Crisis Communication In Asian Cultures Research Paper Custom Essay Help

Abstract Crises communications vary from culture to culture. Most organisations have various methods of managing crises. Crisis communications can build or damage reputations of organisations depending on how crises communication teams handle crises.

The Asian culture of handling communication varies from country to country. There are those Asian countries that have handled their crises poorly. In fact, they tend to hide information from the public in case of disaster. This is the case of Japan in handling its nuclear crises.

Japanese also tends not to speculate. Instead, they want to give exact information. On the other hand, countries like China and Koreas have advanced crises management to include modern social media. Issues of cultural barriers such as language may hinder communication processes. However, the speaker must maintain consistency with his actions and words.

There are aspects of crises communications that all cultures must take into account. These include operational, ethical, behavioural, and professionalism dimensions of crisis communications. In these cases, managing crisis must be prompt, and the public, stakeholders, or victims must hear the facts. An organisation should not communicate any unclear information to the public. This implies that adequate preparation is mandatory. This calls for regular practice in crises communications.

Introduction Crisis is any “situation that threatens or could threaten to cause harm to people, property, seriously interrupt business, damage reputation, and or negatively affect shared values” (Abarquez 2010). Crisis communication deals with what is happening or what has just happened and people are anxiously waiting to hear the outcomes.

These situations can be any kind of “legal disputes, theft, accidents, fire, flood or manmade disasters that we can attribute to an organisation” (Abarquez 2010). It can also be a situation whereby an organisation did not respond to a “situation in appropriate fashion before the media or the general public” (Haddow 2010). Bernstein notes “effective crisis communications are not difficult, but they require advance work in order to minimise damage” (Abarquez 2010). Slow responses lead to a greater extent of damages.

The Operation scope of Crisis Communication

Crisis communication team must work at regaining the lost public confidence after the damage. This decision must aim at reducing the victims and community anguish. The aim should be to restore confidence and rebuild relationship. The move to do what the community expects will reduce media coverage and negative publicity. Organisations can reduce chances of possible lawsuits and negative publicity if they act promptly and appropriately.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need for crisis communications is growing rapidly due the explosion and use of social networks, which are creating so many communication channels that are threats to risk and reputation of organisations.

Kim notes that Asian organisations that in the past may have been reluctant to admit the extent of a crisis now realise “technology creates such a radical transparency, and it has become pointless to be defensive and try to dismiss issues” (Kim 2007).

Instead, organisations find that it is profitable to be proactive and engage people with facts of the matter. Organisations have realised that Public Relations (PR) is no longer a tool for brand promotion, but also useful in reputation protection (Haddow 2010).

Asian crisis communications landscape has changed significantly due to social media. This has forced PR officers to divert their attention to the use emerging technologies and social media platforms to handle crises.

Most PR firms note that they use social media with assured confidence to handle crises. Most Asian organisations are changing fast to adopt social media for PR. However, there are some which are still in the previous era. Organisations that have progressed have also noticed that the culture of face-to-face communication is essential than using social media platforms to manage crises.

Ethical Dimension

The public expects organisations to act with conscience and reflect ethical standards in their communications. Organisations must provide public and prompt responses regarding the situation. Issues that involve ethical dilemmas and integrity usually involve “moral questions, reasoning, and feedback” (Low 2011).

Some crises may offend public values. Consequently, the organisation that is responsible must swiftly act and provide the needed responses. The organisation crisis communication channel must have the moral courage to give appropriate responses. This implies that an organisation must act on matters of principles so as to lessen the negative consequences of a morally troublesome incidence.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Crisis Communication in Asian Cultures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Asia consists of countries of diversities in languages. As a result, it is challenging and equally necessary to master “the language and tone of crisis communications and management with regard to a highly sensitive crisis issues” (Low 2011). We must note that what may work in French may fail to produce the same result in English.

This means that the communication team must tailor their responses and avoid direct translation for best results. Still, Asian languages are so different from English, which is a subject-centric language. Therefore, crisis communications must take into account the cultural context of languages (Low 2011).

Bob Pickard notes “in East Asia the transcendent importance of ‘face’ is such that companies are reluctant to engage in peer-to-peer communications with their communities online, with fear of losing control and thus face having the effect of dampening the kind of dialogue that might help defuse a crisis situation” (Kim 2007).

In the West, lawyers are proactive in crisis communications, particularly where apologies are necessary. However, in the East, organisations easily apologise with disregard of the possible liability and lawsuit due to admission of guilt (Skoric 2007).

In the recent crises, Japanese government have tended to avoid any alarming speculation. In this context, it is evident that Asians are not likely to speculate in cases of crises. Instead, they want to deal with the actual occurrences and communicate what they observe. This observation means that Asian cultures are more rigid than the Western cultures. In the West, people tend to speculate and communicate possibilities and estimates rather than the actual data. Japan culture tends not to deviate from the data (Skoric 2007).

The Professional scope of Crisis Communication

Asian countries approaches to professional PR differ significantly. There are indications that Chinese government can handle crises in appropriate manners as shown during past incidences such as the Sichuan earthquake in 2008. However, Japanese government has not embraced the idea of PR and crisis communication seriously. China responds with different communication channels such as social media. In addition, Koreans show advanced use of modern technologies for crisis communications.

Under most circumstances, we can only gauge the professional conduct of PR officials with those of the industry standards and practices. This is the basis for establishing the factual claims and extent of damages and the given communications. These pieces of information are usually available in the industry code books for professional communications.

Asian countries have the professional capacity to handle crises communications. However, these opportunities are only available among the global professional firms. It means local firms must update their approaches to PR issues and increase their participations as most of these firms experience challenges related to the development in the industry.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Crisis Communication in Asian Cultures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time, the industry critics have observed that there are a number of qualified trainers who offer the best services in PR. However, some of these professionals do not have the skills needed in crises communications especially in the social media.

Behaviour dimension of Crisis Communication

We can only look at the effects of behaviours after the crisis. Any traces of negative publicity show possibilities of unhelpful situations during the crisis. This can work against the industry reputation as well as the involved organisation; thus, it may prove difficult to rebuild credibility and trust, or preserve reputation.

Cases that involve several victims may attract a great deal of negative publicity. This means that the organisation must find opportunities to engage in behaviour building pattern. Therefore, organisations must plan their crisis plans to work against “any anticipated negative publicity and reduce chances of negative behaviour patterns in crisis communication” (Athey and Moody-Williams, 2003).

Some of the negative behaviours an organisation may plan to counteract include arrogance, lack of concerns, minimise victim needs, blame shifting, inappropriate language, inconsistency, inflammatory statements, inadequate preparation, minimise consequences, foregone opportunities to address authorities, the public, and victims, victims’ confusion, and unwillingness to admit responsibility (Athey and Moody-Williams, 2003).

Asians are shifting their crisis communication cultures to full-scale digital communication. There are emerging digital crisis simulation trainings. These programmes present trainees with real-life social media situations.

Majorities agree that the best way to handle a crisis communication is to use speed factor. At the same time, the information presented must be accurate. Transparency and factual information are what define successful crisis communication. Thus, it is necessary for the communication team to verify facts of the matter before any communication occurs.

The field and culture of crisis communication have changed. Skoric observes that crisis communications were “defensive and reactive, with holding statements used like protective shields for keeping critics away” (Skoric 2007). However, today, crisis communications have become proactive and aggressive. In this sense, the process involves all stakeholders with continuous communication from the beginning to the end (Sandoval and Lewis, 2002).

Organisations which have been passive, in their approaches to crisis communications, have noted that remaining passive in a digital age is an outmoded approach that can only worsen the situation. Thus, it is necessary to engage people, listen and provide adequate information based on consultation for continuous improvement. Crisis communications also provide opportunities for organisations to showcase their best behaviours to the victims and the general public.

Managing Victims

Victims result in cases where organisations involuntary create enabling severe environments for people or institutions. Victims of a crisis tend to have certain mindsets and perceptions. They may also exhibit unpredictable behaviour patterns. The resulting conditions create victims of a crisis.

The organisation that is a part of the crisis must identify the expectations of the crisis victims and respond promptly and in an appropriate manner (Grabel 2000). If an organisation avoids this, then the subsequent results might not be favourable as the already existing situation. Under some circumstances, victims tend to resist the best available alternatives or reasonable offers, engage the media to communicate emotional tales, or call for high-profile lawsuits. This process may also involve authorities, disgruntled former staff, lawyers, and current staff who may be present to confirm the victims’ claims. These are some of the few incidences an organisation’s crisis communications team must handle (Young 1997).

Trust and Credibility

Lukaszewski emphasises that people “confer credibility to firms based on their past behaviours” (Lukaszewski 1999). Organisations that have bad reputations due to past behaviours can suffer credibility test in the future. This is because people tend to use past experiences to predict future behaviours. Organisations may lose credibility when their current behaviours do not reflect their past good behaviours.

People can only have trust in an organisation when there is a lack of fear. Fear occurs due to causes by once trusted parties. Fear is too a powerful emotion to control. Some crises only require reduction of fear because there is nothing much to do. Thus, parties must attend to fear in order to avoid cases of frustration, anger, and retribution.

Some scholars propose ways to build trust, eliminate fear, and fix credibility in behaviours. These methods include provision of advance information, asking for input, being flexible, staying in touch, speaking plain language, and including victims and participants in the decision-making process.

Managing Crisis Communication

It is necessary for organisations to plan to continue learning during responses and remedial actions to mitigate crises (Fearn-Banks 2010). Most organisations do not prefer borrowing from past experiences because most management teams do not like handling crises, particularly where urgency is necessary. Most cultures now tend to encourage organisations to express and discuss issues and lessons they have learnt from mistakes. This is a strategy of regaining public confidence (Coombs 2007).

Organisations must plan to manage future crises. However, this depends on memories of the PR team. Organisations must learn that they cannot avoid most crises (Harvard Business School Press 2004). Thus, any lesson learned must teach the organisations how to “foresee, control, and reduce or possibly eliminate any future occurring or reoccurring crises” (Seeger, Sellnow and Ulmer, 2010).

Some of the useful information organisations may use in crisis communications include ethics, compliance, or standards of conduct (Fink 2000).

Others include observing events timeline, mastering the lessons learned, promoting open questions systems, considering operations issues, taking into account recovery issues, identifying relevant patterns from similar previous incidences, providing time for responses, mapping strategy gaps or failures, expecting surprises of both negative and positive nature, being ready for unintended outcomes, allowing time for visibility, and expecting to work outside the standard procedures.

Promptly in Crisis Communication

There is constant use of the term “promptly”. In any crisis management and communication, the term denotes “the strategic importance of acting quickly” (Lukaszewski 1999). Observers believe that it acceptable to act promptly and make mistakes than fail to act till it is too late, or attempts to act no longer bear any significant meaning.

Winning and problem-solving skills in crises situations rely on swift decision-making, speed in reaction, action, and collaboration. There is also the idea of victims. James Lukaszewski notes “if there are no victims, there is no crisis, and victims are only people, animals, and living systems” (Lukaszewski 1999).

Reference List Abarquez, Prosy. “Handling a crisis with leadership and effective communication (Part 1).” Asian Journal, (2010): 1-2.

Athey, John and Williams Moody. “eveloping cultural competence in disaster mental health programs: Guiding principles and recommendations.” Cultural Competence, 3828, (2003): 30-34.

Coombs, Timothy. Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2007.

Fearn-Banks, Kathleen. Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Fink, Steven. Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. London: Backinprint, 2000.

Grabel, Ilene. “Identifying Risks, Preventing Crisis: Lessons from the Asian Crisis.” Journal of Economic Issues, 1 no. 2, (2000): 1-5.

Haddow, George. Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2010.

Harvard Business School Press. Crisis Management: Mastering the Skills to Prevent Disasters. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.

Kim, Kyum. “New and Old Media Uses and Political Engagement among Korean Adolescents.” Asian Journal of Communication, 17, no. 4 (2007): 342-361.

Low, Yvonne Siew-Yoong. “Communicating crisis: how culture influences image repair in Western and Asian governments.” Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16, no. 3 (2011): 218 – 242.

Lukaszewski, James. “Seven Dimensions of Crisis Communication Management: A Strategic Analysis and Planning Model.” Ragan’s Communications Journal, 99, (1999): 1-8.

Sandoval, Jonathan, and Shaffer Lewis. Cultural considerations in crisis intervention. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists, 2002.

Seeger, Matthew, Timothy Sellnow and Robert Ulmer. Effective Crisis Communication: Moving From Crisis to Opportunity. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2010.

Skoric, Marko. “Is Culture Destiny in Asia? A Story of a Tiger and a Lion.” Asian Journal of Communication, (2007): 396-415.

Young, Marlene. The community crisis response team training manual (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National Organisation for Victim Assistance, 1997.


Intercultural Communication in Management Report college admissions essay help

The process of communication is very important in every organization and this has led to the formulation of a number of managerial communication theories as well as concepts. The need to ensure that the strategies formulated by managers are successful in their implementation has increased the interest of different stakeholders in identifying the most effective communication theories and concepts.

These are mainly supposed to ensure the clarity and efficiency of the process of relaying the information. Intercultural theories identify that there is a need to understand the cultural orientation of all the individuals in the organization, who may be responsible with the implementation of a new strategy (Guffey, 2007).

This should ensure that all the individuals are aware of the particular stakes that they hold in the implementation process to ensure that the whole strategy is successful.

This theory is closely related to the communication conflict resolution theories that identify that different personal needs between employees as well as other stakeholders in an organization may lead to conflicts during the strategy implementation process.

The managers should, therefore, ensure that the process of communication satisfies these different needs to ensure that they are all aware of their role in the organization and in the implementation of the new strategy.

Management communication concepts identify that a communication model that is adopted in an organization during the adoption of a new strategy should be capable of taking into account the communication context, feedback and noise. These concepts are supposed to identify the particular place where the communication is taking place, the particular individuals participating in the communication, the time of communication and finally, the background of the individuals participating in the communication process (Eunson, 2012).

The situational leadership theory identifies that managers have to identify the prevailing orientation forces that exist in the group of people that have to be communicated to.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the conflict avoidance concepts in communication identify that there has to be some level of flexibility in the particular mode of communication chosen so as to allow for the differences that may be inherent in the general population being communicated as it is in a business context.

The fact that the company in this case seeks to enter into a number of international markets means that they have to identify the different cultures of the people who have to implement this strategy in the different geographical locations as well as their interests. This is meant to ensure that the transition from one strategy to another is as smooth as possible.

The fact that communication involves the relaying of messages from one person to another suggests that the flow of information should not always be one way. There is a need to ensure that there is a healthy two way channel of communication in the organization before choosing to adopt a particular strategy.

In as much as a strategy may be identified as a positive move by the organization it may not always resonate well with the lower level employees who are meant to implement it (Guffey, 2007).

It is, therefore, important for managers to identify that importance of employee engagement and retention when choosing a particular communication channel. It is identified that there has to be some level of clarity, consistency as well as honesty that the employees have to identify with in the whole process of communication to ensure their successful implementation of chosen strategies.

The efficiency of a communication process is often measured against its success in maintaining the massage as well as in reaching the intended target. This has been raised in a number of managerial situations where the communication process has been identified to be compromised by power politics, cultural conflict, poor timing and accuracy.

It is often identified that accurate communication should be precise as not to allow any external communication to seep into the message or to leak to any unintended audiences (Eunson, 2012). The fact that most strategies that are adopted in organizations are geared towards increasing their competitive advantage in the market means that there has to be a limit as to the particular audience that receives the information so as to ensure that an organization’s competitors in the same market do not move to implement a similar strategy.

We will write a custom Report on Intercultural Communication in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this case, there has to be an elaborate channel of communication that will connect all the regional managers who have to implement the company’s expansion strategy in the different countries that it seeks to enter. This channel of communication should also be sustainable to ensure that the transition process from one strategy to the new one as well as the relocation of the different regional managers, who have to implement the new strategy, is smooth.

The setting up of a good management communication system that supports feedback should allow managers to identify any inefficiency that may be in the new strategy through their employees on the ground as well as through market research (Guffey, 2007). This should serve to save the company from incurring losses after the failure of the new strategy in increasing their competitive edge in the market.

References Eunson, B. (2012). Communicating in the 21st Century. New York: John Wiley


The Media and Adolescent’s Development Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of Media in Adolescent Development

Positive Influence to Adolescents


Reference List

Introduction Every individual has a set of values, which, can be personal or cultural. These values define the inward and outward being of such individual directly.

Collective values and measures associated to an individual have a value system of self-concept and self-esteem. Self-concept, therefore, describe an individual through the attitudes, attributes, abilities and values categorized as positive or negative depending on one’s social or antisocial behavior.

A child develops into an adult amidst internal and external factors like media that directly influence the general conduct. For instance, an individual who grows within an aggressive society develops antisocial behavior compared to the one within the responsive love and care of an older individual like parents or/and guardians.

In order to determine and define an individual’s level of self- concepts, analysis of self-evaluation on positive attributes including contextual behavior change. Self-worth experience in a maintained criterion of positive experience and behavior change helps in defining the self-worth of an individual. One has to believe in him or herself to acquire positivity to self-concept and worth (Santrock, 2007).

Role of Media in Adolescent Development The media create, produce, and advance multitudes of theories and ideas that massively influence the adolescent youth in their perceptions to themselves. Adolescents relate media materials to their own self-image and body image especially with the celebrities vastly featured in the media.

For instance, media can present a documentary on ideal man and woman’s body will negatively lower self-esteem and self-concept of adolescents who feel they do not attain the ideality. The media literacy reaching the adolescents should contain moderate and general information that do not negatively influence the young (Muuss


Gender and Consumer Culture Essay essay help

Marketers, industrialists and other beneficiaries of consumer culture are aware of the multifaceted nature of gender in a modern, western state. However, they opt to stereotype masculine and feminine characteristics in order to perpetuate insecurities that stimulate the purchase of more of their goods.

To understand how these stereotypes of gender came about, one must look at the rise of consumer culture. Consumer culture is a way of life that depends on the purchase of goods made from manufacturers in order to satisfy one’s needs.

Some scholars use the term in a negative way by presuming that participants in consumer cultures are obsessed by the acquisition of material things. In this regard, the term carries moralistic undertones that judge members of such societies. This essay will consider the first definition over the second one in order to maintain a neutral stance in the discussion.

Some scholars, such as Sassatelli (2007), claim that the consumption culture started as far back as the 17th century. In this school of thought, consumer culture is not a radical revolution, but a gradual alteration of society’s attitude towards commodities. It was this shift in thinking that enabled mass production in the industrial revolution.

People who endorse this view usually sight merchandisers who made and sold their goods in bulk. The major problem with this belief is the lack of a mechanism to mass produce.

If consumer culture existed at a time when the economy was driven by specialists rather than industrialists, then it must have been quite difficult to meet customer demand. Supporters of this theory are at pains to find evidence for existence of this pattern before mass production.

Conversely, Ewen (1976) dates the rise of a consumer culture to the 1920s, during the industrial revolution. This theory represents the view of the majority concerning its commencement. These adherents believe that consumer culture was a by-product of the industrial revolution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Henry Ford pioneered mass production in 1910 when he introduced line production. Workers could make thousands of vehicles in a matter of days; this was an inconceivable fact a few years ago. Ten years later, other manufacturers adopted Ford’s approach because they realized how advantageous the method was. Now that the industrialists had discovered a way of making numerous goods, they needed a mechanism for expanding their consumer base. More people needed to purchase their items or else the producers would run at a loss.

In the 1920s, resource owners decided to shorten working hours and increase average wages to give laborers more leisure time and finances to buy products. After an alteration of their working conditions, now employees could buy more than food, shelter or clothing. Resource owners needed to school them in this new mode of thinking.

At this point, intellectuals came up with the notion of advertising. They needed to move beyond the attributes of the products they sold and focus on the recipient of their message. Advertisers had to ignite desire in their consumers in order to facilitate this goal.

Furthermore, advertising was to offer consumers a chance of social prestige through the product. Consider the example of a beautiful woman’s photo in a newspaper; she admires a beautiful bracelet and wishes that she had it.

The advertisement’s recipient would put herself in the shoes of the beautiful woman and echo her sentiments. As such, the advertiser will have created an imaginary need. Although the views of Ewen (1976) are much older than Sassatelli (2007), more evidence exists to support Ewen’s assertions than Sassatelli’s.

Mass production necessitated a consumer culture because this would provide a ready market for the numerous goods that came out of the industrial revolution. It was imperative to focus on the recipient of the message rather than the good, and this was how the manipulation of gender began.

Before looking at the relationship between gender and consumer culture, one must understand the meaning of gender. Gender encompasses those features that make men and women different. It is an amalgamation of the biological, social and physical factors that define a person’s identity.

We will write a custom Essay on Gender and Consumer Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feminists assert that socialization is more significant to the construction of gender identity than one’s biological predisposition. As a result, one’s cultural context ultimately predisposes one to a particular gender role.

Some individuals may choose to change conventional understandings of masculine or feminine behavior. In other words, they may adopt a mode of speech, items of clothing or work that belongs to the opposite gender. Therefore, male or female roles may be reconstructed and redefined; one’s sex may not necessarily determine one’s gender (Popova, 2010).

Members of all societies have cultural values that assist individuals in dealing with gender; when people fulfill certain social expectations on gender, then it becomes easier to interact with them. Gender roles affect how others perceive an individual and hence how they will regard them (Popova, 2010).

Schwalbe (2005) explains that communities work by embracing particular ideas; gender should represent these common ideas because it is presented in a distinct manner. However, not all experts agree on this matter, Lloyd (1999) claims that concepts of femininity and masculinity are diverse across cultures. Consequently, entities that try to stereotype these definitions are distorting the real meaning of gender.

When analyzing consumer culture, one ought to investigate whether marketers uphold the latter construction of gender or the former one. If they embrace a multidimensional view of gender, then they will have taken the time to understand the complexities of this phenomenon. On the other hand, if the marketers and capitalists ascribe to rigid definitions of gender, then they will have acted in a stereotypical manner.

The relationship between advertising and consumer can provide insights about how resource owners exploit gender. McAllister


1906 San Francisco Fire Disaster Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Throughout history, the world has been treated to a series of devastating fire tragedies leaving a whole lot of destruction behind. Some of the fires are natural whereas others are instigated by deliberated or accidental human faults. Attempts to contain the fire have been successful in some rare and small magnitude incidences.

However, there are exceptional cases where the fire fighting departments get overwhelmed, hence leaving the fire to take pleasure on what it consumes. This realization is a point of concern to any investor, as well as home owners as the security of their buildings and property, are jeopardized.

As such, there is an urgent need to adopt proper fire codes that could assist in minimizing the extent of destruction resulting from the fires. In this essay, the 1906 San Francisco fire disaster is considered, and the subsequent changes in fire codes explored.

The San Francisco Fire disaster was unforeseen. It all started as an earthquake in the wee hours after that fateful day. The earthquake lasted for approximately 45 seconds, and a number of buildings had given up to the shock waves that had resulted. Thanks to the strong architectural designs, there are, however, some buildings that remained standing tall after the earthquake.

Presumably, the owners had started celebrating completing oblivious of the aftermath of the earthquake. A few minutes after the incidence, the city of San Francisco was engulfed in a wild fire that threatened to bring the whole city into utter ruins. The buildings that had otherwise withstood the quake had no option but to succumb to the fire that was gutting down everything on its path.

The fire emanated from three different regions fanned by the high winds that were blowing across the city. The fires coalesced to form a firestorm with intense temperatures of approximately 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit. Efforts to combat the fire proved futile as the fire fighters were overwhelmed by the raging fire.

As a matter of fact, the fire fighting department in this city ran out of water that was necessary to calm the fire. The effects of the inferno left more than 514 city blocks in ruins. This is an equivalent of 28,000 buildings that had been consumed in the deadly inferno. Also, lots of property and life were lost in the incidence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One strategy employed to calm the fire was the use of dynamites to blow down the buildings that were in the path of the growing conflagration. This was a desperate tactic to rid off anything that could fuel the fire further.

Unfortunately, this mechanism bore little fruit, if not contributing to further development of the fire as both the fire fighters and civilians had no experience with the use of explosives. This incidence prompted disaster management department of the United States of America and the world to consider coming up with better fire code to minimize the impacts of such disasters.

The fire code refers to a set of regulation currently contained in Fire Protection and Prevention Act of the year 1997. This represents a set of basic requirements that seek to adhere to fire safety strategies around buildings and other facilities. As a requirement, each municipal is required to be fully armed with fire fighting equipments.

This includes a connection to a reliable water source. Furthermore, each and every building is supposed to be fitted with lifts and emergency exits to minimize on the casualties. Moreover, the plans for construction of buildings in cities should permit the fire fighting machinery to access the area.


Berlioz Symphonies Exploratory Essay essay help free: essay help free

Hector Berlioz is renowned as one of the best and highly gifted composers of symphonies. He was well appreciated and desirably honored amidst a galaxy of other top and skilled composers. He composed many songs on top of the classical literature works which he did during the period between 1840 and 1870. Although he was nurturing his works in a period when there were other famous symphonies, he managed to remain outstanding in his compositions and was eventually a pillar of symphony history.

Berlioz was born on11th December 1803 in France. He did magnanimous musical and literature work. He had specialized in the composition of romantic symphonies. For instance, Grande messe and symphonie fantastique are the most famous romantics which earned him exemplary credit (Bloom ‘Berlioz Studies’ 67).

In addition, Berlioz parents were Louis-Joseph who was a physician while his mother Marie Antoinette was a renowned scholar. His father was an atheist who was liberal in his religious life while his mother was a strong Roman Catholic follower (Bloom 71). Berlioz graduated from Grenoble high school and had no interest in further professional studies. He actually disregarded his parents’ efforts of making him study medicine in Paris (Bloom 73).

Berlioz Symphonies “ Out of the diverse scope of symphonies by Berlioz, symphony fantastique is considered to be the most outstanding among the rest. This symphony drew a lot of fame across the world. History reveals that this work made a great debut when it was launched in 1830 (Cairns 146).

This was after the deaths of other famous composers such as Beethoven who had died 3 years earlier and Schubert who had passed on some 2 years back. This symphony was distinguished by the fact that it had huge innovations of programmatic symphony. It was a story that related to Berloiz himself which had been attributed in his autobiography (Cairns 149 ).

In addition to this symphony, Berlioz had composed other thrilling orchestral compositions which included symphony dramatique, Romeo et Juliet and legend dramatique (Cairns 447). These were both large scale productions specifically meant for orchestral and mixed voices.

Berlioz had also come up with the popular concert ante symphony which was both violas and orchestral. The two compositions remained popular for a long period since they were found enjoyable by the lovers of musical symphonies (Bloom 135). Berlioz composed numerous concert overtures which were enduringly famous.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They included le corire and le carnaval romain (Bloom 300). He had also a great skill in making pure vocally oriented songs. Major examples include son cycle les and oratorio Christ which have had an enduring appeal. In addition, some of the remarkable songs by Berlioz also included grande messe morts and litergical te deum.

The music of Berlioz was unconventional in the sense that it did not agree with the normal opera scene and concert arrangements (Goepp 400). He used to formulate his own social performances by booking and paying for himself. He did it throughout his music career although it was an optional financial burden he had imposed on himself (Bloom ‘Berlioz Studies’ 302).

His works involved many performers and this minimized the financial gain which he realized. Therefore, Berlioz paid keen attention to his part time job of being a journalist to support himself financially. Berlioz admited that in composing his works, there were times he had to follow the example of Shakespeare and Weber. It is noted that he deployed broad characteristics of Beethoven in his world of music.

Berlioz artistic work as it has been noted earlier, had a specialty in orchestra. His symphonies contained different episodes which followed sonata principles. He composed tonals which had movements to and from the sonata. He developed musical productions which had variety of melodies and dynamics (Tyroll 678).

His music would be performed using a variety of instruments. This included both stringed and wind instruments. In general, his music would use any suitable assortment of instruments. This was one of the major aspects which made his music be highly adoptable.

Many musical researchers describe Berlioz symphonies as classical masterpieces which have been able to stand the test of time. It has been revealed that the musicological techniques employed by Berlioz have remained valid even in this digital age (Tyroll 800). Moreover, the works of Berlioz have been celebrated across the world although critique of his work has been inevitable.

The scholars of literature and music have keenly analyzed and evaluated the worth of his symphonies. Several experts term his works as unnecessarily too detailed and with too much information.Berlioz had been severally accused of poor diction especially when displaying variety of emotions.

We will write a custom Essay on Berlioz Symphonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is also important to note that Berlioz had demonstrated exceedingly abundant consistency in his literature despite few professional strains which were evident. Besides, Berlioz had demonstrated great skills of adapting to all kinds of environment in his musical productions. He had been able to illustrate the inherent beauty of literature through making symphonies which brought reality in drama.

The ability of a musician or a poet to be relevant depends on his or her capability to bring out a complete picture of what human life entails (Tyroll 800). Music in itself is a complete tool that is supposed to impact the entire audience either consciously or subconsciously. Findings have shown that great works of past ages are loosing their validity as time passes by (Goepp 450). This may not necessarily because they lacked the right composure to remain appealing in this generation. Their inability to remain relevant in the current extremely dynamic society disqualifies them.

Berlioz symphonies in the broad area of romance have recorded the highest performance for reasonably long time. This has been attributed to the fact that when he noticed his special ability to intrigue the delicate emotions of people, Berlioz effectively and successfully decided to major in romantics.

His romantic symphonies have been the choice of his fans. Berlioz achieved success in building the true picture of absolute and rational romanticism (Tyroll 124). He managed to inspire many other writers who had shown exemplary skills in romantics. He asserted that as result of his involvement with great and famous people like lord Byron, Walter Scott and Thomas Moore, he was able to enrich his ideas or symphony composition (Cairns 235).

To wrap it all it critical to give Berlioz the praise, admiration and honor he deserves. He was and has remained to be an icon in the competitive and dynamic music industry. His music has continued to move variety of audiences across the nations of the world. Finally, what he did when he renounced his carrier in medicine was a true show of his passion. Truly, Berlioz is a legend who has been able to create an undisputable legacy through his amazing music career.

Works Cited Bloom, Peter. Berlioz: Scenes from the Life and Work. New York: University of Rochester Press, 2008. Print.

Bloom, Peter. Berlioz Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.

Cairns, David. Berlioz: Volume Two: Servitude and Greatness, 1832-1869. California: University of California Press, 2003. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Berlioz Symphonies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Goepp, Philip. Great Works of Music; Symphonies and Their Meaning. Oxford: Kessinger publishing, 2005. Print.

Tyroll, John. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 22. Grove: Grove, 2001. Print.


Review of Ethics of Wal-Mart Term Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical issues in Wal-Mart’s stores

Ethical issues in the distribution department

Ethical issues in the production department

Ethical issues in the purchasing department



Introduction Ethics involve the morals that govern the conduct of individuals. It is a question of what is right or wrong. Business ethics involve the components of good or bad in the character of the employees or a business. Businesses have ethical policies that govern the relationship among the various business associates.

For instance, if it is right or wrong for a cashier to fail to refund balances to customers (Shaw, 2008). Another business ethical issue is if it is right or wrong for a business person to defraud a customer. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ethical situations in Wal-Mart Incorporation using three ethical theories.

Consequentialist theory states that the morality of an action depends on its results. If the results are good, then the action is right and if the results are bad, then the action is wrong. Consequentialists determine the right action by weighing the ratio of good to bad outcome that an act will create.

There are two consequentialist theories. These are egoism and utilitarianism. Egoism advocates for self interest as its rule. It considers the effects of an action on an individual. On the other hand, utilitarianism advocates that a person must consider the effects of an action on other people.

Both egoism and utilitarianism use facts and data to determine the morality of a situation. They do not rely on logic or reason to analyze an outcome. Nonconsequentialist (deontological) theory states that the morality of an act is determined by more than just the consequences of an action.

They believe that other factors are important in analyzing an action. On the other hand, Immanuel Kant’s theory does not rely on contingencies and defines actions as right or wrong other than a particular situation. He advocated that moral principles can be as a result of plain reason and cannot be reliant on plain observation. Kant believed that only reason can result to morality. According to him, an ideal moral truth has to be logically reliable or consistent and without any deliberate contradiction (Shaw, 2008).

Ethical issues in Wal-Mart’s stores Wal-Mart makes use of the RFID technology. This helps in management of its inventory. It ensures that products can be tracked easily and accurate information about the levels of stock can be obtained. RFID technology does not need any person to operate it. The device scans the products as they roll through its reader portal (“Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning RFID”, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, this technology can assist Wal-Mart to know when there the stocks are insufficient and can help save up to $I billion of the firm’s costs. As a result, the cost of labor is minimized. This means that employment is reduced and retrenchment is very possible to occur. This is unethical because employees risk losing their source of income. Immanuel Kant would view such an act as logically right.

This is because it is reasonable for a company to advance its technology in order to remain competitive. For instance, when Wal-Mart introduced the RFID technology, its inventory costs reduced. As a result, it is able to sell its products at very affordable prices. A utilitarianist would view this situation as ethically wrong as it affects the employees.

For instance, as result of the RFID technology many employees are likely to lose their jobs. This means that the unemployment rate will rise. A nonconsequentialist would see this act as ethically right. This is because Wal-Mart’s employees could actually be retained but their salaries could be reduced. Therefore, facts are not sufficient to analyze the effects of Wal-Marts new technology.

Ethical issues in the distribution department Wal-Mart has more power in the supply chain than its suppliers. Since Wal-Mart has ability to market its products, the suppliers have to abide by Wal-Mart’s requests or risk running out of business (Sage Publications, 2011). For instance, Rubbermaid had become famous because it produced quality products.

Therefore, it raised the prices of its products. This strategy was acceptable to many retailers apart from Wal-Mart. Later on, Wal-Mart went out of business with Rubbermaid. Rubbermaid lost a lot from this because Wal-Mart was their largest retailer. Eventually, Rubbermaid had to sell its business to a competitor (Watts, 2009, par. 1).

Immanuel Kant would see this act as ethically wrong. This is because logically, the two businesses were partners who were supposed to cooperate and benefit from each other. It was not reasonable that Wal-Mart should eliminate a supplier because it had increased prices of its high quality products.

A utilitarianist would also see this act as morally wrong. This is because many people were affected when Rubbermaid went out of business. For instance, there was loss of jobs and the general status of the owners dropped. On the other hand, a nonconsequentialist would see this act as morally right.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Review of Ethics of Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because the available facts should not be enough to determine the state of an outcome. Other factors like the impact that increase in price would have on Wal-Mart should be considered. For instance, when Rubbermaid increased its prices, Wal-Mart would also have to increase the price of its products. Consequently, this could lower demand for Wal-Mart’s products.

Ethical issues in the production department Wal-Mart has been opening up many liquor stores in various places. It obtains these liquors from Diageo Plc. It is able to sell these products at a lower cost than its competitors because it buys the liquors in bulks. The retailer’s production department has surpassed its competitors by opting to buy from a distributor rather than producing its own liquors. This has helped Wal-Mart to cut costs of production.

This is unethical because its competitors may not have the capacity to buy from a distributor (“Plunkett Food Industry Almanac”, 2008). Immanuel Kant would see this act as ethically right. This is because it is logical for a business to look for alternative ways of cutting costs.

Therefore, Wal-Mart is able to achieve a competitive advantage because it can sell its products cheaply. A utilitarianist would see this act as ethically wrong. This is because other businesses’ profits are affected by Wal-Mart’s strategy. They are unable to compete and may risk running out of business. A nonconsequentialist would see this act as ethically wrong.

This is because as a result of Wal-Mart’s production strategy, competitors may benefit from the retailer’s publicity. Since many customers will buy Wal-Mart’s liquor, some customers may decide to buy from the neighboring businesses. As a result, Wal-Mart will have attracted customers to the liquor joints. It is therefore necessary to use both facts and logic in order to analyse this situation.

Ethical issues in the purchasing department Wal-Mart is known to have high levels of influence on the companies that it purchases its foods from. It requires that the products are packaged in particular ways. For instance, in 2006, Coca-Cola had decided to introduce a soft drink by the name Coke Zero. However, Wal-Mart wanted a drink that could be sweetened with Splenda instead of Coke Zero whose sweetener was aspartame.

Therefore, under the persuasion of Wal-Mart, Coca-Cola ended up producing a Diet Coke containing Splenda and afterwards, it was allowed to produce Coke Zero. This shows that Wal-Mart can influence the kind of products to purchase from its suppliers. This is unethical because it denies other businesses the chance to make the right choices in production (“Plunkett Food Industry Almanac”, 2008).

Immanuel Kant would view this act as ethically right. This is because it is logical for companies to exercise influence in order to achieve a competitive advantage. Wal-Mart knew that the coke with Splenda sweetener sold a lot. It therefore made a clever move in order to ensure that it didn’t lose its customers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Review of Ethics of Wal-Mart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A utilitarianist would view this as a wrong act because it affects the operations of other businesses. For instance, Coca-Cola’s sales must have been affected since it was influenced to change its production plans. It could have already established clients for the product. A nonconsequentialist would see this as a right act because it Coca-Cola could have benefited more from this deal.

Relying on facts alone can be deceiving. It is necessary to reason that Coca-Cola could have realized that the Splenda sweetened coke was selling better than Coke Zero. As a result, the influence by Wal-Mart could have worked in favor of Coca-Cola Company.

Wal-Mart is being faced with accusations of sexual discrimination. It is said that the biggest sexual discrimination law suit in the history U.S. was between Dukes and Wal-Mart. The court agreed to have action upon seven women that claimed that the firm was unfair in pay and promotion of women.

15 million women that had worked for the firm’s U.S. stores from 1998 were entitled for this hearing (Weiss, 2008). This is unethical because all genders are supposed to be treated equally. Employees should not be discriminated under the basis of gender, race or even ethnicity.

This form of discrimination is unethical in any business. Immanuel Kant would see this act as ethically wrong. This is because it is not reasonable to ask people of different races and gender to apply for a job and then discriminate them later. It is not logical because if the company wanted employees from specific places and with specific features, it should not have recruited people who are otherwise. A utilitarianist would see this act as ethically wrong.

This is because it would affect the level of self-esteem and motivation of the employees. If the employees feel unappreciated, they can lack trust in themselves and therefore fail to perform their duties as required. This could eventually affect the organization’s performance. A nonconsequentialist would see this act as ethically right.

This is because despite the fact that Wal-Mart exercises gender discrimination against women, there could be an underlying good reason behind the act. For instance, it could be that the company was experiencing a lot of women taking leaves in order to cater for family matters.

Conclusion Ethical policies are important to an organization. They can be interpreted differently under the three ethical theories. Utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism and Immanuel Kant’s theories are some of the theories used to interpret ethical behaviors. Given the ethical issues that are facing Wal-Mart Incorporation, I would grade it C on a grading scale of A to F. This is a neutral grade because apart from Wal-Mart’s having its own share of problems, it also has numerous benefits to the society.

References Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning RFID, (2007). In T, Blecker


Cell Culture Technique Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Biological advancements have contributed to the improvement of society in various forms. Biomedical research which forms the foundation for spectrum of inventions/discoveries, has its origin in techniques like cell culture.

Cell culture involves creating an artificial environment of growing that mimics the natural one in all the characteristical features in a laboratory. So, growing the cells of animals, plants or human beings, yeast and bacteria in a lab setting, constitutes the cell culture. It is mainly employed to examine new drugs and detect infectious agents (Dictionary of Cancer Terms n.d.).

The methodology of cell culture is a bit complicated. In order to achieve the robust growth of cells, specific conditions need to be maintained.

The key process involved in handling living eukaryotic cells initially is mandatory awareness of materials and methods. It involves the use of 370 CO2 incubator, phosphate buffer saline, plastic ware, glass ware, petri dishes, trypsin/EDTA, vialsfor cryopreservation media like DMEM, Hemocytometer is provided with cover slip, DMSO and FBS for cell freezing etc(Protocol: Cell Culture 2012). Initially, cell culture begins with primary culture.

It constitutes a stage where cells are picked from tissue and multiplied in the presence of suitable atmosphere till they become full grown on the platform known as substrate, resulting in confluence (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012)

Here, cells need re-culture known as passaging or subculture achieved by the transporting them to a novel vessel with medium of growth which is fresh to enable more space for the prolonged growth. Primary culture is the important step and prerequisite for any kind of cell culture technique. A failure in proper maintenance of Primary culture could lead to total failure in the overall culture process (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012).

Maintenance of cell culture is firmly linked with safety interlinked with cross contamination issues. This is because, cell culture unit contains many particular dangerous agents linked with hand contact and modifying chemicals, solutions of corrosive nature, tissues and cells of plant, animal or human. The potential dangers are punctures occurring accidentally with needles, spills on the skin, mouth contact through pipetting or ingestion and inhaling infectious agents like sprays, exposures etc.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To overcome these problems, agencies like National Institute of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have provided biosafety recommendations United States. It is mainly focused on four types of biosafety levels (BSL). BSL-1 is the primary option of protection to many laboratories involved in basic and clinical research.

BSL-2 is suitable for medium risk contributors that lead to severe disease in human, that vary deepening on complexity, by contact with percutaneous membranes. BSL-3 is suitable for agents of indigenous nature which have a capacity for transmission like aerosols and that lead to detrimental infections. BSL-4 is suitable for indigenous agents that carry a high risk or fatal by aerosols of infectious nature and no therapy exists (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012).

But laboratories of only high containment possess these agents. Hence, there are specific guidelines that not only ensure safety but also may be helpful to avoid all possible chances of contamination from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources.

These are wearing equipment of specific personnel type and replacing contaminated gloves with new ones, disposal of all wastes suspected of contamination, washing hands after contact with dangerous materials prior to the laboratory closing hours, avoiding smoking, drinking, food consumption and storage in the lab, close adherence to the institutional rules and regulations with regard to handling glassware, pipettes, scalpels and needles, lessening the development of aerosols and leakages, removing surface contamination with suitable disinfectant near the work place before and after the experiments, infectious material spills, regular cleaning of laboratory devices as well as instant reporting of the laboratory incidents that occur due to contact with infectious agents to a laboratory authority (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012).

Next, for preventing contamination from sources like sneezing, skin shedding, and spores, dust which serves as the vial constituents of aerosols and airborne particles, employing a hood of cell culture, is essential. Setting up cell culture hood relies on the location where there are a restricted outlets like windows, doors and no personnel movements.

The work place must have only necessary reagents, lab ware and protocols. One must disinfect work place, clean instrument regularly before and after use with 70% ethanol, use ultraviolet light for air and surface sterilization of hood, while using at frequent intervals, as well as maintain the hood in running conditions through the available time and switching it off when there is no work.

In the cell culture, the cell lines are the most important ones to consider (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Cell Culture Technique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cell lines are defined as the products of primary culture obtained by subculture.

Primary culture of the given cell lines possesses a short duration of life known as finite cell lines. When these cell lines are subjected to passaging, the resultant cells obtain a robust phenotypic and genotypic stability marked with lustrous growth potential.

As such, cell line growth is achieved in two ways. One is monolayer or adherent culture

which is achieved on substrates of artificial nature and another one is suspension culture, achieved through medium of free floating nature (Introduction to Cell Culture 2012)

Cell line contamination needs to be understood from the point of view of biological contamination in general. These may be grouped under Bacterial, Mold


Impact of the Digital Society Essay scholarship essay help

Impact of the digital society and information development Information technology has great on organizations and individual lives. That is it has transformed our lives socially, politically and economically.


Information technology has reduced the distance between various territorial boundaries countries and even the distance from continent to continent. Several years ago transportation means from even one continent to another continent was a nightmare due to the introduction of digital aircrafts and electric trains; we have experienced the death of distance (Bailor 2006).


Development of information technology has led to the introduction of commerce (e-commerce/business) that is online business of which has necessitated global market penetration hence transforming on living standards.


Information technology has created a social network where individuals are now able to communicate and share their ideas. It has also led to the creation of social ethnics/norms among individuals and organizations (Clarke 2004).

Strategic information development on business For some business, the impact of digital economy is revolutionary. That is, some frequent changes in technologies and markets and the appearance of the business models can introduce radical changes in industry structure according to research. And the nature of competition can shift rapidly.

The digital economy has not changed the core business of most firms at the same time. That is for most businesses, internet simply offer tools that can increase their success through their traditional sources of competitive advantage be it low cost, excellent customer service or superior supply chain management(Beasty 2006). Therefore, information technology impacts the business in the following ways:

By identifying new strategic opportunities

Assessing Technology innovations

Deriving more technology enabled business models

Prioritizing investment opportunities

Managing vendors

Exploiting investment in technology

Ensuring appropriate usage of information systems

Ensure that people embrace the right behavior and value to work with information

Ensure that the value for application is captured by the organization and information technology investment does not become a source of competitive disadvantage. The challenge for researcher and practioner alike is to understand what contributes towards the development of these aspects of sustainability.

E-Commerce Electronic commerce has the following drives with respect to impact of digital society:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internet penetration

Many individuals and organizations are capable of accessing internet services to check emerging and market trends

Internet charge services have been reduced to a lower cost which is affordable to almost every member of the society. Therefore, this improved internet speed and reliability to business people

Differentiation: E-commerce has been established mostly through low prices.

Other E-commerce drives include the following:

Time and Cost – it is convenient and cost-effective

Enhanced information access. Every single information can be accessed by every organization or individual at any time every where

Enhanced client base

Enhanced proper marketing strategies

In general most societies have found that digital business is beneficial because it attempts to integrate business processes across the world onto a single enterprise wide information system. Therefore it enhances improved coordination across functional departments and increased efficiency of doing business.(Bharati 2006, Hershey)

However, e-commerce has forced the following barriers by business entities:

Electronic fraud


Initial capital

Technological challenge

Information technology infrastructure.

The above barriers have promoted unfair competition among organizations, hence, competitive disadvantage.

Brain sensor technology

Brain sensor technology uses neurons to depict actions. Brain sensors translate the thoughts of one into action. Using brain sensors like the Emotiv Epoc, one can think of a movement and the movement is reflected on the screen. Drug manufacturers and chemists are now using this technology to study the effects of drugs to the brain.

Impacts of brain sensor technology

Consistent use may lead to ones slow response to physical conditions and the brain may end up gating reliant to the technology.

The speed which the technology detects changes in the brain and reflects them to the screen corresponds with Moores law. Moores law states that the number of transistors in a chip will double every two years. In brain sensors the number of chips are many considering the fact that it encompasses nanotechnology. The huge of chips will allow for a large number of electric currents which might affect the brain considering that the sensor are placed in the head as near as possible to the brain.

We will write a custom Essay on Impact of the Digital Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethical Issues in information technology/legal issues

Moral dimensions

Information rights and obligation should be obtained

Property rights – intellectual property rights should be protected in the modern society so that ownership to intangible property should be handled properly.

Quality of life – there should be acceptable ways of doing things in a given society.

System quality – data application should be of high quality

Accountability and control should be reflected for data prosperity.


According the research conducted, various societies have adopted digital/ modern ways of doing things because of it’s:



Memory capacity which is large enough to accommodate more organizations


Processing capability


Information security

Organizations and individuals have employed the following techniques to secure business transactions:-

Password Privacy codes have been installed to help organizations to avoid legal problems and to ensure data confidentiality.

Laws and regulations to be used in extranets

Public area networks (PWAN). Confidential information should be closed to the public so that their access is limited to members of the public but can only be accessed by genuine owners of the data.

International aspects also be considered where members of a given country can only access information within their country.

Impact of e-commerce on business practices Positive

Enhancing on customer public relation

An e-commerce won’t be able to improve on the relationship between the business and the customer unless they have some ideas about the consumers of their products and services. That is by having knowledge on the customer’s needs, purchasing practices, enticements, and behavior. E.g. easy functionality of the web site of the company, low prices, after sale service, offering call services etc these are some of the factors that are likely to contribute more enhancing customer enterprise relation(Cho 2003).

A good example is that e-commerce has a competitive advantage when it comes to peak times such as back to school. This means that through e-commerce online purchases and after sales services enables the current business practices to be able to get the products and acquire services from home and get them there(Bharati 2006, Hershey).

Symmetry of online and human relations

Besides market coverage advantage brought about by e-commerce, the interaction with the consumers is also an issue that has been impacted by the adoption of the e-commerce. This is through the linkages between all the departments in the companies through the online business to present a uniform surface.

E.g. the amount deducted after presentation of consumer’s credit card should be based on the price charged at the point of transaction i.e. display uniformity from all fronts (Bhaskar 2004). This enhances the cross-channel purchasing actions undertaken by the consumers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the Digital Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a method which has been adopted by most of the e-commerce companies through linking most of their online transaction with the offline one. This choice board channel has hence demanded from the e-commerce enterprises to carry out a customer survey that seeks to understand who their customers are and their nature of interaction both online and physical interaction in the store (Cho 2003).

Invest in clientele services

With the inversion of e-commerce into the market economy, the major issue is on how to entice the customers’ attention to purchase the e-products. This has shifted the market operation to a more consumer oriented services, where to make profit the e-commerce vendors need not to lure potential buyers who are likely to purchase their products and services(Bressler 2001).

The investments have shifted towards customer satisfaction besides other essential factors to achieve business aims and objectives. Some of the customer oriented technologies are the call delivery, interactive voice reaction, PC telephone incorporation, information management systems, etc all geared towards packaging, delivery, public relations and customer service (Croteau and Li, 2003, p. 22).

This is in contrast with the former ideology where enterprises considered customer service utility as an expense venture and non profitable (Clarke 2004)

Although if the goals of an enterprise towards customer relations does not go as planned consequentially it can lead to drastic failure for the enterprise i.e. customer dissatisfaction is likely to occur if the customer service does not fulfill its purpose.


The comparison between the traditional offline business transaction and the e-commerce business transactions indicate that despite the adoption of e-commerce as major prospects in maximization of profit through larger market reach, offline business transaction is still there to stay.

This is because despite the influence brought about by the internet and the www, offline business transaction is still preferred and more secure, the low market reach or the personal communication with the real vendor has made most of the consumers more addicted to the offline transaction mode(Croteau and Li 2003). Hence, online e-commerce transaction has come with it some challenges that are facing the corporate world:


Most if the online product consumers are not likely to use or conduct a transaction in an insecure website. Also as per the requirement of the online vending, e-commerce presents a more insecure information dissemination which has not been adopted by most of the consumers.

This is because not all consumers will easily agree to give out his personal details to an online form before being assured of his/her security and the information being given.

Also trust issue is a problem in the use of e-commerce business transaction; this has caused a division in the business world with some enterprises ideologically refusing to devolve in the e-commerce assuming that e-commerce will never surpass the offline business transaction. Hence, this has created a competitive advantage to some enterprises that have adopted, secured and gained the devotion needed from its consumers and still acquiring others(R. e. Feinberg 2002)

Works Cited Alba, Joseph et al. “Interactive home shopping: consumer, retailer and manufacturer incentives to participate in electronic marketplaces.” Journal of Marketing, 61(1997): 38-53. Print.

Bailor, Coreen. “Furnishing Service Excellence.” CRM magazine, Feb. 2006. Web.

Beasty, Colin. “Retail’s 2 Worlds. Tips on Integrating Online and Offline Channels.” CRM magazine. 1 Mar. 2006. Web.

Bharati, Pratyush, and Abhijit Chaudhuri. “Product Customisation on the Web: An Empirical Study of Factors Impacting Choiceboard User Satisfaction.” Information Resource Management Journal, 19.2(2006): 69-82. Print.

Bhaskar, Rahul. “A customer relationship management system to target customers at Cisco.” Advanced Topics in Electronic Commerce. 1(2005): 209-221. Print.

Bressler, Martin. Internet CRM must have human touch. Chicago: Marketing News, 2001. Print.

Cho, Yooncheong, Im, II, and Roxanne Hiltz. “The impact of e-services failures and customer complaints on electronic customer relationship management.” Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatosfaction and Complaining Behavior, 16(2003): 106-118. Web.

Clarke, Irvine III and Theresa Flaherty. “Challenges of transforming a traditional brick-and mortar into bricks-and-clicks model: a small business case study.” Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organisation, 2.4(2004): 74-89. Print.

Croteau, Anne-Marie and Peter Li. “Critical success factors of CRM technological initiatives.” Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20.1(2003): 21-35. Print.

Etzin, Opher, Amit Fisher, and Segev Wasserkrug. “e-CLV: A modeling approach for customer lifetime in e-commerce domains, with an application and case study for online auction.” Information System Frontiers, 7.4-5(2005): 421-434. Print.

Feinberg, Richard. et al. “The state of electronic customer relationship management in retailing.” International Journal of Retail


Ecology Organisms Differences Essay college admissions essay help

The adaptation of living things to their environment is such that their features are only suitable for survival in their respective environments. Although organisms can tolerate a deviation of the environmental conditions form the optimum, severe and persistent alterations may lead to the deterioration of the organisms’ condition or even death.

The terrestrial and aquatic environments present considerably different conditions for the existence of life. Although the aquatic and terrestrial microscopic organisms may not exhibit significant structural differences, plants and animals living in these environments have distinct and different characteristics that enable them to survive in their respective environments (Dejours, 1987).

Plants feature a cuticle, which protects them from the external environmental conditions. Aquatic plants have a thin cuticle since they live in water and do not need to undertake water preservation. This is a feature of fresh water aquatic plants. In addition, the stomata, which are the respiratory openings for the plants, are in abundance on the upper side of the plant to facilitate rapid water loss to maintain osmotic balance.

Water is a dense medium, and thus plants living in water have a weak shaft for supporting the foliage and the upperparts of the plant. Furthermore, the plants’ stem is relatively weaker and they tend to float in water. Aquatic plants are submerged either partially or wholly in water.

Thus, water covers most of their surfaces and can be readily absorbed. Their roots are small, highly flexible, and adapted for absorbing oxygen rather than water. Aquatic plants may also feature wide leaves to enable them to float and enhance transpiration (Cavendish, 2001).

On the other hand, terrestrial plants have a thick cuticle on their leaves for protection from excessive transpiration that could desiccate the plant’s cells. In addition, the plants’ stomata are few and are located on the bottom of the leaves away from direct sunlight and convection current.

Air, the atmospheric medium in which terrestrial plants thrive, is much less dense compared to water. Thus, terrestrial plants need stronger stems and shafts for the support of the foliage and other upper parts of the plant. Terrestrial plants have rigid and highly developed roots that facilitate water absorption and anchorage. Terrestrial plants may have thin leaves or leaves of various shapes adapted to the environmental temperatures rather than a mechanism of support (Solomon, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the major unique features of the aquatic animals is that their appendages have undergone differentiation into fins or webbed feet for movement in water. Their skin or outer covering is smooth and may consist of a mucus membrane to reduce friction during movement.

Aquatic animals feature a thick subcutaneous fat deposit. This fat helps the animals to maintain a regular and constant body temperature in the relatively cold water. Most aquatic animals have transparent eyelid to protect against friction with water. Although some of aquatic animals have lungs for ventilation, most of the animals have gills for respiration or a combination of lungs and gills (Cavendish, 2001).

On the other hand, terrestrial animals have limbs with separated digits for grasping or climbing. Furthermore, some flying animals have their limbs differentiated into wings for flight purposes. Most animals have their outer covering covered with fur or hair. This keeps the animal warm in the air and may serve to protect the skin.

Most terrestrial animals have a thin subcutaneous fat layer, but have more muscles to aid their locomotion and elevation from the ground. Except for some reptiles such as snakes, most animals have thick and opaque eyelids to protect their eyes from solid objects and dryness. For terrestrial animals, lungs are the primary respiratory organs, and they are highly developed (Solomon, 2005).

References Cavendish, M., B. b. (2001). Aquatic life of the world. New York: Benchmark books.

Dejours, P. (1987). Comparative physiology: life in water and on land. Padova: Liviana.

Solomon, E. P., Berg, L. R.,


Need for Effective Networking for Consultants Argumentative Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Effective Networking Techniques

Networking Plan among Clients

Networking Plan among Peers

Reference List

There is no guarantee that someone who networks will be successful in business. In fact, ninety-five percent of networking activities do not translate to any tangible benefits. However, people that succeed in business participate in networking events. The point here is that doing it does not guarantee it will work, but success relies on it.

People who benefit from networking understand that networking is a lot more than just meeting people. They know that it takes effort and initiative to turn the networking event into a good use of time. The basic philosophy behind successful networking is that the events provide an individual with the opportunity to meet people with whom they can have mutual benefit.

Effective networking is an essential skill for all consultants. The nature of consulting is such that prior contact adds to the odds of someone agreeing to hire a person. It is imperative to develop strong networking skills to succeed in business.

Effective Networking Techniques A consultant has several options to choose from when it comes to the choice of networking techniques. The traditional models stressed on the need for carrying business cards to networking events. It is the easiest way of giving a new contact a way to make contact, but it is in itself not sufficient for effective results.

There is the increasing use of blogs and websites as a means of interacting with potential clients. What blogs provide is the opportunity to come off as an expert in a field. This is the dream of every consultant hence the need to have some online presence. Many consultants also use social medial platforms such as tweeter and face book to meet new people.

A time-tested method of successful networking is using the same methods that social coaches advocate for like maintaining eye contact when talking to someone, listening more than talking, and generally taking genuine interest other people. This makes a person appear sincere and friendly, one that you would want to do business with someday.

One of the key things to remember is that the first meeting is never a sales meeting. As soon as people realize that you are trying to sell to them on the first meeting in an environment not meant for it, they do not leave with a good impression. In networking events, the point is to make positive contact, which may or may not lead to a direct business deal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Networking Plan among Clients The first thing that the consultancy will do is to seek to establish itself as an expert status organization. This is the lifeline of all consultancies. The best way available for the company to do this is by opening and maintaining a blog, website, or bulletin and using it to address general queries about the issues in its area of business. The quality of the posts determines the apparent success in creating the expert status impression.

In networking events, it helps to draw out the people who show interest in the services of the company, or who seem to need the services without realizing it. This requires tact because one can easily come off as a show-off. The best way to do this is to talk about actual cases settled by the company and the results that came about.

The third way that the company will ensure it makes the most out of its networking opportunities is by making the events memorable for the people that attend them. There are very many options available for this. They include issuing specials cards either as contact cards or as simply cards with memorable messages on them. If the cards stand out enough, then the person will always remember the meeting, which is the whole point of networking.

Networking Plan among Peers It is somewhat easier to network among peers because of the existing history. However, there is a chance that they will not be as easy to do business with because of the personal relationship shared in these situations. The line between professional and social engagements is simply too blurred. In order to network effectively with peers, it is imperative to maintain a professional demeanor at all times. Avoid giving unnecessary favors to your friends because those favors do not count as much towards business objectives.

The next way to make the most out of networking opportunities is to practice reciprocity. Take time to refer clients to businesses near you and chances are they will refer the business to others clients. The truth is that there will be some unpleasant moments during networking. The main thing is that the expert should learn to let the unpleasant experiences go away.

The final thing to bear in mind during networking events is that personal relationships, especially those that are intimate in nature ought to be with people we have known for a while and not new acquaintances. It is also important for clients to see that the consultant is not an excessive drinker. Personal life can have a big impact on networking capacity.

Reference List Davis, I. M. (2005). The American Entrepreneur in Asia: A Personal Journey of Global Proportions. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.

We will write a custom Essay on Need for Effective Networking for Consultants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mongay, J. (2011). Business and Investments in Asia. Madrid: ESIC Editorial.


Frankenstein and Science Essay college essay help near me

The role of science in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley has been disputed by many scholars. Critics tried to consider the problem from different perspective stressing on the nature, science and human being. It should be mentioned that much research of the novel is based on the contemporary knowledge of the end of the 20th century.

The scientists were interested in the possibility of the relation of the novel to the real scientific issues even though much time has passed from the time of the novel writing and many discoveries were made.

One of the main reasons for considering the connection between Frankenstein with science remains emergence of the synthetic biology along with life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, and even the material and the informational (Belt 257). All these aspects impacted the desire to reconsider the novel from an absolutely new perspective which could not be dwelt upon before the real signs of the problems have not emerged.

The notion of the synthetic biology is defined by the engineering where the organism cells are used for creating a life from scratch applying to the innovative technologies. One of the main goals of this science is to make sure that people are able to control the life like they are able to control their machines.

More about Frankenstein What is the Most Famous Frankenstein Musical? 5 16 Is Frankenstein a True Story? 5 19 How Did Young Frankenstein Spend His Childhood Years? 5 27 Where Was Frankenstein Written? 5 49 Much attention is paid to the problem in the modern world and many scientists who want to succeed in the sphere refer to Mary Shelley’s gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The introduction to the novel sounds as following, “Frightful must it be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world” (Shelley 2007, p. 9).

Van den Belt (2009) is sure that the discussion of the Frankenstein wihing the scientific light began possible when people developed a desire to play the role of God by means of creating a life synthetically. Cloning is one of the departments of the scientific ideas which may be also considered within the novel. The contemporary advances in the life sciences allow critics to view Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein from another perspective, analyzing each thought and idea developed in the novel (McCall 2011).

The connection of Frankenstein with science may be considered from different perspectives, however, the problem of gender and the ability to give birth as the scientific aspects are closely interconnected with the problem of feminism in the novel. Many scientists and scholars tried to view the problem of the connection between Frankenstein and science from the perspective of the feminist vision as the novel is written by a woman.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Banerjee states that “Frankenstein does bring into play the theme of reproductive creation through images that evoke female reproductive experiences” (Banerjee 2011, p. 5). Reading the episode when Frankenstein emerges, the process of “gestation and birthing on the scientist” my be considered who undergoes “midnight labours,” faints, grows “pale” and “emaciated with confinement,” and suffers from “nervous fever,” “anxiety and mental agitation” (Banerjee 2011, p. 5).

“Now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart” (Shelley 2007, p. 56) is the phrase which was the starting one for the discussion about the scientific nature of the novel. Trying to justify the scientific idea in the novel and its positive impact on the world of science, Bizony (2009) provided many arguments. It should be stated that the consideration of Frankenstein as something unnatural is a usual vision of this hero.

Still, Bizony (2009) stated that medicine has always been considered as something unnatural as only due to drugs and neither medical intrusion many people continue living and enjoy life. Frankenstein is cannot be compared with medical effect, however, he should not be considered as someone unnatural. Therefore, this is one more argument in favor of connecting between Frankenstein and science.

Further Research Who Killed William in Frankenstein? 5 534 What Do Victor and Walton Have in Common in Frankenstein? 5 129 Which Quote from Frankenstein Brings Out the Theme of Revenge in the Novel? 5 174 What Genre is Frankenstein? 5 52 Many scientists are dreaming of creating a person without a man and a woman as the main participants of the process of birth. Such scientific ideas are numerous and Mary Shelley made an attempt to show what is going to happen if such a monster is going to be created in the scientific world.

She “offers a philosophical nightmare revealing the horrific consequences of methodological naturalism taken to its logical conclusion” (Hogsette 2011, p. 531) and presents the possible results of the scientific experiments. Scientists do not want to create a monster, however, they are interested in creating someone who is not born as usual people. The story in Frankenstein describes the result which may be trying to assure scientists that such approach is inappropriate.

Additionally, the novel is usually considered as the symbol of concerns people are to experience about the risks and danger of scientific experiments. The research should not be conducted in the sphere where the danger to human beings is observed. The novel by Shelley is a goods example of what may happen when the scientific ideas will become a reality (Hammond 2004).

Krischel (2011) agrees that the creation of the human being as discussed on the novel is inappropriate, however, he cannot reject the fact that the novel may be used as the Victorian science fiction with the reference to the use of electricity in medicine as it is described in the novel. The problem has been researched since 17th century.

We will write a custom Essay on Frankenstein and Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nowadays, it is possible to see a lot of medical equipment which applies to the use electricity for supporting human bodies living. It is impossible to say that he novel was the central factor in developing the research, there were other circumstances and arguments, however, the fact should not be rejected as well.

The research on electricity and its application continues until now. The time when the novel was written coincides with the time when the research began. Much attention was paid to the novel as to the source of inspiration, however, the scientists did not consider it as a science fiction seriously being aware of the author and her age. However, some ideas described in the novel had the scientific value, and who knows maybe some other aspects may become a part of scientific world (King


Importance and Role of Management Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction This paper aims at giving an overview of management in general, as well as risk management, in particular. The main objective is to understand management and how it helps in running an organization.

Some management practices contribute to the failure of organizations given the fact that managers often tend to overlook how prioritizing of the short-term goals may affect the long term goals of the organization in the future. These bad management practices often render the organizations vulnerable to market stresses. The global financial crisis is one of these stresses. It had a great impact on the global economy and may have caused some organizations to become bankrupt.

Proper risk management might have helped these organizations to avert the global financial crisis. The paper looks at some of the gaps that exist in management and why some organizations are not able to fill these gaps. In addition, the paper provides an overview of some of the issues that managers failed to put into consideration prior to the financial crisis. We see that some of these issues could have been avoided if there had been adequate preparation and management.

Importance of management This section aims at giving an overview of how management works and what role it plays in the organization. It also briefly discusses how to find out whether an organization is managed properly. The main objective is to highlight leadership strategies that can be used to influence the productivity of the employees.

Management plays an important role in the effective functioning of an organization. Sales managers are responsible for maintaining a good sales network for the company’s products. Personnel managers, on the other hand, are responsible for ensuring that the employees are productive and work in a good environment.

Plant managers are responsible for giving us quality products that we use on a daily basis. Our society needs to have mangers for it to be run properly. It is said that effective management is the reason behind developed countries and probably a resource that is required in the developing countries. Either way, our societies and organizations require good managers.

The role of management Managers play a huge role in the organization because they help the company to attain desired goals. All organizations have certain goals and accomplishments that they wish to achieve and managers play the role of guiding the company to achieve these goals. To begin with, managers assign certain tasks to individuals who are qualified to perform them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is just one of the ways that managers may use to help the company achieve its desired goals. Managers ensure that all tasks and activities are designed properly and assigned to the right people. Assigning the tasks properly also ensures that the workers are productive and work towards attaining the company’s goals and objectives.

Management also has the responsibility of ensuring that workers are productive and work in an environment that encourages productivity. It ensures that all activities that hinder productivity are reduced or better yet eliminated.

It is important to remember that management is defined by the company’s goals and objectives (David 2007).

Signs of a well-managed company In this day and age, companies usually excel as a result of the hard work and effort that their employees put into the job. The performance of the employees determines how well the company performs.

Business ideology dictates that employers should treat their employees as assets that are most valuable. Employees that are happy are the first sign that indicates a well-managed company. Positive business results are also another indicator that a company is being run properly. The following are some of the pointers that indicate a company is well run:

Work life balance

A company that performs well is one that gives its personnel a good work life balance. This is more likely to produce good results. Research shows that companies that give employees a good work life balance are more likely to produce good results just like companies that make their employees work hard. However just making employees work hard will produce results but the employees will not focus on the task. This may result in them resenting the job and finding another better deal somewhere else.

Challenging quantified goals

This is considered to be one of the essentials of an effective management. An organization has both short term and long term goals. Management is responsible for reviewing the short term goals that will eventually lead to the attainment of the long term goals.

We will write a custom Essay on Importance and Role of Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Challenging the quantified goals here means that management comes up with reasonable measures to improve areas that need improvement or coming up with better ideas that will help the employees perform better in their tasks. Frequent review of the short term goals helps the mangers to evaluate whether they are on the right track towards achieving the long term organizational goals.


A company has to evaluate regularly the results of the company so as to know whether the company is on the right track. Companies nowadays take advantage of technology and utilize softwares that help analyze the data performance. The software applications also collect performance data and compare them with quantified goals.

A good manager knows the advantage of giving incentives such as bonuses and promotions to high achieving and performance employees. They also use the performance data to analyze employees that are not attaining their goals and thus giving them the necessary training. Through evaluation, a company can be well managed because of the data that is collected and analyzed.

Higher profits

This is evidence that a company is being run properly. A company that utilizes good management practices usually generates better capital returns. A company that is well managed will have a better chance of future growth and better market value than one with poor management. Shareholders are also likely to develop confidence in the company because of its increased returns on capital. In order for a company to attain higher profits, it has to have a strong leadership and an effective internal management.

Risk management

The main aim of this part of the paper is to provide an overview of risk management and its relevance in the organization. A clear understanding of it will help in providing a proper analysis of management practice and some of the shortcomings that were identified as a result of the global recession.

Risk management is defined as the process where risks are identified, assessed and made a priority. It utilizes an economically effective approach to minimizing the threats that may present themselves to an organization. Managers have to keep in mind that not all risks can be avoided or even mitigated due to realistic financial limitations. Therefore organizations need to know that at some point the organization will suffer a certain level of risk residue (Alexander


Vehicle Supporting Processes Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Configuration Management

Independent Verification and Validation


Quality Assurance

Reference List

Configuration Management Configuration management activities are to be completed in the cycle nature. The product is going to be identified (the medium weight vehicles only in our case), then produced, stored, used and the final stage is change control. After this the process is to be repeated with the creation of a change request resulted in creation of a new product which is to be identified, produced and exported for usage.

This process is to be repeated again and again as the slight of great changes in the product are necessary. The configuration management will be supported by one automated synchronizing mechanism helpful in storage of the items (Hass 2003).

Independent Verification and Validation Independent verification and validation is going to be held at each stage of the product development. The process of configuration management is also going to be subjected to this procedure.

The independent verification and validation is going to be held as “a process by which interested parties (who were involved in a model’s origins, development and implementation) can determine, with some level of confidence whether o not the model’s result can be used in decision making” (Robinson 2004, p. 221).

The process of independent verification and validation is important for our affair as it helps consider the timeline and progress of the process of manufacturing.

Documentation The documentation of the project is going to include the following items, project management plan, environmental management plan, project contractual document, and vehicle specifications. These documents are to be prepared in accordance with the norm and within a particular deadline to make sure that all the legal aspects of the manufacturing are followed.

Document type Format standard Estimated page number Peer review type Project Management Plan The plan should consist of the title page, project summary, project charter, project tradeoff matrix and status summary, project organization, activity list, work product identification, project schedule, estimated cost at completion, project staffing plan, project requirements, risk identification, configuration management plan, quality plan, top five issues, and action item status. 20-30 pages Open peer review Environmental Management Plan This plan is going to contain a description of the carried activities of the production, pollution risks, roles and responsibilities of the staff responsible for the issue, emergency preparedness and response, improvement and review facts. 10-15 pages Open peer review Project Contractual Document Responsibilities and rights of the producers 5-10 pages Open peer review Vehicle Specifications A detailed description of the products which are manufactured with the drawings and schemes. 5-10 pages Open peer review Quality Assurance The quality of the product is going to be defined in the specific document called Vehicle Specification. The items are going to be manufactured in accordance with this specific data. As it has already been mentioned, only medium weight vehicles are going to be produced.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vehicle capability will be based on the basis of the array of variants in both configurations, protected and unprotected. The items are going to include “semi-trailers, tow trucks, integrated load handling systems and flatbeds” (Field Vehicles and Trailers 2012). About 56 vehicles are going to be produced monthly to assure that all the quality requirements are followed. After three years of such production, the company is going to produce 57 items monthly which will increase the annual outcome by 12 items and will comprise 684 vehicles.

Reference List Hass, AMJ 2003, Configuration Management Principles and Practice, Addison-Wesley Professional, New York.

Robinson, S 2004, Simulation: The practice of model development and use, John Wiley


Nation Development Theory Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of Uneven and Combined Development

World System Theory

Modernization Theory

State Theory


Works Cited

Introduction Every nation desires to develop. Economic development is the centre-stage of holistic development. However, development is not solely an economic phenomenon. It encompasses many facets of human development including social, financial and other material dimensions of human growth. It also encompasses the need for a complete overhaul of social and economic systems.

Additionally, development must have an institutional bearing, changes in social and administrative structures, an overhaul of people’s attitudes, customs and beliefs. Although theorists and researchers define development from a national point of view, its realization has a direct effect on international systems, social and economic growth as well (Cowen and Shenton 35).

There are different and competing development theories. They define how a country may develop or fail to develop. Development Theory is a holistic look into these independent theories. The modernistic theories draw from the classic theories. Hence, classic theories take precedence over modernistic theories.

They include Modernization Theory, Dependency Theory, World Systems Theory, State Theory and Theory of Uneven and Combined Development (Peet 145). Although these theories look critically at the manner in which world economies have evolved and continue to evolve over time, they also analyze possibility of economically instigated failure in development.

This paper will look at the challenges facing development by drawing conclusion from these theories. It will also analyze the possibility that development is at an impasse and how it is likely to evolve in future (Preston 98).

Theory of Uneven and Combined Development This theory reiterates on the need for inter-societal co-existing as a universal measure of economic, social and historical development. It also focuses on non-territorial coexistence, global capitalism, global political systems and property redistribution. Generally, the theory indicates that the world is too unevenly developed and differentiated in terms of economic and social standing. The theorists argue that if relevant stakeholders address these problems the world would experience faster development than currently (Preston 108).

In the current world, this theory holds water in terms of its assertions. However, the propositions it gives do not serve to eliminate the problems it indentifies. Since the World War two, when economists and development theorists started viewing the world from a common and united angle, many other blocs have come up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These only propagate and grow the divide between the countries where development is uneven and far from combined. This is likely to continue into the future. A critical look at the economic blocs shows that many countries continue to have greater interest in preserving or growing their economic and political power. They are also formed across easily identifiable and common goals (Peet 155).

World System Theory Developed by Wallerstein, this theory visualizes a capitalist economy. It critically analyzes the introduction of capitalism in Northern Europe and the subsequent fall of feudalism. He looks at how international trade favored those European countries at the expense of the peripheral nations.

This led to immense wealth accumulation. However, this does not mean that every person living in the North of Europe benefitted from this arrangement. Additionally, it does not mean that all individuals from the peripheral nations suffered. He argues that its development altered economic and political formations of the countries (Fordham University par 2).

Wallerstein concludes that development of a capitalist economy in the world does not serve to benefit majority of individuals. Rather, it is a route for a few to amass great wealth at the expense of others. Though his theory advocates for an all-inclusive approach, Wallerstein sees the world as headed to even greater destruction and inequalities. He says that technology will be the new frontier from which countries will propel their powers and influence.

Capitalism brought a skewed and unfavorable world. Technology will continue to do this as the world enters the 21st century homestretch. The above synthesis is the base of Dependency Theory. This theory saw the problems of under development or the gains of development as relational. The theory postulates that developed nations continue to attract more wealth while developing nations lose more wealth to the developed ones. These are the same sentiments brought forth by Marxist theories and neo Marxists (Bruff 1).

Modernization Theory This theory advances a ‘copy-paste’ method of propagating development. It says that underdeveloped and developing nations can grow by copying the methods that developed nations employed. It lays out stages in development that its proponents believe are applicable to any nation (Przeworski and Fernando par 2).

Additionally, this theory advances the belief that states are the greatest agents of change in the lifestyles of their citizens. This highlights the need to have stable and working structures of governance and leadership to enable development. Hence, it points towards the fact that many developing countries lack stability in politics and their social systems. This reduces their chances of development since the environment is not conducive for it. Conclusively, this theory advocates for democracy largely (Przeworski and Fernando par 4).

We will write a custom Essay on Nation Development Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to this theory, there is a glimmer of hope in the development of many countries. This is because many countries in the world continue to embrace the concept of democracy.

The belief is that this will stabilize their nations and create environments for future growth. However, it is important to note that this stability is sometimes cyclical. Additionally, many countries are still stuck in problems experienced many years ago. This includes coups, revolutions and reprisals as people seek to stamp democratic rights. This is set to continue in the 21st century (King 44).

The ‘copy and paste’ concept advocated by Modernization Theory is not entirely applicable to many countries. Developed countries have infrastructure and capital intensive acquisitions that many developing nations may take a long time to acquire. Additionally, they have stability in education, which means that they have better generational succession (Vernengo par 6).

It is also important to note these countries are the masterminds of the leading world lending institutions, which they also head. This makes the entire process favorable for the continued dominance of these states. Hence, it is going to be the same old setting where these nations continue to develop at a faster rate than other countries.

The fact that this theory advocates for developed nations to aid developing nations to play catch up is laughable. This is because these countries are in contention of world’s leading resources, including human resource, and assisting them means losing competitive advantage (King 204).

State Theory This was in response to World Systems Theory. Politics are a key player in the development of a country. This is a realization that State Theory take from World Systems Theory. It is evident that politics play a major role in the economics of a country. State Theory reiterates that politics and economic development are closely related.

Many countries take a long period before they can enjoy political stability. This is true in United States, Germany, France and probably China. During economic stability, a country enjoys development across board. This is referred to as the take-off moment (Cowen and Shenton 50).

This theory places a lot of emphasis on relations. It says that social relations, political relations and class relations are crucial to the stabilization of a nation. It looks at this from a country’s point of view. It advocates that countries should dedicate their resources towards forming relationships that last. This way a serene and predictable environment will emerge to propel developments across all the relevant sectors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nation Development Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is evident in many countries as mentioned earlier (King 34). After struggling with historic moments of turmoil and instability, nations in Europe enjoyed instances of massive development. Additionally, United States enjoyed development after struggling with problems at both the social and political standpoint.

However, what happens after that? Does the economy enjoy any more growth prospects? This theory does not address these questions. It does not look into the subsequent future of the countries. Is this the point where economies’ development experiences an impasse (Preston 78)?

Conclusion The above dissection of theories associated with development fails to focus primarily on the reasons why many states fail. The theories do not take a futuristic view. Rather, they choose to have a historic connotation informed by the World War 2.

Hence, it evident that the theorists were somewhat responding to a need by governments to reinvigorate their economies after the World War. These theories are silent in terms of the problems that nations may face in the future, which may hamper their development.

In his book, Diamond (39) lists factors that contribute to societal collapse. Societal collapse is relevant to economy since it is indentified in many of the theories discussed above. They include climate change, environmental hiccups, failure of adaptation to issues facing the environment, hostile neighbors and fall of essential trading partners.

Diamond (56) elucidates that some of these factors may have contributed to fall of previous societies but they have a more real and imminently destructive nature in the 21st century. He particularly highlights climate change, the presence and continued carelessness in emitting toxins in the air and energy shortages as the main culprits of societal collapse in future. He also highlights overpopulation as a critical issue (Diamond 34).

From the above standpoint, it is evident that problems related to development may repeat themselves. This is because governments and concerned bodies are taking a relaxed and passive role in these imminent problems. Economists, policymakers and development experts are not coming up with solutions to tackle the above problems. This may not auger well with development as reiterated or suggested by the above theories.

These theories were primarily brought forth to respond to pressing problems that had engulfed nations and the world at large after the World War (Todaro and Smith par 4). This included lack of basic commodities like oil and broken diplomatic ties. It explains why economies experience an impasse in development now.

Does this mean that governments and relevant decision-making stakeholders will wait until the problems that are likely to happen in future take a toll on economic development to act? Based on history, this is the likeliest scenario (Cowen and Shenton 45).

Works Cited Bruff, Ian 2011. European Varieties of Capitalism and the International. Web.

Cowen Michael


Gillette’s Total Quality Management System Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Gillette began its global operations in 1905 when it opened a manufacturing plant in Germany. This global strategy and success saw the firm extending its operation to Latin America. Argentina was a potential market after tariffs and business policies were revised. Having operated under unfavorable regime, the firm perceived future competition and decided to create competitive advantages.

Key figures in the firm such as Carlos Rotundo and Jorge Micozzi suggested better quality as the solution to the market issues. The management had to change the organizational culture which was not strategic for the future market circumstances. Rotundo had already began creating a new organizational culture when Micozzin came up with the idea of total quality management (TQM) that made Gillette Argentina the most successful affiliate in Latin America.

Due to the great success of Gillette’s TQM system, this research was commenced to do a case study on “quality at Gillette Argentina”. The paper begins by evaluating the ways in which the firm got its employees to take on the new TQM system. It proceeds to discuss the importance of getting the teams involved in TQM process as well as identifying the ways in which the teams improved the process.

The paper also explains the meaning of the phrase “Beyond the hanging fruits, the most important outcome of this effort was a different way of working with sales” and highlights how Gillette changed the way it looks at its customers. Finally, there is a description of the working culture before and after the implementation of TQM as well as the economic benefits of the system.

Gillette gets employees to take on the new system In a firm where decision making is solely the responsibility of leaders such that the employees have to act as the subjects to them, it is likely that the employees would not readily accept the adoption of total quality management (TQM). This is because TQM requires them to take elevated roles, become self-dependent and consider themselves as the owners of the firm.

It is apparent that Gillette had earlier managed its activities in a manner that left the managerial roles such as decision making and steering initiatives exclusively to the leaders. Therefore, the effort to adopt TQM compelled leaders to take measures that would prepare the employees better for the change. These measures involved several initiatives especially triggered by several key figures in the firm.

The very first initiative Gillette took was to hire the Organizational Dynamics Inc (ODI) as a consulting and training firm. The firm became the key source of information and motivation for the Gillette Latin America management. It can be argued that the source of a successful organizational change begins with leaders who in turn transfer it to employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the employees would rarely have accepted an initiative that their leaders did not support appropriately. The consulting firm played a central role in preaching the benefits of TQM to the leaders. Indeed, the firm reinforced the idea Rotundo had already started to instill in Argentina. Organizational Dynamics Inc. developed the quality initiative and recommended the creation of a quality structure.

Secondly, Gillette offered training to the employees as a way of preparing them for TQM system. One of the landmark training was FADE that prepared employees for quality action teams. The specialized training involved four phases of problem solving: focus, analyze, develop and execute.

The focus phase was concerned with the development of a problem statement; the analyze phase dealt with the use of data to understand the magnitude of the problem; the develop phase involved the determination of a solution and implementation plan; and the execute phase was about implementing the plan and measuring its impact. In addition to FADE training, the employees received training in seven basic quality tools as well as brainstorming, force field analysis and cost benefit analysis.

Furthermore, training was extended to management and leadership levels. The Argentine directors, managers and other officials were trained by ODI as trainers of the rest of the organization. The teams were allocated facilitators who received training on leadership development.

Team leaders were trained in areas relating to group dynamics, effective meetings, leadership skills and group conflicts (Donnellon


History of Imperialism Essay online essay help

There is no exact definition of imperialism in particular. Usually, this word is confused with colonialism. However, the two words are frequently related to European expansionism except that imperialism is far reaching to the Ottoman and Chinese histories. Certainly, imperialism was a way of life to ancient societies such as Persian and Greek, Aztec and Mayan among others.

Imperialism by definition is the maintenance or creation of unequal cultural and economic relationship between states where one is a subordination of the other. Others define it as the policy that allows a nation to extend its authority or control through establishment of political and economic hegemony through acquisition of other nation’s territorial boundaries (Lenin 14).

Imperialism evolved through a series of stages dating back to the AD era. Before developing into a major kingdom, Europe underwent major transformations over a long period of time.

Meanwhile, Africa was characterized by a constant stream of explorers and outside traders who brought in new religions and ideas. On the other hand, Henry, the then Prince of Portugal, sent ships to West Africa in attempt to explore the area.

He commanded ships to take gold to West Africa in exchange for slaves, and this resulted to the establishment of new colonies especially inside America. Imperialism then took a different phase of industrial revolution where natural resources and raw materials such as diamond and rubber were being transported to Britain. Then followed the era of The Atlantic Slave Trade where horrible injustice was committed against African slaves before they got sold to major kingdoms such as Britain (Lugard 59).

Moreover, the scramble for Africa by colonial masters began, and this led to the Berlin Conference of 1888. However, imperialism was resisted in some African countries like the Zulu in South Africa. Meanwhile, effects of imperialism especially loss of life through slave trade raised a lot of tension amongst African nations.

This was followed by Independence Nationalism that led to the Pan-Africanism movement, which was aimed at bringing all Africans together on the basis of their common heritage. Through World War II, most European countries were weakened and Pan-Africanism gained strength. As such, most African nations gained independence during the 1950s.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, these nations experienced poor governments and poor economies, which they struggled to stabilize. As this was happening in Africa, Middle East started experiencing imperialism through the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

In the nineteenth century, most independent states such as Egypt were recaptured by the Great Britain. Elsewhere, as India was struggling to gain independence in 1919, troops from Britain wounded and killed almost one thousand five hundred civilians (Lenin 39). What followed from that period was a series of events that led to today’s imperialism.

Despite the brevity of the imperialism era, its impact on the world was immense. The European countries who were the major perpetrators of this concept had their culture and society tremendously influenced by the various colonies they captured. Even after independence of most colonies, the interaction process between the colonized and the colonizers continued.

Consequently, massive migration from the colonies into Europe occurred, and this was a key factor to the emergence of Europe’s multicultural societies. On a similar note, the culture of Europe was copied to the colonized nations. For instance, European sports such as soccer and cricket are adapted in most countries around Africa, the Pacific, and Asia.

This idea is further evidenced by the manner in which countries around these regions speak French and English. Besides, the imperialism legacy developed in different spheres of such colonies. This includes metropolitan economic ties, communication networks, and economic structures that have undoubtedly shaped the contemporary society.

Surprisingly, the imperialism legacy has far reaching effects not only in the past, but also in the foreseeable future. Take for example the world’s fluctuations on market that greatly depend on Europe’s economy, which has become so hard to remove, and hence, enhancing this idea of dependency (Lugard 22).

Accordingly, imperialism related legacy extends to religious systems in the colonized countries. Not only did campaigns by Christian missionaries convert individuals, but also they left behind a series of Christian states such as Ghana, South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria in Africa.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Imperialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also left behind Catholicism in South Asia and Latin America. Moreover, modernization resulted from imperialism. This resulted to descent cities, the emergence of the money economy, ownership of private land, modern medicine, cash crop farming, and modern technologies among others. Besides, some of the legacy include infrastructure.

Evidence exists that some British built road network and water projects in India, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Pakistan are present up to date. In addition, the British employed the divide and rule strategy that led to ethnic divisions present in our society. For example, they preferred the Hausa and Tutsi communities in Nigeria and Rwanda respectively.

They also preferred the Kikuyu in Kenya and the resettled slaves in Liberia. Also, they placed borders illogically, and this led to ethnic conflicts such as those seen in Kashmir, Palestine/Israel, Spanish Sahara/Moroccan Sahara, Biafra war, and West/Eastern Pakistan.

Works Cited Lenin, Vladimir. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1947.

Lugard, Frederick. The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. Edinburgh and London: Blackwood and Sons, 1922.


Global Financial Crisis Causes and Impacts Cause and Effect Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Global governance



Real linkages


References List

Introduction Global financial crisis is described as the extensive economic disaster that started in the United States in 2007. Starting with the collapse of the American financial system, the economic emergency rapidly spread to other countries in the world. Interrelated markets of the current global trading systems were the major cause of the rapid spread of the financial crisis.

After a number of years since the first occurrence of the crisis, it is still not possible to explain fully the impact of the global financial crisis because the economic emergency keeps on hindering and destroying global markets (Gelos, 2009, p. 15). A number of factors caused the concurrent crush of the housing system, financial markets, and the banking industry in America.

Even though the causes of the crisis are still debated, this occurrence spread out almost immediately into the international market. Usually, the United States plays an influential role in global financial industries and stock trading. This means that the crush caused a destructive impact both within America and in countries all over the world.

The extensive effects of the economic crisis began late in 2007 at the time when prices of fuel and food started increasing globally. Factors that some years before seemed minor like increases in prices of fertilizers started to destroy crop industries and the importation of food in developing economies (Gelos, 2009, p. 17).

In 2008 as the financial crisis in America intensified, financial institutions like banks strove to decrease their spending mainly in foreign investments. This deepened the worldwide emergency because many countries depended a lot on the foreign investment of the United States for the survival of their economies.

Global governance The outstanding increase in global integration recently has largely overwhelmed the ability of global governance. The deepening of globalization has led to an increase in insufficiency of organizations and policies responsible for global governance. This was evident in the global financial crisis and its harsh effects which are still ongoing.

The speed and frequency with which economic emergencies from one nation and spread to other countries shows the significance of sufficiently strengthening financial organizations to make sure that they are able to take fast, remedial and effective measures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Improvement in global economic governance is the main factor in renewing the prevailing dialogue in global political economy (Crotty, 2009, p. 563). Many national economic policies which are cost effective work partly because they benefit other nations but a majority of the policies are only possible if they are also adopted by other nations.

The IMF has argued that the main cause of the global financial crisis was inadequate regulation of the financial system combined with lack of market discipline. Global imbalances alone could not have led to the crisis without the capability of financial organizations to create new tools and mechanisms to take care of the demand for higher incomes by investors.

The tools eventually became more risky than excepted (Crotty, 2009, p. 564). However, many of the investors relied on the analysis on credits by various agencies thus failing to conduct prior examination of the assets despite their optimism in the increased prices. This was considered one of the major causes of the economic crisis.

The biggest role in the crisis was however, played by flawed and ineffective financial regulation which is also called the shadow banking system. The highly interconnected but loosely regulated network of hedge funds, investment banks and mortgage sector was not subjected to prudential regulation. They were not regulated because they were never seen as systematically significant like banks (Crotty, 2009, p. 565).

Their lack of regulation made it further attractive for banks to elude capital investments by making these entities take all the risk. Over time, this institution network became very large and became systematically vital. By the end of 2007, the assets of bank-like organizations in the United States that were not prudentially regulated were estimated$10 trillion, almost equal to the assets of the regulated banking system of America (Crotty, 2009, p. 566).

Financial problems that began in the United States in 2007 rapidly spilled over to other countries around the globe to cause the harshest global financial crisis and collapse from the time of the Great Depression.

The global implications of the crisis were totally unpredicted and have forced a reconsideration of global financial connections. Even though global exposure could have offered a bit of insurance by way of constructive wealth transmission for some economies at the time of the crisis, global exposure played a destructive role by enabling the crisis to rapidly spread from the American housing market to the larger American economy and then to other countries (Porter, 2011, p. 9).

We will write a custom Essay on Global Financial Crisis Causes and Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These economic shortcomings may have been prevented by extensive regulation of the financial sector. Because financiers will always find a way of evading regulations proposed, global governance could have implemented its proposed regulations and action taken against market players who go against the regulations.

Banks The world quickly moved from the global savings glut to an abrupt contraction in international liquidity. Shocks are enlarged and spread faster when leverage exists. In early 2000s, there was a considerable build up in leverage of big American commercial banks and global investment banks (Shin, 2009, p. 101).

Although commercial banks may not seem to have problems with leverage levels before the financial crisis began, when the crisis started, internationally active banks played a very crucial role in the spread of shocks globally. A channel of this connection is the way in which these banks control liquidity throughout the whole banking association.

Banks can transmit shocks globally by managing their liquidity throughout foreign linkages, dealings with international banking linkages, and through the global lending decisions. Banking crises and recessions have adverse impact on the creation of new relations however; all banks or all nations do not experience the same effects. The 2007 crisis showed this pattern and had huge negative effect on the creation of new connections in the international network of banks.

The financial crisis made banks very cautious when lending and this meant that new relationships were not made. Banks helped in the rapid spreading of the crisis through reduced lending (Shin, 2009, p. 104). This had the impact of lessening international liquidity and also with the vital role played by banks in the United States to supply dollars, reduced lending led to an international shortage of dollar liquidity. The Federal Reserve in collaboration with other central banks injected dollars to respond to the crisis.

Investors As banks limited lending and liquidity throughout borders, at the same time investors cut their capital flows in foreign markets. During the financial crisis, changes in international liquidity, crisis occurrences, and risk had a large impact on capital flows during the crisis. These effects were very varied in all nations but with a big part of this variation described by disparities in the strength of macro-economic fundamentals, country risk, and quality of home organizations.

Fund managers and fund investors also played a role in the spreading of the crisis across countries. The volatility of mutual fund investments is motivated by fund managers and investors through which injections into each fund and changes in management in national cash and weights (Rogoff, 2008, p. 2).

Managers as well as investors react to national crises, returns and change their investments significantly in reaction to the economic occurrences like the global financial crisis. The behavior of both managers and investors is somewhat cyclical because they pull out of countries in undesirable times and increase their exposures in the countries when economic conditions improve.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Financial Crisis Causes and Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that investors in mutual funds are a vessel through which financial crisis of 2007 spread rapidly across nations in their portfolio leading to a global financial crisis (Rogoff, 2008, p. 3).

Real linkages These could also be the channel through which the financial crisis rapidly spread globally. For instance, majority of Asian countries were not exposed to the subprime and housing markets of the United States and therefore, such economies had weaker connections with America through investment and direct bank relationships (Fidrmuc, 2010, p. 293). These Asian economies however still suffered harsh reduction of output in 2008 and 2009.

The financial crisis had a larger undesirable effect on companies with larger sensitivity to trade and demand especially in economies that are more open to trade. Financial openness however, appeared to have made a minimal difference. This indicates that real channels of transfer through the impact of aggregate demand and trade flows played a significant role in spreading the global financial crisis.

Conclusion The financial crisis may act as medium for transformation in global governance and may signify a change from the traditional economic system. The global financial crisis has helped in revealing the big gap between international economic order and structures of governance in modern times (Helleiner, 2009, p. 17).

Many emerging economies such as China have been attaining rising political and economic significance but are not equally represented in crucial institutions. Even though the reaction to the crisis has largely been on the financial system, more attention needs to be paid to monetary issues as well as the world trade.

A debate has been ongoing about whether informal institutions such as the G20 or the G8 should really play a role in transforming the authority and governance of global financial organizations. G20 may not be fully justifiable in its present embodiment to succeed in this duty; in fact by just growing present IFI and doing nothing to change them poses a risk of dependency and the maintenance of business as usual.

Global governance is very important in a situation where trade exists. The development of trade administration will have to take into consideration the present stresses placed upon it by economic growth and sustainability questions brought about by the financial crisis.

Global governance needs to reform if it aims at meeting global economic objectives and react to challenges (Helleiner, 2009, p. 16). The main role of global governance is managing the international economy by considering the views and interests of all players and not just the G7 views.

References List Crotty, J 2009 ‘Structural causes of the global financial crisis’, Cambridge journal of economics, vol. 33 p. no. 4, pp. 563-566.

Gelos, G 2009 ‘The global crisis: explaining cross-country differences in output impact’, Social science research network, vol. 23 no. 4, pp. 15-17.

Helleiner, E 2009 ‘Regulation and fragmentation in internal financial government special forum: crisis and the future of global financial governance’, Global governance, vol. 15 no. 1, pp. 16-21.

Porter, M 2011 ‘Managing in the new global economy’, Harvard business school, vol. 2 no. 2, pp. 7 – 12.

Rogoff, K 2008 ‘Is the 2007 U.S subprime financial crisis so different’, The national bureau of economic research, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 2-3.

Shin, H 2009 ‘Reflection of the northern rock: the bank run that heralded the global financial crisis’, Journal of economic perspectives, vol. 23 no. 1, pp. 101-104.

Fidrmuc, J (2010) ‘The impact of the global financial crisis on business cycles in Asian emerging economies’, journal of Asian economics, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 293 – 312.


Christian Sacraments: Matrimony Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Practices and characteristics of marriage in the Catholic faith

Why marriage is a sacrament in the Catholic faith

Origins of matrimony

Symbolic meanings and values

Annulment versus divorce


Works Cited

Introduction The sacrament of matrimony in Catholicism was an amalgamation of various influences, cultures and decisions. A large number of these conditions existed in the 12th Century. Therefore, it is necessary to trace the history of the sacrament, and thus link it to modern occurrences today.

Practices and characteristics of marriage in the Catholic faith The Catholic wedding is a rite that has the same format as the other six sacraments. All conventional weddings in this religion consist of the following practices: storytelling, gathering, action and then commission. Gathering in a marriage ceremony occurs in more or less the same way that a mass does. Family members accompany the bride and groom in most instances. In some settings, the bride and her father come after the arrival of the groom and his party. Modern couples prefer processions that convey mutuality by walking in together.

After the procession, which is often the highlight of the event, attendants will listen to a portion of scripture; this is the storytelling bit. Here, couples will select a story that captures the meaning of their marriage. In most circumstances, many will talk about the creation of new life. Alternatively, others may refer to the unification of two entities into one. Sometimes participants may opt to combine both messages.

‘Action’ involves the exchange of vows. In traditional weddings, priests would read all the vows while the bride and groom would merely say I do. Nowadays, a good number of couples prefer reading their vows to one another. Most vows will consist of a pledge of faithfulness and love. In addition to the latter aspect, the bride and groom ought to exchange rings, where the physical element (ring) complements the verbal element. This part of the ceremony often ends with a kiss.

Lastly, the attendants will partake of the Holly Communion in the commission phase. The priest will perform the Eucharist prayer then invite the group to receive the communion. Afterwards, he will bless the wedding couple and thus send them to the world as representatives of Christ’s love.

Why marriage is a sacrament in the Catholic faith A sacrament is understood as a sign of grace that Jesus gave to the church in order to bring life into it. One ought to look at scriptural teachings in order to understand why Catholics treat marriage as a sacrament. The book of Ephesians serves as a critical starting point for this analysis.

In chapter five and verse twenty two, Paul urges the Christian brethren to follow Christ’s example when relating to one another in marriage. He advises women to submit to their husbands in the same way that the church subjects itself to Christ (Lehmkuhl par 14). Paul explains that since the husband is the head of the home, then he must follow Christ who was the Church’s head.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He then adds that husbands ought to love their wives and cherish them; they ought to proclaim the same love that they have for themselves to their wives. After this, Paul discusses how man and woman must forget about their separateness and become one. The Apostle concludes this declaration by stating that Christian marriage is a sacrament.

Catholic leaders made the deduction that marriage was a sacrament from the words of the Apostle himself. They depended on his comparison of the ceremony to the relationship between Jesus and the Church. Individuals were called upon to realise the supernatural life of Christ by the way they conducted their marriages.

As such a Christian marriage is a symbol of the grace that is encompassed in its efficaciousness. Since the Apostle considers marriage as one rite, then it is only fitting to think of it as a sacrament. According to this teacher of the gospel, marriage brings out the divine grace of Christ.

St Augustine also contributes to this debate through his assertions as found in chapter 24. He likens marriage to a holy institution that cannot be negated because it mirrors the Church. Since the church cannot be separated from Jesus, then two people who have been joined together in holy matrimony must remain united. In this regard, marriage is a sacrament owing to its equivalence to the Holy Orders or Baptism. St. Augustine taught that the holiness of marriage placed it on the same level as these other sacraments.

Origins of matrimony The foundation of the theology of Catholic matrimony dates back to the twentieth century. Although early Christians married and had children, they had different interpretations of what the practice meant to their lives. Catholics at the time faced immense pressure from other faiths to have a strong doctrine on marriage.

The Church needed to set some rules that would harmonise practices of marriage in the middle ages. Nonetheless, this process did not occur harmoniously; church leaders from different regions had their own interpretations of what marriage should entail. They took thousands of years to articulate these sentiments and unify them under one voice (Peters 70).

Romanic culture and Germanic tribes were the main sources of influences in this matter. Germanic tribes often treated marriage as a family matter. Children were betrothed to suitable mates through parental decisions (Peters 66). Many times, it was done in order to safeguard family property or family names.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Christian Sacraments: Matrimony specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, parents from the ladies’ side chose their child’s spouse in order to extend their networks. More often than not, family members presided over the ceremony. Conversely, the Romans treated marriage as a civil matter. Two people could get married if they consented to one another. No elaborate ceremony was necessary in this culture. Furthermore, the two entities could terminate their marriage by simply withdrawing their consent.

Christians in the medieval era emulated some of these practices by involving a presiding authority in their weddings. In Romanic cultures, most couples gave the family head this task; however, with the infiltration of Christian faith among the Germanic tribes, it became necessary to use clergy men as witnesses.

Later on, the Christian faithful decided that bishops would preside over the ceremonies. Since Church leaders played an important role in this ritual, they started thinking of it a baptism. Eventually, the leaders treated it as a sacrament. Christian leaders decided that they had to instigate moral behaviour by creating a uniform marital law.

Any sacrament that had variations in the body of Christ was immoral to them. In the twelfth century, Christian leaders wanted to answer specific questions pertaining to matrimony. For instance, they needed to clarify the purpose of marriage, how long entities should remain in it, whether they were expected have children, and so on.

The theologians thought about the duration of marriage, and decided that it should be insoluble. They relied upon biblical texts and St. Augustine’s interpretations to come up with this resolution. In the book of Mark, chapter 10, verses 11 and 12, Jesus tells his followers that they will have committed adultery if they leave their husbands or wives and get married to others. Even the person who marries a divorcee would also be guilty of adultery.

Twentieth century theologians used the literal interpretation of this verse to settle on the permanence of marriage. A number of them also focused on St. Augustine’s teachings. He affirmed that divorce was unfeasible in the Christian faith because a wife is bound to her husband in the same manner that Christ is bound to the Church. (Hegy and Martos 135).

No one can destroy the union that one possesses with Christ; similarly, no one should destroy the union between man and wife. These Christian leaders found St. Augustine’s teachings convenient to their circumstances as they needed a doctrine that would minimize divorce. Many of them had seen the isolation and breakdowns that these separations caused. It was, therefore, appropriate to have laws that would build the family unit.

The 12th Century church leaders made some exceptions to the insolubility of marriage by introducing the law of annulment. A marriage could be rendered void if it was found that the parties got married under certain conditions. First, if one of the partners was coerced in to the marriage, then it became void. Alternatively, if one of the parties was impotent, related to his or her spouse, already married or underage then the Church could annul the marriage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Christian Sacraments: Matrimony by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was also decided that marriage should occur among consenting parties even when the parents of the parties involved did not agree to it. Additionally, the leaders at the time felt that a marriage could still be honoured without the presence of witnesses or an elaborate ceremony.

However, in subsequent years, the clergy changed this requirement. It eventually became mandatory for couples to announce their wedding well in advance and to invite at least two witnesses to participate in the process. Records of the weddings also had to be made.

In the 16th Century, members of the Catholic clergy decided that they would use celibacy to test an individual’s commitment to God’s work (Witte 6). If one could not live such a life, then one was not deemed worthy to serve in leadership circles. The Catholic Church treated celibacy as an indication of spiritual discipline. Servants of God needed to emulate the apostle Paul.

Since he was highly devoted to the Gospel and the growth of the early church, he made the conscious decision to refrain from physical intimacy. Likewise, anyone who wished to follow such a path needed to demonstrate this spiritual strength. Those who chose the path of marriage were deemed as weak and ill-suited to become clergymen. This pattern of celibacy became a reality even in modern times.

Symbolic meanings and values The Catholic understanding of marriage may be categorised into the following schools of thought: contractual, sacramental and natural. The clergy realises that marriage has natural purposes. First, man is inherently sinful; he has a tendency to become lustful if he does not direct his passions to the kingdom of God.

Therefore, marriage offers the ultimate solution to the problem of lust by giving man a permanent companion. Additionally, God commanded Adam and Eve to multiply and fill the earth. Marriage allows man to fulfil this divine calling through children. It performs a natural function of growing the kingdom of God. Therefore, child rearing and companionship are complementary to one another. If the Church prioritises only child rearing, then infertile couples may find no meaning in marriage.

On the other hand, marriage in the Catholic faith is also contractual in nature. Marriage binds parties to one another through their free will. They remain obligated to one another, and must devote themselves to love and give service to each other. Individuals cannot abscond their parental or connubial duties in this context. The contractual view of marriage explains why certain allowances exist in the catholic view of marriage. Once parties violate the conditions of the contractual relation, then the marriage becomes null and void.

Lastly, marriage in the Catholic Church had a sacramental purpose. If it was properly done, it would symbolise the grace that Christ gave to the Church. Nonetheless, one must realise that among the sacraments, marriage was not particularly edifying. Marriage was a solution to a problem rather than a source of righteousness. Therefore, those who could remain celibate were given greater honour than those who could not (Witte 4). The sacramental perspective led to the permanence of marriage.

As stated earlier, marriage is a contract between two individuals who vow to remain together for life. This promise implies that fidelity is intolerable in marriage. Unfaithfulness in marriage would be tantamount to making a mockery of the sacrament. Furthermore, individuals with children must act as shining examples to them. They must honour the promise they made to God as well as to the Church. In fact, this is one of the few aspects of the sacrament that falls in line with civil practices today.

Annulment versus divorce An annulment takes place when the Church declares that there was never a marriage to begin with. The concept of annulment has created a lot of controversy inside Catholic Circles. Conditions under which an annulment can occur have already been described above. Nonetheless, modern clergy also recognise other aspects such as drunkenness or insanity. Divorce on the other hand is the termination of a valid marriage as recognised by the Catholic faith.

Statistics indicate that the number of divorces in the Catholic faith has increased to 40,000 in the 2000s, yet this was 368 in the late 1960s. Something must have happened to cause this increase, and analysts blame the church for this.

They claim that grounds for annulment have dramatically expanded to the point of making it possible for almost anyone to get an annulment if one wants it. Studies also indicate that almost three-quarters of these annulments occur in the US.

Therefore, one may argue that the culture in this part of the country is slowly becoming incompatible with the doctrines of traditional Catholic faith. In other parts of the world, some Catholics even ignore the requirement for annulment and divorce at will. This poses questions about the relevance of Catholic legal structures in modern times.

Jenks (1) explains that the above matter has placed the Catholic Church at crossroads. Since divorces have become more frequent, churches may either opt to stick to their conventional doctrines, which require spouses to stay married for life, or they can accept this new phenomenon and change.

If the Catholic Church maintains its current stance, it is likely that it may loose a wide portion of its followership. However, if it yields to these modern pressures, then some critics may view it as weak and unprincipled. Analysts may claim that the Catholic Church prioritised church membership over sound doctrine. A number of adherents may even feel that the church has betrayed them. It is not easy to choose any of these paths as either of them will affect the Church substantially.

Jneks (24) highlights a number of reasons that may have propagated these recent increases in annulment as well as divorces. The author cites individualism as one of the reasons behind the phenomenon. Additionally, people have become more educated and are willing to challenge the status quo.

Society has witnessed an unprecedented change in gender roles. Many women want to focus on their careers and this has taken a toll on their roles as wives or caregivers. As such, it is no longer tenable to expect such low requests for annulment of divorce in the Catholic body. Few Catholic leaders have talked about the latter factors, despite these numerous changes. Most of them have turned a blind eye to the problem, and only made the situation worse.

Conclusion The circumstances that favour observance of the sacrament of matrimony have changed dramatically over the years. This explains why so many annulments and divorces occur. The Catholic Church must respond to these concerns or face the danger of loosing its followership.

Works Cited Jenks, Richard. Divorce, annulments, and the Catholic Church: Healing or Hurtful. Binghampton, NY: Howarth Press, 2002. Print.

Hegy, Pierre


English Language Essay college application essay help

Defining the Role and the Intended Audience of the English Language Dictionaries

Language is the basic instrument for rendering and expressing human emotions, thoughts, and ideas. Therefore, the extent to which a person is linguistically educated defines his/her ability to operate specific vocabulary and grammar.

Therefore, considering language as the main object of knowledge has become the central point since many linguists attempt to describe language and define its role in social and mental life. The dictionaries emerged because of the in-depth research in order to design standardized patterns of using language.

In the course of studying language, dictionaries evolve into various types with regard to their functions, roles, and intended audience. They serve to define the meaning of words, explore their origins and etymology, and classify words according to their lexical meaning.

Defining Dictionary and Thesaurus

According to Crystal (1997), “a dictionary is a reference book that lists the words of one or more language, usually in alphabetical order” (p. 18). Hence, words are inherent elements of linguistic knowledge; they also create a part of mental grammar (Bopp 2011, p. 502). While communicating with foreigners, people often apply to the information they find in a dictionary.

However, mere knowledge of sounds combined into meaningful patterns is not enough to learn the language. In this respect, there is a variety of dictionaries providing learners with specific information on lexical, structural, and grammatical meanings of a word. Dictionaries can perform different functions depending on their goals.

A general, standard dictionary contains pronunciation, definition, variant spelling, functions, and exemplary usages (Bopp 2011, p. 502). Some dictionaries may involve entries with etymological history, origins, dates of use, and even illustration. There is also a discipline-focused dictionary whose primary function lies in presenting detailed definitions and examples (Bopp 2011, p. 502).

In most cases, such dictionaries omit such elements as pronunciation. Though the majority of dictionaries are organized in alphabetical order, there are visual dictionaries where the focus is made on matching terms with their objects. Such dictionaries are often classified by subject (Bopp 2011, p. 502). In the era of internet, electronic dictionaries have much greater benefits because they may contain hyperlinks on related definitions, as well as pictures and audience samples of pronunciation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the above-presented definitions in mind, dictionaries serve as a means of language standardization in society and, therefore, it can provide a historic and social context for studying and understanding a specific meaning of a word (Graddol 1994).

From various perspectives, dictionaries can perform several functions. First, it encodes the principles of languages, assigns specific functions and usage of languages, and points out specific errors for improving the language (Crystal 1997).

The meaning of the term thesaurus originates from the Greek language and means “a storehouse or treasury of knowledge” (1997, p. 39). Prasher (1997) focuses on the definition of a thesaurus as “a book of words or of information about a particular field or set of concepts, specifically a dictionary of synonyms” (p. 39).

As dictionary standardizes language, the function of a thesaurus normalizes the language vocabulary. With regard to the term definitions, there are three functions of thesaurus. The first one is confined to presenting a prescriptive indexing aid by normalizing language.

The second function relates to offering suggestions concerning additional clues and terms. In particular, such thesauruses create word groupings based on a common concept (Prasher, 1997, p. 41). Finally, the third function seeks to display co-occurrences and associations of words, terms, and documents to present an indexing aid.

Analysis of Dictionaries in Terms of Presenting Polysemy, Homonymy, and Related Meanings

Dictionaries often present words with similar or related meanings (Yule, p. 120). Such words are technically called polysemy, signs, words, or phrases with multiple meanings, but with similar pronunciation. In the most dictionaries, the list of multiple meaning of the word are presented as a singly entry.

Examples of polysemantic words refer to such words as face, man, foot, get, head, etc. One of the earliest dictionaries, A Dictionary of the English Language by Johnson distinguishes the word face divides analysis of its meaning into three single entries. The first one represents the meaning of word being a noun.

We will write a custom Essay on English Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rest two are defined as verbs in their different meanings. The verbal explanations of the word are similar in meanings, although they are represented in separated sections. Similar representations of the word meanings are provided in Webster’s dictionary, but with a much deeper comprehension of those words. While analyzing the presented explanations, it can be stated that separately represented entries can be regarded as homonymy whereas the lexical variations of the word integrated into one entry can be called polysemy.

There is a subtle difference between polysemy and homonymy. The latter is associated with a word that has similar spelling and pronunciation, but a different lexical meaning. For instance, bank as a financial institution and bank as an edge of land near the river. Unlike polysemy, which have related meanings, homonymy can relate to words that have completely different etymological history and their spelling and pronunciation accidentally coincide.

Homonyms are usually presented as two different entries in the dictionaries. However, the analysis of Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language provides an alternative format for defining the word bank (Johnson et al. 1828). Specifically, the author makes a clear definition between the words in terms of their function as parts of speech.

In the dictionary, the homonymy Bank defined as a noun provides several lexical meanings: “the earth arising on each side of a water; any heap piled up; a bend of rowers; a place where money is laid up; the company of persons concerned in managing bank” (Johnson et al. 1828, p. 57). The dictionary separates the word bank defined as a verb which means “to inclose with banks; to lay up money a bank” (Johnson et al. 1828, p. 57).

Similar structure is presented in Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language (Webster and Walker 1830). The difference lies in the presence of enumeration and much larger number of the words definitions. For instance, the homonymy bank provides seven definitions instead of five, as it is represented in the dictionary by Johnson et al. (1828).

Specifically, it specifies the meaning of bank as “an elevation, or rising ground, in the sea called also flats, shoals, shelves,” (Webster, 1830, p. 70). The verb bank is also represented as single entries and interprets the same meaning as it is introduced in Johnson’s dictionary.

As per synonymic and antonymic representations, not all dictionaries offer information on this matter. This is of particular concern to standardized general dictionaries that are more concerned with representing various lexical meanings of one word of similar spelling. Instead, there are specialized synonym dictionaries representing close connotative meanings of various words irrespective of spelling and pronunciation.

Overall, synonym dictionaries can be distinguished in accordance to two principles. First, synonym dictionaries can be arranged either alphabetically or thematically (Brendel 2008, p. 8). Dictionaries can also be based on conceptual arrangement, which is often called thesaurus.

Not sure if you can write a paper on English Language by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second principle of synonymic classification is possible by distinguishing cumulative synonyms, loose synonyms with no sense discriminations and definitions in the dictionary, and distinctive synonyms that are accompanied by discriminations and definitions in the dictionaries (Brendel 2008, p. 8). Similar principles can also be applied to classifying antonymic representations of meanings.

Defining synonymic and antonymic groups of words is a complicated process because of the ambiguous etymology of certain words. Authors provide different meanings to words because of different perspectives they choose while grouping words into synonymic and antonymic rows.

In this respect, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms argues that a synonym “…will always mean one of two or more words in the English language which have the same or very nearly the same essential meaning” (Merriam-Webster 1984, p. 24).

With regard to the above-described classifications of principles by Brendel (2008), the Dictionary is arranged in an alphabetical order. Within the semantic group, the dictionary also includes words with antonymic, analogous, and contrastive meanings.

Purpose and Intended Purpose of Dictionaries

The process of dictionary composition originates from the time of the prescriptive tradition. Because language reflects public behavior, it significantly influences human judgments and perception concerning specific objects. Language, therefore, is a powerful tool for rendering ideas and, therefore, dictionaries are effective means for identifying specific meanings of definitions for the audience to make use of the appropriate words.

The emergence of dictionaries is the start of prescribing tradition. Dictionaries aim to define one aspect of language that has a more important value for a specific community than others. This variety is standardized in dictionaries, which serve as the major reference to learn vocabulary and grammar.

The history of dictionaries demonstrates that their authors have certain educational goals and define students as vital part of their target audience. Regardless of the type of the dictionaries, the common goal of these reference books is to make the audience understand or be able interpret the meaning of a specific word.

Because all dictionaries bear pedagogical nature, the intended audience is regarded as “the groups of perspective readers [that] usually include women, foreigner, and some direct or euphemistic term for the unlearned (DeMaria 2000, p. 11-12). Thus, Johnson’s dictionaries pursue audience who is deeply affected by lexicographic tradition.

The educational intent of the dictionaries is also revealed through the aim to instruct learners in a pragmatic way. In addition, the educational purpose of dictionaries can be fully met in case the individuals involved in reading them can acquire knowledge independently.

The educational purpose of dictionaries is also enhanced in case the intended audience strives to expand their linguistic vocabulary. This is of particular concern to thesaurus whose primary purpose is to provide the definition of a specific word through related semantic groups of words.

According to Livingstone (2005), the role of the dictionary audience is confined to “hearing and being hear, through the more common use is to stress the role of the hearer or receiver rather than the speaker or producer of communication” (p. 218). The role of the dictionaries, therefore, is to highlight the link between symbolic and social representations of a communication text by means of decoding.

With regard to the above presented purposes of the dictionaries, the audience plays a crucial role in presenting dictionary entries and establishing primary and secondary meanings of definitions.

There are various social pressures on dictionaries and thesauruses which have a potent impact on the degree of generality and shared knowledge and “make some otherwise verbose entries more reasonably sized…and give a greater sense of community ownership to a dictionary” (Crowley et al. p. 395). Hence, dictionary making depends on social, cultural, and national peculiarities.

Aside from lexicological and grammatical information about specific words presented in the dictionary, there are also historical and etymological dictionaries that represent origins and derivational characteristics of words. These functions are performed both by standardized and by subject-focused dictionaries. However, general dictionaries integrate these functions as secondary ones whereas subject-focused dictionaries prioritize the etymological information about a word or a phrase.

Aside from the primary function of dictionaries to list the meaning of words in alphabetical orders, there are also phrasal dictionaries that introduce a list of idioms, important quotations, citations, and bibliographies on a specific topic. Such dictionaries also bear an educational role, but with a different learning purpose. In particular, the dictionaries provide information on a wide range of writers, as well as refer to their most famous works.

Conclusion Dictionary reveal social and cultural needs of the audiences (learners) who are need of expanding their knowledge on lexicography of words. Hence, the main purpose of dictionaries is to provide polysemic and homonymic interpretations of specific definitions for readers to make distinctions. Thesauruses also seek to explore word groupings of similar meaning, but of various spelling and pronunciation.

Reference List Bopp, RE 2011, Reference and Information Services: An Introduction, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California.

Brendel, M 2008, Synonymy, Synonym Dictionaries and Thesauruses: Merriam Webster’s New Dictionary of Synonyms. GRIN Verlag, Munich, Germany.

Crowley, T, Siegel, J.,


The Impact of the Ways Gender Is Constructed in the Briar Rose Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Briar Rose, originally known as The Sleeping Beauty, is a classic fairy tale about a beautiful princess who was spelled with a curse and later was saved by a handsome prince (Grimm and Grimm 123). Although the plotline of the story is not sophisticated, it involves a variety of bonds, as well as complex relationships based on various gender representations.

In particular, it reveals the dialogues between the main heroine, prince Briar Rose and other characters, including the old woman in the tower, the king and queen, and, finally, the prince. While representing different gender relations, it is possible to construct the images of the above-identified protagonists.

Therefore, each figure in the narration has its own perception of the situation. Representation of the king as an overprotective father and benevolent king, the thirteenth wise woman who has turned the curse to blessing by revealing the princess from her farther care and allowing her to become an independent mature woman influence the gender construction in the story.

Despite the fact that the king is represented as a loving father who wants to protect and look after her little daughter, his need to control his daughter’s life is, probably, explained by his desire to outsmart the wise woman. Nevertheless, the king’s overwhelming desire to protect her daughter lead to unconscious sleep makes his fall asleep as well (Grimm and Grimm 124).

In the narration, the king destroys all the spindles so as to save his daughter from the curse. Spinning is associated with the feminine capacity to give birth to a child. In European culture, spindle also symbolizes mother’s family and a wise old woman (Shields 156).

Within these perspectives, the father breaking all the spindles makes the girl be bound to a dependent, unconscious life. So, the princess acts out against her father’s will and spins to show her potential as a woman. When Briar Rose pricks her finder, she immediately because breathless by showing her delineation from her feminine identity.

The confrontation between the good king and its antagonistic hero, the thirteenth woman, can also be represented through the reluctance of her father to give her daughter freedom of choice. By claiming her potential as a mature woman, she is not afraid of entering the dark tower in the castle and talk to an old woman spinning (Shields 158). In this respect, the father does not allow his daughter to be engaged with different activities that all women usually do.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The king fairly believes that women are just innocent creatures who should be protected. Such an attitude to women reveals his superiority over women as well as recognition of women’s inferiority over men. At the same time, the princess can enjoy all material and spiritual privileges. She is also presented as an idealized picture of a woman of those times. Therefore, she must meet the social believes, as well as her father’s expectations.

In conclusion, the tale provides a clear distribution of males and female roles among the characters. Hence, the role of the kind, the farther of princess is to protect and take care of his only child. He is also the one who makes decisions in the kingdom. The role of the princess is confined to obeying and enjoying the privileges of being a royal person.

Finally, the thirteenth wise woman’s perspective is two-fold. On the one hand, she is an antagonistic heroine who strive to violate the established order and social stereotypes. On the other hand, she is the one who care about the feminine identity and potential of Briar Rose.

Works Cited Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. The Complete Grimm’s Fairy Tales. US: Publishing, 2009. Print.

Shields, Marcella Hannon. Once Upon a Time There Was a Little Girl: The Healing Power of Fairy Tales in the Lives of Seven Women. US: iUniverse, 2008. Print.


Compare and contrast the totalitarian regimes of Germany and the Soviet Union Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The concept of totalitarian regimes emerged especially in Europe between the two world wars. Totalitarian regime is in essence a form of contemporary dictatorial government whereby it aims at dominating in all societal aspects in an attempt to control all or most phases of public and private life of its population. The regime does this mainly through the use of the state’s propaganda, terror and inflicting fear in addition to using technology such as media.

Totalitarianism attempts to manipulate the thoughts, beliefs, and views of its population by teaching them the value of their bodies more than their brains. It is worth noting that different totalitarian governments have different social and political ambition.

The chief totalitarian states that cropped up between World War I and II were the Soviet Union spearheaded by Stalin, fascist Italy under Mussolini, and Nazi Germany headed by Hitler. This section of this paper will attempt to compare and contrast totalitarian regimes of Germany and the Soviet Union.

Some of the similarities included having a party. The two regimes had one political party that normally suppressed all the others claiming to represent the interest of the vast majority of their population. In addition to that, both had ideologies such as Nazism and Marxism which were to be official doctrines to be observed by all.

Furthermore, the two totalitarian regimes had only one very powerful leader in that; Hitler in Germany and Lenin and Stalin in Soviet Union. Other similarities between the two regimes included a centralized economy, controlled communication as well as use of excessive force to the opposition.

On the other hand, the two regimes had slight differences. Notably was on the issue of ideologies. While Hitler of Germany believed in the ideology of Nazism, Starling of Soviet Union believed in the ideology of Marxism. Additionally, while the Marxism Soviet Union discouraged private enterprise, the Nazi Germany allowed it. Thirdly, while Nazi ideologies rejected all the traditions of the 19th and early 20th century, the Marxism Soviet Union accommodated them.

Holocaust was basically an ideology or a system that was sponsored by the Nazi regime with an aim of persecuting and murdering the Jews who lived in Germany. The Germans felt that they were racially superior and deemed the other races an inferior and threat to “German racial community.” This was contradiction with the objectives of the enlightenment which was committed to compassionate human ideals, cosmopolitan citizenship as well as the spirit of tolerance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The legacy of world war II The aftermath of the World War II brought about mixed reactions from massive casualties to rising to superiority. To begin with, it is said that more than 50 million people died in war and that then war had the largest migration of people ever. In addition United States as well as the Soviet Union became the world superpowers in that US came up with an atomic bomb while the soviet union had was said to have trained the largest army in the world.

Furthermore, the war made disintegration of European‘s overseas empires. For instance, Britain lost India, Syria and Lebanon gained their independence from France. Additionally, United States of America formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949.

The members of this organization included the armed forces of Portugal, Canada, France, Norway Britain, Italy and later Greece, Turkey and Spain. In reaction to the formation of NATO, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact which comprised of the armed forces of Soviet Union and its satellites.


The Effect of Information Systems on Business Operations Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Introduction Over the years, the changes in modern business practices have forced organizations to embrace the use of information technologies (IT) in order to fight competition and remain relevant to the needs of customers.

Generally, organizations that automate operations tend to benefit greatly from unique technological innovations. The challenge, however, is how to measure the impact of IT. In answering the following questions, an attempt is made to determine role and impact of IT and why it is necessary for organizations to embrace the use of technology.

The effect of information systems on business operations and how this is related to globalization

Business today must be concerned with foreign as well domestic market places in order to compete successfully. With the information intensity associated with coordination across geographic, cultural and organizational barriers, global business operators are compelled to rely increasing on information technologies to support business operations (Loh, 2003).

According to Deans and Karwan (1994), information technology has long been recognized as an important tool for organizing and managing business operations. Equally considerable is the potential for IT to support a firm’s international operations. There is a general belief that proper use of IT will help firms to succeed in the global market place (Deans


Decision Making Processes for Flexible Work Arrangements Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Every manager in an organization needs to master the techniques of making decisions about his workforce to meet the needs of both the staff and the company. Many a times, the decisions made are skewed to satisfy company objectives at the cost of an employee’s desires. Quite often, work arrangement policies can significantly deter the personal welfare of the employee even when they do not directly add value to the company’s status.

The involvement of the government and regulatory bodies in ensuring that the individual interests of staff members are met has been crucial in resolving this problem. Constructive policies have been passed to facilitate a better platform with which employees can approach their employers to seek improved working conditions on substantial grounds. This paper will hence analyse how organizations are being made to modify their decision making processes to serve their employees using the best methods available.

Decision-making process that organisations will need to follow to evaluate requests for flexible working arrangements

The decision making process that will be used by leaders in their organizations concerning flexible working arrangement will take into consideration a variety of factors. There are both internal factors and external factors that contribute to the process. Within the external perspective, a set of legal conditions has already been provided by the National Employment Standards.

Some of the conditions, such as the requirement for 12 months employment in the organization by an employee and having an infant or disabled child to take care of, are clearly distinguishable. These conditions are incontestable and are hence easy to get beyond in the decision making process. Other conditions may need a more severe form of objective assessment to incorporate into the decision.

The classical approach may to some extent be applied in handling flexible arrangement requests. There is already the need to make a decision upon receiving a request from an employee for a change in their work plan. To add, the decision making process needs to be quick enough given the 21 days that have been made. It should allow objective analysis of the situation that filters out the irrelevant (Davidson et al, 2009).

In order to serve this end, there should be minimal potential for conflict in the decision making process amongst those who may be involved. If a conflict emerges whereby the superior authority chooses to isolate certain cases with which to apply different decision making tactics, the process may be compromised and it may result in a loss of confidence from employees.

The decision to accept a change in working terms will imply a change in the business structure which may affect the firm financially. One alternative may be to reduce working hours for the employee minimally so as not to demand the creation of a new shift.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, the level of productivity that can be reached with such an arrangement needs to be maintained at a constant. A better way to handle this can be to provide an arrangement where the employee may partially work at home and at the office. This would be better suited for desk stationed workers who do not particularly engage in laborious activities.

Before any specific decisions can be made to individual cases, strategic policies and systems need be formulated. For instance, a work home arrangement will demand a reliable network structure that can facilitate communication between employees at home and those at the office. This will especially work for skilled workers who perform most of the duty on computer systems and with other people. Systems that limit the number of staff that can apply for these requests are also necessary.

For instance, a report by the Australian government on flexible work arrangements for the restaurant and catering industry offered suggestions of outlining work schedule flexibility policies to employee during recruitment interviews (2006). Such systems will make it easier for individual decisions to be made. Choosing the right decisions will eventually rely on the assimilation of these policies and system requirements into the organization in the long run.

Biases and errors in the decision making process

Despite the straightforward and self supporting mechanism outlined in the decision making process above, situations where biases and errors arise in granting and requesting flexible work arrangements are still likely.

Psychologists have identified four major causes of these errors and biases namely; the use of prior hypothesis, sample based representativeness, a domineering mindset and decision escalation (Waddell, Devine


The Causes and Impacts of Homelessness Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction Homeless families and individuals live without adequate shelters and basic needs. The homeless is a category of people who face severe forms of economic and social conditions. There are hardly any homeless conditions that do not compromise human health or complicate their ability to access basic needs including, food, health, education and financial services.

The homeless individuals with mental illnesses particularly face a higher risk or becoming casualties of some unlawful acts. The risk factors related to homelessness commonly happen concurrently with other societal factors such as intolerance, poverty and unemployment. For example, the homeless people are denied access to formal education, health care, banking facilities and are exposed to crime and abuse among others.

Liberalists argue that homelessness results from the general nature and the poor economic structures and the manner in which finances and resources are distributed in the society (Hurley, 2002). The liberalists claim that the poor economies cause unemployment making it difficult for the affected individuals to pay for housing and other essential services.

Conversely, the conservatives view the homeless as deserving and lazy individuals given to drug addiction and as people who should not be offered any help. Conservatives believe that the society should not intervene in the conditions of the homeless population. Some extremists go to an extent of preventing people from offering help to the homeless population. They claim that many cases of homelessness occur due to personal faults and that the individuals ought to blame themselves for their condition (Hurley, 2002).

Homelessness predominantly occurs in the developing countries and cities such as Cairo and Tunis where material resources are often insufficient and underdeveloped. The increase in homelessness in the developed countries usually indicates the uneven distribution of national resources.

This is particularly evident in countries such as Canada and the United States. The condition is basically a consequence of the increasing poverty levels and lack of affordable housing which arise due to many other factors including the rise in the cost of rental housing.

This paper seeks to address homelessness as a major problem experienced in both the developed and underdeveloped nations. It then highlights the severe impacts of homelessness to individuals and the society at large. The paper then gives significant comparison between the different ideologies regarding homelessness including the liberal, conservative and extremist viewpoints. The paper also emphasizes on the major similarities and differences between homelessness in the developed and developing countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background to Homelessness Several definitions are used to give the meaning of homelessness. According to Tipple


Minsky’s Economic volatility theory as an evaluation of Financial Crisis Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Does minsky’s premise actually justify the crisis?

Instability and regulation

Minsky’s monetary volatility theory

Explanation of the crisis



Introduction Apart from Keynes, no other economists seem to have gained greatly from the economic slowdown of 2007-2009 as Hyman Minsky. The fall down of the second largest market in 2007 has been unanimously referred to as “Minsky instant,” and majority see the succeeding impact of the monetary model and great financial crisis as attesting Minsky’s economic volatility premise concerning financial disaster in capitalist markets (Ferri


Analysis of media strategies Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Analysis of media strategies employed by Creed fragrances The House of Creed originated in 1760 from David Mom Creed. It was a personal shop and has continued to grow along the family lineage up to date.

Target group: The target for Creed fragrances is the royal or rich people. For instance, dignitaries like Michelle Obama, George Clooney and England’s King George III are known to have worn Creed perfumes. Creed fragrances are expensive because they are made from expensive natural ingredients and they are rare.

The other target market for Creed fragrance is young people. This has been made possible by the launch of Aventus in 2010 by Erwin Creed who is 30 years old. The fragrance has light and masculine scent that is very appealing to young men.

Positioning: Creed limits access to its products. It positions them in 87 stores only. This is because it uses a reverse marketing strategy which states that the less the advertisement, the higher the pricing and the harder it becomes to find it, the higher the chances that people will need it.

Communication with the customers: Since Creed doesn’t advertise its products, it communicates with its customers at the counter or during the sale period. The counter personnel are trained on the company history so that they can pass the information to prospective clients. For instance, Thomas, the president of Creed’s North American store ensures that the associates master the company’s history and charm. They can spend up to 30 minutes with a client in order to instill these values.

Analysis of media strategies employed by Cool Water fragrances Cool Water is a product by Zino Davidoff which was launched in 1988. Cool Water for women was later launched in 1997. It is a combination of lavender, sandalwood among other ingredients.

Target group: The target for Cool Water perfumes is both young and old people. However, it is best suitable for people who are more grown up and would not appeal to teenagers aged below16 years. It can be worn by both men and women since there is Cool Water for men and Cool Water for women,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Positioning: It is readily available to customers since it can even be bought online. Cool water is aggressively marketed and advertised making it easy to find.

Communication with the customers: Davidoff’s Cool Water communicates with its customers over the internet and through advertisements. For instance, stars like Josh Holloway and Paul Walker have campaigned for the product by appearing in its commercials. Paul is the new face of Cool Water perfume.

Analysis of media strategies employed by Hugo Boss fragrances Hugo Boss originated in Metzingen, Germany in 1924. It is highly influenced by European styles.

Target group: Hugo Boss has no specific target group. Its perfumes target men, women, young and old people. For instance, Hugo is a brand that fits the young men and women. This diverse target gives confidence to its customers.

Positioning: Its products are available worldwide in 102 countries and in over 5,000 retail shops. These shops can be freestanding, those operated by franchisees or by Hugo Boss.

Communication with the customers: It communicates with its customers through aggressive marketing, advertising campaigns and internet resources. The use of IT enables the company to smoothly and promptly coordinate delivery of its products to customers.


External Burnout in the Hospitality industry Essay essay help free

The hospitality industry is one of the most fast growing industries in the world. With the fast growth, its rate of competitiveness has skyrocketed with new strategies, styles, and approaches being developed to appease customers. In the hassle of maintaining competitiveness, employees in the industry face work burnouts.

For example, rapid changes in the coffee world leave Starbucks employees with the burden of coming up with new products to meet customer demands.

The burnouts result from internal pressures and pressures they succumb to from the external environment. Burnout in the industry is the result of a build up of anxiety and stress that last for long periods of time; and sometimes the stress and anxiety may be build within a short period of time, especially in the peak seasons.

In the changing environments, human resources managers/theorists have developed new intervention methods to deal with effects of burnouts in organizations (Bullen


The Impact of E-Commerce on Business Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary



Problem statement


Impacts of introducing e-commerce

Draw backs of e-commerce



Executive Summary Advancement in technology has reshaped and revamped the way business is being done. There is a shift towards using internet as a platform for firms to carryout business. The advantages associated with this technology has left almost all business firms whether big or small in size to consider adopting it with the notion that it will help them stay competitive and relevant in the current world of business.

However, there is little knowledge these firms have with regards to both advantages and disadvantages of adopting e-commerce. This paper has identified the pros and cons of adopting e-commerce. The method used to arrive at the conclusion in this paper is through an analysis of secondary data from existing books, journals and internet sources.

It is apparent that since the inception of computers and internet, everything particularly on how business is carried out has tremendously changed. E-commerce is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide and is one of the most rapidly evolving areas of national and international trade.

Using internet to carryout business has been deemed to be the most current innovation in the world of business and offers an opportunity to businesses to carryout business through electronics. Firms have rushed to adopt e-commerce which entails making transaction online with the belief that it will help them gain competitive advantages and increase their market shares as well as revenue.

Indeed there are numerous advantages associated with this concept such as capturing new markets by allowing firms to go global, 24/7 operation this has been shown to bring with it the advantage of reliability and convenience which allows potential customers who do not have time to buy products and services regardless of time.

It is evident that e-commerce help firm cut the costs of doing business, for instance there will be less paper work which requires human resource, a flexible or telework arrangement can be put in place making working execute their tasks, duties and responsibilities not necessarily in the office among other advantages.

However, it is established that there are a host of drawbacks associated with e-commerce such as increase in criminal activities, ethical issues such as firing employees as a result of automating some tasks, technical issues, compatibility problems as well as legal implications.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance there is concern about increase in crime rates that are not easily detected, the real time production of goods and services have and will continue to create stock crisis, there is potential of loss of resources as well as underutilization of the same (people will lose jobs and rates of disposed equipment will increase), unavailability of power, ICT manpower, telecommunication facilities leaves some communities especially in third world countries at a disadvantage, social division and broken human interaction that creates and nurture trust.

Bases on these pros and cons of adopting e-commerce, it would be rational for businesses to critically examine them and develop better strategies to curb some of these drawbacks. Failure to give this concept a serious thought might be a recipe for an organization to fail.

Introduction Since the advent of computers, mankind has experienced an unmatched surge in development of new and cutting edge technologies. Additionally the desire for organizational effectiveness as well as using it to attain competitive advantage has made the adoption of these technologies to be deemed paramount in ensuring that organizations do cut themselves an edge in this competitive business world (Sharma


Case: Highways Agency Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction






Introduction England’s road network comprises roads referred to as motorways and major other superhighways. The case study looks at the small percentage of road considered to be under the super highway category known as ‘A’. The road accommodates most of the road traffic inclusive of all massive freight. The networks of roads within England are considered by the government of the day to contribute and play important role in the development of commerce and industry (Lucas, 2000).

Construction of infrastructure ensures that various cities, towns and major deports are accessible through transport. This is considered major part of the transport system since it also links various factories and other important institutions. The issue of roads within England is safeguarded by the Highways Agency which is identified as part of the executive agency. The body ensures that all operations within the network are supervised adequately.

The Agency was started as a result of the government’s aim of providing sustainable transport system capable of supporting economic growth. The Agency works under principled objectives of providing safe roads which ensures reliable journeys and used by informed travellers (Arrow, 1995).

The Highway Agency s endowed with the responsibility of ensuring that congestion is minimal and all the safety requirements by the road users are adhered to.. The Agency works not for personal financial gain but for the public interests which is the case for all publicly-funded bodies. It is the agency’s duty to spend money wisely and cost effectively through Parliament.

The body is ultimately accountable to the public for the nature of services they offer (Lucas, 2000). The road network is maintained by taxpayer’s money and as such they have a right to know how their hard earned money is spent (Hart and Milstein, 2003).

Political The policy framework for the agency is set by the government, therefore opening the Agency to effects as a result of political changes of directions.

For instance, resources could be transferred from roads to rail transport as a result of change of government policies. Encouraging economic growth is the central aim of government policy. Investment companies feel comfortable selling goods and services within the growing economies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time they enable creation of jobs to the entire population since active road networks encourages smooth transportation of goods from one point to another. Raw materials are needed by factories, shelves need to be kept well stocked by retailers or they risk losing business. Even internet businesses, for example, Amazon need to distribute physical products to customers.

The government is committed to increasing capacity on some of the busiest roads in order to improve on the nature of the infrastructural network. Increased capacity means more goods can be carried and less congestion experienced by pedestrians and motorists. This leads to long-term benefits despite the short-term cost involved in the current constructions.

In the process of improving the efficiency of the road network, the Highways Agency is responsible for effective spending of taxpayers’ money. As a result of England’s dense population, it is not possible to continue building more and more roads as this has financial, social and environmental impacts (Hopwood, 2005).

For instance, the new y-passes might have to pass through countryside or close to residential estates. The Agency continues its services of delivering conventional road widening schemes while at the same time extending hard shoulder running to more key sections of motorway for the purposes of helping keep traffic moving as part of the new National Roads Programme. This will improve the efficiency of the strategic road network and provide value for money to the taxpayer.

It is important to know the political environment in which you operate for several reasons. First of all, the political environment affects legislation and policies which in turn dictate on the happenings within the environment. Legislation covers taxes, distribution of resources, economic stimulus policies, infrastructure among others all of which affect a business. Tax cut in certain industries stimulate growth and investment in such sectors.

Good infrastructure encourages investment; the same applies to stimulus policies the government develops. In the case of the Highway Agency, developing the transport infrastructure leads to an increase in the capacity of the busiest roads meaning more goods can be carried with less congestion experienced which is good for individuals and businesses alike. Government support is also good for business.

In the case of the Highway Agency, the government’s support is evident in many circumstances. The government’s support and commitment for the development of transport infrastructure is evident and leads to increased capacity, less congestion and overall economic growth as a result of the improved infrastructure.

We will write a custom Essay on Case: Highways Agency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic The UK economy went into recession in the year 2009 and since then it has experienced tremendous contractions. This has caused businesses and individuals to cut back their spending leading to mass lay-offs from different sectors of the economy. Despite the ailing economy, forecast reveals that traffic is bound to increase in the long-run but experience short term fall in traffic levels.

As a result, more pressure will be put on motorways resulting into an increase in traffic. Another potential implication of the recession for the Highways Agency is by spending money on road renovations which would have an impact on the business cycle. The government needs to encourage people and businesses to spend in order to stimulate the economy. This can be done by using a combination of monetary and fiscal measures.

Altering the rates of interest is using monetary measures while fiscal measures concern levels of taxation and public spending. The governments respond to recessions by increasing public spending is the position taken by many economists. This is known as providing a fiscal stimulus- building Britain’s future.

The Highways Agency is being used by the government to boost public spending and stimulate the economy by bringing forward £400 million of spending on new and improved roads. Up to £100 million of this money is being put towards bringing forward the project to upgrade the A46 in Nottinghamshire to dual carriageway standard and provide bypasses for two villages.

The project will be completed and opened to traffic some five years earlier than originally planned. To get motorways ready for more hard shoulders running schemes and carry out numerous additional smaller road improvement schemes, the Agency will have to deliver extra work orders.

Knowledge of the economic environment is critical for the success of a business. Interest rates, fiscal measures, economic stimulus, public spending and economic status are factors that influence the economic environment. In this case, with the UK economy in recession and the economy contracting rather than growing businesses are severely influenced towards the negative. People and business were forced to cut back on their spending hence forcing companies to lay-off a number of workers.

An environment with low interest rates makes it easier to get capital for investment making it a better business environment. Economic stimulus as in the case of Highway Agency where the government brought in £400 million of spending on new and improved roads is good for business. The government’s response to the recession by encouraging public spending, known as fiscal stimulus, made the environment conducive for business investments.

Social The activities of the Highways Agency seems to be directly affected by social factors since the population’s reactions always reflect current needs within the population. Such reactions tend to have direct impact on the opinions concerning traffic volumes. Consumers are very important entities in the economic network hence the plan of the Highway Agency to make contacts with the customers for the purposes of adapting to societal changes (Ekins, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Case: Highways Agency by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The nature of the traffic flow five decades ago was much different to what is experienced currently. This is attributable to rapid population growth and improvement in social status. Most individuals own motor vehicles in the current time hence majority choose to travel using their private means. The Highway Agency is taking socially acceptable measures to help road users make their journeys safely, in most reliable sense and without any form of delay in addition to expanding the capacity of the entire road.

The Agency seeks to provide motorists with better traffic information both before and during their journeys hence helping them plan routes and make choices about when to travel. The Agency at the same time aims at influencing people’s travel behaviour. It is working with large companies encouraging their staff on sharing cars while journeying to and from work.

Patrolling the motorways all day long and working hard towards reduction of the traffic hold-ups caused by incidences such as accidents. They also carry out more road-works during night hours when the traffic flow is low hence experiencing fewer incidences of delays (Elkington, 1994).

Conclusion Knowing and understanding your target market and the way in which those people operate is critical for business. Keeping track of societal changes is also important. In the case of the Highway Agency, it is noted that more households own motor vehicles as compared to earlier years of the 1950’s when motorways were first designed and traffic placed much lower.

It’s also noted that many people choose to drive rather than use public transport. Keeping track of such information, social trends allows organizations to design products which correspond to societal needs and at the same time anticipate their needs as a whole.

In this case study the trends include fast paced lifestyles, more impatient attitudes and people are less tolerant of delays. Effects of economic downturn are evident despite small percentage of it which seems hidden. The less obvious effects of economic recession normally vary across markets depending on the country’s governing system.

In this case, England’s system is normally inclined towards infrastructural development. Such system has the capability of shaping the various complex interactions between the public and private institutions.

The government plays a big role in an economic system since it has the capability of enhancing the economic functions through provision of security, establishment of legal system safeguarding the construction of basic facilities including infrastructure. And at the same time, supervising Agencies involved in the provision of safety within the economic cycles, hence reducing costs of expenditure.

References Arrow, K. (1995). Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment. Science, (268), 520–21.

Elkington, J. (1994). Towards the sustainable corporation: Win-win-win business strategies for sustainable development. California Management Review 36 (2), 90-100

Ekins, P. (2005). Eco-efficiency – Motives, drivers, and economic implications. Journal of industrial ecology, 9(4).

Hart, S.L.


Diversity Management in Human Resource Management Report essay help online

Executive Summary There is a lot of labor movement in the world today. Organizations are increasingly recruiting people from different backgrounds mainly based on merit. However, there is a deliberate move in the corporate world to recruit people of diverse culture in order to fulfill national or affirmative action requirements.

The ensuing collage of people has given rise to issues such as fair treatment, minority and majority issues and workplace environment issues and the need for business entities to come up with innovative methods of human resource management.

There is consensus among human resource professionals that better management of workplace diversity will not only lead to better organizational performance but also long-term relations between organizations and communities they deal with. This paper therefore seeks explore issues related with diversity issues to determine how best managers can approach then for the achievement of organizational goals.

Introduction Competition in the 21st century business environment has given impetus to the role of human resource management in an organization. Over the years, human resource management has evolved to play a strategic role in organizational success. An issue of acquiring and retaining talent has become a top priority in organizations seeking to establish their niche in the competitive world market. There is an increased emphasis on the role and position of the employee in the contemporary corporation.

One of the most distinct characteristics of corporations in the 21st century is their global outreach. Increase in technology especially in the telecoms sectors has enabled faster global expansion of corporations who a few years ago only concentrated on their domestic markets.

While diversifying businesses to global markets comes with numerous benefits, management of the diverse workforce charged with the responsibility of running the businesses in their respective regions is a challenging task.

Diversification to global markets has given rise to diverse global management teams in various corporations that come from different races and ethnicities. Besides race and ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, national origin and gender have become new fronts of employee diversification in the 21st century workplace setting.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Cooper


A report that analyzes the systems and operations management practices at Atokowa organization Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Systems and Operations Management

Analysis of Atokowa organization







Introduction In today’s world of business and changing technology, the implementation of financial economic entrepreneurship has made organizations’ successes to depend on the management of systems operations according to Laudon


Research Proposal about Naked Marriage Report essay help site:edu

Abstract Basically, naked marriage could arise from a societal process that influences the choices of the young people when it cones to marital issues. When one marries without acquiring certain necessities such as a house where the couple will stay, a car for easy transportation and enough income to arrange for a colorful wedding, the act is called naked marriage.

It is important to understand that various researchers have come up with several explanations about the issue of naked marriage. Nevertheless, one explanation that clearly stands out is that naked marriage is ultimately about engaging in a relationship and subsequently marrying without first acquiring a house, car and inability to organize wedding for the new couple. Notably, the explanations expose the meaning and the results of naked marriage.

It is believed that the focused people should aim at having a happy family through working hard and acquiring the mentioned necessities before the actual marriage date. Notably, naked marriage could be employed in any particular matrimonial institution or setting, and has the potential to determine the development and success of the couple.

Introduction The issue of naked marriage is on the rise in the Asian region, a situation worrying most of the parents. Since the youth get married without first acquiring a house, a car or without any proper arrangement for a wedding, their parents are forced to lend hand and cater for the cost of all those items.

In the modern China, naked marriage has created debate on its acceptability among the people and communities in the country. Therefore, the debate has focused on the impacts of such marriages, which together form a phenomenon called Luohun in China. This paper is a research proposal about the phenomenon of Luohun.

Research Question

The research will aim to establish if the young generation in China accepts the phenomenon of Luohun or naked marriage. In addition, the research will also examine the relationship between Luohun and the society in the context of China, and its impacts on the entire country.

These particular issues will help the researcher to understand the phenomenon, whether it is acceptable and the consequences of the practice. The specific research questions are; first, does the young generation accept Luohun? Second question is; what is the relationship between Luohun and the perception of the entire society?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance of the Study

Considering this study, the researcher will establish a proper explanation for the phenomenon and discover the potential problems, which are associated with Luohun. The research is also important because it would provide insights on the relationship between the societal advancement and the people’s perception about Luohun.


Ten Interview Questions were as follows

In your opinion, what kind of marriage is Luohun?

Do you accept this kind of Marriage?

What is the rationale of your position?

If circumstances allowed you, would this kind of marriage appeal to you?

What advise would you give to the young people engaging in Luohun?

Do you think the society is ready for this phenomenon called Luohun?

What is the society doing about Luohun? Is there any societal attempt to reduce or advocate for the practice?

Is there probability of divorce between the couple who have Luohun?

What would you tell those who already have engaged in Luohun?

What do you think is the future of Luohun, in terms of acceptability, practicality and viability?

Interview Results and Analysis

The following discussion presents an analysis of responses, which were recorded from the Participants for the research questions. There were participants who assumed that naked marriage is an inheritable trait in some families or communities.

Notably, this perception tends to explain that since the young people might have noted that other family members engaged in naked marriage, they too decided to marry without proper arrangement, taking it as normal (Allan, 2012). As a result, this viewpoint portrays the people who engage in naked marriage as harried and actually destined to perpetuate such ideologies in the society (Lan, 1991).

According the respondents with immense knowledge on the issue of naked marriage, they argue that the act is on the increase due to improper education on the impacts of the matter. This is because of the practicing community has dynamic views and are majorly concerned with the perceptions of young people who increasingly embrace the different forms of naked marriages (Ford, 2011).

In fact, the research shows that the various people tend to appreciate their own lifestyle and the choices they make (McCarthy, 2007). Therefore, unavoidable circumstances such as infatuation was also cited as one of the factors forcing the youth to marry before making adequate arrangements with their partners and parents, thus throwing the burden to the latter to provide them with accommodation, a car and perhaps a decent wedding (Graham, 2012).

Some respondents argued that the phenomenon is a trait factor. Such respondents believed that the different people inherit certain traits and qualities that would make them think their decision is right, thus engaging in naked marriage is not bad. Basically, they assumed that biological factors contribute to the practice of naked marriage among the youth.

We will write a custom Report on Research Proposal about Naked Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, their position was somewhat controversial as it could not justify the importance of naked marriage mainly because the practicing community has different beliefs, ideas and likes of the people, thus propagate naked marriage at a rampant rate (Sun, 2008). It is also important to observe that some respondents noted that the phenomenon has taken a dynamic turn and keeps changing, depending on the desires and lifestyle of the young people, a position the majority of the participants shared.

The other respondents argued that naked marriage is a matter of eventuality. The respondents who shared this view constituted the majority and argued that there are particular need factors responsible for the youth’s engagement in Luohun. The assumptions were that those factors tend to focus on various variables that have relations to the specific type of environment that is most likely to act as the determinant to the kind of naked marriage style applied in that particular environment (Vallotton


Information Technology Changes in Business: Strategic IT Analysis Case Study cheap essay help

Introduction The need to adopt strong strategic initiatives is the natural follow-up to the analysis undertaken on Medical Devices Contract Manufacturing (MDCM), to unearth systemic failures in the company’s operations. The need for the development of strategic measures to solve the supply chain bottlenecks come from the desire to turn around the financial performance of MDCM.

The process for doing this requires the identification of relevant IT projects that have the best chance of solving MDCM’s problems, followed by an evaluation of the projects to assess their suitability to the company in terms of the impact they will have as solutions to the problem, and whether the company can implement them within its resources. A sequenced list showing the most optimal project will be the output of the evaluation process after the identification of the relevant projects.

IT Projects Appropriate for MDCM The previous report contained a number of strategic and tactical initiatives required to turn around the operations of the company. The basic elements in these measures focused on improvements in the supply chain, improvement in information sharing between departments and consolidation of operations in various sections of the company.

The most significant element of the strategies that came out in the analysis was the need to utilize IT systems to smooth out the operations of the company. The specific tasks identified included the use of an information platform to streamline marketing by making it possible to develop and execute a consistent marketing strategy across different subsidiaries operating in different markets.

Secondly, the report identified the need to streamline the supply chain to ensure that there was an effective procurement regime to reduce productions costs and to reduce the turnaround time. Thirdly, the report identified the need to increase the innovative edge of the company by increasing the number and the quality of new products.

In addition, the company needs to find ways of raising the entry barriers for the fresh and upcoming competition. Another need the report identified was the need to revamp R


Southern Company Report essay help: essay help

Introduction Southern Company is an energy generating company that creates and distributes electricity in Southeastern region of US. It possesses all the common stocks of Alabama Power Company, Georgia Power Company, Gulf Power Company among others. Southern Company mainly functions in Alabama, Georgia and Southeastern Mississippi in the United States.

The company’s headquarters are in Atlanta. It employs around 26,000 people. It supplies its electricity to a 120,000 square mile distance. It has various generation fleets which assist in distribution of electricity to its customers (Datamonitor, 2011).

Company’s mission, vision, and primary stakeholders

Southern Company’s mission is to provide reliable, superior and affordable electricity services to its customers. These objectives are realized when the company completes every task safely and when it achieves Southern Style. Southern Style involves complete commitment, exemplary performance and absolute trust in Southern Company’s business operations (Southern Company, 2010).

Vision statement states the future or long term goals and objectives of an organization. Southern Company’s vision is to be the world’s greatest energy generating company (Southern Company, 2010).

Primary stakeholders: Stakeholders are the people that are affected or who could be affected by the company’s activities. Southern Company’s main stakeholders are the personnel, consumers, financiers, the public, suppliers, NGOs and regulators (Southern Company, 2010).

Five (5) forces of competition and how it impacts the company

Rivalry: This involves competition from firms offering similar products (Porter, 2010, par. 1). For instance, Southern Company is facing competition due to change in federal laws. This has increased the presence of old electricity suppliers and wholesalers. Therefore, Southern Company’s net income is being affected by these changes in supply and demand.

Threat of Substitutes: Substitutes are products which are already being offered by other producers, therefore, affecting price and demand (Porter, 2010, par. 7). There are other companies offering electricity products such as North America utility companies. This has reduced the demand for Southern Company’s electricity and subsequent market share.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buyer Power: This is the effect that consumers have on a company (Porter, 2010, par. 10). Southern Company’s buyers are powerful because they are large corporations who buy in large quantities. The company’s subsidiaries are able to supply to municipalities and millions of customers.

Supplier Power: This involves the influence that suppliers have on the production company (Porter, 2010, par. 11). If suppliers are powerful, they can sell at high prices. Otherwise, they are weak. Southern Company’s suppliers are weak because the company mainly sells on retail to its consumers. Therefore, it avoids manipulation by the wholesalers and consequently, the performance is maintained.

New entrants’ threats and barriers: These are new competitors entering the industry (Porter, 2010, par. 11). As a result of changes in federal laws, barriers to enter electricity market are less. This has seen many companies emerge together with contracts futures. As a result, Southern Company’s performance is at a threat.

SWOT analysis for the company identifying the major strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats Southern Company’s strengths are

Wide range of generation fleet: Southern Company has a varied generation fleet that is shared among the old operating companies and Southern Power. The old operating companies are controlled utility branches of Southern Company. They include Georgia, Alabama, Gulf and Mississippi Power companies.

SEGCO is also a company that has its own electric generating facilities. Alabama and Georgia Power are both eligible to half of SEGCO’s energy capability. Southern Company’s varied generation fleet helps in taking care of its consumer’s power needs (Datamonitor, 2011)

Wide customer base: Southern Company serves a wide variety of customers. For instance, it serves residents, industries among others. Its utilities reach around 4.4 million consumers. Georgia Power is supplied on retail to over 600 communities within Georgia and on wholesale to corporations.

On the other hand, Alabama Power supplies its electricity on retail to over 650 communities such as Anniston, Gadsden among others. It also supplies on wholesaler to 15 electricity distribution networks that are owned by the municipal council. Alabama Power also liaises with suppliers in order to support sale of electric devices.

We will write a custom Report on Southern Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gulf Power supplies its electricity on retail to 71 communities such as Panama City and Pensacola. Additionally it supplies on wholesale to municipalities. Mississippi Power on the other hand supplies on retail to 123 communities and rural residents. It also supplies on wholesale to one municipal council, six rural associations and one transmitting cooperative. This varied customer base shields the company’s general performance from economic downturns (Datamonitor, 2011).

Southern Company’s weaknesses are

Reliance on branches to pay dividends: Since Southern Company has subsidiaries. it does not have its own operations. Therefore, in order for Southern Company to be able to pay dividends and other expenses, it depends on the income and cash flows of its subsidiaries and their capacity to pay upstream dividends.

Since these subsidiaries are separate legal bodies, they have no responsibility to fund Southern Company’s needs. Over reliance on the subsidiaries to pay its obligations can affect the confidence of Southern Company’s shareholders (Datamonitor, 2011).

Inadequate presence: Some electricity supply companies in North America supply electricity and gas. They therefore take advantage of this wide range of their products. However, Southern Company is dedicated to supply electricity to the US markets. This increases the risk related with electricity market performance. Therefore, the company is exposed to changing product prices because it takes part in significant energy trading. Eventually, this can affect the Southern Company’s performance (Datamonitor, 2011).

Southern Company’s opportunities

Partnership with Turner Renewable Energy: This partnership has been formed in order to undertake renewable energy developments in the US. The first aim is to create large-scale solar projects in the places that have efficient solar resources.

Consequently, Southern Company in conjunction with Turner Renewable Energy have absorbed Solar Photovoltaic Power Project. The project will be in a position to support around 9,000 homes. The emphasis on renewable energy will allow Southern Company to lessen its reliance on non-renewable energy provisions (Datamonitor, 2011).

Alternative power generation: Southern Company has other sources of energy. For instance, it has biomass and landfill methane gas products. It is also promoting geothermal energy. This project is expected to serve the Austin city for 20 years.

Additionally, the company is testing solar energy and is studying the possibility of wind energy in the Southeast. These diverse energy sources allow Southern company to obtain stable revenues and market share (Datamonitor, 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Southern Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Southern Company’s threats

Competition: There is expanding competition at the wholesale level. This is because of the changes in federal and regulatory policies, increased participation by old electricity providers, brokers and free power suppliers. The levels of wholesale supply and demand affect Southern Company because it has no control over them. Consequently, this can have a negative impact on the company (Datamonitor, 2011).

Regulatory requirements: Southern Company faces several federal and state environmental obligations related to pollution and waste management. Abiding by these laws is costly since it has to pay for pollution control equipment and emission fess. This could affect the cash flow and income in the future (Datamonitor, 2011).

Natural disasters: Old electric supply companies have retained funds to cater for damage costs as a result of storm on distribution lines. There are also hurricanes which cause rise in costs. For instance the storms cause damage to Southern Company’s transmission and distribution lines. These calamities can also delay completion of projects that are underway (Datamonitor, 2011).

Recommendations based on SWOT

Southern company may take advantage of its strength by increasing the working capability of its generation fleets. For instance, it can increase the holding capacity that Alabama and Georgia Power have on SEGCO. This capacity can be increased to three quarters. As a result, supply will increase as well as performance.

Southern Company can also increase its hydroelectric generating stations. By the end of financial year ended December 31, 2010, there were 82 power stations generating around 42, 963 MW. If the stations are increased to 85 of them, then the capacity could rise to a minimum of 43, 963 MW (Datamonitor, 2011).

Southern Company can also put more effort in producing biomass energy. Since this project was expected to start in 2012, it is time that the company commences it in time. This is because the benefits expected (100 MW) are huge and can benefit Austin city for many years. Additionally, it should speed up its tests and studies on solar and wind energy. Given that these are potential ecofriendly energy sources, they can be less costly and more profitable to the company (Datamonitor, 2011).

The company should aim at minimizing its weaknesses by venturing in to other energy sources such as gas and nuclear instead of concentrating on electricity generation. This way it can beat competition from the other utility companies and increase its sales revenue.

Additionally, by venturing in to renewable energy, the costs associated with waste management such as hazardous waste can be reduced. It can also insure its energy production facilities against natural disasters and calamities. This way, it can pass over this responsibility to insurance firms therefore making it cheaper (Datamonitor, 2011).

Various levels and types of strategies the firm may use to maximize its competitiveness and profitability

Business level strategy is an organized set of plans and actions that a firm uses to achieve a competitive advantage by developing its main capabilities in particular product markets (Business-Level Strategy, 2011).

Cost leadership strategy: This involves a combination of actions in order to produce or supply quality and cost effective products to its consumers. For instance, Southern Company can standardize its electricity in order to ensure it is at its best position to meet consumer needs with no delay or hitches. Delivery should be prompt while the cost should be affordable for both retail and wholesale consumers. This can increase sales and profits (Business-Level Strategy, 2011).

Differentiation strategy: This is a combination of actions created by an organization to create and supply affordable products that are acceptable to customers.

Acceptability entails the value that customers receive from a firm’s products such as quality and status. Southern Company can create differentiation by building up new systems and procedures which improve the quality of electricity. For instance, venturing in to more renewable energy generation. Additionally, it can improve the quality of its products by motivating its employees (Business-Level Strategy, 2011).

Identification of market niches: This involves analyzing and identifying unsatisfied consumer needs. For instance, Southern Company can conduct market survey in order to know the areas that are lacking electricity facilities or modify the quality of the available electricity.

Recent corporate governance issues that are currently affecting the company’s decisions

Corporate governance is a means by which organizations are directed and controlled. It also involves relationships among management, the shareholders and the stakeholders. One issue being faced by Southern Company is its relationship with its subsidiaries which affects dividend payments. It relies on its subsidiaries to cater for its obligations. Since these subsidiaries are not obligated to pay for Southern Company expenses, it becomes difficult to pay shareholders’ dividends. Additionally, its relationship with its consumers is being affected since it sells to wholesalers who later sell to retailers then to consumers. This can lead to increased costs of electricity. Its relationship with the community is also at stake because of the environmental pollution from its operations.

Conclusion Southern Company is a company that concentrates on production and supply of electricity. Although it has various strengths and opportunities, it faces threats and weaknesses both internally and externally. This has made it to come up with various strategies to cater for these issues. It is also faced with forces of competition and corporate governance issues which affect its operations. However, the company has continued to thrive in the presence of these challenges and remained at the top of the industry.

References Business-Level Strategy. (2011). Retrieved from

Datamonitor. (2011). The Southern Company: Company Profile. Farringdon Road, London.

Porter, M. (2010). Strategic Management: Porter’s Five Forces. Retrieved from

Southern Company: Corporate Responsibility. (2010). Retrieved from


Happiness Meaning Essay college admission essay help

Thesis statement This essay aims to analyze Happiness, what makes happiness special to people, the meaning of it and the essence of it. This essay will pose and attempt to answer the following questions; is happiness good just for what it is? Is a happy life the same thing as meaningful life? Are all things considered good because they bring happiness? What is well being? Happiness is a state that even if shared, the experience of it may be differently perceived and interpreted by the affected individuals (Ross, par, 1.

Meaning of Happiness

Happiness is a pleasant psychological state. States of joy, satisfaction, empowerment, fulfillment and pleasure can be described as happy state. Also having a positive outlook towards life can be happiness.

Happiness can also be described as a good condition of your emotional life as a whole while also taking into account how you feel about it. Happiness can also be described as pleasure. The various definitions of happiness are supported by various theories.

There are a few theories that seek to explain the state of happiness. The emotional state theory describes happiness as an overall fine state of your emotional life also taking into account how you feel about it. Happiness is pleasure according to the utilitarian moral theory and the modern economic theory. A morally good choice is defined by promoting happiness whereas a morally wrong produces the opposite effect.

There are some objective traits of happiness that mean more to us than just happiness in its totality (Arete, par, 2. On Happiness).

The direction of happiness

Here we are asked to consider two separate lives with equal amounts of happiness with one, let’s call it life (a) constantly sliding up a gradient over a period of time to ever increasing happiness. On the other hand we have life (b); this life instead of sliding up into increasing amounts of happiness is sliding down a gradient away from it.

When asked to choose between the two most of us would choose life (a) over life (b). This simple example clearly illustrates that happiness alone is not all satisfactory for there is something other than happiness that matters to us (Arete, par, 2. On Happiness; Nozick, p.100).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everybody wants to grow, and life (a) is a growing life where hopes of something better flourish. This is better than the Hopelessness and sense of loss experienced in life (b).

Life (a) works its way up to happiness from the bottom; in essence this means that every day of every week seems better as opposed to life (b) where every day of every week seems to get worse (Arete, par, 2. On Happiness).

Pleasure seems to play a big part in happiness and there are pleasures of the mind, emotion and body. Pleasure is something that is valued for the good feeling it brings/ felt quality, (Nozick, p. 103; Brandon, par, 2.

The experience machine

If a machine was created that could recreate ones own experiences in mind, when in the machine you would completely believe that the experiences are real. You could program the machine any way you wanted to make the experiences as realistic as possible. While in this case your life would be very good.

Would you spend the rest of your life inside the machine? Every experience would be the same as the one outside the machine. It is note worthy that such a machine would make a great toy but the reality is that no one would be willing to spend the rest of their life in a machine while missing out on the real world. Now the experience machine reveals that the feel of things does not determine the quality of life.

The reality Principle

No matter how real the experiences of the reality machine are, they are just fantasies

This therefore means that we seek not to only to feel like this and that but also want to be in a certain way. We seek to be defined by our reality (Nozick, p. 106).

We will write a custom Essay on Happiness Meaning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lessons from the two thought experiments

From the two thought experiments it is easy to see that happiness isn’t something tangible that can be measured. In the first experiment, where two people are given happiness in equal measure, with one walking steadily away from his happiness while the other is steadily moving towards it. What matters isn’t the amount of happiness here it’s the duration of it.

Nobody wants to lose a good thing and since happiness is good it doesn’t matter how much of it you had what matters is its longevity, and from the experience machine the lesson we learn is that although we want lasting happiness, it should also be of substance. Day dreams don’t make memorable memories.

A good example of this can be taken from a good dream, when dreaming every thing you experience is as real as can be and you more often than not cant even tell if it’s a dream, on waking up most of us would rather that dream be a reality than go back to sleep and dream again.

Simply put; we love good things “happiness” and we want to stay perpetually happy, in a reality that we understand and appreciate, one not of our creation where things, experiences, can be manipulated by us and thus have no real value.

What is happiness?

Happiness is born of emotion, a feeling of positive goodness whose cause is indefinable as the cause of happiness varies among individuals.

Happiness is also an experience that triggers a pleasurable emotional response in an individual. Happiness cannot be stage managed or extracted so to speak from an individual i.e. there is no universal recipe for happiness, happiness is subjective. Seeking pleasure is a means of seeking happiness but that doesn’t necessarily mean that pleasure is happiness and the experience machine is a pleasure machine.

Is a happy life a meaningful life?

There are various definitions of happiness and as such happiness is subjective/user defined so to speak. The theories that exist and the experiments trying to show us something about ourselves all have something in common, they all show that in one way or another, happiness is very important to us. Bearing this in mind, it is safe to say that a happy life is actually a meaningful life to the person concerned.

The three forms of happiness

There are three forms of happiness. The first is where you become happy because something that you care about has happened. It doesn’t matter whether these good things are happening to us directly so the happiness it brings is not complete happiness (Nozick, p. 108). The second happiness is a general consensus about the goodness of your life at that moment (Nozick, p. 111).The third form of happiness involves happiness as regards your life in general.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Happiness Meaning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion These theories on happiness are very well explained and with good examples that are thought provoking and practical. Happiness however is not something that can be measured by any other than the individual that experiences it. It is a good thing and that is why it is so important us.

The example of the direction of happiness where happiness is supposedly equal isn’t exactly accurate. A million dollars might mean different things to different persons and the experience and joy/happiness it brings will not be measured the same way by both persons. It is true of course that the one who worked his way to the million dollars will be more appreciative of it than the one who won it in a lottery.

In the experience machine example; it is true that most of us want to remain firmly in the scope of reality. But if practical reasons hinder the path to universal happiness then this machine would open a door for us to escape our reality and immerse ourselves in fantasy, for it is pleasure that we seek.

Works Cited Arete.Nozick on happiness, N.p., n.d. Web.

Brandon, Oto. Nozick, Happiness, and the Experience Machine. N.p., n.d. Web.

Nozick, Robert. The examined life: philosophical meditations. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989. Print.

Ross, Marin An idler’s miscellany of compendious amusements. N.P. 4th March, 2011. Web.


Climate classification Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

The practice of gathering and classifying information regarding different climatic conditions of the world has become an important way through which effective understanding of various climatic patterns and seasons can be attained. This paper takes a critical look at the Koppen climate classification system of San Francisco city and Salt Lake City, Utah.

San Francisco Physical geographic description

San Francisco is one of the major cities in the United States with a population of about 7.5 million people (Haug 646). It is located on the West Coast and closely stretches and borders the San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The city has several Islands which surrounds.

Some of these islands include Angel Island, Almeda Island, Yebra Buena Island, treasure, and Alcatraz Islands. Besides, it has offshore uninhabited islands called the Fallaron which covers an area of 43 kilometers. In total, the city occupies an area of 600 kilometers (Haug 646).

San Francisco city can be best described by its famous landscape which has more that 50 hills. Settlements which have developed along the hilly areas have come to be named after the hills. Some of the neighborhoods include Russian Hill, pacific Heights and Nob Hill (Metcalf 444). San Francisco’s mount Davidson forms that highest hill with a height of about 282 meters. In addition, the city also has faults like Hayward and San Andreas which are areas that attract earthquake activities.

Figure 1: A figure representing the map of San Francisco


The climate in San Francisco has been described as a cool-summer Mediterranean climate (Wang and Overland 46). Studies indicate that it is characterized by dry summers and moist mild winters (Wang and Overland 46). The moderate temperatures swings mostly experienced in the city are due to the three water bodies surrounding it.

Using the Koppen climate classification, San Francisco has a climate classification which falls under the Csa and Csb categories, that is for dry summer subtropical climates. San Franciso experiences seasonal temperature variations with Koppen-Geiger system classifying them at 18-22 degrees Celsius high and 11-13 decrees Celsius low between May and October (Jin and Shepherd 682).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Seasonal changes, precipitation averages and temperature changes

In terms of seasons and temperature changes, San Francisco unlike many cities in the Mediterranean, does not experience very warm summers and relatively mild winters. Instead, its summers are mild, a factor that is attributed to regular summer fogs and onshore breeze caused by upwelling cold surface waters. Its temperatures are moderate, but during winter, they fall down to freezing points.

Its high temperature annually stands at 65.1 Fahrenheit and low at 51.4 Fahrenheit (See figure 2). Wang and Overland indicate that in a year, San Francisco has 67 rainy days and a precipitation average of 518.16. Besides, it has 105 cloudy days and 260 clear days in a year (45).

Figure 2: A climatograph showing temperature and precipitation averages for San Francisco

Climate control systems

The climate control for ocean currents in San Francisco has been set in place due to the fact that the movement of water in the Mediterranean influences climate changes (Stewart and Oke 922). In this city, ocean current control system has been set in all weather stations along the coast to check on the temperatures whether they make the city warmer or cooler.

It is important to mention that the moderate temperatures experienced at certain times in San Francisco are due to the southwest movement of ocean currents along the coast.


Mediterranean climate zones vegetation have been considered to have a close association with scrub, woodlands and forest biome (Wang and Overland 46). San Francisco has a distinct climate which allows sclerophyll shrub-lands to thrive (Metcalf 444). These are mostly referred to as chaparral in California. Its natural vegetation has been adapted to survive over long period of times. Its vegetation comprises of herbs, grasses, shrubs, fruit trees, deciduous trees and evergreen trees.

Figure 3: A figure showing a portion of San Francisco biome

We will write a custom Research Paper on Climate classification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Salt Lake city, Utah Physical geographic description

Salt Lake City is the capital city of the state of Utah and has a population of approximately 186, 500 people. This city covers a geographical area of 285.9 square kilometers and its height above the sea level stands at 2,868 meters (Stewart and Oke 922). Salt Lake City has Grandview Peak as its highest point with 9410 feet of height and the areas near Great Salt Lake and Jordan River as the lowest points at 4210 feet.

The location of the city is towards the northeast of the Salt Lake. Its western and eastern borders are surrounded by steep Oquirrh and Wasatch mountain ranges. Marsh lands and mudflats form an extensive separation between the city and the Great Salt Lake. The outlay of the city follows a grid plan with streets running in all directions.

Figure 1: A figure showing the map of Salt Lake City, Utah

Climate and seasonal changes

The Koppen climatic classification of the Salt Lake City (koppen BSk) is that it has four seasons in a year and is characteristically semi-arid. It has snowy and cold winters, and dry and hot summers. Both winter and summer in this city are long while its fall and spring are comfortable and brief. Its wettest season is during spring and the driest is the summer.

Precipitation averages and temperature changes

Pacific storms that come in the months of October through May have been considered to be the main source of precipitation in the city (Stewart and Oke 922). Cold storms from the Pacific Ocean cause measurable snow. Sometimes, during the storms, rains that are enhanced by the Great Salt Lake lead to the development of lake-effect snow.

These along with excessive snowfalls occur about eight times in a year. Besides, the temperatures during summer vary with 56 days of 90 Fahrenheit, 23 days with 35 degrees Celsius and 5 days with 37.8 degrees Celsius. Strong temperature inversions normally occur in areas like the Great Basin where pressure is high.

Figure 2: A figure showing precipitation averages and temperature changes in Salt Lake City, Utah

Climate control systems

Climate control systems in Salt Lake City use systems like pressure cells and storm tracks. The former is used because of the high pressure experienced in areas such as the Great Basin. Storm tracks are important control systems used to monitor storms coming from the Pacific Ocean into the city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Climate classification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bio-geography

The vegetation in Salt Lake City include sagebrush, creosote bush, desert spoon, prickly pear cactus, barrel cactus, suguaro cactus and yucca. This vegetation is attributed to the semi-arid characteristic of land due to the prevailing climate. Cacti are the major vegetation growing in large numbers with some portions of grasslands and prairies.

Works Cited Haug, Katherine. “Bull v. city and county of San Francisco.” The Urban Lawyer, 43.2 (2011): 646-647. Print.

Jin, Menglin, and Marshall, Shepherd. “Inclusion of urban landscape in a climate model: How can Satellite Data Help?” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 86.5 (2005): 681-689. Print.

Metcalf, Gabriel. “City for sale: The transformation of San Francisco.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 69.4 (2003): 444-445. Print.

Stewart, Iain and Timothy, Oke.”A new classification system for urban climate sites.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90.7 (2009): 922-923. Print.

Wang, Muyin and James, Overland. “Detecting arctic climate change using Koppen climate classification.” Climatic Change, 67.1 (2004): 43-62. Print.


Kundun: The Story about Religious Leader Essay (Movie Review) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Kundun is the movie which portrays many themes and raises many problems. Generally speaking, Kundun is a chronological discussion of life of Dalai Lama who was the inspirer and the religious leaders of Tibet. The whole story is the episodic description of the life of this prominent person in the life of Tibet and its people.

The movie starts with the discussion of Dalai Lama’s mother about his father, his family and his place in the world. However, the Tibetan leaders got to know about Dalai Lama who was considered to be the chosen, the special person even though he was born in the family of simple workers.

Therefore, trying to check whether Dalai Lama deserves the attitude and position many people want to assure him with, lamas administers decide to check Dalai Lama with the test to get to know whether he is really selected or not. It should be stated that the main idea of the test was to offer Dalai Lama several things and his task was to guess the properly of the previous Dalai Lama. The boy easily passes the test and he goes to Tibet.

Being too small, there are cases of fear new Dalai Lama suffers from, however, Reting tells him a story about previous Dalai Lama trying to encourage the boy. He manages and after the death of Reting Dalai Lama begins to take part in the political and religious life of the country more actively.

When the Communist China tries to impact on Tibet, Dalai Lama goes to Chairman Mao Zedong to try to settle the situation. Even though that he seems to agree on the problematic issues, it appears that Dalai Lama failed to agree with the communist leader.

After the consultation with oracle, Dalai Lama decides to go away believing that Tibet is going to live better without his impact as being a religious leader he could not refuse from his convictions, while Mao Zedong was sure that religion is evil. Being away from the native land Dalai Lama is sure to returns home some time.

Watching this movie, I was fascinated by Tibet, its culture and traditions. I suppose that having selected Dalai Lama as a character for the movie, the director wanted to show the audience customs and traditions of such great and mysterious place as Tibet. The audience is given an opportunity to see the most impressive and sacred sides of the place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tibet is full of mystery and customs which may never be seen by other people. However, the chance to see the hidden part of this place is the main idea of the movie. Of course, the posture of Dalai Lama is important, however, the director wanted to make sure that people would be able to understand some cultural peculiarities of Tibet through Dalai Lama.

Of course, Dalai Lama is chosen not by chance. Having selected a religious leader, the director of the movie tried to show that religion plays an important part for the citizens of Tibet. Presenting the period of time since 1937 to 1959, the film creators wanted to show Tibet and the development of the idea.

I suppose it is possible to notice that the attitude to religion has not changed. Thus, the message of the film was to show the audience what Tibet is and what place religion plays in life of Tibetan people. The director managed to reach the main purpose of the movie.

Works Cited Kundun. Prod. Barbara De Fina. New York: Touchstone Pictures. 1997. DVD.


Seven years in Tibet Essay (Movie Review) essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Emotionally powerful segment and why



Works Cited

Introduction The film plays a big role in exploring one’s spirituality. This is mainly because it conveys spiritual transformation that is usually witnessed in religion. Henrich Harrer undergoes spiritual transformation as well as enlightenment in order to set a side his ego and narcissism. The protagonist abandons his pregnant wife for a mountain climbing expedition in Nanga Parbat.

However, this expedition fails. This is followed by World War II, in which Harrer is imprisoned at India’s POW camp (because he is an alien enemy). However, Harrer escapes to Tibet (Holy city of Lhasa) where he meets the young Dalai Lama who ends up transforming his life.

Unfortunately, the Chinese army invades Tibet and kills its peaceful people before signing an agreement that deny them sovereignty. At the end, he returns home a changed man after undergoing a life changing experience with Dalai Lama. This reaction paper will describe a segment of the film that was emotionally powerful as well as analyze meaning of the film (Brussat and Ann 1).

Emotionally powerful segment and why The most emotional part of this film starts when Harrer agrees to teach Dalai Lama western ways in exchange for lessons in compassion, slowing down as well as humility. This emotional segment is further stirred by the invasion of Tibet by Chinese army that kills peaceful people. Interestingly, little resistance is observed from the peacefully principled Tibetans.

These events soften Harrer’s heart as he sympathizes with the Tibetans and their reaction to invasion. Moreover, he starts to long for his unseen son and wife, after abandoning them earlier. This shows a huge transformation in his life. The segment is quite emotional because Harrer was known to be an egocentric man with focus only to himself. However, an interaction with the young Dalai Lama transforms him into a loving, sympathetic and caring person.

Analysis Harrer abandons his wife and unborn son for egocentric motives to achieve mountain climbing dreams. However, he comes back a changed man with a longing for his wife and son. Moreover, he comes back as a gentle and transformed person. This is quite strange given that such expectations were unimaginable.

Clearly, this shows that human heart can be transformed. Moreover, this can transpire in his actions. His ego and pride diminishes after an emotional as well as tragic experience in Tibet. This happens after he fails to achieve his dream of climbing Nanga Parbat of the Himalayas. From this, it can be seen that once a source of pride is taken away, one is denied the outright opportunity to pursue his/her ego. Added to this, Harrer’s imprisonment turns his situation into desperation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, when peter falls in love with Pema, he becomes lonely and longs for his family. At this state, he finds peace in his young friend Dalai Lama who teaches him the ways of peace, compassion and humility. Besides, he is astonished and sympathetic to the Tibetans who are invaded yet they are peaceful. All these events work to transform him into a peaceful man.

Conclusion Harrer is transformed into a gentle, humble and compassionate man after witnessing all the events in Tibet. His relationship with Dalai Lama is also seen to be the turning point of this transformation. However, for this to be achieved, he is first denied the source of his pride and compassion (mountain climbing and friends). It can therefore be seen that egocentric people need to be denied their source of pride to slow them down and transform them into gentle ones (Brussat and Ann 1).

Works Cited Brussat, Fredric and Ann, Mary. Spirituality and practice: Seven years in Tibet. 2009. Web. .


Web Enabled Services Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction E-governance is the application of information and communication technologies within the government to enhance information dissemination and service delivery with the need to foster transparency, accountability and effectiveness. In this regard, the adoption of web-enabled services for citizens in Orissa would improve service delivery efficiency.

This implies that the expected form of e-governance is the government-to-citizens governance. Its introduction in Kalahandi district will demand an appropriate analysis of various citizen needs inclusive of the service providers’ demands and the efficiency generated. Considering these critical factors, web-enabled service planners should reflect on the features of an effective form of e-governance structure that meets the needs of both the government and the citizens (Garrett 2003, p.24).

The design of the website should meet high standards to demonstrate the roles specified by the planners and limit the chances of failure or operation costs. Classically, the web-enabled service should cut across the design infrastructure and reality of the services derived from it. Therefore, a planner should evaluate analytically and critically the design that has been set up before it is implemented and tested in the public domain as to derive its intended functionality.

Background The success of any web-enabled services necessitates the considerate evaluation of the necessary features of the design that optimize its efficiency after implementation. Initially, some of the crucial factors that need evaluation are the relevance of the website to the citizen’s needs, the ease and friendliness of the user-interface and availability of finance to run the website.

Having satisfactorily complied with the basic elements of the project, other crucial elements require evaluation. The core responsibility of the planner is to determine whether the relevant expertises are available. This crucial element will give him or her a clue as to whether the conduct of the design project by skilled and knowledgeable individuals has occurred (Garson 2006, p.42).

Since the whole project involves expertise effectiveness, they will determine its success during its implementation and utilization. The team will maintain and continuously access the project to ascertain that it operates as anticipated. In addition, in the event that further upgrading is required, the team will offer insight into its design structure and the possible options to adopt in order to facilitate the upgrading process.

Linkage of the case study to E-governance

The Orissa case study is related to the E-governance in that the government is intending to offer web-based services to Kalahandi district citizens. In this regard, the government’s efforts demonstrate how the adoption of the online-programmed services will improve service delivery to the citizens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through these measures, the E-governance importance as well as its weakness is portrayed. Nevertheless, the desired needs of e-governance will necessitate the government to take counter-measures to reduce the prevalent problems in the services.

Questions and answers

The website’s content is the major part that the planner should determine before the website design. After analyzing the citizens’ needs of the website and the government service delivery through the website, a proper judgment of the website content is crucial.

Some of the website’s key elements would include the background nature, information presentation, colors used and means of navigating from one page to another based on the information needed (Norris 2001, p. 131). The planner should select the most convenient content of the website that would enhance the users chance of deriving the services needed and government provision of the appropriate information and services.

Similarly, a planner will have to determine the capability of the web enabled service to meet any traffic intensity. Considering that the project’s development intends to meet certain specific operations, a planner should evaluate the project’s ability to handle any traffic load and provide the expected efficiency. In this regard, the implemented project should take into consideration the consistency expected from the service provider and the ability to enhance the smooth flow of information in a faster manner unlike in manual systems.

Security is another crucial element of e-governance systems. Since the system will be used to conduct crucial government’s roles to the citizens, it is essential to maintain high security standards. For the information undergoing dissemination from one point to the other, it is necessary that it remains unaltered or inaccessible to intruders (Garson 2006, p. 122).

In addition, all the information available within the system should serve the intended purposes that enhance service delivery to the citizens by the government. At times, because information is available on the cloud, it is convenient that foreign materials or systems do not enter into the system and distort its operation capability.

Ethics and other generally accepted codes of conduct are crucial elements to consider. Considering that the planner plays a critical role in the process of website design, it is compulsory for him or her to observe the computing ethics and other general codes of conduct. These forms of regulation seek to ensure adherence to all the parties’ rights involved in the design process.

We will write a custom Case Study on Web Enabled Services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the website undergoing development should comply with the standards of software or system development (Garrett 2003, p. 145). Having this concept in mind will guide the planner to design the website in a manner acceptable to the regulators of system development and the users.

An important design aspect is filling the gap between designing and the reality. For a planner, it is essential to ensure that the design simulates the problems that occur in reality. Since some design projects may be too complex and impractical, it is necessary for the planner to compare properly the design with real life events.

One element of design is the content of the website, which influences user flexibility. For a website to be convenient and appropriate to all users, it is essential that the content be presented in a clear and precise manner. These elements will allow users from different backgrounds to derive the government’s service efficiently (Norris 2001, p. 186).

The component of traffic intensity handling is crucial in minimizing the gap between the design and reality. One of the most crucial factors during design is the selection of a web provider that can handle and maintain traffic of any size of a geographic region with consistency and accuracy.

With this concept in mind, the design will formulate and implement a website easily powered by the service provider and all the users will easily access it. Moreover, the users will be able to obtain the government services at their own appropriate times without any restriction.

For continuous supply and availability of specialized individuals in the maintenance and upgrading of the website to meet up-to-date needs, it is essential to undertake a rigorous campaign to educate and train adequate staff.

In matters that the website may demand external service providers, the sponsor of the project will have to outsource the skills required to ensure that all the system components are operational. In addition, this form of maintenance will increase efficiency among the citizens and thus boost their loyalty and respect for the government. Therefore, the gap between the design and reality will narrow.

Since security is one of the crucial elements that require safeguarding, it is crucial for the website to remain free from any internal and external threats. Internally, the website can suffer manipulation by the users or the government representatives thus altering its objective of providing transparency and accountability.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Web Enabled Services by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The forms of threats can cause things such as the distortion of information, altering the targeted recipient of information or destruction of the whole service (Garrett 2003, p. 75). Meanwhile, externally, the website faces challenges like illegal hacking or the introduction of software that will harm the website effectiveness. Similarly, crackers can use the website to rely unimportant messages and their own self-interest information ruining the website’s effectiveness.

In order to reduce the design-reality gap, it is essential to adopt the best techniques and practices in the website development industry. These concepts outline the expected ethics and codes of conduct that require significant consideration in order to achieve the desired results in any website development project.

Concerning ethics, it defines what should be included in the website and what requires avoidance. The adoption of these measures will guarantee the designer the possibility of the website applicability and acceptance. In addition, the website would not contravene any regulation set by the governing body regarding website development (Garson 2006, p. 210).

Some of the techniques that will minimize the design-reality gaps are the adoption of up-to-date technologies in website development. Since technologies are dynamic, it is always essential to emulate the latest technology as it encompasses all the vital latest concerns.

In this regard, the adequate addressing to the technology concerns will boost the website’s significance. Similarly, the consideration of the codes of conduct during the designing period is significantly essential as it defines the boundaries as well as the crucial points that require incorporation in the website development.

In my opinion, the new website of UOS is comparably magnificent in relation to the previous one. Concerning efficiency and effectiveness, the new website has considerable diversity and can handle multiple tasks that meet a variety of users’ expectations.

Similarly, since the website addresses the needs of certain individuals within a certain geographical location, the new website will enable the customization of services and information in a precise and clear manner. Meanwhile, as the website provides high standard services with minimal time wastage, geographical movement and on-time services, the new system is a significant improvement from the old one.

Based on the diverse needs of the stakeholders, the new website is better than the previous one. Since the new system has been significantly scrutinize and tested according to the current user needs, its performance rating is much better than the previous one.

In addition, the services that it offers the citizens, as well as the government have undergone accurate synthesizing and accounting during specifications in the designing level. As a result, the new website capabilities are sophisticated and diverse boosting its advantages to the previous one.

Conclusion E-governance plays a crucial role in the delivery of services to the citizens. This can be explain by the fact that through e-governance, resources have been made easily available by the ease with which citizens can access information and use it based on the regulations requirements. Therefore, e-governance contributes significantly to the service delivery to the citizens of a country.

References Garrett, J J 2003, The elements of user experience: user-centered design for the web. American Institute of Graphic Arts, New York.

Garson, G D 2006, Public information technology and e-governance: managing the virtual state. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Raleigh, N.C.

Norris, P 2001, Digital divide: civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Concept of Six Competencies in Organization Report scholarship essay help

Competency in an organization is the ability to maintain a coordinated deployment of resources in an attempt to achieve the organizational goals. Managerial competency refers to a set of knowledge, behavior, attributes, and skills that a manager needs to posses so as to be effective in varied positions in different organizations.

Managerial competence can be achieved through developmental experiences at work; this will enable a manger to become a successful leader and be able to address his/her personal weakness. An organization needs managers who are competent in order to effectively utilize the available human resources.

Since globalization deregulation has taken place in many areas, it is necessary for companies to restructure their management so as to be able to survive as new competitors continue to come into the business. The complexity of running a business always requires knowledge and skills, this call for every manager to be competent (Hartley 34).

Managerial competency is a way by which companies gain high performance by developing systematic and sustainable competitive advantage in a structural manner. Managerial competency incorporates organizational, economic, and behavioral concerns in a dynamic and systematic framework (Hellriegel, Jackson, Susan, and Slocum 42).

Competence based approach presents six competencies. These competencies can be used by organizations to achieve organizational goals effectively. They include; strategic action, self-management, planning and administration, global awareness, teamwork, and communication. The six competencies are developed by managers in all types of organizations (Al-Kahtani 44).

Managerial competencies are all aspects of life. In order for managerial competency to be effective, it is necessary for a company to be able to implement teamwork competency, communication competency and multicultural competency. Strategic actions must be taken in the process of planning and administration.

Competency-based approach helps managers understand and improve their management ability to foster organization growth. Competence-based management also equips learners with confidence and skills to achieve management competence in their future careers (Hellriegel et al 34).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competence-based management blends theory and applications with innovation. For example, self-assessment helps learners to understand and develop their management potential; this leads to a more successful career later in life. For learners who wish to become better managers in their careers, the six managerial competencies are necessary in order for one to develop the necessary skills (Al-Kahtani 44).

Integrated Self-assessment helps them to analyze and develop their own management potential for the success of their future careers. Managerial competence enables learners to compare their skills with other learners or professionals. Managerial competences are implemented by managers as they address the day-to-day functions of managing and leading the company (Hartley 34).

Forcing the employees to work by threatening them with job loss or loss of personal interest short charges both employees and the organization. The best method is to analyze the job and fit the workers according to their talents; this enables organizational goals to be achieved effectively and efficiently.

Competency-based human resource management illustrates how to reformulate the human resource department. It ensures that the foundation for all human resource efforts is job competencies as opposed to job descriptions. It is necessary for human resource professionals to be able to identify the best performers from average performers and use them as the basis for human resource functions (Al-Kahtani 44).

This performance management model gives powers to excellent performers in all job categories. As a result, competency-based human resource management enhances employee satisfaction; this increases productivity significantly (Al-Kahtani 44). Competence-based management provides a variety of tools for planning, checklists, and worksheets. It also gives practical methods to help human resource professionals change from work based environment to a foundation for human resource management based on competency.

In this era of rapid communication due to the growth in technology, mangers are faced with urgent decisions to make. Companies must adopt new structures and master new skills in order to survive and compete effectively. It is evident that individual effort no longer has much effect; this is as a result of the complexity of the organization that has come with increased numbers of interpersonal interactions.

It is thus necessary for organizations to look at the option of group effort. The grouping of workers into teams has become a vital strategy in many companies. Team building is significant in an effort to build, support, and improve the effectiveness of small, informal groups at the work place. Team building improves the effectiveness of a group by focusing on: deciding on means and methods, setting goals and priorities, exploring the quality of working relationships, and analyzing how the group works (Al-Kahtani 44).

We will write a custom Report on Concept of Six Competencies in Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The six competencies have their strengths and weaknesses. No single employee can have all of the six competencies as strengths. However, individuals should work hard so as to improve their skills through these competencies. Communication competency is about the types of communications carried out in an organization.

Communication competency describes how managers communicate to individuals. Team competency is about the effectiveness of team building strategy in an organization. Planning and administration competency is about how managers should plan, it focuses on the benefits of planning and administration to an organization. Self-management includes the good, ethical behaviors and moral standards.

Global awareness involves conducting research so as to be aware of what is happening around the word, it enables managers to scan the environment and notice new opportunities. It also helps managers to be able to notice the actions of a competitor. Global awareness enables managers to have an open mind about other people’s culture.

Works Cited Al-Kahtani, A. S., “Involvement of employees and their personal characteristics in Saudi construction companies”, International Journal of Commerce


Challenges within Transportation and Logistics Management and Viable Solutions to These Problems Research Paper custom essay help

Introduction Execution of Transportation and Logistics Management operations in the global market consist of many challenges that affect a firm’s ability to operate efficiently and cost effectively.

Conversely, each of these challenges possess solutions that could potentially minimize situations that could prove detrimental to a Transportation or Logistics Management firm’s ability to maintain a certain level of service at an acceptable level of cost.

These challenges and solutions can vary based off variables in the world and the firm’s ability to adjust to them.

Challenges facing transportation management Terrorism

The rise in terrorism has had impacts on nearly all forms of transportation. But maritime and air transport have been the worst hit.

The events of Tuesday 11 September 2001 are not the earliest instances of terrorism to affect transportation. During the early 19th century, Mediterranean pirates from North Africa Barber states captured merchant ships and terrorized their crews.

Ships were held in exchange for ransom. What followed has been a long protracted war pitting governments and sea pirates. In the past few decades, piracy has more than tripled in the coasts of the lawless Somalia, Nigeria and along the Malaccan straits.

Today’s pirates are not merely armed men, they are often trained fighters using state of the art weapons and speedboats and equipped with the most modern satellite phones and GPS gadgets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Piracy today is not as simple as that of the yester years. Political agendas and ideologies are playing part making shipping a very costly endeavor.

Figure1. Shows vessel attacks in 2010

Piracy has direct economic costs on doing business. Delay in delivery of goods tops the rank. However, the costs of ransom have the highest financial implications on transportation.

In November 2010, owners of Samho Dream, a South Korean Tanker paid a total of $9.5 to Somali pirates in order to release the ship and its crew.

Figure 2.Table showing the cost of Somali piracy ransoms in the last two years

Figure 3. Cost of excess Insurance Premiums from transiting around the horn of AfricaThe cost of insurance (war risk, kidnap and ransom, cargo and hull) has increased making the cost of doing business more than triple.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Challenges within Transportation and Logistics Management and Viable Solutions to These Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, the price of imported good could rise by 10% in the near future.The worst hit region in the world is east Africa and especially Kenya. Cost of doing trade in this region is very high with the Kenya Shipping Council estimating that piracy by the Somali increases the cost of import by up to $9.8 million per month.

Solutions to maritime terrorismFigure 4. Macroeconomic costs to selected countries per year

The private sector has no capacity to eradicate maritime terrorism. Nations must be willing to work together and help each other eliminate this evil. Transportation agencies should consider the following measures;

Convoys: This strategy was especially applied during the World War II in North Atlantic Ocean against German U-boats. Shippers realized that their security lay in numbers if they were to survive piracy attacks. This trick is applicable but modern shippers argue that maintaining uniform speed will be costly.

Variance: shippers vary their routines as much as possible in the hope of avoiding piracy. However, merchants find that varying schedules is at times difficult as they have to strict deadlines. The best thing that the transport are doing is removing the time and date from their cruises. This information is often available all over the internet thus endangering ships.

Shifting cargo: To avoid possible piracy attacks, shippers have come up with a strategy where they change the cargo aboard to items less attractive to pirates. Such a move has been applied by banks in Nigeria which had branches in an island. The bank now maintains electronic transaction and has thwarted an otherwise challenge that almost drove it out of business.

Offensive measures: Many shippers have equipped their vessels with measures to combat pirate attacks. Some of these measures include the Long-Range Acoustic Device (LRAD). LRAD is capable of producing sirens that force terrorists whose ears are not protected to back off giving ships time to gain speed. The Inventus UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is a state-of-the-art surveillance system that’s capable of flying for long distances over water and sends photos to a ground station. This ensures real-time aerial surveillance and has been successful in thwarting maritime attacks in several cases.

Secure-ship: This is a non-lethal electric fence that surrounds the whole ship. This special fence is supplied with a 9000-volt pulse that discourages boarding attempts.

Increased costs, familiarization of international shipping policies, and coordination of intermodal transportation assets

Modern market forces, environmental concerns, sky rocketing fuel prices, and terrorism are causing the increase in cost in transportation for the maritime, air, rail, and motor. Increased costs are transferred to consumers and this is likely to result in economic problems (Konings, Priemus


The Scientific Revolution Essay essay help free: essay help free

The Scientific Revolution reveals a history of development of science that has gradually transformed the views of people on nature and society. Traditionally, the scientific revolution dates back to the eighteenth century, the advent of the Renaissance epoch.

However, ancient Greece was the pioneer in developing science. In particular, the emergence of philosophy as a progenitor of other sciences emerged in Green has given rise to many other disciplines.

In general, scientific revolution can be presented through three historic views on science, including classical, medieval, and modern.

All these periods involve significant contradictions, frictions and challenges that contributed to the modern image of science.

The supporters of humanistic theory agree with the ideas of great influence of people on the development of science. Therefore, all the identified periods represent important historical figures that invested into the scientific progress.

Specific attention should be given to considering such great minds as Plato, the brightest representative of the Hellenic world, Augustine and Aquinas, Copernicus, Kepler, and Cicero.

The representatives of this period is distinguished by logic character of thought that is engaged intensely in deliberations such important questions as life and death, as well as by negligence of conventional virtues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The medieval period was the hardest for the development of science because of the strict restriction imposed on developing humanitarian disciplines. The Church marked the decline of secular thought that was confined to recognizing Jesus and divine rule.

Therefore, science was highly neglected in society because of increased dominance of religious scriptures. Moreover, religion denied scientific advances because of the threat of increased attention to scientific documents and discoveries that withdraw divine doctrine.

According to Tarnas, “the resurrection Christ brought to mankind was present in the Church” and, therefore, each human being should be attached to the divine doctrines (148). Dependence on the church had created a serious obstacle science because of recognition of biblical history and knowledge only.

Spiritual authority of the church dominated significantly and required full obedience from Church members. The necessity to follow religious tradition was explained by the formalization of rules and established of strict norms in educational and social spheres.

In other words, those people who indulge into studies science were regarded as the one withdrawing divine laws.

The emergence of the Western culture has given rise to the development of new directions of scientific development that differ substantially from the doctrines and rituals previously established in the Church.

Medieval thinkers became obsessed with new options for the evolution of human civilizations. At the end of eighteen century, the era of Renaissance marked the continuation of the philosophical thought of Greek period.

We will write a custom Essay on The Scientific Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, the Aristotelian natural philosophy received further progress in the advances introduced by Copernicus, the scientific thought related to heliocentric theory of astronomical model of the Solar system, as well as the position of Earth in it.

Heliocentrism opposed significantly to medieval thought about the geocentric theory of Earth system. Limited vision on science, therefore, prevented the medieval thinker to introduce new concepts and frameworks.

The period of revival of Greek philosophy dates back to the sixteenth century, which is also marked by Copernican Revolution. Further scientific progress was introduced through the work of Johannes Kepler who presented the model of elliptical orbits.

The given period is represented as the second revival of the Scientific revolution after the period of educational “darkness”.

In general, the Copernicus Revolution was both the contributor to the development of the era of Enlightenment, as well as the mark of the scientific evolution in various academic fields.

The era of Renaissance had a potent impact on the shifts in religious views on the world. At the same time, religion itself made significant contributions to the development of science and education.

In particular, classical knowledge transmission was due to the contributions made by Byzantine science that transferred their experience to the Renaissance Italy and Islamic countries. Arabic knowledge also spread over the European countries.

In fact, the Christian world has left rich heritage to the Islamic world and provided a foundation for the development of new sciences. Tarnas writes, “…classical civilization had been snuffed out in the West, its great works and ideas left to the Byzantines and later the Moslems to be preserved as in museum” (90).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Scientific Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this respect, the religion served as a driving force to spread of scientific knowledge and experience all over the world. Interaction between Islamic and Byzantine culture also gave rise to the emergence of various discipline and formation of secular thought.

In conclusion, the Scientific Revolution is a sophisticated ongoing process that underwent several complex stages. Its beginning takes root in the Greek philosophy, faces challenges in the medieval period, and experiences rise in the era of Enlightenment.

All of these periods contributed greatly to the development of new scientific theories and concepts. Although religion reflects antagonistic vision on science, it still provided scientific world with a solid foundation for further evolution, as well as introduced basic for revival of classical thought.

Works Cited Tarnas, Richard, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas that Have Shaped Our World View. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993 Print.


The Atlantic Slave Trade Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction/Thesis statement

The author’s criticism of the historiography

The evidence that the author uses to support their argument

Ways in which the chapters of the book relate to the thesis

Criticism of the author’s work



Introduction/Thesis statement Atlantic slave trade began in 1444 and it led to the massive movement of the African slaves to the western nations with the sole aim of providing cheap labor. The movement of slaves from Africa is termed as one of the major migrations to have happened in human history.

The Africans were forcefully moved to the western hemisphere and in addition, these slaves were looked down upon as inferior. The Atlantic slave trade had a significant impact on Africa as well as the United States of America.

The Africa Continent was deprived manpower whereas the United States of America was able to boost its economic growth due to the presence of cheap labor.

Due to revolution in the Dutch Republic, many citizens entered into the slave trade, which is mainly considered to have been as a result of accident rather than by design.

This paper will therefore seek to review Postma’s book: The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815, giving the implications and the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade.

The author’s criticism of the historiography The author criticizes the historiography of the Dutch participation in the transatlantic slave trade by pointing out that the participation of the Dutch in this trade was not given the attention that it deserved.

The participation of the Dutch covers approximately two centuries all filled with diverse complexity ranging from the geographical dimensions to the demographic and complicated economies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main aim of the Author writing this book was to bring to light the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic trade and giving it the attention it deserved.

Rawley and Behrendt in their book: The transatlantic slave trade: A history, points out that the Dutch participated in the slave trade as early as 1528 when the slaves were being transported to the Spanish colonies (2005). The author refutes this by elaborating that the transporters of these slaves were the Germans and or the Flemings who originated from Belgium.

In the light of the above, the author adds that the earliest participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade occurred in 1596 (Postma, 2009).

The evidence that the author uses to support their argument Postma (2009) points out that in the early stages of the slave trade in Africa, the main participants of the slave trade, mainly the Portuguese could send the expedition to the west coast of Africa to capture the slaves and the author points out that the number of slaves that were captured was approximately two hundred and thirty five slaves all of whom were sent to Portugal.

The author tries to justify the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade by pointing out that in 1596, Rotterdam Skipper and Pieter Van Hagen captured approximately one hundred and thirty slaves from Africa and moved them to Middelburg, the capital of Zeeland.

This information is credible since it provides prove of the Dutch’s participation in the slave trade.

Ways in which the chapters of the book relate to the thesis Postma has organized the book in various chapters each of which relate to the transatlantic trade. In chapter one and two the author tries to explain the start of the slave trade and the causes of such trade.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Atlantic Slave Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the three subsequent chapters, the author shifts his focus to Africa and explores the Presence of the Dutch in Africa.

In chapters six and seven the author tries to examine the conditions that made slave trade favorable for example the need for labor in the western nations as well as the presence of people from Africa who could provide the cheap labor.

In the last four chapters the author sheds light into how the slaves were housed and fed. These slaves were mistreated in the workplaces and they lived in very poor conditions. Perhaps the author points out the presence of slave have raised many morality questions in the modern times.

Some information that was provide by the author are not necessary or example his explanation on the roe of the Catholic Church in the slave trade has little significance in the thesis.

Criticism of the author’s work The events that took place during the transatlantic slave trade are clearly explained as well as the factors that led to the start of the slave trade. The participation of the Dutch in the Slave trade was due to the establishment of the large farms in the Dutch Republic that it required extensive source of labor.

The implications that the slave trade had on the western economies are explained but one of the major shortcomings of this book is its failure to elaborate on the implications that the slave trade had on the African continent.

The African continent was deprived of man power since strong men were taken away thus the labor force declined drastically. Families were also separated which resulted in psychological suffering among the family members.

Conclusion In conclusion, it is true to say that the author has contributed to the literature of the event because he gives insights into what happened during the transatlantic slave trade as well as the implications of this trade on the western economies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Atlantic Slave Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The book can form the basis for other studies since the future scholars may endeavor to learn more about the implications that this trade had, politically, economically and socially to both the African continent as well as to the western hemisphere.

The transatlantic slave trade had a major implication since it formed the basis for the continued migration of the Africans to the western hemisphere.

It is an event that is worth studying because it gives a clear picture of what really transpired during this period of slave trade.

References Postma, J. M. (2009). The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815. Cambridge.Cambridge University Press.

Rawley, J. A.,


Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve Case Study online essay help: online essay help

The management of Peachtree Healthcare has to determine to what extent their technologies should be standardized. They can choose a monolithic information system that will be implemented in each hospital and clinic that is currently run by Peachtree Healthcare.

Yet, they can also adopt a Service-Oriented Architecture that will enable this organization to conduct a selective standardization of their technologies and major practices. In both cases, the company will have to spend a significant amount of money, but the success of this investment cannot be fully ensured.

Thus, the management will need to determine which model best suits the needs of the organization. This is the main question that is going to be discussed.

One of the approaches that this organization can take is complete standardization of technologies and practices. This strategy can give several benefits, for example, cost savings and better time-efficiency.

Therefore, they can choose a monolithic information system which is a single set of technologies and applications that will be installed in every clinic or hospital of Peachtree Healthcare. The main advantage of this strategy is that technologies and practices will be consistent throughout the organization.

Yet, one should take into account several structural factors. Peachtree Healthcare includes trauma centers, community hospitals, teaching clinics, or rehabilitation centers. Thus, it may be difficult to develop a single information system that can fit the needs of these medical institutions.

Furthermore, as it has been noted in the case study, many procedures cannot be effectively standardized. For instance, pharmacy record keeping can be based on the best practices. Yet, one cannot say the same thing about the protocol for treating different forms of cancer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is one of the reasons why complete standardization is not always possible. Apart from that, physicians should be able to care about the wellbeing of the patient without being limited by standards or restrictions imposed from outside.

Furthermore, the adoption of a monolith information system will necessitate the redesign of many business processes, and extra training of the staff. Apart from that, the complete redesign of the existing IT infrastructure may not be efficient.

The thing is that some of their current technologies can function quite effectively and there is no need to remove them. Finally, the management of Peachtree Healthcare should not forget that the adoption of a monolithic system will make this organization less responsive to change.

For example, hospitals can adopt business models or medical practices when they are given some degree of autonomy. Complete standardization can deprive them of this autonomy. These are the main drawbacks and benefits of this approach.

Another strategy that this organization can choose is to implement a Service-Oriented Architecture. The main benefit of these technologies is that they allow a greater degree of flexibility.

In particular, some physicians have various note-filling preferences. Some of them choose to enter the information about the patient directly into a database, while others chose to dictate these data for later transcription.

Apart from that, SOA can help this company to standardize only some elements of their IT infrastructure while allowing various hospitals and clinics select software. The main limitation is that this technology has not been widely adopted in healthcare setting.

We will write a custom Case Study on Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main limitation of this model is that SOA have not been fully tested in medical institutions. The management of Peachtree Healthcare cannot guarantee that this technology will prove efficient.

On the whole, the discussion of these issues shows that Peachtree Healthcare should adopt a Service-Oriented Architecture. As it has been said before, this framework will enable this organization to replace those parts of IT infrastructure that do not function properly.

As it has been shown in the case study, the management of Peachtree Healthcare feels insecure about the adoption of this technology because it has not been widely used in healthcare organizations. Yet, one should take into account that the adoption of SOA infrastructure is a gradual process.

The company can replace some poor-functioning components of their IT systems with SOA-built services. Provided that these changes yield good results, the company can continue their adoption of SOA information system.

Moreover, the developers of SOA information systems will be willing to suit the needs of Peachtree Healthcare.

They will even agree on lower price for their services, because they also want to win the trust of healthcare institutions. Under such circumstances, Peachtree Healthcare can receive a high-quality product at a reasonable price.

Overall, these examples show that the redesign of an IT system should be based on close analysis of organizational structure, its size, and major activities. Peachtree Healthcare would have to adopt a system that can allow the greatest degree of flexibility.

Such a goal can be achieved by using a SOA-based information system. Admittedly, this strategy can be associated with some risks, but the same thing can be said about the so-called monolith systems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This organization should strive for the standardization that is based on the best practices, but the management must make sure that Peachtree Healthcare remains open to new ideas, models, and practices. This result can be achieved with the help of SOA infrastructure.


psychiatry medication case study essay help online: essay help online

Select one of the cases to address in your initial post.

Be sure to address any drug interactions and point out the mechanism of how the drug may be working.
Each post will need to include a reference or article to further support your information/stance, make sure to cite all references.
Initial posts are due by the FIRST Sunday night.
Be sure to post your replies by end of the module. (at least two replies to other students)
Case 1:

JK has a 31 year history of psychotic illness. He is diagnosed with schizophrenia, disorganized type currently on clozapine but continues to threaten himself and others. He has a history of hallucinations, severe psychomotor agitation, elopement, assault on others and self-destructive behavior including swallowing razor blades and jumping from a motor-cycle. Five-years ago he murdered his friend by hammering him in the head because he thought he was a vampire. He was found mentally incompetent to stand trial and resides in the facility. He is in denial of his illness and the murder and upon provocation rapidly develops threatening behavior to himself and others.

Current medications: clozapine 300mg BID; fluvoxamine 25mg BID

Review each of the following, what would you recommend?
switch to another antipsychotic
increase clozapine dose
augment with lamotrigine
augment with risperidone
augment with a benzodiazepine
increase fluvoxamine

Case 2:

PJ is a 9 year old boy diagnosed with ADHD at age 5 and has been on both Adderall and Concerta with poor effectiveness. He has a history since age 3 of impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity. In the past year, he has become more oppositional and disruptive in class to the point of teachers feeling he is a threat to other children and themselves. Testing suggests he is a bright child with ADHD and pediatric mania who suffers from oppositional defiant disorder but not conduct disorder; with multiple learning disabilities.

Current medications: mixed amphetamine salts 30mg qAM and 20mg at 11am

Review each of the following, what would you recommend?
augment with a mood stabilizer or lithium
add an atypical antipsychotic
increase stimulant dose
augment with guanfacine ER


Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Infrastructure Critical to Exports: Report

Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone

Blackwood Halt Raises Querries on Tinkler Deal

Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line

References List

According to the Federal Attorney General, curbing online piracy involves the copyright owners, the internet service providers, and customer advocates.

Internet users who are found to make copies of movies and music will be given warnings. If they fail to adhere to the warnings, they will be sanctioned and even disconnected from internet services.

Former Attorney General, Robert McClelland, instructed the secretary, Roger Wilkins, to address the issue secretly through negotiations. The secretary opted for an industry-based solution.

He agreed to go for other options like legislation if the industry failed to comply. The talks proposing internet providers as liable have delayed thus Attorney General’s department went ahead to initiate the industry-based program.

The response was positive, and discussions are on-going to determine whether to warn or educate the abusers. The subject on costs is being negotiated, and it is expected that the ISPs will cover these costs (Colley, 2012).

Infrastructure Critical to Exports: Report The Australian government report indicates that containing expenditure and building infrastructure would benefit Australia. This will ensure the doubling of the country’s profitable freights by 2025.

The bureau of resources forecasted that the 493 million tonnes of iron ore produced annually would grow up to 1.08 billion tonnes. On the other hand, coking coal would almost double in growth from over 150 to about 300 million tonnes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will be achieved through an improved infrastructure as noted by BREE and Resources Minister, Martin Ferguson. Ferguson further noted that the available infrastructure would support the country up to 2017.

Thus, more infrastructures were essential. From the world economy’s approach, long term growth comes with reduction in commodity prices as projected by BREE.

The Reserve Bank reported that the reduction on commodity prices by 1.7 per cent to 9.9 per cent is attributed to reduced prices for iron and coal (Yeates, 2012).

Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone Recurrence of the European debt crises can lead to consequences like civil war. However, this will only be avoided if German leaders agree to entangle the Eurozone nations’ fortunes.

The effects of this may be global; however, the share markets, especially in the US, may be restored if the issue is addressed successfully by European leaders.

Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, will have no option but to give in to measures that unite Euro nations before the year ends. The awful effects of a broken Euro currency will be felt on the economical, social and political fronts.

This will see the fall of Eurozone which is likely to go down with the German economy. The head of research at Bell Potter Securities, Peter Quinton, noted that the bailout package needs to be tripled for Eurozone to stabilize. This is necessary since the US share prices are going up (Whalley, 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blackwood Halt Raises Querries on Tinkler Deal Blackwood Corp, a listed, coal explorer may be required to give an explanation for the 5.30 billion dollar privatization bid for Whitehaven coal.

The information provided is inadequate to explain the allocation of 28.4 million dollars meant to fund a drilling campaign. Whitehaven Coal received 5.2 million dollars from the Tinkler group.

This included support from the share holders. This was not enough, and Tinkler sought a further 17 % from Whitehaven or else the group would be forced to raise further equity and buy them out.

Tinkler privatization is likely to fail given that Whitehaven shares keep going down. This is assumed to have prompted Blackhood to request for a trading halt and ask for debt payment.

This was expected although Tinkler denied this allegation, and instead, said that the placement was still on course. He further noted that there was no relationship with Blackwood yet (Manning, 2012a).

Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line Analysts from Deutsch Bank reported that BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto would have to initiate mineral resource tax. This was to be done by depositing 1-3 billion dollars each in their June accounts.

This will be treated as income and will be reflected in the records of both companies. The head of Australian mining research, Paul Young, affirmed that the iron ore miners were likely to give in despite the reduced coal prices.

The mineral resource rent tax was initiated on July 1st based on the historical involvement of the miners’ investment in the mines. However, it did not tax them on earnings obtained before the investment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The tax is 30% of the earnings obtained from coal and iron ore. This excludes the capital expenditure and the annual depreciation.

The starting base is likely to be based on the book value due to the availability of previous records (Manning, 2012b).

References List Colley, A., 2012. ‘Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia’, The Australian. Web.

Manning, P., 2012. ‘Blackwood halt Raises Querries on Tinker Deal’, Business Day. Web.

Manning, P., 2012. ‘Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line’, Business Day. Web.

Whalley, J., 2012. ‘Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone’, Herald Sun. Web.

Yeates, C., 2012. Infrastructure critical to Exports: Report. Web.


Religion and morality Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Religion and its relation to public morality

Religious principles vs. moral approaches



Introduction While discussing the question concerning the interdependence between religion and morality, some basic points on the issue must be considered. First of all, it is necessary to point out that religion and morality cannot be regarded as synonyms and therefore, should be analyzed separately.

One is to keep in mind that morality does not depend upon religion; so, for this reason, one can conclude that rightness and wrongness are not based on religious studies. People choose their own way to act, and their decision does not depend upon the God’s will.

Religion and its relation to public morality Keeping in mind a wide range of religious movements, one can probably notice that the viewpoints on religion are rather ambiguous.

For instance, some representatives of a new atheism are of the opinion that religion poisons everything. In our days, people’s faith can be regarded not only as a basis for human morality, but also as a great evil.

Thus, let’s remember “the evils perpetrated by the Spanish Inquisition and the Catholic leadership’s scandalous protection of clerical child abusers” (Gaillardetz, 2008). The case seems to prove the assumption that the modern religion is toxic to human society.

On the other hand, nobody will deny the fact that religion may shape people’s attitude to public morality. Taking into account certain religious commandments, one can notice many ties between correct moral behavior and a wide range of religious principles.

In other words, it is religiosity, which seems to be based on certain moral approaches, but not vice versa.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religious principles vs. moral approaches Still, the issue of human morality must not be regarded within religious perspectives, because it exists independently of religion. Morality is related to certain codes of conduct, which are set by societies.

Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that different societies accept the term in their own way; it depends upon a person’s mentality what moral principles can be followed or neglected.

There is a variety of moral approaches, and some of them take the priority over others. That is to say people have a right to choose how to live, behave, etc. and their freedom of choice does not depend upon the God’s will.

There is a strong need to differentiate between morality, religion, etiquette and law. Making distinctions between the issues can give people an opportunity to interpret morality in a proper way.

Generally, it should be noted that in most cases people consider religion as a basis for morality, because some of the rules of conduct required or prohibited by faith coincide with the codes of conduct established by societies.

On the other hand, “religions may prohibit or require more than is prohibited or required by guides to behavior that are explicitly labeled as moral guides, and may allow some behavior that is prohibited by morality” (Gert, 2011).

Conclusion As far as morality can be regarded as rather contradictory phenomenon, one can probably agree with Darwin’s opinion that an objective standard of morality is absent (“Answering the New Atheism,” 2008).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Religion and morality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, it becomes evident that there is no sense to discuss human morality within religious perspectives. The only appropriate way to combine the issues is to consider religion and religious morality.

In other words, one can state that while religion may sometimes be the cause of evil, without religion there is no basis for religious morality.

References Answering the New Atheism. (2008). Stay catholic. Web.

Gaillardetz, R. (2008). Catholicism and the New Atheism. Web.

Gert, B. (2011). The Definition of Morality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.


Nok Culture’s Main Characteristic Features Report college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Material Presence





Introduction Many people tend to take art and design for granted yet it is prevalent in our everyday lives. Art is the use of imagination, an individual’s perception and expression of something special.

This can be in form of fine arts such as paintings and sculptures, visual such as television, advertisements and logos, and architecture. Design incorporates simplicity and effectiveness; it tries to solve the difficulties faced by man in the day to day life.

Factors such as cost effectiveness, materials, negatives (environmental) and function are well-thought-out by designers. Together, designers and artists play a vital role in the society.

Through their innovative pursuits, they portray a picture or a reflection of the world we live in. They help represent our culture, agriculture, social custom, beliefs and religion.

Art and design is everywhere, from our phones, laptops, pens, bottles, clothing, roads, vehicles, trains and aero-planes (Davidson, 2000).

One of the most significant pieces of art is the Nok art, a testament of the Nok culture. The Nok culture appeared in the region of West Africa in Nigeria. It describes the Nok Sculpture of northern Nigeria which date from 500BC to 200AD.

The Nok sculptures, the terracotta statues, are considered as the earliest traces of the remarkable tradition of sculpture south of Sahara. Discovery of the sculptures in 1943 indicate the use of iron, the practice of smelting for tools and forgery.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Nok sculptures varied in sizes from miniature statues to massive sculptures of kneeling, seated and standing postures, mostly of kings and priests. Depicting humans and animals, the most popular of the Nok sculptures are the terracotta heads.

The main characteristic feature of the Nok terracottas is their hollow structure. They are sculpted from clay rolls and dried by firing in open air and closed ovens. Fragmented and eroded by damage and age, some Nok heads are believed to be part of complete bodies.

Many of these sculptures were modeled individually in an additive technique; others were sculpted in the subtractive technique. This characteristic subtractive method suggests a comparable carving practice (Rupp


The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Report essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Moving from Basel II to the Basel III- Contributing Factors

Features of Basel III

Implications of Basel III in Australia





Introduction The task of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is to provide a forum for regulation of activities in the banking sector.

The main objectives of the committee are to promote understanding of main issues of supervision and promote development of quality methods of banking supervision (Tarullo 2008, p. 6).

The main subcommittees of Basel Committee are the Standards Implementation Group, Policy Development Group, Accounting Group and Basel Consultative Group (Scott 2005, p.16).

The committee developed accords that are used in supervising banking sector. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the factors that led to movement from Basel II to Basel III, features of Basel III and how it differs from Basel II.

Additionally, it evaluates the effects that the new accord has on the financial institutions in Australia.

Moving from Basel II to the Basel III- Contributing Factors Basel 1was the first and it determined the minimum amount of capital that financial institutions had to maintain. The purpose of this was to minimize credit risk and banks that had international operations had to maintain a minimum of 8% of capital (Gup 2005, p. 46).

Basel II was an improvement of the first accord and determined the amount that financial institutions had to set aside to cover operational and financial risks that they and the whole economy face.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third is Basel III that gives financial institutions a period of three years to satisfy all set conditions.

Australia is among the first countries to adopt the requirements of Basel III. Basel Committee encourages countries to adopt the requirements so as to provide a better regulatory environment and reduce the vulnerability of the world’s financial system.

Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA), the Australian capital markets regulators, took a cautious and conservative approach in implementing Basel III recommendations (International Monetary Fund 2009, p.25).

APRA proposed two amendments to the draft that controlled the activities of the Australian capital markets. First, it proposed that all capital instruments to be governed by law in order to be included as Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital.

The reason for this proposal is to ensure that any conversion or write off is implemented and that implementation is done within a short time.

The second proposal was on treatment of joint arrangements. Joint operators were expected to be accounted on a proportionally consolidated method while joint ventures were to be accounted for using equity method.

Additionally, APRA made recommendations regarding implementation of the Basel III requirements. The proposals were on reporting standards, capital adequacy and the forms of reporting.

We will write a custom Report on The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also proposed introduction of new reporting standards and fair values. Ultimately, the recommendations were implemented and the influence on the ADIs is varied.

Features of Basel III Basel III accord and the Basel II accord have many differences. This section focuses on the differences and changes that Basel Committee adopted to improve the supervision of banking sector of the world.

The minimum capital requirement that the committee expects financial institutions to maintain was retained at 8% in Basel III. However, Tier 1 minimum capital requirement according to Basel III is 6%.

This is different from Basel II that required Tier 1 capital requirement to be 4% (Choudhry 2001, p. 285). Basel 3 also has a higher quality of Tier 1 capital.

It requires a large part of the common equity and it has tightened the criteria for inclusion in Tier 1 capital.

Additionally, Basel III has increased the quality of Tier 2 capital and the inclusion criteria in Tier 2 capital have also been tightened.

Basel III also has a requirement that most capital deductions be made to Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) instead of 50% from Tier 1 and 50% from Tier 2 as it was under Basel 2.

Tier 1 capital is that which is always available freely to take up losses without making the bank wind up operations while Tier 2 absorbs losses incases when a bank winds up.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other feature of Basel III is the introduction of Conservation Buffer which is a new measure. Conservation Buffer aims at ensuring that financial institutions maintain a buffer capital which is above the minimum capital requirement (Gregoriou 2009, p. 198).

This capital buffer is to cushion banks in cases when they make losses especially during economic and financial down turns.

Banks will thus be able to draw from this buffer during such stressful periods. However, constraints in the spread of earnings during these periods will be applied as capital ratios of the banks get nearer to the minimum requirement.

Another feature of Basel III is the introduction of a Counter-cyclical Buffer of Common Equity and national circumstances are to determine the implementation of this buffer.

The intent of this action is to facilitate the achievement of vast macro-prudential factors. This is attainable through fortification of the banking sector from excessive expansion of credits. In addition to these features, Basel III strengthens the rules used in the calculation of risk weighted assets.

It also adds minimum requirements to ensure the protection of the tax payers. These minimum requirements are to ensure that the capital that a bank has is able to absorb losses in cases when a bank’s operations become non-viable.

Implications of Basel III in Australia The implications of Basel III accord implemented in Australia are varied and are based on various circumstances.

The writing off or conversion of a regulatory instrument due to an event triggered by an issue to do with capital or non-viability has adverse effect on an ADI (Ayadi


The Types of Shoppers Classification Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

According to the classical theory of consumerism which refers the public to the middle of the 20th century, women are discussed as the target audience of different kinds of shops.

Nevertheless, today the situation is different, and men are also interested in the process of buying new things and clothes, and they often express the same attitudes to this process as women do.

The explanation to this controversial issue is in the fact that the phenomenon of consumerism is in a constant development, and it demands new victims for the progress.

However, not all the representatives of real shoppers discuss themselves as the victims of the passion for purchasing.

Although today it is possible to buy almost everything which can be made from any material, it is significant to concentrate on the process of buying the items of the clothes because now this process has a lot of similarities for women and men and also classify the shoppers according to the peculiarities of their attitude to the process of purchasing, and discuss such types as the ‘coat-hunters’, ‘shop-addicted’, and ‘brand-loving’ shoppers.

Clothes can be discussed as a specific category of shop-products, and it can even become a kind of religion for either men or women who forget about their gender differences when they are in a huge store with a lot of departments which attracts the audience with many bright lights and vivid colors.

Nevertheless, the general attitude of the consumers to these places can be quite different as well as the attitude to the particular process of shopping.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The proper analysis of the attitude of those persons who prefer to go shopping and buy different kinds of clothes is the main goal of this classification.

The first category of shoppers can be determined according to these persons’ habit to search for the definite prey.

The attitude of the ‘coat-hunters’ to the process of buying can be compared with the attitude and behaviours of real hunters who can imagine a lot of stores and their numerous departments as the wild jungle.

However, the ‘coat-hunters’ always know what type of coats is necessary for them, and they cannot be confused with the variety of the goods presented in the stores.

Moreover, they are ready to wait for days and months till this coat or hat becomes available for purchasing or even has the magic sign ‘sale’ on it. However, the scenario of the situation can be different, and the ‘coat-hunters’ have to spend a lot of periods of time waiting for the item of their dream because they really know what they need.

Men from this category are more successful than women in looking for a necessary item because they can wait longer and act rather unemotionally while being in the store without references to the other interesting objects which can attract the women’s attention and prevent them from ‘waiting’ and ‘observing’ in the jungle.

The second category of shoppers which is important to pay attention to is the ‘shop-addicted’ persons. According to the main principle of the classification, these shoppers discuss new items of the clothes as a kind of ‘drugs’ for them.

We will write a custom Essay on The Types of Shoppers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary for these people to buy much in order to satisfy their addiction, but the effect from purchasing a new portion of clothes is not long that is why it is significant for them to come back to the places where they can find new clothes.

The ‘shop-addicted’ persons do not choose the definite element of the clothes to buy, the fact of purchasing as the process is more important for them. The typical features of the ‘shop-addicted’ people can be various.

Thus, the shop assistants of all the available departments in the store are often able to recognize the ‘shop-addicted’ persons.

Moreover, this kind of addiction is common mostly for women because of their habit to use the process of purchasing as the way to overcome certain stressful situations and to change the mood.

The next category includes those persons who suffer from the more specific kind of addiction than the representatives of the second category.

The attitude of the ‘brand-loving’ persons to the process of purchasing can be comparable with the attitude of gourmands to their favourite food, but with references to such a detail that gourmands prefer definite dishes cooked by the famous chefs, and the ‘brand-loving’ shoppers prefer all the dishes cooked by all the famous chefs.

Therefore, it is extremely important for the ‘brand-loving’ people to taste a lot of them. The ‘brand-loving’ shoppers can be often met among men who want to accentuate their acquired status with many ‘significant’ details or hide their real status under the heap of these details.

‘Brand-loving’ women usually orient to their friends, and their main task is to shock the opponent with a number of brands used together rather than with the quality of the presented goods.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Types of Shoppers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are a lot of categories and principles according to which it is possible to classify shoppers.

The presented variants of categories which are the ‘coat-hunters’, ‘shop-addicted’, and ‘brand-loving’ shoppers reflect the tendencies in the modern development of the phenomena of consumerism and fashion and accentuate the combination of these concepts with references to the shoppers as the objects of the processes, but not the subjects because the representatives of the mentioned categories form their attitude predominantly according the rules of fashion, but not according to their real desires.

The difference between the categories is also in the fact that shoppers can reject or follow the impact of fashion on the process of buying.


McJournalism in the UAE Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons for Low Levels of McJournalism

Evidence of McJournalism in the UAE




Introduction The media has emerged as one of the most powerful forces in modern day due to the huge influence it has over the society. It is able to affect people since the reports it provides inform individuals and help them to gain new perceptions on issues going on around them.

A person’s opinion on various issues is coloured by the media since it provides the “backdrop against which we make sense of new conditions and information” (Gentz


Concept of Environmental Ethic in Society Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Environmental ethics is a relatively new field, but it already gives rise to numerous debates among philosophers and scientists. The articles that are included in this portfolio are aimed at discussing the ways in which people should think about nature and other species.

The authors discuss a variety of approaches to this problem, for example, deontological perspective or utilitarianism. In my view, people have to accept the premise that their survival is dependent on the sustainability of environment.

Overall, it seems that in the future, environmental ethics can shape laws, and daily activities of companies or individuals, yet, at its principles have not been fully articulated.

One of the issues that are highlighted by the authors is the anthropocentrism of contemporary environmental ethics.

In other words, even people who are not indifferent of environmental problems, think about them only because they can have an impact on human life.

For instance, people can focus on such issue as water and air pollution, oil spills, or the depletion of natural resources. Yet, very little attention is paid to inherent value of environment.

This framework implies that nature has to be fully subordinate to the people. This perspective also suggests that many environmental problems can be overlooked provided that they do not directly affect the activities of people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the extinction of many species can be made acceptable because it does not impact people. I agree with scholars who critique this utilitarian interpretation of environmental ethics.

The thing is that ecosystem is not a set of independent elements; in most cases, they are closely interconnected. For instance, the extinction of birds or animals can eventually affect forests and even lead to deforestation of many areas.

This is why one should not look at the environment only from utilitarian perspective. The problem is that many people cannot see the inherent value of nature.

This question is not only theoretical because it can affect various human activities, for instance, animal activities or the preservation of endangered species.

The second question that these reading made think of is how one can make environmental ethics obligatory for organizations and individuals. Certainly, there can be different approaches to environmental ethics.

One can take utilitarian or deontological perspectives, but it is always possible to institutionalize the principles of environmental ethics. The problem is that some organizations only claim to care about environment, but these claims are not always backed up by their actions.

Besides, many companies are simply forces to follow the environmental regulations imposed by states. Yet, there is no internal stimulus for them to do it.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Environmental Ethic in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the articles included in the portfolio prompt individuals to reevaluate their views on nature and environmental problems. So, one has to formulate the principles that people should follow.

This is why I support the idea of environmental ethics. In view, researchers and thinkers, why try to establish its key principles, can help governments avert many problems.

This discussion shows that the key principles of environmental ethics still have to be formulated and turned into norms. Although this field of ethics is relatively new it can organizations and individuals.

Overall, the debates over these questions may not be settled in the near future. Yet, the fact that this issue is discussed by intellectuals indicates that people’s attitude toward environment can change in the future.


A Comparison of “A college application essay help: college application essay help

The essay compares the two stories, in a manner that shows that both authors have certain similarities. Both authors clearly show the influence of parenting, in inspiring their children into autonomous and independent thought.

The authors emphasize on the role of fathers in the family and especially, in the building of character in their children. The authors also show that men are sexist and stubborn.

“The story A


The Great Migration Essay best essay help

The period between 1910 and 1970 witnessed a massive movement of African-Americans from the United States’ rural south to the urban north (Spencer, 1987). Historians estimate that more than 6 million African-Americans were involved in this great exodus.

The United States’ population experienced a significant change during the Great Migration. New York and Chicago were some of the northern cities that witnessed the influx of African-Americans.

Before this migration, the population of African-Americans in these cities was only about 2 percent.

A clear demonstration of the changes caused by the Great Migration was the doubling of the number of African-Americans working in industries.

Causes Several factors contributed towards The Great Migration. First, there was a worsening racial situation in the South especially due to the Jim Crow laws. This situation brought about educational, economic and social marginalisation.

Other factors were the pursuance of employment opportunities in the rapidly expanding industrial sector in the North and better education facilities (Johnson, 2012).

Moreover, the boll weevil infestation, coupled with the plummeting world cotton prices, adversely affected a large part of the Southern cotton fields forcing sharecroppers and labourers to migrate in search of alternative means of employment (Spencer, 1987).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering that this was an era of war, there were numerous opportunities in the North for African-Americans. In addition, the First World War and the Immigration Act of 1924 significantly minimised the movement of European immigrants to the burgeoning industrial centres of the North (Spencer, 1987).

As a result, there were more opportunities for African-Americans in various factories due to the need for labour to meet the increasing demand for industrial goods.

The 1927 Mississippi Floods also contributed to the Great Migration as they displaced a large number of African-American farmers and labourers.

Effects Due to the massive movement of people to the North, there was a considerable increase in the demand for housing. This brought about hostility between the immigrants and the locals.

As a result, residential segregation gained favour in several cities with the motive of ensuring that blacks stayed away from the neighbourhoods that whites inhabited.

Even though the Supreme Court declared municipal residence segregation as unconstitutional, whites adopted a formal deed restriction, which bound the owners of white property in a particular neighbourhood not to sell to blacks (White, 2005).

Due to the restrictions regarding housing, several African-American neighbourhoods mushroomed in the cities. Harlem became the largest city predominantly inhabited by blacks.

We will write a custom Essay on The Great Migration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hostility between African-Americans and whites also presented itself in matters relating to employment. Whites, especially the working class, were afraid of the threat posed by the immigrants concerning labour.

Whites feared that African-Americans would negatively affect their pay rates and their ability to secure employment.

The whites’ tendency to protect what they considered as their territory created a racial divide that sometimes resulted in violence.

The Great Migration had a significant influence on various aspects of lives. The key areas concern language and culture due to the influx of people from different backgrounds.

As more African-Americans settled in the North, they transformed their rural lifestyle to fit into the urban culture and in the process introduced the black culture. Furthermore, the Great Migration had negative effects in the Southern states as the black population declined immensely in these states.

For example, in Mississippi and South Carolina, both of which experienced massive movements, the black population declined to about 35 percent by 1970s (Johnson, 2012).

References Johnson, D. (2012). Important Cities in Black History. Retrieved from

Spencer, R. C. (1987). The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Retrieved from

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Migration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More White, K. (2005). Women in the Great Migration: Economic Activity of Black and White Southern-Born Female Migrants in 1920, 1940, and 1970. Social Science History, 29(3), 413-455.


Unrecognized Beauty in William Wordsworth’s Poem She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways Research Paper essay help: essay help

In his poem She dwelt among the untrodden ways, William Wordsworth speaks about the woman who played an important role in his life. The author does not clearly tell that he was in love with her, but the readers can see that she definitely produced a long-lasting impression on him.

It should be noted that She dwelt among the untrodden Ways is one of the so-called Lucy poems, dedicated to an unknown woman whose identity was never fully disclosed (Kumar, 2003, p. 229).

One of themes that Wordsworth explores is the idea that beauty can often go unrecognized by others; however, other people’s recognition is unnecessary for a person who can appreciate beauty.

The imagery of the poem, its language, and structure are the main elements that help the author to convey his meaning and feelings for Lucy.

One of the things that catch the attention of the reader is the metaphors that Wordsworth uses. For instance, he compares this woman to “a violet by a mossy stone half hidden from the eye” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).

In this way, the author shows that the beauty of this person could be unnoticed by many people. Yet, this image also implies that for the narrator, this woman stood out among many others because a violet definitely contrasts with mossy stones.

Yet, the readers know that this beauty was certainly recognized by the narrator because he compares her to a lonely “star” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again this metaphor implies that for Wordsworth Lucy represents the greatness of nature (Walz, 2007, p. 26). This is how the author emphasizes the beauty of this person, at least in his view.

Another linguistic element that is worth discussing is the use of understatements or the expressions that state something in very restraint form.

For instance, he does not simply say she died. Instead the author chooses the expression “ceased to be” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167). Thus, the narrator shows that Lucy was a strong presence in his life, and her very existence was very important to him.

Furthermore, the speaker does not mention his sorrow and the feeling of loss. Instead he says that her death was “the difference” to him (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).

In this way, Wordsworth seems to suggest that his feelings for this woman and his sorrow may not be expressed with the help of words. This is one of the key ideas of this poem.

Furthermore, one should not disregard such a literary element as the structure of the poem. It can be divided into three parts or stanzas and they symbolize the development, perfection and fading of beauty and love (Kumar, 2003, p. 229).

The first stanza describes the environment in which this woman grew up. The readers can see that Lucy grew up in a very inconspicuous where very few people could appreciate her beauty.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Unrecognized Beauty in William Wordsworth’s Poem She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stanza shows how her beauty was discovered and what it meant for the narrator, while the third passage shows the impact that the death of this woman produced on the narrator.

Overall, William Wordsworth’s poem shows that beauty often exists only in the eyes of the beholder. As a rule, it does not require acknowledgement of other people.

The author shows that Lucy deeply affected his life and creative work, even though other people did not pay much attention to her.

The main strength of this poem is that the author expressed his feelings for this woman by using very concise language and powerful imagery.

Reference List Kumar, S. (2003). A Companion to William Wordsworth. New York: Atlantic Publishers


Policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local Report (Assessment) writing essay help

Table of Contents Research Question

Study Hypothesis

Research Variables

Literature review



Research Question What influenced the conduction of this research study are matters concerning the tropical forests. There are various policies, as well as, instruments of public action evident in the issue of tropical forests both local and global.

Therefore, the research question is; what policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local. This research question is significant and worth investigating.

This is because, studies conducted in the past on the same topic have been few and, therefore, there is no much knowledge regarding the policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local.

It is due to this that the researcher of this research study decided to research on the topic to provide a deeper insight towards the matter and perhaps add up to the already existing information, in addition to, filling the gaps in the past research studies on the same topic.

Study Hypothesis The policies that can be identified as affecting the tropical forests are constructed, implemented and translated into instruments by several parties in a precise and clear manner. The evaluation, adjustments or even distortions of these policies are facilitated by the social factors.

Research Variables There are a number of relationships, which this research study is interested. However, they are abstract in nature. This implies that there the manner in which they are operationalized might not be subject to validity and the measurement given to them might not be valid too.

The measure of the makers of policies’ participation is abstract, and as such, it will require establishing estimates of the values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review The effects of instruments used in the making of tropical forest policies or even those that concerns environmental services, which according to Zhihua