online books rather than bookstores The online books are more accessible and interactive than the books in printed form at the bookstores. According to (Guanqun 2011), about 98 per cent of internet browsers experience stress-free access to any online books. The need to increase online books is essential in correspondence to the high level of interactive as the books range from audio books, practice books, videos and word definitions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can expand the online books over bookstores through indexing service. Immense steps have been undertaken by Eat Your Books to upload over 88,000 books coupled with 2000 indexed volumes.

Online surfers just indicate in the site that books are theirs, thus, enabling them to have an access to a great variety of books. This builds a virtual bookshelf as an account for every user just like having a personal library or renting books from a bookstore.

Online books enable readers to explore through millions of copyrighted books, browse passageways and buy copies. This was confirmed when Google paid $126 million (8.5 million pounds) to build a Book Rights Registry. The Book Rights Registry enables authors and publishers to register books and get reimbursement from the sale of books.

Again, one can set up the user account to receive email access on new online books opposed to getting to the bookstore. The discounts offered in online books (30 or 40% off) make them cheaper than in any bookstore, which offers lower discounts at 20 % off (Guanqun 2011).

Appendix Turn-Page 2011, Turn-Page Increases ad revenue.

References Amanda, B., 2008. How to reduce your carbon footprint. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company.

Boutin J. P., 2011. Yellow Pages Going Green. Life in Yellow A blog by Yellow Pages Group, [blog] September 1. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Consumer Behaviour: Paper-less society through reduction of Yellow Pages and increasing online books specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chiras, D. D., 2009. Environmental Science. Burlington: Jones


Review of Stereotype Threat and Arousal: Effects on Women’s Math Performance Essay (Article) college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Study Design


Operational Definition of Variables






Study Design The individuals may not be able to control their emotions appropriately. Such factors as stress, the feeling of happiness and other similar emotions might negatively influence their performance and induce instances of arousal. (O’Brien


The Descriptive Epidemiology of a Selected Health Problem best essay help: best essay help

The descriptive epidemiology paper should focus on the epidemiology of a specific outcome variable (disease or possibly a health problem) that impacts a population. Examples of acceptable topics include a communicable or infectious disease, a chronic disease or condition such as one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, or a disease or condition that is of personal interest to the student. Note that this assignment should not give extensive clinical information about a health condition, but should provide a data-based focus on its distribution in the population. Your chosen topic should be defined as narrowly as possible, for example, hepatitis C. Avoid a broad topic such as stress and health or heart disease.

The Descriptive Epidemiology of a Selected Health Problem Paper

Should describe
the extent of the problem (e.g., mortality, morbidity, or economic impact);
the agent of disease (e.g., bacterium, virus, or other agent);
the physical condition (briefly describe the clinical symptoms);
the mechanisms that are used to control the problem or spread of disease;
the host factors that make people vulnerable to the problem (e.g., race, sex, gender, age, nativity, and marital status);
the environmental factors (e.g., geographic location) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., income, housing, occupation, education, family structure, and cultural background) that make people vulnerable to the problem;
the problem’s temporal variation (seasonal trends, cyclic, epidemic, endemic, or pandemic);
the additional epidemiologic variables that pertain to your topic,
and the gaps in knowledge about the disease (e.g., reporting gaps and insufficient knowledge of the disease). Has previous research failed to address any pressing issues regarding the disease or problem in question?
Should also include:
A list of transmission modes (if caused by an infectious agent);
a summary of any current hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the observed distribution or problem;
identification of any existing and/or proposed policies to address the issue or health problem;
a discussion of the significance and implications of the policies identified above,
suggested areas for further epidemiologic research.
Must include an introduction and conclusion

Topic selection can be based on health problems given priority by your textbook, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (, the World Health Organization (

Must include supportive data presented in at least five charts and tables attached to the appendix of the paper. Each of these must have a citation on the item itself and a call-out in the text so that the instructor can identify them.


Use of PEDs in Sports Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Sports Commissioner on Implementation and Legalization of PEDs Since doping is an increasing concern within the world of sports, there is a need to accept the reality of the matter and endorse a legal legislation that allows for the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs in the sporting arena.

The procedure though will involve the World Anti-Doping Agency code which will have to review the major illegal issues towards this; there will be a creation of a new company which will be under the Anti-Doping agency and will be called PEDs Health Assurance and Regulatory Agency (PEDHARA).

This agency’s main mandate will be to authorize the PEDs to be used in sports (which will be re-listed in the Anti-Doping Agency code) and will also provide a list of the illegalized PEDs which will be bound to heavy penalty of the players if found to use them. It will also be concerned with monitoring and regulating the dosage to be given to the players each and every time.

It will also seek to register the qualified physicians and drug companies for which these athletes will be buying their drugs from to enable a sequential and a more transparent way of monitoring the drugs disbursement and usage where these drug companies will be required to give a fully fledged information report which will have a list of details of the physician the drugs were disbursed to and the quantity delivered.

Then the Agency from this information will follow up with the registered physicians who will also provide the name of the team and athlete these drugs have been given to plus a copy of the prescription paper.

These reports both from the registered and vetted drug companies and physicians will be done on a monthly basis failure to which attracts a fine of not less than $2.5Million dollars for the drug companies and $1.0Million dollars for the physician; where the license for producing and distributing the PEDs respectively will also be revoked.

Failure to comply the companies will be sued and their current operations will be halted (according to the Federal and State Laws) until the case has been settled.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the company will be taking tests for each athlete after every six months to ascertain whether they are healthy and not overdosing; if the athlete is found to overdose or use of the illegalized PEDs, then he/she will be liable to a penalty not less than $1.2Million dollars as well as not less than 10 years of suspension.

Similarly, no athlete will be imposed to take drugs unwillingly and therefore it will be the free choice of the athlete to take or not to take the drug and if by any chance if coerced, strict measures will be taken upon the coercing party which may lead to a jail term without parole for not less than 10 years.

For minors and other persons with special conditions there will be special physicists within the agency who will give proper guidance upon the matter; so no party should impose such PEDs to minors or athletes under the age of 18 years without the consent of the agency physicists approval and failure to do so will attract an even greater penalty to the accused. For instance, not less than 25 years of jail term without parole inclusive of other damages as it will be prescribed in the high-court.

These procedures and conformities should be held with caution and adhered to as the Federal government will not be responsible for any breach of these laid down terms and everything else will be settled in the High Court. The laws are strict but there is a need to create a fair competitive field in the game of sports and to regain the real and true value of the Spirit of Sports.

Ethical Considerations and Philosophies underlying the Legalization of PEDs Sport ethics is a part of the philosophies and ethics that underlie the Sporting arena (HLSPTN, 2008, p. 34). Cheating in sports is one of the major practices that this agency (PHEDHARA) seeks to curb in the Sporting arena. This is in regard to the use of PEDs.

Philosophy of sport on the other hand is concerned with the conceptual analysis and interrogations of issues and ideas that are eminent in sports with the related practices such as coaching, sports journalism and sports medicine.

The agency will rail upon the three predominant theories in sports ethics where two are modern and one ancient (HLSPTN, 2008, P. 44).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Use of PEDs in Sports specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Deontology or Consequential concept which is the classical theory, lays emphasis on the right action (Shoulder, 2011, p. 1) which is commensurate with the legalizing of the PEDs due to the increased intake of the same illegally, has provided for a room to make it legal for it is hard to eliminate the usage rather it is possible to regulate the usage thus the adoption of the deontological concept because in this case to legalize the PEDs is the Right Thing to do and best decision in the sporting arena today.

The theory therefore holds the dogma ‘Right Actions in Sport’ seeking to eliminate cheating, deceiving, harm or/and lies which is disrespectful in any sport.

Teleological theory on the other hand comprises of concepts that seek to tilt to the acts and practices of doing ‘Good’: the theory justifies actions according to their yielding the most favorable and least favorable consequences (HLSPTN, 2008, p. 43). This is where the strand of thinking Utilitarianism comes in.

Therefore when these two concepts are merged together (Teleology and Utilitarianism) they seek to capitalize on doing well from bad as well as add up the potential of maximizing the good outcomes (HLSPTN, 2008, p. 43).

Therefore, legalizing of PEDs under these two theoretical tenets is perceived to be a good thing for it makes the sporting arena to be fair in terms of competitiveness among the athletes and at the same time it maximizes on the possibility that when the athlete takes these PEDs one is likely to realize full potential in sports which in respect, has an economic and an emotional advantage to the athlete.

On the other hand, the PEDs legalization legislation which has led to the development of PHEDARA under the World Anti-Doping Agency arm, will maximize on mitigating and eliminating the harmful and health risk performance enhancing drugs which is good for both the athlete and family members or dependants as well as the country represented and the fact that the agency seeks to ensure that all athletes are fit and at their full potential while competing thus providing them with reasonable health care and sustenance in a free spirited way which brings back the true spirit of sporting.

Lastly, all the three concepts (Deontology, Teleology and Utilitarianism) uphold the morality issues (Center for Bioethics, 2005, p. 51) where PHADARA utilizes this platform by the rules and procedures it has developed that seek to protect the state from loss of athletes as well as adhering to the well being and health of the athletes.

Reference List Center for Bioethics. (2005). End of Life Care: An Ethical Overview. University of Minnesota. P: 1 – 53. Web.

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Porter’s Five Force Model and the Technologies that drive it Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The intensity of competitive rivalry

Threats posed by substitute goods and services

The bargaining power of powerful customers

Threat of New Entrants into the Technological Market

The Bargaining Power that is Possessed By the Supplier

Challenges Facing the Porter’s Five Force Model



Introduction This chapter will look at the Porter’s Five Force Model in which the paper will exhaustively research on the academic writings that have been jotted by different scholars with the objective of demystifying the factors that have made the Porter’s Five Forces Model a phenomenon instrument in organization management and competitive strategic formulation.

The chapter will particularly dissect each of the five factors to bring out their role in organization management as it has been contributed by different writers and scholars.

The chapter will also seek to bring out the criticism that has been hurled at the Porter’s Five Force Model in which a number of scholars have attributed that this model is myopic and thus impotent in its capability to cope with the demand of the modern business environment. The chapter will then draw a conclusive summary that is expected to silhouette findings of the chapter.

The intensity of competitive rivalry According to Romain, (2010), a firm’s behavior, the profits patterns and the investment policies are usually shaped by the set rules on competition that is inherent in the industry.

Firms in a specific industry invest heavily in technologies that enhance their capacity, marketing structures, research and product development as well as instituting price reductions, which are directly informed by the competition in the industry to adapt to its intensity and nature.

Competitive rivalry was originally viewed as indicative or descriptive of the industry’s potential to increase profit margins. Strategic managers have over time had a deeper understanding of competitive rivalry and are now integrating it into their competitive strategy.

According to Grundy, (2006), managers tend to spend more time monitoring and analyzing competitors in their industry when they are threatened by overwhelming competition. At times, strategic managers have had to keep the prices of their goods and services down since making of huge profits attracts competitors who view the industry as extremely lucrative hence having to share their market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, companies that have invested heavily in technology are sometimes able to price their products expensively and therefore, are able to achieve higher profit margins before other rival companies can imitate the technology.

This is more evident in companies that deal in development of electronics and pharmaceuticals since the innovation of a superior product and the setting up of new production lines is mostly too expensive for small firms (Kumar, Mathew


Health Needs Assessment Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Purpose of the study The analysis of the article will seek to provide a critical review of the article titled “Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study” by Ying Li, Jia Cao Hui Lin, Daikun Li, Yang Wang and Jia He (2009). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the community’s health problems and a range of factors that affect the risk pattern and behavior for critical health problems (Li, Cao, Lin, Li, Wang


The Effective Leader in Field of the Social and Political Life Coursework custom essay help

Leadership is the notion which is meaningful for every field of the social and political life because it also involves such concepts as the organization of people and the achievement of the definite goals with the help of concentrating on their effective organizing. Thus, the effective public policy often depends on the effective leadership because the society needs such people who can organize the public and lead it to reaching the clear goals which are directed to the general progress and prosperity of the state.

From this point, leadership is the key concept in the public policy making process according to which it is possible to discuss the effectiveness of the governance in this or that country. It is typical for the developed society to have the leader whose ideas are important to follow because of their appropriateness to the situation and because of the effective decision-making process.

In this case, the modern society requires successful leaders who are characterized by such qualities and traits as charisma, the ability to motivate and mobilize the other people in order to achieve the aims because the quality of the leadership influences the effectiveness of the governance.

To create the sound public policy, the effective leader should have the developed personal traits and qualities which attract the public. This attractiveness for the people is known as charisma. The charismatic leader is a person who is followed by the masses. However, to provide the effective policy, the leader should not be only charismatic but also be the professional in the field of his activity.

According to Cropf, there is the interdependence between the positional authority and personal authority, and all these notions are based on the concept of the effective leadership which is the necessary factor for developing the efficient organization, creating the connections between the people within the organization, and the leader’s following the ethical principles of work with the employees (Cropf, 2008).

In this situation, the strong leader tries to realize not only his potential but also to contribute to the development of his employees’ abilities with stimulating their intrinsic motivation, supporting their ideas, choosing the most effective ones among the proposed opinions, and setting clear goals and realistic deadlines. For instance, Winston Churchill tried to use the opportunity to listen to the other people’s ideas in order to receive the full picture of the process and make the most appropriate decision.

To be the effective leader in the public policy making process, it is necessary to develop all the aspects of the personality and the professional qualities. That is why it is important to have the efficient educational background which helps the leader to orient in the current world tendencies, analyze the processes and make significant decisions (Weber, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The wide knowledge in the most important social and political spheres can also include the military background as the opportunity to have the personal vision of the questions connected with using the armed forces while implementing certain policies. Strong leaders are successful in observing and analyzing the situation for addressing the demands of their people.

To improve such skills, it is necessary to develop the outlook in order to become a broad-minded person. Visits to the other countries and the examination of the peculiarities of the other countries’ public policy can be effective for this task.

Thus, the effective leader is a person who can make strong decisions, organize, mobilize, and ensure the people in order to achieve the goals according to the plan fixed. To be successful in the public policy making process, it is also important to have the leader’s charisma and be a real professional in the field.

References Cropf, R. (2008). American public administration: Public service for the 21st century. New York, NY: Pearson Longman.

Weber, E. T. (2011). Morality, leadership, and public policy: On experimentalism in ethics. USA: Continuum.


System Development Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Overview

Cost Analysis


Technical Performance


System Engineering

Lesson Learned

Works Cited

Overview NASA initiated a program in 1993 that was referred as Mars Surveyor program with an objective of conducting on-going missions to explore Mars. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was assigned the role for leading the program. The MCO was launched in 11, 1998. It was supposed to reach Mars in December 1999 as the first interplanetary weather satellite that could provide communication relay for the MPL.

The MCO vanished once it entered into Mars occultation at some point in the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. However, the spacecraft’s carrier signal was later seen on September 23, 1999. Use of wrong metrics while coding was the cause of MCO failure to reach its destination. Thus, the failure of system engineers to use the correct coding metrics was the root cause of the MCO problem. System engineers used wrong metrics while coding which caused the whole problem.

The format adopted was in contrast to the data that was contained in the Angular Momentum Desaturation (AMD) file in existing software interface which represents the standards requirements that were to be followed in the coding process. As a result of the aforementioned mistakes during the coding process, the MCO was not able to reach on Mars as expected because of the delays it experience in its trajectory.

The spacecraft received over 10-14 times than anticipated propulsion maneuvers that help to remove angular momentum build up in the spacecraft. The spacecraft lost its trajectory as a result of use of wrong metrics while coding as well as increased angular Desaturation events. Therefore, after 9 months which was the anticipated time for MCO arrival to Mars, it was noted that the spacecraft trajectory was about 170 kilometers than planned. Consequently, there is a high likelihood that MCO re-entered heliocentric space or was damaged.

Cost Analysis Costs associated with failed systems are usually very high because of the high costs of system development (Aaker 77; Johnson par.6).The cost of launching a satellite to Mars is very high. For example, the cost of building an entire spacecraft can range to several 10 thousand dollars. In addition, the cost of paying salaries of engaged personnel is also very high. It is estimated that a complete satellite mission can costs approximately 1 billion dollars.

The cost of the mission of sending MCO to Mars did not run as per its initial budget. The project was estimated to take 9 months. However, after 9 months, MCO was 170 kilometers below its expected trajectory. Therefore, the project ended up costing more than it was planned. The reason that caused the project to cost more than planned was the mistakes that occurred during the coding process. There was a mistake in the coding process that resulted to the MCO experiencing delays in its trajectory that reduced its speed.

This resulted to a reduction in its orbit period to 2 -14 hours. This mistakes resulted to more money being used in to pay the team assigned the task of identifying the errors and re-coding the system. In order for the project to run within its budget, the designing team should have verified the coding metrics in order to be in a position to accurately determine the position of MCO for appropriate management of angular momentum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Schedule The project did not go as scheduled. The journey of MCO from the Earth to Mars was planned to take only 9 months, but after 9 months MCO was approximated to be 170 kilometers away from earth. The reason why the project did not go as scheduled was because of the problem in the coding of MCO that made it very difficult for angular moment management. This resulted to the reduction of the orbit period to approximately 2-14 hours.

Technical Performance The MSP 98 Development Project employed a prime contractor vehicle to assist in the project implementation. Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) of Denver Colorado was appointed as the prime contractor. LMA was assigned the duty of designing and developing spacecraft, lead flight system integration as well as testing and supporting launch operations. On the other hand, JPL remained with the responsibilities for overall management of the project.

Mars Surveyor Operation Project (MSOP) was assigned the responsibility for managing flight operations for MPL, MGS and MCO. Despite, the great delegation of responsibilities to enhance performance, the project failed to satisfy its technical performance requirement. The software engineers failed to follow the design specifications while coding the ground software file.

The factor that contributed to this problem is the failure of the designing team to verify the metrics required for coding from the requirement documentation file that was available for the designers to confirm design specifications.

Risks The system engineers failed to ensure that correct metrics were followed when coding the ground software file that resulted to the overall failure of the project. The MCO lost its trajectory that made it impossible to reach its intended destination as planned (Hernandez 12).

System Engineering System engineers are required to make sure that there is teaming, effective coordination and communication in designing. They are responsible for designing, integration as well as to ensure systems operate as expected through formal testing. It is also their duty to ensure that there is transition in the production process. Moreover it is their duty to ensure that they create, maintain as well as document all requirements to enable efficient planning and execution (Laverty par.2; Petit par. 8).

System engineers in this project efficiently created as well as maintained programmatic and technical documentation as required. However, they failed to manage system configuration that resulted to the use of wrong metrics while coding. In order to avoid such a mistake, the system engineers could have ensured that they oversee all transitions during the development of the system.

We will write a custom Essay on System Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lesson Learned This case study offered a very important learning opportunity for system engineers in identifying how mistakes happen in systems development as well as the grave consequences of such mistakes. Therefore, this case study was very informative to system engineers in cautioning them that system engineers should ensure that they follow specified guidelines to make sure that all procedures are followed to the letter.

By observing specified guidelines, they will ensure that specification during system development are met which will help in ensuring that systems are developed successfully and within reasonable time frame, to reduce expenses associated with delays or faulty systems. As learned from this case study, the project was not able to run as per its schedule. In addition, the project expenses exceeded its budget allocation because of the failure of system engineers to follow required specifications while coding.

Works Cited Aaker, David. Cost for Failed systems. New York: Prentice Hall. 1998, print.

Hernandez, Pedro. Risks and Mitigation in Software Development. New York: Prentice Hall, 2001, print.

Johnson, Stephen. “Success, Failure and NASA Culture.” Ask.2008. Web.

Laverty, Shea. “System Engineers Responsibilities.” eHow.2011. Web.

Petit, Charles. “Report for the Red Planet.” National Geographic. 2012. Web.


“An Empirical Analysis of the Business Value of Open Source Infrastructure Technologies” Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purpose and Hypotheses of the Study

Study Design

Conclusions of the Study

Effectiveness of Data Presentation and the Value of the Study

Integrity and Credibility of the Study

Conclusion: Limitations of the Study


Introduction Information and communication technology (popularly known as ICT) is perhaps one of the most dynamics fields in the society today. New developments and new innovations are taking place on a daily basis in this field, and what may be high technology may be obsolete tomorrow.

Free/Libre Open Source Software (herein referred to as FLOSS) is considered as a fairly recent major development in this area, according to Chengalur-Smith, Nevo


The Ecological Effect of the Victorian’s Desalination Project Report college essay help near me

The project on Victorian desalination is a scheme that was devised with an aim of realizing the ecological performance necessities. Victorian has been in drought for many years as a result, this lead to a noteworthy diminution in the amount of water available to Victorians. Due to the fact that Victorian experienced adverse water calamities, the government came up with a number of projects to boost Victoria’s water delivery.

The government also came up with a scheme to grant a long term elucidation to secure water supplies (John, 2009). This was done to; enable a quick and an elastic reply to varying water requirements, advance and expand water provision in the area as well as setting up water resources across the nation via the water framework (Kenneth, 2009).

The main goal of this investigation was to ascertain a sound understanding on the ecological effect on the task. This also includes giving an opinion on the most excellent advance to decrease these effects. In the Victorian’s desalination project the government was to present to the minister for planning with an account on screening tests that are done at the intake of the remains as well as the dregs.

Prior to treatment process there are extra steps of amplification on filtration process in the upstream. The clarification engages use of dissolved air floating unit that does away with the massiveness of the hovering solids. Air floats these solids from the façade of the backwash water (Norrie, 2008) Sea water is forced through tiny membranous holes, constituent part that is bigger than the openings of the crust are sieved out.

In Victorian membrane filtration is a modern skill that is practiced and can do away with the necessity for the most important coagulant. This allows for the backwash run to be unswervingly mixed with briny concentration that is then released to the sea.

The expelled water to the ocean has no toxic effect and hence beneficial for people consumption (Kenneth, 2009). This was one way in which the management was able to restore water resources hence attaining the goal of the project which was to ensure that water was enough water for the various uses.

Nevertheless, there is inadequate use of this skill, this could be in a greater way be contributed by the fact that there were other methods like chemical process. This process engrosses chemically consolidating of seawater to flocculate the floating mater for elimination in the pre-treatment sifts as well as for coagulating rationale (Sun, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management of Victoria’s desalination project ensured that the following factors were enhanced; water security, water quality, flexible water supply, power supply, inlet and outlet tunnels, energy and renewable as well as plant architecture and landscaping. These factors were some of the contributing effects to provision of quality as well as enough water throughout the state (Peter, 2009).

The management came up with the choice of conveying the scheme as a public concealed corporation. The decision was motivated by a comprehensive appraisal of the following representation. These models took account of; corporation Victoria privately funded public private partnership, stately funded agreements and nation finance procurement.

In conclusion, the Victorian’s desalination project the management was able to attain its goals in realizing the ecological performance necessities since it managed to eradicate drought in the state.

References David, Kenneth, 2009, Water policy delivers scary possibilities, the Age Melbourne.

Herald,Sun, 2008, Protesters met by police at desal site in Wonthaggi, Retrieved 2008.

Ker,Peter, 2009, True cost of desal plant concealed, The Age.

Ross, Norrie, 2008, Opponents of Victorian desalination plant must pay costs, Retrived 2008.

We will write a custom Report on The Ecological Effect of the Victorian’s Desalination Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Satt,John, 2009, Victorian desalination project, Retrieve 2009.


Methodological Problems in Making Sex Comparisons in Social Behavior Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free

The comparison of sex in social behavior is an important factor in the determination of social behaviors that are depicted by individuals. An example of the bias associated with gender is the assumption concerning risk-taking behavior, where the genders are assumed to have different perceptions about risk.

This issue is a major factor because the perception of risk among different sexes is inherently different. This paper discusses the common perception that the female gender is more risk averse than the male gender and draws the conclusion on whether this assumption is true or just a perception.

The distribution of socioeconomic status across gender is influenced by the perception that the society has of the different genders. This view is supported by research conducted by Falaschetti (2005), who proposes that, since historical times, the female gender has been relatively marginalized in risk-taking behavior. This proposition is supported by research conducted on female and male individuals in political offices.

According to the author, the prevalence of risk-taking behavior is emphasized according to gender difference. This means that the male gender is assumed to have a higher tendency to engage in risky political behavior than the female gender.

The assumption that the female gender is more passive than the male gender in political office is a problem that indicates the perceptions of the society regarding the input of the female role in political offices. This assumption leads to the perception that female political office-holders are passive in their work; therefore, they should not be assigned to high-risk work.

According to Pawlowski and Atwal (2008), the inherent assumption that females are less likely to engage in risky behavior than males is born out of sexual selection theory. The researchers discuss this assumption by focusing on two major factors, the acts of catching a bus and the act of crossing a busy road. According to the authors, the two acts mentioned above bring out the risk-taking behavior differences between the genders.

In contrast to a female individual, a male individual will likely traverse a busy stretch of a road at a time when the risk of an accident is high. Conversely, the female individual will most likely wait for a less risky opportunity to cross a busy road, a difference that indicates the risk-taking strategies of the two genders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another illustration of this fact comes from the act of catching a bus; the male individual will likely pursue a riskier strategy than the female individual by arriving at the bus stop at just the time when the bus is ready to leave.

Conversely, the female individual will likely arrive at the bus stop before the bus is ready to leave, so as not to face the chance of missing the bus. These two strategies indicate that the female population is more risk averse than the male population.

Research conducted by Harris and Jenkins (2006) indicates that, in real life, women will always take fewer risks than men, perhaps because of the perceived likelihood of the negative outcomes in the risky behavior being undertaken.

These three instances of research all report the perception that women are risk averse in comparison to the female gender, a fact that leads to methodological problems in gender comparisons done in social work. As a result, the assumptions that researchers have about the differences between gender perceptions to risk might affect the results of studies being conducted.

References Falaschetti, D. (2005). Sex Differences in Risk-Taking? Evidence from Female Representation in Legislatures. Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 25(6). Pp. 1-47.

Harris, C., and Jenkins, M. (2006). Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men? Judgment and Decision Making. Vol. 1(1). Pp. 48–63.

Pawlowski, B., and Atwal, R. (2008). Sex Differences in Everyday Risk-Taking Behavior in Humans Evolutionary Psychology. Vol. 6(1). Pp. 29-42.

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William Marion Branham: Highly Gifted Man with Massive Impact to Society Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Highly gifted children have the tendency to illustrate asynchronous growth. Since they have high cognitive abilities and high strengths, they experience and interact with others in an exceptional manner.

Such children are mostly are acquired because of intensively high scores on an identically scored IQ tests generally above 140 IQ range (Hollenweger, 1972). William Marion Branham was not an exceptional of a highly gifted child and adult throughout his entire life.

He was brought up in the hills of Kentucky starting from the year 1909 (Stadsklev, 1952). His father and mother did not mind about any religion. However, when he was being born, the midwife, his father and mother saw a halo latent above the head of baby William. Thus, other than his growth, Branham demonstrated asynchronous birth that was unique (Delisle, 1992).

Branham’s parents as well as the midwives were very worried about what they saw because they did not know what the halo meant. He grew up in the environs of Jefferson, Indiana in a life of hardship and full of challenges due to their poor financial status (Lindsay, 1950). The life of Branham was full of haziness because he talked of visions and voice which spoke to him out of wind.

It stated, “Do not ever drink or smoke, or defile your body in any way. There will be a work for you to do when you get older” That was a sign of being ordained by God to minister. The halo was again seen in later years when Branham had begun his ministry (Torrance


Business Information System Management Essay best essay help

Introduction Cloud computing is one of the innovations of technological advancements in this technological era which is aimed at helping the IT industry a great deal hence helping in its operations (Rhoton, 2009).

The traditional way of operation of IT and internet utility involved a person or company in question seeking for their own infrastructure, obtaining a platform on which to operate on the internet as well as developing software that they would utilize for their own internet activities (Slater, 1986).

They also had to provide management and maintenance services to all these utilities, a factor that made internet operations geared towards IT very expensive and tasking (Bloomberg, 2010). Worse still, one had to obtain fixed facilities online and had to pay for them irrespective of how much they were utilized. Cloud computing came to counter all these drawbacks of IT development (Jackson, 2009).

Cloud computing hence involves the utilization of hosted services online in such a manner that all the requirements of an individual or a company are catered for by an outside source and all that is required is payment for the services provided.

It involves outsourcing of the major and most expensive and tasking parts of running IT operations over the internet including utilizing outsourced infrastructure, software and platforms as well as utilizing outsourced services to manage and maintain those facilities (Sosinsky, 2011). All that is required of a person hence is a computer, internet connection and payment for the services rendered.

Better still, this method is very flexible since one only pays for the facilities and services provided hence it is very flexible and one can choose how much to utilize and how much to pay for at any given time (Knorr


Organizational Behavior Role in the Organization Performance Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Team work


Reference List

Introduction Organizational behavior can be viewed as the way in which individuals, groups and the structure affect (and are affected) by the behavior within an organization. The organizational behavior plays a pivotal role in determining the performance of an organization. A clear understanding of the concept of organizational behavior can significantly affect the productivity of an organization.

A good understanding of organizational behavior within an organization can significantly help in reducing problems like absenteeism, employee turnover hence improving productivity, and increasing employee job satisfaction. Robbins and Judge (2010) observed that motivation have a great impact in developing employees’ moods and emotions, which may determine their performance in various areas within an organization.

Discussion The ability to recognize one’s perspective or mental framework is itself a fundamental leadership dynamic. This understanding is very important in an organization as it helps in improving the overall productivity levels.

As an employee, one of the major recounting issues I face in an organization is absenteeism. This problem is very prevalent in our organization, which has a large number of employees. As a result, the company has lost a significant amount of resources through absenteeism. This behavior has been prevalent in our organization, a situation that has resulted in much efficiency in the organization.

There are several ways through which this problem can be overcome. One of the most effective ways is by integrating effective organizational behavior aspects in the organization’s operations. This can help in promoting positive behavior among the employees by increasing the overall performance.

One of the main aspects of organizational behavior is the organizational culture. Organizational culture significantly determines the way employees conduct themselves in an organization. It is necessary to enhance an organizational culture that will help to maximize the productivity of employees while minimizing the total expenses.

Organizational culture bonds employees together as one, a thing that facilitates realization of organizational goals. This close bond also motivates employees to work towards the realization of organization’s objectives and missions. In the process, the level of absenteeism will be minimized. Culture has a powerful influence on members of an organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It can influence the behavior of individuals in an organizational environment in a number of ways. However, culture is an outcome of continued interactions among the people and is shaped by the people’s behavior. In other words, culture reflects the behavior of a certain group of people.

In every organization, change is very important in maintaining a top performing organization. As an employee, it is important to learn how to adapt to organizational change. Organizational change is an important factor in organizational behavior. It is important to facilitate the necessary changes in order to promote employee commitment in the work place.

However, organizations may change in a manner that the new changes promote employee misconduct. In every organization, organizational change plays a significant role in determining the organization’s success both in the long term and short term. In the modern business world the level of competitiveness of an organization is determined by its ability to handle necessary changes in its operations.

The process of change is not always easy as one would think. It involves adjustments in an organization, which may affect day to day activities. As an employee, one is supposed to shape their behavior in such a way that they are in line with the organizational goals.

Culture is of great importance in every organization, culture plays a major role in directing the conduct of employees. Employees will always tend to behave according to the cultural specifications within an organization. For instance, if there is a tendency for employees’ failure to report to the workplace, then this trend will develop and finally will be incorporated into organization’s culture.

When the culture develops, even new employees will tend to adopt the culture through interaction with other employees. This implies that this culture may have long term impacts in an organization. Development of the culture of absenteeism will therefore have adverse impacts on an organization.

One of the most surprising aspects of the organizational culture is that we can encounter similar organizations under the same environment and in some cases with similar technologies but with different organizational cultures. As already noted, organizational culture assists new employees in an organization to know the correct way in which to conduct their behavior.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Behavior Role in the Organization Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This significantly reduces inefficiencies that are associated with absorption of new employees. Therefore, creating and sustaining a culture in organizations is very important in promoting the success of various organizations. Organizations should pay a critical attention in creating as well as sustaining organizational culture.

Motivation Another way through which this problem can be solved is through motivation. The rate of absenteeism can be reduced significantly if the organization can adopt the necessary motivation measures. Motivated employees will tend to report to the work place accordingly. There are several ways through which employees can be motivated. The choice of the motivation measures will be determined by the prevailing circumstances.

Motivation can be defined as the set of reasons that affects one’s decisions to engage themselves in particular behaviors. When employees are motivated, they will become more committed to their respective duties because they believe that their hard work is recognized. They will be motivated to work harder in order to maximize the returns of an organization.

When their efforts are recognized, employees will get a sense of identity with an organization. They will somehow have sense of ownership of an organization. Consequently, they will be committed to meet the organizational goals. In the long run, the organization’s profitability will increase from the increased employee productivity.

One of the ways through which employees can be motivated is through compensation. In every organization, workers play a pivotal role in promoting its well being. The more productive the workers, the better will be the performance of an organization. However, employees need motivation in order to maintain a high level of performance (Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn, 2008).

One way through which this can be done is through compensation. Compensation is the reward to employees for the amount of work they have done in a specific time period. Through compensation, employees feel more attached to their organization and they will not be encouraged to skip their duties without necessary reasons. In the modern world, people’s view on employee compensation has significantly changed.

In the olden days, people were more concerned about the wages with less attention given to the working conditions. This is despite of the significant impact the working environment can have on the overall performance of employees. No much attention was paid in an effort to motivate employees.

In fact, employees were viewed like any other instrument in the organization that can easily be replaced. In other words, employees were not valued in those olden days. This may lead to increased tendency of absenteeism in an organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior Role in the Organization Performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With time, the situation has completely changed. Employees are more concerned about the working environment that has forced the employers to pay more attention on the measures that leads to employee motivation.

These changes were triggered by increased cases of strikes; violence, labor disputes, work slow down and absenteeism. Consequently, this has forced employers and other concerned parties to put more emphasis on the issue of employee motivation.

In order to be able to motivate their employees effectively, it is important for an organization to employ the appropriate management practices and behaviors. Management practices and behaviors is one of the most appropriate tools that can be used to increase the employee’s productivity and enhancing employee morale and commitment, which helps in decreasing the rate of employee absenteeism.

Despite of these advantages of employee motivation, the process is faced by a number of problems. These problems have significantly affected the success of employees’ motivation.

For instance, in order for any organization to have a successful employee motivation process, it has to assign a substantial amount of money. It will cost an organization, for instance, to buy presents for the employees or to carry out any incentive in order to motivate employees to work harder.

In most cases, it becomes very difficult to measure the returns that a certain employee-motivation practice will bring to an organization. For example, how much will an organization gain for every unit of resources allocated to employee motivation? This question brings about controversies in an organization’s efforts to motivate its employees.

Employee motivation affects the productivity of employees in four dimensions. That is, effort, persistence, direction and goals (Scribd, not dated: 4). Effort refers to the strengths of an employee in the work related behaviors. On the other hand, persistence refers to the determination that employee’s displays in applying effort to their work and duties.

Direction refers to the quality of the worker’s behavior related into how they conduct themselves in carrying out their duties or tasks. Finally, goals refer to the ends through which the workers direct their efforts (Scribd, not dated: 5). All these aspects will help in shaping the conduct of the employees.

Team work Team work is another necessary aspect within an organization. In every organization, the success of various activities is determined by the effectiveness of the teams, leadership and the norms guiding the conduct of employees and various stakeholders involved in various activities. The effectiveness of the teams will significantly determine the performance of an organization.

The leaders also play a pivotal role in determining the success of certain activities in an organization. The more committed the leaders are, the higher are the chances of achieving the committee goals. As an employee, one is encouraged to conduct themselves appropriately in order to realize organizational goals. Norms are also important in a certain organization. This is because they have a significant impact on the people’s conduct.

There are several advantages associated with working with a team in completing the assigned tasks. One advantage of working with teams is that people will be able to exchange ideas on various issues. This will significantly contribute to the success of the project. When people have a chance to exchange ideas, it becomes easy for them to perform their various duties (Miner, 2007).

This motivates employees and reduces the chances of absenteeism in an organization. According to Pritchard (1994), people become more productive when working for a common goal collectively rather than working individually.

Therefore, cooperation will facilitate the realization of the goals of the program efficiently. Meanwhile, employees will be more determined to meet organizational goals. This will discourage absenteeism within an organization since every employee will be determined to work to achieve the best for an organization.

As a leader at this point, I have the responsibility of balancing the participation as well as provision of the necessary guidance. This will prevent any chance of decrease in efficiency as members desire to please one another. Some of the team expectations include commitment towards reduction of any differences, communicating constructively and optimist that the program will be successful.

By integrating all these aspects within a team, every member will be committed towards meeting the objectives of a team. Since every member has his or her role to play in the team, they will be determined to achieve the best in their positions.

Conclusion This discussion has clearly revealed the importance of various perspectives in promoting the productivity of employees by suppressing the cases of absenteeism in the work place. An organization can achieve optimal contributions by its employees by promoting effective organizational behavior. For instance, absenteeism can be discouraged through motivation where employees develop a sense of ownership.

Team work is also important in improving the level of employee satisfaction. Through teamwork, an employee will have his or her part to play. Therefore, each will be determined to play their parts effectively and the chances of absenteeism are very low. It also discourages negligence.

Reference List Miner, J. B. (2007). Organizational Behavior: From Theory to Practice. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Pritchard, P. (1994). Teamwork for Primary and Shared Care. U.S.A.: Oxford Medical Publication.

Robbins, S. and Judge, T. (2010). Organizational Behavior. New York: Prentice Hall.

Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, J., and Osborn, R. (2008). Organizational Behavior. New York: John Wiley


The interpretation of Revelation 20: 1-6 Research Paper argumentative essay help

The book of revelation is considered as one of the most controversial books in the bible. Whether this statement is true depends on a person’s interpretation of the phrase ‘controversial’. Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that the contents of the book are as mystic as the events it foretells.

If there is a section of the bible, and in particular, Revelation, that has elicited a myriad of interpretations, then that section is Revelation 20: 1-6. Concisely, the gist of the section is on the millennium years that Christians are to reign with Christ while the devil is bound. It is interesting how a simple phrase, ‘thousand years’, has led to such varied and opposing views. One wonders what is so special with this catchy phrase.

One of the peculiar feature about the ‘thousand years’ phrase is that it occurs only eight times in the entire bible. Out of these occurrences, six are in Revelation 20: 2-7 while the rest are in 2 Peter 3:8. The debate, however, is not centered on the scarcity of the phrase but rather on what it refers to.

Does the millennium represent a factual period of time or a symbolic period of time? When does this period of time take place? What transpires during this period? Does it have any relation to the second coming of Jesus Christ? Such are the questions that have led theologians to take different perspectives on the subject (Brighton 1999, 533)1.

This paper presents the different views that exist for the interpretation of Revelation 20: 1-6. These include Historic Premillennialism, Dispensational Premillenniasm, Postmillennialism and Ammillenialism.Though this research ends up supporting one of the views as shall be seen later, it does not overlook the significance of the other interpretations.

The first interpretation of the ‘millennium’ phrase to be discussed here is by the Historic Premillennialsim. This view gets its title from the undeniable fact that there have been theologians through out history who have perceived the ‘millennium’ referred to in Rev. 20 as a factual, one-thousand year, when Christ will rule the earth beginning from His Second Coming.

The later will occur prior to the millennium. As such, the Historic premillenialism chronicles the end-of-time events in the following sequence. According to this interpretation, the first event that will characterize the end-of-time is the ‘binding of Satan’ as well as the ‘first resurrection of believers’. The two will occur at Christ’s visible, glorious descent from heaven to earth, well known as His Second Coming.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second event that is supposed to take place according to this interpretation is the reign of Christ and His Church over the unbelievers who will still be on earth during the millennium. This reign will be characterized by peace and prosperity due to the limitation, though not entire elimination, of sin and evil.

The Historic premillenialism interpretation also holds that Satan will be released for a ‘little season’ in order to mislead people in a final attack against Christ and His Church, a battle that the latter will win while the former will be cast into the ‘lake of fire’. This view also posits that the second resurrection will take place, and it will involve all dead unbelievers.

Another event that will take place according to this view is the Great White Judgment. In this occasion, all people that ever lived will receive their final judgment. The unbelievers will be cast into the ‘lake of fire’ in order to face eternal penalty (Clouse 1977, 12)2.

On the other hand, believers will be given access to eternal kingdom to enjoy eternal tranquility, comfort, and glory. Lastly, the ‘new heavens and earth’ will be created. This is the glorious eternal kingdom where believers will live with the Lord in praise.

Many church leaders have held Historic premillenialism as the true interpretation of the ‘millennium’ for a long time. These premillennilists or chiliasts include Papias, Melito Sardis, Iranaeaus, Hippolytus, Justin Martyr, and Tertullian. The fact that such a high number of leaders have supported the view for a long time does not make it the dominant view of the early church.

In deed one of the premillennialists, Justin opposes agrees this as Steve Gregg notes in Revelation: Four views-A Parallel Commentary (1997, 29)3. It follows suit that one cannot be enticed to follow this interpretation simply because its supporters lived in the first centuries following the ascension of Jesus Christ. Instead, there is a need for careful analysis of their views and conclude whether they are supported by Scripture or not.

One of the main factors that led to the loss of popularity of the Historic Premillennialism interpretation is the ‘apocalyptic fever’, an event that occurred towards the end of the first century A.D. This was an influence of Jewish and Jewish-Christian pseudepigraphical literature that was going round at the time.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The interpretation of Revelation 20: 1-6 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A good number of these writings were apocalyptic in nature pointing out to the onset of a Jewish millennial tradition. There is no doubt that the early church leaders’ interpretation of Revelation 20: 1-6 had overtones of this influence. This argument is supported by Brighton when he quotes the church historian Eusebius in the former’s exposition on how Papias adopted his premillennial view.

Brighton notes that when the apocalyptic fever commenced to fade, so did the premillennial interpretation (Brighton 1999, 534-536)4. A number of church fathers were openly opposed to this view like Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Jerome, Alcuin, and Primasius among others (Gregg 1997, 29-31)5.

The second interpretation of the millennium is the dispensational premillennialism. Just like the historical premillennialism, dispensationalism, as the interpretation is also called, interprets the millennium literally. However, this agreement stops at that.

This is because dispensationalism is based on a completely system of theology like Millard J. Erickson notes in Contemporary options in eschatology (Erickson 1977, 109)6. As such, it is very important to note this view is theological. Though an in-depth analysis will be provided later in this paper, it is crucial to point out a few points in which this interpretation is based on.

One of the principles that dispensationalists stand for is the belief that the Scriptures are divided into different periods of time called dispensations. In each dispensation, God deals with humans in different ways and provides different tests for humankind. When humans fail, God brings in a new dispensation with a new test. Going by this principle, human beings are living in the dispensation of grace.

In this dispensation, God is testing the faith of humanity in Jesus. The seven and last dispensation will be the millennium. Scofielld popularized this interpretation in his book Rightly dividing the Word of God, incorporated in his Scofield Reference Bible (1909) (Scofield 1928, 24)7.

Apart from the above belief, dispensationalists believe in three major theological principles namely; the clear difference between Israel and the church (Ryrie 1995, 63)8, the factual interpretation of the bible (Ericson 1977, 109)9, and the prominence on God’s glory as His fundamental intention in the world (Ryrie, 40)10.

These are the pillars that make dispensationalism to take a completely different interpretation of the Scriptures. Nevertheless, this paper will confine itself to its subject matter, the interpretation of the millennium as recorded in Rev. 20: 1-6.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The interpretation of Revelation 20: 1-6 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dispensationalism chronicles the end-time events in the following sequence. Going by this view, the rapture will be the first stage of the Second Coming of Christ. This event will surreptitiously take away all Christians from the earth instantaneously. The dead believers will be resurrected while all those who are rapture receive their glorified bodies in the ‘twinkling of an eye’.

This stage is also the first phase of the ‘first judgment’, also called the ‘Believer’s Judgment’. This will see all believers rewarded according to their truthful service during their lifetime on earth. After the church has been raptured, the ‘prophetic clock’ will begin ticking again while God continues with His plan for the Jews.

Immediately after the rapture, the Seven Year Tribulation will begin. This is an event when the Antichrist appears and deceives many within ‘one week’ equated to a prophetic year (LaHaye 1998, 46)11. This period is the time God will unleash numerous judgments on the earth leading to great pain and suffering.

The Antichrist will bring an era of terror particularly in the last three and half years of the Great Tribulation. In order to counter the Antichrist, God will raise up 144,000 literal Jews to spread the good news of the Kingdom in the entire world. Those who pay attention to the message and fail to worship the Antichrist will be salvaged.

The third occurrence that dispensationalists believe constitute the end-time events is the Glorious appearing of Christ, His saints and angels. This will take place in the second stage of His Second Coming. The second judgment will follow in which Christ will judge those who live in on earth hence distinguishing the ‘sheep’ from the ‘goats’.

Those who are found praiseworthy will enter into the one-thousand years reign with Christ as their Ruler. On the other hand, those who will be unworthy will be slain and their souls thrown into the lake of fire. It is also worthy noting that the second stage of the first resurrection occurs at this time.

This entails the resurrection or transformation of all those who received the Gospel of the Kingdom during the Tribulation and were put to death.

Another event that dispensationalists believe will occur in the end time is the binding of Satan. Just like the premillennialists, the dispensationalists believe that Satan will be bound immediately prior to the millennium. They also view the millennium as a reign characterized by tranquility and prosperity.

According to Bass , though the two views concur in this proposition, the dispensationalists hold that it is Christ and Jews who rule the earth, and not Him and the Church as the premillennialists hold (1979, 43) 12.

The Dispensationalism view also agrees with Premillennialism in other end-time events like the loosing of time, the second resurrection, and the Great White Throne judgment as well as the creation of the new heavens and earth. The preceding discussion on Dispensationalism if carefully examined reveals its underlying misconception that God is working out two different plans, one for the Jews and another for the Church.

This material perspective renders this view unacceptable, at least according to the Lutheran perspective. This is because the dispensationalists do not view all Scripture and all of the history of salvation as a unison based on the person and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. As such, Brighton holds that it extends untrue hopes of other ways of salvation (Brighton 1999, 540)13.

If dispensationalism is disputable from a Lutheran perspective, what does the Lutheran Church hold as the true interpretation to the Second Advent of Christ? This questions paves way to the third view of the millennium as spelt out by postmillennialism. The Commission on Theology and Church Relations of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (CTCR-LCMS) contradicts the preceding views on the millennium in a number of ways.

To begin with, it holds that the Second Advent of Christ will take place after the millennium. It is only after this event that rapture, the general resurrection, the general judgment and eternal states occur (1989, 6)14.

Postmillennialism also supports other end-time events such as the binding of Satan by Christ at His first Advent, Satan’s little season at the end of the millennium, Christ’s Second Advent, the bodily resurrection and final judgment as well as the creation of the new heavens and earth.

Though this view is not popular with theologians today, it was prominent in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries though it began to diminish in the twentieth century, a phenomenon occasioned by the First World War. Henceforth, theologians commenced to have little hope on the future. As such, this view has stopped being a main eschatological view though some theologians still cling to it (Gregg 1997, 117-141)15.

It is evident from the above views that most almost all of them are based on either traditions or theological beliefs. None of them allows the scripture script by script. In the last of the four interpretations of Revelation 20: 1-6, this paper examines how amillennialism stands in a class of its own from the rest as it gives room for the scripture to interpret itself instead of assigning human meanings to passages.

Concisely, this view perceives the millemium as symbolic of the whole New Testament epoch. It posits that Christ ushered in the ‘last days’ at His incarnation, and during His ministry on earth. He, therefore, established His Kingdom, the church. He came to save the earth from sin, a mission He accomplished through His total conquest of sin, death, and devil.

This was achieved through His redemptive work, leading to His crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension. Christ is now sits at the right hand of God and all dominion over heaven and earth is His. He rules now and His dominion is shared by all believers throughout the thousand years, which continue until He comes back in glory on the Last Day.

In conclusion, the brevity of this paper does not allow for an in-depth exegetical or verse-by-verse analysis of Revelation 20:1-6 as supported by the amillennial view. However, it is important to note that the cause of disagreement now shifts now to, chronologically, interpret the passage (Beale 199, 874-875)16. Concisely, the Revelation 19 and 20 do not follow after each other.

This is because they show the same events though through different images, just as the whole book of Revelation does. As such, when one comprehends the cyclic nature of Revelation, it is unproblematic to discern the relationships between the two chapters.

For instance, Rev. 19: 11-21 depicts a picture of the final attack of Satan on the Church, which is equivalent to the activities of Satan, s ‘little season’ shown in 20: 7-10. The same scenario is painted in Rev. 6 where the beast and the false prophet pull together their evil army at Armageddon (16:16).

There is no doubt whether this is the same end time battle shown in various ways throughout Revelation with each time ending with the victory of Christ and His Church at His Second Advent on the Last Day.

The view adopted by this paper for the interpretation of Revelation 20:1-6 is, therefore, the amillennial view as it attempts to let scripture interpret itself instead of relying on half-truths characteristic of the three other views also discussed here.

Bibliography Bass, C. 1977. Backgrounds to Dispensationalism: Its historical genesis and ecclesiastical implication. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Beale, G.K. 1999.The book of Revelation, the New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids; Eerdmans.

Brighton, L. A. 1999. Revelation. Concordia Commentary; St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

Clouse, R.G. 1977. (ed), The Meaning of the Millennium: Four views. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.

Commission on Theology and Church Relations (CTCR) of the Lutheran Church- Missouri Synod (CMS). September 1989.The End times: A study on eschatology and millennialism.

Erickson, Milliard, J. 1977.Contemporary options in eschatology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company.

Gregg, S. 1997. Revelation: Four views-a parallel commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

LaHaye, T. 1998.Understanding the Last days; Keys to unlocking the Bible prophecy. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers.

Ryrie, C.C. 1995. Dispensationalism, Chicago: Moody Press.

Scofield, C.I. 1928. Rightly dividing the Word of Truth. Philadelphia: Philadelphia School of the Bible.

Footnotes 1 L.A. Brighton, Revelation, (Concordia Commentary; St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1999), 533.

2 R.G. Clouse (ed). The Meaning of the Millennium: Four views, (Downers Grove, IL; Intervarsity Press, 1977),12

33S.Gregg, Revelation: Four views-a parallel commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997) p.29.

4 Brighton, Revelation, 534-536.

5 Gregg, Revelation: Four views-a parallel commentary, 28-31, and Brighton, 534-541.

6 M.J. Erickson, Contemporary options in eschatology (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company, 1977), 109.

7 C.I. Scofield, Rightly dividing the Word of Truth (Philadelphia: Philadelphia School of the Bible, 1928)

8 C.C. Ryrie, Dispensationalism, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1995), 63.

9 Erickson, 116.

10 Ryrie, Dispensationalism, 40.

11 T. LaHaye, Understanding the Last days; Keys to unlocking the Bible prophecy (Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers, 1998), 46.

12 C.B. Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism: Its historical genesis and ecclesiastical implications (Grand RAPIDS: Baker Book House, 1977), 43.

13 Brighton, Revelation, 540.

14 Commission on Theology and Church Relations (CTCR) of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (CMS), The End times: A study on eschatology and millennialism (September 1989), 6.

15 Gregg, Revelation: Four views-a parallel commentary, 117-141.

16 G.K. Beale, The book of Revelation, The New International Greek Testament Commentary, (Grand Rapids; Eerdmans, 1999), 874-875.


Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy Report a level english language essay help

Executive summary A workshop was convened in Botswana to address the issue of developing Bipartite Business Agenda for policy advocacy. The workshop was convened as pat of the ongoing efforts to make Botswana a model country with a successful business and work environment.

Matters of particular interest were the really challenging issues of employment creation and the need to strengthen existing structures of tripatism and social dialogue. The main objectives were: employment creation, tripartism and social dialogue, DWCP, and the creation of a good business agenda.

Several issues were highlighted during the workshop. Some of the most outstanding include: the plight of workers in regard to health, safety, lack of proper skills and commitment policy issues; dispute resolution mechanisms; productivity; social welfare of workers with different needs.

Other areas included the need to mobilize resources; the influence of policy and its localisation; and other challenges such as negative contribution of government requirements, environment and climate change. The solutions to the above issues were broadly discussed and suggested for implementation.

Introduction As part of the ongoing efforts to make Botswana a model country in the implementation of up o date employment policies, a workshop was dubbed developing bipartite business agenda for policy advocacy was convened to address the issues faced by workers in Botswana.

Of particular interest were the really challenging issues of employment creation and the need to strengthen existing structures of tripatism and social dialogue. The workshop was mainly focused on improving the business environment of Botswana and included a tutorial on how a successful business agenda can be developed, implemented and sustained.

Objectives of the Workshop The following were the main issues that were discussed at the workshop. This represented both the BFTU key issues and issues of common interest.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employment creation – to identify ways through which partial implementation of training localisation program and monitoring can be achieved.

Tripatism and social dialogue- To identify how existing structures such as LAB can be strengthened to make decisions that are binding. For instance, through legislation.

DWCP: This should be agreed upon by government labour and BOCCIM so that it can result into the overall improvement of Botswana’s economy.

Imparting of business skills to the public through tutorials on basic concepts of business creation and sustenance.

Discussion BFTU issues

the following issues were highlighted. The plight of workers in Botswana was the first stop. The outstanding concerns in regard to this included: issues of occupational health of workers and their safety; commitment at places of work; and inadequacy of the policy and legislative framework.

The issue of freedom of association was also highlighted, particularly in regard to the need for a one third threshold of all the workers and the relaxation of organizational rights.

Dispute resolution was also addressed at the meting. Areas of interest included focus on the existing dispute act, establishment of independent bodies such as the CCMA, CMAC and the DDPR.

The overall productivity of the workforce was addressed. The main concerns were: the issue of poorly trained workforce; and mismatch of skills and jobs.

To address the above identified issues, specific areas were pinpointed and improvements and other solutions discussed. In regard to the tripartite structure, the effectiveness of the LAB was questioned. It was agreed that may be a higher level structure should be put in place to deal with labour and economic issues.

The structure should be modelled on the NEDLAC structure. It was agreed that strategies should be formulated to ensure a highly efficient tripartite structure is in place, PITSOs should be spearheaded by business and trade unions.

Structures should be in place to ensure that workers and business share the gains of productivity to ensure a motivated workforce. OSH was discussed by BOCCIM in regard to the education and training of workers, the need for employers and employees to work together, enforcement of policies by unions. Issues of capacity building with the

We will write a custom Report on Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Labour ministry to ensure that employees are informed of the rights and the compliance of both businesses and workers were discussed. The initial session of the workshop ended with a discussion on social security, ie, ensuring that there is sustainable pension on retirement and agreeing on retirement age.

Issues of common interest

The issues of common interest discussed, included the unending problem of HIV/AIDS. It was agreed that bipartite should be able to monitor and implement the HIV/AIDS policy at the workplace. An ideal tripartite structure was thus to be agreed upon.

The productivity of the workers was seen as a major issue, particularly in regard to the lack of skills and poor attitude of the local workers. The need for a proper productivity agenda in Botswana was raised, on which the productivity visions should be benchmarked. It was suggested that the Government should strengthen the BNPC, s mandate as driver for productivity.

The current procedures that are advanced in dispute resolution were also put to question. They were found to be time consuming and too costly for businesses. Thus it was agreed that an independent structure should be put in place to handle issues, with well resourced personnel to focus on the matters. The need for research was also emphasized due to the fact that research forms the main cornerstones of issue resolution.

Other areas of common interest included the matter of resource mobilization, policy influence and localisation and the negative contribution of levies on industry. It was established that the government had introduced taxes and levies that could be seen as unfavourable. Among other areas of action, it was agreed that the government should stop processing the annual licences and offer the long-term ones.

Other trade challenges were discussed: the dumping of substandard goods was highlighted and it was agreed that the government should extend BOBS to imported goods. The threats post by environment and climate change were discussed and some mitigation measures agreed. For instance the government was to spearhead the creation of jobs that are environmentally friendly.

The session on issue of common interest ended by highlighting the corruption problem and it was agreed that bipartite should address the corruption problem.

A tentative procedure for creating a successful business agenda in Botswana was also availed to those in attendance. The process mainly dwelt on the seven steps of assessment of the policies; setting the priorities; making proposals; involving members with mandate; strategising for production; selling of products; and monitoring the performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Recommendations of employment creation, and tripatism and social dialogue The workshop was very successful in the sense that it facilitated the highlighting of a wide scope of challenges facing employees, organisations and regulatory mechanisms in Botswana. It gave the overall situation of the basic components of the countries economy.

The identification of the issues was accompanied by discussions on how best the issue could be resolved. Issues such as weak legislation, unskilled labour and working conditions were broadly discussed.

It’s thus important that those who are privileged to be in positions where these matters can be taken up and implemented, should formulate proper working models that will oversee the transition of Botswana’s economy through effective identification of solutions to the problems discussed in the workshop.


Product Liability Suit against British Petroleum Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Product Liability Suit against BP

Mitigation against product liability suits and other crisis



Introduction BP is a multinational corporation whose main activities include exploration and trading in oil and gas. BP is the 3rd largest company in the energy sector in the world and 6th in the overall category. The company is involved in several activities within the energy sector especially exploration of gas and oil, refinery and distribution of the same, generation of power and in retailing of gas and petroleum products.

BP has also made major strides in the renewable energy sector especially in bio-fuels, wind power, hydrogen and solar energy. The parent company has its global headquarter in London.

There have been several suits brought against BP due to their negligent and unethical behavior which put both people and environment at risk. BP has had many negative incidents which have dented its social responsibility image around the globe. Some of these mistakes have had severe environmental impacts and have affected the livelihoods of several people.

There seems to be a culture of impunity within the company’s top executives since some of its mistakes keep happening again and again. Needless to say the company has ended up on the negative side of several product liability suits due to accidents in its site and the use of some of its products.

These suits have been brought by people, companies and groups who have been hurt during these accidents and are demanding justice and retribution for the actions or lack of them on the part of BP.

Product Liability Suit against BP There have been several product liability suits against BP across the world due to accidents and harm from using some of its products. But this paper considers the recent and ongoing litigation against BP due to the adverse effect occasioned by the oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico.

Recent revelations by the Orlando Sentinel have revealed a damning truth on the part of BP that the designs they used in the deep water rig were not the best for that particular purpose and location. Even more horrifying is the accusation by the sentinel that this particular design was not only inappropriate but also flawed. This conclusion was arrived at through several interviews with engineers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This unearthed the fact that BP chose to use a design which was cheaper and unreliable. In addition to the used design, there were several mechanical blunders which should have been an indication of possible crisis. Oil specialists have singled out the Gulf of Mexico as one of the places where drilling is hard and therefore requires safer and reliable drilling methods.

BP clearly ignored all this pool of great advice and chose to place cost cutting before human safety and environmental concerns. The resulting spill, one of the largest in history, has put BP on the line of fire and is facing several product liability suits from affected people and businesses.

Due to the many product liability suits filed against BP, the plaintiff lawyers have decided to use a litigation strategy called multidistrict litigation (Ashby, 2010). This system of litigation has been used several times in the US in major litigation against major companies. This allows all cases brought against a single company to be brought to one court and be heard by one judge for the purpose of efficiency.

The major benefits are time saving mechanisms like sharing depositions and pooling resources in the process of evidence collection. This in turn reduces resource wastage in scenarios where lawyers would have to argue the same in different courts. BP recently had to pay several millions due to a similar issue in Alaska and it’s highly likely that they will be ordered to do so again after the completion of this product liability suits.

Mitigation against product liability suits and other crisis Six sigma analyses should have influenced BPs management in using the right system from the start or changing it when system and maintenance problems started occurring. They should have used the data collected in this deep sea rig and in other sites to calculate the possible risk and enact the right mitigation measures.

But they dismissed most ideas brought about by renowned experts in the field, something which contradicted the sigma approach (Meredith


Martial Art School for Kids Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Objective of the Research

Primary Data Collection Method

Secondary data collection methods

Target population

The Questionnaire for the Respondent

Areas of ethical concern


Reference List

Introduction Martial arts are extensive system involving several codified practices and traditions of fighting. It is usually practiced for several reasons, some of which include for self defense, physical health, fitness, and in some cases competition (Micah, 2007, 7-15).

A part from that, some people take it as a mental and spiritual development. But in the modern society, this term martial arts has been greatly associated with fighting art, more so from the eastern part of Asia. There is need to research on why more people are joining martial arts class in order to learn nowadays.

The question is: why there are so many people interested in learning martial art, yet there is no martial school for kids. Parents have a certain degree of authority on what their children may do or not do. Therefore, when it comes to martial arts, parents tend to look at the safety of their children, because of what it involves.

Martial arts experts will tell you that, parents actually put their children in a more dangerous situation when they do not encourage them to do martial art. On the other hand, older people do martial art owing to for health reasons and therapeutic rather than self defense (Micah, 2007, pp.16- 36).

As a result of this, this is a topic that requires extensive research, because of the significance of the practice not only to adults, but also to young children, because just like adults, kids also need to exercise and have martial art skills.

Objective of the Research This objective of this research is to try and explain why trends in this industry shows that people are no longer seeking martial arts classes primarily for defense skills, because in most present societies people are rather driven by other reasons, which include fitness, recreation and others.

In addition, why have more parents decided to enroll their children in order to keep them active and fit, while the elderly seek services to increase their balance and coordination. My proposal on this account is that; because of the fighting-like practices involved in this art, many people take martial art as a very risky and dangerous thing to do.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They do not see the other benefits apart from gaining self defense skills. Although slowly, people have started to realize the other advantages of this practice, very few individuals are ready to travel this road, more when it comes to their kids, because of the fear of instilling in their kids, practices that may endanger their lives.

Primary Data Collection Method In order to do a get the relevant and correct information/data in the research, there must be a proper strategy of obtaining the required information, more from parties that are concerned, namely parents and kids. Since the problem and the objective of the research have been stated, the following are the steps to be taken in the research process (Russel, 2006, pp.23- 68).

First is to know, which research method to use in researching. There are several research methods to be used that can be analysis research methods, qualitative research method, quantitative research method, sampling research method or systematic research method.

All these methods have the following thing in common; they are concerned with collection of data/information and they provide methods of analyzing the sources of data.

In addition, these methods clearly define how to get information from the sources, methods of analyzing and interpreting the data collected, and finally how to present the acquired results, in order for readers of any research work to understand the exact outcome of the research work (Ian, 2008, pp.12- 35).

In this research study, there is need to know the information at hand. This will enable one to know what kind of information to research.

The market research will take place in an already established martial art schools and the following are the primary data collection methods to be used. To start with, observation is the main source of information in the field of research. This will be done by means of mechanical, electronics, and human methods, which either involve direct or indirect contact.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Martial Art School for Kids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method involves looking and listening very carefully in order to discover particular information after analyzing their behavior. This type of data collection method will give the opportunity to record the target group behavior directly. It follows that the information collected through this method is accurate as compared to the rest.

Some of its disadvantages are that, it is expensive and time consuming as compared to other primary methods of data collection. Also, the information collected could be distorted with biasness and the thinking of the investigator.

Such is the case, because likelihoods of all the respondents giving exact information about this topic is rare, due to the fact that, different individuals hold different perceptions about his topic (Weller, 1988, pp. 9 – 23).

The other primary data collection method that will be used in this research work is personal interview. In this case, a questionnaire will be used as data collection tool. There are two ways to use the questionnaire. First, it will be sent to the respondents who will fill in the information required by answering the questions asked in it. When they are done, they will be collected by the researcher or they can send them back.

The other that questionnaires will be used is by the researcher organizing and meeting with the respondents, after which the respondents will be asked the questions as the researcher fills them, as a way of getting feedback. This is more appropriate when the targeted group is illiterate (cannot read or write) (Russel, 2006, pp. 15-46).

As compared to face to face interviews, this kind of method will be cost effective, it will be familiar to most people, and it will reduce any middle man biasness that comes from personal opinions influenced by the respondent (Weller, 1988, pp. 12- 33). However, this method will be time consuming and quite expensive, because of the movement that will be involved.

It can be also intimidating to some people who may find it uncomfortable to sharing some information that the questionnaire requires, considering that this is a topic that is viewed differently by the entire society (Sirch, 200,pp.12-36).

A third method that will be used is telephone interview. This is one of the most noteworthy primary data collection methods. As Weller (1988, pp. 16- 24) argues, this method is simple to use (selecting telephone numbers, call timing, call outcomes and call reports), and it is well known as dominant and most cost effective because.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Martial Art School for Kids by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because, this methods has proved to be to give high chances of reaching the respondents from all over the world; it saves time used in travelling and all the involved costs. In addition, through this method, more information can be collected in a very short period and there are high chances of random selection of units among the population with telephone connections (Ian, 2008, pp. 22-36).

However, it has the following shortcomings. Firstly, it is impossible to employ visual aids from some population and the high probability of discontinuing conversations may result to incomplete interviews; hence, the quality of information obtained may not be accurate.

Secondary data collection methods Secondary data collection methods are easier and less expensive, since they make use of second hand data (Weller, 1988, pp. 23-52). In this case, the prime targets are the kids and adults in the city who want to learn martial art, in order to build their self confidence.

The methods that will be necessary for this research will be based in on competitor ‘current strategy that will follow the various avenues that one can use to get the information about the competitors’ current strategies. These methods include annual reports, information they give to the press and any other form of interviews that will be done by analysts among others.

Usually, secondary data is collected from already available data from magazines, journals, and portals. Another secondary source of data will be the demographics data analyzed from U.S census. The data collection instrument will be designed in a way to simplify data compilation and it should be formulated in such a way that it is easy to use.

These include using interview guides; observation checklist, focus group discussion guides, questionnaire, and the survey forms, more when there will be need to collect information from fields (Ian, 2008, pp. 22- 59). The questionnaire for the martial art for kind marketing research is as follows.

Target population This is a specific group of people that is identified as the intended recipient of a product, advertisement, campaign, or research. They are sometimes known as target audience. The target audience can be composed of people of certain age group, gender, teenagers, females, singles, and marital status.

There should be caution since it is possible to make a mistake in trying to reach everybody and ending up appealing to none (Weller, 1988, pp.16- 43). This martial art school for children research’s target population is both kids and adult.

They can be either enrolled for the martial art or not yet. This research undertaking primarily targets chooses those people who are enrolled in martial art school, because they have a lot of information following their experience in the school. This research will primarily focus on what they have learnt gained and the difference they have experienced since they joined the school.

On the other hand, those who have not joined have their own reasons; hence, it is also important to get some information from them, because they may have not been seduced enough by the benefits of doing this art or they do not have knowledge on the same. Below is the questionnaire for the research;

The sample size should be big enough to collect enough information. Due to the fact that people have very different views on martial art, the sample size should be big enough in order to get more accurate information. Small samples are not advised when doing such a research that involves a major objective like the one stated above. It may lead to inaccurate result and therefore wrong conclusions (Ian, 2008, pp. 9-36).

The Questionnaire for the Respondent This questionnaire is prepared to facilitate the collection of relevant data from martial art school for kids. This is primarily aimed at showing why the individuals are no longer seeking martial art classes primarily for self defense skills, but they are mostly driven by other reasons such as recreation and fitness needs.

It is also to investigate why parents enroll their children in order to keep them active, while the elderly seek such services to increase their balance and coordination. The information gathered will only be used for this study and shall not be used to victimize any one, because the entire respondent will remain anonymous and their names shall not be revealed to anyone without consent.

Areas of ethical concern In any research, there is always a situation that requires a person or organization to make a choice between alternatives that must be evaluated as right or wrong (ethical or unethical) (Sirch, 2001, pp. 6-35). The research aims both the kids and the adults, but the ethical concern involves the kids.

As per numerous research studies that have been published, most of the children do not know the significance of martial art to their well being, because instead of most kids dong it, because they have passion for it, most of them do it, because of peer influence and even some do not have any idea why they do it.

Areas of unethical concern in this market research are directly aimed at children without getting consent from the parents. In handling this situation, the researchers will first consult the parents before they go ahead to meet the children for interview or to get them to fill the questionnaire.

The reason for this is to know the right time and most importantly give the parents an opportunity to regulate the kind of questions to ask their children. In addition to, the organization can embark on a respondent education to make their young audience aware of what the research is all about.

After collection of data, the next thing is to data analysis, which then results to formulation of reports. A report carries a feasible study carried during data collection and data analysis. Breaking the report into various parts is very important owing to clarification and easy understanding. A standard analysis should focus on giving an articulated and well argued response to the objective of the research.

It should also be subjective but at the same time the impersonality suited to should be clear. The objective presented in the report should be relevant to the objective of the research. Finally, a good report should separate the good or excellent ideal from the average ones (Russel, 2006, pp. 11-36).

Some of the opportunities I see to integrate marketing research technology in my plan is the use of electronics. There are improved methods of analyzing and contracting and integrating the information and index the results in various ways, according to the command directed.

Recommendations Ther are several cases that should be considered when doing a research and the steps to follow after the research is complete. Determining the right target group is the most important. The wrong choice of the target population will distort all the information and will lead to undesirable results (Weller, 1988, pp.19-43).

After determining the target audience, the next step is to decide on which is the best way of communication, more so when it coesm to adhering to the set goal. The target audience determines the communication method. If for instance one chooces a target audience comprising of teenegers, the comminication method to be used should suite their level.

It should not be provoking or that can make them to lie or exaggerrate their response (Sirch, 2001, 26-32). If possible, use a language that is indirect to them but according to the way they will answer the questions and after analyzing them, the researchers can still get the right information.

Designing the massege appeal is also very essential. Quaestionnaire questuions or any other questions to be used in the research should run in systematic way. That is, from the simplest to the hardest or from the most open question to a personal quasetion (Sirch, 2001, pp. 11-22).

The researcher should also watch out his/her tone to use in every question. People are different; therfore, one should be as simple as possible and make the intentions clear. If the respondent does not want to give a respond, it is better to listen to his opinoin and do as he or her want.

The last step after a reseach is to use the infromation gathered from the research after analuzing the whole situation and coming up with conclusions- and allocate the resources (Weller, 1988, pp. 12- 32). In this martial art schools reaserch shows that there is more likely to have less martial art schools for both kids and adults in the furture owing to more and more people getting interested in enrolling.

Hence, before allocating resources ( buliding or establishment of more martial art schools) one should use the information from this resarch inorder to determine the riht way to allocate the resources.

Reference List Ian. (2008). Questionnaire Design. London: Kogan Page Publishers.

Micah, D. (2007). Martial: The Art and Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Russel, H. (2006). Research methods. Altamira: Rowman.

Sirch, R. (2001). Nursing research. Chicago: Jones


The Six Facets of Understanding Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Understanding by Design (UBD) is an art concept that emphasizes the role of a teacher in designing a student’s learning. It helps in contriving effective learning activities through effective assessment of student understanding, peer review of the curriculum, and collaboration. Understanding, as a concept, is different from the design of a unit of study for understanding.

Understanding is the “deepening and development” of the student knowledge on fundamental concepts and ideas in a given discipline. It involves the concepts about a topic that students should comprehend during instruction. Student understanding is achieved through the use of “complex yet authentic opportunities” easy to interpret and apply from a student’s perspective.

Thus, the ability of the students to apply or transfer essential aspects of their learning within appropriate contexts implies student understanding. Wiggins and McTighe identify six facets that serve as indicators of understanding viz. the ability to interpret, explain, apply, empathize, change perspective, and self-assess their learning (2001, p. 52).

In other words, understanding is earned by the students and allows them to apply their learning. In contrast, the design of a unit for understanding involves the curriculum development that focuses on achieving particular desired learning goals.

According to Wiggins and McTighte, effective curriculum design must reflect a three-stage process known as “backward design”, which first clarifies the learning goals and assessments before designing the classroom activities for the understanding unit (2001, p. 81)

The Six Facets of Understanding and Art Curriculum Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe provide a learning framework that helps teachers plan lessons for student understanding of given ideas and concepts during classroom instruction. In particular, each of the six facets of understanding has implications on curriculum design. These six facets, which include interpretation, empathy, explanation, application, self-knowledge and perspective, reflect the standards of Visual and Performing Arts.

In arts, the unit plan format should include the standards, learning objectives, context, assessment, learning sequence, and summative assessment for each standard. The art curriculum framework involves four strands viz. perception, cultural heritage, creative expression, and evaluation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The facet of explanation involves providing of knowledgeable account of ideas or actions and is aligned with the perception strand during instruction. Interpretation, in an art context, involves translations or narratives that have meaning and thus a form of creative expression.

Similarly, application and self-knowledge facets relate to creative expression of original works of art. Perspective facet involves making evaluations of personal as well as other people’s artistic works. Empathy, in art’s context, involves the ability to value and understand various cultures or historical events.

In the classroom context, the six facets of understanding provide evidence of student understanding of concepts or theories. Explanation occurs when the teacher offers a thorough account of some facts, data, or phenomena during a learning session.

Interpretation involves meaningful translations or revelations from a personal or historical perspective regarding certain events or ideas using analogies, models, and other teaching aids. In the classroom, this facet manifests itself during discussions of experiences or the lesson’s text.

With regard to application, in instructional context, the students should effectively use the ideas in diverse contexts especially through innovations or authentic tasks (Wiggins,


Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Executive summary A workshop was convened in Botswana to address the issue of developing Bipartite Business Agenda for policy advocacy. The workshop was convened as pat of the ongoing efforts to make Botswana a model country with a successful business and work environment.

Matters of particular interest were the really challenging issues of employment creation and the need to strengthen existing structures of tripatism and social dialogue. The main objectives were: employment creation, tripartism and social dialogue, DWCP, and the creation of a good business agenda.

Several issues were highlighted during the workshop. Some of the most outstanding include: the plight of workers in regard to health, safety, lack of proper skills and commitment policy issues; dispute resolution mechanisms; productivity; social welfare of workers with different needs.

Other areas included the need to mobilize resources; the influence of policy and its localisation; and other challenges such as negative contribution of government requirements, environment and climate change. The solutions to the above issues were broadly discussed and suggested for implementation.

Introduction As part of the ongoing efforts to make Botswana a model country in the implementation of up o date employment policies, a workshop was dubbed developing bipartite business agenda for policy advocacy was convened to address the issues faced by workers in Botswana.

Of particular interest were the really challenging issues of employment creation and the need to strengthen existing structures of tripatism and social dialogue. The workshop was mainly focused on improving the business environment of Botswana and included a tutorial on how a successful business agenda can be developed, implemented and sustained.

Objectives of the Workshop The following were the main issues that were discussed at the workshop. This represented both the BFTU key issues and issues of common interest.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employment creation – to identify ways through which partial implementation of training localisation program and monitoring can be achieved.

Tripatism and social dialogue- To identify how existing structures such as LAB can be strengthened to make decisions that are binding. For instance, through legislation.

DWCP: This should be agreed upon by government labour and BOCCIM so that it can result into the overall improvement of Botswana’s economy.

Imparting of business skills to the public through tutorials on basic concepts of business creation and sustenance.

Discussion BFTU issues

the following issues were highlighted. The plight of workers in Botswana was the first stop. The outstanding concerns in regard to this included: issues of occupational health of workers and their safety; commitment at places of work; and inadequacy of the policy and legislative framework.

The issue of freedom of association was also highlighted, particularly in regard to the need for a one third threshold of all the workers and the relaxation of organizational rights.

Dispute resolution was also addressed at the meting. Areas of interest included focus on the existing dispute act, establishment of independent bodies such as the CCMA, CMAC and the DDPR.

The overall productivity of the workforce was addressed. The main concerns were: the issue of poorly trained workforce; and mismatch of skills and jobs.

To address the above identified issues, specific areas were pinpointed and improvements and other solutions discussed. In regard to the tripartite structure, the effectiveness of the LAB was questioned. It was agreed that may be a higher level structure should be put in place to deal with labour and economic issues.

The structure should be modelled on the NEDLAC structure. It was agreed that strategies should be formulated to ensure a highly efficient tripartite structure is in place, PITSOs should be spearheaded by business and trade unions.

Structures should be in place to ensure that workers and business share the gains of productivity to ensure a motivated workforce. OSH was discussed by BOCCIM in regard to the education and training of workers, the need for employers and employees to work together, enforcement of policies by unions. Issues of capacity building with the

We will write a custom Report on Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Labour ministry to ensure that employees are informed of the rights and the compliance of both businesses and workers were discussed. The initial session of the workshop ended with a discussion on social security, ie, ensuring that there is sustainable pension on retirement and agreeing on retirement age.

Issues of common interest

The issues of common interest discussed, included the unending problem of HIV/AIDS. It was agreed that bipartite should be able to monitor and implement the HIV/AIDS policy at the workplace. An ideal tripartite structure was thus to be agreed upon.

The productivity of the workers was seen as a major issue, particularly in regard to the lack of skills and poor attitude of the local workers. The need for a proper productivity agenda in Botswana was raised, on which the productivity visions should be benchmarked. It was suggested that the Government should strengthen the BNPC, s mandate as driver for productivity.

The current procedures that are advanced in dispute resolution were also put to question. They were found to be time consuming and too costly for businesses. Thus it was agreed that an independent structure should be put in place to handle issues, with well resourced personnel to focus on the matters. The need for research was also emphasized due to the fact that research forms the main cornerstones of issue resolution.

Other areas of common interest included the matter of resource mobilization, policy influence and localisation and the negative contribution of levies on industry. It was established that the government had introduced taxes and levies that could be seen as unfavourable. Among other areas of action, it was agreed that the government should stop processing the annual licences and offer the long-term ones.

Other trade challenges were discussed: the dumping of substandard goods was highlighted and it was agreed that the government should extend BOBS to imported goods. The threats post by environment and climate change were discussed and some mitigation measures agreed. For instance the government was to spearhead the creation of jobs that are environmentally friendly.

The session on issue of common interest ended by highlighting the corruption problem and it was agreed that bipartite should address the corruption problem.

A tentative procedure for creating a successful business agenda in Botswana was also availed to those in attendance. The process mainly dwelt on the seven steps of assessment of the policies; setting the priorities; making proposals; involving members with mandate; strategising for production; selling of products; and monitoring the performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Workshop Developing Bipartite Business Agenda for Policy Advocacy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Recommendations of employment creation, and tripatism and social dialogue The workshop was very successful in the sense that it facilitated the highlighting of a wide scope of challenges facing employees, organisations and regulatory mechanisms in Botswana. It gave the overall situation of the basic components of the countries economy.

The identification of the issues was accompanied by discussions on how best the issue could be resolved. Issues such as weak legislation, unskilled labour and working conditions were broadly discussed.

It’s thus important that those who are privileged to be in positions where these matters can be taken up and implemented, should formulate proper working models that will oversee the transition of Botswana’s economy through effective identification of solutions to the problems discussed in the workshop.


The Six Facets of Understanding Essay writing essay help

Understanding by Design (UBD) is an art concept that emphasizes the role of a teacher in designing a student’s learning. It helps in contriving effective learning activities through effective assessment of student understanding, peer review of the curriculum, and collaboration. Understanding, as a concept, is different from the design of a unit of study for understanding.

Understanding is the “deepening and development” of the student knowledge on fundamental concepts and ideas in a given discipline. It involves the concepts about a topic that students should comprehend during instruction. Student understanding is achieved through the use of “complex yet authentic opportunities” easy to interpret and apply from a student’s perspective.

Thus, the ability of the students to apply or transfer essential aspects of their learning within appropriate contexts implies student understanding. Wiggins and McTighe identify six facets that serve as indicators of understanding viz. the ability to interpret, explain, apply, empathize, change perspective, and self-assess their learning (2001, p. 52).

In other words, understanding is earned by the students and allows them to apply their learning. In contrast, the design of a unit for understanding involves the curriculum development that focuses on achieving particular desired learning goals.

According to Wiggins and McTighte, effective curriculum design must reflect a three-stage process known as “backward design”, which first clarifies the learning goals and assessments before designing the classroom activities for the understanding unit (2001, p. 81)

The Six Facets of Understanding and Art Curriculum Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe provide a learning framework that helps teachers plan lessons for student understanding of given ideas and concepts during classroom instruction. In particular, each of the six facets of understanding has implications on curriculum design. These six facets, which include interpretation, empathy, explanation, application, self-knowledge and perspective, reflect the standards of Visual and Performing Arts.

In arts, the unit plan format should include the standards, learning objectives, context, assessment, learning sequence, and summative assessment for each standard. The art curriculum framework involves four strands viz. perception, cultural heritage, creative expression, and evaluation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The facet of explanation involves providing of knowledgeable account of ideas or actions and is aligned with the perception strand during instruction. Interpretation, in an art context, involves translations or narratives that have meaning and thus a form of creative expression.

Similarly, application and self-knowledge facets relate to creative expression of original works of art. Perspective facet involves making evaluations of personal as well as other people’s artistic works. Empathy, in art’s context, involves the ability to value and understand various cultures or historical events.

In the classroom context, the six facets of understanding provide evidence of student understanding of concepts or theories. Explanation occurs when the teacher offers a thorough account of some facts, data, or phenomena during a learning session.

Interpretation involves meaningful translations or revelations from a personal or historical perspective regarding certain events or ideas using analogies, models, and other teaching aids. In the classroom, this facet manifests itself during discussions of experiences or the lesson’s text.

With regard to application, in instructional context, the students should effectively use the ideas in diverse contexts especially through innovations or authentic tasks (Wiggins,


The benefits of implementing Global Standards (GSI Health Care) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Background and Introduction World Health Organization (WHO) requires medical facilities to offer high quality medical facilities; to attain this noble objective, system within medical facilities must be operating effectively. Procurement and stocks management play vital role in the entire medical service delivery; to ensure efficiencies medical facilities need to have current/modern management systems that are reliable and effective (Bate, Robert and Bevan, 2004).

With growth in electronic commerce, there has been the emergence of stock computerized management systems that endeavor to improve service delivery. Some commercial software that organizations need to implement to facilitate effective management includes GS1 (Global Standard 1); GS1 is an open global standard for product identification and bar-coding.

The system should be implemented within an organizational stock management department, supply chain management, the transport department and the docking segment (Stanton, 2008).

When dealing with health care organizations to GS1 has developed as special form of bar-coding that combines stakeholders in the sector with the aim of ensuring there is effective sharing of medical information; some of the stakeholders in the industry include pharmaceuticals, medical equipments, and products suppliers and manufacturers, hospitals, and other medical facilities (Crother-Laurin, 2006).

GS1 was developed through the collaboration of HLS (GS1 EPCglobal Healthcare and Life Sciences Industry Action Group), players in the medical services provision, and GS1 HUG (GS1 global Healthcare User Group); the main objective of the new development was to improve patient safety, supply chain security


Healthcare Administration: Foreign Trade Commission Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Role of foreign Trade Commission (FTC)

FTC Public Policy Considerations

FTC ruling towards IPAMG Conduct

Penalties on AllCare

Justification for the Penalties

Reference List

Role of foreign Trade Commission (FTC) Foreign Trade Commission (FTC) is a US based agency that seeks to protect the consumer from being exploited in the market place either through prices or counterfeit products. Competition is one of the major factors inherent in any organization’s operating environment (FTC, 2011, p.1).

FTC also seeks to promote fair competition in the market place. The role of FTC is to ensure effective law enforcement on consumer interests by provision and sharing of its expertise with the federal state, international agencies and the legislative body in the US (FTC, 2011, p. 1).

It is also instrumental as a research tool through workshops and conferences which aid in creating pragmatic programs suitable for both consumers and businesses in the global marketplace.

FTC Public Policy Considerations FTC has certain public policies that place it at a position of combating anti competitive behavior in the market place which is detrimental to the consumer. One of its public policies considerations is to eliminate the illegal anti-competitive conducts by organizations operating in the healthcare industry.

For instance, AllCare and BVIPA (Boulder Valley Independent Practice Association) were involved in un-lawful fixation of prices (AOA, 2008, p. 1). Another consideration is that FTC seeks to control scrupulous mergers and acquisitions by rival companies which may have a negative impact on consumers in terms of accessibility and affordability of the organizations’ products.

This has been portrayed in the cases of King Pharmaceuticals Inc and Alpharma Inc. The former wanted to acquire the latter but FTC intersected the move which would have increased the prices of the organization’s drugs especially the chronic ones which were on high demand.

FTC argued that the move was against federal law and the acquisition was geared to reduce competition between King and Alpharma in their relevant markets (FR, 2009, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other distinguished considerations have also been applied. For instance, the physician joint ventures and multi-provider networks which are deemed to be legal only if the integration seeks to produce significant results that are beneficial to consumers. Similarly, payment of performance among physician groups should constitute a form of financial risk sharing.

Clinical integration should also be a contributing factor to improving research and services to the consumer. Hospital mergers should also comply with court’s ruling in terms of geographic markets. In case of mergers between non-profit and for-profit organizations, profit status should not be an impediment.

Thus, merging organizations should not be conformed to monopsony and oligopolistic aims and at the same time, private parties should not engage in anticompetitive behavior (FTC, 2011, p. 1). FTC should always strive to address and resolve matters pertaining collective bargaining between organizations and preventing future anti-competitive conduct (Compliant, 2009, p. 2).

FTC ruling towards IPAMG Conduct In 2005-2006, the Independent Physician Associates Medical Group Inc. (IPAMG) was doing business as AllCare IPA. IPA is an association of independent Physicians that provides services to managed care organizations on a per capita negotiated rate, flat retainer fee or fee-for-service (FFS) basis (DF, 2011, p. 1). AllCare is multispecialty with approximately 500 physicians based in California (AOA, 2008, p. 1).

Upon its formation, it contracted with Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) to provide FFS care. FFs an insurance plan which gives all holders the right to make healthcare decisions independently where the holder pays for the medical service and then presents the bill to the insurance company which reimburses according to the holder’s policy agreement and specification.

Between the years 2005 to 2006, AllCare were culprit to anticompetitive behavior (Compliant, 2009, p. 1). FTC found AllCare with the following charges:

Illegal price fixing: AllCare restrained competition on fee-for-service (FFS) contracts. This was done through: facilitating, entering and engaging into contractual terms with preferred provider organization (PPO) payers and implementing agreements with an aim of fixing and increasing prices (AOA, 2008, p. 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Healthcare Administration: Foreign Trade Commission specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Collective negotiations: AllCare was engaged into negotiating collectively on the terms and conditions of dealing with payers.

Member negotiation restrictions: AllCare had restrained its group members from entering into negotiations with players other than those who had it approved.

Lack of Consultation: No activity or records had justified AllCare’s consultation with members on price agreements for their services. (Compliant, 2009, p. 3)

Lack of integration and monitoring program: The group physicians did not collaborate in any monitoring and modification clinical practices patterns as required by law upon delivery of their services.

Penalties on AllCare Upon being found guilty of its conduct against fair competitiveness in the market place, a number of prohibitions were imposed on AllCare Inc. First, AllCare was prohibited from entering into any agreements and engaging in facilitation of the same between or on behalf of its physicians, whereby; it was not allowed to negotiate on behalf of any of the payers.

It was also warned on refusal to accept deals or threats to refrain from deals with any payer. It was also called upon to designate terms, conditions and requirements upon which any physician’s deal or will should be included without limiting price terms and not to individually make any deal with a payer through any other arrangement(s) besides those of of AllCare.

It was also prohibited from exchanging information among other networks from physicians on terms pertaining to contracting a payer. Certain types of arrangements were excluded from its provision especially those in regarding provision of collective bargaining with payers (Compliant, 2009, p. 2 -3). AllCare was also required to notify FTC in time before contracting any health plans on behalf of its physicians.

Justification for the Penalties The penalty was fairly done on AllCare’s misconduct in its competitive nature. This is so because it dictated every move and price on behalf of its members and payers without putting the consumers’ interests at hand. It acted on a selfish level by orchestrating the whole issue of fixing prices and dictating harsh terms, conditions, requirements and negotiations with payers (AOA, 2008, p. 2).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Healthcare Administration: Foreign Trade Commission by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) also known “as Participating Provider Organization (PPO) is an organization for medical care documents or healthcare providers who are into an agreement with an insurance firm (insurer) or a third party to provide healthcare at reduced rates/ prices to the insurer’s (payers) clients.

But in this case, AllCare had misled the PPO into breaking its basic fundamental laws by acting as an ally to AllCare in the price fixing ordeal (AOA, 2008, p. 1).

The fact that AllCare had also drained the payers’ collective bargaining and negotiating power in the market place also portrays how the organization was un-reasonable to its stake holders in the same industry thus this can be termed as disregard to end consumers for it is to whom all the economic and heath liability is burdened to.

Reference List Analysis of Agreement (AOA). (2008). FTC File. No. 0610258. Web.

Compliant. (2009). FTC File. No. 0610258. Web.

Daily Finance (DF). (2011). Is Fee-for-Service What Ails America’s Health Care System? Web.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (2011). Protecting America’s Population. Web.


Alternative dispute resolution methods in construction industry: An assessment of UAE situation Dissertation argumentative essay help

Introduction The construction of projects and related contracts has highly increased in the UAE over the last decade. This has with no doubt has given rise to significant numbers of claims either between contractors and employers or even between contractors and sub-contractors.

These disputes are resolved either by way of conciliation or arbitration and are predominantly held in the English language, with specialist arbitrators appointed due to the technical nature of the aspects involved. Litigation is a less preferred mode of dispute resolution in the construction industry; however there are a number of Court rulings on important aspects of construction law.

As a consequence of this, focus on construction law is increasing. The articles set out herein seek to address some of the most often encountered issues in construction law related disputes.

Rational for the study The reason for studying Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods in construction industry is to get information about the number of construction projects, the related contracts and whether they have increased largely in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over the last decade. A number of claims arise among the contractors and owners and between contractors and sub-contractors.

The disputes are resolved by way of conciliation or negotiation and are mostly held in the English language with specialist judges appointed due to the technical nature of the aspects involved (Hinchey


New payroll processing system Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Implementation Problems Encountered By Queensland Health Program

Relations of the articles with the case study


Introduction The paper aims at coming up with an exclusive review of the controversy that surrounded the need to come up with a new payroll processing system that was expected to replace the old system in Queensland health program. The paper is based on two articles that aim at providing factual information that should shed some light on the procedures that should be employed in the identified process.

The two articles have illustrated the need to have a new system and have given procedures that should ensure that the transition process is effective and it meets the stipulated mandate. The study has used Queensland health program as the case study.

Article1: Moving to a New HRIS Time for a new human resource information system? Plan ahead for a painless conversion

The article addresses the moving of organizations from their current HRIS to new systems. For example, the Arizona Department of administration (ADOA), management was aware that its current human resource information system was in dire need for a surgical change.

The article has addressed the issue where the author has demonstrated that HRIS change does not always have to be a complex process, but the transition to the new system provides opportunities that are expected to streamline a number of business processes in the organization. The article identifies planning as the major step in ensuring that the conversion process is smooth.

Article 2: Handling the Challenges of Change Management

The article explains that human beings will subconsciously resist change. Therefore, it is of essence that the management addresses the issue of resistance to change critically.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article has addressed the areas that demand attention in the implementation of the new system and has come up with a three phase implementation approach that is expected to make the implementation process less turbulent. The three phases are:

The identification of the challenges that are likely to face the organization and its new system implementation process,

The exhaustive analysis of the expected challenges

Mechanisms that will be applied by the management to resolve the challenges

Implementation Problems Encountered By Queensland Health Program The efforts by Queensland Health Program and the Human Resource Division of Arizona Department of Administration to implement a new payroll system were met with a number of problems as illustrated in the two articles. It has been noted in the articles that the implementation process was late by 20 months and this delay resulted to the escalation of the previously budgeted implementation costs by 300%.

Secondly, the implementation process was delayed because of the antagonism that existed between the Health ministry and the health services outfit Corp Tech. The antagonism between this two factions resulted in delays in clarification of the process implementation scope. Thirdly, halfway the project’s implementation phase, there was a major alteration on the project scope definitions.

This resulted in major defects in the initial course of action that had been projected by the planning team. These defects were of great magnitude, but the implementing team turned a blind eye on them and down-played their severity. It is evident that the above problems greatly derailed the process resulting to role confusion and inability of employees to discern their responsibilities in the new system.

Relations of the articles with the case study Each of the articles addresses the need to change to a new system if the previously used system was deemed ineffective. The authors have also given an effective process that will guarantee that the transition process is smooth and successful. Therefore, it is prudent to conclude that if only the explained procedures had been followed in the Queensland health program, the problems that had been encountered would not have been faced.

Conclusion Effective and efficient implementation of a new system is in jeopardy if challenges that are faced are not resolved amicably. The approach adopted by the management should take heed not to adversely affect the lives of employees. The transition should be smooth and free from bias. A successful change implementation should be guided by an accurate process that clearly guides all the processes.

The implementation process should be guided by a three phase approach identifies the challenges that are likely to face it, analyzing those challenges and lastly formulating appropriate techniques that will resolve them.

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The issue of religion and public life Research Paper best essay help

Introduction The issue of religion and public life is the recent public policy issue being focused by the media. The issue of religion and public life is among the highly debated controversial issues currently in America with regards to the role of religion and faith in the society. Religion and Faith Pew Forum attempt to create knowledge and understanding of the controversies of public life and religion interaction in American society.

The Pew Forum seeks to gather information from majority of the public concerning the interaction between the religious people and the general public, disseminating the information to provide a neutral ground for agreement.

The Pew Forum is a non-advocacy firm that takes no stand on public policy issues of concern, as it seeks to collect and share information of the trends, issues and behaviors that shape the world and particularly America as a society.

The public policy issues are of concern to the research organizations that help in delivering impartial and timely findings to the society’s political leaders, scholars, media personalities and groups of public interest.

Public policy issues of research concerning religion and faith include controversies between the religious organizations and the government; religious influence on politics; public debates on issues such as gay marriage and abortion; and the role of religion in global affairs.

Controversies between the church and the government encompass issues such as recent issue of the pledge of allegiance and the Supreme Court issue regarding the Ten Commandments (Cohn-Sherbok and McLellan, 1992, p.1).

Scope of the Public Policy Issue Bioethics

Innovations in biomedical research industry that have been researched by Pew Forum include the embryonic stem cell and human cloning. This has been a major issue of controversy between the religious organizations and the public.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Medical and science innovations have impacted widely on the health and lives of human beings, which have been criticized by religious people. The research of bioethics focuses on human values such as life technology and responsibility of society towards human life and health.

Capital Punishment

Religious organizations have for a long period of time strived to fight against death penalty as a means achieving justice to offences in the society. It has become a public policy issue of concern that has consistently inflamed debates between the state and religious organizations with regards to capital punishment.

Moreover, religious organizations have gathered and shared information to heir members and the general public about the issue of human dignity, justice and right to life.

Gay Marriage

Religion and Public Life have differed on the issue of gay marriage in the society. The public policy issue of civil union and gay marriage has been widely debated upon by the American religious organizations that have remained highly divided. The religious organization remain highly divided on controversial issues such as the ordination of gay clergy and the federal constitutional amendment that bans same sex marriage.

Research organizations have developed a lot of information in opposition of the law amendments that legalize gay marriage. According to religious forums, information collected and shared shows that religious affiliations are against same sex marriage.

However, public attitudes and religious affiliations vary in different countries but proposals by religious organizations oppose gay marriages. Their proposals deliver impartial information that is timely to the state, local leaders and the government (Babst, Gill and Pierceson, 2009, p.51)

Religion and politics

Religion and politics have been on opposing sides concerning societal issues of integrity and ethics. The long standing traditions of America believe in religious liberty where all members of the society have the freedom to express their religious beliefs and that all faiths have their liberty (Lester, 2011, p.99).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The issue of religion and public life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Religion and public Schools

The public policy issue of Religion and faith in schools is also a big issue of concern among school administrators, parents and the public at large. Expression of religious beliefs and faith is put into consideration in public schools, for instance, the origin of humankind as taught in the school curriculum contradicts sharply with the religious teachings as to the origin of humankind.

Religion and public life has brought about the Pew Forum discussions concerning how and where religious activities are conducted within the schools.

Religion and Social Welfare

Social welfare is a concern of many organizations such as the government, religious organizations and non-governmental human service providers. These organizations are deeply divided because of the issue of religion and faith in provision of social welfare services.

The role of religion and faith in provision of social welfare services that are federally funded was examined by the Pew Forum, as it had become an issue of controversy between the state and religious organizations.

Religion and the Law

There have been long standing judicial battles concerning religion and public life policies such as placement of the monument of the Ten Commandments on the property of public, religious schools that are funded by the government, and the school prayer. There was an amendment incorporated with regards to states giving freedom of religion to the public according to how the federal government has guaranteed religious liberty.

Many governments have made constitutional amendments to guarantee freedom of religion, though legal consequences of religious liberty vary between states due to cultural differences.

Religious communities that were established and have been in operation for a long time are protected by the law that guarantees freedom of religion. Moreover, the clause gives every member the right to abandon, mix and convert from one religion to another freely.

Religion and world Affairs

Religion plays a vital role in the affairs of world societies and the local nation affairs. The Pew Forum on the issues concerning Religion and Public Life have collected and shared information that outlines the importance of the role played by religious organizations in local governance politics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The issue of religion and public life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Religion not only plays its role within the local government, but also in the international environment on issues concerning interstate conflicts and world terrorism.

Stake Holders of the Public Policy Issues Religion and public life policy issue has a number of stakeholders and affected constituencies, which are categorized into primary and secondary stakeholders. Stakeholder and affected constituencies are further categorized into supervisory and implementing agencies, which include the government and taxpayers.

Other public policy beneficiaries are also stakeholders in the case where these other policies have effects on the religion and public life policy. Primary stakeholders of religion and public life policy are the beneficiaries such as individuals, families and communities. Secondary stakeholders are intermediaries of the policy, which include advocacy and monitoring organizations that benefit indirectly from the public policy.

There is a wide range of individuals and organizations that have been categorized as stakeholders of the public policy, but the extent to which they influence policy making process and the extent to which the policy affects them varies. The secondary stakeholders such as religious institutions need to represent the affected constituents and the beneficiaries in advocating for the amendment and creation of the policies.

The religious organizations have a duty to ensure success of policy amendments and creation through contribution of resources such as financial assistance, as well as human resource and technical assistance.

Apart from classification of public policy stakeholders into primary and secondary stakeholders, there are five categories of stakeholders, which include social stakeholders, policy makers, policy experts, the public and the civil society representatives. Public policy experts includes both the international and the local legal experts who advice policy makers (Sharma and Starik, 2004, p.8).

The level of the public policy issue matters as the number and the kind of stakeholders involved. The departments of government and their agencies are in charge of the creation and the implementation of public policies. The government agencies and departments are represented by individuals such as the government ministers, the attorney general, mayors and the president who represents the executive.

Individuals within the administration dockets may include the civil servants in general and the senior most management representatives in the government ministries.

These administrative persons help in the process of policy making. The representatives also include the civil servants in the government ministries and the institutions that are responsible for gathering and monitoring information that assist in policy evaluation and reporting.

Members legislative house are elected democratically by members of public who have voting rights and are stakeholders in the public policy decision-making process. The members of parliament also play an important role in policy implementation since they also have the ability to exercise control over the government financial budget and planning.

Social partners are also considered as stakeholders in public policy, since they play an advisory role and in some cases, are also part of the process of decision making. A good example of public policy social partners is the European Economic and Social committee. Other social partners are the media, the general public and the legal policy experts.

Public Policy Issue Political Institutions Political institutions relevant to religion and public life policy issues include recognized political parties and judicial courts. Political institutions operate under a particular structure of governance, rules and procedures such accountability and transparent governance with members rights to vote.

Political Parties and religion are considered to have a strong influence on the society, as it has the ability to influence people’s life all over the world. The world religions are diverse and have been long standing in the societies as compared to political parties, which began long after religions had established in the society.

In addition to that, religions are proved to be deep rooted in the society, with a significantly huge percentage of the population being obsessed with beliefs of their religions.

A good number of political parties use religion as a means to reaching people and consequently using it to brainwash people so as to clear the way for achieving their political ambitions. These political ambitions do not benefit the population in most cases, since political parties use religion to drive their way into self gain.

Political pluralism, religious indiscrimination and freedom of speech are concepts that are being used and highlighted by the society so as to gain democracy that gives all citizens the rights to use government facilities provided for public use. These democratic concepts also seek to give citizens the right to oppose governance malpractices through unions so as to protect the interests of people.

However, political parties have applied concepts such as utilitarianism to enable gain their own selfish interests. The concept of utilitarianism is applicable where the decision to which and how policies are made depend on the target of attaining happiness and satisfaction to the highest percentage of the population as opposed to attainment of self interests that represent the smallest number of people.

The role played by religion and political parties is significant to the lives of the citizens. Public policy issue concerns the role of political parties that govern a country under a specific religion yet the population it represents is made up of a variety of religions. This concern seeks to highlight the force of political parties that are against the democracy of a country.

The democratic environment can only be attained where people have a right to choose the religion with which they base their lives and not political parties influencing the whole population under one religion. Political parties need to eliminate religious consideration under their functionality in a country’s political leadership.

Religion and political parties have their associations in the society that benefit their influence and power among the people through aspects such as civil rights, anti-terrorism measures and interstate war prevention. Moreover, political parties depend on acceptance, opinions and personal values of the public which are influenced by religion (Arjomand, 1993, p.114).

Proposed Policies to Address Religion and Public Life Issue The public policy issue on religion and faith has lead to advocacy organizations proposing a number of policies that address religion and public life issue. There has been public concern that schools have been excluding religious influences in their activities although currently, the public education officials are aiming to find a solution to the issue to enable religious expressions to be included in public schools.

The society was generally founded on the aspect of freedom of religion where public education curriculum is inclusive of the religious ideas facilitated by the stability of a nation. This policy proposal seeks to not only include religious expressions in public education, but also to offer Bible history and literature.

Moreover, the public policy proposal states that graduating student congregation has the option of having prayers at their ceremony or not. The speeches of the graduation ceremony are not going to be regulated by religious content and distributions of materials that are religiously allowed (Marzilli, 2004, p7-9).

With respect to school employees, the public policy proposal states that instructors and teachers have the right to answer or not to answer questions concerning personal religion and faith issues. However, they have a mandate to maintain a neutral stand in matters concerning religious issues.

People anticipate that future policies will at no point act as a way of forcing a particular religion on schools but would assist in giving teachers freedom to choose what to talk and what not to with regards to religion. In many cases, teachers opt never to address issues of religion and faith due to the fear of lawsuits.

The importance of proposed public policy to address the issue of religion and public life is to enhance agreements between the community and schools about religion and faith, to eradicate discrimination of private religious expression, to educate on evils of indoctrinating religious faith and come up with an environment of academic liberty in issues concerning religion and faith.

These liberties facilitate expression of religion and faith by students and employees in line with the law. The public policy proposal advocates for a neutral ground for religion and faith in schools although the proposal is still subject to discussion between the schools board and the general public.

Conclusion The association of the State and the Church is said to be an institutional means of politics relation with religion. The issue that arises between the church and the public has been an issue of concern in the Western nations and the Christian religion.

This has been the case not only due to the secular reasons of the west, which advocates for limitation powers of religious authorities, but also because of long time origins during the introduction of distinct rival institutions of the Church and State.

The rivalry between the state and the church was based on their claims of power and ability to enforce the law. An example of authoritative and law enforcement rivalry is the rivalry in Europe between the Emperor and the Pope during the fourteenth century ages.

Like the European rivalry in the fourteenth century, the Western Society has experienced state and church rivalry for a long period of time. In the modern Western Society, separation of the two has been advocated in a way that the church and the state have no conflicting interest. However, suspicion remains dominant in the case of Catholic politicians in Protestant nations.

The public has a consideration of the religious rights and freedoms being mere privileges, since the justice system does not recognize these rights in case of law breakers.

The prisons laws with regards to religious rights and freedom are considered by the public as a hoax that brings about more problems to the public. Nevertheless, public policy issue on religion and public life is considered by both the state government and the federal government as one-faced.

References Arjomand, S.A. (1993). The Political Dimensions of religion. NY: SUNY Press.

Babst, G.A., Gill, E.R. and Pierceson, J. (2009). Moral Argument, religion and same sex marriage, advancing the public good. NY: Rowman


Leadership in the Public Making Policy Process Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Pubic policies are very essential in resolving public issues and controversies. The process of creating public policy is very sensitive and requires proper leadership for viable and practical decisions that are beneficial to the public to be made. The quality of public policies made depends entirely on the leadership traits possessed by those in charge of the public policy making process (Gerston, 2010).

Lack of leadership traits essential for making sound public policies can be very detrimental to the general development and running of a country. Since pubic policy making process is a team effort by a group of leaders, it is necessary for these leaders to have the basic qualities that a policy maker needs to possess.

This paper will highlight some of the leadership qualities required in public policy making process and finally look at examples of leaders with excellent records in creating viable and practical pubic policies.

To begin with, a public policy leader must embrace teamwork since public policy making is a team effort (Koch, 2007). The people being selected to create public policies must have relevant information and expertise concerning a respective policy. This will enable the policy makers to gather relevant information and apply their expertise in developing quality policies that would be beneficial to the public (Koch, 2007).

Although public making policy should include the public and other stakeholders, those leading the process should be experts who have experience in matters concerning the policy at hand. An example of this is when leaders with experience in the armed forces are selected to be in charge of formulating military policies.

A public policy leader should have a high sense of integrity with a selfless attitude. Integrity and selflessness ensures that the policies formulated are for the benefit of the public and not selfish personal interests of leaders or other specific stakeholders (Anderson, 2010).

Those in charge of the public policy making process should be widely travelled which enables them to formulate quality policies based on their experiences in foreign countries. Comparing a variety of examples enables public policy makers to come up with more informed decisions. All leaders make decisions at some point in their duties and this is no exemption public policy making leaders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Policy making leaders should be decisive because the final decision lies with them after extensive consultation. There are many renowned leaders across the world that are credited with leading the process of formulating public policies that turned out to be beneficial for their countries (Anderson, 2010).

Al Gore is an example of those leaders who are regarded as being instrumental in bringing quality, modern and practical industrial policies in the United States of America when he was the vice president under the Clinton regime. Al Gore is known to see public policy formulation is a way of responding to changing societal need s and a demonstration of one’s leadership.

In conclusion, the right leadership qualities and traits are needed for effective formulation of public policies that are beneficial to the public. A sound education background and experience is essential for those in charge of leading the process of making public policies. Policy makers must be men and women of integrity who have the interest of the public at heart.

References Anderson, J. (2010). Public policymaking: An introduction. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Gerston, L. (2010). Public policy making: Process and principles. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Koch, R. (2007). Public governance and leadership: Political and managerial in. New York, NY: DUV.


The Experiences of the Asia-Pacific Area and Their Influences on the Relationship Between Democracy and Economic Growth Essay essay help: essay help

The Asia-pacific area is an economically, culturally and politically diverse region. Asia has risen to become a leading global market due to proper implementation of proposals to upgrade ports. A lot of public ports have been transformed into profitable business entities.

This has been due to the universal emergence of reform- based privatization. Kalpana and Jolly (2001, p. 200) describe that to date, communication industry in the Asia-pacific area have been boosted by flexible and mobile networks and the relevant maintenance of data systems.

However, the industry is affected by barriers that tend to limit opportunities. Such limitations include fluctuations in network prices and destruction of delicate equipment used in the industry.

The transport industry in the Asia-pacific area boasts of greater development largely attributed to influential stakeholders in the industry. Traveler realization and baggage allowance techniques are aimed at improving overall passenger satisfaction and experience.

The healthy economic growth in the Asia-pacific area is attributed to a quick recovery from the recent global economic crisis. The remarkable recovery and improvement in economic growth is due to good governance and great involvement of such international economic organizations as the World Trade Organization (WTO).

The maintenance of high economic growth reduces the hardships that the people from the Asia-pacific area had to endure previously. The growth has also been due to efficient supply chains, regional cooperation and integration. In addition, aids to trade have acted as powerful engines in poverty reduction and in ensuring equitable growth.

The Asia-pacific area can attain high economic growth with a systematic institutional arrangement that aims at arriving at political decisions that will enable individuals to acquire the power to decide, and have the freedom to join unions and organizations. The democratic systems in this area have respect for human race and the supplementary systems of administration that have grown into vibrant market responsive economies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Experiences from the Asia-pacific economy show that democracy has an indirect progressive influence on growth. This is because democracy positively impacts on the key determinants of economic growth.

The key determinants of economic development are education, human capital, inflation, investment, and income distribution. Democracy promotes cost-effective responsibility and reliance because its relevance governs financially viable contacts and public policy.

Universal and democratic social liberties influences donor funding because this encourages free journalism that helps in uncovering corruption or incompetent paperwork. Media freedom also helps in sending early warnings thereby putting pressure on the state to take prompt action.

Fostered democratic government helps to release creativity amongst members of the society, thereby enhancing accountability and active participation, leading to economic development (Maus 1997, p.47). Democracy also encourages human rights agenda and this serves to strengthen the influence and competence of nongovernmental organizations that form an integral part of the positive growth of the economy.

The democratic administration has helped in reducing the level of poverty and removing the restrictions that previously hindered proper decision making. This symbolizes the standard shift in the governments’ task to oversee and contribute in responsible and equitable promotion of the rule of law. This ensures that all citizens are included in the decision making process.

Reference List Kalpana, R. et al., 2001, Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial experiences in Asia and the Pacifi.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maus, I., 1997, Inequality, Democracy and Economic Development. New York: Praeger.

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Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Joseph Stiglitz: Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility



Introduction Corporate social responsibility is a term that has gained significant prominence in the past two decades. For a long time, it was held that the only purpose companies were created is to generate profits. While this is true, people began to realize that corporations also have an obligation to the society as prescribed by law.

According to Carroll (1999), the first real definition of corporate social responsibility was provided by Howard Bowen in 1953. Bowen described social corporate responsibility as the obligations of corporations to act in such a manner that is desirable with regards to societal values and objectives.

This definition has undergone various changes and has been refined by various economists to set out a more concise statement on what CSR is about. Carroll (1999) defined corporate social responsibility as a voluntary obligation which a corporation has to the society other than that set by contract or by law.

Joseph Stiglitz: Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility Various arguments have been brought up about the topic of corporate social responsibility. Most of the arguments raised are mainly due to differences in definition about Corporate Social Responsibility and the nature of businesses (Hussain, 1999).

Various economists have different views about CSR and understanding these views may pave the way forward in forging a comprehensive standard to guide Corporate Social Responsibility. Joseph Stiglitz is a Nobel Laureate and an influential American economist.

He has written several books on different economic issues and has also served as a policy maker in the Clinton administration (Friedman, 2002). From his various writings and policies, it can be shown that Stiglitz is one of modern proponents on Corporate Social Responsibility.

In his book Making Globalization Work, Stiglitz looks at the problems brought about by globalization and holds the view that globalization victimizes several countries as well as individual citizens. He argues that globalization has led to loss of jobs, unfair competition and an increase in drug cost for serious illnesses such as AIDS (Stiglitz, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Companies make deals with governments (especially developing countries) such that they can operate with minimum intervention and with little regards to the society in which they operate. In this book he also notes that the environment is one of the most precious resource people have and that governments and corporations have an obligation to reduce the effects of global warming (Stiglitz, 2008).

He notes that pollution, unfair subsidies and tariffs have led to the destabilization of the global economy. He proposes that to solve this problem, more transparent institutions should be created (Stiglitz, 2008). These views basically propose that both governments and institutions should embrace corporate social responsibility if societal problems are to be solved.

In an interview held in 2010 by tikkun Magazine, Stiglitz offers his direct opinion on corporate social responsibility. In the interview, Joseph Stiglitz asserts that the only way to create a fair society is through collective action between the various stakeholders in the economy (Lerner, 2010).

Global poverty, health and environmental degradation can all be mitigated through proper government policies and through voluntary participation of the various stakeholders in the global economy. During the interview, Stiglitz also affirmed his support for the current government policy requiring that all large corporations should get a corporate charter that is renewable every five years.

The Environmental and Social Responsibility Amendment requires that a charter be given to those corporations that have a good past with corporate social responsibility as per a jury of average citizens (Lerner, 2010). He however has reservations on the applicability of the Act as he notes that the definition of corporate social responsibility is diverse and different individuals have different comprehension on its meaning.

He notes that some companies embrace going green but readily offer loans to cigarette companies whose very existence is a form of social irresponsibility (Lerner, 2010). He further adds that there should be precise sets of standards that set the expectations of corporate social responsibility.

From his interviews and books it can be noted that Joseph Stiglitz supports corporate social responsibility but has several worries on the interpretation and application of CSR in companies. He proposes that collective participation is required in order to solve societal problems both at the local and the global scene.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility, he argues that all companies have an obligation to the society and should thus try to act in the best interest of the society.

However due to differences in interpretation and misunderstanding as to what really constitutes Corporate Social Responsibility, it is necessary for the government to set up a given set of standards that would serve as the guidelines for companies to meet the said obligations (Lerner, 2010).

Stiglitz also notes that this government intervention should not be rigid as standards change over time and thus the government should constantly review the standards set for corporate social responsibility.

Conclusion Joseph Stiglitz has had a very illustrious career both in policy making and as an economist. He is particularly known for his criticisms on the management of the International Monetary Fund, free market economist and the failures of globalization.

Most of his criticisms are based on the fact that most international institutions do not practice corporate social responsibility and are only there to make profit with disregards to the community they are supposed to serve. His views has granted him several prominent position in the government and has also seen him attain top position within the World Bank, at one time serving as the senior vice president.

His work on these subjects has also granted him several prize and award recognition the most notable being the 2001 Nobel Prize in economics. He teaches at various universities in the world and also has been noted to be one of the most referred economists in the world.

Stiglitz also began the Initiative for Policy Dialogue, a corporation dedicated to promoting global development through proper policy making and sound business practices such as CSR.

While many economist do not readily agree as to what constitutes as Corporate Social Responsibility, the consensus is that every corporation has an obligation to the society it serves. Joseph Stiglitz has campaigned vigorously for global development both in his writing, work as a policy maker and activist for change.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Looking at his various achievements, it can be easily shown that people have noticed the need for change and that his beliefs have granted him various advantages. Corporate Social Responsibility is not just a fad but a real development that has slowly gained influenced in the business field.

Reference Carroll, A. (1999). Corporate Social Responsibility. Business and Society, 28(3), 268 – 295

Friedman, B. (2002). Globalization: Stiglitz’s Case. New York Review of Books, 49(13), 26.

Hussain, S. (1999). The Ethics of ‘Going Green’” The Corporate Social Responsibility Debate. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8, 203-210.

Lerner, M. (2010). Economics for a Global Community – A Conversation with Joseph Stiglitz. Tikkun, 25(5), 12-16.

Stiglitz, J. (2008). Making Globalization Work – The 2006 Geary Lecture. The Economy and Social Review, 39(3), 171-190.


What role do bodies play in experiencing the world Essay essay help online: essay help online

Due to revolutionary discoveries that took place during the course of 20th century in the fields of physics, biology and psychology, the conceptual fallaciousness of metaphysical conventions, which presuppose the separate existence of soul and body, is now becoming increasingly clear to more and more intellectually honest social scientists.1

In its turn, this implies that the emanations of one’s existential psyche should not be discussed outside of what happened to be the specifics of individual’s biological makeup – apparently, it is namely one’s body which predetermines the workings of his or her consciousness and not vice versa.2

In this paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of an earlier articulated thesis in regards to how the particulars of person’s bodily constitution, reflected by the qualitative essence of his or her cognitive capabilities, affect the manner in which such a person perceives surrounding realities.

In his book, one of 20th century’s most famous anthropologists Levy Bruhl was able to expose the innermost preconditions for the fact that; whereas, Westerners proved themselves capable of driving forward cultural, social and scientific progress, many representatives of so-called ‘indigenous cultures’ failed even at advancing beyond the Stone Age.

According to the author, this can be explained by clearly ‘pre-logical’ essence of how these people indulge in cognitive reasoning. Bruhl explains this by the fact that, unlike what it is being the case with intellectually advanced Westerners, ‘pre-logical’ savages actively strive to ‘blend’ with the nature:

“Identity appears in (native) collective representations… as a moving assemblage or totality of mystic actions and reactions, within which individual does not subjectualize but objectualize itself”.3

In its turn, this explains why despite the fact that many highly ritualistic activities, practiced by ‘pre-logical’ tribesmen, do not make any sense, whatsoever (and are often utterly repulsive, as shown by Metcalf)4, these rituals nevertheless continue to define the essence of primitive people’s mode of existence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, according to Herdt, in traditional societies men’s willingness to follow the ritual is often considered the foremost indication of their masculine adequacy: “Ritual makes use of physical, instru­mental routines in restricting, cleansing, and ingesting things; and the ritual behaviors funnel subjective attachments to conventions, persons, and natural species”.5

Following the ritual, however, is being often concerned with the process of people intentionally suppressing their individuality and adopting clearly communal stance towards addressing life’s challenges. This explains the methodology of teaching Asian martial arts, for example.6

Nevertheless, it was on the account of our early ancestors beginning to oppose/subjectualize themselves against the environment that they were able to attain a complete dominance over the representatives of competing species. This allowed them to establish objective prerequisites for the consequential emergence of human civilization, as we know it.7 As Taylor noted: “Perception is basic to us as subjects.

To be a subject is to be aware of, to have a world. I can be aware of the world in many ways”.8 And, be able to gain awareness of the world, one must be able to asses reality’s emanations’ three-dimensionality – that is, he or she would need to be capable of expanding its mind: “We certainly need to perceive the world to know which end is up; and we can be fooled if our perception is restricted in some way”.9

This points out to the full academic legitimacy of an idea that the particulars of people’s physical appearance are indeed being illustrative of their varying ability to properly address life’s challenges, as there is a well-defined correlation between the particulars of people’s physical appearance and the manner in which they indulge in cognition.

Therefore, it is fully appropriate to discuss the specifics of how people experience world within the context of what happened to be the qualitative characteristics of their bodies, because it is namely the essentials of individual’s physiological constitution, which more than anything else define his or her socio-cultural attitudes: “In all these ways, our perception is essentially that of an embodied agent.

Its structures only make sense in relation to this agent’s activities, and it requires at its margin the agent’s sense of his own stance”. 10 In its turn, this partially explains the phenomenon of ethnic immigrants sticking close to the ideals of ‘traditional living’; well after they relocate to Western countries11 – apparently, they never cease acting as the ‘embodied agents’ of a ritual.

We will write a custom Essay on What role do bodies play in experiencing the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After all, as it was proven by the founder of Positive Criminology Cesare Lombroso, person’s endowment with ritualistic-mindedness often extrapolates itself in such person exhibiting the marks of anthropological atavism (the measure of evolutionary underdevelopment)12, which in turn presupposes atavistic individual’s tendency to indulge in anti-social behavior.

Hence, the phenomenon of so-called ‘natural born criminals’: “Many of the characteristics of primitive man are also commonly found in the born criminal, including low, sloping foreheads, overdeveloped sinuses, overdevelopment of jaws and cheekbones, prognathism, oblique and large eye sockets”.13

Nowadays, the fact that people’s individuality is indeed being reflective of their bodily characteristics is considered unmentionable – the provisions of political correctness deny even the slightest possibility for individual’s physical appearance to play an important role in determining the qualitative subtleties of his or her existential self-identity.14

This, however, does not undermine the validity of a great number of anthropological studies, the authors of which have succeeded in exposing biologically predetermined correlation between the specifics of people’s racial affiliation and the essence of their perceptional uniqueness, which in turn defines their chances to attain social prominence through education.15

For example, the fact while IQ-tested, the majority of African-Americans score rather poorly, as compared to what it is being the case with Chinese-Americans and Caucasians16, is now being commonly addressed as the consequence of these people being continuously exposed to ‘poverty’, ‘undernourishment’ and ‘institutionalized racism’.17

There is, however, a better explanation to this phenomenon, related to purely physiological aspects of maturing process, on the part of African-Americans. After all, for duration of at least a century, physicians and anthropologists never ceased being aware of the fact that sutures on most Black people’s skulls close by the time they reach the age of 20-25 years old.

The sutures on skulls of majority of Whites, on the other hand, fully close by the time they reach the age of 40-50 years old.18 Yet, it is specifically the fact that not fully closed sutures permit brain’s expansion in size, which establishes objective preconditions for individuals with this particular cranial characteristic to be continuously advancing, in intellectual sense of this word.19

As it was pointed out by Morriss‐Kay and Wilkie: “The evolution of human intelligence was made possible by the ability of the brain to expand within its protective casing; similarly, the development of full mental capacities in the growing individual depends on long-term expansion of the skull to allow free growth of the brain”.20

Not sure if you can write a paper on What role do bodies play in experiencing the world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The earlier articulated suggestion, however, should not be thought of as being intentionally malicious, due to what may be perceived as its ‘racist’ undertones that supposedly imply Black people’s inferiority, because the academic legitimacy of scientific data does not depend on the extent of its discursive appropriateness/inappropriateness, but solely on the extent of its objectiveness.21

After all, the same methodological approach can be well utilized within the context of exposing what predetermines Black athletes’ overwhelming dominance (superiority) in short-distance running, basketball and football, for example.22

As it was shown by Vogler and Schwartz, the reason why African-American athletes dominate earlier mentioned sports is that their bodies’ cell-breathing is much more intensive, as compared to what it is being the case with the bodies of non-Black athletes, which in turn results in supplying more energy to Black athletes’ muscles.23

Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that there are strongly defined sporting overtones to African-American culture, in general24 – people’s cultural/cognitive leanings always reflect the genetically predetermined mechanics of their bodies. This is exactly the reason why socio-cultural attitudes, on the part of African-Americans, appear being heavily affected by these people’s mental sport-orientedness.25

The soundness of paper’s initial thesis can be further substantiated in relation to what constitutes an apparent difference between Western and Oriental modes of perceiving the world.26 According to Bower: “In a variety of reasoning tasks, East Asians take a ‘holistic’ approach.

They make little use of categories and formal logic and instead focus on relations among objects and the context in which they interact… (Westerners) on the other hand, adopt an ‘analytic’ perspective. They look for the traits of objects while largely ignoring their context”.27 Such Bower’s observation explains the particulars of how most Asians tend to reflect upon the environment.

Unlike what it is being the case with Westerners, they appear ‘context-conscious’ – that is, Asians do not assess the emanations of surrounding reality as ‘things in themselves’ but rather as ‘things in entourage’.28

Such Asians’ tendency reveals itself in the design of Oriental advertisement posters, for example, most of which feature advertised products placed towards the corners; whereas, most Western advertisement posters feature advertised products at the very centre29:

This indirectly exposes the essence of East Asians’ (particularly Chinese) talent in replicating Western technological innovations on industrial scale30 and explains why Oriental existential mode has never been strongly affiliated with the process of people taking the full advantage of their endowment with creative genius.31

As it was implied in the Introduction, even though it still remains a widespread practice among many social scientists to discuss the specifics of how people shape their worldviews outside of what happened to be the qualitative characteristics of these people’s bodies, such practice can hardly be referred to as being full appropriate, in academic sense of this word.

The reason for this is simple – just as it was shown earlier, individuals’ physiological (bodily) makeup does predetermine the operative subtleties of their world-perception and consequently – their varying ability to act as the agents of progress. In its turn, this points out at the conceptual erroneousness of socio-political philosophies, based upon the irrational assumption of people’s absolute equality.

References Alter, JS, ‘The once and future ‘apeman chimeras, human evolution, and disciplinary coherence’, Current Anthropology, vol. 48, no. 5, 2007, pp. 637- 652.

Ambler, T


Eurozone Economic Stability Report essay help

Executive Summary This report is aimed at analyzing the effects of the Euro zone economic crisis on international business. The report also gives an account on the actual and potential business risks that are likely to be experienced in the Euro zone by prospective businesspersons. The results of this report assert that the crisis in the Eurozone is not a regional problem, but goes beyond Eurozone.

Globalization has precipitated a global and interlinked business village in which economic problems are no longer solitary. Moreover, it was established that poor economic policies and a culture of impunity are some of the driving forces behind the crisis in the Eurozone economic crisis. Furthermore, the report posits that the adverse effects of the crisis in the Eurozone will reverberate to other parts of the world.

Relevant recommendations have been outlined to assist that dissects the Eurozone’s economic woos and provides a succinct analysis of the core strategies potential investors in the region may wish to pursue to cushion them against impacts of these problems.

Introduction Countries, just like firms, operate their within the principles of theories of capital structure. The theories of capital structure attempts to provide an explanation between the mix of securities and financing sources that may be employed by nations to finance their real investments.

These theories of capital structures emphasize on the levels of debts and equities on firms and are determinants to the capacity of a nation to finance its projects. Several theories have been advanced on the debt-equity choices without one being universally accepted.

This suggests that the path a firm or nation will follow does not depend on a universally accepted throry of capital structure, but is guided by the internal structures of a nation’s financial characteristics and its debt levels.

The pecking order theory on the other hand advances that a firm will borrow, rather than issue equity, when internal cash flows are not sufficient to fund capital expenditures, suggesting that the amount of debt will reflect on the firms cumulative need for external funds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The free cash flow theory on the other hand proposes that dangerously high debt levels will increase value, notwithstanding the threat of financial distress, when the firms operating cash flow significantly surpasses its profitable investment opportunities.

The crisis that currently afflicts the Eurozone is not a unique economic crisis to the European region. Despite the fact that its impact in the region is greater, it is shifting the balance of trade with the regional trade partners. This implies that as long as the Eurozone continues to exist within this shaky economic situation, the rest of the world must brace itself for tough economic times ahead.

As stated above, the aim of this report is to demonstrate the economic destabilizing effects that impacts on Eurozone countries. Whereas the report will make these observations, it is not limited to that scope.

Within this process on examining the effects of the Eurozone crisis on international business, the report will illustrate the potential risk areas and provide relevant recommendations. An assessment of the local impact the crisis has on businesses will be conducted alongside the global impact. Short and medium term political impacts on businesses will also be dissected in this paper.

Definition of terms Eurozone – European countries that have adopted the Euro as national currency in a process aimed at monetary and economic unification.

Contagion-Transmit ion through contact.

Gold standard– the system of monetary organization under which the value of a country’s money is legally defined as a fixed quantity of gold and domestic currency of that country.

We will write a custom Report on Eurozone Economic Stability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion Origins of the financial problems

The international financial crisis that was witnessed in 2007 to 2008 impacted hard on 16 members of the Eurozone. The impacts of the financial crisis on most countries have had significant shift in their economic set ups, their public deficit have reached record figures with and considerable increase in their public debt (Kaiser 2007).

The economic turmoil in Greece remains an avid example that cannot be blamed on the international financial crisis that rocked the world and continues to be felt. The economic woos of Greece draw their origins from wrong judgments on the part of political leaders.

Effects of the Eurozone crisis

The effects of the financial crisis in the Eurozone have not been limited to the member countries. The US president asserts that the problems of the economies of the world will continue to demonstrate weakness as long as the issues of Greece and the larger Eurozone are not addressed promptly (Peston, 2011).

Indeed, the Eurozone’s economic situation is a significant concern to the United States, which is embroiled in its domestic economic problems experienced in the last half a decade. It remains a fact that Greece’s debt problem will continue not only get complicated if effective remedies are not put in place, the United states will continue to express grave concern over Greece’s inability to service its debts.

Such economic circumstances may in turn precipitate panic in the US economy and global economy and create far-reaching implications for the US and rest of the world (Ramonde 2011). In mitigating the effects, the USA is examining effective strategies to dilute the far-reaching impacts.

Economic stimuli programs such as increasing the levels of exports to cover the gaps of recession have been proposed as viable options in addressing the challenge. However, the persistence of the Greece’s situation is likely to witness weakening of the Euro and the strengthening of the dollar. Such a set up in economic shape that makes imports to the Eurozone expensive would remain disastrous in these hard economic times.

As the situation prevails, the debt continues to accumulate; the value of the Euro will eventually decline. This will raise interest rates that will consequently make life unbearable for the common population.

Despite the fact that the European Central Bank has injected bonds from the struggling governments in an effort to try to reduce the financial pressure, a reduction of deficit levels is proving to be a tall order. Interest rates are skyrocketing and the chances of defaulting are real and banks around the world are feeling the heat under the collar (Sinclair, 2011)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Eurozone Economic Stability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Efforts to avert the crisis

Indeed, the effects of the Eurozone crisis are of concern to all governments due to the interdependence nature of the world economies. Stock and bond markets in the Eurozone are continuing to slide down sharply amid the fears that governments’ efforts in those areas are not strongly reassuring. As this happens in the Eurozone, economic sentiments outside the zone are continuously dwindling.

The UK is burning its fingers to ensure that Greece is stabilized because the opposite would be disastrous. In the event that Greece defaults on payments, UK banks that have heavily invested in Greece would definitely incur huge losses. This brings a new and complex dimension to an already grave situation.

It suffices to say that Britain is not in the Eurozone, however, as it has been shown, the problems of the zone are not limited to member states alone. The EU accounts for 40% of the exports of Britain (Laidi, 2011).

The UK has been on the forefront in lending money members of the Eurozone. Britain must be on the forefront to ensure that the advanced loans are not lost in the economic meltdown. Defaulting on the part of the countries of the Eurozone would worsen Britain’s austerity problems.

Impact of the Eurozone Crisis on Cost of Capital for Firms How firms select their capital structures is a question that has been severally asked and analyzed without a definite answer being arrived at, given the economic realities of the specified times. The case of Eurozone economic crisis presents challenges in accessing capital for small and large firms and economic short and long terms are severe.

This will essentially bring forth the issue of capital structures of companies that are operating under credit constraints. It has been ascertained that “credit crunches” as in the case of Eurozone crisis affects the corporate capital structure decisions for both small and long-term firms. The frictions in the credit creation process result in fluctuations in the supply of bank loans.

These imperfections could result from monetary shocks, bank assets devaluations, and regulatory changes, a congregation of factors that severely affect growth of businesses. This is a direct consequence of spiking interest rates on loans.

Ex-post real interest rates in different European Countries Source: European Central Bank (2011)

Basically, changes in supply frictions in the case of credit has impacts on the leverage ratio, issuance choice and the mix of debt sources of small bank dependent firms as contrasted with firms that have public market access, following positive or negative supply chokes (Leary, 2005).

For example, Leary (2005) has demonstrated that the use of public debt by firms that have access to public markets increases relative to that of small firms. This would cement the underlying believe that bank loan supply movements are important determinants of variations in firms placement of their debt and by extension, capital structures.

What is important to note is that small firms may experience more difficulties in gaining access to credit during economic crisis, given their less intense asset bases, that is required as collateral in the issuance of loans. As a result, smaller firms may actually not be highly dependent on bank loans, largely because they fail to meet loaning requirements from the financial institutions.

As opposed to large firms, small firms experience worse economic impacts in such hard economic situations. This is because their scale of operations is low, which means that they do not benefit from the economies of scale which limits their operations and generally inhibits their growth and ability to develop and dominate the markets.

The impact of Eurozone crisis on shareholder and wealth of most affected companies have been severe. According to European Central Bank (2011), the value of stock market declined sharply from 2007 to 2011 while real house prices shot up by almost a similar margin. This is because of high inflation rates in Eurozone as comparison to other regions as indicated by the graph below.

Break-even inflation rates. Source: European Central Bank (2011)

Conclusion The crisis in the public finances of Greece and other members of the Eurozone provoked a new episode in the financial crisis in the first quarter of 2010, in what was initially called sovereign debt crisis, affecting Greece and later other peripheral countries of the Eurozone such as (Laidi , 2011).

This crisis began with the massive sale of public debt of the countries involved in the financial markets, which are caused by several motives. On one hand, the fear of investors of a default in the payment of the debt (interests and repayment) on the maturity date, given the financial difficulties of the countries precipitated the problem.

Furthermore, reasonable reaction in defense of the financial assets, some illustrious financial institutions (not only the denigrated hedge funds) involved themselves speculative operations that were intended to earn huge benefits in the short term. This kind of selfish ideologies was benchmarked on the idea that the price of bonds would collapse.

Both reasons caused a massive sale of public debt bonds, which in turn led to an increase in the risk premium. This can be explained that the financial markets indicate (with or without reason) that public indebtedness is excessive, that it has overcome admissible levels (Ramonde, 2011).

The consequence is that financing the countries affected becomes far too expensive, especially the case of Greece. Other peripheral countries of the Eurozone, derogatorily called PIGS by the English media, are increasing the difference between the interest rates.

Therefore, the countries affected (who need financing not only to address the actual public deficit, but also to repay the old debt on time), have to issue the new public debt bonds at a much higher interest rate. The financial burden that results from the crisis, especially on the interest rate of the Eurozone countries has resulted in the direct increase of the public debt.

Consequently, these countries face the risk of trapping themselves in the deficit-indebtedness vicious cycle (Peston, 2011). It comes to one’s knowledge that even though these countries are compelled to issue new public debt bonds at higher interest rates, the inevitably risk that there may be default on part of struggling countries can only be compared to putting the cat among the pigeons.

This is the case of continuing to invest in a ship that shows no signs whatsoever of recovering. If indeed this is the case, then it is obvious what is given to you is not seen by others.

In April 2010 following all economic and political forecasts, it was obvious that the deficit-indebtedness was headed for a complete cycle. Countries such as Greece had already initiated the process of formally requesting for financial aid from other member states in the Eurozone. After many doubts and delay, the Eurozone finally responded with a bailout plan for Greek public finances.

However, in spite of the Greek rescue plan, and the fact that there are significant differences in organization of public finances among member countries, there was no clear and straightforward solution to the problem. Other nations, particularly the peripheral states had their own concepts on how to deal with the situation. This led to mistrust among the financial markets, ideally worsening the sovereign debt crisis (Sinclair, 2011).

On the understanding of the large debts on properties such as homes, businesses and banks, and given the fact that there were weak perspectives of economic growth of the Eurozone countries; the situation was bound to get worse. The mistrust would later extend to the privately held bonds, the stock market, and other important cornerstones of economy.

This was particularly severe in May and June 2010. Hence, serious financial turbulences took place in the private fixed and variable interest rate markets, which lead to capital movements of financial assets in Euros to financial assets issued in other currencies, causing the depreciation of the Euro in relation to the Dollar, the Swiss Franc, gold and other reserve assets (Ramonde, 2011).

As investors began to realize that the financial markets in the Eurozone are not providing solutions to this problem, they considered taking off and thus creating a panic that resulted in the weakening of the Euro in relation to other global currencies. This weakness could have been considered a plus to the dollar, but in a subtle way, it was not necessarily the case.

The weak Euro definitely opened the way for the dollar to assert itself. The problem is that this assertion does little good to America, especially because it was working on ways to increase its exports to the Eurozone countries. Confronted with these precarious events, that worsened the crisis and threatened the overall recovery of European economies.

One particular interest was the response by Ecofin (Economic and Financial Affairs Council), which was so much delayed due to the doubts raised by countries such as Germany and other central countries as to the real benefit of helping countries with serious financial unbalances (Peston, 2011).

In order to create the European Mechanism of Financial Stabilization, a temporary institution aimed at favoring countries that could be going through serious financial problems, and the commitment of these countries, namely Portugal and Spain, to take stronger measures to overcome public deficit than those taken until then (Ramonde, 2011).

This is apart from the on-going plans to create communitarian institutions that supervise the operations of stock markets and financial institutions, to try to avoid financial imbalances in the private sector, as well as reforming the Growth and Stability Pact (the rules to ensure the balance of the countries’ public finances). This is also aimed at adopting harsher control measures and more severe sanctions to those countries that fail to comply with the rules.

In brief, the problems in Greece have affected the whole region adversely and the survival of Greece hinges on issuing bonds at higher interest rates. This translates to plunging her deeper into economic debt. The debt accumulated may be impossible to repay given the current economic realities. The question is how to handles tensions and suspicions that begin to mount in these countries.

Proposals to separate Eurozone into south and north zones may not translate to better economic situation as the problems are far entrenched into the entre global economy. Such a framework would be too expensive and would mean that those who opt out of the currency revert to their former currencies (Piris, 2010).

Recommendation The financial institutions in the Eurozone ought to be supervised closely by the relevant authorities. In addition, the remunerations of top-executives need to be revised to be consistent with the prevailing economic conditions. When there is a clear indicator as to what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, it is simple to keep track of best approaches even in instances when not all would support the initiatives.

As demonstrated above, run away expenditure and indebtedness are only proof of lack of commitment on the part of governments within the Eurozone. This lack of monetary discipline put individuals as well as governments in awkward situations whereby the expenditure surpasses the revenue.

This obviously leads to deficits and accumulation of debt. National and international monitory organs should come in to mediate this situation. Potential investors also ought to keep a keen eye on areas where the economies run solely on credit it is not necessarily an indicator of wealth, but a desperate move for the lack of austerity in monitory issues.

The experience of this crisis informs one that anti-cyclical government policies (of stimulus facing the crisis and social protection) has limitations determined by the financial markets, limitations which they are overcome, deter public finances into entering an unsustainable vicious circle, after which comes the need to carry out unnecessary adjustment plans.

The countries of the Eurozone have to review the contents of the Stability and Growth Pact, establishing commitments that prevent excessive imbalances in national public finances (Sinclair, 2011).

The discussions presented in this paper have shown that Eurozone’s economic woos will have an impact on the cost of debts as assessed by the capital structure theories. It is has been established that the impact, largely will be moderated by the regional frameworks in handling the challenges.

As already determined above, the economies that do not exercise restraint and where the foundations of accountability are still not firm, will continue to flop, continuing to source for support from other countries.

Reference list European Central Bank (2011). Eurozone, European crisis


How feature writers convey people’s affection by topical or news events Essay college application essay help

Introduction Feature writing in journalism involves coming up with an article that focuses on a specific person, an aspect of a major event and unlike news, it is normally written in an individual style. In addition, many feature writers normally rely on facts in their stories and work hard to ensure that facts presented in their work have a clear basis (Hennessy, 2006).

The origin of feature writing can be traced back to the time when news reporting on contemporary issues that are within the public domain was initiated by many media houses. This indicates that the art of feature writing can be traced back to the time when print media was initiated.

The main focus of this essay is to outline what feature writing is all about and how it affects how people are affected by topical or news events that are conveyed to them through news reporting.

In specific terms, this essay seeks to explain how feature writers go about their task of conveying how people are affected by topical or news events and how this is different from news reporting. As Ricketson (2004, p2.) puts it, feature writing can is the result of everything in newspaper that is not news.

Scope of the essay This essay will discuss the following areas of feature writing

Feature writing techniques

Interviewing techniques

Difference between feature writing and news writing

Feature writing techniques

When it comes to writing news features that are to appear in any given newspaper, there are several skills that the writer needs to be equipped with. First of all, the writer needs to be well versed with all the basic writing techniques that include a good command of the language being used to write the article and the ability to present ideas in a systematic and accurate manner.

The writer also needs to be armed with skills that can go far in ensuring that the story being written for readers is interesting to follow and inclusive of strong quotations that will serve to attract and convince the reader to follow every line of the story.

The writer needs to be equipped with skills that can help in narrowing down the feature to focus on one specific aspect of a person or event. Mencher (2003) on his part argues that feature writing looks like a movie camera in that at the beginning, it focuses on the small side but gradually becomes wider.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the writer of any feature needs to have a ability to deeply criticize what is being written about and all these factors are important in ensuring that the writing turns out to be interesting.


To effectively write a feature for an aspect on an event or a person, an early choice of method of interviewing and prior preparation of questions is quite helps so much when it comes to saving time (Wheeler, 2006).

This is because understanding the method that will be applied in interviewing and having questions that will be used in the interview adequately prepares the writer for the interview and eliminates cases whereby questions are formulated during the interview which normally results into time wastage.

For example, if a writer is out to formulate a news feature that touches on a recent bill that affects gender balance, a proper and sensitive interview plan coupled with right questions ensures that accurate and relevant material is gathered within a short period of time. A proper selection of interviewing method and questions to be asked ensures that the writer has all that is required to make the feature interesting.

Difference between Feature writing and News Writing

It is important to note that there exists a difference between feature writing and news writing when it comes to the format, language and content that is delivered in the two kinds of writing (Garrison, 2004). Whereas news writing involves delivering factual information that is intended mainly to inform the reader of what is currently going on, feature writing involves extrapolation of the aspect that is being written about.

This is normally meant to ensure that the writing is appealing to the emotions of the reader and to some extend to ensure that it is both interesting and entertaining. News writing involves presentation of facts that are thought to be informative to the reader while what is thought not to be important is normally left out.

On the other hand, feature writing involves detailed explanation of the aspect of the event or person who the feature is being written about (Aamidor


Library Descriptions and Challenges Report best essay help: best essay help

The name of the library, which we are concerned with, is Clayton and it is a county library system. The library began in January 1941 by Jonesboro women’s club and at that time, it had 200 books only (McCook, 2011). A certain women’s club rented a room along the old Jones Brothers Department store on south Main Street. The club’s first librarian was Mary Barnette.

Around 1960, Jonesboro library was built near Flint River Regional Library System that had its headquarters in Griffin. The alliance gave permission to citizens of Clayton to be using the books and staff at large. Later in 1964, Jonesboro library was started and around 1966, it opened another branch; the present Jonesboro branch.

Around 1967, the Forest Park Branch was opened at Main Street in Forest Park. The next branch was Riverdale, opened around GA highway 85 near upper Riverdale Road.

Morrow branch followed later in 1975 and it was located on the old Rex Road on a store front. By 1981, the Clayton county libraries had become so successful with the Flint River Regional System and since then, the fame of Clayton County Library System began to increase (McCook, 2011).

The headquarters of the library were built in 1988 on Battle Creek and was followed closely by the Morrow branch in 1991, built on Maddox road. Riverdale branch was next and it was built on Valley Hill Road by 1998. The Lovejoy Branch was the 6th and last since then and it was constructed in 2005 on McDonough Road (Bill


Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited Report a level english language essay help

Introduction The relationship between an employer and the employee needs to be harmonised so as to ensure productivity in the workplace (Bray and Waring 2011). Certain issues are likely to arise in the course of their interaction hence leading to negative consequences in the organisation (Rose 2008).

Employment relations ensure that employment procedures and policies governing the workplace are regulated to meet both the employers and employees’ expectations. This is achieved through the appropriate operational mechanisms being adopted in the workplace (Lewis, Thornhill and Sauders 2003).

Rapid changes in the workplace such as managerial changes, government policies affecting the organisation or even new information technology adaptations can alter the employee’s expectations and policies (Palmer 1997). Through a case study, this paper will identify and discuss the issues in employment relations within an organisation and propose strategy frameworks to solve the problems.

Case Study GASCO Limited is a private company in Australia that engages in natural gas extractions. The company has a clientele of 100,000 households who use the company’s gas at an average expenditure of $400 per year in each household. Currently, the employees operate under a collective agreement certified by the Australian Industrial Relations Commissions.

The agreement is a result of negotiation between the management of GASCO, the union and the employees which was entered into in 2009. A provision in the agreement requires the company to pay redundant workers with 8 weeks pay per annual employment. It should be noted that 85% of the workers fall under these category. However, the company seems to be experiencing major financial problems amidst other issues.

This is attributed to the recent move by the government to regulate prices, new managerial changes in the past 6 months and ensuing conflicts between the management and workers leading to several worker’s strikes over the last year.

On the other hand, the company sales seem to be declining with most of their clientele preferring electricity rather than gas. The changes are affecting the daily operations of the company as indicated in the recent balance sheet. The company has recorded a net loss of $1 million characterised by the employment relations issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Employment Relations Issues At GASCO The case study presents three pressing employment relations. The first issue identified is the industrial relations legislations put in place to govern the relationship between the management and the employees. The terms and conditions policies in the company have been put down in a collective bargaining agreement between the management, the employees and the Australian trade union.

The trade union, which serves as a third party become an issue in the employment relations in the company as it fails to put into consideration the organisation’s main operating policies (Frazer and McCallum 1997). This issue can be managed by introducing individual contracts (Sewerynski 2003). Individual contract is an agreement between the employer and the employee and does not include a third party.

The Australian Workplace Relations Act allows the key players in an organisation to enter into either collective or individual agreements (Australia Limited 2000). Though the Act places more reliance on collective bargaining agreements, individual contracts are also enforceable in law after the expiration of a collective agreement. GASCO may wish to enter into individual contracts because of various reasons.

The financial mishaps being experienced as a result of declined sales in their product and also the government’s move to regulate prices. The management needs to negotiate the varying terms and conditions of the contract as regards pay rates, working hours and managerial relationships to suit the current company’s policies.

The negotiation should be between the management, the employees and the union. The other alternative is to withdraw the collective agreement from covering new individual employees. Further, the company may wish not to renew the collective agreement upon its expiry in 2012 as stipulated by the law.

The other issue is the managerial changes that have occurred in the past few months within the organisation. The step by the management to bring in a new CEO may have had a huge impact on the employees. Change of management can affect the theoretical perspective of the company. This is due to the conflict by the two managements in understanding and analysing the relations in the workplace.

The management can either adopt the unitary or pluralist perspective to run the company. The previous management in GASCO seems to have operated under the pluralist framework. A company under this framework runs under powerful and divergent models, each with their own set of objectives. The two predominant models in this kind of framework are the management and the trade unions.

We will write a custom Report on Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trade unions, in such a mechanism, are highly regarded as the legitimate representatives of employees. Collective bargaining is used by the unions to deal with conflicts between the employer and the employees.

It should be noted that in such a key scenario, the management has a very minimal role towards enforcing and controlling policies. Therefore, the introduction of a new CEO with a quest to implement a unitary framework becomes an employment issue. Unitarism emphasizes a harmonious workplace and ensures that both the employers and the employees share a common purpose.

It also adopts a paternalistic approach by demanding the employees’ loyalty to the company’s policies. Such kind of company disregards the role played by the trade unions and is bound by the loyalty between the employees and the management itself. Previously based on a pluralist framework, the CEO is bound to affect the normal operations of GASCO by implementing the new framework.

This will not only trigger the employment relations between the management and the workers, but is itself a pressing issue (Gennard and Judge 2005). The different departments in the organisation are bound to be affected by the changes. The alternative of managing this particular issue is by the new CEO incorporating the interests of the workers in his new policies (Moore 1977).

The last notable issue is the conflict over management decisions and OHS issues. This is evidenced by the management’s ignorance to pressing issues by the employees hence resulted to five strikes in a span of one year. Collective agreements give the union mandate to act on behalf of the workers.

The federal jurisdiction in Australia allows the workers to engage in peaceful strikes to protest over managerial issues (Australian Limited and OHS Industry 2007). However, the same can lead to the operations of the company going to a standstill further leading to decline in sales. The alternative can be achieved through issuing written and documented OHS policies and procedures.

Strategies To Be Adopted By The CEO To Streamline The Employment Relations Issues The issues act as a hindrance to achieve the set target and goals of the company hence leading to a decline in sales.

One of the strategies is to get the entire organisation involved. This can be achieved through the interconnection of all the departments in the organisation and securing their commitment through effective communication. Communication can be achieved through consultation which is important to foster a warm relationship.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The management should involve the employees and the trade union in the consultation. Participation in all levels of the departments encourages accountability in all aspects (Colling and Terry 2010). The CEO needs to engage all the employees in the change process to lead to healthy working relations. This is achieved through maintaining a balance between the management and the employee empowerment.

This strategy is commonly known as the top-down and bottom-up integration. This ensures a success factor through a meaningful involvement, both at the managerial and employee level. The CEO should also adopt the ‘demand-control’ model designed to reduce the stress of change at the workplace. This results to high performance workplace relations through the improved psychological working environment.

The other strategy is through the introduction of new workplace reforms. One of the elements in the Workplace Relations Act, included in the Workplace agreements, allows the employers to enter into an individual contract with their employees. Recent studies indicate that most employers are resulting to individual contracts rather than trade unions agreements.

This has led to increased levels of productivity and performance in the workplace. This strategy requires the CEO to implement a sophisticated approach in the human resource. The approach ensures that the issues by the employees are taken into consideration by excluding the unions. This will lead to fewer strikes in the future hence ensuring high quality outcomes.

Secondly, the changes need to encompass the quest to reduce unnecessary operational costs in the company. GASCO’s balance sheet indicates that the company has an overhead of $ 20.5 million.

This is due to the company’s expenses such as bonuses to management in addition to their salary, house allowances, associated running costs and other operating expenses. The CEO can reduce some operating expenses such as bonuses to the management, house allowance and superannuation. This will drastically improve the profitability of the company.

The other strategy is applying a risk management approach to handle OHS issues. The risk management is important to identify problems in the organisation, assess the potential risks and control the risk. This strategy is essential to handle the issues likely to come up in the organisation effectively.

It further analyses the potential competition that hinders the company to perform and assesses the strategy to be applied in order to increase the sales (Hunt and Provis 1995). This strategy is also important for measuring progress. The company’s model of monitoring and evaluating the working progress is weak and should therefore adopt good measures to enhance the human capital and improve their performance.

This kind of change lays a platform for both the employer and the workers to adopt certain measures that give them an opportunity to perform better. The performance is therefore measured using an internal data hence decreasing levels of conflicts in the organisation.

Conclusion Employment relations issues affect the daily operations of a company. Failure to handle them on time can lead to decreased performance. It is therefore necessary for the management to identify the issues within the company and apply appropriate strategies to solve them. This will help the company to manage its financial mishaps and adapt to any changes likely to be effected in the company.

Reference List Australia Limited (2000) Australian Workplace Relations Act 1996 with regulations and rules: includes excerpts from the Trade Practices Act consolidated to 18 August 2000. North Ryde, CCH Australia Limited.

Australian Limited and OHS Industry (2007) Australian Master OHS and Environment Guide. North Ryde, CCH Australia Limited.

Bray, M and Waring, P (2011) Employment Relations. Sydney, McGraw-Hill Australia.

Colling, T and Terry, M (2010) Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice. New York, Wiley and Sons Publishers.

Frazer, A and McCallum, R (1997) Individual contracts and workplace relations. Sydney, Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training.

Gennard, J and Judge, G (2005) Employee relations. London, The Broadway Publishers.

Hunt, I and Provis, C (1995) The new industrial relations in Australia. Sydney, The Federation Press.

Lewis, P., Thornhill, A and Sauders, M (2003) Employee Relations: understanding the employment relationship. New Jersey, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Moore, W (1977) Industrial relations and the social order. New York, Arno Press Inc.

Palmer, G (1997) Employment Relations. Sydney, Macmillan Education Australia.

Rose, E (2008) Employment Relations. New Jersey, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Sewerynski, M (2003) Collective agreements and individual contracts of employment. Netherlands, Kluwer Law International.


Effects of food advertising in Australian Television on Children aged 5-12 years. Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Abstract This research is an in exploratory examination of the possible correlation between TV food adverts targeted at children aged between 5-12 years and their parents being persuaded to purchase the advertised products.

It uses a content analysis of a sample of ads aired on TV during children’s programming and interviews with 50 parents to examine how food advertising may influence children’s eating habits and their parents’ attitudes on the subject.

Introduction Food advertisements are common in many developed countries. These advertisements are mainly used to entice consumers especially children. According to the Young Media Australia (1997 p.1), Australia is one of the nations with the highest number of food advertisements aired during children programming.

Many studies indicate that a large number of the food products advertised in the Australian TV channels contain high levels of fats and sugar which are associated with a myriad of health problems including obesity. Interestingly, these advertisements are mainly aired during children programming.

However, the main problem does not lay on the timing but the contents of the advertisements. Because of these advertisements, children are bound to show preference for these high fat and sugar containing foods at the expense of other food products that are healthy and highly nutritious(Gantz, Schwartz, Angelini


Privatizing the Electricity Sector Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Critique of the work

The strength and the weakness of the past scholars


Reference list

Introduction In the recent past, a number of countries have embarked on an ambitious program of privatizing the electricity sector. While some governments have sold part of their shares to the private sector, there are others who have sold all the shares to the private sector, leaving such governments with no power to control the actions taken by the new electricity company owners.

There are some people who perceive this as a bold move while others have a different opinion. Those who view this as a positive move argue that, most of the government owned organizations lack proper ways of carrying out their work because of the bureaucracy involved. Furthermore, most of these institutions have been perceived as havens of corruption, since most of the governments lacked the capacity to fight corruption.

Literature review A remarkable number of scholars have had their input on this field, where a number of them seem to concur with each other while a substantial of them differ in a big way from their counterparts. This has therefore led to lack of consensus between the two camps since each perceive their arguments as the one holding water.

It is important to recall that the ideas of privatizing the government utilities was a condition set out by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in the late 1980s, for any country that wished to have its loan application considered by the two bodies.

These reforms were referred to as the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) and were aimed at minimizing the government expenditure on non performing utilities. The critics of this program claims that it was structured in a way that poor countries in Africa, South America, and Asia would continue depending on the developed countries for assistance.

Izaguirre (2000) claims that electricity privatization has helped eradicate the corruption involved while seeking for electricity connection. According to Cook (2007), in the developing countries for example, it used to take months for a person to have his house connected to electricity because the corrupt officials in the main office wanted kick backs for the whole process to start.

He observes that the public demanded accountability from their government and as a result measures were taken to privatize most of the government’s non performing utilities that included the electricity sector.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above sentiments were echoed by Vivien (2008) who asserted that privatization has enhanced service delivery to the members of the public. According to her, the private sector is geared towards making profits. As a result of this, Paul (2002) has argued that the people owning this sector have to put in measures that ensure that the people, who are the main customers, have their needs addressed as fast as possible.

He observed that prior to privatization, other sectors owned by the governments regardless of the country suffered similar problems of slow service delivery and corruption riddled offices.

Furthermore, David (2003) has observed that privatization of electricity sector has helped eradicate matters of favoritism. According to him, some governments, especially in Africa and other developing countries in the world, had the tendency of allocating national resources, including electricity, to areas they perceived as having the support from the people.

According to Fereidoon (2006), such a move led to an imbalance in development because others who were seen to oppose the government were neglected and made to suffer for supporting the opposition.

Therefore, according to Gerard (2008), privatization has helped the distribution of electricity in all areas of a country regardless of the peoples’ support to the government. According to Mark (2006), private companies are capitalist in nature and therefore they would do all within their disposal to make sure that they make an extra coin from their investment.

In addition, Paredes (2007) has argued that privatization of the electricity sector is likely to reduce the cases of illegal connections that have been witnessed in the past, when the government was the only shareholder in the sector. According to Mert (2010), the government lacked adequate personnel to monitor how electricity was being distributed to the people and industries.

He says that since the private sector is wholly owned by individuals whose motive is making profit, they will make sure that there are no illegal connections that deny them revenue by employing a good number of people to patrol certain areas such as the ghetto, where these acts are common.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Privatizing the Electricity Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Europe and other developed countries like Japan and United States of America, Czamanski (1999) points out that the number of companies offering electricity is more than one, hence eradicating the idea of monotony in the business.

Newbery (2001) has asserted that this has created a battle between such companies, a situation that has led to a decrease in the amount charged per kilowatt used by the people and the industries. He says that, just as is the case with mobile phone companies, the consumers are migrating to the service provider with high quality services and cheap rates as well.

According to Stiglitz (2000), the idea of privatizing the public sector has increased the government revenue through the taxes levied on these companies. He points out that, due to the inefficiencies of the former officials in charge the electricity distribution, companies in many countries used to record losses year in year out. He claims that since the new owners are profit minded, the government collection will be on the rise.

On the other hand, there other scholars as earlier stated who perceive privatization as a negative move that is by no means going to help the consumers. One of such scholars is Knight (2002), who claims that most of these private firms lack sufficient capital to boost their business.

The same ideas are shared by Paredes (2003)


The period of absolutism Essay argumentative essay help

The period of absolutism refers to the exercise of monarchial power which was never questioned by other social institutions like the legislature and the church. The monarchs mainly reigned from the early period of the seventeenth century up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Absolutism entailed ending the feudal partitioning, emergence of state power, harmonization of state laws, and there was also a decline in the power of the nobility. Many scholars contend that the French Revolution marked the end of the monarch in Europe or the early modern European period.

This paper seeks to analyze the monarchy with specific reference to France and Mughal Empires respectively. The paper will explore the development of absolutism in each case after which there will be a conclusion to contrast the practice of absolutism in both cases.

The exercise of absolute monarchy in the French territory began in the16th century, and it was preceded by the era of renaissance monarchy that was exercised on the basis of political consensus among the social classes and the monarch. France during the sixteenth century experienced numerous conflicts that occurred due to the establishment of Calvinism.

During this period, French kings struggled to increase their power and this culminated to the rise of royal absolutism. In 1661 Louis XIV took over the French monarchy. He was in power from 1643 till 1715. During his reign, France became the most influential nation in the whole of Europe after supplanting Spain. The long reign of Louis XIV marked the pinnacle of royal absolutism, and he encouraged other monarchs to embrace his way of leadership.

The beginning of French absolutism is associated with Henry IV’s reign. He ruled from 1589 to 1610. Before 1589, France had been plagued by a series of religious conflicts especially between the Catholics and their Protestant counterparts. Other political factions also engaged in these wars. These wars greatly affected the stability of France.

Therefore, when Henry started exercising his authority, he was determined to end the chaos and restore stability in France. In this regard, Henry IV formulated new plans that would foster social economic prosperity. He also made arrangements on how to secure France from external aggression. Nonetheless, he was assassinated in 1610 when he was planning to attack his rivals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marie de Medicos’, who was Henry IV’s wife reigned for several years as a regent for Louis XIII who was then their young son. Marie was able to challenge her opponents, but she did very little to strengthen the monarchy.

In 1624, Cardinal Richelieu was appointed chief minister and he soon begun wielding his authority behind the throne. He had a twofold plan for developing a supreme royal power and also to make France occupy a dominant position in Europe. With his full control of the royal army, he destroyed all the king’s opponents.

In order to destabilize local units of political authority, Richelieu came up with thirty administrative districts and each was ruled by an authoritative intend ant that was answerable to the throne. Finally, he subjected France to thirty years of conflict with Germany.

In this case, he aimed at weakening Habsburg. Richelieu managed to have a firm grip on the royal power by 1642 when he died. Besides this, he managed to fulfill his dream of elevating France to a dominant position in Europe. Cardinal Jules Mazarin succeeded Richelieu.

In order to elevate his status, Louis XIV introduced several construction projects that led to the popularity of his government. His new palace was one of his greatest architectural projects. In 1682, he relocated to Versailles. Initially, it was not easy to exercise absolutism monarchy in France due to the following reasons. First, the nobles had the chance to build private armies and fortifications.

Secondly, lesser kings who were literate had the chance to become agents of the king. They dispensed justice and collected taxes on behalf of the king, and this gave them some authority. In order to consolidate his power, Louis XIV employed the following strategies in his administration.

He limited the authority of the nobles by ensuring that they at least stayed in Versailles for a period of time annually. He used this as a strategy to closely monitor the nobles so that they could not conspire to topple him. In addition to this, he also abolished Protestantism.

We will write a custom Essay on The period of absolutism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This led to the migration of Protestants to other places which still allowed the practice of Protestantism. As they migrated, they spread their civilization in other territories. Louis XIV was also determined to expand his frontiers in Europe. Absolutism became very strong during the reign of Louis XIV.

The Mughal Empire occupied a dominant position in India from the second phase of the 16th century until the first half of the 18th century. It was established from 1526 and it survived up to 1858, when the British Raj supplanted it.

“While many monarchs strived to centralize their powers, authoritative rulers emerged in Asian territories”. With time, the emperors became stable enough to challenge western powers. Even though the Mughals never focused much on international trade, they however allowed business revenue into their treasuries.

Mughal Empire reached its height during Aurangzeb’s leadership. Following his death in 1707, his regime was weakened by a series of several military campaigns, corruption, and killing of the Hindus.

“As the Mughal Empire disintegrated his rivals quickly took over power and by mid 18th century, the land controlled by Aurangzeb’s successors had dwindled to Delhi”. The Mughal Empire had remarkable contributions in art and architecture.

From the above discussion on the Empire of France and Mughal, it can be concluded that that they were both ruled by authoritative kings who were mainly concerned with consolidating their power and influence over their subjects. These two societies were both stratified with the nobles occupying the administrative positions.

Most of the kings in France were keen on expanding their territories, and this always subjected them into a series of military campaigns with their neighboring countries. However, the Mughal Empire under the governance of Aurangzeb was not keen on territorial expansion as compared to France under the rule of Louis XIV.

Even though absolute monarchy existed in France and Mughal Empires, it was more entrenched in the former than in the latter. “The end of the early modern is usually also associated with the industrial revolution which began in Britain in the mid 18th century”. The history of the early modern period as a whole therefore enables us to have a better understanding of the social and political developments of various European societies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The period of absolutism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Cameron, Euan. Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History. London: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Sherman, Dennis and Joyce Salisbury. The West in the World, Volume II: From 1600. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2010.


Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Executive Summary This proposal identifies NEF public relations needs and recommend that a four-month communication campaign strategy will enhance awareness opportunities for NEF. NEF enjoys poor public recognition and awareness and without proper public relations corrective measures, NEF funding and donations activities may remain poor and inadequate.

Therefore, this communication campaign strategy aims at enabling NEF increase its profile awareness among the Newlandia publics: population, industry and business sector, and private business sector. Situation analysis identifies issues NEF face, strengths and opportunities NEF possess. Recommendations are made that are perceived to be measurable, specific, and achievable for NEF.

The proposed communication strategy identifies different publics that include Newlandia population, industry and business sector, and private business sector. The publics are further categorized based on aspects of; geography, socio-economic, cultural and language. This is done to ensure each designing and implementation of campaign messages fits well in each public.

Communication strategy and tactics to be employed in this campaign are varied according to the publics identified, where also communication theories are extensively used in designing communication messages, choosing the communication strategy, and recommending the particular communication tactic.

Evaluation of the entire campaign strategy incorporates both qualitative and quantitative techniques through field surveys undertaken in the third month. Therefore, it can be noted that NEF campaign strategy is premised on persuasive strategies, which are seen to be appropriate to NEF at the moment.

Public relations campaign strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation Situation Analysis

Educational and literacy priorities are two key elements that have been identified for socio-economic advancement of Newlandia people. One NGO in Newlandia remain pivotal to this goal and its name is Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF). NEF was established in early 1900s originally by the Newlandia Trust Hope.

Missionaries were pioneer of this organization and throughout its activities; NEF does not discriminate against race, sex, religion, and economic positions of the citizens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As its activities become pronounced in Newlandia, NEF has had to address the persistent issues of lack of enough schools in regions of Rajan, Calina and Shalel, together with compounding issues of under-resources such as inadequate books, less furniture, inadequate teaching and stationary materials.

NEF resources greatly emanate from World Help agency, partly government funding through community grants and donations from well-wishers. Realizing NEF goals of education and literacy for Newlandia population is not easy as numerous obstacles stand in the way.

However, one source of strength for the organization is exhibited in having strong vision and mission, which function to give the organization clear direction of conducting its activities. Despite numerous hurdles, NEF today prides itself in having successfully seen one of its student beneficiary join university. It can be said that NEF’s future success of its operations rests on setting clear and achievable goals.

By carrying out evaluation of its current activities and the overall operation environment, it can be said that NEF’s future success lies in having enough resources, possessing powerful image and brand, and successfully integrating key stakeholders into its activities.

NEF activities can also be explained in the wider social, political, and economical aspects of Newlandia. Newlandia remain one of socially divided regions manifested in the quality of life and living standards of its people. For example, the northern part of Newlandia boosts vast industries that act as economic heartbeat of the region (Newlandia Government n.d).

Western region is largely occupied by wealth people who live affluent lives, while the southern region is inhabited by majority of poor people. Population of Newlandia also varies with some areas experiencing overpopulation while others remaining under-populated. The north region has estimated population of 250, 000 people, boost numerous industries and the capital city is Velen.

The western area has 250,000 people, majority are wealthy and influential families, while main city is the Lopeto. On its part, Batak and its environs have an estimated population of 1.5 million, shipping industry is thriving, employment is high, and English is the widely spoken language.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The southern area boost a population of about 750,000 people, fishing is the main activity, majority are unemployed, uneducated, speak different dialects and have passion for education. Newlandia economy can be described to be young and emerging and it is largely boosted by international funding in terms of aids (Newlandia Government n.d).

The region has tourism as the main economic activity, which also boosts GDP of Newlandia. Economic activities in Newlandia are based on free market economic preference where government plans for infrastructure have been neglected and prefer private sector to carry out these activities.

Carrying out environmental scanning in which NEF operates certain elements are identified: NEF overall public awareness rate is low and many people do not know about activities of the organization (only 10% know about NEF and 1% know NEF’s vision and mission). This scenario has led the organization to receive little donations and support which in turn limit the overall operations of the organization.

At the same time, government support for the organization is not enough, and further, NEF face stiff competition from NCF, which enjoys wide public awareness, support, and attention. Nevertheless, research carried out in Newlandia indicates that many Newlandians perceive education to be important and they prefer their children to have education.

On overall, Newlandia boost in having numerous primary schools but secondary education remain inadequate, as resources to support secondary education are limited and inadequate. Lastly, government extensively uses English language as the official language but it is rarely spoken outside major cities.

In the larger Newlandia area, fifteen languages are used and it is this aspect that campaign messages should be delivered in appropriate languages to the targeted publics. Combine all these and link them to NEF, as an organization that depends on goodwill and the final picture is NEF need to improve its profile awareness among the different publics in order to enhance its donation and contribution opportunities.

SWOT Analysis for NEF

Strength -People of Newlandia have shown spirit of philanthropy and are likely to support NEF activities. -Newlandians possess great hope and desire for their children to acquire education. -Government has granted NEF land rights in the South for construction of Schools. -NEF receives relative sizeable support in terms of financial and resource support from government and WorldHelp. -At the moment NCF enjoys wide public awareness and support and it is perceived that with increased public awareness activities NEF possess potential to receive such support. Weaknesses -Powerful people in Newlandia such as businessmen and politicians lack interest in community activities and support. Further, the process of requesting such people to become NEF partners may be tedious and fruitless. -NEF for a long time has to contend with limited financial resources that generally affects its activities. -Schools in Newlandia lack primary key resources like furniture, books, and teachers, which on many occasions become impossible for NEF to fulfill. -NEF enjoys little public awareness and as an organization that depends on well-wishers donations this aspect does not resonate very well. Opportunities -Newlandia as a society prides in having some of the best opinion leaders who can support NEF awareness and support bid. These leaders include; Van On, Lakshmi Shankaran, Jacinta Greenwood, and Henry Abalone. Threats -Newlandia lacks vital infrastructures such as roads, secondary education, and water. Further, the aspect of government privatizing infrastructure development is likely to affect activities of many organizations and companies in Newlandia. Goals and objectives of the program Goals

Looking at the wider reasons why organizations seek public relations programs, Reddi (2009) observes that organization need to build its reputation, increase awareness among people, and create influence opportunities among different publics (p.157).

Further, public relations programs are premised on the goal to create a powerful image for the organization as the best among the rest (Haywood and Chartered Institute of Marketing 2005, p.13). With this understanding, goals of this public relations program will be to increase and enhance NEF public awareness among key and different publics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Second, to ensure NEF activities are publicly and widely known among many people and organizations for increased funding and general support. Third, ensure education needs of people of Newlandia are highlighted on wide-scale for appropriate action and support.


The public relations campaign program will achieve the following objectives under the specified time.

To create public awareness about NEF activities in different regions of Newlandia. The target is to reach about 1,600,000 people in Newlandia in three months. Public awareness regarding NEF will include its activities of supporting disadvantaged children achieve education, and how Newlandians can support and donate to NEF activities. After three months, results will be measured through quantitative techniques of field survey.

To inform in three month- period, approximately 175,000 people in Northern region of Newlandia and another 175,000 people in the Western Newlandia about: hardship faced by Southern Newlandians and their inability to access education appropriately and also NEF activities in helping needy children in the region realize their education needs and how they can support NEF activities. After three months, impact of this objective will be measured using quantitative techniques in field surveys.

To inform 1,000,000 people in Batak region and its environs about activities of NEF, hardships faced by Southerners, and how their can support NEF provide help to educational needs of Southerners. This is to be achieved in three months and results to be measured through quantitative techniques in field visits.

To reach out to about 60% of Newlandians’ industry and business sector through message about activities of NEF in providing education opportunities to needy children and how they can help. This objective is to be achieved in three months and outcomes to be measured through surveys using telephones and field visits.

To reach out to about 60% of private industry and business people, informing them about NEF activities and its role in helping needy children attain their educational dreams and how they can support the organization’s activities. This is to be achieved in three months and outcomes measured through quantitative techniques and telephone surveys.

Research Research undertaken and available findings

In order to create a purpose-based public relations campaign strategy, there was prior research among key stakeholders in Newlandia. Prior research was conducted on selected representative samples among business people, politicians, opinion leaders, media people and the general population of Newlandia. Findings from the research show that:

10% of the population posses some information and knowledge about NEF.

1% has knowledge about NEF’s mission, vision and what it does in the society.

85% indicated they had at one point donated to charity work in the recent times.

95% indicated willingness and support for child-education charity organizations.

95% of those sampled indicated that education is important for children in Newlandia, specifically for future benefits.

Recommendations for future research

Research pertaining to success of public relations campaign strategies remains wide and incomplete. This fact therefore suggests that additional and relevant future research work will have to be undertaken. Key recommended areas for future research include:

Carry out research on what particular public relations campaign strategies successful organizations and companies adopted within Newlandia environment and how well NEF can restructure its future campaign strategies and plans.

There is need to conduct research on the specific media channels temporary visitors to Newlandia such as tourists and other business people utilize in order to enable NEF re-package and restructure its campaign strategies.

Target Publics Budget and time constraints have been identified by NEF director Meryn Doogood to be the drawbacks of NEF. As a result, choosing the right publics to communicate to using the available limited budget will be important. Two categories of publics are identified: the general population of Newlandia, public and private corporate sector, and its players.

Further, the general population of Newlandia is sub-divided geographically putting in consideration factors such as language, socio-economic and culture.

The aim will be to create effective and sustainable campaign communication strategy that exhibit right content campaign messages to the identified groups of people in different parts of Newlandia. Three different publics are identified in this communication campaign that will be targeted. They include Newlandia population; industry and business sector; and private and business sector.

Newlandia population to be targeted includes people in Northern, Western, and Batak and its environment and subsequent Southern regions of Newlandia. The aim of communication campaign among people in these regions will be to enhance public awareness of NEF activities, increase public participation in activities of NEF, outline the various ways donations and support for NEF can be realized.

Moreover, in areas like Northern, Western and Batak, the aim of targeting these populations is to ignite philanthropic spirit in the regions, increase future funding opportunities and increate their awareness of Southern plight.

Key media channels in these regions include; Newlandia TV, Newlandia newspaper, Newlandia Radio International, Newlandia Times, Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation, Radio South, and Mouth of South Newspaper.

The second public to be targeted is the industry and business community in Newlandia. The target is to create increased and sustained awareness in this group to ignite their desire to participate in community work, contribute to charities, and develop philanthropic spirit. This group possesses potential for future financial security of NEF, hence needs to create their awareness of plight of needy students in South is important.

The increased knowledge and technological savvy among this group makes it possible for campaigns messages to be received fast and positively. Major information sources accessed by this group include Newlandia Times and Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation.

The third public is the private business and corporate sector who represent future hope and potential source of financial support, sponsorship, and philanthropic activities in Newlandia and specifically for NEF.

Information exchange among this group is high, they are technology savvy individuals, and their influence in terms of corporate sponsorship is necessary for NEF. Information sources for this group include Newlandia Times and Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation.

Communication Campaign Strategy Plessis (2000) observes that public relations campaign communication differs according to the various publics concerned, the money available for the campaign and the applicability of the media to the different publics (pp. 27-31).

As noted earlier, NEF profile in the population is poor, funding in terms of donations is not adequate due to lack of awareness about the organization, and the overall educational disadvantages in Newlandia perform poorly as public agenda.

As a result, communication campaign strategy is needed to enhance the profile of the organization to target publics, increase public awareness about the activities of NEF to increasing funding opportunities and clearly articulate educational challenges in Newlandia.

Therefore, the communication strategy to be adopted will be persuasive in nature with aim to persuade different publics into getting in NEF activities and providing necessary support.

Design of persuasive messages will largely be carried out through application of communication theories such as social learning theory, agenda setting theory, semiotics theory, four model communication theory, and hierarchy of needs theory. These theories will be critical and widely used in developing specific messages that are addressed to particular publics.

Moreover, the campaign will adopt a strategy of using identified key community opinion leaders who will deliver persuasive messages about plight of Newlandia children education needs, the activities carried out by NEF and how support can be facilitated.

At the same time, success story of Rangi will be adopted and the student will be incorporated to talk to various publics about the problems of needy children in South, the role NEF plays in helping South people realize education for their children, and why NEF should be supported in its activities.

Key Messages to be delivered to publics Messages will be designed in a way that its acceptance among different publics is possible and easy. Messages to be designed will be persuasive in nature addressing different categories of publics.

Language to be used in developing messages will resonate with popular and widely spoken language in each region and messages will be simple and clear. Use of symbols and slogans will also be incorporated. Therefore, key messages to be delivered to different publics include:

Majority of children in South region of Newlandia come from poor families with inability to access secondary education.

Support is required to help South Newlandia children access education for their future.

NEF is an organization enhancing education opportunities for children in South with passion to see brighter future for these children.

NEF depend on donations and support of well-wishers hence it need support of many people in Newlandia.

Donations can be in any form as long as they are directed to helping Southerners achieve educational goals.

Tactics Different communication techniques and strategies will be used to reach the identified publics. At the same time, media agenda involving NEF will have to be managed professionally and this will take place in a positive information environment. Tactics to be employed will be premised on use of visual, printed, and oral tactics to reach to different publics.

Adverts related to NEF will be put in leading media sources in Newlandia such as Newlandia Times and Mouth of South. Selected TV releases and adverts will also be sent to popular channels highlighting South situation and activities and plight of NEF.

Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation and Newlandia TV will be utilized. Radio coverage will also be utilized to create awareness among people about situation of South, NEF activities, and why and how donations and support are required.

Channel to be used include Newlandia Radio International and Radio South. Other communication tactics to be employed include use of billboards in target locations in Newlandia, distribution and sticking of posters on appropriate selected sites, conduct awareness open days and forums will NEF officials presenting themselves.

Timeline Public relation campaign strategy operates on a timeframe which generally general constitute a system for keeping track of tasks that need to be done and those that have been completed (Heath, 2005, p.361). A Gantt chart will be adopted in this strategic proposal and as a result, it will be able to identify and apportion tasks, time and their sequence in a graphical manner (Bowen, Rowlins and Martin, 2010, pp.98-99). Timeline can be viewed in the Appendix section.

Proposed timeline for the campaign

Budget Budgets constraints have been identified to impede activities of NEF hence budget will be minimized to realistic levels in this communication campaign (Smith, 2005, pp. 222-223). NEF budget is sustained by funding from World Help and government funding.

Further, well-wishers especially in the media will be approached for further support. Budgeting for the communication campaign strategy will involve every aspect that will contribute to success of the program. This will be in term of both direct and indirect costs and expenses. Budget summaries found in Appendix section.

Estimated budget outline


Bowen, Rowlins, and Martin (2010), note that four concerns have to be addressed when evaluating the effectiveness of public relations campaign. The four concerns are definition of benchmark, selection of measurement tool, analysis of data, drawing of actionable conclusions and recommending, and making changes and further measuring (Bowen, Rowlins, and Martin, 2010, p.99).

Evaluation of the entire campaign program will largely base on the outcomes of the set objectives. In this way, surveys will be incorporated to find out whether the public profile of NEF has increased and to achieve this, feedback reports will be analyzed (Plooy 2004, p.312).

Quantitative and qualitative measurement techniques will be adopted to estimate and measure percentage increase in awareness of NEF activities, percentage increase in awareness of plight and problems faced by Southern people, percentage in awareness of need for charity and philanthropy, percentage increase in the number of people information is relayed to, and lastly, percentage increase in the level of donations and support received after the campaign.

This will take place after three months of the campaign.

Reference List Bowen, S., Rowlins, B. and Martin, T., 2010. An overview to the public relations function. NY: Business Expert Press. Web.

Haywood, R. and Chartered Institute of Marketing. 2005. Corporate reputation, the brand


Competitive positioning Report best essay help

Table of Contents Generic strategy

Rationale for the selected generic strategies

Vision and mission

Business level strategies

Marketing approach


It is fundamental for an organization comprehend the nature of its resources, which include the company’s labor, competencies and ability, aspects that form an organization’s environment (microenvironment). One can understand resources as the belongings of a company, which facilitate the production process. Competencies, equipments, capital, and skilled labor are some of the resources at the disposal for the company.

It is necessary for the resources to be free from any possibility of imitation. However, looking at the fitness industry, resources such as skilled personnel will play a significant role in providing quality services. Consequently, this will significantly ensure a continuous maximum customer satisfaction.

Such satisfaction, if known to other willing consumers, the number of customers would increase significantly. This translates to tremendous success to the new business or firm.

Generic strategy An organization can compete using various possible ways. However, the option chosen on the business level strategy is what determines the intended competition in the market. This is because business level strategy acts as the connection between the organization’s strategies and its desired long-term goals.

The company’s vision and its desired position in the market are often determined by the chosen strategies. However, a thorough assessment of various aspects such as differentiation, focused cost leadership, cost leadership must be done, in order to come up with excellent business level strategies.

Rationale for the selected generic strategies In the fitness industry, the focus is on a wide-range of clients. Tremendous efforts should be dedicated in providing services to a variety of customers having dissimilar demographics and from diverse groups. The excellent implementation of differentiation enhances market competition thus promoting the company services with prosperity as the final product.

Such a strategy signifies the distinctiveness of the Mini active. The features of Mini brand are not far from the ones of the Lexus brand, a Toyota brand (Hanson et al 2008). Despite the risks associated with cost leadership, current competencies and technologies help in avoiding imitations, which improves the competitive edge of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vision and mission The developed resource based model flow chart act connects certain elements that define an industry. After an extensive assessment of fitness and other environmental aspects, the company has spotted a significant industry capable of having significant returns.

Therefore, by excellently understanding the various aspects regarding the company’s internal environment significantly assists in establishing a strong foundation for conquering the market. This places an organization in a perfect position to carry out a value chain analysis, which singles out competencies capable of building a desirable value of products or services.

The creation of competencies should be a continuous process, since they add value to the products or services without incurring any additional expenses. Eventually, this would promote the services of the club as well as assist in maintain lesser charges for services offered.

The organization can enter fitness market in dissimilar forms, either by making an acquisition or by internally developing the organization (Lee et al 2010). Making acquisition can be by purchasing an already established facility. However, this is not the approach taken by BMW; instead, it has employed the internal development approach (Lee et al 2010). The organization is extending its services and brand in the form of a “mini active.”

Business level strategies In order for an organization to a stronger competitive edge or advantage, it must employ several actions that are geared towards their intended goal. These sets of actions referred to as business level strategies. These designed actions or strategies consist of a number of aspects such as differentiation, cost leadership, and focused differentiation.

The excellent employment of any of these aspects assures a stronger barrier for other competitors who may pose significant threats to the company. Moreover, it helps in preventing any form of replication or imitation of the company’s products or services (Hanson et al 2008).

Marketing approach It is undeniable that an organization with established segments in the market, often promote their brands in terms of quality. This reminds us the fact that clients are the individual behind the success of any business strategy. The clients’ continuous use of the products or services acts as the primary basis in determining the effectiveness of the employed competencies or strategies.

We will write a custom Report on Competitive positioning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Hanson, D, Dowling, P, Hitt, M, Ireland, R,