Costco And Amazon Companies: Management Strategies Research Paper Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Costco

Topic selected for research


Costco Costco is a wholesale corporation with headquarters in Washington. It was founded by Brotman and Sinegal in 1983 under the name Price Club. It is the second largest retail store in the world after the Wal-Mart stores. Before becoming an independent company, it had partnerships with two different corporations namely Wal-Mart and the Club Price.

In 1997, the founders saw the need of working alone so as to get an opportunity to think strategically on how best to expand their business. This followed the confusion which had characterized its mergers with other partners (Costco Wholesale Corporation, 2013).

One of its unique features is that it is one of the few companies which have experienced an uninterpreted growth since their formation. For a period of six years, the company saw its assets grow to hit the $ 3 billion mark in 2003. In the last financial year, the company’s total sales were valued at $97 billion.

Its main competitors in the warehouse business are the BJs and the Sam’s clubs. It currently employs over 170, 000 employees both in part time and full time basis. Its key business development strategy is selling large volumes of goods in low prices. It usually targets large businesses and families due to their ability to purchase goods and services in bulk (Annual reports, 2013).

Even though the company initially specialized on products which were boxed, it diversified and started selling other products such as clothes, food stuffs, computer software, books, flowers, tires, electronic goods, drinks and furnitures among others. It also offers services such as photograph processing, medical services and gas filling services. Amazon is a multinational electronic commerce company based in the United States with headquarters in Seattle. It is the largest online retailer in the world with its total assets valued at $ 32 billion. It was founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994 under the name Cadabra. When founding the company, Bezos was trying to minimize his regrets for not expanding soon to take advantage of the internet business boom of the mid 1990s.

His main aim therefore was to market products online by taking advantage of the advancement in information and communication technology at that time. Apart from online services, the company also sells DVDs, videos, software, furniture, jewelery and consumer electronics (Crunchbase, 2013).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In late 1990s, the world witnessed what was described as the dot-com-bubble, which crippled many e-companies. However, Amazon survived the effects of the dot-com-bubble and grew to become a key player in the online sales and services industry. In fact, the company had not made remarkable profits for four consecutive years since its formation.

It was after the survival of the dot-com- bubble burst in 2001 that it made remarkable revenues of $5million. This restored investors’ confidence which had dwindled following the slow pace of growth.

The picking up of the business made many skeptics and critics of Bezos’ business model stop their criticism. His business model gained popularity and made Bezos to be named as the person of the year by the time magazine in 1999 (Amazon, 2013).

Currently, the company has made several mergers and acquisitions. It has also managed to establish businesses in various continents such as Europe, North America, Asia and Africa. To increase access to its services, it has established websites for all the countries where it has operations.

Topic selected for research The topic of research for this term project is application of mass customization techniques in either manufacturing or services businesses. The purpose of the research is to explore the design, operations and improvement activities which companies are applying in their development and expansion strategies (Dummies, 2013).

The research aims to achieve its objectives by analyzing the two companies discussed above. The reason why the two were selected is because they are among the leading companies in the world in terms of total assets. They are also among the few companies in the world which have experienced a steady growth since their inception.

References Amazon. (2013). About amazon. Web.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Costco and Amazon Companies: Management Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Annual reports. (2013). Costco Wholesale Corporation. Web.

Costco Wholesale Corporation. (2013). Investor relations. Web.

Crunchbase. (2013). Amazon. Web.

Dummies. (2013). Defining your business model. Web.


Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China Exploratory Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Nigeria



Reference List

Management in the global scene is usually a challenge due to the various cultures that are found around the world. It is for this reason that managers of global organizations find it difficult to manage since they have to understand each of the various cultures, beliefs, and leadership styles.

It is important to note that cultural differences affect communication. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that an organization that has a poor communication system will always find it difficult to succeed.

Nigeria’s culture is different from that of America. In addition, the two countries have different cultures from that of China. As a result, the three nations have varying management and leadership styles. A manager of a multinational organization that has operations in any of the three nations is, therefore, supposed to have cross-national management knowledge and skills.

Hofstede explained that culture is a collective programming of the mind (Tang, 2012). Therefore, the programs of the mind affect the way people think, the way they feel, as well as the way they do things (Lijun, 2008). One is required to unlearn his or her programs before learning other cultures, a process that Hofstede says that it is more difficult than learning.

Hur, Strickland and Dragan (2010) opine that someone from a given culture will be required to unlearn their culture before learning a new culture.

In other words, a manager from Nigeria will be required to unlearn the Nigerian culture before learning the American culture or the Chinese culture to manage effectively in any of these two nations. It is the same case for an American manager or a Chinese manager aspiring to manage outside their mother country.

Nigeria Leaders of organizations have to work in an environment that is highly unpredictable in Nigeria. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that the economic environment in Nigeria is unpredictable. This is the same with political, as well as social environments. According to Bayode (2008), organizational leaders in Nigeria especially in the private sector face a lot of challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the challenges he has cited in his article are dilemmas, such as killings and unceremonious removal from office happening in various organizations. The market structure is said to be bad, just like the educational system is. The economic challenges make it difficult for parents to take their children to school.

These, among other challenges that the leaders of Nigerian organization face in their career, make it difficult for them to utilize their full potential (Epelle, 2011). Consequently, it makes it difficult for them to stir economic growth and development.

If people in a country are not well educated, then organizations might not have enough human resource that can help them in their development because human resource is one of the most important assets in an organization (George, Owoyemi and Onakala, 2012).

The most common factor that relates to the differences in leadership styles in America, Nigeria and China is cultural variations. For instance, Nigeria has a high score on power distance. Decision making is centralized and only the top managers have the authority to make decisions.

Orders are given by the top managers and executives, and the rest of the organization members are expected to follow. It is important to note that most of the African nations are said to have a high power distance, and Nigeria is not an exception (Ogbonna, 2010).

Considering the dimension of individualism and collectiveness, collectiveness is more accepted in Nigeria than individualism. The leader of an organization should view issues from a group perspective. According to Medugu, Majid and Choji (2008), interests of a group are prioritized in Nigeria, just like it is in China.

Further, Nigeria is considered to be a masculine society. People are expected to work and managers are expected to make assertive decisions. There is a lot of emphasis on equity as well as performance and competition in Nigeria.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Uncertainty avoidance is another factor that determines leadership in a country. Nigeria is a nation that has high uncertainty avoidance.

As Madichie, Nkamnebe and Idemobi (2008) say, Nigerians prefer to have stability and try as much as possible to avoid changes that are likely to have unknown effects on organizations or the economy. Finally, Nigeria scores high in terms of long term orientation, meaning that leadership is based on the national traditions (Ogbonna, 2010).

America Kolko, Neumark and Mejia (2013) indicate that the socio-economic environment in America is relatively stable compared to that of Nigeria. This makes it easier for a manager in an American organization since they do not face a lot of such challenges in their management. Most people in the US are educated since parents have money to take their children to school (Kolko, Neumark and Mejia, 2013).

This means that there is skilled human resource for organizations. In this regard, the potential of success for organizations is relatively high compared to the one in Nigeria (Elele and Fields, 2010). Therefore, leading organizations in the US is not as challenging as leading in Nigeria.

Considering power distance, American organizations have leadership that is more decentralized. Lijun (2008) indicates that power distance is low in that the distance between the employees and managers is small. Employees are given the chance to contribute in decision making. The level of equality between members of the organization is high. In addition, power is distributed equally among managers and the rest of the employees.

Another cultural factor that can be considered to have an effect on leadership in the three countries is individualism and collectivism. According to Lijun (2008), individualism is highly favoured in the United States. Despite the fact that team work is seen as important for the success of organizations, it is not considered to be very significant in the US organizations. Instead, individual interests are given priority.

A manager in the USA should be aware of masculinity and femininity differences in Nigeria and China in order to manage the subsidiaries effectively. As Usunier (2010) states, gender is not considered as a big issue in leadership in the United States. Ambitions and goals fostered by women are highly recognized in the US as opposed to China where it is hard to find a woman in a top position in an organization.

It is also important for a manager to consider long-term orientation of the nation in which they are managing. There are cultures whose investment focuses on long-term results, while others focus on short-term results. According to Dong and Liu (2010), America is considered to score highly on short-term orientation. This means that the US does not have a lot of value for traditions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, it is important for managers to consider the uncertainty avoidance of each of the countries in which their organization has subsidiaries. This will help the manager to make the right and relevant adjustments in order to manage effectively. America is one of those nations that have low uncertainty avoidance.

Dong and Liu (2010) opine that America is open to change and people do not worry much about the effects that change will have on them in the future. As a result, it is easier to manage change in America since people are least likely to oppose it. The culture in America is open to innovations and new ideas (Usunier, 2010). This has been a critical factor in the success of American organizations.

China China has an environment that is relatively predictable compared to Nigeria, despite being a third world country (Dong and Liu, 2010). Therefore, a manager of a Chinese organization operates in an economic environment that is stable and faces fewer challenges in management.

China is also an economically stable nation since it is one of the countries in the world that have the best economies. Leadership in this country is also not very challenging.

Considering the cultural dimensions by Hofstede, Chinese culture is different from that of the United States given that power distance is high in China. The distribution of power in Chinese organizations is not equal. Qin, Ramburuth and Wang (2008) indicate that the top level managers are viewed as the most powerful and they make most of the decisions.

The lower level managers and employees are not involved in the decision making process, or they make very little contribution. Managers give orders and employees are supposed to follow without questioning. In terms of individualism and collectiveness, China favours collectiveness to individualism. Workers in an organization are expected to work in a team. Wide consultation is highly appreciated.

It is not easy to find individual efforts being accepted and appreciated in Chinese organizations (Qin, Ramburuth and Wang, 2008). This is an issue that leaders and managers of Chinese organizations should appreciate in order to increase their chances of succeeding in the country. Group interests are prioritized ahead of individual interests.

Leadership style in China is also influenced by the issue of masculinity and femininity. Dong and Liu (2010) indicate that women are not considered for leadership positions in China, thus the gender gap difference is high. It is, therefore, difficult to find a woman manager in an organization. Moreover, China values long-term orientation. A leader should be aware of the traditions in the country.

Chinese people do not easily accept new things that are not within their traditions. China is regarded as a country that scores lowly on ‘uncertainty avoidance’. It is worth noting that the Chinese language itself is ambiguous and characterized by many signs that have uncertain meanings (Dong and Liu, 2010).

Ambiguity is, therefore, acceptable in China and uncertainty avoidance is also low. This has contributed to technological development in China.

From the above review, it is evident that managing in Nigeria, America and China would require unique set of skills and understanding of cultural dimensions due to the varying cultural orientations. The authors generally agree that Nigeria is a nation that has a hierarchical culture. It is the same case for China.

In these two nations, leaders are expected to make decisions without necessarily holding consultations before making their decisions. The review has also revealed that America is not a hierarchical nation, thus decision making is decentralized.

In this regard, the manager of an organization that has subsidiaries in any of these nations should be aware of the cultural differences in order to make the right changes and adjustments while managing in any of the three nations.

Reference List Bayode, B 2008, Analysis of organizational leadership: a phenomenological study of organizational leaders in the private sector in Nigeria, Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.

Dong, K


Private Labels Competing Against the FMCG Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Private labels are those goods that are by produced by the retailers such as supermarkets. There are several reasons why this marketing strategy has become very popular. First of all, at the time of economic recession, the purchasing power of many clients has declined. This is why they search for less expensive goods (Lincoln 25).

Therefore, the marketing of private labels can increase the profitability of many retailers that try to become less dependent on manufacturers. Furthermore, consumers notice that in many cases, private labels are not inferior to branded goods in terms of quality. This is one of the main aspects that can be identified. To a great extent, one can speak about a significant shift in public attitude toward such these products.

They are no longer associated with poor quality (Lincoln 25). This is why this marketing strategy has been successfully implemented by many firms. Additionally, it is vital to remember that modern businesses can operate on the Internet. Information technologies enable buyers to compare different products in terms of price and quality. In many cases, these people prefer to purchase private labels.

These are the main reasons that can explain the popularity of these products among retailers as well as consumers in Europe or the United States. At present, one cannot say whether the situation will change in the future, especially at the time when the purchasing power of people increases.

Nevertheless, it is quite possible that these labels will not lose their competitive position. Much will depend on the marketing strategies adopted by various producers. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.

The manufacturers of branded fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) adopt various strategies in order to regain their competitive edge at the time when the economy recovers. First of all, they can launch their own stores (Kotler 128). In this way, they can increase the loyalty of consumers.

Furthermore, such an approach can distinguish a certain product among many private labels. This is one of the actions that can be taken. Nevertheless, such a policy has significant limitations because it is applicable only to companies that produce various brands. This is one of the main issues that should be considered by the managers of these companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, these businesses can carry out marketing campaigns that stress the quality of branded goods. This strategy is also helpful for attracting clients. However, the main issue is that many consumers have changed their attitudes toward private labels and FMCG.

Many clients are no longer convinced that branded FMCGs are superior to private labels (Lincoln 25). Therefore, the producers of FMCGs should introduce innovative products that can be distinguished in terms of functionality, design, reliability, or other criteria. So, they will need to create additional value for customers. This is one of the ways in which they can strengthen their position in the market.

Finally, these companies may decide to cooperate with retailers. It should be kept in mind that some producers provide goods to retailers and later these products are sold as private labels (Lincoln 25). Such a strategy can help these businesses improve their sustainability. These are some of the policies that FMCG managers can adopt in order to improve their long-term performance.

Works Cited Kotler, Phillip. A Framework for Marketing Management, New York: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.

Lincoln, Keith. Private Label: Turning the Retail Brand Threat into Your Biggest Opportunity, New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2009. Print.


Security in the information communication technology Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Abstract Organizations must put control measures to protect their information systems from being accessed by unauthorized individuals. The top-level management of the organization must devise security mechanisms and policies.

This enhances the effectiveness of such policies since it enables the organization engrain such policies in the organizational culture. Organizations also use other security mechanisms, such as passwords, that are secretive and recognize single users only.

However, passwords are not fully effective in protecting systems from being hacked. Passwords can be guessed or tampered with to allow access by non-authorized persons. The best alternative for security is for organizations to adopt a combination of measures.

The measures include use of passwords and security questions to ascertain authenticity. Security measures must be revised constantly to provide full surety to the organization that its data is safe from any interference.

Introduction Information communication technology is increasingly becoming a critical aspect for integration in organizations and businesses. The technology increases reliability in performance and enhances the speed of communication within organizations. However, IT can turn out to be a big security risk for organizations.

Access of data and other sensitive information about the firm by unauthorized persons poses a great danger to the organization and the closely held business secrets and practices. Thus, the issue of security for IT is important for all organizations to take charge and responsibility. This paper seeks to discuss how firms can develop information systems security and the necessary resources for information security.

How to initiate information security policy Companies often employ a set of rules, practices, standards, as well as procedures to maintain security of their IT systems. This reflects an organization’s information security policy. An information system’s security policy requires proper drafting for it to be more credible. The development of a security policy on information acts as the initial step in preparing against internal and external attacks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Top-level management support is a critical factor in policy development. Administrators and users must receive education about the system to avoid bad judgments. An organization should incorporate its policy to be part of the organizational culture to get employees observe the information security policy.

There are two major issues for organizations to observe when developing their Enterprise Information System. These include adapting the users to the system and getting the involvement of users through soliciting their input on ways of advancing the system.

Developing employee awareness There is the risk of organizations losing their data and information to outside bodies. The first mechanism in averting such a crisis is by educating the workers1. Organizations can achieve this by using awareness-raising initiatives such as emails, mouse pads, pamphlets, discussion groups, and formal presentations. Employee awareness is the first step for organizations willing to secure their data.

Education of employees begins with information security training, as well as management support. Training increases security awareness and participation of the workers.

Employees who have enhanced understanding of likely consequences concerning security breaches will offer greater protection and understand clearly how to combat the breaches. The input of the top-level management is particularly important as it gives direction on the corporate decision.

Governing access control Employee access to information ought to be limited for security reasons. The process is undertaken by companies to only allow workers to gain access to information that is relevant to them. One mechanism used by companies to achieve this objective is referred to as Role Based Access Control (RBAC).

This system limits employees’ access by permissions, users, constraints, and roles. The organization arranges employees according to their roles and profiles in order to determine which employees can access specific information on the organization2.

We will write a custom Article on Security in the information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies must take the critical step of monitoring user access and detect any unauthorized access to data that is categorized as high risk. Security mechanisms should not only dwell on the IT system alone, but also extend to other physical aspects such as proximity.

Employees sitting arrangement, for instance, may provide an opportunity for workers to read data being worked on by a colleague whom they share the same office. Organizations can address this concern by organizing sitting arrangements such that any chances of unauthorized personnel peeping through such details are contained.

Getting support from the upper echelon management The top-level management’s role is to ensure that information system security remains engrained within the corporate culture. This is important because support from top management enhances the preventive efforts made. Globalization is increasing the threat of organizations losing critical information through theft.

Information security decisions must squarely lie with the top-level management to manage the IT department properly. The management must handle aspects such as methods of implementing a security policy, where awareness-training programs for employees should take place, and how such trainings should be done.

The corporate governance of the information security ought to begin from the top to increase the chances of efficiency. A conceptual model for Enterprise Information System security (EIS) needs to protect the four critical pillars of security policy, access control, security awareness, as well as the top-level management support (TLMS).

Enterprise Information System Security

Security Policy – Set rules for behavior. – Define consequences of violations. – Authorize the company to monitor and investigate.

Security Awareness – Continued education. – Collective and individual activities. – Formal classes, emails, discussion groups, etc. Access Control – Limit information. – Access linked to job function. – Restrict information not relevant to position.

TLMS – Transparent support for policies and procedures – Engrain information security into company culture.

Corporate Governance Source: Chaudhry, Chaudhri and Reese3

The decisions made by the management of the company come from the base of the whole system, enabling it to dictate its stability. The pillars that rest on the foundation also support the roof.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Security in the information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The four pillars represent the different processes that the management and other top decision-making organs of the organization choose from in order to implement and make the system secure. All the four pillars contribute towards making the enterprise information system more secure. Eliminating any of the columns is dangerous as it ends up affecting the security of the whole system4.

Information System Resources There are three major subsets of information systems resources, including information technology resources, abbreviated as ITR, relationship resources, abbreviated as RR, as well as IS infrastructure, which is abbreviated as IIS. The ITR reflect on the IS expertise that is possessed by the focal firm. Further, ITR has two distinct capability sets that include IT-business alignment capabilities, IBAC, and IT technical capabilities, ITTC5.

RR is the extent to which an information department establishes a sense of collaboration with various functional units, such as finance or production. It also refers to the extent of collaboration with business partners such as suppliers and customers. RR has two dimensions of internal and external relationship resources; that is, the INR and EXR.

IIS is the collection of assets that are based on IT on which different applications of business and services are developed. IIS is the management and technical architectures that support the focal organization development to offer information security.

Information Technology Resource (ITR) The IT department requires knowledge about different computer languages to apply them in order to develop systems that optimize the organization demands6. This offers the IT department greater capability to run the organization’s information systems effectively.

Systems are growing in complexity and functionality and, thus, organizations must in turn develop the skills to match these growing complexities in order to benefit fully from the advantages that come with the new systems.

As Kuo-chung and Chih-ping7 further point out, it is also critical to develop a capability in diagnosing systems problems. This capability provides the IS personnel with knowledge on analyzing the actual depth and scope of the specific problems that afflict the system. It, thus, offers an avenue of searching for appropriate solutions of the identified problems during system breakdowns.

IBAC refers to the knowledge on how to align the IT strategy with the existing business strategy. This can be done through the IT department outlining the IT strategies, plans, as well as technical investments, and implementing the IT technical architecture. Alternatively, IT department having high IBAC enjoys a deeper understanding of the processes of business together with the organizational goals8.

This business knowledge provides the IT department with the expertise to develop highly effective IS strategies, as well as provide information services that accurately fit the organizational needs.

IBAC equally signify the potential ability by firms to identify as well as employ information technologies that are emerging as a way of transforming the organization to achieve competitive advantages. It may also enable the change of industry structure where the focal firm is situated.

Relationship Resources (RR) RR comprises of the internal relationship resources (INR) and the external relationship resources (EXR). The former portrays the working relations that exist between the IT department and other departments in the same organization.

The EXR, on the other hand, portrays the working relation between the IT department of an organization and the organization’s existing business partners who are external, such as the suppliers and customers.

This structure provides an avenue for social exchanges that exist between the firm’s IT department, on the one hand, and its various clients on the other hand. This results in achieving closer ties and developing mutual trust together with respect. This relationship, in turn, creates stronger bonding that allows the parties to share a common view and work towards achieving the objective easily9.

Partnership between the IT and its clients also enhances the sharing of responsibilities between partners and contributing resources to achieve the common goal. Greater mutual coordination is easily achieved as a result of the good relationships, allowing adjustments that consider the counterparts’ needs to be undertaken.

One major benefit of the close interrelations is the containment of disputes. Even in instances where the disputes arise, it is easier for a resolution to be worked out between the parties because of the close ties in their working. Mechanisms for resolving any likely disputes have been developed well in advance.

IS Security Infrastructure Information system offers a different perspective other than the technical issues that affect an organization since it involves the aspect of management of an IS architecture in order to influence greater achievements. The IS technical architecture (ISTA) concerns various IT-based assets, including software and hardware, which offer protection to information systems from security-related breaches10.

The framework is made of seven components that include “information transmissions, access control, access rights authentication, encryption and decryption”. It also involves log analysis, malicious protection, storage and backup.

The IS management architecture (ISMA) concerns the rules, as well as the regulations that are established by the organization in order to manage and offer control to its information system as far as issues on security are concerned11. The management mechanisms offer various precepts that control individual behaviors so that they can be in tandem with the information security requirements of the organization.

In particular, they outline all the roles as well as the responsibilities that individual employees are required to follow in order to protect the information from being accessed by unauthorized personnel.

Security and Safety Measures: Students Familiarity and Actual Practice Password

Systems are often protected from unauthorized access using passwords. This system protection mechanism involves “must-remember sensible” or “non-sensible” combination of characters that make up the alphabet or numerals. Such characters or numerals must be entered in their exact appearance as originally done in order for a user to gain access to the system.

Passwords can be considered either as simple or sophisticated. Simple passwords are those that can be remembered easily and may be guessed without much difficulty. Such passwords are also ‘non-hacker proof’, meaning that hackers may easily temper with the system using such passwords12.

Sophisticated passwords, on the other hand, may not be easily hacked by malicious people. They comprise of both letters and numbers and sometimes may also include special characters.

Generally, passwords can be tampered with algorithmically in efforts to gain access to protected data. This concept is a self-certifying means that needs conscious efforts in order to recollect. In this regard, passwords are generally less perfect and can be strengthened by using human characteristics, instead, to help in identification purposes.

Organizations need to make a more complicated process of selecting a password to ensure that the passwords or their pre-registration questions are not easy to guess. This would make the passwords tamper-proof and enhance the confidence of clients. However, this system has a disadvantage in the sense that answers to some easy questions may also be easily guessed by other people with malicious intents.

Security problems and the related pervasiveness

Students do not keenly take the required precautions when it comes to protecting their passwords. In most cases, students are seen to take the risky step of showing others their passwords yet the passwords should be secret. Although such practices may not be as grave in social engineering circles, they are dangerous when it comes to computer systems.

Organizations are awake to the risks that privacy invasion brings. Surprisingly, firms still do not heed to the need to use technology to reinforce privacy. Computer Crime Security Survey (CSI/FBI) indicates that “there has been an increase in security incident reporting from 20% to 25%”13.

Some companies object to reporting of security breaches citing the likelihood of the public losing trust with the organization. The public may end up viewing the organization as an imperfect persona. It may also influence the clients into instituting legal action against the organization.

Clients may view this as negligence on the part of their organization to institute proper breach-control mechanisms, and use this as reason enough to incite other clients against trading with the company.

According to numerous studies conducted to ascertain the aspect of system security, simple passwords that are used by individuals for security purposes are preferred by up to 69% of the individuals. The users are extremely familiar with such passwords and actually use them on a daily basis as they access their computer systems. On the other hand, up to 64% of system users use such simple passwords more than half or 50 percent of the time.

From these findings, it is possible to deduce that knowing a simple password often translates into making use of it. Complex passwords are preferable to simple passwords in achieving effective protection against entry into computer networks and systems by malicious individuals14.

Findings on use of sophisticated passwords indicate that 87 percent of system users are not aware of such an existence. Thus, lack of knowledge about sophisticated passwords also means not using them.

Nevertheless, people get used to something before they start practicing it and becoming more experienced, thus it is understandable in this case. Computer system scans that occur on a daily basis each time a computer system is turned on are also critical security mechanisms that can be used to control access of unauthorized personnel.

Computer systems may also rely on anti-virus software to protect against viruses that are intentionally developed to harm stored information. Fifty-six percent of computer system users, however, are unaware about anti-virus software15. A very small percentage of users, about 15%, use such software for protecting their systems.

Articles’ Strengths

All the three articles have relied on surveys as well as statistical analytical tools in their researches. This has enabled the articles to provide reliable arguments.

The articles have also drawn their findings from wide testing samples used in the studies. This gives more accurate findings compared to when such testing samples are drawn from a narrow perspective.

All the articles include an extensive discussion at the end of the research seeking to expound on the research findings. This makes the researches more understandable.

Further research direction has been offered in at least two of the articles. This gives hope for more elaborate research on the same area in the future.

Articles’ Weaknesses

There are limited recommendations that are being offered by the authors of the articles. While the articles have offered an insight into these problems, they do not provide the reader with the perfect solution on the way forward.

Some of the authors do not cite any limitations encountered while undertaking their studies. This makes it difficult to evaluate the authenticity of their answers.

Could the Articles be better?

The researches undertaken by all the authors in these articles are comprehensive enough and help the reader to clearly determine the main issue of concern that is being raised. Failure to include the limitations of research in two of the articles, however, makes it difficult to ascertain the true extent of the research findings. It is important to include the limitations for the research articles to be complete and more relevant.

Threats and Opportunities

The three articles show how organizations are becoming increasingly exposed to IS attacks. The danger of IS invasion due to recklessness of employees or the management is still a threat to the organizations. In addition, hackers are continuously developing severer threats to invade the highly secured systems.

This is a great threat to firms that do not have the capacity to install highly secured systems and employ personnel who have the capability to avert such security breaches. Organizations have the opportunity to avert infiltration of their information systems by investing more in research and development.

Moreover, organizations have the opportunity to borrow IS technology from other organizations that already have enhanced security systems.

How Information System Security could be enhanced in the Future

Creating more awareness on the need to use anti-virus software is one of the biggest steps towards enhancing IS security. This comes from the realization that more than half of all computer users are not aware of the need to use anti-virus software. Organizations also need to develop a culture of upholding information security such that the current employees and those who join the organization later give priority to IS security.

Conducting regular system audits will also help organizations identify any loopholes in the system and devise ways of sealing the loopholes. Moreover, scheduled IS audit will help the IT personnel determine the effectiveness of the existing IS security measures.

Conclusion Advancements in the information communication technology have provided an avenue for virtually all organizations to incorporate IT systems in their operations. However, IT systems face a great challenge of security breach that may lead organizations to lose their sensitive data to unauthorized people. Security mechanisms must be established in order to guard against such intrusion.

The top-level management of organizations must take the leading role in developing a culture that emphasizes on security. Employees must also be trained and made aware of the benefits of utilizing IS security measures. Several mechanisms exist, including blocking individual workers from accessing information from other departments that may not be useful to them.

Bibliography Chaudhry, E Peggy, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald. “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security.” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 587–599.

Kuo-chung, Chang and Chih-ping Wang. “Information Systems Resources and Information Security.” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 579–593.

Lomo-David, Ewuuk and Shannon Li-Jen. “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice.” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 29-47.

Footnotes 1 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 591

2 Ibid 590

3 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 588.

4 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 595

5 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.

6 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582

10 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582.

11 Ibid.

12 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 30.

13 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 31

14 Ibid. 34

15 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 36


Nokia: Case Studies Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The three important issues the company should focus on in terms of expense control Employment at the company should be cut down to a manageable size. The company should only retain a sizeable number of workers that it can manage comfortably as the revenues continue to dwindle. The goal is to save a significant amount of revenues currently being paid out as salaries and wages.

Business acquisitions should only be limited to those that are viable and those that require less time to return profits. The financial goal of this move is to save funds from further non-profitable ventures.

Closing the extra regional offices and branches and instead maintaining the main ones only is the third strategy. This action will save a significant amount of revenue that is currently being spent on meeting rent and other related expenses.

Assessment of Nokia-Microsoft’s Windows Mobile The Window’s smartphone by Nokia has failed to recapture the market leadership in the sector. Instead, Nokia has continued to lose its market share while recording huge losses, especially in the smartphone sector. The Windows mobile platform has failed to achieve its intended purpose of spurring growth for the brand maker.

From the current market trend, it is possible to adjudge that the Windows mobile platform is inferior to its main competitors Android by Google and iOS by Apple.

The best alternative for Nokia should be using the licensed Android OS on its smartphone devices in order to boost its market share. This will see Nokia devices enjoy the same superiority as other leading Android devices such as Samsung, thus attracting a huge global market to recapture its market share.

Necessary steps to regain the North American Market Nokia should begin by carrying out an extensive study of the North American market in order to determine trends and preferences. Market needs for the smartphones, especially in North America, keep changing rapidly as users seek for new features and capabilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A closer link to the market will enable the brand maker recapture the market. Additionally, Nokia should seriously consider introducing the Android OS in its devices because this platform is sought after by the North American market.

Realistic strategies for regaining market share Price competition

Nokia should shift its competition towards the aspect of price by targeting to avail high quality products at cheaper prices. Lowering prices will see more users acquiring its products, thus increasing the market share.

The costs will involve buying more materials and utilizing them on more products in order to achieve economies of scale advantage. However, this strategy is risky because the gadgets might be of an inferior quality to compromise on cost.

New products

This strategy should focus on releasing new products with enhanced features and performance. This will provide the market with a high range of products capable of competing with the other brands. The costs involve intensive research and development, while the risk lies in spending too much on a technology that fails to pick up.

I prefer the price competition strategy because with its capacity, Nokia is able to achieve success through building economies of scale advantage. Nokia is also shifting production to Asia where it is likely to benefit from cheaper labor.

Evaluation of Stephen Elop Performance Stephen Elop has performed dismally in his leadership. The company has continuously lost market share and registered losses. I recommend that he should change his strategy by focusing more on changing market trends and incorporating them immediately, instead of taking time before acting. Nokia has been rigid in its operations, failing to read signs early and take the right steps to address challenges.

Thus, the CEO must consider flexibility while competing for business. Additionally, Elop should consider expanding Nokia’s business by venturing into new business areas, such as personal computers and laptops. This will see the firm cushion itself from harsh business conditions and performance affecting one area.

We will write a custom Essay on Nokia: Case Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Sprint La Conexion Familiar Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Problem facing Sprint

Action the management can take

Implications of Sprint’s response

Works Cited

Problem facing Sprint Trade unions aim at ensuring that employees get good working condition and remuneration (Bacon 752). Hence, they compel organizations to increase employees’ salary and improve working environment, which lead to increased operations cost. This underlines the reason why organizations strive to make sure that their employees are not unionized (Booth 34).

The basic problem facing Sprint in La Conexion Familiar is ensuring that its employees remain non-unionized as unionization will lead to increase in operations costs. Besides, the company will not be able to exploit its employees since they will be able to fight for their rights through the union. Initially, employees were not allowed to take bathroom breaks.

They were expected to be at their workstations at all times, and this added to the company’s output. Besides, the company controlled the amount of water that every employee consumed to make sure that they did not keep on leaving their workstations.

Trade union curtails the powers that employers have over their employees (Boxall and Haynes 570-573). Hence, Sprint will not be able to fire its employees at liberty once they join a trade union. Besides, the union will ensure that all workers are treated equally, which will mean increasing the wages of the non-English speaking workers.

Sprint has gone to the extent of establishing policies to help in making sure that its staff does not join a union. The main problem is to dissuade employees from joining the union. All employees have the right to join unions and employers are not allowed to intimidate them (Clawson and Clawson 100-104).

However, managers in Sprint are going against the labor laws by using intimidation to discourage employees from joining trade union. Despite the intimidation, the company cannot overcome staff’s determination to join a labor union. A majority of the staff is willing to join a labor union.

The company has remained non-unionized for many years. Hence, the management fears that allowing one section of Sprint’s operations to join trade union will prompt other sections to demand for the same. Hence, the company is not ready to allow workers in La Conexion Familiar to join a union.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the company knows that even if it does not allow employees to join a trade union, they will use other means to make sure that they are unionized. Thus, it is hard for the management to reach a consensus with employees. The management is trying to threaten the employees that it will close the plant if they join a union. However, no employee can yield to these threats.

The closure of the LCF plant will have negative impacts on other plants owned by Sprint. Hence, the management will be forced to comply with employee demands as a way to safeguard the image of its plants.

Action the management can take Labor laws prohibit organizations from using intimidation or coercion to discourage employees from joining trade unions (Brown 166). All employees are at liberty to join a trade union of their choice. Sprint has made sure that it factors in these provisions in its union policy. It discourages its managers from intimidating employees that wish to join trade union.

However, this does not happen during the negotiation process. The management goes to the extent of threatening employees that it finds participating in the unionization process. Besides, Sprint has tried to sell La Conexion Familiar as a way to preserve its non-unionized legacy. The main reason why employees seek to join a trade union is poor working condition and remuneration.

Hence, to address this problem, Sprint needs to sit down with its employees and look for ways to address their complaints (Kerr 42). Trade unions compel organizations to improve the working condition for their employees (Hyman 210).

Hence, Sprint does not require waiting until employees demand to join a trade union to improve its working condition. The company should talk with the employees to identify the challenges that force them to join a trade union and work on them. This will avoid cases of employees staging an organizing drive.

Apart from improving the working condition, Sprint should take the initiative to remunerate its employees in line with their performance or workload. Paying employees according to the workload or performance will lead to them not thinking of joining a trade union (Lucio and Weston 79-82). To deal with the looming organizing drive, Sprint management ought to meet with the employees and promise to address their complaints.

We will write a custom Case Study on Sprint La Conexion Familiar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will help to postpone the drive as employees wait to see if the management will keep its promises. Whenever organizational managers work closely with employees, it becomes hard for employees to revolt since the management responds to their complaints (Rynes, Gerhart and Minette 385-390).

Consequently, rather than considering the costs associated with labor unions, Sprint management needs to move swiftly and assure its employees that it will work towards improving their working conditions and remuneration. This will reduce the employees’ urge to join trade unions thus dealing with the looming organizing drive (Martin et al. 67).

Implications of Sprint’s response The future of long distance service market depends on how Sprint will respond to the looming labor crisis. If the company goes ahead with its endeavor to stop its employees from joining trade union, it will kill the long distance service market. Employees require being motivated to offer quality services.

Hence, denying the employees the right to join a union without solving their problem will demotivate them, and eventually kill the long distance service market. On the other hand, if Sprint agrees to allow employees to join trade union, it will enhance the quality of long distance service market. LCF focuses mainly on the long distance service market.

Therefore, allowing employees to join trade union and solve the looming problem amicably will lead to employees improving their services (Sheehan, Barker and Rayner 55). In return, this will help in expansion and growth of the long distance service market.

The action that the Communication Workers of America (CWA) takes will depend on the response that Sprint takes. If the company denies its employees the right to join a trade union, CWA will take the necessary measures and file a petition with the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). NLRB is the body responsible for solving disputes between employees and employers in case labor conflicts.

The board may take time before giving its judgment. However, based on the seriousness with which the CWA is treating this matter, it appears that it is ready to take all the necessary time to see that LCF’s staff gets justice. Hence, CWA is likely to mobilize all LCF’s staff to pressure Sprint to yield to their demand. In case this endeavor fails, CWA will seek for assistance from the National Labor Relations Board.

Works Cited Bacon, Nicolas. “Trade unions responses to workplace restructuring: exploring union orientations and actions.” Work Employment


Leadership Pipeline Case Study college essay help near me

Table of Contents Skills which future leaders require

How high potential leaders ought to be identified

Essential developmental experiences

Works Cited

Skills which future leaders require Future leaders of the organization will need to possess strategic management skills as this will be critical in top leadership situations. Instances of expansions through mergers or acquisition are becoming quite rampant. Alternatively, new opportunities to either change product design or introduce new ones are always lurking (Biggs 106). Therefore, one must know how to handle such scenarios through sound strategic decisions.

A leader should also be familiar with financial skills as management of stock prices is critical in maintaining peak performance. Large organizations like Mattel reported dismal performance under a new leader because it lacked skills on how to handle Wall Street (Conger


SG Cowen Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

SG Cowen: Recruitment process The hiring process in any company should be marched with the objectives to be attained by the new employees (Taylor 6). In fact, the set goals should inform the required skills and competencies during the hiring process (Turban and Daniel 733). In essence, for the firm to attain its goals and remain competitive, it must maintain a stream of skilled and competent employees (Barber 136).

The key decision factors Cowen considers in making hiring decisions The hiring process in the company is based on the strategy of choosing the best candidate in the MBA class from the top business colleges. The candidates chosen are incorporated into the company’s associate programs.

Even though the company is looking for the best talent, the criteria used in selecting the recruits do not secure talented candidate. The recruitment and the hiring process are even challenging. The considerations to the key positions include the high academic performances and considerable job accomplishments. Besides, the candidates must have attributes that are oriented towards the organization goals.

An important area the company was considering includes exceptional academic achievement particularly in business. In addition, the candidate must show the right attitude and enthusiasm on the job to be provided. Other attributes the company was considering includes the interpersonal skills, social development skills, culture and communication skills.

About the criteria The criteria used by the company to hire the best candidate are challenging and do not secure the talented candidates required. The hiring process begins by visiting business schools providing the information regarding the company intentions and the hiring process to the potential candidates. The visiting and the information provision process is followed by the interview session, which is long and involve complex processes.

As the case indicates, the hiring criteria in the company have many problems. First, the banking professionals undertake the hiring processes instead of the human resources managers. Human resources professionals are presumed to be having hiring skills and competency in the hiring process (Avery 672). Therefore, employing the banking professionals was a great mistake.

Due to lack of formal training in the recruitment process, the SG Cowen employees ended up with recruitment criteria that stereotyped their candidates. The recruitment team considered factors such as the marital status, the type of English the candidate use, physical appearance as well as other personal attributes that does not add value to the firm (Agnvall 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the candidates are chosen according to the interviewer individual belief. The process leads to biases through which the candidates are chosen. As indicated in the case, the prejudice of individual towards a particular candidate can sway the whole team not to select the best candidate.

The hiring criteria based on subjective measures compromises the attainment of the company objectives (Allen 77). The hiring process should not be based on long procedures. The hiring procedure should be specific to the competencies the company needs (Kiger 39). Since the hiring process in SG Cowen is long and based on subjectivity, the process can be described as being unfair.

The two Candidates to Choose Selecting the best two candidates among the remaining pool of four candidates proved to be challenging task. In fact, this was the most important decision to be made by the recruiting bankers. Serious considerations have to be made regarding the candidates as all have the required qualifications. For the right candidate to be selected, the bankers should look for the distinct attributes that differentiate the applicants (Billsberry 23).

The attributes should add value to the firm (Ployhart et al 47). The bankers are to make decisions that have two important consequences to the organization. The decision on the type of recruit will affect the success of the company. In other words, the recruits the bankers are going to select will either make the company succeed or fail.

Therefore, the candidates must have the right attitude towards the success of the organization goals (Overman 3). Generally, the success of the firm depends on the quality of its workforce. The quality of new hires must also imitate the quality needed in the workforce (Breaugh 103).

The decision also influences the quality of the workforce. The bankers must identify the person having the cultural fit for the organization.

Therefore, giving an approval for the right candidate who fit culturally within the organization is critical for the maintenance of the company reputation and credibility (Jattuso and Evans 139). In addition, making the right hiring decisions will increase the personal credentials as well as benefits that come with it.

We will write a custom Case Study on SG Cowen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the above criteria, the first candidate that could have been chosen among the four is Natalya Godlewska. The candidate possesses strong academic credentials compared to other candidates. The candidate holds good grades in both her MBA and undergraduate studies.

In addition, the candidate has perfect referrals from her former employees. Among the distinct attributes the candidate possess include hardwork, determination, ambitious, and the right attitude towards work (Hansen 59). In addition, leaving its former jobs to join the firm indicates the enthusiasm and the right energy the candidate has towards the job.

Even though some of the members expressed reservations on her cultural fit in terms of language barriers, the candidate still outfit the others based on her competence and experience. The candidate’s background explains her poor English but that will not have greater impact of her job delivery.

Moreover, the candidate has successfully worked in other firms, which is a proof of success in her social skills. Further, the candidate has mastered her graduate courses in US graduate schools where English is used. Language does not determine the candidate social and cultural adaptability within the workplace (Backhaus 117)

The second candidate that could have been chosen is Ken Goldstein. According to the criteria set by the company, all members of the team commended the candidate. In addition, the former employer has put the candidate in high evaluation points.

Moreover, the former employer has recommended the candidate for high performance that the firm requires. Besides academic credentials and the company criteria, the candidate is a team player an attribute that is highly regarded by the firm.

The reservations being expressed by some members that the candidate cannot fit among the recruits due to family commitments are based on subjective recruitment critter. In essence, such an attribute is not important as being competent and able to deliver the results.

The most important attribute the new hire should express is the commitment towards the organization success (Pulley 89). The success of the candidate in Price Waterhouse Coopers expresses his commitment despite additional domestic responsibilities. Such commitment will be simulated in the firm.

Not sure if you can write a paper on SG Cowen by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Agnvall, Elizabeth. “Hiring at-home workers.” Staffing Management, 4.4 (2008): 2-5. Print.

Allen, David.Retaining talent: A guide to analyzing and managing employee turnover. Alexandria: VA SHRM Foundation, 2008. Print.

Avery, Dereck. “Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising: Are differences black and white?” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88.4 (2003): 672-679.

Backhaus, Kristine. “An exploration of corporate recruitment descriptions on” Journal of Business Communication, 41.2 (2004): 115-136. Print.

Barber, Alison. The hiring challenge: Recruitment in small firms. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2005. Print.

Billsberry, James. Experiencing recruitment and selection. Chichester, UK: John Wiley


Merck scholarship essay help

Table of Contents The amount of success the change effort produced

Cultural differences

Sustainability of the Changes

What Could Warner Have Done Better

Works Cited

The amount of success the change effort produced Change has become inevitable as the business environment keeps on changing. The main aim of introducing change in an organization is to improve the current way of doing things to secure better performance in the future that is likely to give the organization competitive advantage (Pato and James 15).

The one facilitating change in the organization should ensure that he or she does it in a meaningful manner to ensure that the change process succeeds. In most cases, change is led by the organizational managers and top executives. Merck


Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theoretical Arguments

Literature Review

Data and Method




Introduction The most significant twentieth-century trend is that suburbs became the dominant life style for Americans (Teaford, 2008). Whites experienced overwhelming suburbanization. In 1920, Whites and Blacks lived in suburbs almost equally: about one-third of each group’s residents. However, there was a dramatic increase in suburbanization after WWII.

By that time, the Whites suburbanization rate grew by nearly 70%, from a 1940 level of about 38% to a 1970 level of about 63% (U.S. Bureau of Census 1963). The change to suburban dominance in population is reflected in comprehensive statistics on economic activity (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011). In many cases, suburbs have outpaced their core central cities in economic importance since 1970.

According to the Bureau of Census, 46 percent of the 1990 population lived in suburbia, 40 percent in central cities, and 14 percent in rural areas. This study will examine the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between Whites and Asians in 260 metropolitan areas (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1963).

Recently, Asians are the fastest growing minority group. According to the Bureau of Census, Asian population grew from 3.5 million in 1980 to 7.3 million in 1990 and to 8.8 million in 1995 (Palen, 1995). Currently, the Asian population consists of around 4% of the entire population (Bureau of Census).

There always has been debate as to whether higher level of minorities’ suburbanization yields lower segregation or higher segregation. Segregation is the distribution of racial and ethnic groups into separate and distinct residential areas of the city (Logan, 2011). The general trends in residential dissimilarity across 260 metropolitan areas from whites have declined since 1970.

Even though Blacks have experienced the most declines in residential segregation, they remain the most segregated in cities. The largest black population averages remains high. While the Asians remain the least segregated compared to other ethnical groups, the average level of Asian-Whites segregation has not changed much. So the question is why do we care about segregation and why does segregation matter?

According to previous social scientists, there are some serious social costs related to residential segregation. This compares to the researches on examining Black-White segregation or Hispanic-white segregation. However, there are not many studies only focusing on Asian-White segregation. Accordingly, a variety of factors affect segregation of Asians but this paper will only focus on the role of suburbanization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By using the data collected from the 260 major metropolitan areas across United States in 2009, the researcher will test the hypothesis that the level of suburbanization leads to the decline of Asian-White segregation based on spatial assimilation model.

Theoretical Arguments The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between whites and Asians in metropolitan areas. The hypothesis of this research is based on the spatial assimilation model that physical mobility implies one’s upward social mobility. In other words, once Asians social status moving up, then they can get living closer with whites.

Therefore, Asians will have less social, economic, and cultural gaps with whites, which finally lead to the decreasing of Asian-Whites segregation. The researcher will put this hypothesis to the test. Additionally, the reputation of Asians towards Whites plays an important role concerning the point of Asian suburbanization increasing the Asian-Whites integration.

To restate my hypothesis: the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area will help to alleviate the Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area. My theoretical argument is to explain why suburbanization might lead to contact that is more residential with whites.

Moreover, the average incomes of Asians are the highest among other minority groups. According to the contact hypothesis, four conditions are especially important. That is urbanization, poverty levels, geographic location, and governments.

Some scholars who adapted the stratification perspective state that there is relatively weak correlation exist between the continuously Asian suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the unit of metropolitan area.

According to Logan and Stults’s (2011) report of the New Findings from the 2010 Census, they found that Asians are considerably less segregated than African Americans, and their segregation levels have remained steady since 1980. In addition, with the growth in Asian population, unique ethnic conglomerations tend to coagulate. Because of this, the groups live more sparsely now than in 2000, a trend that has grown since 1980.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite Asian isolation, another important factor is the stereotypes of Asians. Maria Krysan (2002) conducted an open-ended question survey in Los Angeles, and asked whites about their comfort with different levels of integration with Asians and then asked to explain.

Krysan (2002) found the major problem with Asians is based the stereotypes: the modal response was that Asians are not friendly, stick to themselves, or are uninterested in integration.

The problems with Asian neighborhoods, according to these whites, are “cultural differences” – particularly expressed as language concerns (Krysan, 2002). Thirdly, the rapid development of suburban Chinatown plays an important role in the controversial issue of continuing Asian-White segregation even in the suburbs.

Another study can be looked at is Monterey Park, a suburb outside Los Angeles that became a focal point for new Chinese immigration. In 1960, the population was 85 percent white in contrast to the population in 2000 was 43 percent Asian, 35.5 percent Hispanic, and only 21.6 percent Whites. For a time, the city was known as the “Chinese Beverly Hills”, and it was later referred to as the first suburban Chinatown.

Lastly, other sociologists have suspected that the presence of Asian neighbors provides a protection against white flight, or in the terminology of Farley and Frey (1994), a “buffer.” Buffering is shorthand for the argument that the movement of “more fully assimilated second and third generations of Asians to higher-status, more integrated communities” provides “a push that should lead to greater integration of blacks.

On the other hand, the spatial assimilation model has remained largely controversial issue in the previous studies, which are related to the possibility that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs, from four aspects: Asian isolation, the emerging suburb Chinatown, Asian stereotypes, white flight, and multiethnic buffers.

According to Logan and Stults’s report of the 2010 Censes new findings, the rapidly growing Asian populations are as segregated today as they were thirty years ago, and their growth is creating more intense ethnic enclaves in many parts of the country (2011).

This paper will focus on the gateway city (this is the city that facilitates entry into the main city), because most of the new Asian immigrants live in suburban towns within the metropolitan region, not in the central city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, our focus on the special assimilation perspective will help us to understand the importance of moving beyond the city and looking at the metropolitan region more broadly when we study immigration and other demographic trends that affect our communities. (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011).

Hence, while this paper looks into this aspect, it will also delve into the effect of suburbanization on segregation of minority groups with special regard to Asians.

Literature Review Large bodies of past researches show the focal relationship between the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area.

According to article “Trends in the Suburbanization of Racial/Ethnic Groups in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970 to 2000 (2011:239)”, the authors found that nearly all the variance in 1970 to 2000 growth in White suburbanization (86 percent) is explained by changes in the supply of suburban housing. However, the percentage of variance explained is much lower for the other minority groups.

This suggests that the overwhelming cause of changes in White suburbanization over the past three decades was increases in the supply of suburban housing. Another study indicates that Whites have suburbanized faster and more completely than other groups.

Hwang and Murdock (1998) concluded that the suburbs possessing seven image indicators: suburb’s smaller population size; lower density; younger housing stock; lower percentage of minority residents; suburb’s old age; higher percentage of traditional family homes and higher percentage of owner-occupied homes did draw more white movers.

Massey and Denton’s (1987) cross-sectional analysis of segregation in 1980, reported that in metropolitan areas in which Hispanics or Asians had higher incomes and were more likely to speak English or to be U.S. born, these groups were significantly like to live in suburbs and thereby to experience lower levels of segregation.

Moreover, according to Logan et al.’s (2004) finding, they firstly concluded that among Asians, an increasing share of foreign-born persons were associated with greater decreases in segregation. Secondly, if Asian economic standing improves, it will have a great potential to further residential assimilation with whites.

Therefore, according to the assimilation model, scholars suggest that discrimination does not fundamentally drive the segregation between Asians and Whites, but the social status and culture differences seems more likely driving the segregation between Asians and Whites.

Based on the 2005-2009 American Community Survey (ACS) Logan (2011) found White incomes averaged over $60,000, which is about $25,000 more than blacks and $20,000 more than Hispanics. However, Asian incomes averaged just over $70,000. Thus, if we use the spatial assimilation model, which the economic status increases, it will finally lead to residential assimilation with whites.

Obviously, the dramatic increasing suburbanization rates of Whites, Asian prestige (based on statistics) and theoretical expectation based spatial assimilation will create the connection between the two testing variables that the increasing rates of suburbanization will finally lead to the decreasing level of Asian-Whites segregation.

Compared to other minority groups, Asians are the least segregated group with whites. Just like Krysan (2002) found, it seems more likely the biggest problem of segregation between Asians and Whites is not about discrimination, but cultural differences

. Thus, I assume that Whites hold positive attitudes toward Asian’s reputation, and this finally leads back to the model of assimilation – once we fill the culture gap, this will eventually leads to Asian-Whites integration.

The perspective of reputation of a minority group is critical. As long as the reputation stays stable, then if the social status increases and the cultural differences decreases, finally the spatial distance will relatively decreases. In addition, the spatial assimilation model denotes this meaning too.

Data and Method In this section, the researcher fast forwards to 2009 using the most recent population census data in 2010. This study tests the relationship between the level of suburbanization in the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-White segregation across 276 metropolitan areas in 2009. In analyzing this focal relationship, I am testing the hypothesis that the higher suburban concentration the lower Asian-White segregation.

In other words, there is a negative relationship between suburbanization and Asian-white segregation. The total number sample of metropolitan areas is 276.

First, in order to generate a new variable that indicates the percentage of the population living in the suburbs in each of the metropolitan areas, I used the variable of suburban population in 2009 divided by the total population in 2009, then converted into percentage measurement. However, in order to keep the consistency in the sources of data, the number of metropolitan areas changed from 276 to 260.

My analysis only includes one measure of a metropolitan-area characteristic, which is the percentage of suburbanization rate in 2009. In terms of the dependent variable, I use an “Index of Dissimilarity” to measure the level of Asian-White segregation; it indicates how evenly the members of Asians and Whites are distributed among the 260 metropolitan areas across the nation.

The “Index of Dissimilarity” refers to the percentage of Asians who would have to move in for all neighborhoods to reflect a certain percentage of Asian composition of the entire city (say 46.31 percent). There are five dimensions define geographic traits that social scientists think of when they consider segregation (Gottdiener and Hutchison 2011:213). They are Unevenness, Isolation, Clustered, Concentrated, and Centralized.

The percentage of a metropolitan-area population residing in the suburban ring of the metropolitan area is taken from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System (2009). The researcher will use correlation analysis to test whether there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan areas in 2009.

The bivariate regression utilizes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables to predict the score of the dependent variable from the independent variable. In other words, after testing the hypothesis by using bivariate regression model, we will be able to predict the level of Asian-white segregation from the level of suburbanization.

However, in this study, we are more focusing on the association or relationship between these two variables than prediction.

The most common is a Pearson correlation coefficient (r), which is the correlation between two interval variables, and it ranges from -1.00 to 1.00. If -0.3<r<0.3, then we consider it as weak relationship; if -0.7<4<-0.3 or 0.3<r<0.7, then it is considered as moderate relationship; if -1.00<r<-0.7 or 0.7<r<1.0, then we interpret it as strong relationship.

Results Results from model predicting the level of suburbanization has very weak positive association on Asian-White segregation in 2009 in 260 metropolitan areas across the United States. This is completely opposite to the hypothesis. The correlation coefficient arrived at from the regression model is 0.0121. This indicates a weak but positive relationship between the variables.

Therefore, the level of suburbanization almost has no effect on the level of Asian-white segregation in 2009 across 260 metropolitan areas (n=260). Obviously, the result does not support my hypothesis that there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation. This shows that other factors are also at play in affecting the segregation of Asians.

This may include poverty levels, demographic shapes, levels of immigration, social status, and state and federal policies. While suburbanization plays a role in segregation, the factors appear more pronounced as they form a larger chunk of the explanatory model (Timberlake et al. 2011).

Moreover, the bar graph interprets the level of Asian-white segregation are all under 50, which means modest segregation. An interesting finding in the bar graph shows that the modest level of suburbanization actually has higher Asian-whites segregation than the lowest and highest level of suburbanization. The result implies that segregation tends to categorize things into certain groups that look alike.

This actually supports my counter theoretical argument that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs. For example, while Chinese are of Asian descent, suburban Chinatowns seem to be resided by Chinese only. This is despite the fact that there may be black population residing alone and whites alone in the same locality.

Discussion The United States has traditionally been referred to as a “melting pot”. Her history began with waves of immigrants; bring their own cultures, traditions and all hoping to find freedom, new opportunities, and a better way of life.

The racial segregation has a long history in the United States: from the Black Codes to Chinese Exclusion Act to Japanese American internment to Jim Crow Laws to Redlining to Separate but Equal to White flight. As we can see, the state of segregation has been changed from legally enforced separation to more voluntary or involuntary separation.

The result shows that the increasing suburbanization does not have big effects on Asian-white segregation. However, it has a slight influence on bringing up the segregation of Asian and Whites. Therefore, the question as to whether suburbanization created more opportunities for living the “American Dream,” lingers.

On the other hand, it is prudent to ask whether suburbanization led to the homogenization of American culture, which produces more segregation and isolation. As I already argued at the beginning, too many unmeasured variables affect segregation of Asians. For this study particularly, I only focus on the role of suburbanization (Lu, 2001).

The results explain my hypothesis that suburbanization might not be the only factor that cause the Asian segregation. Therefore, in spite of suburbanization, what are the other factors affect segregation of Asians? According to Park and Iceland’s (2011) findings of residential segregation from 1990 to 2000, Asian segregation levels are consistently lower in new destinations.

Moreover, the native-born are less segregated than the foreign born, which is consistent with immigrant spatial incorporation. Finally, socioeconomic indicators are generally consistent with predictions of spatial assimilation. This study posits several academic and procedural limitations. First, lack of independent variables causes spuriousness. Secondly, there lacks available data to support Asian segregation.

Thirdly, this study only observes one year (2009), which is too short for studying segregation. Usually, sociologists often study segregation for at least a decade or even longer periods, so they can gather more data and come up better patterns. Data availability has the capacity to bring studies that are more empirical. Additionally, it is possible to relate to different periods to study patterns.

References Gottdiener, M.


Social Network: Consequences Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Social network sites (SNSs) have drawn millions of users, many of whom have tailored them to their everyday needs. SNSs include Facebook, Bebo, 43 Things, BlackPlanet, and Athlinks, among others. Social network sites have made communication easy throughout the globe. In fact, they have spurred globalization across the world. In the process, SNSs have brought about many consequences.

While some consequences have been beneficial, others have been damaging. Moreover, some users have been addicted to SNSs. In essence, relationship between people and SNSs has been created. This paper will explore consequences of relationships formed between SNSs and individuals (Gomez-arias


Ethical Issues Surrounding Social Networking Sites Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical issues



Introduction The ways in which people communicate and interact with each other have changed greatly with the emergence of new technology. Cyberspace is fast becoming the new way through which people meet and interact with each other and even share details that are personal or otherwise. Over the last couple of years, social networks have become a source of information for most people.

However, there are a number of ethical issues that have become associated with social networks. Ethics have an important role to play in an individual, as well as in social media (Arnold, Beauchamp


Bureaucracy and post-bureaucracy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Over the past, different theories and ideas on management have continued to develop at high rate due to the increased regulatory restructuring as well as flexibility to meet the customer demands (Du Gay, 2000). In addition, to circumvent the problems of ambiguity in dealing with the customers, organizations are embracing different modes of management to achieve efficient output.

Further, the policies underlying the administration of organizations have increasingly become ambiguous and complicated. Therefore, organizations have a responsibility of either restructuring their organizational ideologies based on the structural design or focusing on the public administrators and the way they should function to maximize their output (Du Gay, 2000).

Bureaucracy The paradigm of bureaucracy is a theory of management that is centered on the organizational structure. Hierarchy is a significant element of a bureaucratic organization. The significance of bureaucracy is to ensure faster and free delivery as well as accountability in the performance of assignments.

Korczynski (2004) provided examples of bureaucratic organizations such as INSCO where team leaders are hierarchically appointed. Further, at the ADBK and CBK, the approval officers who check mortgage applications are to forward their findings to the supervisor for consent.

Bureaucratic organizations also emphasize on the delegation of tasks that every member has to fulfill in order to achieve the goals of the organization (Korczynski, 2002). For example, in the bureaucratic organizations, the abilities of the approval officers are expected to process a given number of application forms per days.

Another important issue emphasized by the bureaucratic organizations is the adherence to the written procedures in conducting their businesses. Such procedures ensure efficiency in their operations. There is evidence of record keeping as well as written communication protocol that every employee must follow.

The communication protocol must also be followed in communicating with the clients. In Korczynski (2004) study of several organizations indicates workers exposed to several memos directing them on how they should carry out correspondence with the clients.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an attempt to operate efficiently, bureaucratic organizations do not operate smoothly and hence have their points of weaknesses (Korczynski, 2003). For instance, rules in a bureaucratic organization have to be adhered to the latter in the way they are written irrespective of any situation that might arise. As a result, many firms applying this paradigm are unable to operate efficiently (Alvesson


The New Employee in the Daniel Orozco’s Orientation Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

The new employee is the main character in Orozco’s story “Orientation.” Orozco only concentrates on relationships of other employees and makes the new employee a mere observer in the new setting.

The narrator refers to the main character using the second person voice. “You must pace your work” (Orozco 2).However, the narrator tells the story using the first person voice. “What do I mean? (Orozco 3).

The new employee does not speak in the story although we can see that there was dialogue. “I’m glad you asked that” (Orozco 3). We assume that the new employee asks a question but the narrator does not include it in the story. By so doing, the narrator demonstrates that the new employee who is the listener is completely insignificant.

Similarly, the job that the new employee is to partake is insignificant to the story. The story is set in a conventional office environment. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses this setting to make the lives and behaviors of employees appear more disgraceful.

The narrator shifts from orientating the new employee to the general office to revealing about personal lives of the employees. He tells us about Russell Nash and his lust for Amanda Pierce. Apparently, discussing such information in an office environment is absurd.

Assuming that the narrator and the new employee had never met before, the narrator ought to have restrained from discussing sexual relationships of other employees because he risked embarrassing the listener. Under normal circumstances, such discussions only happen between people who are close to each other.

The narrator maintains a professional stance by refusing to comment on different sexual aspects of the employees. He only narrates events without sharing his mind about the same. For instance, he describes what Amanda’s husband does but he refrains from offering further comments (Orozco 4). This adds value to how the new employee perceives the information that the narrator shares.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrator also tells the new employee about his job limitations. “There are no personal phone calls allowed” (Orozco 1). The narrator then explains to the new employee about what he can do when there is need for an emergency call. “If you must make an emergency phone call, ask your supervisors first” (Orozco 1).

The narrator uses a professional tone in these two communications and creates a professional mood, which contradicts the idea of unprofessionalism when discussing personal information about employees.

The objects in this piece of literature are the offices and the cubicles. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses these objects to indicate to the new employee that he must act professionally as he is an official environment. These objects also instill caution in the new employee and that is why he listens cautiously and asks questions where he does not understand.

The story ends with a climax, as the narrator tells the new employee about Kelvin Howard, who is a serial killer. “Kevin Howard sits in that cubicle over there. He is a serial killer” (Orozco 5). The narrator goes ahead and explains how Kelvin mutilates people in town. He, however, clarifies that Kelvin only kills strangers.

By doing so, the narrator intends to assure the new employee that he is safe because under normal circumstances, an employee would scare the idea of working with a prominent serial killer.

The narrator also portrays Kelvin as a hardworking man who does not let his non-professional activities interfere with his professional duties. Supposedly, the new employee feels secure because he will not be a stranger to Kelvin, but a professional colleague who Kelvin cannot attack. Therefore, this conclusion works because the aim of orientation is to make people comfortable in new settings..

Works Cited Orozco, Daniel. Orientation, New York: Faber


The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System Report essay help site:edu

The Key Features Of An Incident Command System An incident command system is a model that is used in the command and control of emergencies. It is a system used to respond to incidents that involves disasters and provides a framework for responding to the occurrence of emergencies by coordinating and controlling relief efforts in an emergency. The common goal of an incident command system is to stabilize incidents leading to the preservation of life, the environment, and property.

A study by Rubin (1997) shows that the incident command system is used to ensure efficient and effective utilization of resources in responding to disasters.

Studies by different researchers have shown that the incident command systems have proved to be successful models widely used in responding to different types of emergencies, which include incidents that involve multiple casualties, handling of hazardous materials, sea accidents, and the widespread rescue missions (Cole, 2000).

One of the areas in which the model was applied successfully was when I was assigned the duty to command an incident command system in response to an incident that involved earthquake victims. The disaster involved earthquake victims in one of the local areas in the USA, southern California where I worked as an incident commander.

The incident command system involved the commander cooperating with group members working in the relief efforts (Cole, 2000). The commander was also required to be open minded to new ideas by the team members, participating actively in the incident response system, and ensuring that effective communication characterized the entire system (Cole, 2000).

The main components around which the system was build included a command structure that included entire resources and persons working in the relief efforts, the planning component, operations element, logistical elements, and finance and administration.

In context, each of the elements mentioned above contributed significantly to the success of the incident command system that I was to implement in the designate area. While the entire system elements have been mentioned, my part as an incident commander was to take on the responsibility of the command function of the incident command system (Cole, 2000).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to the disaster that occurred, the framework involved executing the activities that fell under the responsibilities of the incident commander, one of them being to establish the incident response program.

The incident response program involved putting in place measures to preserve the life of the people adversely impacted by the earthquake. In this case, the emergency program required an emergency movement of the people from the disaster zone by identifying and creating new areas that were safe from the effects of the earthquake.

In addition, the program under the commander included coordinating the relief efforts with the people involved in the disaster relief organizations who were working on the ground to provide emergency relief efforts for the people (Cole, 2000).

In addition, the program included making an inventory of the people and the property discovered during the search and rescue operation, which had not been destroyed by the earthquake. The standard procedures for responding to the disaster included coordinating security personnel to ensure the safety and protection of property and personnel actively involved in the rescue program (Rubin, 1997).

The core responsibilities under the commander included establishing a command structure with an effective coordination of the relief efforts. In addition, the use of resources that included provision of shelter, food, clothing, communication, fire, medicine, and other necessities were effectively administered on the victims of the earthquake.

In addition, the commander ensured that the safety of the earthquake responder was guaranteed in the disaster prone area. The commander had the responsibility of ensuring that the response to the incidents occurred according to priority (Cole, 2000).

Objectives That An Incident Commander Based on the article, What Is the Incident Command System (ICS)? (n.d), it was important to determine and prioritize operational objectives in responding to the earthquake incident. The operational objectives included warning the people who had been affected in the earthquake prone area, which were caused by the secondary hazards due to the earthquake.

We will write a custom Report on The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That was in addition to providing the people with the capability to provide themselves and the relief agencies with public safety information which included information on boiled water, shelter, and the provision of sheltering areas. Information is constantly made available of the threats to public safety and health, status incident responses, damages, injury, and status of critical incidents.

The commander creates an incident response team to make the incident response plan effective and successful.

The commander used the team to assess and establish the nature and scope of the earthquake, to send information to each member of the team members, identify the roles and responsibilities of each team members, establish a framework for monitoring and progressing team activities, and to prove the chain of custody of the incident response activities.

Shelter management, search and rescue, public information, logistics management, and long term recovery were critical in creating the plan.

References Cole, D., (2000). The Incident Command System: A 25-Year Evaluation By California Practitioners. Retrieved from

Rubin, D.L., (1997). The Incident Command System: Myths, rumors and unnatural acts. Fire Chief, 41, 63-68.

What Is the Incident Command System (ICS) ?. (n.d). Retrieved from


Kids Market Consulting: Marketing Attractivenes Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine

Reasons for Success of Kids Market Consulting

Future potentials of the Kids Market Consulting



Introduction Marketing is an important function in an organization. It involves communicating to consumers with the aim of convincing them to buy a given product or service provided by the organization.

The major objective of marketing is to attract customers in the organization. It is important to note that marketing can be regarded to as a science since the marketer is required to carry out market analysis. In marketing, one has to choose market targets in order to carry out marketing segmentation.

In doing so, the marketer will have to carry out a number of analyse. Thus, marketing is regarded as a science. The reason why marketing is critical to a business organization is because it determines its performance or its profitability (Winer and Ravi 14).

The concept of marketing management has become more significant with the emergence of globalization. Multinational organizations are required to manage marketing beyond their home country boundaries, thereby making the process more complex and increasing its significance (Pride and Ferrell 24).

The marketing manager is required to analyze data in the various countries where the organization plans to establish operations in order to develop a marketing strategy that is going to give the organization competitive advantage in that country.

Marketing attractiveness is one of the issues that the marketing manager needs to address. He needs to focus on the right model to research on the marketing attractiveness. This report is related to a research on marketing attractiveness by a Ukrainian company known as the Kids Market Consulting.

Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine Before an organization establishes itself in a market, it should first carry out a research about the market to establish if it is going to be profitable or not. Market attractiveness refers to the possibilities that the market structure in a given industry is going to be profitable (Saxena, 2009). A firm will always be attracted to invest in a market or in an industry that is profitable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of factors that should be considered when determining the attractiveness of the market. To begin with, what the firm should consider is the growth rate of the market, as well as the market size. A market that has a high growth rate is worth investing in because chances of viability are high compared to chances in a market that has a low growth rate.

In a market that is growing, there are chances that more customers will be coming to the market. As a consequence, the total sales and profitability are likely to be high. However, chances are that more competitors are likely to join a market that is growing, and the competition will be higher.

High competition has the potential of reducing the profitability of that organization. In addition, there is the possibility of government interventions, thereby affecting the activities in the market.

On the other hand, a large market has more customers and the possibility of more sales and more profits is high as opposed to a small market where there are less people (Dibb


Business Case of Company A and Costco Company Case Study cheap essay help

An invoice payment refers to a situation in which a business provides its services or conducts its transactions on credit. The seller mainly sells the goods but receives payment at a later date.

Whenever invoice payment guidelines are appropriately set, the customers make their payments on time and in accordance with the set guidelines. In a situation where a customer fails to stick to the required terms, essential measures are taken to ensure he or she checks on his or her payment discipline.

In this case study, we are taking a consideration of the business activities between company A and Costco Company. The major transactions made involve the selling of DVDs and games. However, it has been noted that the payment procedures are not appropriately followed by both the companies. In order to solve this problem, proper strategies need to be employed.

To begin with, company A will have to track the credit limit. This will involve an analysis of the outstanding credit before delivering the next sales. The findings will be presented to the company’s management staff who will take the necessary action.

A notification sent to the staff ensures a review of the procedures initially set and corrects any uncertainties that may arise. This will avoid future problems in invoice payment. Furthermore, this will enable a review of the invoice payments and correction on the outstanding credit.

Additionally, procedures that will provide a way forward on handling of delayed payment on invoices should be laid down. The staff should come up with procedures that will prevent customers from delaying delivery of payment on purchases made. This will enable the customer to prepare payment in advance in order to avoid consequences arising from late payments.

The company can also evaluate its partner’s financial condition. If institutions are facing challenges in implementing their mandates, it goes without question that they will have problems paying for their transactions. Evaluation of the financial situation of the partners will thus enable the company to establish the financial situation and set required measures to be undertaken in order to enable them honor their payments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Negotiations on new payment terms may be another strategy to be considered. By reviewing the payments made and comparing them with the conditions initially set, the company can know if there may be need to renegotiate for new terms. The customers may be finding it hard to bear with the existing terms as a result of financial crisis. To avoid losses, new terms of transacting business can be negotiated.

The new terms will enable both parties to enjoy a comfortable position. Company A may also consider strategies that enable the customer to deliver payment with ease. This may include an earlier preparation of the invoices. For example, the company may decide to be sending the invoices together with the goods on delivery.

Organizing a payment plan for the customer may also be another effective way of ensuring proper payment of the invoices. This will enable the customers to establish outlined ways of paying for the goods sold to them.

For example, a plan can be laid out whereby the other company pays for the goods in installments in cases of financial constraints. This will serve as a motivating factor due to the fact they will have a chance to re-establish their business while conducting a business transaction at the same time. The client will be encouraged to organize a proper payment procedure of the invoices in order to sustain the business relationship.