The human race has always been accredited with being the most bright and ambitious of living things. One of the defining characteristics of the human civilization is our ambition and drive to excel in all of our endeavors.
As a result of this, human beings often do whatever they can to achieve their goals and objectives using the resources that are at their disposal. This need to further their success is of great importance to their social, economic and political welfare. However, there are obstacles that tend to threaten the process through which these ambitions can be realized.
They include competition, bureaucracies, and in some cases, cultural differences. Consequently, people are sometimes inclined engage in morally unacceptable behaviors or going against the set rules and laws in order to gain an upper hand over other people who are aiming for the same resources. Corruption is one of the concepts that man has adapted to and it has taken its toll in the human society as his desire and greed for material wealth and power increase.
By definition, corruption refers to the use of available resources or designated power for purposes other than the intended ones or for personal gains. It is a very relative concept because it comes in different forms depending on the situation or action taken.
In the current society, this vice has rapidly penetrated the social, political and economic realms and is causing pain and suffering to everyone whom it affects. Corruption comes in various forms and is exhibited at various levels of the society, as such, political analysts and other experts have divided corruption into the various forms that it comes in.
Perhaps the most rampant and damaging form of corruption is political corruption which refers to a dysfunction in a political system whereby government or political officials and employees use their ranks or the resources allocated to them for personal gains. While all manners of corruption are inherently damaging to the society, this particular form of corruption poses the most significant threat since it is the political bodies in our country that are charged with guiding the nation to prosperity and success.
Currently, every nation has some evidence of corruption within its various sectors and institutions. The various forms of corruption have in the recent past manifested themselves at a very alarming rate. Some of these forms of corruption include bribery which refers to a situation where someone is given money or other material things to do something that he is already getting paid to do or a situation where incentives are offered so that a person can go against the set laws or regulations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another form of corruption is nepotism which involves the favoring of friends or relatives in regards to getting jobs, promotions or salary increment irrespective of their qualifications. This type of corruption is predominant in almost every country in the world and occurs mostly in family owned businesses or where a particular group of people wants to maintain leadership or control regulations of a particular business or policies.
Another form of corruption that is carried out by people in positions of relative power is the embezzlement of funds. This involves the theft of institutional funds allocated to serve a particular purpose. Embezzlement also includes misappropriation of money and property given to a particular department or sector mainly for personal gains.
A more violent form of corruption which may be exercised by people of relative power is extortion which refers to the use of threats in order to get something from other people. This kind of corruption it also described as the illegal use of state force directed at inflicting harm to others. It is most common with the police force and military agencies.
In order to understand corruption we must look into the possible causes, its effect on the society and at least some of the ways that can be used to curb or prevent it from happening. The most common cause of corruption is presence of low salaries in the economy. As needs increase, the amount of salary may not fully suffice and the people result to using their official capacity to try and get more money or resources to up their social status or even satisfy their greed for material wealth.
In addition to this, there are a lot of loop holes in the regulatory systems which allow people to indulge themselves with this vice. On the same note, the presence of cliques (friendship) and cultural ties have created room for nepotism in all sectors. Poor management and allocation of funds have led to an increase in embezzlement especially in developing countries.
It is a well know fact that corruption leads to the damaging of the very fabric of society. Corruption undermines the value of democracy and the effectiveness of rules, regulation, laws and policies that govern an institution or nation.
As a result, it leads to unequal distribution of political and economical power within the affected society. In addition to this it also causes social and political instabilities leading to war and tribal/cultural clashes. Economically, corruption inhibits development through unfair distribution of resources and funds.
We will write a custom Essay on Corruption Phenomenon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, it leads to an increase in prices levels brought about by poor price legislation. In social and environmental basis, corruption causes the destruction of natural resources which is brought about by over exploitation of resources, over industrialization which increases pollution. This comes about as a result of bribery which contributes highly to the breaking of protocols and policies put to prevent this from happening.
Whereas corruption seems to be an indestructible vice that is here to stay, this is not the case and there are measures that can be taken to control it from increasing and even reduce its presence in the society. Such measures include the establishment of anticorruption agencies which fight against these vices.
In addition to this, the government should dwell on formulating new and stricter laws that govern the various forms of corruption and pose heavy penalties to those who are guilty of such crimes. There should also be a select committee in every organization that demand at least quarterly accountability of funds accrued towards a particular purpose.
The best preventive measure however should be man’s desire to change the current situation. Everyone has the potential to make a change and as such, people should say no to corruption on a personal level and assist the authorities in fighting this vice if there is hope to make a difference and eventually curb this menace.
It can be irrefutably stated that corruption is by far the worse problem that nations and societies are facing in our contemporary world. It should be noted that the social, economic, political and environmental benefits that may arise from the abolishment of corruption are far much greater than the greed and desire for power and wealth expressed by selected individual. It is therefore prudent that the global community come together in the fight to eradicate corruption for a healthy and prosperous future for all.
Is Barrack Obama like Hitler? Expository Essay essay help online: essay help online
Comparison of American presidents George W. Bush and Barrack Obama to Adolf Hitler or the Nazis has become very common. After eight years of comparing George W. Bush to Adolf Hitler, Obama is also receiving the same treatment. The actions, believes and personal associations of Obama are compared to those of Hitler on many internet blogs and newspaper columns.
Adolf Hitler is one of the most forceful and powerful personalities in history. He was a philosophical and political leader of the National socialist party (Nazi) and what most people agree on about his personality is that he was evil.
He has become the most infamous leader for his extremist stands. Comparisons between Obama and Hitler are based on their policies. However, it is absurd and inexcusable to compare Barrack Obama to Hitler. Obama is not like Hitler at all and it is a logical fallacy and a dilution of history to compare them.
Hitler rose to power during a period when Germans needed a hero to save them from a recession. The same is the case for Obama to whom, most Americans looked for a savior from the economic problems facing America. Both individuals wanted change and those comparing Obama to Hitler have used such phrases, as “Hitler wanted change too”.
It is wrong to assert that since Hitler wanted change, every other person who wants change is morally or politically equivalent to Hitler. From the books audacity of hope by Barrack Obama and mein kampf (translated loosely as my struggle) by Adolf Hitler, it is clear what kinds of change these two persons believed in.
Hitler wanted change to the German population and actually not to the government itself. He blamed the Jews for the failures in the German society since he believed Germans were superior to other races (Michael, para 8). Mein kampf reveals Hitler’s extreme hatred for Jews (Meler, para 39). According to his book, Obama on the other hand recognizes and desires to change the problems in the American functional government and state of politics.
Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi party, a political party that believed in National Socialism. Hitler was therefore a socialist unlike Obama who although branded a socialist by some critics has personally rejected claims that he is a socialist. Republicans are yet too convincingly proof that his policies are socialist and again, being a socialist does not imply that someone is like Hitler.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hitler’s form of socialism was based on racial supremacy. In his period of leadership, Hitler sought to increase German dominancy among other nations and employed an expansionist foreign policy that triggered the World War II. His policies were based on racism and anti-Semitism. During the short period as a president, Obama has tried to improve the relationship between America and other countries, especially Arab speaking nations.
There is no way these actions can be similar to those of Hitler. Obama has not tried to increase America’s dominance over other countries but has mainly focused on reducing the possible threats against America by trying to undo some actions of previous regimes.
Inhumanity, dictatorship and mass murders dominated Hitler’s leadership. His leadership policies lead to mass extermination of Jews and other racial minorities. Those comparing Obama to Hitler argue that these vile actions of the Nazi had their roots in socialist, eugenics and imperialism ideologies that Obama supposedly posses.
From his publication, the audacity of hope, he writes, “there are certain things that anchor my personal faith, the golden rule, the need to battle cruelty in all its forms, the value of love and charity, humility and grace” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
This indicates the different personalities between Hitler and Obama. Hitler believed in cruelty and he forced his soldiers to perform inhuman acts on Jews and other race minorities. He was a dictator and he perpetrated genocide in Germany through race cleansing.
Obama’s policies are against inhuman actions, dictatorship, racism and cruelty. By supporting the Geneva Convention against torture, Obama portrays a character that is completely different from Hitler. The Obama presidency is about avoiding mass murders whenever possible by employing other gentler means to solve the current world problems. By employing dialogue to bring understanding between nations, Obama focuses on creating cohesion.
Obama is an extreme supporter of pro-abortion bills. This has generated a lot of criticism and the continued likening of Obama to Hitler. By supporting abortion, some critics accuse Obama of perpetuating genocide just like Hitler. This is far fetched and out of context.
We will write a custom Essay on Is Barrack Obama like Hitler? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The debate about humanity in abortion has been going on for along time and people have different stands on the matter. What is worth noting is that in Obama’s viewpoint, every woman should be allowed to decide whether to do abortion or not. He does not therefore support abortion but the right to choose.
In his perspective, abortion decision rests on the actual individuals involved. They can make the decision to go ahead with it or not depending on their moral inclinations and believes. Hitler on the other hand was a dictator who determined whether an individual dies or not. He prohibited abortion for the “pure-blood” Germans and allowed it for the other races as a case of “racial hygiene.” He wanted to control the reproduction of the other races.
Therefore, supporting pro-abortion laws does not at all portray Obama as having the same moral values as Hitler. Hitler did not give any choice to those he deemed deserving to die. They were just executed. Obama does not call for execution of unborn children but for the right of the mother to choose.
In conclusion, Obama is not like Hitler. He does not fit into Hitler’s moral or political personality. Not everybody who wants change in government and political environments is like Hitler. It all falls back to what the individual in question wants to change. Obama wants to change the way the functional government operates and the political environment in America.
Hitler wanted to change the German population by racial cleansing. He promised to improve the economy and Germany’s global dominance but perpetuated racism and inhuman actions. Persons can only be termed to be like Hitler if they practice his kind of ideologies.
Without bias, Obama’s ideologies do not fit into those of Hitler at all. He has a different view of America from the one Hitler had about Germany. In audacity of hope, he writes, “there is not a black America and a white America and Latino America and Asian America- there is the United States of America” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
Therefore, the comparison of Obama to Hitler is a poor comparison only meant to gain attention. Although not everybody approves of Obama policies, more logical comparisons to other leaders should be made but not to Hitler. Doing this is down playing the evil of Hitler’s leadership.
Works Cited “Book summary: Audacity of hope.” Political books summaries, reviews and opinions. 31 July 2009. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Barrack Obama like Hitler? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Meler, David. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Dickinson State University. 2000. Web.
Michael. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Adolf Hitler. n.d. Web.
Economic Journal: Current Microeconomic Events Essay (Article) essay help free
#1: The article: “Judging Stimulus by job data Reveals success” by David Leonhardt, was published on February 16, 2010 on nytimes.com. The article starts with a hypothetical introduction, where the writer engages the reader by telling him/her to assume that the stimulus signed in 2009 was large enough to impact the job market or even money proposed in the stimulus package was spent fast enough to make a rapid effect on the economy.
The article then explains that what would have happened in such a case was still happening in the current economic situation, because after all, the hypothesis is not imaginary but a description of the real stimulus bills as passed by congress and signed by the president.
The article explains that the stimulus package targets creating 2.5 million jobs, and has so far managed to somewhere between 1.6 to 1.8 million jobs.
Why then are Americans not satisfied with the stimulus? Leonhardt states that liberals think that the stimulus package would have had a greater impact if it was bigger; the republicans simply dislike the entire package “because it’s a democratic program”; the Obama administration has hurt the bill through making “too rosy an economic forecast” thus raising too many expectations among the American people (9).
Despite the criticisms, Leonhardt notes that the impact of the $787 billion stimulus package on the economy cannot be understated (10). Money from the stimulus has kept the public service employees (healthcare workers, teachers, firefighters and the police officers) in employment. It also stabilized corporate spending, and indirectly prevented consumer spending from plunging further. More to this, there is no denying that the billion of dollars spent on jobless benefits, food stamps and tax cuts have benefited the American populace.
#2: The article: “House adopts $15 billion plan to spur Job Creation” by Carl Hulse was published on March 4, 2010 on nytimes.com. According to the writer, (Hulse 1) the adoption of the $15 billion measure is a reaction by Congress to the continued pressures created in the country’s economy by the increasing job losses.
The measure was adopted on a 217 to 201 party line vote with majority supporting votes coming from democrats. Out of the 172 Republicans who voted, only 6 supported the bill. The Democrats vote was also split with 35 democrats opposing the measure on grounds that “it was too limited and hence could not spur employment and job creation as intended” (Hulse 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The centerpiece of the measure according to Hulse, is the exemption of the 6.2 % payroll tax to all businesses that hire people who have been jobless for more than 60 days. More to this, the measure has a $1,000 incentive on tax credit for employers who hire during this period and keeps the employees on the job for a year or more (10).
Though mixed reactions were registered, reactions towards the bill especially by lawmakers who perceive it as a break to businesses rather than a measure that would create more jobs, the dire unemployment situation in the market have put the lawmakers in a tough position where they are willing to try anything that works just to put as many Americans back to the job market. It is estimated that the measure will allow employers across the country to hire at least 300,000 more people.
It remains to be seen whether the measure will indeed stimulate economic activity, thus creating the opportunities for new employees in business, and most importantly, preventing more job losses. Although one gets the impression that lawmakers have no idea what is really good for the job market right now (explained by the huge opposition from the republicans), the measure if adopted could indeed bolster help the unemployment problem, albeit to some degree.
#3: The opinion article: ‘How to Watch the Banks’ by Henry M. Paulson Jr. was published in the New York Times on February 15, 2010. The articles revolves around the “too big to fail” concept and the proposals from government and other opinion makers towards ending the systemic risks that financial institutions considered ‘too big to fail’ pose to the economy.
Paulson argues that although the economic problems that be-deviled the economy in 2008 are over, a repeat of the same is bound to recur in future and hence people need to come up with a solution of the too-big-to-fail sooner.
His suggestion is that “congress must pass a financial regulatory reform bill now because further delays are just creating uncertainties in the market and undermining financial institution’s ability to lend to business hence curtailing recovery” (Paulson a27).
The article suggests that lawmakers should put the necessary laws in place in order to ensure that in future taxpayers do not have to pay for the management shortcomings and the unnecessary risk-taking that big financial institutions take up on the knowledge that they government considers them so important to the economy and hence would not allow them to fail.
We will write a custom Article on Economic Journal: Current Microeconomic Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Paulson, the proposal by the government “to bar big banks from trading driven by other than customer-related activity” would no doubt have failed to prevent failure by big financial institutions such as Lehman Brothers, Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, Wachovia, Washington Mutual and AIG (a27).
This means that the same economic pressure experienced when the financial institutions would still have occurred. Accordingly, what is needed according to Paulson is a regulatory authority, which should monitor and restrain activities that would destabilize financial institutions that pose a systemic risk to the economy (a27).
More to this, the lawmakers should put in place laws that allow banks to fail, albeit honorably. According to Paulson, this can be done by having a resolution authority that oversees orderly liquidation of failing financial institutions in order to reduce their impact on the greater economy.
#4: The story: “Aging Boomer face Stark economics” was published by MSNBC courtesy of CNBC TV on MSNBC.MSn.com on March 4, 2010. The story addresses the plight of the aging baby boomers that are now in their fifties and facing the reality of retirement with each passing day.
In retirement, the rising costs of living means that their retirement packages cannot sustain descent lifestyles and often time, they have to start considering going back to the jo0b market. Still, this is challenging especially considering that the job market is flooded with younger, vibrant and more technological savvy younger people.
In addition, there is the issue age-related health complication, which not only means that the aging baby boomers have to spend more money on healthcare, but also jeopardizes their return to the job market. According to the MSNBC article, even where the aging baby boomers have not hit retirement age yet, they are more likely to be laid off. Luckily when such an event happens, they are given a severance pay, which helps cope with the dismissal from gainful employment.
MSNBC however notes that most lack proper planning skills and end up wasting the money without having any other means to replenish their savings. As a result of their dwindling fortunes, a majority of the aging baby boomers who are either retired or laid off from work have rely on the government for the provision of basic healthcare and even food.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (cited by MSNBC), the country has an excess of 4 million unemployed baby boomers. Most have already hit the 65 retirement age mark and hence stand a very minimal chance of gaining employment. As a result, they are not only a worried lot, but a strain to the entire economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Journal: Current Microeconomic Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Ferguson (cited by MSNBC), who is a financial historian in Harvard, “the baby boomers have set the country towards a massive financial crisis, and its only going to get worse as more retire”. It is estimated that their numbers and hence their dependency ratio will rise from the current 42 million to 72 million when all of them retire.
#5: The story: “banks to big to fail have grown even bigger: behemoths born out of the bailout reduce consumer choice, tempt corporate moral hazard” was written by David Cho and published in the Washington post on August29, 2009. Cho’s story is motivated by the federal regulators decision in the wake of the recession that directed billions of dollars into financial institutions that were at the risk of failing, and consequently ruining or disrupting the financial system.
Citing statistics from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Cho gives the example of Wells Fargo which has since acquired Wachovia and hence increased its combined assets to 43 percent more, JP Morgan Chase, which acquired Washington Mutual and Bears Sterns and as a result increased it assets base to an additional 51 % and the Bank of America, which bought of Merrill Lynch with the help of the government and consequently increased her assets with 138 percent.
As a consequence of this acquisitions by financial institutions that were big enough even before the acquisitions, Cho notes that the complexity of size and interconnectedness in the financial institutions is becoming even worse (1). As a result, consumers are faced with fewer financial service choices, and these banks will now than ever be confident about government’s banking if they ever face dire circumstances as was the case in 2007-2009 period.
The latter is referred to as ‘a moral hazard”, whereby, bigger financial institutions borrow cheaply than the medium-or small-scaled counterparts, and are even able to engage in riskier financial practices on the knowledge that the government would always bail them out in the eventuality that a need for financial support occurs.
Overall, this story has laid bare the facts that addressing the problems posed by the big banks and financial institutions lacks in political will as well as strategy. Worse still, smaller financial institutions are suffering under the unfair competition posed by the big banks especially because creditors prefer the bigger banks in view of the “taxpayer” guarantee.
#6: The article: “As college costs rise, loans become harder to get” was written by David Cho and published in the Washington post on December 28, 2009. The article is among a series of other articles bringing to the fore the consequences of the financial crises that hit the world financial markets in the 2007-2009 period.
According to Cho, “the upheaval in the financial markets, did not only give parents fewer choices in funding their children’s education, but also meant that students could not access easy credit as was the case five years earlier” (1).
Worse still, the credit options available for students are costlier and bound with rigorous standards, which limit the availability of the same to many students. In the midst of all the uncertainties, most students were left with only one source of financial hope; federal backed loans. The loan from the government is barely enough for most students especially considering that there is a $5,500 annual limit.
The situation is further worsened by the rising college expenses, which are passed to the students through increased tuition fees. Cho notes that consequences of this include students from middle and low-economic backgrounds compromising on their education, an action which would affect their career choices after graduation (1).
The biggest concern among educators is that students who cannot afford the rising costs in college fees will be forced to stay out of college all together, or colleges will have to compromise the quality of the programs offered in order to lessen the costs and therefore admit more students.
The question that is not yet resolved , even with the end of the recession and some return of normalcy in the financial markets is, “will colleges sacrifice the quality of education, thereby laying more on a student’s ability to pay rather than talent and ability to learn?” If this will be the case, one can only expect that the country will have sacrificed some of its best talent based on their inability to raise college fees and as a result, the country could be less competitive in future.
#7: The Article: “In Shift, Wall Street Goes to Washington” was written by David Cho, Tomoeh M. Tse and Steven Mufson and published in the Washington Post on September 13, 2009.
The article is a description of the new type of financial governance borne by the government’s willingness to bailout Wall Street in the midst of the just ended financial crises. According to the writers, “ the government is no longer acting as the referee and watching from the sidelines, but has now become a fully-pledge player in the financial markets” (1).
The new Wall Street-government relationship is an initiative from both ends; Wall Street is increasingly looking south for purposes of forging business strategies, cleave to federal policies and get new talent, while government through the treasury and the Federal Reserve is closely watching its investments in bonds and the rejuvenated financial markets, which it helped raise by spending billions of taxpayers money on (Cho et al 1).
But does this mean that the government is really becoming an active player in the financial markets? Well, Cho et al state that the government is just safer playing its traditional roles of regulating the financial markets, encouraging public spending and coming up with viable monetary policies. As such, they see a situation where government’s participation in the financial markets will fade as the economy grows healthier.
The new found alliance between government and Wall Street does not mean that the government has given up on finding an alternative to the bailouts. Cho et al notes that “the Obama administration is still determined to overhaul the regulation of markets and firms through measures that would alter the activities that such firms engage in” (2).
More to this, the government is still considering different options on how best to close such financial institutions in case they face financial difficulties in future. I however get the impression that the continued relations between Wall Street and Washington will only give the financial institutions room to lobby federal officials thus complicating the financial-government relations.
#8: The article: “Mortgage Market Bound by Major US role” was written by Zachary Goldfarb and Dina Elbogdady and published in the Washington Post on September 7, 2009.
The article describes how the government has taken up mortgage financiers Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and consequently putting in place stringent measures for people who are considering taking up mortgages. According to Goldfarb
The Mind and the Body Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Is mind and the body the same? The historical perception of the distinction between the body and mind is traceable back to the Greek philosophers. In a close link to Rene Descartes’ theory (1650), the principal of philosophy claims that the human being compromises for the mind and body, which seem to be two distinct and separate substances.
On comparison, the mind does the thinking and thus is the source of reasoning, recognizing, desiring, consciousness and willpower, but it is distinctively immaterial and physically un-extendable. Conversely, the body is material and extendable to accommodate feelings and sensation. Many theories distinguish the body and mind but in most instances end-up creating the “mind-body problem,” thus the need for discussions or counterarguments.
Thesis/Problem statement “To think that the mind and the body are distinct substances creates problems, yet to think that they are the same offers no solution either.” This is a research investigating and analyzing the different arguments on philosophical nature of the mind and body by various philosophers, with the aim of providing a personal point of view regarding the subject matter.
Purpose/Significance of the study The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the consequences and key concepts involved in the development of the mind-body philosophy and offer personal suggestions or opinions over the issue of relationship between the mind and body.
Objectives of the study
This term paper lays down the need for researching the background of the understanding of various theories over the relationship as presented by different great philosophers such as Rene Descartes, John Locke, Leibnitz and, Mauriee Merleau-Ponty. The study is equally an assessment of other issues in relation to personal understanding of the topic.
Significance of the study
The key topics to be covered entail the focus over relationship between the mind and the body. This is in the aim of finding the reasonable argument and conclusion
The Procedure of the Study/Research Methodology
The paper highly utilizes the literature reviews to enable better understanding of the topic. Preparation of the research over the chosen topic also enhances and quantifies the research as a study topic and prepare for respondents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Information collected will equally tabulate and assist in ranking the findings form various philosophers over a wide period, and help to narrow the scope to the objectives of the study analysis. The analysis will then draw the conclusion from generally analyzed data in the literature review.
The research findings will entail data collected through websites analysing the concerns of some philosophers, as well as books concern with the study area and, observation of the proceedings over the specified data collection period. For the study analysis, the collected data and studies discerns patterns and formulate principles that might guide future action of the study subject.
In this case-study of mind and body the research checks the background information, progress, surveillance and examination of current state of matter and the involvement with other related cases. The analysis of records regarding internal as well as external consequences is equally important.
Comparison of various philosophical points of views offers better understanding and analysis. This term paper will therefore attempt to find or describe aspects of the relationship between the mind and body as theories of various philosophers explain.
Background of the union between the mind and body There are various theories explaining how the treatment of exceptional aspects fit into Descartes’ theory of material dualism, which forms a strong basis, ever the debate concerning the relationship between the body and the mind. The theory however lacks full explanation of the interaction or union, thus the tentative results.
Various other philosophers have emerged with different perspectives concerning the debate nullifying or supporting the possible facet of Descartes’ philosophy. There are many misconceptions between the union of the body and mind, and the general casual interaction among the Descartes’ readers. Recent philosophers have indicated a strong curious expression with regard to the substantiated unison or intermingling of the body and mind, indicating the theory as un-credential in comparison to other arguments.
A consideration of the interpretation for the first view indicates that an event or substance belongs to the interconnection because of the immediate casual effects the substance has on the mind.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Mind and the Body specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The twenty first century philosophers as well as readers may disagree with Descartes theory out of curiosity or opposition to the dualist theory of the body and mind. The philosophy of mind provides phenomenal character in the line of thoughts that provides a wide range of mental events, which keep stringing the difference between the physical events and conscious experiences.
Ability to consider the face value of these striking differences calls for support or agreement with the dualism. Today the readers and researchers have some interest on the philosophy of dualism and thus the work of Descartes as the person who represented the tradition to modern philosophy.
Literature Review Rene Descartes arguments on mind and body
The comparison of the two elements of life seems to be the conflict of the inquiry of whether the mind and the body are distinct substances, or they are the same. Arguably, his mind causes the mental state of affairs while body causes the physical state. Then the question is on the correspondence regarding the physical and mental state.
The proposal by Rene Descartes’ is a theory of interactions gets the reference with the intention of asserting that the two are distinct states, which interact by mutually influencing over each other as a result of the function of the pineal gland based in the brain (Moyal, 289, 1991). According to Moyal on the theory of Rene Descartes (290, 1990), the mutual gland seems to be the focal point of influence between mind and the body.
Scientifically the gland produces a solution: melatonin, which is an important neurotransmitter that assists to regulate sleep and forms part of the brain or body. From the scientific point of view, the Pineal gland is not a bridge between the mind and other special material objects, and therefore it is not a real solution to interaction between the body and mind.
Considering various philosophical principals of Descartes, there are many confusing claims regarding body and mind. The claims initially indicates that everything in the world is classifiable into two states namely, thinking and bodily substance.
People react by thinking through things and properties while the other side of living comprises of the body and its characteristics such as shape, size, motion or position. Where would we place the emotions, sensations or passions such as joy, sadness, love, pleasure, smell, taste and feeling? The categorization of the aspects fumbles people, making them to wonder how to classify certain features to the union between the mind and body.
Considering Descartes’ definition of substance, in the practicable sense, the substances do not depend on other substances. Although not clearly indicated in the specification that there exist two distinct types of substances into which all other aspects falls into, the Descartes tries to indirectly or implicitly indicate that certain quality or attribute requires a precise substance for existence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Mind and the Body by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, in line with Moyal (293, 1991), this means that each substance exists within a principal attribute that constitute its essence with all the other properties of the substance referencing this attribute. For instance, imagination, sensation and, will are intelligible properties referencing the mind or thinking.
According to Descartes’ definitions of the relationships between mind and body, thinking entails understanding, and being in charge of what occurs within. Being aware of the occurrence offers the consideration of ability for existence of meaning, which is a strong indication that there is a connection between thinking and the sensory mechanism.
John Locke arguments on mind and body
Considering John Locke argument regarding the body and mind, he conveys a constant idea that a human being comprise of the conscious mind and a memory, which can extend to reflect the past as a way of enhancing or finding the personal identity.
Through this argument, he does not imply that the human being has the ability to remember each and every minor detail of past experiences, but it means that ability to posses a personal identity can link the conscious understandings to physical state or appearance (Ashcraft, 220, 1991).
This is how the conscious mind joins the physical appearance of the body to come together and form the human experience of life. He places the mind and body as material substances, which come together to give one an experience nurturing human identity.
According to Ashcraft (221, 1991), on John Locke’s theory, the existence of two material substances in the same mental substance as explained by Rene Descartes is inexistence. He specifies that consciousness unite action in the same physical being. The memory and material experiences are similar in a human being, although it is possible to distinguish consciousness from thinking, such as in the instance of Rene Descartes’ insinuation.
In line with Ashcraft (221, 1991), considering Locke’s theory, “thinking, reflection, memory and, intelligence,” uniquely combine to form the human physique but this cannot occur without the presence of consciousness. Consciousness is therefore a unique attribute in each individual human being meaning that it is not possible to inherit or share another’s body or consciousness.
“There is a huge gap between subjective and objective experience,” (Ashcraft, 220, 1991). Ideally, the investigation pertain the relevance of the physical and mental connection in an individual or consciousness. The investigation of how well an objective processes to become subjective is still tentative among many philosophers.
According to Ashcraft (221, 1991), considering Locke’s theory, “subjectivity is the reality and immediacy of individual experience of consciousness, including memory and the capacity for reasoned reflection.” The outside world is independent of the mind. Real sensation comes from the presence of real objects.
In line with Locke, the world is made of two kinds of substances namely the soul and body. The body provides an immediate idea of the soul. People understand the bodies through sensation while understand the soul through reflection. Contemplation infests in the soul as material nourishments while the soul is immaterial. From this perception, there is formation of mental operations and spiritual souls.
Locke’s theory therefore supports the interaction between the body and the mind as real beings. All the ideas we posses are because of the actions of the body on the mind. This means that the body acts on the soul causing some changes. He argues out that people’s perception of existence lacks clarity over the reality of existing soul. They tend to be sure of the existing physical body and the soul.
The existence of the soul and its related actions is more realistic in nature than the material body. The reality of things regarding material bodies does not exist in the knowledge of the bodies we possess. The knowledge therefore comprises of secondary qualities lacking proper representation of reality (Ashcraft, 220, 1991).
The difficulty that Locke lacks solution for regards his perception of the effects on the bodies lacking interference on the mind or consciousness. His theory of representation, which indicates that people perceive the reality of mental images as a representation of the physical substances lacks substantiation.
Classification of attributes of life as matter or conscious entities is tricky but the reality is that essence of nature is consciousness regardless of its existence as matter or soul. His conclusion has commonsense attributing to existence of two substances namely mental and material. Material substances are the primary quantities as essentially active elements of matter and embodiments of the secondary qualities.
The connection between Locke and Descartes’ theories involves their conclusion over the existence of a third substance form the sense of experiences. The third matter is existence of consciousness as a fundamental premise from which the other aspects derive but remains an indistinct or hazy idea and thus remains enclosed in empirical attributes.
Leibnitz arguments on mind and body Considering Leibnitz thesis on mind and body, there is no body-mind interaction, but a formal relationship pertaining harmony, correspondence or parallelism. His contribution spans a number of topics of this philosophy mainly, materialism, interaction between the mind and body and idealism.
One of the conspicuous topics observes relationship between the body and mind where he denies existence of the interaction but ascertains a pre-established harmony. The earlier discussions of the seventeenth century over the connection between the mind and body spans a great context considered as dualism. This indicated that these are two distinct substances.
Leibnitz remains fundamentally opposed to the aspects of dualism indicating his perception of only one substance of life, thus the mind and body comprising of the same substance but metaphysically distinct. His metaphysical assumption is existence of a distinct substance from the body. Certain mental states may coordinate body states and vices versa. Considering Descartes’ perspective, there is an existence of interaction between the body and the mind.
According to Jolley (112, 2004), on Leibniz’s theory, no state can influence the other thus the technical denial of inter-substantiation. Every state of a substance emerges from an initial substance and its programming occurs at the initial stages during the creation to ensure conformity to natural states of the preceding events. This is the language of minds and body where the natural states occur in mutual coordination.
The reality of metaphysical relationship is the mutual conformity or coordination of mind and body, which seem to be the real casual relationship.
Substances may not casually interact, but their state accommodates each other in a way that implies existence of a casual interaction among them. Leibniz’s theory however conforms to existence of mental events, which influence bodily events. “One particular substance has no physical influence on another … nevertheless, one is quite right to say that my will is the cause of this movement of my arm.”
He continues to state that, “for the one expresses distinctly what the other expresses more confusedly, and one must ascribe the action to the substance whose expression is more distinct.” This is an explanation of what he explains to be metaphysical reality. Every existing substance is available to the entire universe but we only perceive a portion of it distinctly and the rest unconsciously, hence the confusion (Jolley, 112, 2005).
The argument is on existence of programmed substances, which are active or passive at the pertinent moment with incidence of real considerable relations. According to Leibniz’s theory, “nature of an individual substance or of a complete being is to have a notion that is sufficient to contain and to allow us to deduce from it all the predicates of the subject to which this notion is attributed.”
The problem with this theory is on the explanation of the complete concept theory where there seem to be an assumption pertaining lack of a genuine possibility over casual determination. His implication is on the existence of casual interaction between two beings, which requires transmission or transposition of the parts.
Evidently, Leibniz drew a parallel perception with respect to consciousness. However, he lacks clear distinction between conscious and unconscious vision. He initially has a clear care and uniformity to but his commitment lacks clear justification and perception. The Leibnizian theory only supports perception but at close range, there are fundamental divides between consciousness and unconsciousness.
He states, “Insensible perceptions are as important to [the science of minds, souls, and soul-like substances] as insensible corpuscles are to natural science, and it is just as unreasonable to reject the one as the other on the pretext that they are beyond the reach of our senses” (Jolley, 112, 2005).
Mauriee Merleau arguments on mind and body Most philosophers illustrate the attitude that highly portrays rationalism as a problem on assumption that it ignores situations and nature of thoughts by indicating the world as a mere property of the reflecting mind. Merleau arguments on mind and body strongly reject this approach of rationalism/intellectualism.
Like Leibnitz, Merleau sets out his points to expose the problematic nature of dualism set by the traditional philosophers regarding the body and mind. He has a strong attention to the significance of the body in connection to the world, self and others.
This is a strong emphasis regarding the body’s ability to act independently rather than as influenced by other traits. He picks the problem of dualism in relation to the mind and body as a real problem, because when considering the body as an object links to consideration of the world as objective. Problems regarding the body are general to the whole outside world since it is entirely distinguishable from the philosophical area under discussion (Merleau-Ponty Maurice
Marketing Implementation Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Good marketing strategies, marketing skills, and innovativeness are essential components in implementing a marketing plan. In essence, marketing is a social activity that incorporates the satisfaction of customer needs and wants, and is a wholesome activity with organizational outlook, focusing on future and anticipated needs. Marketing incorporates issues such as corporate social responsibility, which determines the way businesses evaluate the impact of their activities on the society.
In view of all these, effective Marketing implementation calls upon an effective marketing plan. Philip, Armstrong, Wong and Saunders (2008) define marketing as “an integrated process through which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return”.
In addition, “Marketing is the process by which companies determine what products or services may be of interest to customers and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development” (Philip, Armstrong, Wong and Saunders ,2008).
By incorporating an effective marketing plan, the management team of coco bongo has to draw up a marketing strategy including clear identification of the actual activities to undertake to achieve their objectives as determined by (Nichols 1993).
Thus, the marketing process To effectively implement the marketing plan for coco bongo, the marketers have to draw up a marketing plan incorporating the actual actions to be undertaken by the marketing team to achieve the objectives of the coco bongo nightclub. The marketing process and marketing mix could play key roles.
Marketing organization The planned implementation envisaged a marketing organization. This was the framework for organized marketing activities, the business organization and its core management structures and the relationship between the management and its employees. There were effective communication channels within the organization and best business practices were core in the organization.
Activities The core objectives of the coco bongo club included profit generation, a wider customer base, customer royalty, market penetration, brand royalty, and gaining a completive edge on other entertainment joints in the London market. The brand name of the club was synonymous with customer satisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main product for this club is entertainment. However, as a new venture, the management of the club had to embark on promotional activities, as a marketing strategy to impress upon the customers its existence and the services it had to offer. Coco bongo is unique in the kind of product offerings.
Thus, it was of importance for the club to embed promotional activities to impress upon the mind of the market on the value derived from its activities. Inclusive in the marketing and promotional activities lots of sideshows to attract customers as promotional offers, acrobatic shows, and dancing incorporating professional dancers. Nichols (1993) concludes that the marketing concept of direct selling has a host of benefits.
This will help the marketers identify customer needs on the level of entertainment; evaluate customer base and customer satisfaction. In addition, other activities could incorporate pricing. Pricing is an important concept in marketing and forms one of the 4p’s in marketing, i.e., product, price, promotion, and place (Nichols 1993).
These marketing activities serve to inform the customers about the club, identify their customers, collect views about the club, and device ways of gaining a competitive edge in a competitive environment.
The marketing concept and market planning are essential components in customer retention, realization of higher profit margins, and customer loyalty. Promotional activities should incorporate customer demographics and tailor making products for that market, customer oriented products, and envisage the 4p’s in marketing. The products here imply the type or form of entertainment.
Other promotional activities important in implementing the marketing plan include direct marketing strategies (Nichols 1993). According to the case study, direct marketing includes professional dancing and many shows among other marketing mix activities. Importantly, critically focusing on the best customers leads to profit maximization.
The survival of a business enterprise depends on its customer base, type of customers, customer loyalty, and product rating. A thorough analysis of these characteristics from the customer depends on information collected from the customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Implementation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the management of bongo club devised methods for collecting customer response to enable management make vital decisions related to product improvement, innovation while constantly revising on its marketing strategies. Such method included collecting customer response by administering questionnaires, observations, and conducting other quantitative surveys and analysis of the responses.
One of the indicators of a successful business is a timely implementation of its plans and strategies. By effectively addressing all these, the management of the club, in consultation with advertising agencies, hosting venues and other stakeholders drew up a timetable that addressed the needs of all stakeholders and an efficient implementation plan. Emotional needs of the customers were also addressed in the planned Implementation. According to the timeline for implementation, the business was to be lounged in three weeks.
Competitive Evaluation and Control Performance
A business enterprise needs competitive evaluation to ascertain if it meets its objectives, such as customer loyalty, attitude of the customers to the presented products, customer needs and wants, the profitability of the business, and management expectations. This done, the management of the club undertook to define performance measures which acted as benchmark for evaluating the activities of the business in line with its objectives and goals.
The objectives, as spelt by the business enterprise could remain both short term and long term. The performance standards included a survey of customers’ satisfaction, the impact of the business on the environment, profit generation, and evaluation of customer needs and wants. Customer satisfaction remains vital in determining the performance of the business.
Standards envisaged quality control measures, legal requirements, ethical and corporate issues. The commitment and efficient utilization of the human resources served as a basis for formulating standards for the club. Setting standards also called upon management to defined exactly what they wanted done and how.
In addition, Megan (2007) asserts that standards applied on a range of issues including customer satisfaction, a wide customer base, retention customers, and profit maximization. Management expectations played a key role in identifying and setting standards.
Other drivers to benchmarking included active member participations, innovativeness, collaboration between the management and team members, legal and political environment, and a monitoring criteria. Megan (2007) found out that hosts of benefits accrue because of setting performance standards. Neely (2002) adds that standard measures include the quality of entertainment, timeliness in starting and ending entertainment, and cost effectiveness of the business venture.
Business enterprises with good quality implementation strategies ought to envisage in their marketing and implementation strategies monitoring controls.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Implementation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Monitoring controls envisage a guideline on business performance evaluation. The management of the bongo club must embed in its managerial strategies issues such as weekly reviews of employees and management actions, there should be schedules on implementing and carrying out duties in the organization, continuous performance evaluation remains key on both employee and management levels.
Meetings form an important component in decision-making and conflict resolutions. Meetings also form part of the way employees express their satisfaction or dissatisfactions over management actions.
There should be frequent updates on the club’s activities and concerns. Varieties of benefits could result from the business when monitoring control measures remain effectively embedded in the system. These includes, energizing employees, inspiring them, resolving conflicts, increased employee activeness and productivity, enhanced communication within the business setting, and improved group dynamics.
The target market forms an essential component in effective marketing. This target market identification enabled management and the whole business enterprise tailors its products to suit the market and remain competitive, profitable, and retains a wider customer base coupled with customer loyalty, asserts Baker (2008).
Data on the demographic nature of the population obtained and studied well enabled the team to develop a marketing mix with appropriate marketing strategies for the appropriate market. This involved, analyzing similar business ventures to identify who their customers were, the occupation of new customers and how the timing could influence their activities, the location of the business, income levels of the groups, and essentially their entertainment needs.
SWOT SWOT implies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats a business faces. The key strengths of the bongo club were its uniqueness in the market, the hosting venue in central London, providing easy accessibility to the venue from all quarters.
In addition, the club’s financial health remained good with superior advertising methods used. Weaknesses identified included a new business environment, new cultural settings, time of entertainment and fear from customers over the new entertainment modalities. However, the scene unfolds issues where varieties of opportiunities abound.
These include the uniqueness of the new venture, better administrative abilities, experienced employees, highly motivated workers assert Nichols (1993). The threats stemmed from other competitors and entrepreneurs who may innovatively use the idea to come up with a similar businesses, current business competitors, high prices, and environmental regulations.
Works Cited Baker. Michael, The Strategic Marketing Plan Audit: University of Strathclyde, 2008
Neely. Andy, Business Performance Measurement–Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
Nichols, Jan Welborn-. “Marketing Basics” 1993. Web.
Kotler, Philip, Armstrong, Gary, Wong, Veronica, and Saunders,. Principles of Marketing 5th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
Megan, Tough. Setting Job Performance Standards. (2007). 6th March 2010. Publishing http://www.sideroad.com/Management/performance-standard.html
Coverage of the Cold War in Life Magazine: The Bomb That Never Exploded Essay college application essay help
The world history of the twentieth century after the Second World War was by large dominated by the relationships that formed as a result of the opposition between the United States of America and the USSR.
The two mega-powers were struggling for global influence, and since they possessed completely antipodal views on what the ideal state should be like, this confrontation shaped into the so-called Cold War. Among the main features of this bloodless war was arms race that involved a harsh competition, inter alia, in the sphere of nuclear weapons.
The post-war United States could boast a yet unsurpassed advantage over the military arsenal of any other country: their main strategic weapon was the atomic bomb, which became an almost legendary symbol of the US power. The attitude to the atomic bomb and its role in the Cold War sufficiently changed with the course of time, and this change is reflected, in particular, in the coverage of Cold War events by the US Life magazine.
The atomic bomb explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki allowed the USA to demonstrate an unprecedented military might and to declare their ambition of global control by means of atomic weapon. The devastating power of the latter allowed the US military authorities to build ambitious strategies involving the use of atomic bomb as a nuclear deterrent and annihilator of the enemy.
Provided that the US atmosphere was strained in the expectance of the enemy strokes and acknowledgement of the “ever-returning concept of war”, atomic bomb was an impressive weapon of intimidation.
Inspired by the immense destructive force of the atomic bomb, military officials built ambitious hostility strategies that were characterized as “military profitable” due to the involvement of the atomic bomb. But despite this confidence in the offensive qualities of the atomic bomb, strategists remarked on the necessity for updating the military fleet for more efficient bomb application.
As the communistic regime took over Hungary, the US military recognized the increasing speed of the threatening danger and emphasized the importance of not only creating new superfast and light aircrafts for carrying the atomic bomb, but also adapting the US building styles and relocating industrial so that the devastating effects of the possible USSR attack were minimized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The anti-soviet attitudes grew with the news of the coup-d’état in Czechoslovakia, when the United States realized that “the remote threat of the atomic bomb was no match for Red guns and tanks on the borders” and that Communism was an obviously uncooperative regime. Americans realized that power was in their hands as long as they kept the monopoly on the atomic bomb which is the only device for balancing the Russian military weight in Europe.
The feeling of insecurity grew, as the United States realized that the chances of involving into a war were growing with every day. After the Soviets surpassed the expectations of the US military and detonated their own bomb in 1949 instead of working on it till the predicted mid-1950s, the understanding of the non-absolute character of the atomic bomb came.
Doubt in the exclusive efficiency of the atomic bomb in fighting the enemy appeared in a discussion on what exactly constitutes success in fighting the Russians. Analyzing the course of the World War II, American experts on psychological warfare remarked that “as Hitler’s reliance on physical force let him to scorn the help of the Soviet people, reliance on the atomic bomb could lead us into comparable folly.”
Panic was slowly but steadily spreading over the American population which could not avoid worrying about the atomic war threat since information on it was literally everywhere: in February 1950, Life dedicated a whole issue to discussion of the atomic bomb under a motto that no compromise could be reached with the communists and that war was inevitable.
Psychologists connected the reaction to the possible atomic war with the US baby boom of the late 1940s: “The war psychology must have changed our values, and the Cold War and atomic bomb have brought on a revival of the will to survive.”
In the atmosphere of society experiencing great psychological stress of the atomic threat, cardinal changes also occurred in the specialists’ attitudes. More openly than ever, scientists voiced their opposition to further development of the mass-destruction bombs.
In their letters to the editors of life, representatives of Research Institute of America call to common sense and express harsh criticism of the atomic defense plan in terms of general humanity principles. Atomic bomb and weapon in general was no longer regarded as the best way to work out the contemporary geopolitical problems, since considering the huge military potential of both hostile mega-powers any serious warfare with them could lead to catastrophic consequences.
We will write a custom Essay on Coverage of the Cold War in Life Magazine: The Bomb That Never Exploded specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the one hand, appeals were published in the press to revise the approach to warfare and stop putting the whole responsibility for military success or failure on scientific achievements. On the other hand, claims were made to review the application of atomic energy for not military but peaceful use since “all the heads of the state including even the Russians [were] pulling back from atomic abyss.”
The press coverage of the Cold War events appears to have been quite sensitive to the changing role of the atomic bomb in the nuclear arms race. Positioning the Russians as a thoroughly uncompromising enemy to be fought at any rate, the Life magazine nevertheless demonstrates a significant shift in the attitude to the atomic bomb function. First envisaged as a crucial and universal weapon, the atomic bomb gradually loses its positions as the Russians acquire a bomb of their own and the world realizes the possible catastrophic consequences of a nuclear war.
References The atomic bomb. (1950, February 27). Life, 28(9), 91–100.
Bullitt, William S. (1948, August 30). How we won the war and lost the peace. Life, 25(9), 83–86.
Bush, Vannevar. (1949, November 14). Scientific weapons and a future war. Life, 27(20), 112–130.
Carroll, Wallace. (1949, December 19). It takes a Russian to beat a Russian. Life, 27(25), 80–88.
Hyland, T. S. (1949, December 26). The fruitful mountains. Life, 27(26), 60–67.
Letters to the editors: Atomic defense plan. (1951, January 8). Life, 30(2), 4.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Coverage of the Cold War in Life Magazine: The Bomb That Never Exploded by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Murphy, Charles J. V. (1947, January 20). The Polar concept: It is revolutionizing American strategy. Life, 22(3), 61–62.
The nature of the enemy. (1950, February 27). Life, 28(9), 30–31.
Spaatz, Carl. (1948, July 5). If we should have to fight again. Life, 25(1), 34–44.
Spaatz, Carl. (1948, August 16). Phase II Air War. Life, 25(7), 90–104.
Strauss, Lewis L. (1950, July 24). Some A-bomb fallacies are exposed. Life, 29(4), 81–90.
US foreign policy takes a licking. (1948, March 8). Life, 24(10), 27–30.
The US surveys its weak defense. (1947, June 16). Life, 22(24), 27–33.
Wallace, Henry. (1956, May 14). Henry Wallace tells of his political odyssey. Life, 40(20), 174–190.
Footnotes Charles J. V. Murphy, “The Polar concept: It is revolutionizing American strategy,” Life (January 20, 1947), pp. 61–62.
Charles J. V. Murphy, “The Polar concept: It is revolutionizing American strategy,” Life (January 20, 1947), pp. 61–62.
“The US surveys its weak defense,” Life (June 16, 1947), pp. 27–33.
“US foreign policy takes a licking,” Life (March 8, 1948), pp. 27–30.
Carl Spaatz, “Some A-bomb fallacies are exposed,” Life (August 16, 1948), pp. 81–90; Carl Spaatz, “Phase II Air War,” Life (July 24, 1950), pp. 90–104.
William S. Bullitt, “How we won the war and lost the peace,” Life (August 30, 1948), pp. 83–86.
Vannevar Bush, “Scientific weapons and a future war,” Life (November 14, 1949), pp. 112–130.
Wallace Carroll, “It takes a Russian to beat a Russian,” Life (December 19, 1949), pp. 80–88.
“The atomic bomb,” Life (February 27, 1950), pp. 91–100.
T. S. Hyland, “The fruitful mountains,” Life (December 26, 1949), pp. 60–67.
Lewis L Strauss, “Some A-bomb fallacies are exposed,” Life (July 24, 1950), pp. 81–90.
“Letters to the editors: Atomic defense plan,” Life (January 8, 1951), p. 4.
Lewis L Strauss, “Some A-bomb fallacies are exposed,” Life (July 24, 1950), pp. 81–90.
Henry Wallace, “Henry Wallace tells of his political odyssey,” Life (May 14, 1956), pp. 174–190.
What is Hypertension? Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Medically, for one to be healthy; as concerns one’s blood pressure, the body’s arteries must maintain a pressure that should not exceed 120 systolic (maximum amount) and 80 diastolic (minimum amounts). If the body fails to maintain such pressures; more so in elevated states, two cases of blood pressure anomalies result namely: pre-hypertension and hypertension.
The former has a blood pressure ranging from 139 systolic to 89 diastolic and in most cases, it is a clear indication of likelihoods of hypertension occurring. The latter has blood pressure ranging from 140 systolic to 90 diastolic; hence, hypertension (Medilexicon International Limited, 2010, Para. 2-3).
This is one of the most chronic and common blood pressure disorders, with many associated health complications. In common life scenarios, it is very hard for individuals to recognize they suffer from the ailment, because it lacks clear symptoms that are detectable physically. In addition, the fact that, it lacks common symptoms; because of the variations that occur among different ailing individuals symptomatically, makes it harder for one to detect that, they are suffering from hypertension.
This fact makes most individuals call it the “silent assassin,” because most individuals discover they are suffering from the ailment when it is in its advanced stages. Two main forms of this ailment exist; essential and secondary, which primarily depend on the causal factors. That is, the former has no proved medical cause whereas, the latter results due to other external factors, which include tumors and kidney failures.
It is important to note that, early detection of the ailment can help in taming side effects that may result from elevated blood pressure however, if the same never happens, its persistent state is the main contributor of most health complications, which include arterial aneurysm, renal failures, and many heart complications (Cunha
American Education: A Critical Discussion of Values Education Trend Term Paper essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Values Education: Definition and Origin
The Philosophy of Values Education
Foundations of Values Education
Values Education: Is it Still in Use?
Feelings towards Values Education
Introduction Today, more than ever before, the American education system seems more interested in nurturing students’ attitudes than on what can realistically and ideally be called real teaching. This strategy of learning, mainly touted as ‘affective education,’ treats issues of self-esteem and personality development as the ultimate objective of education, eliciting feelings of misgivings and doubt among parents and guardians keen on the type of education given to their children (Lindslay para. 1).
It may, however, mesmerize many educational pundits and parents when the knowledge of the origins and development of this particular system of education is availed to them. Affective education draws its origins from an earlier trend of education known as values education (Hardin 23).
It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to critically evaluate values education in terms of attempting to understand its origins, theoretical orientations, usage, and its influence in the American education system.
Before engaging in the analysis, it is imperative to note that the American education system, especially in the public sector, has been influenced by a wide allay of trends that are introduced or evolve to cope with particular situations (Tauber 20).
For instance, pundits argue that both affective and proactive approaches to education arose when teachers were desperately in need of mechanisms and strategies to control issues of discipline in the classroom (Tauber 23). These trends, though heavily criticized in some quarters for deviating attention to issues of student independence and morality at the expense of learning, are indeed working to maintain discipline, both at the classroom and societal level.
Supporters of these strategies argue that for real learning to take place, an enabling environment must be created in the classroom, and teachers are at the center of creating such an environment by acting as facilitators rather than controllers (Johnston et al 58). This line of thinking influenced, to a large extent, the evolution of values education in American education system during the 1970’s.
Values Education: Definition and Origin According to Thapar, “…values education is education in values and education towards the inculcation of values” either in school or non-school settings (para. 1). Values education draws largely from character education, which is inarguably thought to be as old as mankind, precisely because civilizations the world over becomes unsustainable in the absence of character (Tauber 23).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historically, generations have transferred their social, cultural, educational, and political values to subsequent generations to ensure preservation. Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers of all times, presumptuously argued that the demonstration of good behavior habits and ingrained virtues by an individual represented good character (Rogers 7). As such, it can only be argued that development of outstanding character was at the core of values education curriculum in the US during the 1970’s.
It is worth noting that American institutions of learning are firmly grounded in the tradition of transmitting fundamental values from one generation to the other. It is indeed notable that Thomas Jefferson, one of the founding fathers of the nation, rooted for an enlarged and vibrant arrangement of public education to convey American democratic virtues to future generations (Johnstone 18). The emphasis of this paper, however, is to trace the origins of values education in American schools.
Educational historians and other theorists suggest that values education was conceived and grounded in the ideas and concepts of character education, an educational trend that disappeared from the American education limelight in the 1950’s (Johnstone 21). Before its disappearance, character education had been adopted by almost every public school in the US at the onset of the 20th century.
The decade of the 1950s was an era of conformity in many American institutions, including public schools. Character education took a back seat as parents, schools, the church, and society took a more conservative approach known as inculcating and modeling of character (Poulou 104).
American public schools, in particular, were on more than one occasion accused of undermining the role of character education by taking it for granted. For instance, character education in American schools in the 1950’s was limited to requesting students to be neat, punctual, polite, and to work exceedingly hard to attain success.
According to educational analysts, however, students were being given a small portion of what character education entailed, with the rest of the time being devoted to developing their intellectual capacities at the expense of moral development (Poulou 105).
By any standards, the decade of the 1960’s was marked with tumultuous and almost riotous reorganizations and reinventions in the U.S., and traditional roles and values became subject to mockery and rejection by the younger generation. As people demanded for more power and independence, the status of students, women and members of minority groups changed spectacularly in what was perceived as one of the greatest social revolutions ever to be witnessed in the history of mankind (Rogers 27).
We will write a custom Term Paper on American Education: A Critical Discussion of Values Education Trend specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New attitudes and value systems emerged, and individuals, including students, started to experiment with a wide allay of activities such as homosexuality, drug use, new religious orientations, new career options, and enigmatic lifestyles in the name of presuming greater authority and control over their own individual lives. Cases of indiscipline and teenage pregnancies escalated in American schools, culminating to the reintroduction of character education in the 1970s under the broad based all-inclusive name of values education
The Philosophy of Values Education Some educational analysts, to date, believe that values education as introduced in American education system in the 1970’s was an original replica of character education, which dominated the education system in the decades of the 1930s and 1940s (Hardin 15).
It’s imperative to note that the decline of character education in schools across the U.S. was also unequivocally related to wide recognition and approval of scientific thinking among the members of the teaching fraternity. Logical positivism was popularized in 20th Century America at the expense of Morality-based education, which was personalized and accused of being subjective as it could not be proven using scientific methods (Lickona 7).
The positivist educators were of the opinion that they could structure a learning process and curriculum that was objective, credible, and beyond the sway of individual values. A value-based curriculum, according to them, was impossible since values were considered as shifting in objectives, situational in nature, and relative in ensuring equity.
Character education, therefore, was perceived by positivist educators as individualized, and dependent upon subjective value judgments (Lickona 7). As such, it was doomed as unfit for educational institutions in the U.S to Convey.
But the tumultuous events of the 1960’s made stakeholders in the education sector to rethink their strategies as cases of school indiscipline among students in American schools more than doubled (Hardin 18). This saw the reintroduction of character education in the 1970s, this time under the auspices of values education.
The philosophy governing this trend changed dramatically, with educators laying emphasis on individual values development rather than abiding by values set by the society as was traditionally the case. Under the new system of values education, teachers were now encouraged, not only to assist learners clarify their individual values, but also develop an enabling school environment which could facilitate students to learn the skills of moral reasoning and value analysis (Superka 38).
Teachers, however, were counseled against instilling their own perceptions of values and morals on the students, implying that the educator’s role was severely limited to facilitating the students to internalize and develop their own value systems, the teachers’ beliefs notwithstanding. Many educators of the 21st century firmly believe that affective education, which is widely gaining acceptance in American education system, has its roots in values education of the 1970s.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Education: A Critical Discussion of Values Education Trend by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Teachers, according to the proponents of this new trend of education, were not allowed to impose their own values on the students since the American society had become largely pluralistic (Superka 40). A better curriculum according to this new form of imparting skills was one that would facilitate the learners to learn adequate skills of moral reasoning, not to mention the fact that such a curriculum was also intended to sharpen the students’ decision making capacities to enable them cope with the immense life challenges after school.
Specifically, this system of education not only put emphasis on the role of education in enabling students to have personal gratification in life, but also enjoy social relations outside the education system that were both constructive and productive (Hardin 23). This, however, does not mean that the system was weak in imparting the skills needed in line with the main objective of attending school.
Contrary to popular belief, values education as a trend in American education was largely holistic, assisting the students to nurture their own values for real learning to take place. According to Tauber, values education acted as the liberating philosophy of the 1970s and early 1980s (85).
The trend, however, was largely phased out in 1980s as academic performance took the center stage at the expense of values development. Students were, once again, being encouraged to take academic performance and competition more seriously than the development of individual values.
Education analysts are of the opinion that the abandonment of values education triggered an upsurge of immoral activities in the U.S. such as drug abuse, teen pregnancy, increase in school dropouts, and disintegration of the social fabric, including family breakups (Poulou 106).
Other notable incidences witnessed in the 1990s, and which were directly related to a breakdown in values education in American schools, included high instances of teen suicide, unparalleled number of political and social scandals, and high-level cases of school indiscipline.
It is imperative to mention that these and other isolated incidences led parents and educators to reconsider their earlier stand on values education, with a significant proportion of education stakeholders requesting schools across the U.S. to revert back to educating students about values and moral reasoning.
Foundations of Values Education Many new and past trends in American education have always found delight in specific educational or psychological theories seeking to explain their existence. Values education is no exception. Many of the concepts guiding values education are founded on William Glasser’s Reality Model. The psychologist is best remembered for popularizing the three Rs approach – Right, Responsible, and Respect – in counseling students and maintaining classroom discipline (Johnstone et al 102).
For Glasser, values and morals can be taught to students of any age if the sole purpose is to reinforce their character to be able to live a more fulfilling life upon disengaging with school activities. Glasser, however, identifies the teaching of responsibility as one of the foremost tasks that a teacher should engage in as this variable determines the kind of classroom environment that will be set for effective learning to take place.
According to the Reality Model, the student is endowed with the responsibility to choose and make rational decisions. Consequently, the model argues that behavior entails an individual’s choice to meet their own needs (Tauber 83).
The Reality Model further postulates that educators must always focus on the present student behavior, and should not, in any way, focus on past behavior. For Glasser, behavior is fundamental for values development, and therefore, educators must also demonstrate caring, loving, supportive, and empathic attitudes when interacting with students to boost behavior development (Tauber 84).
According to the model, it is indeed the function of educators to assist students make proper value judgments by frequently questioning whether the students’ behaviors are working for them, and what they really want to attain in life.
Values education is also based on value-clarification approach, a model developed by a team of American educators and policy makers in the 1970s. This approach presupposes that, “…everyday, every one of us meets life situations which call for thought, opinion-making, decision-making, and action. Some of our experiences are familiar, some novel; some are casual, some of extreme importance.
Everything we do, every decision we make and course of action we take, is based on our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values” (Simon
Manzanar custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Manzanar which is located in Owens Valley, California adjacent to the Sierra Nevada is one of ten camps in which over one hundred and twenty thousand Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II including over one hundred children who subsisted in an orphanage that was identified as the Children’s Village (Nadeau 12).
Manzanar was initially the home to Native Americans who generally lived in villages before the beginning of the twentieth century when the area became occupied by miners and ranchers who officially registered the town of Manzanar in 1910.
The City of Los Angeles acquired the water rights to the area in 1929 forcing the miners and ranchers to abandon their activities due to the stringent water levies that were being imposed on them by the City of Los Angeles (Nadeau 15). Japanese Americans are Americans of Japanese descents who were recorded in history to be among the three principal Asian American populations.
Japanese American internment took place in 1942 when the United States government under the orders of President Franklin Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, forcefully relocated approximately one hundred and ten thousand Japanese Americans and residents of the Pacific coast of the United States with Japanese heritage to camps that were referred to as War Relocation Camps. This was after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Imperial Japan (Ewan 78).
The internment process was carried out by the United States military and local military commanders were authorized to allocate military controlled zones so as to form restricted areas where all people of Japanese ancestry were detached from the whole United States’ Pacific coast which encapsulated the whole of California and most parts of Oregon and Washington, with the exception of the Japanese Americans in internment camps (Wehrey 54).
The internment process of the Japanese Americans was irregularly appropriated since most if not all of the Japanese Americans located on the West Coast of the United States were put away (Ewan 80).
On the other hand, States such as Hawaii which harbored more than one hundred and fifty six thousand Japanese Americans who made up virtually a third of that area’s population, only about two thousand two hundred Japanese Americans were incarcerated (Ewan 78). A significant portion of the Japanese Americans who were locked up was composed of United States citizens with over sixty percent being American nationals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inside Manzanar 1942-1945 Establishment
After President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, on February 19, 1942 that authorized the detention of Americans with Japanese ancestry, the then Secretary of War delegated military commanders to set down military areas that would hold the Japanese Americans. A total of ten areas were designated with Manzanar being the first of the ten concentration camps to be set up (Nadeau 14).
The first Japanese Americans arrived at Manzanar on March 21, 1942 as volunteer workers to help build the camp and it was then known as the Owens Valley Reception Center and was under the control of the US Army’s Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA). On May 31, 1942, the Owens Valley Reception Center was officially handed over to the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and hence the name changed to the Manzanar War Relocation Center on June 1, 1942 (Nadeau 19).
By the end of April 1942, the camp held more than one thousand Japanese American prisoners with thousands more arriving daily and by the beginning of September, the camp contained nearly ten thousand Japanese American prisoners. Most of the prisoners were from the Los Angeles area, many of whom were farmers and fishermen (Wehrey 55).
The Manzanar War Relocation Center was located on a six thousand, two hundred acres piece of desert land that was leased to the United States government by the City of Los Angeles. The housing area was approximately one square mile and was made up of thirty six blocks of poorly structured tarpaper barracks where the prisoners shared a single 20-foot by 25-foot room in accordance to the number of family members (Nadeau 21).
The rooms had no demarcation or ceiling hence seclusion was infrequent to the prisoners. The communal latrines and shower rooms were also not partitioned which made the prisoners relatively uncomfortable and agitated. Each residential block had a communal dining hall, a recreation hall and a heating oil storage tank, which includes the additional blocks that housed the staff (Wehrey 57).
There were camp administration offices which handled the records regarding all the prisoners, school facilities, a high school lecture hall, Buddha churches and a catholic church, a cemetery, a post office, warehouses, shops, a camp newspaper and other basic facilities that were common in American townships (Ewan 93).
The camp’s perimeter wall had within it eight watchtowers manned by armed guards with machine guns and searchlights, and the whole fence was made up of five-strand barbed wire as well as sentry posts at the main entrance.
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Future of Green Technologies in Architectural Industry Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Natural and Green Constructions for Green Architecture
Introduction The current global warming effects from ozone depletion to carbon gas emissions have made scientists, architects and world leaders, in seeking new modalities to curb the vice; that seem to threaten lives of many and that of future generations. Currently, the modern architectural designs; adopted by architects, focus of environmental sustainability mechanisms unlike the ancient ones. Building environmental sensitive houses does not create any harm, be it to the client or the owner.
In fact, the design of green architectural homes reduces any operating costs associated with it and on the other hand, it results into lesser environmental impact. Just like the shift from traditional agriculture to environmental friendly biotechnology, architects are busy designing sustainable homes geared towards a sustainable industry.
For example, traditional homes seem to cause heating up of buildings hence, environmental degradation. Furthermore, these houses involve high costs of construction. Perhaps, the reason why many people prefer green buildings nowadays is that, they have less construction costs.
Under the current global economic downturn together with an emphatic energy crisis, people cannot afford to build expensive homes. Therefore, it is apparent that, any future architectural designs especially homes-must address energy conservation and liquid clarity concerning low maintenance costs. (Zander Para.1-5).
Sustainable Architecture On of the modules towards the future of green technologies in architectural industry is sustainable architecture. Sustainable architecture addresses environmental risks associated with the incessant construction of traditional buildings. It simply implies enhanced functionalities, more savings and reliance on energy, mutually in civil workings and in residential constructions.
For example, according to U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), green technologies in architectural industries promote environmental conservation through proper waste management and less consumer costs. Additionally, these houses have balconies and backyards for urban gardens consequently, more food production.
Future green technologies in architectural designs will comprise of new architectural mechanisms, which is simply a combination of prehistoric and industrial routines. These techniques will for example, see setting up of photovoltaic gadgets to produce electricity and fixation of solar thermal collectors to heat water instead of burning charcoal which is riskier to the environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to this, architects use simply available materials for these future green technologies of architectural designs. Materials like coked earth, bamboo, recycled stone, recyclable metal and plastic components not only are they sustainable and less toxic, but also, durable, cheap and save energy loss. (Fair Companies Para. 4-15).
Natural and Green Constructions for Green Architecture Statistics collected by American Institute of Architects indicate that, buildings with greenhouses emit more gases than other economic sectors like transport and energy. However, future green technologies will see architectural designs economical in terms of water, energy and cost of materials hence, less-toxic and healthier homes.
Ancient buildings do not really show environmental conservation techniques. Nevertheless, architects can modify these buildings using new and environmental friendly materials without necessarily demolishing them, for green revolution in future architectural designs.
Future architectural designs will also provide a platform of observing climatic conditions using natural resources like rain, wind and sun to achieve environmental safety. This is bioclimatic architecture where, energy use is not dominant; it preserves combustion and emissions.
For example, cross ventilation of ancient buildings create variations in room temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, bioclimatic architectural designs can change this effect to a better one. Another example is that of greenhouses. Currently, exterior windows with vertical shutters help in preventing greenhouse gas emissions in summer hence, fastidious air conditioning parameters. (Fair Companies Para. 20-33).
In conclusion, future green technologies in architectural industries will see an industry driven towards environmental conservation via green technologies in architectural designs and constructions. Notably, ancient buildings have in one way or another, contributed to environmental degradation. It is therefore up to architects to make designs that prop up thermal reassurance, waste management and generally observe sustainability to climatic conditions.
Works Cited Fair Companies. The Future of Green Architecture. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Assessment on Future of Green Technologies in Architectural Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Zander, Carly. Ashville Architecture Firm Building for the Future by Going Green. 2008. Web.
Memory: Understanding Consciousness Essay best college essay help
Memory is regarded as the most complex phenomenon in the natural world of living organisms. It has been scientifically established that all organisms have very complex mental processes which help them interact with their respective environments (Schacter, 2002). Most researchers have been more concerned with understanding the concept of memory in human beings.
The human brain is adapted and reorganized by the day to day experiences. Continued interactions with the physical world through the sensory experiences, perceptions, and actions play a central role in shaping and changing the state of the brain (Thompson
Effects of Population Density Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Population density is defined as the number of people living in a specific geographical area (Rylander, 2006). The higher the population density there is, the higher human activity that geographical activity will have. This explains why densely populated areas exert more pressure on the immediate environment, which includes the natural resources and the infrastructural resources.
Some of the growing concerns associated with population density include heightened pollution, decreasing territorial space and crime as different people try to use the resources in the specific environment to cater for their respective needs.
Noise is simply defined as the unwanted sounds that people are exposed to in their immediate environment (Oomen
Warriors Don’t Cry Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Warriors Don’t Cry, Written by Melba Patillo Beals is a masterpiece addressing the challenges that faced integration of black students in classes dominated by white students.
Melba was among the first black students to be integrated in Central High School (CHS). Before Melba could join a high school, there is a court ruling illegalizing segregation in schools where blacks and whites attend separate schools.
However, sending Melba to Central High School was tantamount to child abuse because the danger she was being exposed to was evident; it is lucky that she was not killed. As this paper explicates, Melba was exposed to grave danger and this negates the need to take her to that school in the first place.
Evaluation As aforementioned, the danger exposed to Melba by sending her to Central High School is evident. After the court ruling illegalizing segregation in schools, a white who has been angered by the decision tries to rape Melba; if it were not for Marissa, who attacks the white man, Melba would have gone through this beastly sexual assault.
This is the first foretell sign that Melba was in trouble. Threats are all over and it is clear that the much-waited integration would not be welcome amongst the whites. The numerous numbers of lawsuits that different whites file before the opening of school echo this impeding danger.
These lawsuits are meant to intimidate the nine students set to join Central High School. Melba’s custodians could have taken the warnings and keep Melba at home. However; India, her grandmother does not to relent, she says, “God’s warriors don’t cry, ‘cause they trust that He’s always by their side (Melba 18).
Ignoring facts does not change them and this is where India; Melba’s grandmother misses the point. She chooses to ignore the fact that the prevailing environment is not suitable for Melba. On September 3, 1957, India drives her grandchild Melba to CHS. As expected, they are attacked by a white mob; fortunately, they escape unscathed. To emphasize how volatile the environment around CHS is, Arkansas National Guard surrounds the school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is enough reason to make India realize how unwise it is to continue pushing Melba to attend this school. Melba insists that she wants to return to Horace Mann, her former high school but India insists that she is not that coward to quit. Melba cannot leave the house and this measure up to child abuse.
In an attempt to save the situation, Governor Faubus and President Eisenhower intervene but their efforts are fruitless. The State of Arkansas wins a case that seeks to remove Arkansas National Guard around the school. Judge Davies rules that the nine black students be allowed to study in CHS.
Governor Faubus follows the judge’s directive and removes the guards around the school; however, he says there will a lot of bloodshed if Melba and the other eight students join CHS. These insinuations are enough to warn India that it is inexpedient to take Melba to CHS. Ignoring this fact, India is perpetuating child abuse.
On September 23, 1957, the nine black students go to CHS only to be attacked by angry white students. Even though these black students manage to enter into class, Melba is coerced to seek refuge in the principle’s office after a mob breaks the school barricades and advance towards her classroom.
This is grave danger facing Melba yet India does not care or rather does not see it. Can child abuse to more than this? The greatest mistake that India makes in this case is to face danger with sheer vague beliefs. Melba may not be a quitter; however, this does not make her immune to attacks from white mobs.
After several failed efforts to prevent the mob attacks, President Eisenhower employs force to root out this vice. The black students are given 101st Airborne Division escort. Nevertheless, this does not help greatly given the torture Melba and her friends are going through. “The physical and psychological punishment we endured profoundly affected all our lives.
It transformed us into warriors who dared not cry even when we suffered intolerable pain” (Melba 29). The fact that Melba underwent through “torture” and “intolerable pain” underlines child abuse. She did not become a warrior because she wanted to; no, this was the only way she could respond to the abuse she was exposed to by the people who took her to CHS.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Warriors Don’t Cry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Melba puts it clearly the problems that she went through. While other students were busy playing and having good time, she was, “escaping the hanging rope of a lynch mob, dodging lighted sticks of dynamite, and washing away burning acid sprayed into my eyes” (Melba 32). What more evidence can there be to show that Melba was endangering her life. The God India speaks of being around Melba was at work for she was never killed. What is India thinking when pushing Melba to continue attending CHS?
The attacks do not stop even after international community raises concern. Mrs. Jorumn Rickets, a Norwegian reporter tries to intervene but white businesspersons thwart her efforts. President Eisenhower calls back 101st Airborne and this gives way for more attacks.
One day, while Melba is in washrooms, white girls attacks her and subjects her to blistering waters. After Minnijean, one of the nine black students is suspended for throwing chili in the eyes of his attacks, the white students break into a chant saying, “One nigger down and eight to go” (Melba 45).
On another occasion, Melba is about to be attacked by a white mob thank God Link saves her by giving her his car keys. Link warns her of more imminent attacks that the whites are planning. These attacks are too much for Melba to handle. Even though she handles them by becoming a warrior, the pain is too much to bear as a child. From the examples indicated above, it is clear that Melba was under grave danger and this is tantamount to child abuse.
Conclusion From the events that Melba accounts for in her book, it is apparent that she is exposed to grave danger by going to CHS. Those who let her go to this school are guilty of child abuse. From the beginning, it is clear that the whites are not for the idea of integration. After the court illegalizes segregation in schools, a white man tried to rape Melba for he is against this ruling. This is a clear indication that letting Melba attend CHS is a dangerous issue.
After India and Melba are attacked and luckily escape unscathed, India responds by telling Melba that she is not a quitter and she needs to push on for these attacks would recede. However, this is a misinformed notion for Melba continues to live under fear as the attacks persist.
The torture and intimidation that Melba bears, amount to child abuse. She confesses that they only became warriors who would not shed tears because this was the only way to face their hard times. Everything that happened to Melba is tantamount to child abuse; attempted rape through physical attacks to psychological torture surmounts child abuse.
Works Cited Melba, Beals. “Warriors Don’t Cry; A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little
Not sure if you can write a paper on Warriors Don’t Cry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rock’s Central High School.” Washington; Washington Square Press, 1994.
Why do we sweat when were nervous? Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the sweat works
Structure of perspiration
Introduction Perspiration is production of water droplets by the sweat glands in the body when it is hot and the main reason is to cool down the body mechanism. The scientifically to this is thermoregulation (Kalat, 2008). In close reference to Kalat (2008), the evaporation of the sweat causes a cooling effect in a similar mechanism used in the air conditioners.
An average human being has roughly five million glands, which produce sweat in their bodies, with approximately 2.6 million on the skin, mainly on palms, armpits and soles. The sensitivity of human personality manages the reactions of these glands.
The anxiety brought about by stress, anger or embarrassment causes the nervous system to react awkwardly in readiness of the anticipated danger. This is a natural call for preparation to combat the danger and the reaction is the raised pulses, increased perspiration and, rapid breathing. The climatic conditions does not determine the perspiration rate at this anxious state, therefore the rate may rise even when the conditions are very cold.
This paper is a major finding of why two different activities such as an aerobic workout and job interview cause similar perspiration effects on the body. How does the body make the sweat and what is its function? What is the difference between the sweat under the armpits and that on the hands? In addition, how does nervousness lead to sweating?
Biological nature People have different perspiration rates because of difference in the number and concentration of glands, response to effects such as climatic conditions and, adaptation (Sherwood, 2008). People who are born and bred in hot or humid areas have lower sweating mechanisms compared to the dry and less humid areas, therefore when moved to the latter specifications, a person sweats profusely. The stressful situations are when one sweats but the body mechanism is not in need of the cooling effects.
According to Sherwood (2008), bacteria on the skin cause the odour on the perspiration, therefore the sweat does not have the bad smell. “The sympathetic nervous system controls the perspiration and therefore it is the body’s thermostat” (Hant, 2007).
This means that during times of low or no control, the sweat runs off the skin. At such instances, it is easy to judge if one is nervous of a situation, such as when one is lying. The perspiration behaviour can be a factor for detecting lies, emotional circumstances, different blood pressure, difference in pulses, and disparity over respiration rates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some situations, the body mechanism lacks control over some functions for instance, during the emotional scenarios; people are in control of the communication but not the actions or the body language. The language is more honest than the words thus the reason one is able to interpret danger or excitements without having to relay on explanations.
According to research, about 93% of the body’s physical reaction is the active and most accurate communication. This means that when there is a contradiction between the body language and the words, then it is better to go as per the former.
Sweating is a natural act; therefore, when one sweats in the palms it is an indication that there is a certain amount of stress or anxiety. According to research findings, only a small percentage of approximately 2% of the general populace can notice sweat on the palms thus considering it as normal (Wilmore, 2008).
Most people will have to be in an anxious or stressful situation to experience and notice palm sweat or excessive perspiration from the armpits. From these findings, it is right to state that human beings sweat during the nervous situations. The sympathetic nervous systems are an automatic call over perceived danger or anticipated excitement.
How the sweat works The excessive heat in the body comes from the worked out muscles or over stimulated nervous system and perspiration is the only mechanism to cause the cooling effect. The excessive perspiration usually on the palms and armpits without existence of the physical or emotional activities has a scientific reference of “diaphoresis.”
The is no scientific situation known to cause imbalance in the hormonal structure, a thyroid gland that is over-reactive, increased body’s metabolic rates and thermoregulations. Other causes entail the use of certain food and medications such as stimulants like coffee with concentrated caffeine and, lastly the over activity especially on the sensitive nervous system (Wilmore, 2008).
Structure of perspiration Generally, the sweat gland is a hollow long tube made of cells extending from the dermis section to the pores of the skin. The coiled part produces the sweat. In line with Kalat (2008), the “sympathetic nervous system, has nerve cells connecting to the glands and therefore the reason why sometimes the production occurs because of nervous stimulation.” There are two types of sweat glands namely “Eccrine and Apocrine.”
We will write a custom Essay on Why do we sweat when were nervous? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two types of glands have different sizes, dissimilar times of activeness and diverse type of elements in the sweat. “The ‘Eccrine’ glands are numerous and widely distributed all over human body but particularly found on the palms, soles of the feet and forehead” (Kalat, 2008). These glands mostly become active at puberty stage in the human developmental lifecycle. Conversely, the ‘Apocrine’ glands are highly confined to the armpits and the anal genital areas and mainly have hair endings as opposed to the common pores.
These glands are smaller, active since conception and, produce sweat that lacks the fatty acids or proteins. Some boy parts such as the lips lack the sweat glands. The human body has special type of glands such as those found on the lining on the outer ear that produce wax to prevent damages by harmful materials such as insects (Kalat, 2008).
There are various physical signs associable to anxiety brought about by performance. These signs are functions of the independent nervous system in the body specifically the sympathetic part known to be the main control of the visceral functions. The human brain system, hypothalamus and spine system are the main activators of the autonomous nervous system.
These autonomic nervous systems can have impulses originating from the cerebral cortex, therefore the perception represented by the brain or thinking stimulates the physical signs of pre-performance anxieties, by triggering the autonomic nervous system and the body tasks that it controls such as perspiration.
From the scientific point of view, “the effects of sympathetic stimulation on the organs of the body can be dramatic. Sympathetic stimulation dilates the pupil, makes the heart beat faster or harder, constricts glands of the eye, nose, or mouth and causes sweat glands to produce sweat” (Weiten, 2008).
Other sympathetic situations are not easily noticeable for instance in dilation of the bronchi, secretion of more glucose to serve the increased mental activities, constricted blood vessels on the skin, and the over-energized feeling. Other references given to the sympathetic nervous system that causes the production of more sweat include an alarm reaction or flight or fight response because they provide extra energy beyond the normal output as a counter measure.
People utilize various techniques to manage anxieties related to performance. During performance, one can practice slow breathing techniques, short yoga routine, engage a positive self-talk, engage a mild aerobic activity, meditation, and engage in laughter, especially when one discovers probability of a challenging activity such as public presentation. The relaxation activities assist in secretion of endorphins that eventually overcomes the nor-epinephrine thus reducing the uncommon perspiration rates.
According to Weiten (2008), “the development of reliable but reassuring personal routine makes the real difference over management of irregular perspiration.” The anxiety brought about by performance is not unique to a particular group of people. One can be able to overcome some of the sympathetic nervous simulations such as the uncontrollable sweating through forming an understanding of the anxieties as real and, normal human psychological functions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why do we sweat when were nervous? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to have some personal ways of slotting in features of cognitive behaviours such as spirit boosting self-talks, incorporating some relaxation techniques such as exercises and developing some criteria of understanding or detecting the situations of anxiety.
Conclusion When one is afraid, anxious or nervous, the respiratory mechanism responds to the emotional state by increasing the sympathetic nervous activities, thus triggering the adrenal glands that increase the epinephrine secretions. This is because of the connection with the nervous system. The epinephrine secretions act on the sweat glands especially in the armpits and, palms of the hands. The whole mechanism therefore causes one to perspire automatically during the nervous states.
References Hunt, M.M. (2007). The story of psychology. Anchor Books Publishers
Kalat, J.W. (2008) Biological Psychology. Cengage Learning Publishers
Sherwood, L. (2008) Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning Publishers
Weiten, W. (2008). Psychology: Themes and Variations. Cengage Learning Publishers
Wilmore, J.H, Costill, D.L, and Kenney, W. L. (2008). Physiology of sport and exercise. Human Kinetics Publishers
Saving Water and Methods of Its Protection Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Abstract
Industrial Water Protection and Conservation
Domestic Water Protection and Conservation Measures
Forced Water Conservation
Discussion and Conclusion
Abstract Every form of life depends on water for existence. Water is also critical for most industrial processes. However, misuse and pollution of water are making it a very scarce commodity although most of the world population does not realize this. This paper describes water scarcity, factors behind the scarcity and the possible methods of protecting and conserving it.
At an industrial level, a good water management plan (WMP) is mandatory. Apart from saving water, the good WMP benefits the industry in various other ways. These are described in the paper. It also considers various methods of saving water at home and the possibility of forced water conservation in cases where consumers are ignorant.
Introduction What is water? How and why do we need to conserve it? These are very important questions when considering sustainability of life in the future. Most people especially in the developed world do not realize that sustainability of life in the future is at stake if measures to conserve water are not implemented.
This is because through out their lives, these people have had readily available fresh water (Cheng, 2010). Their taps and showers never run out of water, the water closets always flush and even when they need ice, the refrigerator has more than enough. The only people who realize that water is scarce are those from arid and semiarid regions where getting a cup of clean drinking water counts as one of their greatest challenge.
In the developing countries of Africa and the Middle East, women from some places walk for six kilometers a day just to fetch water. Even in their cities, water crisis is not a new thing. This has not been felt in the developed countries because of the well-established infrastructure, which is absent in the developing countries. Due to this, the issue of water scarcity is assumed to only affect the developing countries.
However, this is not the case and Live Earth CEO has warned that in 20-25 years time, there will be a disaster in developed countries (Mueller, 2010). There is therefore a dire need to protect and conserve water in our daily domestic and industrial activities.
Water scarcity Water is a unique compound. It exists naturally in three physical states namely: solid, liquid and gas unlike many other compounds.It is vital for sustenance of life; it transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, normalizes body temperature, regulates Earth’s temperature, removes wastes, protects tissue, and many other functions (“importance of water,” n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Without water, standard animals would only survive for a few days.At an industrial level, all manufacturing and processing companies require water somewhere along their production lines.Water is therefore important not only for existence of life, but also for economic activities.It needs to be protected and conserved.
In order to show effectively the importance of conserving water, it is imperative to show the logical reasons for doing so. Since it is a known fact that 80% of the earth’s surface is covered by water, someone may ask how then water can be scarce. To answer this question, water is scarce because only less than 1% of this surface water is fresh water (“The water cycle,” n.d.).
Almost all of our daily needs such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, manufacturing and many others require this fresh water. Apart from the surface water, there is the ground water. This water is also available for use but over the years, the water table has been decreasing day by day. Boreholes dry up and deeper ones need to be drilled.
Another problem with availability of water is water pollution. Although Earth’s processes recycle water, its pollution makes it unavailable for future use. Factory discharges, pesticides and herbicides, sewage waste, detergents and all other chemicals that we use on the surface affects the natural water sources. Pollution is therefore acting as one of the major reasons of scarcity in portable water. Measures to protect and conserve water can be applied at domestic and industrial level.
Industrial Water Protection and Conservation Industries should also strive to conserve water. To do this, they need a water management plan (WMP) which is effective. For the water management plan to be effective, it must incorporate both systems and technical approaches (Mohan, 2007). This is because incorporating both systems and technical approaches ensures that water management is sustainable.
That is, the plan will effectively manage the water usage at the current state of the company as well as in the future. The change in management priorities or departure of a champion for the plan does not jeopardize the WMP. Therefore, an effective WMP ensures continued improvement in water conservation. All companies that are planning to conserve water must have an effective WMP.
Traditional water management systems only incorporated the technical approach and sustainability was a problem. Mohan (2007) describes the characteristics of a good WMP to be leadership, accountability, efficient water usage, minimized pollution, addressing behavioral changes in water usage, driving development of data collection and reporting of water usage, specifying the benefits and costs of the system to the company and driving changes in how the company interacts with suppliers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Saving Water and Methods of Its Protection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By ensuring that the water management plan of the company meets these characteristics, sustainable water management by the company is achieved. The company also achieves other benefits. It saves costs, aligns water conservation with corporate strategy, good public relation and citation for obtaining subsidies among others. The plan also has the overall effect of minimizing water shortage.
Domestic Water Protection and Conservation Measures At home, every individual can contribute at protecting and conserving water. If everybody is made aware of the importance of conserving water, the world’s population may safeguard its future and that of the future generations.
One of the areas in which people can save water is through minimizing the quantity of water spent every day. People use water without caring if there will be more tomorrow. They just know that if there is no water, they will complain to the city council and the problem will be solved. This is especially the case if the families can afford the clear the water bills.
People misuse the water because they can pay for it. They spend too much time in the shower, leave the taps running unnecessarily and excessively water their lawns. These are just a few examples of some of the ways people use excessive water in circumstances that would require less water. By making people aware of the effect their activities have on water availability, some wasted water will be conserved.
Apart from conserving water, individuals may also protect water sources from pollution. Use of environmental friendly detergents and other household chemicals will have a positive impact on minimizing the level of water pollution. By minimizing water pollution, the costs involved in treatment and purification of water will be used to implement other infrastructure in water management.
Forced Water Conservation Leaving the option of conserving water to individual citizens may not be very effective since some of them may not care much. The authorities involved in provision of water should put in place measures that force the consumers to conserve water. In Los Angeles, the city’s department of water and power has implemented several restrictive measures to cub water wastage.
Lawn sprinklers in the region are not permitted between 9.00am and 4.00pm (Welch, 2009). This ensures minimum water loss through evaporation. In addition to this, the sprinklers are only permitted twice a week a week (Welch, 2009). The result of these restrictions is that water consumption by single-family homes decreased by over 23 percent.
To be able to observe these restrictions, Los Angeles residents had to change the type of vegetation they planted on their compounds. They replaced grass that requires a lot of water with low water native plants like rosemary and synthetic grass. These measures by the city council were effective in controlling wastage of water.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saving Water and Methods of Its Protection by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth noting that the city council determined the most water wasting activities performed by residents of Los Angeles and restricted them. This can also be done in other cities. If residents of Los Angeles, which receives very little rainfall in a year, can save water, residents of other places can save water too
Discussion and Conclusion Ensuring water conservation is a challenging task. It has many challenges especially since it mainly depends on people’s perception and willingness to change. To change people’s perception and habits, intensive awareness campaigns are needed and this requires a lot of investment.
With few bodies ready to support such campaigns, it is still not possible to reach every individual and change their water usage habits. At the industrial level, investment is also needed to implement WMPs. Most corporate organizations are not willing to make the step especially those focused on only maximizing their profits. These limitations therefore call for forced water conservation by authorities, which is not sometimes possible due to lack of such laws in many places.
Water is vital for existence of life. It is also important for economic activities carried out by man. The amount of water available on Earth is not enough to meet all its requirements. Further more, with the current excessive waste of fresh water and pollution, the life of future generations is at stake. If protection and conservation of water is not done, there will be a disaster in the coming few decades. The conservation measures are needed at both domestic and industrial levels.
At the domestic level, awareness is needed since most people in developed countries do not realize the importance of conserving water. Forced water conservation is even needed in some cases. At an industrial level, all companies should develop and implement an effective water management plan (WMP) that ensures sustainable water management. A good WMP has far-reaching benefits for the company as well as the society. (1640 words).
Reference List Cheng, M. (2010). Teen Ink. Be hydro-smart. 21(6), 25-25.
“Importance of water.” (N.d.). Water is our lifeline that bathes us and feeds us. Fremont watersheds. Web.
Mohan, S. (2007). Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities. Amsterdam: Boston Elsevier.
Mueller, E. (2010, April). Going the Distance-An Interview with Live Earth CEO Kevin Wall.
The water cycle.” (N.d.). Ecosystems. Thinkquest. Web.
Welch, W.M. (2009, December 13). L.A. mows down water usage. USA Today. Retrieved from https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-12-22-LA-water_N.htm
The Cinderella Story Explicatory Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the story
Settings of the story
Summary of the story The Cinderella story is a children story about a girl whose mother died and her father remarried a proud and ill-tempered woman. The woman had two daughters of the girl’s age who were as ill-tempered as their mother.
After remarrying her father, her stepmother always gave the girl hard chores but she never complained. On finishing her chores, she would warm herself in one of the corners of the chimney and thus her sisters called her Cinderella. Then the two sisters got invited to a ball at the palace in honor of the Prince. They left her behind.
As she wept for being left behind, her godmother came and magically showed her how to go to the palace. She also dressed Cinderella magnificently. After reaching the palace, the prince invited her to the next ball in which Cinderella lost her glass slipper. The prince vowed to marry the girl who could wear the slipper and it emerged that Cinderella was the only one. She was thus married by the Prince (“Cinderella”, n.d., p. 1”).
Characters The characters in this story include, the main character, Cinderella whose mother dies and she is left with her father. Cinderella is depicted as a good girl. The next character is Cinderella’s step mother; depicted as ill-tempered. She has two daughters who are shown as proud and as ill-tempered as their mother.
There is also Cinderella’s godmother who is shown as a good woman, others include: Lord High Chamberlain, heralds, six mice, a rat and six lizards. The mice, rat and lizards were used magically by Cinderella’s godmother to escort Cinderella to the palace (“Cinderella”, n.d., p. 1”).
Theme The theme of the story is the importance of human values. Cinderella is very good to her stepmother even after mistreatment. She is also good to her stepsisters even when they despise her. Her goodness pays off when, in the end, she is the only one who can marry the Prince. She is adored for that and her stepsisters apologize to her. The stepsisters would like to marry the Prince but they miss the chance. This story, therefore, highlights the importance of good temperament and human values (“Cinderella”, n.d., p. 1”).
Plot The story begins with the birth of Cinderella which is followed by the death of her mother. Then her father remarries an ill-tempered woman with two daughters of Cinderella’s age with the same disposition. Cinderella is given hard chores but she does not complain.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She is left behind as the two girls answer an invitation to a ball in the palace. As she weeps for being left, her godmother comes and magically shows her how to go to the palace. She goes and gets noticed by the prince who invites her to another ball and eventually marries her (“Cinderella”, n.d., p. 1”).
Settings of the story The setting of the story is the capital city of a large kingdom and its environs. The introductory part of the story is set in Cinderella’s home. That is, during her birth, during the death of her mother, during the remarrying of her father and as she is overworked and looked down upon by her sisters.
Her godmother visits her in her home. The other setting is the palace. Here Cinderella goes to a ball uninvited but she gets invited for another ball by the Prince. The prince eventually marries her (“Cinderella”, n.d., p. 1”).
Reference List Children Stories. “Cinderella.” Web.
The Exhibit Twilight Visions at the International Center of Photography Essay essay help: essay help
The medium of photography in the post World War I period was almost too deliciously convenient a vehicle for certain proponents of the Dadaists and the Surrealists. Cameras had been, since their invention, been shrinking to a manageable and portable size. The newly graspable medium offered these iconoclastic visionaries a range of possibilities for creating art that were available in no other way.
Through photography, the Dadaists could freely exercise the randomness, transgressiveness, immediacy, and populist tendencies they espoused. The Surrealists could snatch from around them scenes of impossibility and disturbing wonder, while showing bodies and settings with stark reality. Is it any wonder, then, that photography, Paris, Surrealism, and Dadaism are terms which go together?
The ability of photography to capture scenes of the moment allowed for an uncompromising observation of the world as it was, with all its warts, and was thus very appealing to a group which gloried in calling a spade a spade. After all, in the words of Tristan Tzara,“beauty is dead” (Tzara 249).
Photography could catch the unwary subject in the midst of petty deception and hypocrisy. A photographer could make art from the flotsam and jetsam of the streets, whether human or object. A photograph was almost like performance art, involving the subject and the artist in an ephemeral, spontaneous, one-time-only event, very much in line with Tzara’s thinking (Tzara 253).
Additionally, photography avoided entirely the hated tyranny of the art academy (Tzara 250). Further, the cumbersome process of using models, undergoing days or weeks of sittings, was avoidable when using photography. Rather than requiring a studio and years of training in drafting and painting, photography could be undertaken with only a modest closet for atelier. Additionally, in that less litigious age did not even require the consent of the subject to create a portrait.
Furthermore, by placing the relatively inexpensive means of production of art in the hands of almost everyone, photography was enormously egalitarian and could theoretically be adopted by the masses for their own artistic expression, which was a goal of Dadaism (Darwent). What a perfect fit with the philosophy of the Dadaists!
At the same time, photography had the enormous advantage that pictures could be modified from their recording of strict reality. They could, for example, be altered by changing lenses or using mirrors, as in Distortions (1933-1934) by Andre Kertesz, a Hungarian born expatriate who made Paris his home (Andre Kertesz). Photographs may also be modified chemically during processing, by changing the exposure or by retouching, to create entirely fantastic and appealingly dreamlike effects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Entirely surreal images could be produced out of a darkroom, even at the hands of a person who had no drafting or painting skills . Such dreamlike effects were much valued by the Surrealists. Andre Breton wonders in his Surrealist Manifesto whether dreams are not equal in significance to waking life (Breton 434-437). He also has great respect for madness, and for hallucinations. In fact he regards hallucinations as pleasant enough to seduce the madman to remain in that condition (Breton 433).
All these states of being can distort perception in the same way that a distorted photograph modifies reality. How appealing it must have been to know that one could print on paper the contents of one’s dreams, as Breton could readily have accomplished with his simple but striking personal dream image of a man being cut in two by a window (Breton 436-437).
The exhibit Twilight Visions at the International Center of Photography shows a range of photos from the practitioners of this medium in the 1920’s and 30’s. One notable example, Brassai, the nom de shutter of Hungarian born Gyula Halasz, specialized in images of a very anti-establishment cast of “prostitutes, pimps, madams, transvestites, apaches, and assorted cold-eyed pleasure seekers” (Brassai).
Brassai’s photo of the Angry Couple at the Bal Musette (1932), suspends the quarreling and not terribly elegant couple in suspended animation between moments of blame and insult. The unsparing picture certainly exemplifies the Dadaist view of Tristan Tzara in his Dada Manifesto, 1918; demonstrating “no pity” (Tzara).
This depressing but basically realistic photo contrasts nicely with another Brassai, Bal Musette (1932) that combines the low-life grittiness of two bored prostitutes (or at least ladies of easy virtue) hugging a cheerful young man, with the hallucinatory surprise of finding in the mirror the image of a much older man and his companions.
It is almost as if the viewer were seeing the young man’s dissolute future. Another piece, Girl Playing Snooker (1933), possesses all the dignity of an odalisque or any portrait of John Singer Sargent, but was of course snapped in a dark bistro of an undoubted prostitute. Brassai’s gaze, like that of the young woman in the photo, is “straightforward as a hammer” (Brassai). This portrait of a nameless pool hustler delivers a Dadaist poke in the eye of traditional formal portraiture.
The can-can dancers move blurrily in Ilse Bing’s picture, French Cancan Dancers, Moulin Rouge, Paris (1931). Bing was unusual among this group of photographers, In that she had actually had some art and design-related training (Ilse Bing Biography).
We will write a custom Essay on The Exhibit Twilight Visions at the International Center of Photography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the blurring of this photo, it is a vivid image, and it is interesting to compare this with the many images of the demi-monde of the dance hall from the Impressionists. No color is in the photo, of course, and we are able to see the faces full on, unlike many backstage views by the previous generation of artists.
How odd it is to confirm that the Impressionists actually were accurate in portraying the cancan performers as entirely composed, disinterested and almost expressionless. The word jaded might have been invented for these faces. Perhaps, as Breton suggests, for these women, “existence is elsewhere” (Breton 439).
Breton would probably have encouraged these dancers to absent themselves as much as they could from the real world, since he affirmed that Surrealism was such a potent way of dealing with daily problems (Breton).
Dadaism and Surrealism embraced photography with enthusiasm, and created some remarkable works in the medium. They recorded the realities of street life and the underclass, and their dreams and nightmares as well. They used all the unique features of the medium to look at grit and turn it into fantasy.
Bibliography “Andre Kertesz“, 2010. Explore Photography. Web.
Brassai, 2010. Web.
Breton, Andre. “The First Manifesto of Surrealism.” Art in Theory: 1900-1999: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Ed. Charles, and Woodll, Paiul Harrison. Oxford: Blackwell, 432-439.
Darwent, Charles. Well-chosen works show how De Stijl – ‘The Style’ – movement led to a revolution in European art that still resonates today: Van Doesburg
Easter Island’s End Explicatory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The writer discloses the actions taken by the Easter Island people a couple of centuries ago. The details indicate destruction of forests, vegetation and animals through the chaotic and cannibalism behaviours.
According to Diamond (1995), the end of Easter Island is visible from the abandoned buildings and the mystery of isolation evident from the lack of vegetation and the gigantic stone statues and skyscrapers that seems to outgrow everything else such as the temples at Angkor. The writer indicates the story of Easter Island is not only a historical tale but also an imperative warning to current civilization.
As indicated in the writing by Diamond (1995), the view of the Island is a land without habitual vegetation such as trees lacks animal life and particularly comprises of a low populace of approximately 2000 people. The stone structures that appears gigantic on stone platforms shows devastation from which the writer proposes an inhibition by Polynesians.
On the analysis of the natural resources, the writer shows the richness that existed before the reforestation stopped. Deforestation is the cause of death of animal life and the devastating effects eventually destroys the crops. The deforestation was as a result for the need to erect strong stone statues in competition over power among the local clans. The fight for power was probably one of the causes of the land’s demise.
The writer indicates and emphasizes on the aspect of brutal misuse/abuse of nature as the root cause of the destruction. The leaders or those who were in authority never had the will and ability to prevent the destruction. The final indication of the writer is that, the historical destruction of the Island is a prospect for the future of the whole world.
From a personal point of view, the author’s initial argument regarding destruction of nature that causes devastation is very logical and authentic. From the beginning, the writer tries to raise the subject relating to the importance of civilization. However, from a defensive point of view, some indications of the theory such as the approximation of the population and the prediction over probability to have enough basis resources seem hypothetical.
It is not easy to judge the economical life of Easter Island population as well as the effects on the natural resources by considering a single aspect. The evidence may lack sufficient basis over the economical life. Economic status is the main influence over other human activities such as political eminences, people’s attitudes and social existence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The damages on Easter Island were catastrophic but the writer only focuses on the human negative activities. Various factors would have catalyzed people to obliterate the forests or other ecologically related aspects to cause the destruction. Natural catastrophes can equally damage a country’s civilization.
Even if people destroyed the Island as the writer claims, there is a high probability that they never realized the consequences because their low level of development, considering the time possibly influenced the activities as opposed to their conscious mind.
The social-political or economical system in existence then is not accurate or definite; therefore, they might have reacted as part of nature. Does it mean that implications over existence of dry land or desert where it used to be a sea or a tropical forest always befall the people who live nearby? It is not possible to predict the future or analyze the past base on one important economical factor.
There is a wide difference in the level of development; therefore, the prediction of a similar future regarding the fall of civilization is not eminent or logical.
There is a close connection of countries today and thus the characteristic or growth of civilization. Advancement in technology can allow destruction of the world in a couple of days but civilization does not permit. People need to learn from the history of such civilization as the writer specifies but the probability of the fall is almost zero.
References Diamond, J. (1995) Easter Island’s End. Discover Magazine. Retrieved from Http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/24/042.html
An Inchoate Crime Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Elements under common law
Elements under current Wisconsin statute
Comparison of elements
Reasons for changes in elements
Suggestions for new changes
Introduction An inchoate crime is defined as the incomplete, incipient, anticipatory or preliminary act, which implies that a person was inclined to commit a crime but never got to the “complete” completion of committing the crime (Chapter 939, 2009).
Inchoate crimes were traditionally considered misdemeanors (Incomplete [inchoate] crimes, 2007). However, as drug crime, white-collar crimes and organized crimes became more prevalent over the years and the need to empower the justice system to handle the crime, the inchoate crimes assumed a new recognition as felonies (Chapter 939, 2009).
The Doctrine of Merger stipulates the rules that are to be followed by the law enforcement officer and prosecutors when handling inchoate crimes. For starters, a person can only be charged with either the inchoate crime or Choate crime, but not both. Secondly, inchoate crimes ideally attract lesser penalties than Choate crimes.
Third, the inchoate crimes should have a clear intent and the mens rea (intent) element of the same should be clearly spelled out (Inchoate Crimes. n.d.). The courts require that intent be distinguished from criminal negligence and recklessness. The final rule is that the inchoate crime must have a lacking substantial step in order to complete the crime (chapter 939, 2009).
Elements under common law Initially, the common Law recognized three categories of inchoate crimes: 1) attempted crimes; 2) conspiracy crimes; and 3) solicitation crimes. Over the years however, the Common Law has accepted the unlawful possession of stolen good, or things that may pose a threat to public safety (e.g. gun arsenal
Bartleby the Scrivener Explicatory Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Why Read the Story
Introduction Materialism has taken precedence over humanity in contemporary society. Melville had foreseen this fact when he wrote Bartleby the Scrivener. This is a masterpiece expounding how materialism can derail humanity and men turn into selfish brutes that care less about fellow men. Bartleby the Scrivener revolves around a “scrivener”, working for a lawyer who doubles as the narrator.
After the lawyer places an advert in the local newspaper, Bartleby applies for the position of a copyist and the lawyer hires him. The first few days in job are great for Bartleby, given his swiftness and accuracy in writing. However, as the story unfolds, things change as Bartley starts to shun his duties for no good reason.
The Lawyer tries to fire him but he cannot hear anything of that sort. Finally, Bartley ends in prison on charges of vagrancy and dies few days later. This story is important for it highlights how philistinism and consumerism rose in American society and its effects on charity and humanity.
Analysis As aforementioned, the Lawyer, who runs a law firm on Wall Street, is the narrator. He apparently has two copyists, Turkey and Nippers but they do not astound him as Bartleby does.
Turkey is the Lawyer’s age mate (over sixty years) and even though he is a prudent copyist, as afternoons approach he wears out quickly and makes silly mistakes in typing. On the other side, Nippers, a twenty-five year old energetic lad, is the precise opposite of Turkey. He has issues in the morning sessions but as afternoons approach, he concentrates more in his work giving better results.
However, this story concentrates on Bartleby, a newly employed copyist. His enormous output in the job delights the Lawyer for he works day and night without complaining. However, Bartleby’s vibrancy lasts for a few days after which he starts to refuse doing his job. After the Lawyer consults him to do some work, he says, “I would prefer not to” (Melville 5).
The Lawyer does not realize this stance would later turn to a mantra until Bartleby uses it often and sticks to it. Bartleby, courteously but firmly refuses to do his routine job; something that puzzles the Lawyer, who calls it “passive resistance.” The Lawyer seeks to find out why Bartleby does not want to do his job; however, he gets the same reply of ‘…not to’.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bartleby’s behavior puzzles the Lawyer forcing him to ask other copyists what they think about Bartleby. They confirm that his actions are strange and unreasonable. After a final try to get Bartleby do his job, the Lawyer rushes out to attend some business but he vows to investigate the issue.
After scrutinizing for a few days, the Lawyer realizes that Bartleby does not leave the office or take lunch or tea; he only takes snacks that Nuts, the errand boy brings him. The lawyer rues that, “nothing so aggravates an earnest person as a passive resistance” (Melville 12).
Nevertheless, he starts pitying Bartleby for he concludes that whatever he does, he does it involuntarily. The lawyer resolves that he will “cheaply purchase a delicious self-approval” (Melville 21), by keeping Bartleby as his workers for he thinks if he lets him go, he would be mistreated by other employers; therefore, to the Lawyer, he is doing charity to Bartleby. Nevertheless, Bartleby does not care and he refuses to do any work even collecting some letters from the post office.
As the story unfolds, the Lawyer passes by his office on one Sunday morning only to find Bartleby inside, wearing shirtsleeves. Bartley asks the Lawyer to come back after few minutes but when he returns, he finds Bartleby gone; however, he can clearly tell that Bartleby lives in the office.
The Lawyer pities Bartleby more and even though he tries to gather information about his life, Bartleby does not divulge anything significant. After couple of days, Bartleby tells the Lawyer that he will never write; something that makes the Lawyer suspect Bartleby has lost his sight.
However, to the Lawyer’s disappointment, Bartleby insists that even if he regains his vision, he would not write. Consequently, the Lawyer asks Bartleby to leave the office but he quietly refuses. Regardless, of this, the Lawyer thinks that by letting Bartleby live in the office, he would be practicing some good Christian habits.
However, after few days, Bartleby’s presence draws attention of some friends and customers and the Lawyer decides to move his business to another apartment to save it. Few days, the new tenant of the Lawyer’s previous apartment visits the Lawyer and asks him to deal with Bartleby. The Lawyer states clearly that Bartleby is no longer his worker so he has nothing to do with him.
We will write a custom Essay on Bartleby the Scrivener specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Few days later, the new tenant comes back to the Lawyer and pleads with him to talk with Bartleby and the Lawyer agrees. To his disappointment, he finds that Bartleby is stubborn as ever and even after the Lawyer invites him to come live in his house, Bartleby refuses. The Lawyer simply leaves for he cannot do anything more and this leads to Bartleby arrest on charges of vagrancy.
The Lawyer pays Bartleby a visit in jail but he does not even want to see him so Bartleby refuses to talk to him. Even after the Lawyer arranges with prison warders to feed Bartleby well, he declines to eat. As the story closes, the Lawyer finds Bartleby dead under a tree shade in the prison compound. The story ends by revealing that Bartleby previously worked in the offices of the Dead Letter but new administrators fired him. The Lawyer cannot help thinking whether copyist job was so depressing to make someone mad just like Bartleby.
Why Read the Story The worthiness of this story comes from its two major themes, materialism, and charity. Given the time that Melville wrote this story, it highlights how materialism was on the rise around this time. The strategic setting of the story in The Wall Street echoes this theme because; The Wall Street was popularly becoming a hub for financial gains.
Melville uses Bartleby’s passive resistance to carry out his duties symbolically. It symbolizes the passive resistance that people had towards economic control. Therefore, this story is important for it underpins how Americans rose to materialism that is so prevalent in contemporary America.
On the other side, this story tackles charity work, giving insight of how philistinism and consumerism corrupted it. The Lawyer has a new definition for charity as he defines it with respect to cost and returns. He says, “Poor fellow! Thought I, he means no mischief; it is plain he intends no insolence I can get along with him. If I turn him away he will fall in with some less indulgent employer, and then he will be rudely treated here I can cheaply purchase a delicious self-approval.
To befriend Bartleby will cost me little or nothing, while I lay up in my soul what will eventually prove a sweet morsel for my conscience” (Melville 32). The Lawyers thoughts are clear in this context. Even though he sympathizes with Bartleby, he sees an opportunity to use him for he is useful. He cannot believe another employer ‘using’ Bartleby.
In pretext of helping Bartleby, by practicing good Christian habits, he only leverages self-approval by “cheaply purchasing delicious self-approval for his conscience” (Melville 21). He approves his conscience by pretending to keep Bartleby as a worker.
If anything, he frequently asks Bartleby to do some writing which will largely benefit him. The Lawyer’s ‘charity’ actions come under question when he decides to move his business because Bartleby is affecting it. This is not charity work at all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bartleby the Scrivener by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is true that the Lawyer offers to take Bartleby into his house but this is an act of justifying his conscience. Materialism overrides charity in this context; the fact that the Lawyer decides to leave Bartleby, shows that money is important to him than ‘charity.’ Melville highlights how materialism drowned good principles like charity work.
People’s consciences tell them that they need to uphold humanity; regrettably, the quest to get more money overrides this natural call of conscience. Therefore, this story is informative and this qualifies its worthiness.
Conclusion Melville, through his story, Bartleby the Scrivener, highlights crucial issues that are important for anyone to know. Through Bartleby’s quite resistance to carry out his duties, the reader can get a picture of how rise of materialism gave people impetus and zeal to resist economic regulation. On the other side, the Lawyer tries to justify his conscience by offering ‘half-baked’ charity actions. He does not want to let Bartleby leave; he offers to keep him and pretend he is charitable to purchase a sweet conscience.
Materialism has taken the better part of people’s lives and they do not care what is happening to others. Naturally, human beings have ‘humanity’ conscience that compels them to help others. However, they do not have time for that; therefore, they resort to shoddy charity actions like the Lawyer, to ‘purchase’ their peace of mind.
Works Cited Melville, Herman. “Bartleby the Scrivener; A Story of Wall Street.” Plain Label Books, 1977.
How Oligopoly Works in the American Cellular Industry Term Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Collusion in oligopoly
Competitiveness of oligopoly
War of prices
Barriers to entry
Interdependence of firms
Conclusion and predictions
Introduction Oligopoly refers to a market that is largely dominated by a small number of suppliers of a given commodity (Vives, 2001). In essence this type of market is a type of a monopoly. By the mere fact that the suppliers are very few, actions of one of the suppliers in the market are largely expected to affect the actions of other suppliers.
This also goes hand in hand with the decisions that are taken by the firms in the industry. A concept that is largely embraced by the four major mobile phone providers in the US is strategic planning. The possible responses that T-Mobile and Nextel will take most likely affect the strategic plans that Verizon and AT