Critical Thinking, Modern Society, And Argumentation


Critical thinking is a process of balanced reflection on external phenomena. Critical thinking requires a high level of awareness, attentiveness, and concentration. I believe increased emotional intelligence will also be a big plus for critical thinking since people participate in all social processes subjected to critical reflection. My description after eight weeks has not changed dramatically but is filled with new information. Logically, the definition has become more filled with meanings within itself. My report actively touches on the social aspect of critical thinking and how the decisions can affect the events’ participants. Perhaps the essential reduction of thinking only to external phenomena is not justified, but it seems the most rational in modern realities. Considering the philosophical reflections of Plato and other thinkers, critical thinking can be directed to inner experiences, sensations, and memories. It, however, does not change the root of critical thinking, which is doubt. One of the brightest adherents of this idea was Rene Descartes, who designated the possibility of doubt as a fundamental ability.

Heart of the Matter

Building on previous chapters, it is necessary to recall the concepts of ideological, comparative, and empirical reasoning. Each type of thinking is based on unique mechanisms and values. Comparative reasoning is based on the presence of at least two points of discussion, which should be compared, and draw a conclusion based on this. Ideological reasoning is the root of erroneous thinking since manipulation, emotions, and logical fallacies lie at the foundation of such thinking (Facione & Gittens, 2022). Examples of these errors are the false dilemma, the scarecrow, and the negation of the antecedent. Empirical reasoning is the thinking of experiments and dry facts, the results of historical research or events. All these concepts are essential for critical thinking, according to the authors, because they form a person’s discussion apparatus, allowing them to build arguments in a variety of ways, not always fair and honest. Sometimes people can see fallacies in advertising, which is to praise the product and lure as many people as possible. The study of these concepts will help, in any case, a person in everyday life filled with information flows.

Ethical Decision-Making

Ethics does not permeate through the issues of discussion and argumentation, but it rightly occupies an important place among the foundations. The sphere of debate is human communication, and knowledge of ethics is necessary to prove one point of view. Moreover, when it comes to promoting this or that idea, which should subsequently benefit society or a group of people, ethics becomes the center and support for evidence.

Looking Forward

I believe that people are inevitably biased, and therefore errors in their thinking will occur, no matter how many books they read on the subject. Development in debating, argumentation, and communication logic must be non-stop throughout life if people are interested in it. Reasoning forms an inner feeling of comfort and secureness in the world order. The development of critical thinking is associated with constant disappointment and surprise at the wrongness of positions that were told to people in childhood. It can be difficult to accept because uncertainty is unbearable for the human brain. To constantly maintain the tone of thinking, it is necessary to study logical errors and ideologemes in politics, advertising, and the media using new examples. One or more books cannot be dispensed with such a complex topic. It must be remembered that with the development of society, ethics, and culture will inevitably change. Articulated ideas will replace each other, forcing us to understand that it is almost impossible to find something so fundamental that it will be the same in all eras and cultures.


Facione, P., & Gittens, C. A. (2022). Think Critically (Custom Edition). Pearson Education, Inc.