Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of ethical climate of corporates. The discussion is centered on corporate governance, which constitutes ethical conduct of corporates among other things. In the discussion, my argument is that corporate leaders (Board Members or Senior Executives) are more responsible for the ethical climate of a corporate than other employees.
The discussion draws on the normative theories of business ethics namely utilitarianism and deontology as well as on bureaucracy and the decision making model. It also integrates corporate culture and structure with the ethical climate setting in corporations as well as corporate social responsibility; a concept which is gaining popularity in the corporate world.
The discussion uses the example of BP Company to illustrate how corporate leaders influence the ethical climate of corporates than the employees. The discussion starts with a general overview of the topic, then goes on to discuss the theoretical models and how they support the argument in the discussion using BP as an example.
At the end of the discussion is a conclusion which restates my stand on the topic by summing up the key points. In the discussion, the words corporate, company and organization have been used interchangeably but with the same meaning.
Discussion An Overview of Corporates Ethics
Corporate governance refers to the ways in which corporates are controlled and directed. As mentioned in the introduction, corporate governance constitutes the ethical conduct of the corporates, administrative issues, policy making and public relations among other things.
Corporates differ largely in terms of their objectives, mission, vision, coverage, capital base and their scope of operation. Due to these variations, different corporates have different organizational structure and culture, which are mainly influenced by the top leadership of the organizations. Organizational culture and structure are highly integrated, with the structure influencing the culture, which encompasses some elements of ethical conduct of organizations (Garriga, and Melé, 2004. pp.51-71).
Organizational culture refers to shared beliefs, values, norms and practices which characterize an organization. Organizational structure refers to how the organization is structured, and how power and authority to make decisions are distributed along the structure of the organization, and who should take what direction or instructions from whom and when (Murray, Poole, and Jones, 2006. pp.45-69).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In organizational structures which are highly rigid, the corporate culture is likely to be poor in terms of employees’ commitment and motivation while in structures which are less rigid and more flexible; the culture is likely to be strong in terms of how employees’ commitment and motivation.
The same applies to ethical climate of the organizations. Many organizations usually have some elements of bureaucratic structure, which is characterized by rigidity in practices and strict adherence to rules and regulations. This leaves the employees with little or no room to express their opinions in regard to any practice within the organizations where they work (Matten and Moon, 2004.pp. 323-337).
The ethical climate of organizations constitutes adherence to principles of ethical behavior and conduct by organization, both within and outside the organization. It also constitutes how the organization relates to its internal and external environments.
The ethical climate therefore touches on things like working environment, safety of the employees, care and conservation of the environment and practices which promote the interests of the consumers like adhering to the rules of manufacturing of products and putting the correct ingredients of products during packaging (Harrison, 2007. pp.371-384).
Ethical conduct of corporations is also intertwined with what is referred to as corporate social responsibility. This concept is generally used to refer to the relationship between businesses and their environment. All businesses operate in social, political, economic, and natural environments.
The concept therefore takes into account how businesses interact with these environments, either positively or negatively. The topic of corporate social responsibility can be broken down into four main components namely the ethical, economic, philanthropic and legal components (Aras and Crowther, 2010).
The ethical component of corporate social responsibility comprises the requirements or expectations of any business by the society. Such requirements or expectations include things like doing what is just, fair and right, using the law as the basis of organizational behavior, avoidance of questionable practices and doing business in a manner which is above the minimal requirements (Aras and Crowther, 2010).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Corporates Ethical Climate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of the ethical component of corporate social responsibility appears to be more deterministic than it is a matter of choice, that is, the ethical conduct of corporates touches on decisions which the corporates must make on how to relate with their employees, clients and the general business environment. The nature of those decisions only allows for the executives to make them (Beets, 2004.pp.193-219).
Theoretical Perspectives to Corporates Ethics
One of the theoretical perspectives to business ethics is the normative approach. This approach constitutes mainly of two sub-approaches namely utilitarianism and deontology. The two vary in terms of how they contextualize business ethics. However, they have one thing in common, that is, they are characterized by centralization of decision making on issues touching on ethics. This means that in both, the employees play very minimal or no role at all in influencing and setting the ethical climate of the organizations (Jamali and Mirshak, 2007.pp.243-262).
In business ethics, utilitarianism is about considering several courses of action, considering the costs involved and choosing the course of action which produces maximum good for the maximum number of people, irrespective of the negative effects of the maximization of the good, in this case, profits (Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011).
On the other hand, deontology requires employees to perform their duties as per the given instructions, leaving no room for them to give their opinion regarding the consequences of their actions as they perform their duties, but rather, performing their duties as instructed, because doing otherwise would be unethical (Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011).
The other perspective to corporate ethics is the decision making model, which begins with clarification of the issues on which ethical decisions are to be made. After doing the clarification, what follows is the evaluation of the clarified decisions, which paves the way for arriving at a precise decision on the most appropriate course of action. The decision is then implemented with modifications coming after the implementation (Marshall, 2007).
This model is more or less similar to the normative approach to ethics in that during the implementation stage, the guiding principle is mainly the maximization of profits and minimization of the costs. This is done mainly with a view of ensuring that the organization realizes its objectives with the use of minimum resources as possible. The decision making model, same as the normative approach exclusively involves the corporate leaders with the employees playing insignificant roles in the same.
The Case of BP
BP is a London based Oil company dealing with the exploration, refinery, production, distribution and marketing of Oil and gas products. With its operations in over 80 countries worldwide, BP is the third largest Oil and Gas Company with over 22,000 Oil service stations worldwide and a daily Oil production of over 3 billion barrels (Harvey and Solly, 2006).
In terms of organizational structure, the company is vertically structured with the CEO at the top. The company has got over 80,000 employees worldwide. The company also engages itself in Corporate Social Responsibility, especially in the area of reduction of greenhouse gases by investing huge sums of money in the establishment of alternative sources of energy which are renewable (Harvey and Solly, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporates Ethical Climate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the company is not free of problems. One major problem which it’s best known for is poor management, which has led to several accidents and disasters involving Oil and Gas, the most recent being the 2010 Mexican gulf Oil spill which led to pollution of the natural and marine environments. The company has been fined several times by environmental regulation authorities like the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) (Mauer and Tinsley, 2010).
Many of the BPs critics have attributed the occasional oil spills to the culture of profit maximization. This culture affects the operations of the organization because it seems to be inclined towards utilitarianism, a concept which connotes the maximization of profits in total disregard to any negative effects to the environment of the customers of the organization
For instance, according to Richard Mauer and Anna M. Tinsley of the McClatchy Newspapers, the organization “discouraged workers from reporting safety and environmental problems”. This information was based on a 2004 report of the Vinson and Elkins law firm, which warned that employees who reported any environmentally related problems faced some form of retaliation from the company (Mauer and Tinsley, 2010).
This is an ethical issue because the employees are discouraged from doing what is right for their good and for the good of others. If they report, for example, a leaking or a corroded pipe, actions would be taken to repair it, which would prevent any accident. If they do not report, the end result would be an accident, which would affect them and others as well (Wulfson, 2001. pp.135-145).
The utilitarian consideration in this ethical issue is that the company seems to be focused mainly on maximization of profits regardless of any consequences which may accompany the maximization. In business ethics, utilitarianism is about considering several courses of action, considering the costs involved and choosing the course of action which produces maximum good for the maximum number of people, irrespective of the negative effects of the maximization of the good, in this case, profits (Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011).
The company has been accused of paying a lot of attention on maximizing profits, by diverting resources which are supposed to maintain and repair infrastructure to capital. The employees are then supposed to keep quiet when they note a problem, because the resources which are supposed to take care of the problem are usually injected into the business as capital to generate more profits (Wilcke, 2004. pp.187-209).
The deontological aspect involved in this ethical issue has to do with doing what is right, as per a person’s duty. In business ethics, deontology requires employees to perform their duties as per the given instructions, leaving no room for them to give their opinion regarding the consequences of their actions as they perform their duties, but rather, performing their duties as instructed, because doing otherwise would be unethical (Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011).
The employees of the company are supposed to keep quiet when they notice an environmental problem. According to deontologists, doing this is ethically correct, despite the fact that reporting the problem would lead to actions which would lead to prevention of a bigger problem. On the other hand, reporting the problem is ethically wrong, because the employees have the duty of doing the right thing, which in this case, is to keep quiet when they see an environmental problem concerning their safety and the safety of others as well.
If they report therefore, they would have done the wrong thing, even if the reporting would lead to prevention of bigger problems. In this case therefore, doing the right thing is not in any way linked to the consequences of the actions, but ethics is linked to doing what is right and as per a person’s duty.
The decision making model to business ethics is applicable in this case in that the senior management of the organization are responsible for making crucial decisions which touch on ethical issues. They are the ones to decide on what to prioritize and for what reasons. The employees are supposed to abide with the final decisions of their seniors, and those who do not comply are threatened with dire consequences (Bartels, 2006.pp.403-423).
The case of BP therefore illustrates that corporate chiefs are the most influential when it comes to making decisions touching on ethical conduct for corporations. The main reason behind this is that ethical decisions are intertwined with financial costs, which many corporations wish to avoid. The senior managers of BP only think of using the funds meant for environmental safety as capital. This is not only unethical but also paints a bad image of the company to the outside world (Matten and Crane, 2005. pp.166-179).
My view to BPs approach to corporate ethics is that the approach is not one of the best because it does not encourage employee’ creativity nor does it give the employees an opportunity to give their views and suggestions regarding their safety as well as the safety of the environment. This is very detrimental because the employees do not feel as part of the organization, which leads to lowered motivation and commitment.
With this ethical approach, I think the organization may reach a point in time when their business will start to decline, especially due to their utilitarian approach to business, in disregard to their employees’ and environmental safety or concerns.
With the presence of other players in the oil and gas industry, competition is growing stiffer day by day, and unless the organization changes its approach, it may reach a point when its name will be completely damaged in the eyes of the world, thus making it hard to get licenses to operate in new countries (Grote, 2004.pp.581-590).
It may as well have some of its licenses in some countries which are strict with environmental and labor laws cancelled due to its disregard to environmental and employee safety. The employees may as well be poached by other competitors, with better packages, and this is how the organization will lose all the benefits it would have gained for all these years.
Conclusion In conclusion, the discussion was about the topic of ethical climate of corporates and whether the senior corporate leaders are more responsible for the ethical climate of a firm than other employees. The discussion has found out that the senior leaders exclusively determine the ethical climate of many corporates, more so in corporates which have bureaucratic organizational structures, which are characterized by strict adherence to rules and procedures irrespective of their rationality.
This makes the senior managers to be the chief architects in the process of determining which ethical route is best for the organizations, which is done in a discriminative manner, with total disregard to the internal and external environment which constitutes of employees’ safety as well as the safety of the clients for the corporates.
The two theoretical approaches to the ethical conduct of many corporates which have been discussed include the normative and the decision making perspectives. In the two perspectives, it has emerged that the senior managers of corporates are exclusively responsible for the ethical climate of their corporates. It has also emerged that many corporates engage themselves in what is referred to as corporate social responsibility, which is a public relations exercise to paint a good image of the corporates in the eyes of the public
More importantly, many corporates appear to be putting economic benefits first at the expense of the welfare of their employees’ and their clientele’s safety. One good example is the BP, which has found itself in the wrong side of corporate practice and expectations due to the several disasters which have led to damages to the environment and human life through pollution.
Many critics have attributed this trend to the company’s policy, which emphasizes on profit maximization to the extent of using the funds aimed for safety measures as capital and threatening the employees with dire consequences if they report the same.
Reference List Aras, G and Crowther, D. (2010). A handbook of corporate governance and social responsibility Corporate social responsibility series. Farnham GU9 7PT: Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Bartels, L. (2006). A tale of two tax cuts, a wage squeeze, and a tax credit. National Tax Journal,59(3):pp.403-423.
Beets, S.D.(2004). Critical Events in the Ethics of U.S. Corporation History.Journal of Business EthicsVolume 102, Number 2, pp.193-219.
Britannica Educational Publishing. (2011).Thinkers and Theories in Ethics. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
Garriga, E., and Melé, D. (2004).Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory. Journal of Business Ethics Volume 53, Numbers 1-2, pp. 51-71.
Grote, J. (2004). Taxation without respiration, economic liberty and political equality. Business Ethics Quarterly, 13(4), pp.581-590.
Harrison, E. (2007). Estate Planning under the Bush tax cuts. National Tax Journal, 60(3), pp.371-384.
Harvey,W.J.,and Solly, R.(2006). BP Tankers: A Group Fleet History. New York, NY: Chatham.
Jamali, D. and Mirshak, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility (CSR): Theory and practice in a developing country context. Journal of Business Ethics 72, pp.243-262.
Matten, D., and Moon, J.(2004). Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics Volume 54, Number 4, pp. 323-337.
Matten, D., and Crane, A. (2005). Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoreticalconceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 30(1),pp. 166-179.
Marshall, J. (2007). An Ethical Decision-Making Model. The Ethics Scoreboard, ProEthics, Ltd.
Mauer, R and Tinsley, A.M. (2010, May 8). Gulf oil spill: BP has a long record of legal, ethical violations. McClatchy Newspapers.
Murray,P., Poole, D and Jones, G. (2006).Contemporary issues in Management and Organisational Behaviour. Farmington Hills, MI: Cengage Learning. pp45-69.
Wilcke, R. (2004). An appropriate ethical model for business and a critique of MiltonFriedman’s thesis. The Independent Review, 9(2). pp.187-209.
Wulfson, M. (2001). The ethics of corporate social responsibility and philanthropic ventures.Journal of Business Ethics, 29: pp.135-145.
Critical Examination of the Impacts of Globalization on National Sovereignty Essay essay help free: essay help free
The essay is a critical examination of the impacts of globalization on national sovereignty. To adequately address this issue the concept of sovereignty is defined, an illustration of how globalization impacts on sovereignty is brought to light and finally the major drivers of globalization as well as their effects on national sovereignty are well tackled to give readers more insight.
The concept of sovereignty is usually seen in a three-fold perspective and include; “absolute supremacy over internal affairs within a country’s territory, absolute right to govern its citizen as well as freedom from any external interference in the previously mentioned matters” Sassen, (1996); a country or state is deemed to be sovereign and autonomous when it is considered to have the capability of making and implementing laws within its jurisdiction as well as carry on its functions, duties and responsibilities with no external powers or aid.
Similarly, it does not acknowledge any higher power or authority above itself. A state can thus be sovereign or not on the basis of the definition provided. On the other hand globalization refer to free movement of people, goods and services and capital between and among countries made possible by the advent in technology information. As a result the world has no doubt turned into a global village fashioned by interconnectedness and interdependence.
The major drivers of globalization include improved transportation and communication systems. With this people can travel within days from their own countries to others thousands of miles away.
This is attributed to technological improvements. Additionally, the desire of nations to enhance foreign direct investment by lowering issues relating to permits and tariffs has encouraged globalization. Similarly the need to join hands in the desire of nations to be stronger in terms of fighting for better economic, political as well as environmental stability has also encouraged globalization.
In the past, countries especially from the west and Middle East had very little in common concerning economic interdependence. However, the recent changes have seen to it a country like China being compelled to mend her relation with the western counterparts and vice versa.
To be in a position to sell their goods and services, the relationship is vital which has a greater probability of making sovereign states to compromise one of the attributes of autonomy/sovereignty. This idea contravenes the concept in which countries opt to operate and carryout their affairs without external influence (Wang, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another attribute that comes with sovereignty as suggested by Yip, 2003 is the country’s ability to fully protect her subjects from any kind of harm. Through free market which is a product of globalization, goods and services have found their way to other countries where the same are not produced or do not meet the demand.
There are instances that some goods or products are sold to these countries and without the knowledge of the recipient country, such goods are defective and can lead to serious health problems. This can be exemplified by such products as milk, beef, fish and poultry that have in the recent years caused serious health complications in the Middle East (Sassen, 1996).
Similarly, it is a fact that there are a number of multinational corporations that have spread all over the world. In the recent past, despite the fact that the corporation offered employment to the locals which is in line with the host governments wishes, the top positions are usually held by expatriates especially from the original country where the corporation comes from (Wang, 2004).
This has been possible through a number of corporation’s laws that override the interests of the host nation hence negatively impacting on laws and regulation that serve to make the host state autonomous.
Additionally, there are instances where multinational company have bought some of the factors of production such as land at higher prices leaving the local citizen either landless and squatters (Yip, 2003). From the review of the concept of sovereignty and globalization, the former is adversely affected by the later. However it is worth noting that globalization has brought some positive influence on the concept of sovereignty for instance improved democracy.
References Sassen, S. (1996). Losing control: Sovereignty in an age of globalization. New York: Colombia University Press.
Wang, G. (2004). The impact of globalization on state sovereignty. Chinese Journal of International Law, 3(2): 473-483.
We will write a custom Essay on Critical Examination of the Impacts of Globalization on National Sovereignty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yip, G. (2003). Total global strategy II. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, In.
Is the push to go green enough or too late? Report a level english language essay help
In the turn of the 21 century, the world has had many problems to deal with. Among the many problems is the environmental issue which has increased due to numerous factors; as the world witnessed the turn of the 21st century, a lot of transformation and developments have also been on the rise with new technology also being a major source progression of all times.
Because of the advanced technological changes, the planet has undergone major transformation both positive and negative. Such transformations have also impacted our surrounding and have even affected our way of life.
As such, this research paper will base its argument in discussing the numerous environmental concerns and the strategy of going green as a preventive measure to addressing the environmental issues as we seek to enquire whether the existing measure are doing enough to attain a sustainable solution to environmental issues; the paper will also make the appropriate recommendations on how the planet at large can be able to solve the current environmental issues.
As new technology is being developed more environmental issues are also on the increase with each coming day. Technological advancement such as the emergence of cell phones, motor car vehicles, bombs, new forms of energy among others has resulted to increase of environmental hazards such as air pollution, water pollution, increased waste products such as plastics bags, chemical pollution and so forth.
On the other hand, we can not entirely blame the technological changes for the numerous environmental issues but the humanity is also to blame for the increase of environmental problems. The increase of human activities such as mining, deforestation, overgrazing, construction, poor planning among other activities have also led to emergence of bigger environmental problems- bigger than the what humanity can eliminate at ease.
Due to the increase and heavy effects of environmental issues many strategies have been developed by various agencies such as United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA), World Health Organization (WHO), the environmentalist, human rights activists, and various government departments have been committed in order to ensure that the planet overcomes environmental issues for a better and safe living.
Discussion In an attempt to make the planet become a safe and better place free of environmental hazards, there has been world-wide campaign dumped “going green”. Going green can be defined as the concept that describes the various procedures transforming one’s lifestyle for the better, safety and for benefit of the environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communities, organizations, people and agencies who go green are not only making the environment safe but they are also making better decisions about their daily lives whilst at the same time considering how such decisions are impacting the environment and how they facilitate the fight against global warming, water pollution, air pollution, destruction of the natural environment among other environmental concerns (Sleeth, 2009).
According to Taylor (2008) the going green has become a social movement and it has spread across the planet as it seeks to influence the society and the various environmental agencies in educating the general public to protect and conserve the natural resources for the survival of all organisms.
Mainly those people who carry out the campaign of going green are usually referred as environmentalist; the environmentalists are people and organized groups whose works is to speak out about our natural surroundings and elaborating the numerous techniques of ensuring sustainable management of the natural resources through implementing policies that will ultimately ensure change of behavior, making of informed decisions, and adopting new ways such renewable energy (Sleeth, 2009).
Generally the environmentalist seeks to address the environmental issues by making the people to have a positive perception of the natural world while taking care of it for sustainability.
Objectives of going green The concept of “going green” has its main objective of addressing the most pressing environmental issues and concerns. Mainly, there are three issues people and agencies of going green usually target to address at all times which include; sustainable living, use of environmental friendly products and the reusing and recycling of waste products as much as possible (Price water coopers, 2008).
Sustainable living involves the use of natural resources at the minimal possible way while using them in an effectiveness way which can only be achieved through conserving energy, eating a reasonable diet, reducing consuming imported items and use of better transportation system. Additionally, the going green advocates for use of environmental friendly products also known as green products such as recycled paper products, natural food, less toxic products especially person care product such as cosmetics and so on.
The use of green products is essential in reducing damage and harm of our earth, air, the water we use, plants, and other living organisms. On the other hand, the campaign to recycle products mainly targets products such as plastics bags, metals, glasses, left over foods among others. The notion to recycle products facilitates in reducing poor waste disposal and most importantly, it also helps in conserving energy.
We will write a custom Report on Is the push to go green enough or too late? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Going green step by step In today’s world, there is a greater need to embrace changes that would facilitate environmental conservation. In fact, there is a growing group of environmentalism urging industrial companies to go green everywhere across the world and there are doing this through also campaigning to consumers, government departments and business sectors.
According to price water coopers (2008), although some of the industries do not really feel that their activities are contributing to environmental hazards, most of the companies have taken in the idea that there is need to minimize their environmental effects. Such companies are embracing the idea of green-oriented products since this holds the chances of reducing greater environmental hazards.
Going green generally requires step by step changes in the production process. It involves production of green products all through the production, products supply, up to the marketing stage and finally to the consumers who must also go green; to indicate the level of commitment to going green, a number of companies in the world are also branding their product green (Price water coopers, 2008).
The going green strategies are meant to help the humanity and other living organism live harmoniously here on earth, save money, and create an environment that is sustainable for living while trying to meet all human needs (Chernova and Krieger, 2009).
Therefore there are a number of steps we as human beings can take in order to ensure that we stop climate changes and make our lives better which will also ensure that the future generation will live sustainably. In the following section we shall outline the several strategies of going green; the paper shall also discuss each strategy extensively so that at the end we can be able to make an assessment of the strategies in terms of whether these strategies are being effective in solving environmental issues in today’s world.
The first procedure emphasizes on saving energy as an approach to save money consumption. This strategy urges the humanity that, we should at all times reduce the amount of energy consumption we use every day which will also help in saving money used for consumption.
For instance, a consumer should always unplug appliances such as electronic gadgets when he/she is not using them and this will help save power energy, wash clothes in cold water and reduce heating water when not necessary which will also save power, and try as much as possible to use power saving bulbs such as compact fluorescent light bulbs (Chernova and Krieger, 2009).
Secondly, it is also necessary to save water consumption at our homes. Reduced use of water at homes and industries will also help save money and ensure constant water supply.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the push to go green enough or too late? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If possible, it is necessary to take shorter showers so as to use less water, use low-flow showerhead which will help reduce water consumption, and plant drought resistance crops in our gardens to reduce water intake (Chernova and Krieger, 2009). Such measures will help very much to reduce the level of water intake at the domestic level and will also help save money.
Thirdly, it is important to reduce the level of using gas in all areas. Factories, Cars, motorbikes and other machineries use a lot of gas which in turns has contributed to environmental problems in the planet today.
To help reduce on gas use, one can use bicycle or walk to work and try to utilize the telecommunication system or move closer to place of work at whatever cost because it may be more beneficial in the long run; it will reduce toxic emissions, save gas and also solve issues of traffic congestion which will also save cost and time (Taylor, 2008). Such steps will help in reducing the level of gas being used and this will consequently help in promoting good and healthy living.
Additionally, it also important to reduce using whatever that may contribute to increased waste products; Taylor (2008) argues that, it is necessary to avoid bottled water. One method to help reduce bottled water is by making sure we purify our tap water at home instead of buying bottled water from the supermarkets and other retailers.
Again, we should also try to carry reusable water bottles such as those made of aluminum since we can always have them for a long time; moreover, we should also try to always bring reusable bags whenever going for shopping; it will help save resources and cut down use of plastic bags. By adhering to these simple steps, we are able to reduce the quantity of waste products while also saving money.
Another strategy to facilitate minimal waste products is by trying to avoid disposing electronics products such as cell phones, computers, and broken monitors among other electronics (Price water coopers, 2008). To avoid this, one can recycle or donate such gadgets to friends in order to ensure responsible use.
By so doing, we are able to reduce the level of electronic waste which contains mercury and other deadly components that are harmful to human health since it has been the most growing environmental problem today. To help in reducing this growing problem the government should try setting up recycling centers to reduce the hazardous waste.
Furthermore, individuals should try to improve their indoor air quality since it has been observed that indoor air has more environmental health risk as compared to the outdoor air (Chernova and Krieger, 2009).
This situation is very dangerous especially for those people who live in high ozone regions since they are more prone to environmental hazards. The opinion is that, individuals should always try to clean the indoor air which will also help in killing germs and other disease causing organism which will in turn facilitate to providing a cleaner environment and healthy living.
Another step of going green is advocating for organic products. It is recommended that, we should always purchase organic products since they will promote healthy eating; farmers should embrace the option of growing organic products especially vegetables such as onions, tomatoes, spinaches, kales, and cabbages since they are usually used as food at most times (Taylor, 2008).
Taylor emphasizes that, the first step is through using non-toxics inputs at the firm especially fertilizers and pesticides which will in turn ensure we acquire organic products.
Finally, another very important strategy of going green is through encouraging planting trees and avoiding deforestation. The opinion is that, for every tree cut down, we should always plant two as a replacement; this will ensure that, desertification is minimized and the future generation is protected in one way or the other.
In fact, by planting trees, we are able to enjoy fresh air which is essential for good health, protection of natural habitat for the wild animals is guaranteed and we are also able to make certain that the water catchment areas are being well preserved.
Conclusion How effective is the going green policy?
As already discussed, the going green is an essential instrument to fighting environmental crisis in this era of technological advancement. For the reason that, the world is facing a growing wave of environmental issues such as emission of toxic gases, destruction of natural resources such as forest and other forms of energy, increased waste disposal, deforestation, and misuse of energy among other pressing issues; all this problems have also contributed to new outbreak of global crisis such as poor lifestyle, poor health among the humanity, death of organism and animals, outbreak of diseases, desertification, global warming, and famine among other issues (Chernova and Krieger, 2009) .
With the presence of going green strategies, the population has had a renewed optimism since the solution to such emerging environmental issues is almost being achieved.
In deed, the going green policies have helped in a broad way to reduction of the heavy burden of environmental hazards through tumbling the high level of waste products, saving energy, reducing toxic gases, conserving water catchment areas, and making certain that the population is enjoying healthy organic products.
As such, we can bring the discussion to a close that, the push to going green is doing enough to solve environmental problems; it is an important choice that is currently enhancing attainment of better and safe environment for a positive society.
Reference Chernova, Y
Intercultural Communication Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Today, people live in a pluralistic society with diverse cultures. Culture refers to a set of characteristics common to a particular society. By definition, cultures are different in many aspects viz. beliefs, behavior patterns, social practices, and values.
A particular culture exhibits a distinctive pattern of thought such as social norms and attitudes, definite patterns of behavior, especially in commerce and industry, and specific patterns of cultural artifacts. In a multicultural society, intercultural understanding is essential in creating an atmosphere of tolerance and respect.
In this context, effective communication or sharing of information between people of different cultural backgrounds is critical. Since cultures embody distinctive patterns of behavior and perceptions, the intercultural communication approaches should take into account the cultural differences. In other words, approaches to intercultural communication should be difference-based. Otherwise, misunderstanding is likely to happen particularly when the differences between national cultures are significant.
The misunderstanding may lead to a conflict or strained relations among the involved national cultures. Britons and Americans largely have similar cultures because of a common language and common ancestry (Comrie, 1981, p. 54). However, despite these similarities, subtle cultural differences, which have a far more impact on British-American intercultural communication than the minor linguistic differences, do exist.
In particular, attitude to modesty between the two cultures is evident. While the British culture does not lay much emphasis on self-efficacy or modesty, we, the Americans tend to place a high value on these qualities. These cultural differences have a significant impact on intercultural communication between the Britons and Americans. Understanding and developing awareness of the individual cultures are pivotal in intercultural communication.
Cultural and Communication practices prevalent in British Culture Amongst the British people, the cultural multifariousness is rather substantial. The British people consist of English, Welsh, and the Scots. Thus, a single national culture in the United Kingdom is hard to define. However, in general, Britons, irrespective of their subcultures, would react similarly when they encounter people from a different culture such as the Americans.
Most notably, the Britons have a tendency to favor individualism, as opposed to group orientation. In this regard, Britons hold a personal opinion or attitude towards many aspects without consideration for others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, most Britons place more emphasis on individual privacy. Most often, a Briton’s daily life is confined to his/her home with all visits rearranged rather than on a casual basis. In particular, the old generation dislikes unexpected visits. However, among close friends, there is some degree of freedom as most visits are often casual (Allik,
OPTUS on Facebook Report college admissions essay help
Introduction Communication is extremely vital in information dissemination and thus many companies rely heavily on it for clientele outreach (Fielding, 2006). The quest for efficiency, therefore, becomes a major concern for many businesses when choosing the right forms of communication in order to maximize effectiveness and wider market reach.
This dictates the need for market understanding and clientele destinations so that the chosen communication media can easily reach the targeted clientele at the right time (Nielsen, 2008). This implies that there has to be a lot of care in media selection for maximum output. In return, this will ensure that the set objectives are achieved within a given time frame. Needless to say, an effective communication platform is an integral requirement for business growth and profitability.
While market expansion entails maintaining long term relationship with current clients and acquiring new ones, there is need to select the most effective communication models and the right communication channels for message deliveries and propagating the ideals of a business (Capelin, 2004).
In most cases, one way communication is preferred but with the advent of new technology amidst a supportive business environment, it has become unavoidable necessity for feedback information regarding on-way statics and thus there is possibility that organizations can get information regarding the number of recipients of their one-way sent communication.
Therefore, this improves a company’s influential judgment on choosing the right medium of communication. With diversity in information systems, different forms of communication that present suitability in several forms are readily available in the contemporary business world (Capelin, 2004).
This therefore forces any communication type to put into consideration the form that has to be relayed to respective stakeholders. The contact media also plays vital role in determining communication type to be employed in message relaying. For instance, in order to relay information through a visual communication system, it is required that the information form be either pictorial or in video form.
Likewise, Fielding (2006) argues that using audio communication systems would require the use of audio messages and in the same way, published media will automatically require written messages or pictorial compositions. Electronic media can sometimes combine all of these information forms and relay them using one medium. However, suitability and reliability of the medium chosen will depend on area of coverage and the number of loyal subscribers to that medium of communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The higher the number of subscription in a communication medium and the larger the area of coverage, the favorable the medium itself for use as an agent of message dispatch. Since Optus is a multinational company that is based in Australia but still under expansive plans, there is urgent need to employ different and most appropriate channels of communication which will attract new customers and still retain the existing ones (Smith, 2009).
With roughly more than ten products and services and while dominating the Australian market share in its category, Optus Solutions Ltd will seek to trap new markets outside the country and beyond the Australian continent in order to increase its capital base. The already successive expansive attempt into the Asian markets is yet another opportunity for the company. Optus is seeking to cross borders to capture new markets and maintain its dominance in the Information and Communication Technology industry.
Purpose of the report
The purpose of this report was to examine if the choice by Optus Solutions Ltd to use facebook as a medium of communication between the company and potential clients in its attempt to make further expansions was the best choice in achieving its objectives.
Furthermore, the report was supposed to offer recommendations on the choice of media of communication for the company alongside other communication strategies that Optus should employ for optimum reach to its clients. Additionally, recommendations were to focus on effective communication strategies for the Optus Company even as it endeavors to expand.
While examining if facebook was the right and most effective media for use by Optus solutions Ltd in communication aimed at marketing, it was important to consider its use for new products and services advertisements and the future expansions and awareness rate of the facebook media. On the same note, it was also important to consider the efficiency of the media chosen by this company for its expansion purposes.
Much of the information used in this report was largely collected from various sources. These included consultations, totally sovereign review of the company information from its own website, business oriented websites as well as facebook information available on this company in regard to expansion and communication in regard to attracting new customers and keeping existing ones.
Additional information was also obtained from direct online survey of potential customers outside Australian region. This catered for additional information regarding knowledge of the company and its products. This information was gathered and documented for use in the report to determine if the company was using the right channels and media of communication to reach existing and potential new customers to the company.
We will write a custom Report on OPTUS on Facebook specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Online interviews were carried out to establish if all people living in the Australian continent were really aware of the company, its products and services before it embarked on its expansive plans. Same procedure was followed as above and all the information collected tabulated to analyse the awareness of the people regarding the company.
In carrying out the online interviews, some respondents were unwilling to spare time for the interview citing reasons such as ‘wastage of their special time’ in response. Others could not present truthful information and thus some biasness in the information collected about the company.
Locating the exact information about the company and its choice of forms of communication to reach its targeted population was extremely hard and thusmyriad of assumptions were inevitable in the writing of this report. Lots of information regarding the daily operations of this company is either kept highly confidential or the company does not provide the details of its daily running and this was a great limitation in determining the exact statistical information needed for analysis.
It has been greatly assumed that the information available on websites and facebook regarding Optus Solutions Ltd is all accurate and thus largely used in the analysis and evaluation of communication strategies of the company. This information will enable the determination of the effective types of communication employed by Optus in reaching its targeted audiences.
It has also been greatly assumed that all the information collected online from sources in the Australian peninsula is nothing but accurate information and thus has also been extensively used in the analysis and evaluation of the company as regards communication strategies and expansive plans.
Thirdly, it has been also assumed that the products shown on the Optus website page of products and services are entirely the only products and services the company has to offer to customers in the Australian regions and beyond its borders. These products will be singly evaluated in the given regions; that is in Australia, Philippines and the Indian markets for determination of the ability of the company to venture into new markets in respect to effective communication (Capelin, 2004).
Since every company uses a strategic medium in its effective communication to targeted audiences, it has been heavily assumed too that Optus Solutions Ltd is extensively using facebook as the strategic medium in its expansion efforts. This information available on facebook regarding the company and its products will entirely be used to promote the company in display and advertising of its products and services and present an effective communication tool by the company.
Optus is one of the largest telecommunication providers in the Australian region, fully owned by a Singaporean company called Singapore Telecommunications. Its Optus brand is its major brand under which it trades but has also other subsidiary brands that it owns which operate under different names and these include, Boost Mobile, and Virgin M. Australia, which operate in the telephone industry, Alphawest in the ICT industry and in others in the network industry like Uecomm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on OPTUS on Facebook by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Initially this company was fully owned by the government and was known under a different operating brand name which was Aussat Pty. It underwent a rebranding thus changing its name to Cable and Wireless Optus Pty that lasted for a period before another rebranding to its present brand name Optus. With successful rebranding, this company has undergone multiple transitions and in the process gained and lost potential clients in the process of rebranding since some clients are not information conscious.
The company owns a large portion of the fixed telephony services in the region with commercial POTS that represent its ability to serve the local and international regions, that is, it is able to reach the local and distant regions. It also owns commercial voice over internet protocol, voice over DSL and intelligent network applications.
In the mobile telephony industry, it covers the largest share in the market by owning a GSM and GPRS service that covers almost all the Australian population- approximately ninety seven percent of the total population. It also has a great 3G and HSPA service industry that covers approximately more than ninety seven point three percent of the total population of Australia. It again owns the satellite telephony industry that covers the whole of the country.
Besides the telephony industry, the company owns other services in the internet provision industry which include Residential Dial-Up services that expand in all the states, residential Broadband internet services which are run through a cable system and DSL that span in all the states except the northern regions.
It also has satellite internet services that it runs through its geostationary satellites, a secure gateway services that are specially offered to the national government and commercial internet access. In addition there is also cable television known as Optus television provided in the largest cities of the country. It also has data transmission services and other services offered through leased lines.
Its terrestrial infrastructure spans over the largest cities of Australia, its satellite infrastructure spanning through the regions of geostationary satellites, the international earth points of geostationary satellites and the national earth stations in major cities in Australia. The company has a customer access base network of major cities including Sydney, Brisbane, Canberra, Wollongong and Adelaide to name just but a few.
Other accessible regions include regions where the company is able to provide coaxial cables. In other words the company has the ability to reach the whole market of Australia since accessibility is possible everywhere within the country for the diverse products and services it offers (Smith, 2009).
The company announced its international expansion plans in the year two thousand and three and a year later, it was able to launch a short messaging service that could reach more than ninety countries worldwide.
This was its clear move towards internationalization but then no clear communication strategy was shown in regard to the expansion and how the markets had been acquired. Today the company looks forward to making further expansions in the mobile telephony industry into other countries of the world including the Asian region and the African peninsula.
Findings According to data and information available on facebook, the following tabulated report was drawn. This took into consideration all the products and services that the company offers and their status on facebook as a media of effective communication for purposes of retaining and acquisition of new customers in its expansion endeavor.
Although most products could not be found on facebook, the results had to constitute each and every product of the mother company since effective promotional strategies through effective communication has to happen in every department and thus each product undergoes the same effect.
Optus products and services as shown on facebook pages
Product present on facebook likes dislikes Company yes 52,284 Not shown Mobility No N/A N/A Network yes 0 0 Enterprise communication No N/A N/A Satellite yes 3 0 Security yes not shown not shown Global yes 50 0 Discussion Australia by itself alone is a country with a population of more than twenty two million people and out of these, more than ten million people- reflecting more than forty five percent, have signed up for facebook accounts. This is a translation of approximately half the Australians on facebook but as evident from the above results, it is extremely clear that Optus popularity on facebook is extremely low.
Being a multinational company that operates in the whole of Australia and being one of the largest telephony providers in the region, the company has only managed to gallon a whopping total of only 52,284 likes from its existing and or potential customers (Jones, 2010). This represents a shockingly low popularity level for a company brand like Optus.
This implies that its communication strategies are not fruitful or the facebook communication strategy in not highly effective. This is also indicated by the presence of one of its services, that is, networking as a service also has shockingly low number of likes; an indication of unpopularity.
The satellite service has as well received a tremendously low popularity on facebook; another clear indication of extremely low popularity. Products which include, Mobility, Enterprise communications, Global and ‘Telepresence’ were conspicuously absent on facebook implying nonstrategic efficiency in communication (Fielding, 2006).
Optus company brand on facebook page consisted of graphical image with persuasive writings on it, encouraging new and old customers to participate in liking the company and finding the key master company for a chance to win a trip. This is a marketing strategy which reflects likings from hopeful winners and thus, not people who really like the company.
Basing on this, the company was trying to woo potential clients and thus the likes also represent people who even do not know Optus or have never used any one of its services. Although this strategy works in marketing for its expansive endeavors, actual reflection of potential customers in the internationalization efforts is not clear.
The other products and services on the facebook page did not have any graphical or pictorial compositions but only word messages. This shows that the company did not use effective communication types like visual on the given media to communicate to its existing customers and attract new ones.
Nielsen (2008) points out that effective communication embodies the use of all the four types of communication whereby visual communication has the greatest intensity followed by verbal or audio communication. Not denying the fact that the company uses these in its routine communication practices, they are scantly available on facebook and thus an implication of failure of communication.
Failure of other products’ presence on facebook is a direct indication of failure of utilization of highly potential media in effective communication to various stakeholders- another landmine of poor communication skills (Capelin, 2004). Facebook is the most famous tool in social media and with more than eight hundred million subscribers and more than ten million Australians. This is an indication of enormous potential in facebook in communication since old and potential clients are found here.
Recommendations and implementations Optus as a company with diverse products and services need to utilize effective communication skills to keep and acquire new clients (Nielsen 2008). The emergency of facebook as a social media provided the greatest potentials for extensive communication between individuals and companies.
This thus should have been one of the best tools the company should use to make effective and transparent communication between stakeholders. The use of wall posts and other visual and responsive media on facebook should have been a priority. Traditional forms of communication which include radio and television should increase the familiarity of in the home environment (Gibson, 2008).
Thus employment of visual and pictorial compositions on facebook and the launch of other products and services’ facebook profiles will greatly help in increasing the popularity of facebook. This should take place with immediate effect with awareness campaigns in order for all stakeholders to be aware of any changes in product progresses. This would be the utilization of effective communication skill in presentation of relevant information to all stakeholders.
Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clearly evident that Optus as a company had not utilized facebook as a media of communication for effective communication to various stakeholders. Australia by itself alone is a country with a population of more than twenty two million people. Out of the total population, about 45 percent are currently using facebook as their preferred social site as well as means to reach out for friends and other acquaintances.
This implies that the company could greatly benefit from utilizing facebook as one of the channels of communication. Furthermore, Optus has a very strong presence on the physical environment with a familiarity percentage ranging close to 90 percent. On the other hand, it commands a tiny 3 percent on face book. The fact that the Australian population using population is relatively large implies that the company has been losing huge profits due to the unreached clientele base.
This is a reflection of failed utilization of potential communication media in carrying out effective communication and hence marketing of the company. Other products and services such as satellite service have equally received tremendously low popularity on facebook. Needless to say, this may be yet another clear indication of extremely low popularity of the company especially on the bulk of the population.
Others which include, Mobility, Enterprise communications, Global and ‘Telepresence’ just to mention a few were conspicuously absent from facebook (Jones, 2010). If such services are not firmly in place and worst of all, not recognized by the target, then it implies that the given company is by far and large, employing nonstrategic efficiency in communication.
Failure of other products’ occurrence on facebook is a straight indication of failure of exploitation of highly potential media in effective communication to a range of stakeholders- an additional landmine of poor communication skills. Facebook is the most well-known tool in social media and with more than eight hundred million subscribers and slightly above ten million Australians.
Indeed, it is a clear indication that facebook as a social utility presents numerous and potential opportunities to the business world such that proper utilization of the facility can indeed boost returns and profitability of a business entity.
References Capelin, J. 2004. Communication by design: Marketing professional services. Atlanta: Greenway Communications.
Fielding, M. 2006. Effective Communication in Organizations, Cape Town: Lansdowne Ltd
Gibson, B. 2008. Case study report, Melbourne: Monash University. Web. Available from https://www.monash.edu/rlo
Jones, S. 2010, Optus Facebook Page. Web. Available from https://www.facebook.com/optus
Nielsen, J. 2008. Effective Communication Skills, New York: Xlibris Corp.
Smith, S. 2009. Telepresence managed. Web. Web.
Redwood Associates Company Business Ethics Case Essay writing essay help
The debate on whether employees should smoke at their workplace has been on going for a long time and in the process sparking a lot of controversy. Charles Renfold, a supervisor at Redwood Associates finds himself in a tight spot and finds it difficult to make a decision on what to do with two of his dependable employees who have the habit of smoking within the company premises. By experience, Charles is well aware of how difficult it can be to quit smoking because he used to smoke himself.
The supervisor is under pressure from Darlene, who is a non-smoker working in the same office with Frank and Alice who are smokers. Darlene if fed up with the behavior of her colleagues and is urging the supervisor to act because she can not continue working with the two. This paper will suggest the appropriate course of action to be taken by the supervisor and at the same time describe the smoking policy that should be recommended to Redwood Associates.
Charles Renfold should strictly enforce the smoking policy for the company to continue functioning effectively. However sympathetic he can be, when it comes to sensitive issues like smoking in the office, the rules should be fully enforced (Price, 1997). From this case, Darlene is uncomfortable and is unable to give her best performance because her morale is very low.
The company should set up a smoking zone for its employees incase they want to retain them because of their expertise. Smoking should only be done in the designated zones or when out of duty (Price, 1997). Smoking in other areas within the company premises is subject to strict action from the management.
The smoking policy is aimed at ensuring that the health and general well-being of all employees is guaranteed by enhancing quality indoor air. The company is supposed to be smoke free except in areas designated by the policy (Chenoweth, 2007). Smoking is not allowed in all enclosed areas within the company. Some of the areas in which smoking is banned include conference rooms, private offices, common working areas, restrooms, company vehicles, hallways, stairs and other enclosed company facilities.
Incase the company wishes to provide a smoking zone for its smoking employees, the smoking zone should be located outdoors at the far end of the building with the area being well fenced (Chenoweth, 2007). Employees are only allowed to smoke exclusively in the smoking areas and not other outdoor areas of the company such as the parking lots and other relaxing areas of the company. No one is allowed to smoke along the pathways and other grassy areas of the company.
Smoking in personal vehicles is allowed as long as all the tobacco products and smoke are completely contained in the employee’s personal vehicle. Both smoking and non-smoking employees should not be subjected to the smoke in the parking lot or other areas within the company premises (Price, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A company has no legal responsibility to provide a smoking zone for its employees and it is only a favor from the company towards its smoking employees. Since there is no legal protection to use these areas, those employees who use these smoking areas at their own risk. There are no additional breaks to allow the employees to smoke and employees are not allowed to use their working workers to smoke (Price, 1997).
The other most important section of the smoking policy is the section on disposal of tobacco products. It is an offence to be found disposing tobacco products within the company. All tobacco products should be disposed in designated containers within the company premises (Price, 1997).
This measure is aimed at ensuring that company environment is clean and conducive for all the employees, customers and other visiting partners. This policy also takes effect when on company duty outside the company premises such as the customer’s site.
Employees are allowed to use tobacco products as long as their fitness for duty and professional appearance is maintained. Employees being allowed to smoke in their workplaces have a privilege that can be withdrawn if the smoking employees start abusing it. Employees having the smell of tobacco can be very irritating to fellow non-smoking employees and customers. Smoking employees should try as much as possible to do away with the tobacco smell while on duty.
The smoking policies are not meant to intimidate anyone but are for the good of all employees regardless of whether they smoke or not (Price, 1997). The company management should ensure that the policies of dealing with smoking should be clearly defined. A healthier workplace promotes the morale of workers and the smoking policies can help smoking employees to quit smoking because they find a better reason to do so.
The company and employers stand to benefit a lot if smoking is controlled at the workplace. By preventing smoking, the company reduces direct healthcare costs, reduces the risk of fires and enables the employees to avoid smoking-related diseases that can interfere with their work attendance and general performance (Price, 1997).
Apart from the irritating smoke odor, there are some offensive perfumes and body odor that are irritating to other employees especially those with allergies. The issue of body odor should be handled professionally by the company management to avoid a conflict of interests (Price, 1997). Since there are many causes of body odor such as the physical activities of the company that lead to sweat, the company should encourage its employees to have regular showers with the use of underarm deodorants to put the issue of body odor under control.
We will write a custom Essay on Redwood Associates Company Business Ethics Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are other causes of body such as dietary issues and clothing and the company should call upon professionals to help their employees deal with the problem of body odor. Employees whose work is more physical and leads to sweating should put on clothing that made up of anti-bacterial materials.
Perfumes and colognes used excessively can be very uncomfortable to fellow employees and customers especially those with allergies (Chenoweth, 2007). The issue of perfumes can be a subject of lawsuits because the offensive perfumes create dissent among employees. It is the responsibility of employers to talk privately to those employees with body odor problems and help them have solutions to their problems.
In conclusion, Redwood Associates should put in place the recommended smoking policy to make all their employees comfortable so that they can perform to their full potential in a healthy working environment. Smoking employees can only be allowed to smoke in designated smoking zones and inside their private vehicles while ensuring all the smoke and tobacco products are contained in their vehicles. Companies should also work hard to bring the issue of body odor and offensive perfumes under control.
References Chenoweth, D. (2007). Worksite health promotion. New York, NY: Human Kinetics.
Price, C. (1997). Group Practice Personnel Policies Manual. New York, NY: Medical Group Management Association.
Incorporating Service Marketing in the Restaurant Industry Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The study focuses on incorporating service marketing in the restaurant industry. There are over 8 million restaurants in the world today and over 300,000 restaurant companies. These restaurants are either full service restaurant or a fast food chain. However, the growth rate of the fast food chain in the world has superseded the full service restaurants (Parsa and Kwansa, 2002).
This gives rise to the numerous business opportunities in the development of fast food restaurants all over the world. It was such an opportunity that was seized by Old Chang Kee which has developed into being a major fast food chain in Singapore.
Background information of Old Chang Kee Old Chang Kee is a fast food restaurant in Singapore. This food chain restaurant has a very humble beginning. It started as a very small coffee shop outside Rex Cinema along Mackenzie road. It specialized in serving people with curried diets that were loved by many residents.
Among its major pastries are curried potatoes, chicken, slices of chicken fried with herbs and spices. The customer service ensured that deliveries were tailored for each customer. As a result, torrents of Singaporeans wanted to visit the Old Chang Kee outlet. The hotel’s management under the pioneer leadership of Mr. Han’s management since 1886 has ensured that the business has grown and traversed into a major brand in the Singaporean fast food industry.
The first objective of Mr. Han when he took over the management was to re-engineer the company so that it would modernize its business operations to meet the demands of its customers. He proposed a new system that would guarantee absolute improvement in the quality of services that were being offered at that time.
This re-strategizing of the restaurants’ ways of operating resulted to the initiation of more aggressive competitive programs and this led to the growth of the restaurant whereby it has more than fifty outlets in Singapore, more than three in China, two in Malaysia and more than four in Indonesia. Another strategy that won the market share for the restaurant was the introduction of more diets in its menu such as the Sardine “O” and the Pepper ”O” that won the hearts of many Singaporeans.
This has ensured that the company has been able to keep up with the trend in the customer satisfaction that has been diversifying due to the entry of more international fast food restaurant like the MacDonald Singapore franchise. Due to its growth and ability to evolve along with the customer’s requirements, Old Chang Kee restaurant has won a number of prestigious awards among them being the Singapore SPBA distinct brand awards of 2005 (Parsa and Kwansa, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Service Marketing Service refers to the value co-creation that is achieved when there is interaction in the service systems that are involved in the creation, proposing of the absolute realization of the propositioned values that are expected to be realized. These propositions in the service system include goods and services that are delivered to clients. These propositions involve customers-provider interactions in which the provider create the service and the customer seeks to purchase (Patokallio, 2008).
The definition of the term service will help the reader understand actually what Old Chang Kee restaurants Singapore entails and in the completion of critically evaluating the service marketing of this restaurant in Singapore.
Service marketing is defined as the study of the creation of value adding interactions between the customer and the provider of the service that can be derived from the economic service, be it a service provider or an activity that entails the provision of services to customers (Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler, 2005). Service marketing transcends all forms of marketing tools and marketing methods as it puts more emphasis on the delivery of quality services that are oriented on customer satisfaction.
The delivery of the services depends on demand forecasting by the organization management, carrying out of accurate market segmentation and proper pricing of the services that are to be delivered, creation of customer loyalty and development of services that will sustain (Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler, 2005).
Old Chang Kee Service Main Product Old Chang Kee main products will be serving of customers with curried foods alongside the local snacks. Each of the meals falls under either “O” food and snack products, the “Onstik” or the “feel’n” categories.
Old Chang Kee Service Blue Print
The line of the provider of the services, in this case Old Chang Kee represents that very instance the customer walk into the restaurant and gets the chance to interact with the management of the restaurant and in most this is by word of mouth. The interaction is usually between the customer and the waiter who welcomes them and asks them to make the order. The line that involves the customer versus customer interaction represents the actions that happen outside the restaurant and they involve the customers only.
For instance, the interaction between A and B may involve A telling B of the services that are being provided at the restaurant. This line in the service blueprint uses the word of mouth as the means to relaying the information over board. The line that involves the interaction of the service provider and the customer who visits the restaurant entails the one-on-one interaction between the customer and the service provider. It excludes all the other interactions that have taken place in advance.
We will write a custom Assessment on Incorporating Service Marketing in the Restaurant Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The line of visibility section in the service blueprint of Old Chang Kee restaurant entails what a customer is able to see as the service delivery is taking place. This involves the physical structures that are in the restaurant, the mode of service delivery that is displayed by the waiters of Old Chang Kee restaurant. For instance, conversation may seek to inquire on the professionalism of the waiters and the quality of the food served at the restaurant.
The line that incorporates internal interaction in the restaurant brings out all the distinctions in the types of services that are being provided. That is, it separates services that bring value addition to the restaurant services which are the core reasons for its existence from the other services that are meant to support the service delivery processes in the restaurant.
The line of customer influence differentiates in the blueprint marks the differences that are exhibited by the services that are preplanned by the restaurant’s management in the service delivery protocols from the services that are induced by the customer during the service delivery process. This customer induced services provide a business opportunity for the restaurant to expand or the possibility of a new service that may attract more customers to the Old Chang Kee restaurants (Parsa and Kwansa, 2002).
Failures That Can Be Experienced in the Service Marketing The possibility of service failures in the delivery of Old Chang Kee restaurant services may be encountered. They may happen in the following ways. First, if a customer’s interaction with Old Chang Kee restaurant employees’ ends up in customer dissatisfaction. This may make the unsatisfied customer feel negative about the restaurant. This is most likely to start if a customer demands for a service, but the employee responding to him is not in a position to give satisfying answers.
For instance, the customer may be complaining of wrong billing which has high possibility of happening if the management is not vigilant enough. This may invoke exchange of words between the customer and the waiter who was serving him or her. Another instance that may arise in customer dissatisfaction is the delay in the delivery of an order. The waiting may leave the customer dissatisfied (Parsa and Kwansa, 2002; Gummesson, 2007).
The service marketing strategies that are applied by Old Chang Kee restaurant and the service delivery that is represented in the restaurant’s blueprint is prone to biased interpretation from the customers. The customer interpretation is then spread around by word of mouth. This happens where a given customer explains certain aspects of the service delivery of Old Chang Kee to another customer is per their individual interpretation of the politeness and responsiveness of the waiters in the restaurants.
This interpretation is prone to negativity which can be propagated by others and this could have a disastrous outcome to Old Chang Kee. This is because its service marketing objectives may be derailed by people in their own interpretation and consequently, leading to loss in market share (Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler, 2005).
The quality of life is improving in the globe with changing variances in the demand indexes that are being expressed by consumers in all dimensions of consumption. The consumers are demanding more quality products as they continuously acquire knowledge on the quality of service delivered. This has caused the consumer expectations to rise and the trend is escalating continuously over the years. This has made the delivery of services to improve tremendously along with better quality products by the providers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Incorporating Service Marketing in the Restaurant Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The restaurant has been experiencing an increase in the number of people who are demanding food that is customized to fit their dietary recommendations by their nutritionists. For instance, the amount of calories in the food being served in the restaurant has to be within a customer’s tailored recommendations.
This customization is based either on health consciousness of the customers, cultural background, religious orientation, past consumer experiences in the type of food that had been served has posed a major challenge in the service marketing of Old Chang Kee restaurant to cope with and maintain customer satisfaction at optimum and at the same time retain customer loyalty (Hoffman2 and Bateson2, 2001).
Another failure that is exhibited in service marketing is the inability of the customers to identify all the services that are offered by Old Chang Kee restaurant. These customers are only likely to identify the services that they are used to. This problem is fatal and this is because in case a new product that is developed by the restaurant may take time to attract a commendable market share because of the customers’ inability to identify all the services that are available in these restaurants (Hoffman1 and Bateson1, 2010).
Recommendation to Overcome the Failures that Could Experienced in the Old Chang Kee Service Marketing It should be noted that customer reaction to failures in the business is usually very critical. Therefore, Old Chang management should be equally strong and effective in coming up with processes and procedures that will eliminate the shortcomings that will come with the negative impressions that are created in case of a failure in its service delivery program. It should be cautious because negativity is easily spread in the grapevine communication.
The problem in keeping up with the changes in customer tastes, preferences and request for better services from Old Chang Kee restaurant can only be overcome if the management comes up with good systems that will capture all the customer enquiries, analyze them and after identifying fundamental queries, it should initiate the way to go around them to ensure customer satisfaction is being met.
It should be able to keep up with the socio-cultural evolution of the society. This will enable the fast chain outlet to come up with changes and be able to serve them optimally.
The problem of organization objectives or service delivery practices misinterpretation can be reversed if the management keenly takes the necessary steps such as making its objectives known to all customers. This will be achieved through rigorous advertising of the services that the restaurant offers to its customers.
This will also be achieved by having a good public relations forum with its customers. It is here that it will be able to address the issues of misinterpretation among other rumors that are meant to tarnish the credibility of the restaurant to deliver quality food and snacks to its customers.
The possibly of dissatisfaction by customers in Old Chang Kee restaurant is at minimal levels due to the professionalism exhibited by the management and its employees in the delivery of the services. In case dissatisfaction is experienced, the management should handle it whole heartedly to ensure that the issues arising are eliminated.
This can be achieved if the real cause of the dissatisfaction is identified and the management comes up with appropriate guidelines that will alleviate the problem. For instance, if it arose due to an incorrect billing, the management can ensure that this problem is not repeated by having a professional accountant to do the billing.
This problem of customer’s inability to identify all the services that are offered by the restaurants can be alleviated if the management carries out vigorous advertisement programs that aim at popularizing all the products.
The advertisements can involve the issuance of free samples for the relatively popular meals and snacks. It can also employ the use of buy one get one free marketing strategy. This is because it will act as an incentive to stimulate the customers to buy the product from Old Chang Kee. This will win some of the customers who try its products and thus gaining a market share for each of the new products.
Conclusion The study has defined the term service marketing and related it to the restaurant industry. It has come up with general insights that are vital to the reader that will enable any interested reader to identify market servicing as a very important sector for the success of any business.
The paper has also come up with a service blueprint of a restaurant. This blueprint has achieved the objective of outlining how the restaurant activities are undertaken to meet its obligation to satisfy the customers at all times. Therefore, it is evident that for effective marketing of a service delivery industry, it should also carry a service marketing analysis before embarking on the actual production process.
Reference List Gummesson, E. (2007). Exit services marketing – enter service marketing. Customer Behaviour, 6( 2), Pp. 113-141(29)
Hoffman, K. D1., Bateson, J., E., G1,2010. Services Marketing: Concepts, Strategies,
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Response to Criticism
Introduction Every corporation has a code of conduct that outlines its treatment of workers, among other activities in the company. These codes are usually aimed at ensuring that, among other things, rights of workers are protected.
It is common knowledge that globalization led to expansion of markets and factories. In fact, most multinational businesses have increasingly shifted their production units to developing countries. These include Disney Company, and mobile as well as computer companies, among others. The countries involved usually comprise of India, China, Indonesia, and Singapore, among others. This is mainly attributed to cheap labor that is highly exploited in those regions.
Of great concern is the fact that despite cheap labor, which is achievable in those regions to reduce cost of production, these goods are sold for high prices in developed countries with deplorable conditions facing workers back in China. This paper will explore Disney Company, its worker’s conditions in China as well as criticism it faces over the same.
Disney Company This is the largest of media conglomerates in the globe when it comes to revenue generation. The company was founded in early 1920s and continued to expand throughout the decades. In the process, it has acquired other corporations like, Marvel and Capital, among others.
In addition, it has gone into radio, and television broadcasting as well as expansions in movie production. The company has also developed a code of conduct amid criticism over its treatment of workers, especially in China, where its garment merchandise are manufactured.
Criticism The company has received varied criticism especially those related to working conditions in its China factories. According to Anne Stewart of China Post, the company has neglected its responsibilities regarding protection of worker rights and conditions of work as well as wages. This has led to attacks from rights groups all over the globe, especially those from Southern China and the United States.
Moreover, religious groups have also expressed their concerns over the same and planned to change policies relating to rights of workers and their remuneration in annual general meeting, which was scheduled in Seattle. They also allege that the company offers about 600 Yuan, which translates to just over $588 per month.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is amid appalling working conditions that expose them to toxic wastes as well as working for over 16hrs a day. It is also said that the workers go without pay for over seven months and may at times be fined for taking leave as well as be forced to pay for employment. These conditions are quite appalling, given the revenue this company earns.
Response to Criticism In responding to such criticism, the company has set up codes of conduct to be followed in every production area. In addition, they have passed policies that are friendly to international workers. However, this has not been successful because information is still received of workers’ mistreatment in China.
Moreover, other problems that face the company relates to environmental degradation, which causes great concern. It is also quite important to note that workers are not allowed to talk freely on issues relating to working conditions. This further jeopardizes their steps towards achieving good working conditions.
Conclusion Disney is a multinational Company that is ranked among the best in revenue generation as well as service delivery. However, it is quite ironical that their workers are mistreated and forced to work under deplorable conditions. Since the company is a frontrunner in technology and media network, it needs to be aware of environmental effects of these activities. It is therefore quite humiliating for a company of Disney’s caliber to find itself entangled in issues relating to basic human rights, globalization, and remuneration.
Connection between Extraversion and Need of Achievement Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction The class survey conducted to establish the relationship between extraversion and the need for achievement yielded a correlation. The results astoundingly yielded a correlation of r=0.39. In the following discussion, the reasons based on the survey and the correlation outcome is discussed. The survey conducted targeted identified extraverts from identified classes.
Methods The survey employed mainly qualitative methods. The design included identification of sample using random sampling method. In the first place, possible extraverts were served with questionnaires that served as identification tools. Some of the questions asked directed required the respondents to identify themselves with extraversion.
The results were above 61% for this questionnaire. Secondly, main sampling was randomly conducted and participants selected for the study. In total, we recruited 80 participants. Questionnaires were distributed to the participants and follow up made to enhance good response. On the other hand, interviewing was conducted
Results The response level of the 80 participants was over 80%. Agreement results to the questions of the study were distributed to reflect new findings that were not even the core of the study. For instance, a discernable number of participants answered the questions according to the interpretation of the word “Achievement”. The results showed that need for achievement was distributed based on academic subjects of interest.
Others revealed trends related to sporting activities. Despite the choice of the field of achievement, analysis of the results revealed that there exist a strong relationship between extraversion and need of achievement. The results were analyzed using correlation method. Correlation of the two variables, extraversion and need for achievement, yielded an r=0.39. This indicated a strong relationship between extraversion and need for achievement.
Discussion The discussion conceptualizes the validity of the findings based on the methods employed in the conducting the research. This is important because it justifies the correlation results of r=0.39. The concepts link the results to activities that participants related to their extraversion character and need for achievement. They are discussed as follows. The concept of extraversion attaches weight on a person’s character to get inclined to his/her social surrounding. The need of achievement is viewed as an urge to excel above others’ standards.
Extraversion and professionalism There was proof from the survey that extraversion shapes most of the students professionalism. In the class survey, professionalism was not limited to the academic achievements alone. It was generalized to cover all professions available in the current world. To this point, there is a sizable interest to link the extraversion to professionalism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on the survey, it was revealed that an icon in a certain discipline shapes professionalism for extraverts. The reasons supporting the direction taken by extraverts’ lies in the fact they derive much of their thought from their surroundings (Ewen 145). The survey response from the class is in line with the argument. Need for achievement is an extraverts environment-derived desire.
The desire causes a typical extravert to set an achievement target focusing on the field of interest. This can be justified with reference to some of the survey questions asked. One questions prompted the respondents to name their professions of interest. Furthermore, they were requested to indicate on the survey tool if their achievement desires were related to a former champion in that field.
The result proved that professionalism and the need to achieve in that profession correlates. The correlation coefficient of r=.39 points out the fact that need for achievement and extraversion is due to an urge from an extravert to beat an achievement held by someone.
Consequently, the need for achievement has its onset from the time an extravert identifies an icon in a profession of interest. One notable attribute from the extraverts is that they exhibited a cross-sectional desire have an achievement higher than what initially motivated and triggered their desires. Therefore, the strong relationship is largely due to extraverts’ characteristic of interacting with their surroundings.
Perception to difficulties Another reason that explains the strong relationship between extraversion and need to achieve is perception to difficulties. In the survey, there was a need to test the relationship between extraversion and perception on difficulties. The research asked questions related to the reasons of achievement of success in a difficult problem.
Since an extravert derives most of his personal experiences from the environment, most respondents asserted that experience with a task over a long period leads development of an urge to succeed. For instance, if there is a reward or a punishment attached to a task, many respondents showed an almost collective score of handling a situation with an orientation to achievement (Thomas 52).
The orientation to achievement based on perceptions of difficulties was, further found out to be influenced by past records of successful personalities that handled and succeeded. Asked why, they would have a link of success to someone; the response was that linking helps them to set target marks that are fairly above their chosen achievers. Correlation therefore exists between extraversion and the need for achievement.
We will write a custom Essay on Connection between Extraversion and Need of Achievement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dominance and competitiveness Dominance and competitiveness is another reason for the relationship between extraversion and need for achievement. Based on the research, it was revealed that in cases such as academic settings, achievement is related to dominance. Extraversion steers a need for achievement, coupled with a sense of dominance. Dominance is a trait exhibited by extraverts in different dimensions of society (Ewen 145). According to Godar and Ferris (40), performance and need for performance is a character of extraverts, especially in society.
If an example can be borrowed from the works of Godar and Ferris (40), a desire to dominate social settings by extraverts is associated to the need for achievement. Academically, extraversion shapes the desire by a member of a team to outscore others in a subject. Research results showed that the relationship between extraversion and need for achievement is a broad result of the desire to dominate.
Due a need to dominate, such aspect as choice of fields within which an individual does best takes center-stage. The study revealed that a desire to dominate plays a significant role in an extravert is input in what he/she does best. The sample of the study justified this reason since many respondents who were interviewed posted positive results about dominance.
Perfectionism Perfectionism is another reason that the study revealed, linking extraversion and need for achievement. This is consistent with other research work that established that perfectionism is a character of extraverts. The desire to impress the environment about an extravert drives them to post better results in their work. Better results have an implication that it has to be appealing to the environment. Consequently, the desire to post perfect results links extraversion to the need for achievement.
Conclusion The correlation coefficient r=0.39 is consistent with the knowledge claim that extraversion is related to the need for achievement. It is an urge to excel above others that steers extroverts to strive for achievements in their lives.
Works Cited Ewen, Robert. Personality, a topical approach: theories, research, major controversies and emerging findings. New York: Routledge. 1998. August 24, 2011.
Applied Analysis of the Carbon Price Mechanism in Australia Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The Australian government has heeded to the international concerns of environmental conservation and thus, set up policies that would help it to cut down its high carbon emissions. As a result, the government established a Carbon Price Mechanism which states that from the 1st of July 2012, the prices of carbon dioxide equivalents would change.
One tonne of CO2 which is emitted by about 500 of the country’s largest emitters would cost $23 per ton. This new price would remain fixed for three years starting from 2012 to 2015. This would be indexed per year at a rate of 2.5%. After that period, the government will initiate Market-Based Emissions Trading Scheme and through this systems, the government will define emission level cap.
The market mechanism on the other hand will play their role in determining the price. The carbon price will not affect the fuel consumption by households for lightning, transportation, renewable fuels like ethanol, biodiesel and light commercial motorcars (Graham and others 2008, 114).
Effect of Rising Energy Prices on Households Many people and organizations claim that they support the introduction of the carbon pricing mechanism in Australia. Nonetheless, the cost of the poor families who earn very little to afford gas will suffer (Seaton 2011, 3). This is because they will be required to spend more of gas because the carbon pricing is intended to cut or reduce pollution that is greatly associated with the uses of the other sources of fuels.
Whereas the anticipated increases in the prices could comparatively modest, they are instruments and important enough to bring further harsh conditions to families that live on low earnings (Hatfield-Dodds and others 2007, 78; Aldy and others 2010, 905).
The government is setting up strategies that will ensure that the support accorded to the poor families will still be in the spirit of environmental conservation and support carbon price policy. In addition, the support provided should ensure that the producers and retailers adjust their prices accordingly (Tamiotti and others 2009 167).
The help accorded to the poor households need to take care of a number of factors that are deemed reasonable (Seaton 2011, 3). They need to be reviewed and adjusted so that it can match future transition to flexibility. That means dealing with things like arrangements (Hatfield-Dodds and others 2007, 78). Compensation should only be done for cost impact of the carbon price. In this context, the policy should not seek to address the fuel prices that were caused by other factors ((Hester and Harrison, 2009, 56)).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In view of the proposed carbon pricing by the Australian government, there needs to be assistance provided which can be achieved through combination of the following factors;
The recurring cash expenses through the income support system which are derived by calculating the values as dollar amount and sufficient indexation (Hatfield-Dodds and others 2007, 78), and
Adjusting tax system including low income tax offsets, family tax benefits
Even though taxation and transfer system can be used to offer the best means of ensuring fairness to exploit assistance for households, the existing payment levels and systems are unbalanced and incompetent (Hatfield-Dodds and others 2007, 79).
It is necessary that the design of carrying out the household assistance in parallel with carbon price mechanism need to account for these deficiencies (Great Britain Parliament 2010). Besides assisting them financially, there needs to be implemented an alternative sustained investment that will help the low income class families improve their energy use efficiency (Meadowcroft and Langhelle 2009, 123).
Environmental Pollution Environmental pollution is a major concern for the world today because human beings realize that they have a duty to protect the survival of the future generations (Australian Government 2008, 67). It is in line with this fact that the use of environmental friendly energies have been growing very fast to become one of the fastest developing sectors nowadays.
It is in fact the major driving component in the pursuit for sustainable economy. A number of proven clean energies such as solar, bio gas among others exist today and are being employed and becoming a great threat to conventional energy sources (Australian Government 2008, 67).
Liability: As fast as pollution is concerned and with the need to control carbon prices, the Australian government has in place a strategy to address this issue. To begin with, it has decided that about 500 companies will be held liable for the carbon pricing (Australian Government 2008, 67).
Essentially, a threshold of 25,000 carbon dioxide tones emitted directly will be used for rating whether a firm or an industry is covered by the carbon pricing or not (Weyant
How mindfulness and mental depletion influence inattentional blindness Report college admission essay help
Abstract Inattentional blindness comes up as a result of an individual’s mindfulness or mental depletion. Mindfulness and mental depletion are affected by the changes that happen in the scene. Mindfulness and mental depletion also affect inattentional blindness in the cases of repetition of the scene and the perceptions held by the individual.
Moreover, memory makes an individual become more attentive as opposed to being inattentive when they remember scenes they have seen before. Human beings are also limited to a certain measure of mindfulness where they can only take note of a limited number of events at a particular time. Mindfulness is the interaction between the internal and external environment of an individual.
Introduction People visualize many things and what they see is dependent on the attention they give it. In some instances, people have failed to recognize an event or an object in a scene yet it is obviously visible. The situation has been given the name Inattentional blindness. Inattentional blindness is defined as a situation where an individual is unable to visualize some of the features in a visual scene because they have not paid attention to them (Simons
Strategic management at JB Hi-Fi Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary Strategic management is a vital aspect that has ample and diverse benefits which when properly implemented, increases enterprises output through performance amplitude, improvement of quality, productivity, commitment and motivation levels. In JB Hi-Fi, strategic management is a continuous and interactive process that has been implemented and integrated as a whole in its macro environment. In its micro-environment, several factors such as legal, social, economic and political factors impacts on the business’ management strategy.
Public policy makers and marketers in the JB Hi-Fi are faced with various market challenges that include threat to entry, rivalry between competitors and bargaining power. Others include cost disadvantages, access to channels of distribution, switching costs, capital requirements, product differentiation and economies of scale. These barriers hinder potential entertainment products from entering profitably in the market.
Its competitors include Megamart, Target, Kmart, Coles Myer-Myer, Tandy and Harvey Norman among others. Rivalry between JB Hi-Fi and its competitors has been on the rise. The latter increases when differentiation is low, myriad barriers for entry, higher fixed costs as well as when declining and flourishing markets. However, through the competences of the company, it has managed to exploit and new marketing opportunities.
The strategic initiatives of JB Hi-Fi targets growth through the sale of its large range of entertainment products. To achieve this, it attracts its price sensitive customers and enthusiasts through discounted prices. Currently, the company has some sustainable advantage and makes tremendous gains because of its inarticulate strategic intent, competencies and resources that are non-substitutable and unique.
Introduction In a business enterprise, excellence and success are influenced indirectly or directly by strategic management given that they are guided by internal and external factors.
In a business, management involves processes such as controlling, coordinating, directing, organizing and planning (Kroes
Problems Facing in Common Wealth Bank of Australia Report a level english language essay help
Executive Summary Common Wealth Bank of Australia is a leading bank in Australia which also provides financial services in the US, UK, Asia and Far East. The paper tackles organization theory through analyzing the different aspects of the bank. The introduction is an overview on the different perspectives of organization theory that includes somewhat comprehensive definitions of symbolic interpretive, modern and post modern theories.
A brief introduction of the CBA is tackled in section two. An overview of the bank’s services and area of operations are tackled giving way for the actual analysis of the organization.
Modern analysis tackles the problems CBA is facing in terms of environment, social structure, culture and technology. The problem statement summarizes the problems as identified through the modern analysis while suggested solutions and recommendations on what needs to be done conclude the section.
The following section concentrates on the critique of the modern view of the organization through symbolic interpretive perspective. Here the, the paper takes a swipe at the views of modernity as being subjective by asserting that the stakeholders of organizations like CBA are better placed to understand why they engage in business and why the organization is structured as such. Post modernism on the other hand concentrates on the irrationality and seemingly selfish models and polices that characterize the contemporary corporate setting.
The section in-depthly critiques the modern aspect of organization theory through assertion that the corporations including CBA don’t have employee interest at heart and that the managerial structures in place at modern organizations are informed by irrationality and profit maximization principles. Post modernity also critiques modern organizations as using managerial award gimmicks to attain the loyalty of the employees while in the real sense stock holders and special interest are gaining.
Introduction An organization is a collection of people working for a common purpose to achieve common goals through division of labour. Through collective efforts, people achieve more than what solo efforts would do. Organizations are classified according to the nature of activities they are involved in. the core activities of business organizations for instance is the delivery of goods and services to make profits from the prices they charge.
Every business organization is different and unique in its own way. The workings of business organizations are complex and need in-depth research and study to understand the driving force behind their workings. Over time, scholars including economists and academic researchers have come up with theories aimed at explaining the dynamic nature in business organizations which include decision-making distribution of power and control, conflict resolution and organizational change (Parnell
Change in Management, Outsourcing, Competitive Advantage Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction It is true that Virgin Train Company has a good reputation for providing apart from quality services, it also produces modernized practices. However, the company has been seeking ways of developing competitive advantage over its competitors. As a result, they have been involving employees in decision-making process to secure this successful change.
The management chose this option because, employees work with customers directly, hence are in a better position of coming up with customer-based solutions. This is in line with company’s vision which provides employees with a very clear direction.
In the process of strengthening this strategy, the company has been planning to change their structure of management to ensure comprehensive service delivery to their clients as well as employees. As a result, this paper outlines two issues, namely: potential problems they may face in making the changes proposed. Secondly, the paper outlines a strategy for outsourcing relevant parts of the IT operations in order to ensure that the core IT provision can be maintained.
Change in management, competitor advantage Structure for Organisational Change
Planning-organizing-leading-controlling (P-O-L-C) framework for change can work better for Virgin Train Company. This is because, four principles of creative problem solving, which most managers view as being the key challenge in organizational management are summarized in the framework. Though the framework is good, there have been writers, who claimed that, it does not take into consideration day-to-day practices of any manager accurately.
This is because, managers under hectic
Views on how to re-unite the nation and deal with freedmen Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
There have been conflicting views on how to re-unite the nation and deal with freedmen after the American Civil War. Some scholars were of the opinion that the government should guarantee every state in the South, a republican form of governance.
However, according to Charles Summer, a radical republican, secession would result into destruction of statehood. On the other hand, Thaddeus Stevens and his followers had the view that secession could not result into re-uniting the nation but instead it could end up awarding undeserving status to certain states which had been newly created (Divine et al., 2011).
President Lincoln who was the leader of moderate republicans started the reconstruction in 1864 with the aim of re-uniting and reconstructing the nation. The ten percent plan began its operations in some states but later faced opposition from the radicals. The republicans were for the view that in order to re-unite the nation, slave power and slavery had to be permanently destroyed.
They further demanded that all kinds of confederate nationalism had to be censored. Moderates supported the view and concluded that the same could be easily accomplished if the Southern states ratified the 13th Amendment and repealed secession in addition to confederate armies surrendering to the authorities. All this aimed at abolishing slavery and uniting the nation. After the assassination of Lincoln, President Johnson used moderate actions to re-unite the nation.
He preferred favoring approximately 170,000 black veterans to vote, which he granted (Divine et al., 2011). This was due to the fact that white southerners were ready to pledge future loyalty for the nation. Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 on the other hand required the rebels to take ironclad oath. They had to swear by the oath that they were never soldiers of the Confederacy. On the other hand, Lincoln did not put much consideration in the past but instead made the voters to swear their loyalty to the established union.
Consequently, voting rights of the freedmen was one of the key elements. This is because, while the radicals wanted the voters to swear by the ironclad oath which prevented all freedmen men from voting, the moderates held the opinion that all freedmen should be allowed to vote without the ironclad oath as a condition. Another view was whether to give blacks the right to vote in uniting the nation. The Northern states denied the blacks the right to vote in the newly established union.
The radicals on the other hand argued that ex-confederates cannot be trusted and therefore they should not be given the right to vote. According to Divine et al (2011), Johnson and Lincoln felt that it was better for the black freedmen especially those from the army to be granted unconditional right to vote in the union. Lincoln was further opposed to the idea of giving voting rights to only individuals who very intelligent and held high ranks during the war. According to Lincoln, this could not result into uniting the nation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In summing up, it is imperative to reiterate that the Johnson’s government granted freedmen more rights than they had before. For instance, there was the formation of Freedman’s Bureau which protected the rights of blacks. Furthermore, his government abolished the Black Codes by enacting the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Indeed, these were some of the myriad ways on how the nation was re-united.
Reference Divine, T.H.H et al. (2011), American past and present. Boston: Pearson Education.
The Intellectual Views on the Concepts of Global Politics Term Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Domestic-interest group theory challenge on realism
Cognitive psychology theory challenge on realism
The causal mechanism
Introduction Global politics have impacts on almost everyone in various significant ways. In order to understand the concepts of global politics, different intellectual views have been brought to light. Most of these theories are based on traditional and cultural concepts all of which represent issues such as social justice, level of security and freedom among others.
Approaches to international politics also entail concerns about fundamental reasoning. A lot of concern has been on the intellectual approaches to global politics which are likely to grow outside the traditional and cultural context of political views. The focus on international relations theories has been driven by the many questions having been raised on how the behavior of a state can be examined as well as the role of the state.
This is the reason behind policymakers’ and other practitioners’ concern on international relations studies. This is because there is a close link between abstract theories and real world policy (Walt 1). Since there is no single theory on international relations that can fully explain the complex content of world politics, this paper will examine the competing arrays of theories in order to draw a close understanding of international affairs.
Realism maintains that states are the key players of international relations. The realism theory defines a state as that which is free from external control and thus the state has a significant role of driving power and security and most importantly, pursuing the entire interests of the nation.
As far as realism theory is concerned, states should perform in a self involved approach rather than focusing on external concerns. The main theme in realism is the significant characteristic of the state which is a defined territory and a government which has sovereign authority over its people.
Domestic liberalism, on the other hand, denotes the behavior of states rather than the positive behavior. In this case domestic liberalism is characterized by state’s behavior rather than the expected behavior. Unlike realism where states operate as single actors, domestic liberalism denotes individual and group operations from both domestic and transnational perspective. The decision making theory of international relations falls largely on foreign policy part of international relations.
The main focus of the decision making theory is on the foreign policy makers themselves rather than the structural process itself. This is because the decision making process itself is determined by other variables and theories such as use of power and internalization of state interests (Walt 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Domestic-interest group theory challenge on realism Realism has been the dominant epitome in the study of international relations and political science over the years. For instance, there has been growing conflict between the theories of deterrence and that of state-centric realism.
Despite the fact that the two theories attempt to analyze the circumstances under which international war and crises are likely to occur, they both differ in the way each one of them views as most important in determining the role of state as well as state behavior. The domestic-interest group presented by Snyder has raised much concern which challenges the realism theory of international relation (Mercer 1).
To begin with, the realism theory lacks adequate explanatory as far as conflicts within some of the great powers are concerned. On the other hand, deterrence theory which is a prominent competitor of the realism theory, gives a greater insight on the same. According to the theory of realism, wars and conflicts are caused by state leaders as they are the prime decision makers. As a result, the structure system provides the leaders with information which gives them an insight of possible conflicts.
This may often lead to over confidence in some leaders while others may be less confident about conflict outcomes. This is likely to result to uncertainties resulting from the link between the decision makers and the structure of the system. On the other hand, state leaders may be willing to engage in a conflict behaviors since they are the decision makers.
The domestic-interest group as presented by Snyder assumes that there are no leaders that can give a concrete explanation of conflicts amongst other states. This therefore means that decisions by state leaders made in regard to escalation of conflicts in other states are made on mere assumptions and uncertainties and may therefore be ineffective or cause more conflicts in such states.
In this case, when the leaders do make such decisions, their tendency to take or not take risks is actually what determines their behavior which may not have the interests of the citizens at hand.
This therefore means that any impacts of the system structure will be dealt with in accordance with the decision makers’ who are, in this case, the state leaders’ ability to take risks (Mercer 1). Since the realism theory presents a system structure which may have a great number of actors, it gets more difficult to make predictions on conflicts because the leaders and decision makers have to identify individual behaviors of the many actors and in a correct manner.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Intellectual Views on the Concepts of Global Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the incentives presented may be opposing and cause complication of the decision making process as the leaders cannot determine which actors will support them on their incentives. This also leads to reduced confidence by leaders in making decision on international conflicts.
Similarly, the system structure presented in realism theory focuses on distribution of capabilities amongst great powers. For instance, as the distribution of military gets more and more even, the predictions of armed conflicts by decision makers become more difficult as sensitivity to outcome errors increase due to the number of actors involved.
The other conception of system structure presented in realism theory is the extension of allies across boundaries. This is challenged by the domestic-interest group in that the increased alliance coalitions of any state, reduces support reliability from members of the coalition as security interests are diverse within the coalition members (Mercer 1).
Cognitive psychology theory challenge on realism Cognitive psychology theories as presented by Jervis and McDermott have as well challenged the realists’ state centric theory of international relations. This theory has only been influential amongst theorists of international relations especially those studying international security. Little attention has been given to this theory in American politics.
Even political economists have paid little attention to the realism theory. According to McDermott, the cause for little attention on the realism theory has been its focus on security at the expense of other aspects of political science and this is where the cognitive psychology theories come in (Mercer 1).
In order to describe the little interest on realism theory among political scientists, McDermott presented the most problematic aspects of the theory in a generalized perspective. The first problem with the realism theory is that there is no distinct perception of a state’s actors’ field of function in case of losses or gains.
Instead, it is the actor’s field of function that determines the rest of the theories aspects. The second problem as presented by McDermott is that of risk assessment where it may be easy to assess risks acceptance or distaste but working on the risks at the field gets much harder. Since the strongest aspect of realism theory is the determination of people not to lose rather than to win, the problem of assessing risks causes a bias to the people’s attitude towards such political risks.
Psychologists use variables that enable them to measure interests in regard to realism theory. Assessing the actor’s domain entails the studying of the goals and motivation of the decision maker (Mercer 1). For instance, deterioration of a political position makes the leaders feel like they are domain losers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Intellectual Views on the Concepts of Global Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McDermott gave a good example of President Carter during the crisis of Iranian hostage where certain setbacks in foreign policy made the decision makers opt for pre-crisis status. Political psychologists have demonstrated how cognitive ways of locating domains of gains or losses can lead to biased judgment. This is because of our inability to hold on to the customary models of decisions.
The causal mechanism Causal mechanism is described as the means through which a certain outcome is brought into existence. The outcome is explained by giving a hypothesis about what caused the outcome to occur. For instance, an outcome of a reduction in consumer consumption results from increase in price.
In this case, the causal mechanism relating the cause and the effect involves careful observation of prices by the consumers. Causal mechanism constitutes two types of theories where one of the theories is the human theory which maintains that causation results from regularities on observable variables which are constituted by facts. Thus, causation does not occur due to authority, nature or requisite. The other theory is the causal realist which holds that power and mechanisms are fundamental constituents of causation.
According to this theory, scientific research is meant to justify hypothesis on the fundamentals of causation. A clear demonstration is that of a variable X causing Y to occur. In this case, X is a necessity or a condition for Y to occur which also means that if X had not occurred, then Y would not have occurred either. Therefore, the causal mechanism exists from the occurrence of X to the occurrence of Y.
Conclusion The domestic liberalism theory seems to be more powerful than the others as it is based on the interests of individuals and groups rather than the interests of the state itself which are more concerned on international interests rather than those of the state. This is because the interest of an individual state should be the basis under which that particular state relates to international states and thus as long as the domestic liberalism theory is applied, the rest of the theories will automatically fall into place.
The realist’s centric state model, in particular, has faced a lot of challenge from the domestic-interest group theory and the cognitive psychology theories. The cognitive psychological theories have specifically challenged the realism theory in its inability to promote reinforcement and interactions between small groups as it focuses on international relations rather than state relations.
Inconsistency in management has also been a big challenge to realism according to the cognitive psychological theories which maintains that relations and other processes should start within the state (Walt 1). Similarly, the domestic-interest group challenges the realism theory in its focus on power on international states rather than using that power within the state to serve the interests of individuals and groups.
Works Cited Mercer, Jonathan. “Prospect theory and political science”. 2005 – September 6, 2011, from https://politics.ubc.ca/
Walt, Stephen. “International relations: one word, many theories”. 2000 – September 6, 2011, from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/S6800/courseworks/foreign_pol_walt.pdf
War on Poverty: Poverty Problem in US Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
More than three decades ago, it was discovered that a big percentage of people in the United States were living in abject poverty. This discovery prompted policy makers and other Americans to come up with federal programs and other initiatives from the private sectors to try to deal with the problem.
Many leaders who have taken over the mantle of leadership in the United States have not been committed towards eradicating poverty in the United States. However, President Lyndon Johnson addressed the Nation in 1964 and said that there was the need of an unconditional War on Poverty. In a bid to deal with this problem of poverty, a number of initiatives were started.
The first initiative that was taken to fight poverty is referred to as in This Affluent Society. In this initiative, President Lyndon decided to treat poverty as one of the problems that he was supposed to focus much on. In the State of the Union address which was delivered in 1964, he pronounced unconditional war on poverty.
After this declaration, he launched many initiatives intended at eradicating poverty forever. The strategies that were going to be used were not welfare or creating job opportunities but by rather increasing the opportunities for the poor people by providing them with sound education and training. This declaration was timely since it was during a period that the government was experiencing an admirable prosperity.
The economic and industrial well being that followed the First World War had made America one of the wealthiest nations in the world but not every American was enjoying the benefits of this economic well being. This initiative was effective in the fight against poverty because it left the poor empowered. By educating them and training them, they could secure good jobs that guaranteed them good pay. Without education and training, this was not possible and people were bound to remain in poverty.
The other initiative that was taken on the fight against poverty is the initiative dubbed My Brother’s Keeper. Most of the Americans who have been members of the American Welfare System that was established in 1968 by President Roosevelt in his endeavors of eliminating poverty have never benefited from the program.
A large number of Americans remained living below the poverty line. War on poverty has been focusing on education and training but there has been a crisis on welfare which has clearly showed that Americans were not satisfied with the system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to the above mentioned crisis, The National Welfare rights Organization was formed to reduce the impact of the crisis. This is an effective initiative in the war against poverty because the crisis emanates from the fact that there is still a debate on the population living in poverty. When the welfare of the poor is looked at with great concern, then it would be possible to address the problem of poverty without bias.
Apart from the two initiatives discussed above, another important initiative that can be used in the war against poverty is to engage the poor in programs of fighting poverty. Community participation in anti-poverty programs is crucial in fighting poverty as it gives the community members a chance to embrace the programs and learn more. The programs equip the community members and enhance self reliance. A combination of these initiatives will result into remarkable decrease in poverty levels among American poor population.
The Malayan Emergency Counter Insurgency Success Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The Malayan was a guerrilla war fought between Commonwealth armed forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA).The war lasted from June 1948 to 31st July 1960 and during this period the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) decided to prepare for armed conflict which it had expected to break out later that year, thus there was an increase in murder and violence in support of labor disputes however, the British pre-empted the communists plan (war) by declaring a state of emergency in June 1948.
This State of emergency and hostilities brought social problems to the community which consisted of; unemployment, low wages, starvation, scarce and expensive food supply to the people and as a result there were numerous social unrests that resulted in civil disobediences for example, the strikes in 1948 that forced the British administration to revamp the Malaya’s economy especially from investments such as the Malaya’s tin and rubber industries were important in providing revenue to Britain’s own post war recovery.
Therefore during this period (state of emergency) the people who proved hostile or uncooperative towards the administrations interests were dealt with unsympathetically. Hence the administration adopted measures such as deportations, detainments and arrests. Out of the above measures and others outlined below, Britain was able to successful handle the Malayan counter insurgency during 1948 to 1960. In addition, the communists were not prepared for British’s response where Britain used aggressive attacks and the destroy tactics.
On the other hand, the communists were very determined in their cause and also gave the British Administration a hard time in countering the insurgency for example despite the fact that the communist units were destroyed during the fights in large numbers, the always managed to regroup once again, rearm and retain their previous position that allowed them to continue with their campaign by persuading and influencing the public to kick out the British nonetheless in the end their campaign was unsuccessful.
The British troops were strong, better armed as there also had air power which the Malayans did not. In addition, the British were able to win the affection of the local people as they provided humanitarian assistance to them thus creating a mutual respect between the locals and the British. The guerrillas on the other hand failed to achieve any relationship between them and the locals as they were held in fear and they were known for their brutality.
Thus in 1960 the Communist force fell apart, Thus after twelve years of jungle warfare, the British were able to achieve success by using a numbers of methods or principles, the first principle was the primacy of political purpose; this principle dictated that during counterinsurgency, political purpose had dominance.
This made counterinsurgency not different from any other type of military operation because for UK and its allies, the military operated in support to its political objectives. This was the case whether the task at hand was general war or counterinsurgency hence political purpose and effective governance must have had primacy and be seen to have been working to better the lives of the people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Policies established a guide on how a campaign developed, which meant that active political involvement was required throughout the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of counterinsurgency operations which must have involved the administration.
If military operations were conducted without ensuring that there outcome was clearly in pursuit of political objectives, then the results they may have achieved could have been counterproductive. It was important that the commander of the military ensured that his actions advanced rather than hindered development towards the preferred political agreement.
The second principle was to secure the population, “the main aim for the security line of operation in counterinsurgency was the security of the population, instead of security for the forces themselves or slow destruction of insurgents.” (Jackson 2006)
Force protection was important in maintaining operational usefulness, and neutralizing the insurgents was a crucial part in maintaining the security.
Experience continued to show that until the local population started to believe that it was safe it would not start to sustain its government (through their economical output) nor will it begin to provide the intelligence with crucial information for effective counterinsurgency. In the early stages of the Campaign, a difficult balance was struck between the operation to find and strike insurgents and establish the structure to secure the population.
This balance would change as information and intelligence was developed and the environment changed. As the intelligence picture developed, so was the advantageous balance of effort between frameworks and the operations were clear and well managed. In addition, the administration did not miss an opportunity to interrupt the activities of the insurgent whereby the aim was always to provide security for the population and to advance the host government authority.
The third principle was to neutralize the insurgents. The insurgent could be counteracted by bringing together a number of physical and psychological issues. Safety operations focused on removing the insurgent’s liberty of action and skill to influence the population. The essence of the problem was to spot and divide those who could be reconciled, from those who could not, thus dealing with those who were willing to reconcile required political accommodation.
We will write a custom Essay on The Malayan Emergency Counter Insurgency Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those who could not accept and insisted on fighting on were required to be neutralized. Framework operations usually provided an efficient, logical and reliable approach to conducting the tactical aspects of a counterinsurgency. They enabled focused surge and strike operations to take place which discouraged, disturbed, displaced and degraded insurgent groups using enough force but not more than was required.
A fundamental step in neutralizing insurgents was to create a steady presence among the population which insurgents wanted to control. Not only did these allow security measures to be implemented to protect the population, but action could be focused to deter, disrupt and dislocate insurgent activity within each area where presence of security forces was established.
At the national level, careful considerations were needed to control or close borders and create physical barriers in order to avoid the movement of insurgents using neighboring states as supply sources. This was not easy and it required the devotion of a number of resources.
he overall security intention was to neutralize the insurgents on their own ground using developmental activities, information operations, political processes and any other force that was necessary. Military success could not be complete before the situation was won over to government control.
Once insurgents lost power, it was important to make use of every opportunity by introducing eternal measures to avoid resurgences and to show government capability in making effective decisions. Usually, neutralization of the last remnants of an insurgent movement was time consuming and required strategic patience (Rigden 2008 15)
The fourth principle was to gain and maintain popular support. Gaining and maintaining popular support was an important objective for successful counterinsurgency. It offered authority to the campaign and helped establish legitimacy authority. Unless the government gained its people’s trust and confidence, the chances of achievement were greatly reduced. The degree to which it was achieved was in effect the measure of campaign success.
The level and basis for support from the population evolved over time. When security was fragile it was unlikely that the majority of the nation’s population would openly support the coalition forces. An example was that as long as the military was seen to be legitimate, its measures were seen to assist the population, and it acted with cultural kindliness and in accordance with the law, the local population always supported their occurrence and their activities.
The actions of the coalition and its partner’s sought to convince the greater part of the Population and wider audiences including opponents that the government would succeed and defeat the insurgents.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Malayan Emergency Counter Insurgency Success by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fifth principle was to prepare for the long term. Preparing for the long term through the campaign plan was a way by which Essential combination of cross-administrative efforts could be maintained. It also helped avoid making overly hopeful assumptions based on short-term security successes. Lasting success depended on appropriate long term plans to enhance the economic and social aspects of civil life and elimination or at least suppression of the political causes of the insurgency.
It required the right number of forces and resources to be allocated from the outset. Long term plans were mandatory at every level of government and were likely to cover for security sector reforms, development of the rule of law, the development of further government capacity, economic development and social development programmes such as education and housing (Army 2009 8)
References Army., 2009. British Army Field Manual. Countering Insurgency. Vol 1 Issue 10
Jackson, A. 2006. Countering Insurgency. The British Army Review. Vol 1. Issue 10
Rigden, I. A., 2008. The British Approach To Counter-insurgency: Myths, Realities, And Strategic Challenges. Strategic Research. Vol 1. Issue 8 – 89.
On What Grounds is the Idea of Universal Human Rights Challenged? Essay essay help online
Despite the fact that they are not always put in place, the general notion of universal human rights is in the present day largely acknowledged worldwide. Even then, particular sections of the human rights policy are revealingly challenged by influential political players.
Human rights that articulate liberal ideals like non-discrimination, wide personal liberties and egalitarianism/ democracy expose the extent of this fact. Several communities which have political systems that are short of key liberal aspects and which as they acquire increased power end up challenging the norms of human rights.
Even then, prospects of the liberal human rights don’t rely solely on the scales of supremacy between communities with diverse political systems. It also relies on the way communities with moderately tolerant political schemes respond to the challenge of non-tolerant schemes.
Fastidiously, one main aspect is if advocators of liberal ideals believe they are vindicated to maintain these beliefs as universal human rights norms, or if they believe that some intolerant political applications ought to be esteemed internationally, the way that some liberals have debated.
This paper aims at discussing whether liberal communities are ethically obligated to revere the multiplicity of political ideology as well as to get accustomed to human rights consequently. The paper will begin by elucidating in a few words the concept of liberal ideology in the way we decipher it here, and reveals the way the insertion of these philosophy’s in human rights is disputed in the present day.
The paper will then scrutinize following a presentation, three protestations in opposition to liberal human rights. These are the significance of cooperative self-determination, the constricted international political task of human rights and the supposed parochialism of tolerant ideology. The synopsis is that not one of these doubts are realistic or credible.
Contestation of liberal human rights
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Liberalism”, as is the same with numerous other concepts, is construed by diverse authors in many different ways. Majority of liberals however, support three “normative political ideology” that we may refer to as “liberal principles”. These are:
Esteem for wide personal liberties that was epitomized by Miller’s “harm principle”, of which a community may only limit the liberty of citizens in order “to prevent harm to others” (Miller, 2007, 14), as well as Habermas initial rule of justice that proclaims “each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.”(Habermas, 2001, 78).
A sturdy belief of non-discrimination, of which all able adults must be accorded similar primary rights.
The belief of democratic leadership, which stipulates that executive as well as legislative national influence eventually lies on systems that state all proficient grown-up citizens have identical official authority.
These three principles founded claims in the revolution of democracy in Europe which started towards the close of the 18th century. The political organizations as well as legislation of the states aforementioned and several others have been fashioned by these beliefs.
An essential reflection underlying tolerant doctrine is the fact that they articulate how coercive political establishments take care of their associates’ fairly and capitalize on the patience to diverse stances and principles. Individuals with diverse political as well as religious principles and also unlike schemes of life may dwell mutually such that the supremacy of a certain faction over the rest is diminished under liberal ideology.
Modern intercontinental legislation on human rights allows for a sturdy dedication to liberal philosophy. An example is the – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights- (ICCPR) of 1966 which distinguishes several liberation privileges e.g. the free will of conscience, religious conviction and contemplation (art. 18), the choice of expression and view (art. 19) and the freedom of passive congregation and alliances (art. 21/22)
Any sort of prejudice by the decree, be it because of lingo, race, belongings, religious convictions, color, societal or national derivation, gender, political or any other outlook, birth or any other status (art. 26) and it also requests for “sporadic and authentic voting which shall be by collective and identical suffrage ” (art. 25).
Differentiation of these tolerant human rights from other classes of human rights e.g. the right not to be persecuted and the right to living, rights to due process like fair trial and the rule of law as well as cultural, fiscal and communal rights like health care food and housing.
To date, 167 nations are participants of ICCPR and have shown dedication to the provisos. Some moderate principles particularly are however occasionally debated in global discussions on human rights. Whereas basic security rights are mostly un-contentious, a few nations and agents have totally and openly queried if the rights of human beings should carry complete liberal principles.
We will write a custom Essay on On What Grounds is the Idea of Universal Human Rights Challenged? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A case in point is whereby Asian nations stressed on “the implication of nationalized and area particularities and assorted chronological, cultural and devout backgrounds” in the Declaration on Human Rights in Bangkok in 1993 for the understanding of human rights , that was vastly seen as a disagreement mitigating sturdier limitations on moderate human rights e.g. partaking in polls or freedom of speech.
Another example is the Organization of the Islamic Conference which has been piloting a global crusade opposing the slander of religions. Consequential declarations of the United Nations have been professed to hold up decrees barring profanity and as such limiting the tolerant right to freedom of expression (Freedom House 2010b).
Nevertheless, non-interventionist human rights are not only disputed by countries that have not entirely acknowledged liberal doctrine, or by clandestine agents which do not recognize liberal philosophy.
A strange attribute of existing political reflection is that even countless liberals do not acknowledge these ethics as a foundation for human rights. These liberals assert that freethinking doctrines are apposite for societies with liberal customs, but that it is not legal to incorporate them in collectively obligatory norms, given the assorted political ideals of unlike cultures.
John Rawls is in all probability the liberal political philosopher who has for the largest part put emphasis on this issue. Mutua formulates a report of the ethics that would administer a “reasonably just Society of Peoples” (Mutua, 2002, 93). As piece of these ideology, he conveys a register of human rights which encompasses basic security rights, a number of liberty rights, some due process rights, and a fundamental social right, but which intentionally requires complete liberal rights.
Human rights, according to Rawls interpretation, do not enclose complete liberty of conscience, fortification opposing discrimination, the freedoms of congregation, of alliance and of expression as well as a principle of egalitarian authority. Unlike Rawls as well as some other open-minded political theorists have defended the outlook that human rights- or another scheme of globally niting political norms- ought to incorporate liberal theories. Some examples are given by Geuss, Nussbaum and Jurgen Habermas.
As a result, the prospect of liberal philosophy as a branch of documented worldwide human rights does not just rely on the equilibrium of power between nations with tougher and those with feebler liberal practice (Habermas, 1992, 112). It also depends on if liberals assume that it is ethically tolerable to maintain open-minded philosophy in generally binding worldwide law, or whether human rights ought to permit some element of derogation from liberal philosophy (Nussbaum, 2006, 74).
In this paper we will scrutinize a number of explanations that have been so far given for not including liberal philosophies for human rights or objections against liberal human rights. (Geuss, 2001, 48) We will need to question if these protestations are compelling within a normative argument on what philosophies nations may maintain as globally binding human right philosophies(Habermas, 2001, 59).
Not sure if you can write a paper on On What Grounds is the Idea of Universal Human Rights Challenged? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore the protestations petition mainly people who may be persuaded of the significance of intercontinental human rights and who embrace liberal political philosophies to be warranted in some communities, but who protest counting liberal ideology in human right standards (Nussbaum, 2000, 38). The three challenges that will be taken in account are not equally elite, but are often presented jointly and somewhat reinforce one other
Moral challenges against liberal human rights The narrow international political role of human rights
The rights of human beings are just not the ones that each person has like the aspect of human rights is perceived in lawful as well as open dialogues. Quite a number of authors stress the fact that the starting point of human rights is in intercontinental lawful manuscripts and they also dispute that it is indispensable of them that they perform a certain worldwide political function – a task “in practical reasoning about the conduct of global political life” (Beitz 2009, 99).
A few authors have taken for granted that this function is relatively tapered and customized to particular uses. As an example Walzer pointed out that:
“I will take human rights to be rights which set limits to the sovereignty of states, in that their actual or anticipated violation is a (defeasible) reason for taking action against the violator in the international arena, even when – in cases not involving violation of either human rights or the commission of other offences – the action would not be permissible, or normatively available on the grounds that it would infringe the sovereignty of the state.” (Walzer, 2007, 109).
Accordingly, Walzer puts forth, the rights of human beings are somewhat distinct by the justifiable intercontinental fines that may ensue as nations contravene them. Human right by explanation, are norms that, in case are infringed or contravened, call for actions that would in normal situations flout the autonomy of a nation i.e., comprise a case of intercession into another country.
A soaring threshold is set-up by this situation that a right must attain so as to meet the criteria as a human right. The philosophy of non-involvement is among the fundamental main beliefs of global decree.
It deters commonly the intimidation as well as the use of force of one nation against others and other acts like intervening in relations among a country’s government institutions, prying in political actions like showing preferences to certain contenders in polls, and debatably fiscal as well as political intimidation. For both the firmness of the global order as well as the lives of the people who are threatened, it is quite apparent that intercession mainly by using force has prospectively severe outcomes.
As such, through the present global order that comprises of autonomous nations, intercession may be conceivably only be (ethically) permitted if certain offences of a severe nature are carried out. It may then be debated that infringements of liberal philosophies do not warrant “prima facie” included the prospective errors arising from intercession such that liberal ideology may not be embraced in human rights.
The key supposition forming the dispute however does not appear justified. Barry claims that his view of the concept of human rights reflects the “dominant trend in human rights practice” (Barry, 2001, 37). The global political practice of the rights of humans is made up of a wide range of varieties of political acts of which quite a number do not comprise of involvement. Charles Beitz spotlighted this actuality. Beitz lists six well-established types of international action in support of human rights (Beitz 2009, 33-40).
Duress by fiscal sanctions or armed forces involvement is the only kind that is categorized as foreign involvement. The rest which are five and are the auditing and reporting procedures in United Nations organizations, enticement in foreign guidelines e.g. by conditioning support on human rights values, backing in developing the state of affairs of human rights, pressuring social culture players, as well as the elimination of worldwide hindrances to the realization of human rights.
Although they create a key segment of global political acts that are pro-human rights, the effectualness of these sorts of acts remains uncertain. The tangible practice of human rights hardly goes against autonomy of a nation but in most cases pleas to the country’s political organizations, in so doing supposing that this nation shows autonomous power across its regions.
This outcome is affirmed by the acknowledgement of human rights norms in global decree. States have freely assumed their legal obligation to comply with human rights norms, but they have been reluctant to justify intervention, even in especially grave cases of human rights violations (Ipsen 2004, 1085). Assumptions may be made that rights are by explanation, norms for which there is an active machinery to impose them. Unfortunately, the global decree does not comprehend it as such.
Consequently, it is impossible to get an unambiguous report regarding the outcomes that may be warranted where there is infringement of human rights. Practically, nations only have to go through critics and symbolic acts.
Proposals hereby exert that human rights role in global practices of politics is majorly that one of an ethical one. With the idea of human rights, the general consensus is that they ought to be acknowledged openly as global binding norms and that they fit in a worldwide ethical discussion on political action. The rationalization of liberal human rights ought to tackle substantive ethical contemplation.
An ethical criticism that has time and again been raised in opposition to liberal human rights is that they are “Western” and thus cannot be in universal norms, applicable in each and every state, as well as those having a non-Western cultural tradition.
For instance, Makau Mutua talks of “cultural biases of the human rights corpus” which is derived from “liberal theory and philosophy” (Mutua 2002, 23). similarly, Ingelhart asserts that his listing of human rights, which does not have central liberal principles, encompass the virtue that it isn’t “special to the Western tradition” thus not “politically parochial”. (Ingelhart, 2003, 45).
This path of criticism bases on empirical assertions concerning the origin of liberal principles as well as the support that they get from different cultural traditions all over the world. Generally, it is definitely true that liberal principles have found strong expressions from the Western political thought and that many views of citizens have been shaped.
Societies from the west; however, liberal principles aren’t the exclusive heritage of Western cultures although it is obvious that in a number of societies liberal principles are almost not accepted, within political societies and amongst citizens.
But what is exactly the reason behind these empirical observations being relevant for normative questions regarding the content of human rights? How precisely are we supposed to understand the argument behind the charge of “Western parochialism”? Lastly what may be the standard which human rights norms have to attain for it to be justified?
Different ways in which the argument may be understood have been sidelined. For our case, we are going to focus on two possible explanations.To begin with, the argument may be that only the norms that are shared in every culture can be capable of being justified as universal norms of human rights.
Basing on this standard of validation, the members in all the cultures have got to in a certain way already assent toward the norms that are entailed in the human rights. If a certain norm doesn’t find universal assent by a particular culture’s members, it can’t be a norm which is relevant to them, and for this reason is unsuitable as a universal norm of the human rights.
This standard of validation can be defended by Michael Walzer when he declares that the universal morality that allows cross-cultural criticism consists of “reiterated features” of the moralities of each and every culture, whereby the features have to “actually be shared across a society” (Walzer 2007, 10/27) as well as the support that they get from different cultural traditions all over the world.
Generally, it is definitely true that liberal principles have found strong expressions from the Western political thought and that many views of citizens have been shaped.
Societies from the west; however, liberal principles aren’t the exclusive heritage of Western cultures although it is obvious that in a number of societies liberal principles are almost not accepted, within political societies and amongst citizens.
However, it can’t be a satisfactory standard of verification for human rights norms to necessitate that they have got to be shared in each and every culture. As a matter of fact, Charles Beitz has asserted, it should be the role of human rights to be critical standards of all the social practices (Beitz 2009, 78).
It is obligatory to be possible for all of them to be critical of all the practices endorsed by the cultures where they take place. Slavery, the implementation of heretics as well as forced marriages have entirely been endorsed practices by particular cultures at specified times. If the projected standard of rationalization is prior agreement, then what we have to give up is the idea of human rights.
Although the charge of the “Western parochialism” may be understood in a different way, beginning with Joshua Cohen’s discussion concerning the justificatory basis of human rights norms. As Cohen attests, all human rights are generally applicable norms and need to be construed in a manner that they are acknowledged by people from different philosophical and religious traditions (Cohen, 2008, 96).
This condition doesn’t mean that human rights ought to be acceptable by all religious and philosophical traditions. The condition only suggests that human rights norms ought to be acceptable for all the people who embrace diverse and different religious as well as philosophical views. They are supposed to aim at being acceptable to a great variety of all these views.
Basing on this, Cohen argues for “justificatory minimalism” that follows according to his presentation:
Justificatory minimalism is animated by an acknowledgement of pluralism and embrace of toleration. It aspires to present a conception of human rights without itself connecting that conception to a particular ethical or religious outlook; it minimizes theoretical aspirations in the statement of the conception of human rights with the aim of presenting a conception that is capable of winning broader public allegiance — where the relevant public is global. (Cohen 2004, 192)
Basing on this presentation, justificatory minimalism makes of 2 central justifications. To begin with, human rights norms need to aim at “winning broader public allegiance” channeled to them. For the reason that people all round the world encompass different religious and ethical views, human rights need to recognize pluralism of these views furthermore strive to abide by them. subsequently, this entails a consequence that “theoretical aspirations in the statement of the conception of human rights” ought to be minimized. It is indeed possible to comprehend human rights norms indevoid of reference to a certain “philosophical theory”.
At present, Cohen doesn’t argue in opposition to liberal human rights. But he proposes that an argument against liberal human rights can be capable of having some plausibility, given justificatory minimalism. Ingelhart may perhaps provide a paradigm:
The Law of Peoples does not say, for example, that human beings are moral persons and have equal worth in the eyes of God; or that they have certain moral and intellectual powers that entitle them to these rights. To argue in these ways would involve religious or philosophical doctrines that many decent hierarchical peoples might reject as liberal or democratic, or as in some way distinctive of Western political tradition and prejudicial to other cultures (Ingelhart, 2003, 241).
Ingelhart asserts in his book that liberal principles rest on specified metaphysical doctrines concerning human beings’ status or else on fundamental doctrines regasrding their moral values. The doctrines are, seemingly, “distinctive of Western political tradition”; other societies have come up intensely with different doctrines. Universal political norms need to be interpreted a way that is adherent to typical Western as well as non-Western doctrines similarly their importance need to be understood.
Nevertheless, it is likely to explain liberal principles in such a way that is consistent to “justificatory minimalism”. As Cohen clarifies, justificatory minimalism “is animated by an acknowledgement of pluralism and embrace of toleration.” Precisely, it recognizes a plurality of diverse “ethical or religious outlooks”.
As a result, the tolerance approved by justificatory minimalism is intended for these different “outlooks”. Therefore, justificatory minimalism bases on a fundamental value that is intended for getting common rules that are accepted by lots of people from diverse ethical and religious outlooks.
At present, in nearly all societies, there isn’t any unanimity regarding to these outlooks. This doesn’t signify that cultural and religious disparities are at all times strongly present in social life, other than some people whose outlook differs from the view of the majority. Consequently, the plurality of both ethical and religious outlooks doesn’t just exist among diverse societies all round the world. It also subsists in societies.
We can at this moment notice that the underlying value of justificatory minimalism is similar to the value underlying liberal political principles. As mentioned before, liberal principles try to tolerate different attitudes and beliefs. They give out conditions that govern the domination of a particular set of ideas by any other particular set.
Justificatory minimalism bases on the same value of tolerance; it only moves the concentration from smaller-scale conflicts amongst the members of the societies to large-scale political conflicts amongst societies. For individuals who are truly concerned about tolerance towards different outlooks, it shouldn’t matter in principle whether conflicts occur either within or between the societies.
Therefore, liberal principles aren’t inevitably tied to particularly Western religious or philosophical traditions. Their appeal can be interpreted by any person who recognizes the plurality of ethical and religious traditions and also embraces the value of tolerance. Basing on this sense, liberal principles aren’t parochial.
The value of mutual self-determination
Critics of liberal human rights repeatedly create a further objection: liberal human rights are not compatible with acknowledging the value of self-determination collectively. For instance, Mutua attests against the full freedom of religion as part and parcel of human rights by asserting that “the most fundamental of all human rights is that of self-determination … Any right which directly conflicts with this right ought to be void to the extent of that conflict.” (Mutua 2002, 108)
How precisely might self-determination be at variance with liberal human rights? The subsequent argument may be made: given that a society is self-determined politically, others should respect the political norms carried out within the society since they have been freely chosen by the citizens. Societies upholding liberal human rights norms do not succeed to give the respect owing to all those self-determined societies that don’t accept liberal principles. As a result, not everybody should support liberal human rights.
Further clarifications are required approximately two aspects regarding to this argument. First and foremost, what’s here the behind the idea of collective self-determination? An individual may perhaps liken the notion to the principle of self-determination of peoples within the international law.
But self-determination collectively and legally, doesn’t correspond to the sense of self-determination that is needed in the argument. Various aspects of the legal principle turn out to be controversial, nevertheless it is approved that it is associated to the obligation of non-intervention in cases where people have attained statehood in its legitimate territory (Ipsen, 2004, 394).
As we have previously seen, the obligation of non-intervention doesn’t necessarily disagree with universal human rights practices, for instance, public criticism different states. Consequently, if liberal human rights are solely backed up by milder forms of international pressure that doesn’t total up to “intervention”, there isn’t any conflict amongst them and self-determination legally.
So the perception of collective self-determination as argued above has to be different from legal self determination. It must be a moral notion that includes more duties as compared the legal principle. Debatably, Gould defends self-determination as a moral value when she denotes: “self-determination, duly constrained by appropriate conditions, is an important good for a people, and the foreign policy of liberal peoples should recognize that good and not take the appearance of being coercive.” (Gould, 2006, 99)
The self-determination of a people tends to be “good”, here for instance, as a value that needs to be recognized by other peoples. To be certain, Goulds’ remarks with full respect to coercion advocaes that acknowledging this value implies only paying respect to the principle of non-intervention.
Actually, this value needs to justify duties that are strong. For instance, Barry argues that single states as well as international institutions should not offer incentives to the other countries to take over liberal institutions. Barry puts emphasis on “the great importance of maintaining mutual respect between peoples and of each people maintaining its self-respect” (Barry, 2003, 68).
Maintaining common human rights norms, that necessitate societies to take on specified political principles, seemingly refutes respect to societies that don’t accomplish the norm. Basing on Barry, we may possibly suggest that the value of collective self-determination offers the other societies a motive to “respect” self- determining societies.
Here is the second aspect of the objection regarding collective self-determination that requires clarification: basing on which circumstances can a society be assumed to be self-determined? It appears that the only way a society can be self-determined is if it is in one way or another governed by the combined will of all its members. This conflicts to being subjected to either an outsiders will or of part of its members.
But this condition should be of which strength? It is seemingly controversial whether self-determination necessitates everybody having equal formal powers in political procedures, thus the principle of democratic governance. We don’t have to settle this issue here. What we need to assume is that a self-determined society could possibly adopt political practices that in one way or another defy a number of liberal principles.
In addressing the argument that has been presented above, that seeks to attest that the value of collective self-determination gives a reason that contrasts to liberal human rights.
Basing on the fact that we are primarily addressing the supporters of human rights although denying the universality of liberal principles, we can possibly assume that the moral petition of the value of collective self determination depends on the respect for decisions absorbed by the peoples’ members. While paying respect to the self- determined decisions of a people, we eventually respect the options of individuals that was composed by the people.
Now, a procedure in incorporated for every collective decision that accepts different views of individuals as not only an input but also a common decision as an output. In a number of cases, the verdict could be liberally accepted by almost all of the individuals, but usually collective verdicts are taken that conflict to the will of most of the members.
Additionally, there isn’t any procedural guarantee that the result of a decision procedure is fair. Even the procedures that execute strict but real conditions of procedural fairness tend to yield choices that turn out to be significantly unfair, in the view of defenders of liberal principles.
Given such cases, defenders of liberal principles face problems. They can’t accept the fact that the society is self-determined as a satisfying motive to respect the collective decision since they carry that respect is in due course owed to the individuals, but not collectively as a whole.
Once respect is eventually guaranteed to the individuals, an individual needs to realize the fact that most people encompass different notions regarding the end collective decision, thus an individual needs to owe respect to all the sides of the controversy moreover come up with a reasoned option regarding the side that deserves respect especially when all things are considered.
When thinking that while making such reasoned choices, the decision made collectively is substantially unfair to those individual on only one side of the, then this must be a good motive for taking sides along with them and as well not respecting the decision. So far, they are believed as moral defenders by the defenders of liberal principles.
This is contrasted to local customs, they’ll be dedicated to seeing each and every violation of liberal principles as a significantly unfair treatment of particular society members. as a result, they have with them a very good reason that allows them not to respect collective decisions that defy liberal principles.
However, an individual may possibly argue out that this particular reason is overshadowed by stronger countervailing motives. To be specific, an individual may possibly declare that all of the individuals who seem to be treated unfairly must have made free alternatives, that in one way or another validate expecting from them to tolerate the burdens substantial to these decisions. The following are some of the reasons of this kind.
One of the reasons is that an individual could possibly mention as a matter of fact is that these individuals reside in certain societies in devoid of being forced to do so. As a matter of fact, if they were truthfully unhappy from the collective decisions absorbed within their society, then they would certainly leave.
However this argument supposes that individuals can relocate in other societies. This is almost not true. Most of the countries incorporate restrictive immigration policies; furthermore there are cultural as well as economic barriers against migration. Therefore, the likelihood of emigration can’t be a satisfactorily strong motive to anticipate from them to tolerate the burdens of unfair collective decisions within their society.
Another reason could possibly be the fact that individuals take part in the collective decision- making of all the people. Irrespective of the unfairness of the outcome, an individual may imagine that they’re dedicated to the outcome since they have implicitly agreed to the procedures.
However it isn’t clear why it should be the case ( with the exclusion of a problem that specific persons may decide to boycott collective decision- making based on uneven conditions). It is not irrational and immoral to take part in the political processes even though an individual isn’t disposed to agree to certain outcomes.
Taking part in collective decision-making, and acknowledging temporarily the procedures based upon while taking these decisions, is the sole likelihood they’ve to not only express their views but also manipulate the collective decisions in a calm and peaceful way. We can’t embrace their involvement against them.
In conclusion, the outlined reasons aren’t convincing. The value of collective self-determination doesn’t provide us with satisfying reasons to respect illiberal political practices in different societies.
Conclusion In a synopsis, it can be stated that we have scrutinized three objections compared with including liberal philosophy in global human rights norms: the tapered political part of human rights, the supposed Western parochialism of liberal ideology, as well as the worth of mutual self-determination.
All these objections failed to elucidate proof of a persuasive argument. For as long as there are no other persuasive challenges facing liberal human rights, protecters of liberal doctrines have no principled ethical reason to keep off from maintaining liberal principles as part of global human rights norms.
References Barry, B. (2001). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beitz, C. R. (2009). The idea of human rights. Oxford: Cassese.
Cohen, J. (2004). Minimalism About Human Rights: The Most We Can Hope For? In: Journal of Political Philosophy 12. 190-213.
Cohen, J. L. (2008). Rethinking Human Rights, Democracy, and Sovereignty in the Age of globalization. Political theory 36. 578-606 .
Freedom house. (2010b). Poilcing belief: The impact of blasphemy laws on human rights. New York.
Geuss, R. (2001). History of illusion in politics. London: Cambridge.
Gould, C. C. (2006). Self-Determination Beyond Sovereignty: Relating Transnational democracy to local autonomy. journal of social philosophy 37. 44-60.
Habermas, J. (1992). Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demok. Frankfurt: ratischen rechtsstaats.
Habermas, J. (2001). Zur legitimation durch Menchenrechte. Hauke Bronkhorst , 386-403.
Ingelhart, P. N. (2003). The true clash of civilization. Foreign Policy 135 , 62-70.
Ipsen, K. (2004). Volkerrecht. Frankfurt: Frankfurt M.
Mutau, M. (2002). Human Rights: A Political and cultural critique. New York: Blackwell.
Miller, D. (2007). National responsibility and global justice. London: Oxford.
Nussbaum, M. C. (2006). Frontiers of Justice. Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge: MA/ London.
Nussbaum, M. C. (2000). Women and human development: The capabilities approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Walzer, J., N. (2007). Making sense of human rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arts and artists being affected by today’s realities Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction An unprecedented surge of new information and communication technologies has culminated into an increasingly intertwined world. Advancements made by man in the area of ICT during the last half of the twentieth century has accelerated globalization of all spheres of human life at a pace never imagined before.
Today, information about political and socioeconomic happenings in remote parts of the world is passed on to other parts on a real-time basis. This task is a discussion of the way arts and artists are being affected and influenced by realities of the contemporary world.
Imagination and Expression Since the very humble beginning of human civilizations, man has had various artistic ways of expressing his feelings, emotions, experiences, and perceptions. These expressions underscore one’s society, environments, nature, and significant historical events like battles or immigration episodes, as well as normal and bizarre imaginations.
These ways range from performing arts such as dances, drama, music, visual arts, and plastic arts like painting and drawing among others. For instance, during the Stone Age, man did Rock Art whereby, he painted the pictures of the animals he hunted and his tools among other thrilling experiences of his ordinary life and lives of his ancestors in the state of nature, on the walls of his cave dwellings (Pickover, 1992, p.16).
Therefore, art has been a vital component of all human civilizations and has evolved alongside other aspects of human cultures to the extent that, today the most talented artists like actors, actresses, painters and musicians are the most celebrated individuals who hold esteemed social status envied by many.
How arts and artists are affected and influenced by realities of today Advancement in technology is certainly a weighty drive of progress and history in any society. For example, unprecedented progress in ICT has altered the way people do business, how they interact with their relatives and friends, and even the way they govern themselves. Arts and artists have inevitably been affected and influenced by advancement in technologies, changes in global communication, and an accelerated tempo of globalization in various ways.
Today, progress in technology and computer-supported arts permit artists to find out new forms of artistic representations that put more emphasis on the visual and creative features of a given artistic piece. For instance, computer-modeling platforms enable sculptors to observe their work in virtual reality prior to its production (Ehrlich, 1976, p.111).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, artists can create pieces of artwork that are more closely associated to their initial motives; thereby, they push forward accuracy of execution in arts (Ehrlich, 1976, p.114).
This has in turn led to increasingly truly realized varieties of an artist imagination. Moreover, advancement in technology has facilitated integration of various kinds of arts as artists endeavor to produce more creative and imaginative artworks and remain competitive in domestic and new global markets.
Developments in photographic technologies have had profound impacts on modern arts and artists have embraced photography as an artistic instrument. For instance, modern artists have already successfully applied present developments and inventions in photography to painting (Ehrlich, 1976, p139).
Globalization and the ease with which artists can access information about people, places, living things, happenings, environments, and communities in distant lands have undoubtedly influenced their imaginative power.
Today, different classes of artists including musicians, painters, actors, and sculptors and others are faced with the reality of the need to create artworks that can appeal to different people living in various diverse global societies (Crawford, 2003, p.4). In other words, they are faced by an inevitable pressure of the need to impart a global perspective on their works of art in order to remain relevant in an increasingly globalized world.
Conclusion Modern arts and artists have unavoidably been affected and influenced in various ways by advancement in technology, globalization, and other current everyday factors. Arts and artists in today’s world have come under pressure of the need to appeal to people and communities with diverse social and political orientations.
Even though artistic borrowing is not a new phenomenon per se, it has clearly been accelerated by the progress in ICT and ease of movement. In addition, artists have experienced an increase of their fans and consumers of their artworks.
We will write a custom Essay on Arts and artists being affected by today’s realities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Crawford, R. (2003). The Global Influence on Interior Design and the Impact on a Family and Consumer Sciences Professional. Web.
Ehrlich, G. (1976). Technology and the Artist. Ann Arbor: University Microfilm International.
Pickover, A. (1992). Visions of the Future. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress Research Paper essay help free
Abstract Researchers have concentrated on studying the relationship between the factors that affect human behavior. The different human behavior and abilities have effect in the management of organizations and learning institutions. This study provides a differential approach in examining the factors that contribute to different human behavior and ability. Data pertaining to different individual measures were obtained for some 182 Organizational Behavior students.
Measures on emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and perceived stress were obtained using different instruments. A correlation analysis showed positive correlation between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. A negative correlation was observed between perceived stress and emotional intelligence. A Similar correlation was observed between perceived stress and self-efficacy. The results illustrate the necessity of understanding emotions in managing perceived stress in different
Introduction Individuals show different abilities to perform the tasks given to them in different settings like schools and places of work. Students in the learning institutions show different academic performances. Similarly, employees of an organization have different performance abilities for given tasks.
Several factors may contribute to the different abilities of individuals. One such factor is self-efficacy. This may refer to the level of confidence that an individual have in his or her ability to perform a particular task and to execute a particular behavior successfully (Bandura, 1997 cited in Schyns and Moldzio, n.d).
This is a flexible personal quality with its roots in the social cognitive theory (Gundlach, Martinko
Presidential Powers in the United States Constitution Essay college admission essay help
The president is the supreme power in nearly all the countries across the world. Only a few countries like Swaziland and the United Kingdom among others vest their supreme powers in kings/queens. The constitution of the United States of America confers diplomatic, executive, and administrative powers among others to the president.
IN my opinion, although the constitution of the United States bestows sovereign roles in the president, he/she must not rule within the constitution only; however, he should be monitored by the Senate, Congress, citizens, civil society, and other humanitarian groups. Therefore, the presidential powers are not powerful because of the establishment of the systems to check and indirectly control the president’s official duties.
My opinion in presidential powers is that although the constitution bestows the pivotal state duties in him, s/he cannot execute the duties without consent from the senate/congress house, therefore, limiting his powers. The senate has the powers to decline or give consent to presidential appointees through ballot boxes, and only a minimum of two-thirds votes will give the president the go ahead to implement his powers.
The establishment of the senate, congress, electoral system, and limitation of the presidential term to four years is some of the systems that control presidential powers. Furthermore, incase the president commits crimes or does not rule amicably, the house of representatives is free to charge him thus stripping him off the honor as the president. Therefore, the ability of the power checking systems, working parallel with the president, renders him/her powerless.
Article II of the constitution of the United States of American confers the president with four main executive official duties (Phelps
Demarcation of Science and Non-Science Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Demarcation of science and non-science is exceedingly complex because both are integral in generation of scientific knowledge. General definition of science is the study of the physical world using systemic observation and experimentation skills. Thus, key to science is observation and experimentation of infinite manifestations of the physical world to generate scientific knowledge. In contrast, non-science is a field of knowledge that deals with abstract manifestations of the world that science can neither observe nor experiment.
However, these two fields of knowledge seem to be downright separable yet empirically impossible since, one field must exist for the other to exist. In essence, there can be no science if non-science does not exist, and vice versa. According to Callender (2005), science and non-science are inseparable components of knowledge as they depict empirical and rational aspects of knowledge respectively (1).
Science derives its observations and experiments on the non-science world by making hypotheses that are non-science, and eventually, through the process of testing and experimentation, hypotheses become theories that explain scientific facts. Ironically, scientific facts tested using non-science hypotheses seek to differentiate science and non-science, yet they are interdependent. Hence, it is impossible to demarcate science from non-science on a case-by-case basis.
Impossible Demarcation As aforementioned, it is impossible to demarcate science from non-science because they are integrated fields of knowledge in that; one cannot exist without the other. For instance, untested knowledge is non-science while tested knowledge is science.
This means that, for science to exist there must be some untested knowledge that needs testing through observation and experimentation. Scientific knowledge originated from the non-scientific world that is full of facts awaiting experimentation to qualify as scientific facts. Shermer (2001) argues that, scientific study entails the interplay of inductive and deductive reasoning (22).
Inductive reasoning involves the use of observations, experiments, hypotheses, and theories in making general inferences of a certain phenomenon, while deductive reasoning is the application of theories in analysis and extrapolation of a given phenomena. Critically, both inductive and deductive reasoning have non-scientific elements for they both rely on hypotheses and generalization of findings with certain assumptions. Hence, it is impossible to demarcate science and non-science explicitly.
Demarcation of science and non-science is quite impractical because science originates from non-science. Formulation of theories begins from formulation of hypotheses, then experimentation to test and provide evidence of assertions in hypotheses, and ultimately validation of the hypotheses as theories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If demarcation of science and non-science existed in scientific experiments, then there would be no false hypotheses because they are unscientific. List (1992) argues that, it is ambiguous to consider a given hypothesis unscientific yet it is scientific to falsify it (50). In other words, demarcation of science and non-science will create ambiguities in science. Hypotheses and theories are indispensable elements of science because they act as a bridge between scientific and non-scientific worlds.
Both science and non-science theories have helped human beings to explain the origin of life in the universe. Creation and evolution theories are the leading schools of thoughts that hold plausible explanations about the origin of life. Although both theories seem to be plausible, both have not proved, beyond a reasonable doubt, how their assertions are true in modern society.
Creationists believe that life originated from a creator of which science cannot test whether it is true or false. On the contrary, evolutions infer that life originated from basic molecules that evolved throughout the history of the universe and led to the emergence of diverse creatures.
Creation theory is unscientific for its basis is on the belief, while evolution theory is scientific because of its empirical inferences. Forster (2004) argues that, commonality of creation and evolution theory is that they have assumptions and seek to explain the same phenomena (28). Thus, demarcation of science and non-science can severely affect scientific claims of evolution theory for it has failed to prove the occurrence of evolution, even though it is scientific.
Moreover, non-science is an indispensable part of science because people use non-scientific principles of reasoning in ascertaining whether a given assertion or hypothesis is valid and sound. Although mere reasoning is unscientific because no one can test and prove its validity, it is part of the scientific process.
Kabay (2005) asserts that, according to descriptive criteria, assertion should be testable in principle, logic or otherwise, for its hypothesis or theory to be scientific (7). Despite the fact that scientific evidences emanate from observation and experimentation, they must fulfil the principle of testability and logic for them to support a hypothesis or a theory. Since, design of experiments and logic are inseparable in scientific studies, then science and non-science are also inseparable.
Conclusion Therefore, it is impossible to demarcate science from non-science on a case-by-case basis because they are integrated fields of study and knowledge that are interdependent. Science consists of tested field of knowledge while non-science consists of untested field of knowledge; thus, science relies on non-science to expand its discoveries and increase the tested form of knowledge.
We will write a custom Essay on Demarcation of Science and Non-Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For scientific field to expand, it must delve into the field of non-science to falsify numerous hypotheses, theories, and assertions. In addition, since science differentiates science from non-science, demarcation of the two will limit the integration of science into other fields of knowledge such as psychology, philosophy, and sociology, which do not need laboratory testing or experimentation, for they are abstract constructs that are impossible to measure experimentally.
Bibliography Callender, Craig. 2005. Philosophy of Science and Metaphysics. Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Science, 1-24.
Forster, Malcolm. 2004. An Introduction to Philosophy of Science. Philosophy, 1-28. Kabay, Martin. 2005. Science and Non-Science: An Epistemological Conflict. Philosophy of Science, 1-24.
List, Charles. 1992. Science and Pseudoscience; Criteria of Demarcation. Reason Papers 8, 49-58.
Shermer, Michael. 2001. The Borderlands of Science: Where Sense Meets Nonsense. New York: Oxford University Press.
How do the Research Findings of Cognitive, Developmental and Social Psychology Apply to Real World Issues? Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Psychology is defined by American Psychological Association (APA) as a “diverse discipline, grounded in science, but with nearly boundless applications in everyday life” (APA, 2011 pr. 6). Psychologists conduct basic research, developing and testing theories through cautiously refined research methods involving neuropsychological methods, animal studies, observation, survey questionnaires, controlled experimentation, Qualitative and descriptive research, computational modeling, and analysis (Weiner et al., 2003).
Other psychologists make use of the scientific knowledge gained in psychological research to benefit organizations communities and people (APA, 2011).
Currently, psychologists have applied objective scientific procedures to appreciate and offer an explanation or even a prediction of human behavior. However, there have been various misconceptions about psychology but this has been counteracted by more structured psychological studies starting with hypothesis and eventually conducting empirical testing.
However, research findings of cognitive, developmental and social Psychology have had a timely application not only in the academic field, but also in explaining certain thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Additionally, it has helped in uplifting human mental health along with improving performance to advance the living standards of population.
Basic research in psychology revolves around academic psychology that involves study of aspects of personality, social, cognitive and developmental psychology. Moreover, applied psychology aims at putting into practice the theoretical knowledge to solve problems that face human in their daily life through application of various psychological principles (Weiner et al., 2003).
To begin with, forensic psychology has gone a long way in the criminal justice system to determine the cause of crime or identify suspects in order to solve related cases. Besides, psychological research has helped therapists to manage mental, behavioral as well as emotional disorders through application of various scientific methods such as experimental, correlational as well as longitudinal studies (Flavell
Voting Rights History and Challenges Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Democracy is always defined by the citizens’ right to vote meaning that it will not be in existence if they are denied such an aspect. In this case, they should be free to choose their leaders and government as a whole. The founders of America did not believe in universal suffrage as expected but this has been improving as time goes by.
In the initial stages, voters were required to own property and this therefore excluded 60% of the population from voting. As much as this was dropped, the 1800s saw a lot of women and slaves being excluded from voting (Stout, 2009, p. 29). The ratification of 1870 can be described as a major achievement because it secured voting in a broad way. The exclusion of women from voting continued up to 1920 when the country was able to grant all its citizens universal suffrage (Stout, 2009, p. 15).
This was mostly after the nineteenth amendment and later on the Indian citizenship act that gave a lot of people some citizenship rights. In this case, all Native Americans were grated some citizenship which was a big achievement. As much as this had been reviewed, people’s right to vote was still being governed by the state through different laws. Despite these developments, some states still barred Native Americans to vote.
In 1964, the qualifications for an individual to be eligible as a voter were reviewed. This means that various poll taxes and normal literacy tests were done away with. It should be known that this was enhanced by the twenty-fourth amendment.
Later on, in 1971 the legal age that was needed for a citizen to qualify as a voter was lowered. This meant that a person of 18 years of age was eligible to vote in any election. 1976 saw the voting rights act make a provision for translations to people who did not understand English as far as election materials are concerned (Finley, 2008, p. 35).
In relation to all these constitutional achievements, many people have come to appreciate the fact that United States provides for ultimate universal suffrage. As time has gone by, the law has insisted that any new state laws should be reviewed and approved by the country’s chief legal officer.
There is legal protection in relation to universal suffrage but the mentally incompetent have been excluded from voting which is acceptable. These are good developments that are likely to enhance universal suffrage but different people have argued that it is not enough. This means that all citizens should be effectively represented in government for long term sustainability in relation to democracy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various challenges to fair and equal voting practices that need to be sorted out in elections at various levels. This can be either at the federal, state and local levels of elections. Representative democracy has emerged as a challenge that needs to be sorted out because there are people who might be chosen to represent the interests of voters as leaders yet they fail in their duties. Oppressive attitudes have been seen in various areas and this will limit equal voting rights in relation to administrative positions (Stout, 2009, p. 54).
Another challenge to fair and equal voting practices is political redistricting practices because this is likely to weaken the gains that have been made in the past years. It should be known that voters’ rights have been protected by amendments to the constitution but poll worker recruitment might end up challenging the minority vote (Finley, 2008, p. 68). There is an argument that equal and sustainable education has not been achieved in the country and this does not provide an equal electoral opportunity.
Reference List Finley, K. (2008). Delaying the Dream: Southern Senators and the Fight against Civil Rights, 1938-1965. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Stout, D. (2009). Justices Let Stand a Central Provision of Voting Rights Act. New York: The New York Times.
Cultures and Institutions Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The growth and rise of globalization in the 21st century has been a significant landmark for the development of nation-hoods around the world, which has also gave birth to transnational endeavors as the foremost form that identifies the general goals of human societies.
A nation may either fall under a constitutional or liberal state and also in the form of a representative democracy. The nation-state concept is derived from medieval Europe, whereby, various nations are under sovereign territories with different forms of governments that govern their mass populations as a whole, while also possessing resources that lie within their defined borders.
Furthermore, national and transnational objectives in the contemporary world have consequently shaped into the formation of both continental and regional blocs and partnerships that have an edge on technological innovation, military advancement, and socio-economic benefits.
Characteristics of the Modern Nation-State
Although most nation-states are dissimilar in their composition, cultural homogeneity, political complexion, shape, resources and size, they still have a broad similarity in their political characteristics which includes an open democratic system that has large political outfits and well-built legal systems. The open system is also stratified to a class structure with an individual bearing the status itself and other transferable resources that include wealth and education, which are its core foundations (Bergman
What Went Wrong? Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Ritschl’s theology
What went wrong with Ritschl’s theology?
Albrecht Ritschl is one of the major Christian reformers whose works have had great impact on modern Christian faith. Ritschl’s was a student of Baur, and his theology borrowed heavily from Martin Luther, Paul and Schleiermacher.
Ritschl’s aim was to interpret the Bible upon the doctrine of justification (by faith, through Jesus Christ) and reconciliation and as such, the purpose of Christian faith was to restore the harmonious relationship between man and God. Ritschl’s theology was also concerned with the relationship between the physical and the ethical dimensions of faith.
While his works borrowed heavily from the history of Christianity, his conclusions are founded on flawed understanding of that history and his liberal views. This has generated a lot of criticism from scholars and religious authorities, who argue that his liberal approach to religion has diluted the true meaning of Christianity. Therefore, Ritschl’s efforts to defend God and Christianity violate basic biblical fundamentals.
Ritschl’s theology One of Ritschl’s main aims was to fashion a complete understanding of the Christian faith, his thoughts founded on the Christian doctrine on justification and reconciliation. Ritschl’s theology on justification and reconciliation was based on some of the epistles found in the New Testament, such as the epistle of Paul as well as other protestant reformers such as Martin Luther.
Following Pauline and Lutheran theology, Ritschl argues that the Christian faith is intended to free humankind from all sin and the guilt that arises from sin. According to Ritschl, justification and reconciliation is for the restoration of the harmonious relationship between man and God. Ritschl implies that both the Pauline and Lutheran doctrines as well as many other epistles of the New Testament have brought a humanistic approach to faith especially the Christian faith.
Additionally, Ritschl was critical of Paul, Luther and other Christian reformers, and argued that their reformation failed certain theological tenets. Ritschl asserts that these scholars had failed essentially to draw parallels between the Christian teachings on the justification by faith with the teachings of the Bible about the Kingdom of God.
Ritschl concludes that these scholars tended to imply that the Christian faith was more about personal redemption from personal sinfulness and that there was no communal ethical collectivism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He aimed to fill this void by suggesting the ethical approach to Christianity and the spiritual domination of man over the natural environment. Ritschl’s view on ethics and natural spirituality however fails and violates the basic essence of Christianity: the supremacy of God. Ritschl’s assertion negates this transcendental elevation of the Christian faith
Ritschl conceived the difference between the physical and the ethical Christianity. The physical reality is represented in nature and the spiritual connection between nature and man. Ritschl asserts that the physical conception of the Christian faith would not provide all the spiritual answers that man craves.
In this regard, he proposes the teleology, a type of theology concerned with the consequences of any action. Teleology thus is the ethical dimension of the Christian faith. Ritschl’s Christian reformation elevates the ethical over the physical on the assumption that the ethical dimension of faith addresses the meaningfulness of life, the man’s emotions, actions and responsibilities.
This view thus brings in the existential dimension to religion; based on intellectual understanding of the Christian faith, other than spiritual understanding. This argument implies that the ethical has power over the physical and thus there is bound to be tension and conflict between these two dimensions of faith.
As such, Ritschl theology implies that Christianity is among the many historical religions that struggle to address the existential problem (the relationship, and the subsequent conflict, tensions and dilemmas between the physical and the ethical dimensions of faith). Furthermore, Ritschl’s thought on the ethical brings in the philosophical elements into matters of faith.
Because Ritschl argues that the ethical is to cater for the emotion, the feelings and man’s actions, together with their implications, it relegates the spiritual aspect of the Christian faith. This means that Christianity is only meaningful depending on how man interpreted his emotions, feelings and actions. Therefore, the divine nature of the Christian Truth is largely ignored by Ritschl reformation.
Ritschl wanders away from methodical religion that is concerned with dogmatic doctrines. In his religious thought, Ritschl instead, looks at religion from a historical perspective and argues that Christianity and its meaningfulness can only be elucidated from the context of understanding the historical development that the Christian faith has gone through. Previous historical works of theology, Ritschl argues, are always fundamental in the reformation of the Christian faith since they form the foundation of the Christian faith.
We will write a custom Research Paper on What Went Wrong? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This thought is based on the assumption that unhindered journey back through theological history will yield further and new truths and about Christianity as well as any other faiths. This means that previous theologies are fundamental authorities.
However, they are only useful in assisting theologians arrive at new and subjective conclusions, while retaining the basic tenets. In this light therefore, history is an important allowing for creations of new variations of Christian faith. As such, the Christian faith is only a creative force, which leads to the realization of new theologies that are concurrent with modern spiritual needs.
Furthermore, by ignoring dogmatic theology, Ritschl theological reformation is analytical in nature and thus concludes that the Christian faith is not merely passive truth but asset of active laws that realized through the church. In this regard, Ritschl’s theology is liberal and thus liable to change as time progresses. As such due to Ritschl’s liberal thought, Christianity has evolved into many variation of faith.
What went wrong with Ritschl’s theology? The focus of Ritschl’s reformation was the relationship between God and man. Ritschl argues that this relationship is restored through Jesus Christ. As such, man sinfulness is compensated for and therefore no need for repentance upon committing sin by man. This notion portrays man as free of sin as Jesus paid the debt on The Cross. As such, Ritschl’s theology ignores the some fundamentals of classical Christianity. This includes the priesthood of Jesus Christ through which man should seek forgiveness for daily sins.
It also wrongly concludes that the Crucification of Jesus Christ eliminated sin, while in the real sense Jesus died so that man is forgiven his sins. Furthermore, Ritschl fails to account for the wrath of wrath of God, which is truthfully imminent upon sinners. Ritschl dwells too much on the relevance of the Christian faith upon the living and forgets to account for the eschatological times and the glory of Christ as He ascends the throne of heaven as the Son of God.
Other than the analytical approach to theology, Ritschl method views Christianity as part of history. This thought relegates Christianity as equal to other religions. Furthermore, such treatment of Christianity as part of history coupled with his views on existentialism makes modern Christianity so liberal.
As such, Ritschl leaves meaningfulness of religion to the subjective interpretation of the Christian values by man. Unfortunately, out of this subjectivism, there have emerged numerous versions of the Christian faith some of which profess positive liberalism. This grossly neglects the Scriptural requirements on the purity of man and the wrath, but just penalty of God on any man who sins. Ritschl positive liberalism, coupled with his denial of the priesthood of Jesus Christ, relegates the necessity of the fear of God, within which man attains holiness.
Suffice to say that the Bible asserts that, “Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God”  Ritschl positive liberalism is flawed and led Christians to ignore holiness in worship, while his ethical and epistemological ideals violate the basic biblical fundamentals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What Went Wrong? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Suffice to say the Ritschl had no ill intension of diluting the Christian faith with his own personal beliefs. Furthermore, his woks were based on historical studies on Christianity. Ritschl’s intention was to defend God, the scripture and the Christian faith. His Christian reformations mission was in response of other great reformers such as Martin Luther and Paul of the new testaments.
Nevertheless, despite his genuine concern for the need for reformation of the Christian faith, his conclusions have generated much criticism than support. Critics argue that his theology is too humanistic, liberal and relegates the relevance of the fear of God, holiness and repentance. As such, Ritschl’s theology is seen as a major departure from the biblical teachings on faith.
Bibliography Ahern, Annette . “Social Justice: Now, Later or Never? The Contribution of Albrecht Ritschl and Johannes Weiss to Social Justice Theology”. Studies in Religion 32/3 (2003): 281-29. Web.
Barnett William. “Albrecht Ritschl and the Problem of The Historical Jesus: A Study in the Relationship between Historical-Critical Research into the Canonical Gospels and ` Christian Theology with Special Reference to the Theological Method of Albrecht ` Ritschl.” Journal of Religion 74, no. 3 (1994): 401-402.
Corinthians 7:1 KJV.
Cornelis, Venema,. “Christ’s Person and Life-Work in the Theology of Albrecht Ritschl with Special Attention to Munus Triplex.” Calvin Theological Journal 29, no. 2 (1994): 525-529.
Zachhuber, Johannes. “Albrecht Ritschl and the Tubingen School: A Neglected Link in The History of 19th Century Theology.” Web.
Footnotes Annette Ahern. “Social Justice: Now, Later or Never? The Contribution of Albrecht Ritschl and Johannes Weiss to Social Justice Theology”. Studies in Religion 32/3 (2003): 281-29
Johannes Zachhuber. “Albrecht Ritschl and the Tubingen School: A Neglected Link in The History of 19th Century Theology.”
Venema, Cornelis P. “Christ’s Person and Life-Work in the Theology of Albrecht Ritschl with Special Attention to Munus Triplex.” Calvin Theological Journal 29, no. 2 (1994): 525-529.
William Barnett. “Albrecht Ritschl and the Problem of The Historical Jesus: A Study in the Relationship between Historical-Critical Research into the Canonical Gospels and Christian Theology with Special Reference to the Theological Method of Albrecht Ritschl.” Journal of Religion 74, no. 3 (1994): 401-402
2 Corinthians 7:1 KJV
The Nature-Nurture Controversy Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Nature is an attribute that a person is born with whereas nurture is the influence of environment where a person lives. When a child is born, he has neither ideas nor likings, but as he grows up, he begins to develop personal traits. Nature and nurture has big effect on humans because they control their development because nature is hereditary and nurture is environmental. This paper focuses on nature-nurture controversy.
According to Wood et al (2010), nature determines our characters and looks because these traits rely on the notion of inborn biology. Many people believe that as a child grows, he obtains either good or bad traits from the parents, but this may be due to the inherited genes in a family. Although newborns do not have personality traits, he later inherits them as he grows. The baby’s traits are most likely influenced by biology rather than acquiring them from other siblings.
Nature is a genetic gift that provides us with physical characteristics such as body structure and hair or eye color. Nature does not decide on the kind of emotions a human is likely to experience through the development process. In general, genes give a person characteristics and attributes, but the environment or nurture determines whether these traits are inherited.
Similarly, nurture is the cause of our behaviors and attributes. Although the genes gives humans a personality, the environment to which they live in has the influence to alter these traits into opposite. The way children grow up and in a certain environment can alter how they turn out to be (Tischler, 2007).
Different societies have either high or low expectations on their children’s performance in school: for example, in Asian families. They automatically expect their children to do well in school and this high expectation from parents may lead to good performance due to environmental influences.
Other societies place their children on lower standards, and their environment may influence them to believe that they are not able to excel. Despite having these standards, family surroundings can also influence the way a child grows. The environmental aspect is important because the family where a child comes from is very important.
Plomin and Spinath (2004) argue that children who grow in family unit with both parents are better than those who grow in a family environment of one parent. Nature is a genetic gift whereas nurture is the traits humans get in their lifetime. Hence, both nature and nurture are important in human development because they influence development of traits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, studies on nature-nurture have been done, and two of these studied include the tomato and the adoption studies. The study on the tomatoes was carried out to compare how much environment and genes affect the child’s growth. Researchers categorized different types of seeds into groups and grown them in different environments.
One group of seeds was grown on good soil with plenty of water and sunlight and extra care while the other was grown on bad soil with no care. It was later discovered that those that grew on good soil were better than those on bad soil were. It is clear that the influence the first seeds received determined how they grew in that environment.
The environment to which they grew in also influenced those that grew on bad soil. However, those with the same genes had the same characteristics while growing, but their size and quality was different. It is clear that also in humans; the type of environment we live can determine our personality traits (Tischler, 2007).
The adoption study was on schizophrenia – a mental disorder. The study was done on adopted children whose mothers suffered from this condition as well as the adopted children whose parents did not suffer from the illness. The studies were carried out between different adopted children as well as parents.
The results indicated that those children whose parents suffered from the mental condition also suffered themselves. Therefore, it is clear that the children carried their genes although their behaviors were the same as those of their adoptive parents (Plomin
Impacts of Globalization Essay best essay help
HP company is one of the America’s IT corporation whose headquarter is located in California at a place called Palo Alto in the United States. The company has specialized mainly in “developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise servers, related storage devices, as well as a diverse range of printers and other imaging products.” (Allen
Organizational Staffing at Effective Management Solutions Company Essay online essay help
Table of Contents The situation
Attractiveness of the HVP program
HVP Program and Job Offer Acceptance Rate
HVP Program and Turnover
Reaction of Current Associates to the HVP program
Issues and Problems of the HVP Program Plan
Recommended Changes in the HVP program
Staffing is a very crucial management element that is involved with the coordination of the human resource or work force in an organization. It is a concept that has evolved over the years due to changes in the understanding of the aspect of human resource and the value attached to it. In the early days for example, employees were treated in a bad manner and could be replaced more often without consideration of the consequences the organization would face.
Currently, the need to treat employees in a good manner in an effort to maintain and retain them has been recognized and embraced. This is because the human resource is a crucial element that contributes to the success of an organization through driving other forces, for instance, the assets (Ployhart, Schneider and Schmitt, 2006). This paper looks at organizational staffing at the Effective Management Solutions Company with much emphasis being given to the Hiring and Variable Pay program (HVP).
The situation Effective Management Solutions Company is an organization that has undergone a lot of changes in regard to the human resource area. It is a growing company whose focus areas include management systems, human resources, business process improvement as well as quality improvement. The organization’s desire to increase its revenue has necessitated the establishment of a strategic revenue growth plan, which in return has touched on the issue of human resource in the company.
There is a need to enhance the workforce in the organization through increasing the number of staff and making the working conditions better for the purpose of retention. Currently, there is a high rate of turnover and hence the need for replacement staffing. This situation has therefore led to the need for changes in the human resources and thus the establishment of the HVP program
Attractiveness of the HVP program Despite the EMS Company’s efforts to enhance the human resource sector for instance through provision of competitive salaries and good benefit packages, there is still much that need to be done so as to achieve the targeted goals especially in regard to revenue growth.
The HVP program has been proposed in an effort to place the EMS Company in a better position so as to achieve the projected results in terms of revenue growth. Its main focus is however to look into the current job offer practices in the organization so that the staff needed to fill the gaps are attracted and also retained in the company for consistence and good performance.
The HVP program is relatively attractive to both the applicants and those who receive offers since the salary and benefits terms are enhanced. However, those who receive offers would find the HVP program most attractive. This is because they are presented with three plans from which they can choose the most suitable. This brings about convenience that will in turn enhance job satisfaction and good performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More HVP Program and Job Offer Acceptance Rate The HVP program will definitely have an effect on the job offer acceptance rate. The HVP program aims at bringing positive changes in the organization for instance increased job offer acceptance rate, reduced turnover and increased job satisfaction among others. The HVP program is likely to increase the job offer acceptance rate.
This is because the new terms that are presented in the program are attractive. This includes the salaries and benefit packages which are some of the factors that determine an individual’s choice and acceptance of a given job in one company at the expense of another. This is however subject to other factors, for instance, the working conditions since some employees are not only interested with the pay but also working conditions such as job satisfaction and job security.
HVP Program and Turnover Employee turnover is a concept that should be kept to the minimum rate possible. Staff turnover is the rate at which an organization gains and loses employees. It can be determined or viewed on the angle of how long an employee is retained in a certain organization. In regard to staff turnover, the HVP program is likely to reduce the rate of employee turnover. This is because the factors that facilitate employee retention such as good pay and benefits are looked at by the HVP program.
This will increase job satisfaction of the employees and they will therefore not find reasons to move to other companies in search of satisfaction. It is therefore the responsibility of the human resource management body in any organization to ensure that employees’ job satisfaction is always enhanced since it not only foster retention of the employees but also enhance performance that in turn leads to increased productivity and profitability (Taylor and Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).
Reaction of Current Associates to the HVP program Just like in any other aspect, there ought to be different reactions from the current associates in regard to the HVP program. Initially, there ought to be mixed reactions with some of the current associates supporting the HVP program fully and others rejecting it due to doubts of its effectiveness or the positive effects it would have to their employment.
Resistance is the most probable reaction where even though the current associates may perceive that HVP program to be advantageous, they may not be willing to embrace it fully. However, there are those who may advocate for it due to the fact that its terms and conditions seem promising (Mathis and Jackson, 2010).
Issues and Problems of the HVP Program Plan In as much as the HVP program may seem so attractive and promising, it will present some problems and issues not only to the human resources but also to the hiring manager. The three plans presented to the offered receiver, for instance, may bring about confusion where some may make wrong decisions. The problem comes in where the switching from one plan to another is only allowed once in a period of two years.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Staffing at Effective Management Solutions Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This may lead to job dissatisfaction and hence poor performance and to the extreme, it may lead to quitting. To the human resource manager, the HVP plan will add to his/her workload where he/she needs to look into all the changes that are proposed. There is also the issue of dealing with all the human resources problems that will emanate from the implementation of the HVP program.
Recommended Changes in the HVP program To ensure that the HVP program is effective, there need to be some changes. There ought to be some flexibility where the staff is given some chance to switch from one plan to the other whenever there is a reason, for convenience purposes. The program should also be introduced at a moderate rate rather than at once to avoid any chances of confusion among the parties involved including the employees and the management body.
Reference List Mathis, L.R. and Jackson, H.J. (2010). Human Resource Management. 13th Ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Ployhart, E.R., Schneider, B. and Schmitt, N. (2006). Staffing Organizations: Contemporary Practice and Theory. 3rd Ed. New Jersey: Routledge
Taylor, S. and Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2002).The Employee Retention Handbook. London: CIPD Publishing
Hospitality as a Discourse Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Modern Society: A picture
Natural Nature of Social Cultural Hospitality
Noble Nature of Social Cultural Hospitality
Introduction As a discourse, hospitality has enabled me to understand a personal experience in my life. Moreover, it has reinforced my belief that, as a discipline and a social reality, hospitality is one of the most fundamental societal concepts of our time.
As our modern day societies become more individualistic, I feel that a large number of persons in our societies are abandoned to experience the world and life in lonely and lonesome contexts. This phenomenon is due to the increasing negation of the long held beliefs of offering hospitality to friends, relatives, and even strangers; a notion that originated from our medieval societies (Selwyn 2000, p.14; Lomaine 2005, p.17; Heal 1990, p.7).
As I was studying the course, the social/cultural domain of hospitality struck a chord with me, and reinforced my belief that modern day society’s abandonment of the culture of hospitality has contributed to the overall decay in moral and behavioural levels within our societies (Lashley 2008, p.70).
The study of hospitality as a discourse brought to mind an act that our entire family engaged in during my childhood. There used to be a certain boy who walked around our neighbourhood mostly on weekends, and whose unkempt and dishevelled appearance earned him scorn and few friends. He mostly begged for food, and during the winter, he would ask to stay in various homes for warmth with little success. Our family, with the urging and initiative of my mother, resolved to take him in, and within a few years, our family adopted him.
Hospitality In the course of studying hospitality as a discourse, the various definitions of appeared to vindicate my belief that, modern society is lacking a tremendously vital and noble principle. By negating social/cultural hospitality at the expense of individualism, and self-centred approaches to communal issues, the modern society missed the mark.
Our modern societies no longer take in guests as a matter of social duty, and many times guests, even family, are viewed as a bother. The generous reception of strangers into our homes is virtually nonexistent.
The Modern Society: A picture One of the prices that modern society has to pay for the abandonment of a culture and spirit of hospitality is that more children end up in foster homes. These children, lacking parental love and care that families can offer, mostly end up being socially mal-adjusted adults, and many more engage in crime and other social vices due to a lack of proper upbringing (Richardson, Foster,
Critical Analysis of Socrates’ (Diotima’s) View of Love Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Love of Beautiful Things
Mysteries of Love
Introduction Socrates and Agathon were in deep dialogue trying to define love. Ultimately, they agreed that love must have an object and that the object must be in short supply and beautiful, or amusing. In their dialogue, they asserted that love desires and is always in want of beautiful and praiseworthy things; for it triumphs in happiness and wanes in sadness.
In their view, love does not desire emptiness or ugly things because it has to adore something or beautiful things. Therefore, Socrates presumed that love is a god of beautiful and marvelous things only. However, Diotima disputed this view because gods own both beautiful and ugly things. According to Rouse, Diotima views love as one of the spirits that mediate between human beings and gods, and mortal and immortal things (98).
Diotima argues that love is the offspring of gods of Plenty and Poverty and that is why he (love) desires beautiful things for his father is Plenty, and he dwells in want because his mother is Poverty. Therefore, Diotima views love as a continuum of beautiful and ugly things that human beings desire to achieve and attain happiness.
Love of Beautiful Things Since love is always in want and seeks to achieve beautiful things, it has compelled human beings to strive for beautiful things. Human beings struggle to achieve beautiful things that they lack in life, and in so doing they obtain happiness. Hence, human beings are in love with beautiful and smashing things for they need happiness.
It can be conclusive to say that, all human beings are lovers of beautiful and praiseworthy things, but human needs and means of achieving these things vary from one lover to another. Diotima asserts that human beings always desire to have beautiful and pleasurable things, and this constitutes love (Rouse 101). Human beings are willing to sacrifice themselves to obtain their desires, since love is always wanting and pursing nifty things.
Diotima adds that one tends to view own property as valued while views another’s property as worthless because his/her love seeks fair and beautiful things only. Viewing love to have a lack of healthy and beautiful things is contrary to the common view that love is generous. In the perspective of common view, Diotima’s view begs a question that, how can love be generous yet wanting at the same time.
Given that love pursues courteous and beautiful things, a human being use various approaches to satisfy his/her unique needs that love compels him/her to obtain in life, for it is always lacking. Since love seeks to obtain decent and beautiful things, immortality is one of the things.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diotima argues that, the process of pursuing and expressing love is divine as human beings are pregnant in body and soul, yearning to immortalize themselves through procreation. Women are pregnant in the body, for they desire to immortalize their existence and live happily. Likewise, human beings can also be pregnant in soul because they are yearning to bear wisdom, virtues and ethics that build a better society, which bestows happiness to all.
Procreation of human desires provides the means of achieving immortality and happiness in life. Diotima argues that love occurs when a human being is pregnant and desires to bear beautiful things that are not only immortal, but also wise and virtuous (Rouse 104). It implies that love is assurance of immortality and happy live through procreation of body and societal values. Thus, love is not instantaneous feelings but assurance of the future and better life that is full of happiness.
Mysteries of Love Despite the fact that love seeks beautiful things only, all bodies have their inherent beauty that depends on different perceptions of lovers. Beauty in one body relates with beauty in other bodies because all are objects of love. Diotima advices that human beings need to pursue beauty knowing that beauty in all bodies is similar, for it is sheer folly not to believe so (Rouse 105).
Thus, if one needs to appreciate beauty, one should realize that beauty exists in all bodies and that there is no single body that is beautiful, making it a mystery. Diotima further advices that, unseen beauty of the soul is more salient and precious than physical beauty of a body, which is particularly deceptive. Beauty of the soul is precious because it begets wisdom and virtues that are critical in loving and caring others.
In her view of mature love, Diotima argues that one needs to grasp the essence of love, as it is knowledge that recognizes and contemplates about world of beauty, and ultimately give rise to wisdom. Thus, Diotima views love as one of the qualities of the soul that enables human beings to desire wisdom and values, unlike common view of beauty that concentrates only on physical attributes.
The best approach of pursuing desires of love is to begin from one body, then to many bodies and ultimately to knowledge and wisdom for one to attain perfection of beauty and love. The reason why love does not grow is that humans base their desires on physical attribute of bodies and neglect beauty of the soul.
According to Rouse, Diotima argues that human flesh and colors have defiled and adulterated perception of beauty because human beings hardly consider beauty of the soul (107). Desire of physical attributes of a body is not only deceptive but a sign of immature love that lacks wisdom and values.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critical Analysis of Socrates’ (Diotima’s) View of Love specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this view, Diotima perceives that physical attributes of a body obscure and obstruct real attributes of beauty that lies in the soul. Wisdom and values are indispensable elements of the soul that guide human beings in pursuing their desires according to passion imbued by the love. Thus, human beings need to focus on beauty of the soul since they derive considerable benefits such as wisdom, virtues, ethics and other values that are essential for personal development, unlike the body that hardly has any benefits except sight.
Critical Analysis I agree with Diotima’s view that love always desires pleasurable and beautiful things that make human beings achieve their happiness due to the satisfaction of their needs.
Love compels people to pursue different interests with a common objective of attaining excellence and becoming happy in life. Since love is always in want of finest and beautiful things, it means that love would cease to exist if human needs become satisfied. In nature, expression of love is evident in instances where there is a need and plenty, for instance, when the rich express love to the poor by helping them.
Moreover, given that human needs are infinite, the need to immortalize their existence and values are also expression of love. Immortality and societal values are courteous and beautiful desires that human beings struggle to achieve. I also agree with Diotima’s view that beauty of the soul is more powerful as compared to the beauty of the body. The beauty is soul is paramount because from it springs out wisdom, virtues and ethics that are higher values in the society.
If human beings were to accept Diotima’s view of love, society could be full of wisdom and societal values that uphold humanity. Diotima’s argument that human beings are pregnant in body and soul has deep implication as it means that everyone is full of love and ready to pursue its desires using all means possible. Desire of healthy and beautiful things that are inherent in love could be applicable in a positive manner if humanity concentrated on beauty of the soul rather than the physical body, which is deceptive.
Moreover, human beings need to know that everything is beautiful and that there is no single beautiful thing in the world, thus for one to obtain unwavering love, there must be wisdom and knowledge that emanates from the soul. Therefore, Diotima’s arguments are honorable for they enlighten humanity that even though love seeks reliable and beautiful things, it must focus on unseen attributes of the soul.
Conclusion Love desires pleasurable and beautiful things because it is always deficient. Love that human beings have for things has prompted them to utilize all means at their disposal to fulfill their desires. However, Diotima cautions that all things are trustworthy and beautiful in their own right, and therefore, no one should compel things that are not trustworthy or beautiful to look crooked or ugly.
Diotima asserts that unseen beauty of the soul is more powerful than mere physical attributes of a body. Thus, attributes of the soul such as wisdom, virtues and ethics should form the basis of moral and beautiful things that love desires.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Analysis of Socrates’ (Diotima’s) View of Love by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Work Cited Rouse, John. Great Dialogues of Plato. New York: The New American Library, 1956.
Education in Australia as a Tool of Promoting Equality of Opportunity Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
History of Education in Australia
Role of Education
Social Groups with Limited Access to Education
Policies Designed to Overcoming Inequality in Education system
Abstract Education in Australia is provided and delivered in different forms but the traditional mode of acquiring education is considered conventional and widely accepted.
This traditional mode entails provision of education through the school system which may be public or private and may be a primary or elementary as it is known in some countries; it can also be secondary and tertiary which includes higher educational institutions like the colleges and universities. The availability of numerous educational opportunities in Australia is an indication that every Australian has a variety that he/she should choose from depending on his/her preference.
As to whether or not this numerous educational opportunities are taken to mean that all Australians have equal access to education is the main subject of this essay. This essay will discuss the role played by education and training in Australia as a way of promoting equality of opportunity. The essay will begin by giving a brief description of education in Australia and identification of various social groups that have a limited chance to education and training and provides factors that influence their access to education.
It will also discuss the processes and the policies that the government can design to overcome the inequality of opportunity. Consequently, the essay will dwell on the ways by which the community can support the disadvantaged groups. At the end of the essay, recommendations of what need to be addressed to facilitate equality of opportunity will be given and a conclusion drawn thereafter.
Introduction There has never been a unanimity concerning the goals and the outcome of education, consequently no one has comprehensively defined education. The widely accepted definition of education is to “stimulate a love for questioning, to promote self reliance and risk taking” (Tepperman
Business Communication: Qantas Airline Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Executive Summary This report entails an analysis of market communication within organizations. To provide a real life situation, the report entails an analysis of how market communication that has been integrated by Qantas Airline. The report gives the background information on the concept of market communication within organizations. The report also illustrates the various market communication strategies used by Qantas Airline.
In the report, both traditional and emerging market communication strategies are considered. The report considers a number of marketing communication strategies such as advertsising, public relations, and direct marketing. Furthermore, the report also highlights the effective sue of non traditional marketing initiatives such as the employment of web based communication tools. The paper highlights some of the tools that available for utilization by the company such as social median nd the company’s website.
In order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how Qantas Airlines uses these strategies, the report has illustrates the various mediums used by the firm. Some of the mediums considered include use of television, radio, and billboards. Additionally, the report illustrates the emerging market communication mediums used by the firm. Some of the emerging marketing tools that the paper highlights as useful to Qantas include Facebook, twitter and YouTube.
The report also evaluates the various factors contributing towards Qantas Airline success in its marketing communication, such as adoption of social media marketing, and the collaborative marketing drives with strategic business partners .Finally, a conclusion on the importance and the effectiveness of the company’s current marketing strategies, their advantages and shortcomings is offered. The paper also offers recommendations on the new strategies in marketing communications that the company needs to adopt.
Introduction This report is aimed at conducting an analysis on marketing communication strategies that Qantas airline has incorporated in its operation. Communication entails the process of exchanging information through symbols and words. The objective of communication is to develop a common understanding. Communication is a critical component in the success of businesses.
Currently, the global airline industry is characterized by an increment in the intensity of competition. As a result, it is critical for firms to incorporate an effective marketing communication (Ferrel
Public Art’s Benefits and Effects in the Community Essay scholarship essay help
Public art is any work of painting, sculpture, drawing or writing done by a creative mind in a public place. It is meant for the community or a wider society. Its significant purposes include telling a story- past, present, or even future. Public art, which always receives its funding from governments and NGOs, also has the responsibility to educate the society. This essay is going tackle its benefits and effects in the community (Cartiere, 2008).
There are several merits of public art in the community or even those found in the cities. For instance, sculptures and drawings create a feeling of consciousness and belonging (Coutts
Emergency Response Operations Essay college essay help: college essay help
Emergence response operations are necessary in the society as they help in combating emergencies. Fire and rescue team, law enforcement officers and recovery divisions are responsible for the emergency response operations.
In California, emergency responses operations are carried using the Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations which has been designed to assist the law enforcement personnel. Some of the major emergence operations that are relevant include technological disasters, civil and natural disasters. This guide has been set with watch commanders and field officers in mind. Law enforcement managers and deputy and line officers would also find the guide useful.
The guide incorporates standardized emergency management system statutory and the concept requirements as well as the law enforcement incident command system (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009).
The guide has to be followed by any one carrying out operations related to emergency response. The paper researches the California Office of Emergency Services on the recommendations provisions on emergency response by the law enforcement to identify the important issues raised and why they are important.
Communication and coordination between the different bodies involved in emergence response operations are essential elements required by the Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009).
The regulations provided by the SEMS demand that when the local government emergency operations center is activated a chain of communication and coordination need to “be established between the Incident Commander and the response Department’s Operations Center (DOC) to the EOC or directly between the Incident Commander and the Local Government EOC” (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009, p.11).
Additional requirements include the establishment of communication and coordination between state or local emergency response agency with the local OEC government. In this case, the emergency response agency must have the jurisdiction over and take responsibility for incidents that are likely to take place within the confines of the local government in question.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prior to the undertaking of an emergency response by the ICS, it is important that they first communicate with the local government. In this case, the local government level is the one that covers counties, cities, and districts and they have the mandate of managing and coordinating all the emergency responses and any recovery response from within.
The reason why communication and coordination is required between these departments is because the field operations levels depend on the jurisdiction of the local governments. The policies, procedures used in dispatching jurisdiction and the communication capabilities are useful in determining the linking of the field level operations (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009). Jurisdictional responsibility is important as they determine the field level from which the operation takes place without any failure.
Without proper coordination and communication it would be impossible for ICS field response team to carry its operations in time. The Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations (2009) indicates that such linkages are crucial because communication lines, jurisdictions and policies dictate the size of an emergency.
It is the recommendation of the SEMS regulations that all the emergency agencies with jurisdiction authority in a multi agency incident that they organize all the field responses based on the incidents command systems (ICS) (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009). SEMS regulations only find use in those incidents characterized by multiple jurisdictions.
This is the case even in a case whereby the regulations are treated as single disciplines. Case incident is used in reference to mean occurrences owing to either natural or manmade phenomena. Such phenomena may at times demand that prompt be taken in order to mitigate or prevent damage or loss of not just human life, but that of the natural resources as well.
However, there has been a dilemma on when to adopt ICS. This has over the years been the case where emergency response agencies have been reluctant and hesitant on what to apply. But, with time it has been advisable to use ICS in any incident or emergency no matter its size. The provisions have enabled single discipline use first on-scene emergency responder who follows the guidelines of ICS (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009).
The reason why the single disciplines were included in the ICS usage was because most of the single response incidents have the capacity of expanding to multi discipline incidents that may require extra resources. So, to avoid this gray area, it has been advisable to adopt the ICS principles. The ICS provides basics concept of functionality that ensures that the emergency is mitigated and the job done.
We will write a custom Essay on Emergency Response Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of the fire that was destructive in the 1970 in southern California, the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009). The issue was the chain of command that was followed in by the law enforcement incident command system.
This delayed the emergency response operation as it took much time than necessary to respond the incident that proved to be disastrous. To counter this, a risk management system was designed to ensure effectiveness among the firefighting agencies. It also ensured that coordination and communication was achieved when combating multijurisdictional fires (Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations, 2009).
ICS is flexible and can be applied in any function that requires response. The reason why ICS has been important issue is because of its ability to respond rapidly without any delays to emergencies. The system is able to respond to both single and multi discipline emergencies. Since then the California office of emergency services has been using the ICS as part of their Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations.
In conclusion, the Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations has been of great importance to the California emergency response department. By the development of the ICS it has been possible to respond to both single discipline and multi discipline emergencies.
The major issues are the coordination and communication of the links between the different bodies and the local departments. This is because the local emergency departments offer the policies and the jurisdiction procedures that can be applied the ICS on the area it has mandate. The jurisdiction of the local governments determines the field level from which the operation takes place.
Initially the SEMs regulations required ICS to be applicable in multiple emergency disciplines. However, because of the dilemma it caused, it was improvised to accommodate single discipline emergency respond. This was based on the functionality of ICS making it possible to act on emergencies. Lastly, it has been possible to increase the effectiveness and coordination of combating multi disciplinary emergencies.
Reference List Law Enforcement Guide for Emergency Operations. (2009). Web.
The Importance of Becoming an Independent Learner at University Essay a level english language essay help
Institutions of higher learning have acknowledged the need to vary learning methods. As such there is emphasis on learner independence. The concept of independence learning is explicitly stated by a number of scholars.
Moore (1973) states that independent learning deviates from traditional learning methods and therefore student are permitted to learn their own unique ways which includes individual and teamwork and thus promote students academic growth. Additionally Little (n.d.) believes that independent learning is the ability to accept the “responsibility of all making decisions in respect to learning which includes inquiry and discovery of new knowledge.”
Little’s (n.d.) assertion on independent learning implies that learners must therefore be autonomous by the way of owning the learning process. To do this means those students need to acquire certain learning skills that support independent learning. The purpose of this paper is to explain skills that contribute to independent learning, which students need to excel academically.
Business and Economics Essay essay help
Effective business management is one of the core issues lacking in most business organizations. According to Bob Farrell motivating the workers is a central feature in establishing a sound and effective managerial environment. Motivation, for instance, as illustrated in his video titled Give e`m the PICKLE is presented as the principal force behind successful organizations.
Thus, the video seems to suggest that lack of motivation is unhealthy for both the client and the concerned business organization. In essence what this indicates is that by inspiring the employees in an organization the chances that they will be productive are high.
Another highlighted feature in Bob Farrell’s video, Give em the PICKLE revolves within the scope of client satisfaction. Basically, the central role of any business organization is to satisfy its clients.
Hence, Farrell asserts that for any organization to satisfy its clients it ought to embrace the concept of serving others its topmost priority. This is he supports by arguing that business is actually a noble career and all involved must be proud of what they embrace. Also the scope of attitude is equally examined. The core approach to this features pertains to the manner clients are treated.
Thus, he notes that ones attitude determines how an individual treats the clients. More so, this is supported by insisting on consistency. What the video does is to explore the dynamics of teamwork. This is testified by the manner he explores the concepts of seeking apposite ways to make each and every aspect of serving look good and eventually delivering on time.
Examining the scope of consistency he points to the need of setting high but realistic standards and equally sticking to them. This is shown to be the principal reasons client’s returns for having received satisfying services.
Another highlight of the video touches on teamwork. It ought to be noted that individual talent in business is not appreciated as is with teamwork. Farrell notes that teamwork plays a crucial role in establishing the right managerial and organizational approach. This he notes is essential in providing seamless but healthy customer care. And this explains the need for client satisfaction which leads to client loyalty as well as building a core base of return and satisfied clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, Bob Farrell explores the dynamics of running a business organization that have the right attitude in satisfying its clients. This is demonstrated in the manner he examines the subject pertaining to the client satisfaction. He notes client satisfaction means life to any business organization.
Horst Schulze is the chairman as well as chief executive officer of West Paces Hotel Group. Despite his involvement in hotel industry he has a long history in regard to travel industry. As depicted in the video, there a number of managerial issues that he profoundly examines and offers critical insight.
Human contact, for example, is one of the major issues that he argues helps in fostering strong business management. He notes that, because human contact cannot disappear it is thus essential to invest in apposite human resources development. This he notes would entail the integration of diverse features which includes training as well as technology.
With this in mind it is thus easier to create an organization which can be defined as a centre of excellence in regard to consumer satisfaction. Thus, human contact would entail providing the apposite to the client and this adds value to the services or products being rendered to the client.
Another instrumental feature that Schulze touches on this video seems to touch on the aspects of creating value rather than on concentrating on value itself. The concept revolves within the parameters of satisfying the client despite the situation. It is the creation of apposite products that helps in developing organizational values. According to his observation value is paramount in as far as organizational management is concerned and this is not restricted to hotel or travel industry it touches on all business entities.
Creating excellence as a leader in regard to proper business management is another feature that is elaborately defined in the video. It would be instrumental to note that excellence helps in the provision of the best products and as helps in establishing ethical parameters across the board. Schulze notes that discipline and strong leadership helps to nurture true aspects of excellence.
More so, without any aspects of excellence hospitality business cannot prosper according to his observation. Thus, excellence ought to be a central aspect in regard to any business whether hospitality or service provider. He notes that central to any success is learning to set standard which would add value to both the business as well as the clients.
We will write a custom Essay on Business and Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Too, the concept of building brand is equally mentioned as major component of propelling business organizations to grow. He notes motivating the workers is a core feature that compels both managers and their subordinates to be productive. Thus, managerial discipline helps in establishing a brand that is valuable and satisfying and more so profitable.
Goffman’s definition of stigma is still useful in 2011 Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
According to Goffman (1963, p. 89), social stigma is a process whereby reactive approach from society destroys the existing normal identity of a person. The author further defines social stigma as a process of disapproving personal characteristics and beliefs which are considered to be against societal norms and beliefs.
Goffman in his work identifies three types of stigma. To begin with, he explores life long experience which may result from mental illness. The second aspect is that he attempts to address physical deformity or distinct traits which are undesired.
Lastly, the aspect of associating an individual with certain beliefs, race or religions which are undesired in society has also been given special consideration by Goffman. Therefore, his definition of stigma can be viewed in different perspectives depending on how he presents each element that makes up the whole definition.
The author further divides relationship between an individual and stigma into three distinct groups. Firstly, the stigmatized are those individuals who suffer from the effects of stigma while normal individuals in society are those who do not bear the stigma. His third category consists of people who are wise and are considered normal even by those who have been stigmatized.
These three categories are indeed very important when exploring significance of stigma in contemporary age. While his theory and concept on stigma may to a large extent be disputed by other scholars, it is still imperative to note that the author, to a large extent, offers the right direction towards understanding stigma. Needless to say, this may be an important step in the right direction even in 2011 when societal stigma on various aspects is still dominant.
In modern society, stigma can be associated with necessity to be powerful whether politically, economically or socially. However, in some circumstances, the role played by power can be clear while in some situations it may lack clarity. For instance, inmates often undergo stigma related experiences as a result of power that is associated with the institution.
Thus, prisoners will be stigmatized on the basis that they are feeling powerless since they are being guarded. However, according to Goffman’s theory, the prisoners’ situation may not be equated to true stigmatization bearing in mind that they do not experience social, economic or political power in this situation. In addition, their thoughts are hardly directed towards the guards and hence, they are not seriously affected by the impact of stigmatization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Goffman (1963, p.45), the aspect of stigma takes place when a person is considered deviant and linked with certain stereotypes which may be negative in nature. The present society still applies Goffman’s theory to illuminate how individuals are trying to manage their identities that are being perceived as undesirable in the presence of those who are normal.
For instance, the model is still applied by individuals who have certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS which for a long time, has been considered as a deviant ailment associated with those who are sexually immoral.
Therefore, HIV/AIDS patients try to manage their predicament even if they are disqualified from society by those individuals that Goffman termed as wise. However, Estroff (1989, p.189) argues that Goffman’s focus on the aspect of stigma is not fixed or inherent enough; the focus is a mere difference of meaning or experience faced by an individual (Goffman, 1963, p.53).
Goffman also defined stigma as an aspect that violates the expectations of society in both natural and ordinary settings among certain groups of people. According to the author, an individual who has attributes which are considered less desirable and are out of what the society expects is considered tainted or stigmatized in terms of identity.
Goffman argued that individuals with tainted identities have to be very cautious while presenting themselves in public. In addition, they need to critically determine the god or bad attribute to either hide or reveal to other individuals in certain circumstances (Estroff, 1989, p.190).
In present world, the society expects heterosexual adults to get an ideal mate and get married. Therefore, failure to achieve this may be considered to be abnormal and not acceptable in society. Moreover, individuals who have attained certain age are expected to find a partner and start up a family and therefore those who fail to achieve this are considered to be having an attribute that is less desirable in the society.
Nonetheless, in the society, there are still uniformly ingrained expectations of things that are considered natural and ordinary for individuals who decide to remain single even after attaining certain age (Fine
The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The U.S. Foreign Policy
The Hostage Crisis in Iran
The Effects of Public Diplomacy
The End of the Cold War
The Current State Of US-Russia Relations
The Future of US Diplomacy
Introduction The Cold War was a political conflict characterized by military tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and its political allies that occurred between 1946 and 1991. The conflict did not involve direct military confrontations; nevertheless, propaganda, espionage, and nuclear threats were common. During the Cold War, the U.S. was engaged in public diplomacy by promoting its ideals and national interests.
The U.S. promoted the ideals of democratic governance and respect of basic human rights through its public diplomacy strategy. President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981), at the height of the Cold War, following the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, declared that the U.S. would use public diplomacy and if need be, military force to protect the oil rich Persian Gulf. This doctrine was appropriate and calmed tensions in international relations between the US and the Soviet Union.
The U.S. Foreign Policy The hallmark of President Carter’s rule was his human rights public diplomacy in all nations. Upon taking office, Jimmy Carter undertook to streamline domestic policy by pardoning an estimated 10,000 draft men who refused to fight in the Vietnam War of 1959-1975 (Ross, 2003, p.21). This move, although opposed by war veterans, aimed at unifying gesture as far as the U.S. foreign policy was concerned since the war was over. Additionally, this move implied the unwillingness to pursue the Cold War rivalry with the Soviet Union.
Among the situations that called for America’s diplomacy during the Cold War include the deliberate efforts to improve relations with the Soviet Union and ease the hostilities between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The easing of tensions between the two nations, termed détente, began in 1969 to 1972, and needed America’s diplomatic efforts.
The public diplomacy efforts during the Cold War were led by the United States Information Agency (USIA), which had the primary role of preventing the spread of communism and combating propaganda from the Soviet Union (Wilson, 2004, p.147). However, Carter’s approach was more of an activist and involved the assessment of foreign opinion before policy formulation.
The Hostage Crisis in Iran President Jimmy Carter’s doctrine was occasioned by the hostage crisis in Iran. At the time, the U.S. had little intelligence information on events taking place in Iran. Carter attempted to develop cordial relations with Iran’s military government to secure the release of 52 U.S hostages held in Iran.
However in 1979, the relations between the two countries worsened following the admission of Shah, who was suffering from cancer, into the U.S. for treatment. This action caused a diplomatic row as the Tehran military government sought Shah to stand trial for criminal charges. It sparked violent protests and an angry mob raided the U.S. embassy in Tehran to push the U.S. to return Shah to Iran. Following these events, the public diplomacy collapsed, and the U.S. hostages remained captive in Iran.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More President Carter invested considerable personal efforts in resolving the crisis. He immediately suspended all oil imports originating from Iran, and froze assets owned by Iranian military government in the U.S. as an economic sanction to secure the release of the U.S. hostages.
He also deployed a military rescue unit to Iran to secure the release of the hostages. However, the raid failed, and the negotiations reached a stalemate. In 1980, the Iranian government agreed to free the hostages on condition that the U.S. unfreezes Iranian assets in the U.S and stops interfering in Iranian affairs.
The Effects of Public Diplomacy According to Wilson (2004), the approach of public diplomacy used by President Carter turned to be effective during the Cold War in many respects. Firstly, it gave confidence to the dissidents including artists, politicians, and intellectuals from the Eastern bloc, who favored policies of the West (p.142). It also helped to spread the ideals of democracy eventually leading to the collapse of communism. It was clear, after the war in Vietnam, that the US image had been politically damaged.
As Lacquer writes, “Due to public diplomacy, America had to give propositions to other countries as opposed to commanding or military intervention in other countries” (1994, p.25). Recognizing this, Jimmy Carter embarked on promoting foreign exchange programs to promote cultural understanding. Additionally, he undertook to promote access of foreigners into American institutions to ensure a satisfactory cross-cultural understanding.
Through public diplomacy, the communist propaganda was disseminated leading to the collapse of communism from within. Additionally, public diplomacy ensures stable relations between countries thereby reducing their chances of going into war. Through continued dialogue such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) II talks, better relations between the US and the Soviet Union were ensured even though government-to-government relations were not persuasive (Brinkley, 1995, p.782).
The diplomacy also promoted the recognition of human rights and increased economic interdependence between the nations. The sanctions imposed against the Soviet Union affected its economy. Likewise, the shortage of oil occasioned by the Cold War affected the US economy. The public diplomacy, therefore, enhanced cultural and economic interdependence between the nations.
The public diplomacy approach used by President Jimmy Carter served to ease strained international relations between the US and the Soviet Union. It allowed dissidents, within the Eastern bloc, to understand the ideologies, human rights, and values of the West, which contributed to the collapse of communism.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The diplomacy also contributed to the ratification of the SALT II treaty that prevented arms war between the US and Soviet Union. However, the sanctions that accompanied public diplomacy affected the economies of many countries and created a shortage of oil.
The End of the Cold War Although many observers viewed the end of the cold war as victory for capitalism over communism, the events that led to the eventual end of the cold war were more complex and involved many dynamics over a lengthy period. In addition, even though an element of bad blood still existed between Russia and the US, the two nuclear nations had to maintain civility and even cooperation, especially in matters concerning proliferation of nuclear weapons.
The ideals of democracy and the benefits of capitalism slowly entered the ideological beliefs of many liberals within the Soviet Union. According to Suri, the common thread amongst the crises that established cracks in the Soviet communism and the institutional changes of later years was the desire for change in governance and governing principles (2002, p.62). As the cold war neared its end and many satellite nations become independent of Moscow’s influence, the average American heaved a sigh of relief.
The world at large was also able to breath easy, and the continuous and ceaseless fear of an imminent nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the US that many keen followers of the Cold War had to live with for decades now ceased somewhat.
Suri further states that, no singular event led to the end of the cold war and that the actual end came as a surprise even to the keenest of observers (Suri, 2002, p.63). However, the two former antagonist nations would soon realize the need to cooperate in efforts to limit the availability of nuclear weapons worldwide.
The Current State Of US-Russia Relations Since the end of the Cold War, several events on the world stage have led to the need for the limitation of nuclear weapons. The increase in terrorism, the emergence of rogue states with nuclear warheads such as North Korea, and an emphasis on diplomacy as means of averting war have all created a need to ensure that nuclear weapons do not fall into “wrong” hands.
The Current US president Barrack Obama has been a powerful proponent of limitation of nuclear arms. The US president has long envisioned a nuclear free world and has engaged his Russian counterpart, Dmitry Medvedev, in his quest to limit nuclear weapons proliferation.
In April 2008, both President Obama and President Medvedev signed the historic Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty, which enjoined the two countries to reducing their nuclear warheads by 30%. Both the US and Russia currently hold nearly 90% of the world’s stock of nuclear weapons and their leadership in reducing their nuclear weapons stock will, therefore, have a large impact on the global scale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The US and Russia are also involved in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), which aims to monitor and limit the availability and use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) in the world, including nuclear weapons.
The PSI promotes international cooperation in its efforts to reduce the availability and use of these weapons (Rand, 2009, p.400). According to Michael, even though the treaties and nonproliferation pacts that were signed and created during the cold war had served a noble purpose, they should not be discarded, but rather re-negotiated and sustained (2010, p.12).
Michael states that policies that take cognizance of the danger posed by state and non-state agents obtaining nuclear weapons for terrorism and blackmail purposes should be pursued. In this regard, the US and Russia have also cooperated in ensuring that proper measures are put in place to monitor the worldwide manufacture of WMDs, with the creation of the PSI in 2003.
The Future of US Diplomacy The advent of globalization has necessitated a reorganization of the means and medium used in the pursuit of diplomatic ends. Smyth states that, the US has had to adapt its diplomatic policies to suit the advent of the Internet age (2001, p.423). The US is currently reeling from the effects of leakage of its treasured diplomatic cables from ambassadors in countries all over the world.
Julian Assange, the founder of the whistle blowing site ‘Wikileaks’ was able to obtain the diplomatic communication write ups of US ambassadors and other sensitive government diplomatic information, and subsequently undertook to releasing the information on the Internet for worldwide access. The highly embarrassing and potentially endangering leak has been a source of ceaseless shame for the US government.
Besides the increased use of the Internet as a medium of communication and information exchange in pursuit of diplomatic goals, the US has also engaged nongovernmental agents in its quest for change in developing countries. Unlike in previous years, the robust presence of civil societies in many countries has prompted the US diplomatic force to use these nongovernmental agents as a means of achieving various policy targets.
Conclusion The US foreign policy has been a subject of much analysis and debate since the US emerged as a global leader after the end of the Second World War. The US foreign policy has been able to adapt with the times; alternating between aggression, subtle threats, actual wars and direct diplomacy to achieve certain diverse ends.
Reference List Brinkley, D. (1995). Jimmy Carter’s Modest Quest for Global Peace. Foreign Affairs, 17, 782-8.
Lacquer, W. (1994). Save Public Diplomacy. Foreign Affairs, 73, 25-30.
Michael, N. (2010). Planning the Future U.S. Nuclear Force. Comparative Strategy, 29(1/2), 1-216.
Rand, P. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative: A Model for Future International Collaboration. Comparative Strategy, 28(5), 395-462.
Ross, C. (2003). The pillars of Public Diplomacy. Harvard international review, 25, 21-26.
Smyth, R. (2001). Mapping US Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 55(3), 421-444.
Suri, J. (2002). Explaining the End of the Cold War: A New Historical Consensus?. Journal of Cold War Studies, 4(4), 60-92.
Wilson, P. (2004). Inventing Public Diplomacy: The Story of the U.S. Information Agency.
Boulder, Cologne: Lynne Rienner.
Organizing in Management Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Aspects of organizing
Introduction Organizations are important units that engage in several activities to benefit members of the society in different ways. Their set up includes areas that deal with health, businesses, government, private organizations and learning institutions. The role of organizations in the society covers a wide area that includes services delivery, product innovation and other responsibilities that benefit community members.
As a result, organizations have a responsibility to formulate strategies and policies to ensure effective work flow with their management structures. The strategies they come up with are used to implement new plans and projects that include resource management units that include finances, tangible assets, technology and human input. This paper will discuss several factors that organizing has in management in relation to the resources mentioned above.
Management Management is an important aspect of any organization because it dictates how activities are run. It is charged with the responsibility of managing resources in the society and to make sure that these resources are productive and accounted for which forms the basis for organizations in the modern times. However, principles of management do not entirely depend on modern systems but seeks to address emerging business needs, respect for humanity and organized distribution of economic resources.
As stated earlier, these resources include permanent assets, financial assets, manpower and technology. For effective management to be realized there is a team that works closely with managers to implement their recommendations. Samson
The meaning of ANZAC today best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Meaning of ANZAC today
Young People’s Interest in ANZAC
Introduction The present world enjoys peace, freedom and democracy among other benefits that our ancestors found to be scarce in their times. During those times, freedom was unthinkable, countries were colonized, and the fight for freedom was intense. For instance, some of the reasons for world war I sought to open trade routes in Russia, which was quite difficult.
Australian as well as New Zealand soldiers sacrificed their lives to defend freedom and democracy. In the process, a number of them lost their lives; others suffered severe damages, which included physical, emotional and mental effects. Military actions in various countries around the world during the 20th century were quite influential to current political state of the world. However, it is quite important to note that the current generations rarely recognize these sacrifices.
In fact, even though such ceremonies are regularly convened in remembrance of them, few people take time to understand what really happened. In sharp contrast, the youth in Australia and New Zealand are increasingly developing interest in ANZAC day, which remembers military action that occurred in 1915, involving soldiers from both countries. This paper will explore meaning of ANZAC day, as well as youth’s increasing interest in the same (Narushima, 2010, p. 1).
ANZAC Day ANZAC day is considered as one of the most important anniversaries in both New Zealand and Australia. The occasion marks anniversary of both countries’ greatest military action, which occurred during the first world war in Turkey.
This term refers to Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. In addition, the term is commonly used to refer to forces from Army Corps. This commemoration involves several events, which has attributed greatly to its lasting influence on youths, who find such ceremonies enticing as well as memorable (Robinson, 2010, p. 14).
Meaning of ANZAC today ANZAC day is quite influential in Australian lives. The level of seriousness in conducting of this event has a special meaning to Australians today. For instance, It conveys to Australians, the various meanings of war. This is mainly because of the way it is usually conducted. The process is usually broken down into two main phases namely, at dawn and during the day.
The former involves commemorative service on 25th April of every year. This is mainly because it reflects on the time when survivors of military action landed from war. On the other hand, the latter involves marching throughout major cities and centers, as well as ceremonies at war memorials (Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2010, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Young People’s Interest in ANZAC Young people in both Australia and New Zealand are increasingly gaining interest in their history. This is mainly because these events are commemorated regularly (annually) as well as taught in history. It therefore gives them a chance to evaluate fully the happenings along with sacrifices that were made by these brave soldiers to secure freedom for all (New Zealand mortgages, 2011, p. 1-2).
Moreover, the benefits of ANZAC are vivid and as Miss Gourley accounts, it gives them freedom to speak. In this regard, the day has become very significant in adolescent community as they encounter it both in school and in elaborate annual commemorations (Australian War Memorial, 2011, p. 1).
Conclusion ANZAC day is very significant in Australian lives as well as New Zealanders. This is mainly because their soldiers put their lives on the line, to protect democracy and freedom in world war I. It therefore conveys to Australians the various meanings of war. Moreover, young people in both Australia and New Zealand are increasingly gaining interest in their history. This is mainly because they encounter it both in school and in elaborate annual commemorations (Helliwell, 2010, p. 1).
References Australian War Memorial, 2011. The ANZAC Day tradition. Web.
Helliwell, Genevieve, 2010. More young people honouring Anzac Day. Bay of plenty times. Web.
Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2010. Anzac Day Today. Web.
Narushima, Yuko, 2008. Call for a cap on Gallipoli crowds. The Sydney Morning Herald. Web.
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Jean –Michel Basquiat Essay college essay help near me
Jean –Michel Basquiat was a renowned artist for his excellence artistic work. By the age of twenty seven years, he was well known as a graffiti artist and an innovative painter. He is remembered for his loose and unencumbered painterly graphic style that was commonly linked with street art that greatly became very famous in 1980s. He professionally employed his artistic genius to articulate his subject matter that pertained to race, culture and heritage by the use of imagery, iconography and text.
. Jean-Michel Basquiat was successful to become a great artist at such an early age despite his poor upbringing and education background. His success is attributed to the ability of his mother and teachers to identify his artistic talent at an early age and supported him according. When his mother realized that his son was a very talented artist he took him into Manhattan to see art and then enrolled him as a junior member of Brooklyn Museum of Art where he familiarized himself to various artistic disciplines and practices.
Despite his work being not greatly studied, Basquiat was very talented and purposely assembled through his art a host of desperate traditions, practices and styles to come up with a unique form of visual collage, one originating partly from his urban origin and also from a more distant African –Caribbean heritage (The Art Story Foundation).
Brooklyn-based artist Lorna Simpson is another renowned artist of the 1980s. Her artistic style is demonstrated with her provocative photographic works that are mostly composed of isolated details of human figure or objects with fragments of text. Her artwork addresses issues such as racial, gender, violence and the notions of the body and interpersonal communication and relationships.
Her art reflects back about the slavery era and discrimination of the African-Americans, but in a different perspective that gives them some hope that anything is possible. Her cotemporary imagery involves taking back the power and building a new African –American position or women position for the Americans. Her art evokes some element of sadness, but accompanied by a sense of progress in terms of independence from the chains of memory (The City Review Inc (2007).
Willem de Kooning was another famous American artist whose artistic work is even currently cerebrated. Willem de Kooning artistic work employed various styles at various stages in his life. He started by concentrating in realism and geometric art which he mastered before exploring other alternatives which he equally perfected. He developed his first woman painting in 1950. His paintings were characterized with enlarged body parts such as enlarged breasts which raised a lot of scandal at first.
He also worked on abstract landscapes particularly between 1957 -1961. He received the greatest artistic distinction award in 1964. He was regarded as a leading exponent abstract expressionism. His life featured numerous demonstrations of his artistic works and retrospectives that featured duality of traditional figuration and gestural painting. Willem de Kooning was also known for the action painting that was often referred as gesture abstraction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a style of painting that involves splashing, smearing or spontaneously dribbling paints onto the canvas rather than applying it carefully. The resultant effect emphasized the physical act of painting as being very important element and particularly to the fished work. Later in life he moved from painting and started sculpturing which he also did very effectively (Answer.com 2011).
Reference List Answer.com (2011).Willem de Kooning. Retrieved from https://www.answers.com/
The Art Story Foundation (2011).Jean –Michel Basquiat. Retrieved from https://www.theartstory.org/artist-basquiat-jean-michel.htm
The City Review Inc (2007). The Photographic and Film/Video Art of Lorna Simpson.
The Historical, Present, and Future Perspectives of the Social Security Program in the US Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The concept of social security system is complex, although understandable under rigorous exertion. Various socioeconomic factors inspired the concept of social security system. This essay discusses the historical, present, and future perspectives of the social security program in the US.
The starting point of Social Security lies in anticipation of how an individual or a family sustains income when age encroaches, or disability jeopardizes the capacity to work, when a wage earner dies, or when an employer encounters involuntary unemployment (DeWitt, 2010, p. 1). Every society, through history, encountered this challenge often and developed various strategies to address this issue. The diverse strategies intended to solve this problem were based on the interplay of individual and collective efforts.
Private insurance provided a historical basis for Social Security. In the seventeenth century, private insurance was the chief way that the affluent protected their assets, particularly real property. Nevertheless, the notion of insuring against consistent economic hazards and threats was established in the late nineteenth century in a model of social insurance.
Social insurance in contemporary industrial societies offers an avenue for mitigating setbacks of economic security. The ideology of social insurance is that, people contribute into a fund scheme controlled by the government, which it uses to reimburse individuals when they become unable to sustain themselves.
The U.S. social security system benefits are weighted to allow individuals with lower earnings get higher benefit relative to those with higher incomes. Thus, the system provides progressivity regarding benefits.
At the onset of the industrial revolution, the demand for a working social security was inevitable. In preindustrial era, most Americans depended on land for self-employment as farmers, artisans, and laborers (DeWitt, 2010, p. 2). They lived in extended families, which provided the principal form of economic security for unproductive members.
Economic security was not a threatening issue in preindustrial America because for people did not live for long due to poor healthcare systems and living habits. Nevertheless, with industrialization came prolonged life expectancy; therefore, the need for new and dynamic strategies for reliable economic security became a necessity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aforementioned transformation led to the development of many programs to maintain social security of individuals who due to old age or disability reached an endpoint of productivity. The last decade of the nineteenth century saw the conception of Civil War Pension program.
DeWitt (2010) observes that, the federal government started to pay benefits to Union War veterans and their living families about the commencement of war (3). The Civil War pension scheme became a genuine social insurance program by the end of the 19th century. This program was valid until 2003 when the last surviving widow of Civil War veteran passed on.
In January 17, 1935, the Economic Security Act was proposed and presented to Congress for discussion, which culminated into its enactment into law on August 14, 1935 (DeWitt, 2010, p. 4). Currently, this law is termed as the Social Security, which consists of seven distinct programs.
The aforementioned Social Security Act inspired the initial payroll taxes in 1937 and the 1942 introduction of monthly benefits. This represented a form of a vesting period during which the least amount of work will be prerequisite to monthly benefits qualification. In addition, this period provided time to accumulate some level of reserves in the program’s account prior to flow of payments to recipients (DeWitt, 2010, p. 7).
The Social Security program, following its conception, was more sensible compared to the current system. The original program reimbursed two types of one-time, huge benefit. An individual approaching age 65 then, would be entitled to payment worth 3.5 percent of his/her covered income, while deceased employee’s estate would get a death benefit computed in a similar manner. Therefore, I would ensure the future of the social security program by adopting the initial strategies, which worked satisfactorily for the benefit of all people.
Reference DeWitt, L. (2010). The Development of Social Security in America. Social Security Bulletin , 70(3), 1-27. Retrived from web.
International Business – Superdry in India and China Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Super Group Plc is a UK based retailing firm constituting of three brands; Superdry, 77 Breed and Surf Co California. The Super Group apparel takes its inspiration from the Japanese culture of designs and vintage American for its styling and thus provides a very unique manufacture that is targeted to wide demographics.
The company further provides shoes, accessories and bags. The brand was formed in 1985 in London by Julian Dunkerton and started operations as a cult store in Cheltenham (The Telegraph 2011). It gained popularity with the celebrity endorsement by David Beckham and since then has expanded its operations in terms of standalone stores, cult and concessions, UK wholesale and e-commerce.
It has expanded internationally through franchising and license in 40 countries including Japan, Belgium, France, USA and Australia and in 85 stores through its online operations. It has a total of 39 outlets in the UK and Ireland and has 60 concessions and standalone stores in the House of Fraser throughout the country. It is also listed in the London Stock Exchange (Superdry Group Plc 2011).
Evaluation of Country Information The two countries chosen for an evaluation based on further expansion of Super Dry are India and China as both of these countries are emerging in terms of economics and the textile industry is significant contributor to the GDP in both the countries (Emme 2006).
In case of India, the textile industry is the major sector of the economy; it accounts for 14% of the total industrial production and contributes 20% to the total exports and 5% to the GDP. It is also one of the largest employers of the economy, employing 38 million people in the country hence there is great potential in the Indian industry for further growth and development as it is one of the emerging economies (Balasubramanyam 2005).
Although the Indian industry is plagued with bureaucracy and obsolete infrastructure in many cases and the investment is still limited to meet a global retail demand. However, the textile industry has evolved over time to become one of the most efficient industries in the world today, offering shorter production cycles, greater flexibility, greater value addition and a greater customization (Balasubramanyam 2005).
The sourcing agents and the retailers have a greater propensity and willingness to invest. The country is inclined towards more efficient use of information technology and business process outsourcing making its supply chains more integrated and coordinated. It offers a complete vertical integration of the apparel manufacturing process, from the growing cotton and final tailoring of the ready garments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More India a has a population of 1.1 billion with a large segment of young population with purchasing power and an acceptance for new western trends and fashion styles. At the same time, there exists a cultural diversity in India whereby there are 15 different national languages and the dialect varies from state to state. This presents a complex market situatin where the target market is fragmented and thus a consolidated expansion may not be the most appropriate answer.
Organized retailing in India accounts for only 3% of the market, although this is lower than that of China at 20% but it represents under capacity utilization which means there is room for further development in this sector. There are 100 shopping malls in India today, as per the data of 2006 (Teck-Yong 2010).
China is the leading exporter of textiles with the market share of more than 10% whereas India is third largest exporter with the market share of 4%. China’s population is on a decreasing trend owing to its one child policy thus it does not have a young population as large as India’s (Balasubramanyam 2005).
The introduction of market system in China in 1970’s has changed the economic structure of the Chinese markets and industries; textile and apparel industry provides a similar example of these changes. “It has the largest apparel industry in the world which employs more than 3.9 million of the workforce and had 47,000 establishments in the year 1995. Chinese apparel production amounted to 9.685 billion garments (in units) and total apparel exports stood at a value of approximately US$24billion” (Gu 1999).
Textile exports in china accounted for 29.38% of the total Chinese exports in 1994, soon after the economic reforms were implementing. This suggests the importance this sector receives.
Although this number has reduced over time as China has expanded its markets incorporating a greater amount of electronic and other household items, textile and apparel industries continue to be important in bringing foreign currency into the country. As per the 2008 data, Chinese textile industry valued 65.406 billion USD, an increase of 16.6% from the year 2007. However, the textile exports have shown a relative decline despite the tax rebates that were adjusted twice after the second half of 2008 (Gu 1999).
A major chunk of this production accounts for foreign exports and thus made from imported fabric and cloth. Aimed at a mass a mass market, it has relatively less product differentiation and offers low prices. However, it has strategically divided its operations in production of high quality, high fashion international brands.
We will write a custom Report on International Business – Superdry in India and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It thus has an extensive and advanced distribution systems and outsourcing agents. 80% of U.S. imports from china are transported through the use of intermediary trade. Apart from being a characteristic of immense significance, this also poses a threat to the Chinese export market as it hampers the accurate assessment impossible (Emme 2006).
Furthermore, the sewing industry also experiences external economies of scale as much of it is concentrated along the coastal region making it easier for transportation and communication from its international markets hence it provides infrastructure to facilitate rapidly increasing international trade in apparel. However, on the other hand, the labour costs in China are increasing as well as the currency appreciation poses an inflationary pressure on the raw material procurement.
These rising costs have resulted in a more dispersed sewing and apparel industry whereby many of the producers have moved to inland locations to benefit from cheap labor and raw material. This makes it a less attractive market for further expansion of Super Dry as compared to India where the labour costs are extremely low facilitated by a cheaper currency (International Labor Organization 1996-2011).
Thus based on the above data evaluation, India is a more promising industry for further expansion and should be evaluated further. This is because although China is more developed in its operations, intermediaries and supportive infrastructure, it enjoys economies of scale but India still has a gap that can be filled with external investments. This vacuum can be filled with similar international expansions as it has the capacity to produce further, promoting the strategic aims of our expansion.
PESTLE Analysis of India and China as possible markets for expansion Based on Michael Porter’s Pestle framework, we will now deduce the key external factors that we will have to consider to support the decision of further expansion of Superdry. Following are the most important factors, affecting this particular strategy:
Political and Legal
The Indian government introduced the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) in India that aimed to increase India’s Global textile market share. It has invested more than $11billion from 2000 to 2005 to increase the cotton production by 57% over five years.
Further, Vision 2010, aimed to achieve export value of $50 billion for textiles growth in the economy. These steps have enabled it to promote investment and growth in this sector (Jing 2010). So if Superdry is to expand in India, it will benefit from favorable government policies and regulations.
On the other hand, Chinese textile industry also receives political and government support, but has experienced a persistent decline after the financial year 2008. The government passed the Revitalization Plans for the Textile Industry in 2009 which aimed at supporting the recovery of the textile industry from a downfall which imitated in 2008. Export rebates have also been increased and adjusted several times to stimulate the industry (Jing 2010).
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The textile industry in India is operating below its capacity at 3% thus has room for further growth. There are fewer barriers to entry as the industry does not benefit from external economies of scale as does the Chinese apparel and textile industry. The increasing population and purchasing power in India is also a positive indicator of Superdry expansion.
The Indian government in injecting significant amounts of money and providing support programmes for the industry growth. The tax rates are lower and so are the wages. The availability of cheap labor is the most significant advantage Superdry will benefit from in India and the abundance of cotton resources makes it a feasible location (Jing 2010).
The Indian society is rapidly adapting the western culture; the spread of western style clothing including jeans and t-shirts is common. English enjoys the importance as of the official language. The Indian lifestyle has evolved itself, creating more opportunities for international brand expansion.
The population constitutes mostly of youth and Superdry is mostly targeted to that demographics. Youth is more prone to adaptation of western lifestyles and luxury consumption. Also, research shows that luxury consumption has increased in India since 2001; the extended family structure in India provides individuals with greater purchasing power as compared to china where members of the households usually earn for themselves and immediate family only.
The Indian consumers are at the “show-off” stage of consuming international brands thus acquiring apparel from international brand is a status boost for average Indian consumer. Although Superdry, unlike other competitors like French Connection does not have a catchy logo, instead its logo is the unique prprostion as it is flexible in terms of writing, yet Indian society still likes to acquire international brands a sign of prestige (Teck-Yong 2010).
Both India and China are amongst the emerging economies highly dependent on high- carbon fossil fuels and thus carbon emission in these two countries is considerably high. These “energy giants” require substantial energy to fuel a growing populations as well as a rapidly developing economy.
The Chinese electricity consumption is expected to grow further and Beijing is heavily dependent on coal energy resources. It will incur very high fixed costs to expand Superdry in China as it would require a major structural change in order to introduce an environmentally friendly production method of production while on the other hand, India has a vacuum and less production levels, it does not enjoy economies of scale yet. Thus these changes can be introduced with less costs incurred (Frauke 2009).
SWOT Analysis of Chinese and Indian Textile Industry Based on the external environmental audit, the following opportunities and threats have been identified while the company analysis has enabled to identify the following strengths and weaknesses, useful in decision making for international expansion.
SWOT Analysis of Chinese Textile Industry
Government has extended its fullest support to the industry by lower taxes, providing credit and easy access to foreign markets.
Country has ample human and labour resources.
Coordination between industry and financial institutions has allowed the industry to see great potential over the years.
Worldwide acceptance of textile products produced by China.
Restrictions under certain clauses of WTO still can be a threat to the Chinese textile products.
Competition from developing countries such as Cambodia, India, Vietnam etc. could have adverse affect on the demand for Chinese products.
There is a lack of strict intellectual property rights.
Small and medium enterprises face difficulties to make entry into highly competitive market.
The industry is still considered to be fragmented and much more effort is required.
Technology being used in the industry requires revamping and high levels of investment may be required which could be difficult to achieve as the global economic conditions are uncertain.
Textile liberation and expected abolition of export quotas can help the Chinese Textile industry.
Foreign investment and cooperation will continue to play an important role in the Chinese textile industry as more and more brands and companies are shifting their production houses to China.
financial institutions has allowed the industry to see great potential over the years.
Worldwide acceptance of textile products produced by China.
Figure 1: SWOT Analysis of Chinese Textile Industry
SWOT Analysis of Indian Textile Industry
Strong cotton base
Strong entrepreneurial class
Flexibility in production and design
Presence of intermediaries to serve as third party logistics
Ability to handle value additions, embellishments etc.
Good “cultural” comfort with US and Europe.
Growing market for fashionable Western apparel
Growing use of information technology
Trade blocs and partnerships at the exclusion of India
Location disadvantage: long transit time to key markets.
Projected to have increased carbon emission by 2020, decreasing its popularity as a key investment opportunity
Enhances competition from other countries similarly constrained by quotas
Pricing pressure, following opening up of quotas.
Poor work practices resulting in higher labor cost component in many staple garments, in spite of low labor costs.
Rigid government labor policy and lack rationalization of duties in MMF.
High transaction and power cost.
Too much emphasis on cotton, synthetic fiber base not equally developed.
Fabric/processing still to gear up to meet international standards.
Technological obsolescence and lower efficiencies.
Lack of strong linkages between raw material supplier and the apparel manufacturer.
Highly fragmented markets, unit production capacities very low in international standards.
Quotas carried on in China after 2005.
Good political equation with EU and US.
Improvements in infrastructure and regulations
Research and product development
Buyers preferences for India, after China
Understanding buyer needs because of language advantage
Figure 2: SWOT Analysis of Indian Textile Industry
India has significantly lower raw material costs, wastage costs and labor costs when compared to other countries as estimated India’s labor costs to be amongst the lowest as $3 a day (www.labour.nic.in) whereas in China its $18 a day (International Labor Organization 1996-2011).
India can offer flexibility in manufacturing as it is largely a fragmented market with average scale of operations smaller than that of China, meaning India has greater capacity to offer variations and postponement in design at the later stages of production. This facilitates mass customization as well helps to bridge the gap between mass customization and repetitive methods of production.
India has fully developed textile value chain extending from fiber to fabric to garment exports. The capability across the entire value chain within the country is an advantage as it reduces the lead-time for production and cuts down the intermediate shipping time, which means a shorter through put and hence loyal clientele (Balasubramanyam 2005).
India has large growing domestic market, as the disposable income level is increasing as well as consumer awareness and propensity to spend. General consumer mindset is changing that led to increased consumption of personal care and lifestyle products that again offer great growth opportunities for companies across various sectors including textiles. Further, the increasing preference for Western style apparel, including silhetous and leather jackets etc will make the market very receptive to the new brand (Teck-Yong 2010).
India has built adequate infrastructure throughout the various stages in textile development, that is, design, sourcing, merchandising and production that enable companies for quality product design and development (Emme 2006).
Despite a large and growing market, the presence of large number of small-scale players makes the Indian textile industry highly competitive. The high level of competition in the textile industry makes the firm to work efficiently by increasing productivity and innovation which results in manufacturers focusing on quality improvements, cost reduction and high productivity.
Quality can be ensured at all levels of production through a trained and motivated workforce. While at the same time, external pressures of environmental controls is likely to result in its conformance with the environmental regulations, which will also precisely mean a reduced popularity of Indian market as an investment opportunity (Balasubramanyam 2005).
Porter’s Diamond Analysis for Chinese Textile Market China supports lucrative affairs. China has advanced international relations, expanding economy and effective government reforms, and these all factors support the textile companies to expand their businesses in China. The Chinese Textile Industry promotes structure adjustments and actively upgrade international and domestic markets and resources to provide a rapid and constant growth. The textile industry of China has always been one of the conventional pillar industries of the country.
According to Chinese Council of International Trade, “The outputs of Chinese cotton yarn, cotton cloth, woolen cloth, silk, chemical fiber and clothing have topped the world, and the export of clothing has been holding the first ranking in the world for many years”(CCPIT 2007).
Porter’s Diamond Analysis for Indian Textile Industry Figure 3: Porter’s Diamond Analysis
Indian textile industry Textile industry is a strong base for Superdry expansion as it has abundant cotton resources, cheap labor; wage rates are considerably lower than in the rest of the world and most importantly, the communicating is easy as most of the population is familiar and fluent with the use of English (Teck-Yong 2010).
The industry is strengthened by government policies that allow greater opportunities in domestic and international market. Abundant raw material availability helps industry to control costs and reduce the lead-time across the operation. Low cost and skilled manpower availability provides competitive advantage to industry. Large varieties of cotton fiber are available in large quantities and have a fast growing synthetic fiber industry.
Government subsidies and export promotions in the industry create high growth potential and would provide Superdry incentives to enter and grow in India market. Hence there are fewer barriers to entry, as government promotes investments in this sector through extended credit terms and a subsidy of 10% with reimbursements of 5% as shown in the figure above (Emme 2006).
India is also amongst the greatest users of information technology and benefits from an efficient flow of information throughout its production processes, making its supply chains integrated and coordinated. India’s strong performance and growth in the textiles sector is aided by several key advantages that the country enjoys, in terms of easy availability of labor and material, afloat and large market demand, presence of supporting industries and supporting policy initiatives from the government.
The textile industry is undergoing a major reorientation towards non-clothing applications of textiles such “as technical textiles like thermal protection and blood-absorbing materials, seatbelts, adhesive tape and multiple other specialized products and applications” (Kasturi 2010).
Key Strategic Organizational Issues The form of business for Superdry would be a private limited company and the company will have a divisional structure of hierarchy. This division will be by geographic reach.
Figure 4: Proposed Organizational Chart
As shown in the organizational chart above, Superdry has many divisions and thus follows a multidivisional structure. Thus the span of control can be altered but the flow of information will be hindered because of a vast structure and hierarchy.
Apart from this, operations concerns may also exist in the Indian division as just in time production methods may be difficult to employ. Firm must decide if it wants its supply chain to be responsive or efficient and will have to employ infrastructure to facilitate the strategic goals. Political risks and location of major markets will also be a concern for the firm (Kasturi 2010).
Human resource issues include assessing the staffing needs and costs for adopting alternative strategies, motivating employees and developing a strategy supportive culture which would induce employees to support Superdry’s strategic goals.
Research and development issues include hiring the trained and qualified employees to shorten the product life cycles by technological improvements in the products. It is a challenge to implement a well formulated R
Beneficiaries of U.S. welfare programs Report (Assessment) best essay help
The U.S. federal government has put in place various welfare programs to cater for the needs of certain vulnerable groups within the society. There are distinctive qualities that define an individual’s eligibility to a welfare program. These programs target different groups of people in society. This paper explores the available U.S. welfare programs in respect to their beneficiaries.
First, social security programs majorly provide benefits for military veterans. Military veterans constitute almost a quarter of the social security programs beneficiaries; 9.4 million military veterans received survivors, disability, or old age benefits from the Social Security program (Olsen, 2005/2006, p. 3). This population has exceeded its prime age and does not have the strength to support itself adequately.
It is pertinent to note how policymakers determine income credit for beneficiaries of the Social Security programs. In this light, the veteran population predominantly influences the economic well-being of the beneficiaries of the Social Security.
Importantly, the characteristic of the military veteran recipients of the Social Security benefits differs from the overall beneficiaries of the Social Security (Olsen, 2005/2006, p. 3). Most of the veteran beneficiaries are males relative to the overall beneficiaries. Other striking differences project the military veterans from other beneficiaries include marital status, and level of education among others.
The Social Security program benefits the eligible population through offering financial support. Since 1957, the Social Security programs have covered military personnel, and particularly those who served in 2001 or prior, obtained notable credits that increased their income for the aim of calculating the Social Security benefits.
According to Olsen, between 1957 and 1977, these credits totaled $300 per quarter of active-duty reimbursement (2005/2006, p. 2). Further, between 1978 and 2001, credits equal to an extra $100 in pay for each $300 they get in active-duty reimbursement.
Who funds such social programs? According to Martin (2007), Social Security programs receive funding from payroll taxes (p. 74). Therefore, the economic status of the U.S. at one point in time, strongly determines the ability of the government to sustain the Social Security program. Economic recession may force policy makers to adjust the eligibility criteria for the Social Security benefits to cover fewer people in dire need of the benefit to reduce the burden on government’s budget.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second social program discussed in this paper is the Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The SSI covers disabled and elderly people who have inadequate earnings and assets. The Social Security Administration (SSA) funds the SSI it although distinctly from the Social Security program (Martin, 2007, p. 74). As opposed to Social Security program, the general funds of the United States Treasury support SSI and limit payments to the U.S. nationals and certain groups of eligible aliens.
The eligibility criteria for the SSI are wide. Individuals in the 50 states coupled with the District of Columbia, and some U.S. territories, except Puerto Rico can access the SSI program. Noteworthy, most states provide an addition to the federal benefit.
Policymakers base the eligibility criterion for the SSI on the economic status of individuals. Martin (2007) observes that, the SSI beneficiaries had same high poverty rates, which was above 40 percent (p. 91).
In addition, the education status for the SSI beneficiary was mainly high school diploma, characteristic of 45 percent of the beneficiaries. Like the Social Security, the SSI sustainability is reliant on the U.S. economy. Global economic trends determine the United States’ general funding such that, low revenues may force program benefactor to cut down on its beneficiaries.
The third welfare program is the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program. This program protects the work-age population against the negative financial repercussions of becoming disabled (Rupp, Davies,
Shelby Lee Adams “The True Meaning of Pictures” Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
This paper analyzes the work of photographer Shelby Lee Adams, using the 2002 documentary The True Meaning of Pictures, directed by Jennifer Baichwal, as its principle source.
Shelby Lee Adams was born in Hazard, Kentucky in 1950 and grew up well known to many of the rural Appalachian families that populate his photographs. Familiar though he is with the living conditions of the poorest of the poor in Kentucky, Adams nonetheless did not live in that culture, but alongside it, as an observer from a middle class background (Baichwal 2002).
When considering the question, is Adams an insider or an outsider in his Appalachian project, one must answer outsider. Why? Simply because socio-economically Adams grew up with the awareness of that poverty, but was not directly affected by it, as the subjects of his photographs have been. In Shelby Lee Adams’ work we see the impact of poverty in the lack of access to adequate food, health care, clean water and education (Baichwal 2002).
Adams’ photos chronicle these affects, but he himself cannot speak to their impact from personal experience. In essence his work may give an indirect voice to the socio-economic conditions that the Appalachian residents face, but not from the authority of having lived through that poverty. Rather, Adams’ work exploits and judges his subjects from a classist point of view.
Adams employs visual effects such as portraying the subjects consistently in black and white, utilizing consciously artificial staging, and making use of dramatic lighting effects to create exoticism in his Appalachian subjects. In the words of Variety critic Dennis Harvey, Adams’ work contains “posed shots that are classically composed and feature intricate, often chiaroscurogothic lighting. [The] result makes these “hollar dwellers” look grotesque and pathetic, like backwoods Diane Arbus subjects” (Harvey 18).
The photos essentially turn the viewer into an ethnographer, but one who is neither sympathetic nor ethical, because the heightened exoticism of the photos intensifies the distance between the viewer and the subject, and the lurid lighting especially makes the subjects appear freakish, less than human, and in many cases inspire fear in the viewer.
Documentary photography can be distinguished from other forms of photography via its commitment to the real. Unlike art photography or fashion photography for example which can be outlandishly staged and lit moodily and eerily, the basis of documentary photography is real life. Natural light does not appear to play much of a role in Adams’ work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Often it casts gloomy, heavy weight on the subjects, which may or may have not existed at the time of day when the photo was taken. Adams’ defense for playing with reality in this way sounds less like a documentarian and more like an artist: “By getting in there with the camera, by creating some distortions, I’m hoping to make everyone think…I’m experiencing this environment. I’m trying to share with you, in an intimate way, that experience” (Baichwal 2002).
According to critic Kathleen Cummins, “Adams makes a passionate case for the style and content of his work on the foundation that his photographs are his way of expressing himself artistically” (Cummins 37). However, Adams as the documentary photographer absolutely bears responsibility for the work beyond the making of it, for the simple fact that he is showing this work outside of its context.
The interpretation of the Appalachian subjects leaves their hands and enters Adams’ hands, and how they are perceived is at the mercy of Adams’ composition. Adams functions as editor in these photographs; he has selected certain moments to record and chosen not to shoot others, and with this action he takes charge of representing the people in his photographs, for better or for worse.
As Cummins explains, “Adams reveals more about his problematic role in “documenting” Appalachia [when] he tells of how his father, as a doctor, would visit the most isolated families.”Although my father had prejudiced views, I came to know those people.” Here is revealed the inner conflict in Adams, and within America in general. The distinction between “his people” and “those people” is not about regionalism or even his vocation as a photographer. It’s about class” (Cummins 38).
Baichwal’s film remains fully aware of this, even if Adams does not, and the filmmaker “subtly constructs associations and stark contrasts between what Adams says and what he does” (Cummins 38). Adams the photographer still views his subjects as beneath him; regardless of what he might say, the thinking behind his gaze is derogatory. That sense of judging the subjects as inferior reads loudly and clearly in every photograph.
One way this discrepancy in power between Adams and his subjects might equalize would be if Adams gave his subjects their own cameras, taught them how to use them, allowed them to take their own photos, and decided as a group which photos to include in a show, book or film. The simple fact that the Appalachian peoples found in Adams’ work have no agency – that the usage and application of their own images rest in Adams’ hands and not their own – makes these works exploitative.
Works Cited Baichwal, Jennifer, dir. The True Meaning of Pictures. Mercury Films, 2002. Film.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Shelby Lee Adams “The True Meaning of Pictures” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cummins, Kathleen. “The True Meaning of Pictures: Shelby Lee Adams’ Appalachia.” Take One March-May (2003): 37-40. Web.
Harvey, Dennis. “The True Meaning of Pictures: Shelby Lee Adams’ Appalachia.” Variety 390.2 (2003): 53. Web.
Audience Manufacture in Broadcasting Essay essay help online free
Article Summary This is a concise representation of revolution of media in terms of how audiences are captured, analyzed and sold to the advertisers; particularly understanding the capture of the media and how it has evolved with time to the present internet era.
Audience manufacture calls for concise determination of size and behavior of the audience and by the use of a set of measurement procedures shaped by industry dynamics and technological usage patterns, the audience is manufactured and sold to the advertisers. The need for advertisers to understand the quantity and quality of audience they were paying for led to the evolution of audience manufacture and analysis (Bermejo 2009).
Audience manufacture dates back to the radio era where different methods of advertisement approaches were carried out over the radio. However, the mode of determining or measuring the quantity, behavior and response of the audience receiving began with the invention of advertising rating systems most of which depended on the sampling concept. Such early methods included the famous Nielsen’s metered system.
The growing need for understanding of media audience led to rise of independent third party to carry out the research. With much struggle and improvements, national representative samples were achieved at around 1940 (Bermejo 1).
Initially, the concept of dividing a program into segments which were sold to different sponsors was preferred but this later changed to spot commercials. Different methods of measuring audience exposure time were invented with the most prominent being use of questionnaires, telephone and booklets with each having its advantages and disadvantages.
This was later followed by A.C. Nielsen of audiometers which did not last for a long time due to the increased need for detailed demographics and personal viewing patterns as well as the shift from household to individual unit of audience. Audiometers could not keep up with the diminishing size and increased portability of radio receptors.
People meters provided viewing data at the individual level and thus provided more precise information about the audience. Possible solutions such as satellite, cable and digital television as well as switching channels using remote controls brought yet another complexity in audience measuring techniques (Bermejo 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evolution of the society brought about yet another advertisement platform with the internet technology. Internet technology provided better methods of audience analysis with techniques such as trace Log files, and use of tags both of which could provide the needed information about the interaction of the audience with the internet platform.
However, they could not give details of the number of viewers or their profile for a given page. Search for a standard source of measurement took the center stage. This brought about new methods of advertisement pricing depending on cost-per-action on the platform. Internet is global in nature and thus presents a problem of precise sampling such as home or work based users. Metered panel method when integrated with other methods seems to generate acceptable audience information.
The idea of site visit is a somewhat misleading since there are far too many considerations to be factored in. Google provided part of the solution by clearly separating advertising from search results and distinguishing between organic, algorithmic or editorial search results and sponsored links (Bermejo 1).
New searching methods developed with time and different types of advertising and pricing such as frequency, location and prominence dependent models, page relevance as well as pages pay-per-placement and system AdWords programs. This has brought yet another advertisement model based on the concept of quality scores whereby the price models are based on the performance of the relative sites (Bermejo 1).
Work Cited Bermejo, Fernando. New Media and Society. New York: Sage, 2009. Print.
Communication Theories and Their Usefulness Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Description of the communication event
Usefulness of the theories
Introduction Nowadays, the role of interpersonal communication is huge indeed. People have to be aware of the main components of a successful communication and make use their knowledge on practice. De Janasz, Dowd, and Schneider (2009, p. 131) define communication as the possibility to convey and exchange personal ideas, some information, or knowledge by means of a properly chosen speech or signs.
It is an important process in human life, and it is obligatory to consider personal skills in listening or speaking to succeed in communication. In this paper, the communication between a young girl and a salesperson in the boutique will be analyzed using three different communication theories which are social exchange, politeness, and standpoint; each theory performs its own role and defines the way of how the communication should be developed.
Description of the communication event The communication under analysis takes place in the boutique where visitors are free to observe different clothes, try them on, and buy them in case customers are satisfied with the quality, style, and other issues. The main purpose of salespeople is to demonstrate their production and persuade customers to buy something. In this particular case, the communication begins as soon as the potential customer (a young girl) enters the boutique.
The young girl demonstrates her listening skills properly in order to meet her main purpose and learn more about the dresses she is interested in. It is the case of passive listening that is described by Bentley (1993, p. 17) as the process during which the listener does not have to respond but does focus on hearing the words.
The young girl, Ms. Smith (2011), admits that she wants to find a particular dress in this boutique as her friend recommended this place yesterday. Unfortunately, the chosen dress has been already sold, this is why the salesperson wants to offer another production for the customer, using the most confident attributes. The results of the conversation are rather successful: the salesperson offers quality product and sales it, and the customer is satisfied with the new purchase.
Communication theories To understand the dynamics of the observed event and define the main insights, it is possible to use three communication theories which are social exchange theory, politeness theory, and standpoint theory. Each theory is a unique possibility to comprehend the motives and purposes of the conversation. Each participant has his/her own purposes, and the skills used in the conversation help to achieve the best results.
Social exchange theory is based on the idea that the relations which developed during the communication should be based on the satisfaction of its participants’ self-interests. According to such theory, self-awareness is a crucial factor. De Janasz, Dowd, and Schneider (2009, p. 53) point out that self-awareness is all about the possibility to know personal motivation and interests in order to develop the required interaction. In the communication under analysis, the both participants demonstrate the level of their interests in a proper way.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Standpoint theory explains how the social hierarchy may determine the process of communication. Different people are free to view social situations from a variety of perspectives. In this case, the salesperson and the customer of the boutique have different standpoints and occupy different social stages as the salesperson aims at providing certain services, and the customer has to use or refuse them.
Finally, politeness theory aims at explaining why and how people want to promote themselves or their abilities. By means of this theory, the participants of the conversation should introduce their identities and remain to be polite with each other.
In the event at the boutique, understanding of this theory makes its participants rational and more goal-oriented taking into consideration the required respect. Tong Yu (2010) offers a wonderful idea to promote a successful development of any interpersonal communication: people have to be broad-minded in order to expect some outcomes and make conclusions to improve the situation.
Usefulness of the theories The usefulness of social exchange theory lies into the fact that both participants of the conversation should have a purpose to be satisfied at the end of the process. The satisfaction should not always be a bad or good thing only. It is a desire that promotes a person to develop a powerful and smart conversation setting reasonable goals.
The usefulness of politeness theory is all about the necessity to maintain a kind of sense of the necessary image. People should understand their roles in society and talk to each other on the necessary level. Finally, standpoint theory is useful in the event analysis due to the possibility to evaluate the social positions of the conversation’s participants.
Conclusion In fact, it is wrong to identify which theory is more or less useful to comprehend the essence of the chosen conversation. People are free to use different techniques, methods, and ideas to succeed in communication; this is why standpoint, social exchange, and politeness theories described in the paper will become a solid background for the analysis of the event that took place in the boutique.
Reference List Bentley, T 1993, ‘The special skills of listening’, Management Development Review, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 16-18.
We will write a custom Essay on Communication Theories and Their Usefulness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More De Janasz, S, Dowd, K,
Orange case study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction The wireless telecommunications is fast growing, largely triggered by both how the enterprise segment has been integrated as well as positive convergence on the tastes and preferences of consumers. Similarly, the average revenue per user (ARPU) has continually declined with the emergence and general acceptance of conventional voice services. Indeed, several 3G operators are now adopting the new system as part and parcel of mastering market dynamics in mobile telephony.
It is also worth to note that the stiff competition has called for the need for mobile operators to usher new and more viable marketing strategies in order to have a dominant share of consumers. Hence, revenue growth remains top agenda even as advances made in Information Technology continue to pose serious business risks for operators who are less dynamic in their production and marketing skills (Ricketts, 2002).
Thus, commoditizing voice services is one of the competitive advantage most mobile telephony firms are seeking to achieve. This has been found to be especially popular in emerging and developed markets. Nonetheless, spurring growth in revenue demands that operators shift their attention from the commonly used 2G or even 2.5G networks and embrace the more competitive 3G broadband network (Robert, 2008, April).
They have found that this will be the only way through which input costs will be reduced to the minimum while at the same time providing customers with high speed internet connections for optimum efficiency. In nay case, most of these operators have come to the realization that this will be the only long term proven solution to efficiency and cost management.
3G technologies, unlike 2G, have vast abilities that mobile telephony operators are often after. The broadband network enables both operators and consumers to achieve certain goals within a very short time. For instance, their investments will be firmly protected since the 3G networks will ensure that there is a well established roadmap, not just for capital and revenue growth but also efficiency.
Additionally, the performance of 3G networks is deemed to be of high quality and it is the only platform through which cost efficiency can be realized owing to a wider ecosystem in infrastructure. Needless to say, there are myriad of applications and services that are rich in content when using 3G broadband. Thus, the need for ubiquitous coverage is adequately catered for.
The innumerable benefits of this new type of communication technology are being ripped by operators in both industrialized and growing countries. For example, over 400 3G operators were in operation before the close of 2008. This translates to slightly over half a billion 3G subscribers globally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both the High-Speed Packet Access and Evolution Data Optimized are used by those operators who have rolled into 3G broadband network. This paper explores Orange mobile telephony company, one of the outstanding 3G network providers in parts of Europe with other subsidiaries in Africa. Besides, the paper embarks on strategic analysis of the company with the aim of understanding both its internal and external business environment using such tools as SWOT analysis.
Besides, each of the technique used to analyze the company has been described. In the final part of the paper, some of the challenges facing the company and possible corrective measures that can be put in place have been critically evaluated. The paper concludes with wide spectrum of recommendations that the mobile telephony firm can adopt in order to remain competitive in the highly dynamic market.
Brief History of Orange The firm was the fourth entrant in UK mobile telephony market way back in 1994. It had the broad objective of attaining market leadership in the provision of wireless communications. Although the market was apparently saturated by other like-minded operators at that time, Orange was not deterred by this. As part of achieving its targeted economic growth, Orange announced its first Initial Public Offering (IPO) in 1996 with the aim of raising additional capital infrastructure.
Both the Nasqad and London markets listed its shares in spite of the fact it was the most infant firm entering FTSE-100 at that point in time. Three years later, Orange permitted its brand to be licensed in other countries of interest such as Switzerland and Australia among others. hence, it paved way for other operators in the foreign countries to have access to its trading portfolio.
During the same time period (1999), Orange PLC was acquired by Mannesmann AG. The company considered this to be an important step in its expansion strategies. So far, Orange has expanded its network and geographical location with more expansions overseas. Some of the countries where Orange has stamped its presence include Hong Kong, South America and Belgium, just to mention a few.
Although the company has been marred with myriad changes in ownership, it has not relented in providing its customers with the best services. This was evident in May 2001 when it was ranked position 1, four years in a row, by J.D Power and Associates UK, a renowned marketing research company in the region.
Strategic issues Mobile telephony has continually increased in importance in the last few years, forming an integral part of day-to-day activities. Contrary to the earlier perception on the use of mobile telephone, the services provided by this industry has gone beyond mere marketing targeting the business world; it is more of a compelling consumer product than a luxury pursued by few people.
We will write a custom Essay on Orange case study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In UK alone, close to 85 percent of the entire population has either access to mobile phone or owns one. Hence, it has become a mass consumer product. Consequently, operators are now fighting for the available marketing opportunities. An array of strategies are being used; raging from trimming down both data and voice costs, innovating new services to expanding consumer base.
This bandwagon for market superiority does not live Orange out. The profitability of such operators as Orange will hence rely heavily on how competitive they are. By fact, providing better and more innovative services is a must for Orange.
Peripheral Challenges Similar to other mobile operators, Orange also faces myriad of challenges. One such growing challenge is the government regulation that goes towards changing trading policies from time to time. it is sometimes quite impossible to precisely predict any future changes in formal regulations even when the company has heavily invested on infrastructure.
Moreover, the various tariff options available to consumers whether on data or calling services lacks sufficient publicity. For instance, the advent of 3G technologies brought along stiff competition among 3G operators. While consumers have various tastes and preferences, lack of publicity on these options is still eminent. In order to take full advantage of price wars by operators, consumer sought to be knowledgeable enough.
Furthermore, the off-net calls are still relatively high compared to calls within the same network. Besides, the international roaming calls are equally restrictive due to the higher rates. Worse still, number portability is still a pipe dream to the majority of the population. Subscribers seem to have not derived the full benefits of using this service.
This has been aggravated by the tendency of most operators locking handsets so that only simcards from one particular operator can be used. Nonetheless, overcoming these, among other challenges, will imply that Orange telecom will become consistently competitive bearing in mind that rolling out a 3G network by a mobile operator demands huge capital investments in spite of the fact the returns are not always guaranteed.
Change management and Leadership at Orange Adoption and implementation of cultural change within an organisation is an important practice that cannot be ignored at all costs. Hence, it is fundamental for Orange Company to embrace and act appropriately to any form of change that may come its way in the course of operation. In order to carry out cultural change, it is fundamental for Orange to appreciate the fact that transforming its norms might be a necessary ingredient.
In addition, improving performance will equally demand more radical changes to be put in place. The success of Orange Company will largely be determined by how it manages change variable. For example, both the formal and informal working groups ought to be fully integrated when executing change (Kakabadse, Bank
Ethical Dilemmas in Animal Testing Term Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Respect for Life
Use of Animals by Man
Subjecting Animals to Pain
Genetically Modified Products
Introduction Using animals for testing, research, and developing new products has brought about tremendous scientific and medical advancements. Animal research continues to help man in his understanding of the nature of diseases thereby aiding in the developing of new vaccines and cures.
People living in the world today enjoy better quality life thanks to the medical breakthroughs facilitated by animal research. Using animals in research and development of products has however, generated heated debate. Those who oppose the use of animals in research are many; they include groups of animal rights activists and anti-vivisectionists. These groups strongly believe that using animals to carry out experiments is not necessary at all; it is simply subjecting animals to cruelty. They therefore call for the abolition of such practices.
However, if such a move succeeds, then it will be a big blow to scientific researches. Scientists, on the other hand, agree that animals should not be subjected to unnecessary harm, but say that it is usually unavoidable. They therefore are of the opinion that animal research should only be used with strict ethical principles. That is why; in this paper we will explore the ethical dilemmas that businesses that use animals in testing, research and development of products encounter.
Animal Testing Animal testing is a practice that has generated debate with some people supporting it and others opposing it. It is usually complex and time consuming to develop medical products. There are some diseases whose drugs involve difficulty researches to get such as in the case of HIV/AIDS.
Ideal, when carrying out these tests, scientists are supposed to test many compounds on humans to ascertain if the compounds can cure treat or vaccinate. But, practically, this will need a lot of time, and it is also very dangerous because it involves too much guess work and therefore can cause harmful side effects or even death. This is why many researchers opt to use animals in place of humans when carrying out these tests. The drugs can then only be used on humans once they are proved to be safe (Animal, 2011).
This does not mean that animal testing has no difficulties. There are many difficulties that come in form of ethical consequences when animals are used to carry out product testing. This has seen many people rise up in opposition of any experiment carried out on animals that has the potential of causing them harm.
This posses the question, is it obligatory to use animals in the development of medical products? As already hinted, animals tests are used to ascertain that drugs and other medical products are safe. Tests on animals are also used to establish the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products in humans. Animal testing is also done to understand the general biological functioning of the animal used in response to the drug or disease in question (Animal, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is a requirement in many countries that all drugs and vaccines be tested for safety using animals before they are released for use by man. For instance:
The 1968 Medicines Act of UK provides that all new pharmaceutical products must be tested on at least two different species of live mammal, one of which must be a large non-rodent. This legislation was introduced shortly after the discovery that the drug (Animal Testing, 2011).
This was prompted by the implications that a certain drug had severe effects on babies of mothers who took it while pregnant. The drug, Thalidomide, had not been thoroughly tested on animals. It is believed that this was the genesis of the many laws that require products to be used by humans to be tested first. Opponents of the use of animals in testing argue that this goes against the rights of animal (Animal, 2011).
Animal Rights Many countries are also concerned about the rights of animals and have therefore come up with legislations that aim at protecting animals. For instance, the United Arab Emirates has a federal law that governs the abuse and negligence of animals.
It stipulates, among other provisions, that any form of mistreatment to animals such as through scientific experiments, is subject to punishment by the law. Under this legislation, any one found guilty of going against the rights of animals can be imprisoned for at most one year or pay a fine of 20,000 dollars. This means that both humans and animals have rights that need to be respected, and that is what brings about the many dilemmas that are experienced in this field (Animal, 2011).
Scientists and researchers are forced by circumstances to test their findings using experiments that involve living matter, either humans or animals. However, in doing this, they are confronted with ethical dilemmas.
For instance, can they undertake physiological experiments with the looming possibility of causing harm to the animals? Or should they abandon these experiments and forfeit the gains that have been achieved in the earlier experiments? In the physiological business, physiologists study life so that they can understand the processes that sustain life. Understanding these helps them in coming up with products that can prevent or cure any anomalies in the functioning of the bodies of living organism.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Ethical Dilemmas in Animal Testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these events are studied through scientific means, which normally start with theories that lead to hypotheses, testing of the hypotheses then follows where by the results are then analyzed to ascertain their effectiveness. People then look at the theories and criticize or support them. This is a common practice in the field of scientific research. However, in the development of products such as drugs, one has to understand the life processes; this involves carrying out experimental tests on living matter (Festing
Employer Spying On Employees Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethical implications in employee drug testing
Ethical implications in restricting internet use at work place
Restriction on use emails by the employees- ethical implications
Monitoring the movements of employees through vehicles used
Introduction The kind of relationship that exists between the employers and the employees of a given organization influences the achievements of the company objectives. A kind of good will that is developed is essential in ensuring that the employees perform their best in the delivery of their services to the organization.
Acquiring and retaining potential employees by a given organization is one of the managerial challenges that face most organizations. The process of recruitment and selection of the employees is often expensive and time consuming and needs to be carried out as less frequently as possible.
Getting the new employees to get to the standards of an employee that has left an organization might take some time during which the overall output of the organizations may be lowered. In attempting to develop good relationships with the employees, the employers need to put in certain incentives. The employees should be provided with equal opportunities in all aspects in the organization (Anon, 2011, para.2).
There should be no form of biasness during recruitment or in the promotion of employees as a means of appraisal. The employees should be considered as part of the organization. The employers need to have time and share with the employees the challenges facing the organization and the possible solution procedures that can be adopted. The employers should also develop a spirit of teamwork among the employees.
In order to develop the good relationship, a kind of good organizational culture needs to be put in place. This should be developed based on the ethical principles that outline the correct code of conduct to be practiced by every stakeholder in the organization. This ethics shall govern the relationships among the employees and that between the employees and the employers.
The rights of an employee as an individual should not be violated at the workplace. Poor working conditions, unnecessary restriction of movement, different kinds of discrimination, and harassment at work are some of the unethical behaviors by the employers that lower the performance of their employees.
Ethical implications in employee drug testing The field of ethics is one that has continued to have divided views over various issues. Ethical dilemmas are common scenarios that face very many decision makers like the employer in an organization, which need to be addressed. There have been theories postulated by various philosophers and other scholars on the means of establishing an ethical code of conduct.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What appears to be ethical for one party may be the exact opposite for the other party (Vij, 2011, para.1). Similar arguments and counterarguments are witnessed in the business environment. What an employer might consider ethical may turn out to be a transgression to the employees.
However, there are organizations that have developed cultures that are perceived to be ethical by many employees and job applicants. The ethical organizations will receive greater reputation from the community than the unethical organizations. They would attract more job applicants (Collins, 2009, p.7). The ethical concern has primarily been raised in the issue of drug testing on the employees by the management of an organization.
Employers and their employees are usually divided over this issue of drug testing with the employers stressing on its need as a way of improving the productivity of the organization while the employees considering it as an intrusion or some source of discrimination (Vij, 2011, para.1). The use of drug testing as a mechanism for controlling the behavior of the employees remains to be controversial (Lewis et al, 2006, p.424).
Workplace drug testing refers to drawing of samples of body fluids or tissues of the employees of given organization or the applicants of a given vacant position to be tested for the presence of some drug contents in their body (Shahandeh
Advanced Forensic Psychology Term Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Movies and Television Shows
Roles of a Forensic Psychologist
James Patterson’s Work
Silence of the Lambs
Introduction Forensic psychology is one of the areas in the medical field that has experienced tremendous growth over the years. One factor that is said to have contributed immensely to this growth is the sensationalized portrayal of this field in movies and television shows. For some reason, quite a good number of shows in television and movies have their theme line revolving around this field.
This paper seeks to compare the portrayal of the forensic psychology professionals in movies and shows on television with the actual practice and see whether the representations made of these professionals in movies and television shows is accurate. The paper will also focus on some of the shows and movies in which the field of forensic psychology has been used as the theme line.
Background Information Forensic psychology refers to an overlap or a link between psychology and the system that oversees criminal justice. Professionals in this field therefore work to make out or understand the various laws governing a particular state or jurisdiction so that they have a smooth interaction with professionals working in the legal field like judges or lawyers.
One very crucial aspect of professionals in this field include being able to give testimony in a court of law and putting matters related to psychology in a legal perspective for sound understanding by the court. For any professional in the forensic psychology field to be considered a credible witness in court, it is essential that they have proper understanding of the judicial system of a given country in which a particular case is being tried.
Usually, a forensic psychologist undergoes training in any of the branches of psychology. (Gregerson, 2009). A forensic psychologist may be required to appear in court and give evidence as an expert witness. The qualification of a psychologist in the forensic field to qualify as an expert witness is dependent on the reputation as well as the experience that a psychologist has in this field.
Movies and Television Shows It is rather disturbing to observe how much violence is being depicted in most of the shows that are being aired on television and movies. You can almost bet that the next program that is about to premier in your favourite television channel or that movie that you have been wishing so much to watch has got a whole scene of violence if not more.
For this reason, there has been a lot of inclusion of forensic psychologists in these shows and movies who play roles that are not always a true depiction of what a forensic psychologist is supposed to do in the actual field.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roles of a Forensic Psychologist To gain a clear understanding of the roles played by a forensic psychologist, it is important to understand the key words which in this case are forensics and psychology (Costanzo
Nursing Theology Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of personhood
Health and illness
Introduction Duties of the nursing profession are inseparable from faith. In fact, according to Christian worldview, nursing professionals should base their roles on faith and care. While non-Christians view nurses as people charged with the responsibility to care and love the suffering, patients in this case, Christians perceive nurses as God’s delegation to humanity.
To non-Christians, the moral and social principles should guide the nursing professionals whereas to Christians the feeling of love should motivate the nurses. Despite these differences, it is unanimous that nurses play a very important role in human life. Through caring for the ill in the society, nurses uphold human health.
Since health extends beyond the physical realm, it implies that nurses, according to Christians, also provide spiritual care to the humanity. Through care, nurses become part of God’s mystery of suffering. Suffering is a subject, which theologians have strived to comprehend since the times of Moses but in vain. Nurses also care for the dying and the dead, with hopes of positive response from God. Death is another component of human thriving which scholars have been unable to unveil its truth.
Is nursing really like any other profession within the society? I believe it is not. In fact, nursing is a component of faith. My personal philosophy in this paper is that ‘nursing is a God’s revelation to humanity’. Based on my personal research and life experience, I will demonstrate how nursing fulfills God’s revelation to humanity through Christian worldview on nature of personhood, health and illness, suffering, death and caring.
Nature of personhood Fear of death and illness characterizes human nature. Although Christians view death as God’s plan to human life, personal experience reveals that people fear death. In fact, many view it as the interruption to their lives. Human beings by nature believe that they are liable for care and protection from nurses.
They believe that nurses should protect them from all the sufferings in their lives. As a result, most patients solely depend on nurses for the survival. Patient’s fear of death brings worry and uncertainties to their lives. In this aspect, God’s revelation is two-fold.
First, although nurses are human beings characterized by the nature of personhood described above, they strive to end fear within their patients. The bible teaches that “people should not fear anything but God” (Attridge, 2006, p. 123). Nurses manifest this teaching to the patients by giving them hope even at times of death. According to Christian’s worldview, nurses should provide love, hope and care to the patients even at their last breaths.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More God’s mission since the time of Moses to the advent of salvation through Jesus Christ has been to provide care, love and hope to humanity. Through Moses, the Israelites felt God’s love and care. Through Jesus Christ, God manifested His unconditional love through salvation for all. Therefore, nursing professionals manifests God’s love, care and hope to humanity, as it was the case for Moses, Jesus and the prophets.
Secondly, by working selflessly to end fear and bring hope to the patients, nurses reveal the will of God to the humanity. As the bible teaches in 1Peter 3:14, God does not want fear among His people. In order to ensure the fear does not prevail in human nature, nurses provide care based on love and faith to the patients (Shelly and Miller, 1999, p.139).
In this case, nurses act as direct God’s delegation for the teaching of eternity and life after death. In biblical context, people should not fear; be it illness or death since there is eternal joy after this life. This ensures that patients are no longer worried for their lives after death. Such hope would not be possible without the nurses. They indeed represent what God wants from humanity in order to achieve eternity. Therefore, nursing is a revelation for God’s will to humanity.
Health and illness In my research, I justified health as the spiritual well-being of a community and illness as the visible outcome of poor spirituality. As per the worldview, health is the physical, social, moral and spiritual well-being of an individual whereas illness is the state caused by the imbalance of these factors. In Biblical context, disharmony between God and the humankind is what results into illness.
According to Christian worldview, human infringement of God’s will culminates into physical, moral and social instability of an individual or illness. Based on personal experience, I concluded that the scholarly and professional definitions of health and illness are just symptoms of the spirituality. Whichever view, nursing plays an important role in health of the society. Through this way, nursing manifests God in several ways including healing, love and caring.
Nursing reveals God as the healer of humanity. As Jeremiah (30:17) notes, God “will restore you to health and heal your wounds” (New International Version). In this passage, Jeremiah describes God as the healer- the healer of wounds. Wounds in this context refer to the weakness of the human spirituality. As per the worldview, however, wounds represent the physical illness of an individual or a society.
Regardless of the view, it is unanimous that wounds destabilize human health and as Jeremiah states, God restores this health. How does God today restore the health yet He is unseen? Throughout the Christian history, God fulfilled His roles through common people. For instance, to save the Israelites from slavery God used Moses, an Egyptian slave.
We will write a custom Essay on Nursing Theology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Taber is justifies when he says, “God uses people through their professions to accomplish His mission on earth” (1998, p. 35). Nursing is a means to healing and through the professionals; God accomplishes His mission of healing. Through this way therefore, nurses manifests God’s power of healing.
Nurses manifest God’s universal love to humanity. According to Christianity, nurses should provide love to the ill. Love is a spiritual component that guides the humanity in comprehension for the need of ill free life. It is justifiable that love motivates nurses (Colson
Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Categories of terrorist organizations
Differences in the two categories of terrorist organizations
Introduction Terrorism attacks have become very common in today’s world especially with the increasing conflicts of power and the increase in financial difficulties in the globe. Many terrorist groups have been formed whose main agenda is cause violence in order to achieve certain political or religious goals. Loss of lives and destruction of property have been the major effects of the attacks especially with the increasing technology where advanced ways of attacking have been developed especially the use of biological and chemical weapons.
Most of the terrorist attacks happening nowadays are even being supported by the military forces of the countries involved which make the attacks even more coercive since the military that should protect the people is itself involved in the same attacks. The terrorists have the believe that their actions can always be justified by law. This makes them as confident as they plan the attacks very well so that they know exactly where and how to attack (Anderson, 2002, p. 1).
Categories of terrorist organizations Terrorist organizations are the groups that work together in planning and executing terrorist attacks. There are two basic categories of terrorist organizations namely domestic and international also referred to as foreign terrorist organizations.
Domestic terrorism, as the name suggests, involves terrorist activities either by an individual or a group directing the acts of violence to own people especially the government. On the other hand, international terrorism which consists of international terrorist organizations, involves terrorism activities where an individual or a group of people are directed by other countries to carry out violence attacks to other countries beyond their boundaries.
Domestic terrorist organizations are, therefore, based on their local areas. For instance, a terrorist organization that attacks only its own government or local society, but not other countries, is a domestic terrorist organization. Domestic terrorism often occurs in African nations opposed to international terrorism whose focus lies mostly with the Americans.
Due to this fact, the U.S maintains a different understanding and definition of terrorism that is different from that of African nations. International terrorism can be said to cause deaths for many people or result to serious injuries as well as damage of property. On the other hand, domestic terrorism is less violent and results to lower rates of killings and loss of property as terrorist groups, who are mostly civilians, only coerce the government to take a certain action.
Although both types of terrorism are aimed at a certain goals, they both differ in that international terrorists targets the worlds powerful countries as they seek public opinion from the globe. Domestic terrorism is, however, targeted to the local settings within a county’s boundary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While domestic terrorism, mostly in Africa, is motivated by poverty among state members and the desire to develop their countries economically, international terrorism is not directly linked to these factors evidenced by many terrorist groups coming from well off backgrounds.
Another major difference comes in with the technology used in both types of terrorism where international terrorism involves the use of sophisticated technology to carry out the attacks such as missiles while most domestic terrorism involves use of human efforts to create havoc in a state. Terrorism activities are carried out by terrorist groups which are defined as any movement that uses violence as a weapon to achieve its goals political, ideological or religious (Shinn, 2005, p. 1).
Differences in the two categories of terrorist organizations Despite the fact that all terrorist organizations always have almost similar motives they differ in certain perspectives although they all have the universal objectives of antisocial motives.
Since their activities involve hostility, they have to plan and organize on how to handle security in the areas they are planning to attack. Domestic terrorist groups are not, usually, supported by the government since in most cases; they attack the government in order to attain certain goals. They therefore have strategies that they use to get people or certain social groups to support and sympathize with them.
This support team include both active and inactive members who do not participate directly in the attacking activities but rather offer support in other ways such as financial, security, just to mention a few. The active members, on the other hand, include the active energetic people who participate in the real activities of attacking including fighting and riots. Such support teams may be volunteers if at all they support the pursuit of the goal in question or in other cases, they may be forced into participating by the terrorist members.
International terrorist organizations, on the other hand, are more likely to e supported by their governments since most of them attack, not their home country, but other nations due to disputes on control over land, power or even religious conflicts. These groups are therefore supported financially, in terms of recruitments, weapons as well as means of communication.
When it comes to recruitment and training, the two terrorist groups also differ in that the domestic terrorist organizations usually recruit college and high school leavers but only who are up for the task. In addition, the process has to be sensitive to security since its home based and the groups’ intentions should not be identified because most of the terrorist attacks happen when they are least expected.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, recruitment and training activities should e done so confidentially without involving the public. International terrorist groups, on the other hand, recruit members who are known to be linked to terrorist groups or even people whose family members have been earlier involved in the terrorist attacks. Basically, recruits in international terrorist groups involve people whose backgrounds are known with those who have family ties to the organization getting priority over others (Mfields 2004, p. 1).
The training process basically involves giving instruction on the use of weapons used in the attacks. Domestic terrorist organizations are basic involved in less violent actions such as seizure of occupation in a certain building, hijacking and traditional bombings and assassinations. On the other hand, international terrorist organizations use more violent actions. Most of them include the deadly nuclear weapons, the use of biological and other chemical materials.
These advanced technological weapons are far more destructive than the traditional methods because they are targeted to cause mass destruction. Many of the international terrorists are now using chemicals that are meant to cause deadly diseases such as anthrax. Others use the technology to spread certain spores which cause skin infection which is not treated as soon as possible, results to death.
Due to the differences in availability of support especially from the government, other facilities such as training, advanced weapons and financial factors, the two groups of terrorist organizations have differed greatly in their success of their terrorist attacks.
The domestic groups have not been successful over the years due to lack of advanced technological knowhow of weapons as well as training services. In addition, domestic terrorists are not large enough to counter the security of a country where they are planning to attack because the governments are always stronger than such groups are.
International terrorists have, however, been successful many of their attacks with the use of advanced weapons, the support they get from the government and the use of experienced individuals as members of the group. The government support offers them the opportunity to plan and organize every step of the activities such as communication in case more recruits are required or additional weapons as well giving them financial support which is very crucial in the success of such international attacks (Samuraitom 2007, p. 1).
Conclusion Terrorism has become very common in today’s political and religious arena. There has been both domestic and international terrorism where domestic terrorism involves local attacks that are less violent while the international attacks are more brutal and targets countries beyond borders. Despite the fact terrorists believe that they have the right to attain certain goals, attacking other people causing destruction is not the only way they can do so.
For instance, peaceful demonstrations could be held by a group of people to air their views which does not involve property destruction or loss of lives. Terrorist organizations should therefore be restricted to prevent the harm they cause during attacks. Especially governments that support these groups in attacking other nations should stop this vice and find better ways of solving problems such as negotiating between conflicting nations. All efforts should therefore be done to restrict the movement of such terrorist organizations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Anderson, W. (2002). Terrorism and the Drug War: More Unforeseen Consequences. Web.
Mfields. (2004). Terrorism. Web.
Samuraitom. (2007). Domestic terrorism essay. Web.
Shinn, D.H. (2005). Panel on Terrorism and Transnational Threats – Causes and Enablers. Web.
Marx’s Capitalism Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Bourgeoisie and proletarians
Marx’s Moral Values
Thematic Concerns of Marx Anti-capitalist Critique
Analysis of Marx’s Anti-capitalist Thought
List of References
Introduction Karl Marx (1818-1883) is a revolutionary communist who helped to motivate the establishment of several communist regimes in 20th century. Initially, he was studying to become a philosopher although he later shifted his interest to economics as well as politics although his social and moral work has philosophical aspects.
Marx is an obvious anti-capitalist critique as manifested in his work (Marx ‘Capital’ 2007). In earlier historical periods, the society was sectioned it a number of orders which comprised social ranks. The capitalist system is one such societal arrangement in which the bourgeoisie comprised the higher rank and drafted oppressive orders. Thus, the society was segregated into conflicting and opposing camps, the proletarians
Water Pollution college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A case study
Introduction Undeveloped nations are faced with the challenge of accessing clean drinking water. Lack of understanding in the importance of practicing hygienic standards of living is a major setback to the efforts of preventing diseases that are spread through contaminated water.
In most cases, you will find that many people in these countries use water from rivers, springs, or street vendors for their domestic use. This water may contain harmful substances such as waste materials dumped in water sources, which can easily cause diseases (Hogan 1). Cholera, intestinal parasites, and typhoid are some of the major waterborne diseases. They are infectious and their impact is fatal both economically and on human health.
A case study In 1996, the state of Kano in northern Nigeria was hit by an epidemic of acute diarrhea, which was later confirmed to be an outbreak of cholera (Hutin, Luby and Paquet 1). The Nigerian ministry of health and some non-governmental organizations stepped in to ensure that curative and preventive measures were undertaken. A case study on the patients showed that the highest number of infection was in children less than 5 years.
According to this study, the main exposures were failure to wash hands with soap before meals and drinking water from street vendors (Luby, Agboatwalla, Raza, Sobel, Mint, Baier, Hoekstra, Rahbar, Hassan, Qureshi,
Adapting the Dominican Culture in the Radiology Department Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Radiology is an important field in medicine as it helps to discover illnesses early enough because the equipments that are used can see beyond what the human eyes can see. In Dominican Republic the population is made up of people from two ethnic backgrounds, that is, African and European origins.
The people are organized according to their social classes. Since this is a multicultural environment, a radiographer would have to use radical approaches to get used to the cultures of Dominicans because whether one likes or not these cultures are there in the workplace. The following paragraphs provide insights about the culture of Dominicans and how a radiographer can blend with the people of Dominican Republic.
A radiographer interacts with people from all walks of life and therefore if he/she works in Dominican Republic he/she should get acquainted to the culture of Dominicans. Harberle (2003) explains that interactions should be easy because Dominicans are very social people as well as out going and thus the radiographer should capitalize on their traits to learn more about them.
It is necessary for a radiographer to learn about Dominicans because he/she will be able to understand them. One of best approaches in learning about the cultures of a society is to learn their language. Spanish is the official language in Dominican Republic although it is coupled by other native languages.
The radiographer should make good use of his/her patients by using them to learn Spanish. This can be done through individual visits to the patients in their wards. But before learning Spanish, the radiographer should seek to establish friendship with his/her clients because it would be easier for them to get into conversations. A warm and firm handshake is all that is required to instill among the Dominicans.
After learning the Spanish language the radiographer can then proceed to learn about the history of the Dominicans. The old people are the most knowledgeable people in Dominican society because they have gone through many experiences.
The radiographer should make enquiries from any old patient who is familiar to him/her, but as the radiographer makes the enquiries he/she should also be ready to answer many questions about his/her own life because Dominicans are very inquisitive people. It therefore goes without saying that the radiographer should set limits of what to say and what not to say (Howard, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In communication, both verbal and non-verbal communication is applied in Dominican Republic. The radiographer should learn how to do it with perfection so that he/she does not feel like he/she is out of place during conversations, especially in social gatherings. Dominicans point with their lips as opposed to other societies where people point with their fingers.
Similarly, when the radiographer wants to stop a cab he/she should learn the gesture that is used to attract the attention of cab drivers. Pichardo (2007) explains that in Dominican Republic you stop the cab by using your fingers to let him know how many people require his services.
For instance, if the radiographer is with three people he/she should wave four fingers in the air to send signal to the cab driver that four people are waiting for taxi. In addition, Greetings are almost compulsory in Dominican Republic, and thus the radiographer should learn to great his/her patients in Spanish before giving them a hearing. In Spanish the phrase for greetings is Buenos Dias, meaning “good day”.
Moreover, the radiographer should maintain cleanliness because Dominicans are very conscious about fashion. But this can be determined by the location of the clinic; if it is based in the urban center he/she can indulge in New York fashion but above all, smartness is the most crucial element.
Likewise, Dominican culture does not allow women to ride on a bike while facing the front because opening their legs wide is associated with immorality. Clothes that reveal a lot of skin are prohibited in government buildings and the church (Pichardo, 2007). This means that the radiographer should consider where he/she is going before choosing the clothes he/she intends to put on.
Therefore, Dominican Republic is a good country to live in because it is one of the cheapest countries in the world. However, most public health facilities are poorly equipped and the demand for healthcare services is high in this country. By understanding the culture of Dominicans the radiographer will enjoy his/her stay in this country.
References Haberle, E.S. (2003). Dominican Republic. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Adapting the Dominican Culture in the Radiology Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Howard, D. (2001). Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. Oxford: Signal Books.
Pichardo, J.C. (2007). Dominican Cultures: The Making of a Caribbean Society. Princeton: N.J: Markus Wiener Publishers
Problem Identification and Formulation Styles in Walmarts Organization Essay argumentative essay help
In the current work environment, it is of essence for leaders of organizations to apply various problem identification and formulation styles as they assist in quick and efficient solving of problems in organizations. At Walmarts organization, the management practices four different decision making styles.
First, is collective participative decision making style in which the manager collects all the relevant information needed and other viewpoints from the members of the company; however, he or she maintains the control of the decision to be made and is responsible for the final course of action taken (Verma, 2009). The advantage of this decision making style is that there is a sense of involvement which can cushion against potential negative impacts and this strategy also enables the manager to be well informed before making a decision.
Further, the most favorable aspect of the collective participative decision style is that it can be used to identity and solve the new reality that is currently facing Walmarts organization: its clients need more than just the lowest price. Thus, the strategy can be used to improve the organization’s services to its clients. Nonetheless, a major weakness of this decision making style is that it can be slow and time intensive process, especially when the organization is large.
Second, is the autocratic decision making style in which the manager is held accountable for the final course taken and his or her own inclinations and knowledge are used to make the final decision (Lussier, 2008). In this case, the manager does not seek for viewpoints from the members of the organization since the responsibility is wholly endowed upon him or her. A major strength of this style is that it is important in emergencies since it is a quick way of reaching at conclusions.
On the other hand, its major weakness is that the members are not incorporated and they can be offended by the choice made if they are negatively impacted; consequently, this can make the manager to lose support and credibility. A problem that can be identified and described using this style is a situation in which a manager at Walmart decides to give back a client his money after complaining bitterly about a product he bought at the store.
Third, is the democratic decision making style in which the manager transfers the responsibility of making a decision to the group and votes are cast to determine the course of action to be taken judging from the choice with the highest votes. The main advantage of this style is that the decision is made fast and all the members are included in the process.
However, there may be no responsibility taken for the course of action preferred since the manager is not accountable and the members can claim that they did not support the choice made. Nonetheless, this style can be useful in describing a decision taken to introduce Walmart’s new advertising motto, “Save Money Live Better,” to replace the previous motto.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, consensus decision making style incorporates the participation of every member of the organization and the manager is no longer responsible for the course of action taken and its impacts since he or she transfers control to the members of the group.
In favor of this style is that it allows for group dedication, team spirit, and varied ideas to be shared that increases the chances of a good decision to be made. A major inhibitory factor here is that the vast amount of information collected and input involved may make the process to be tiresome and time consuming. A problem that can be addressed favorably by this style is a situation in which some employees at Walmart are to be moved to one of its new stores in a low-income area.
Reference List Lussier, R. N. (2008). Management fundamentals: concepts, applications, skill development. Mason, OH : South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Verma, D. (2009). Decision-making style: social and creative dimension. New Delhi: Global India Publications.
Professional Development and Contemporary Issues Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of Globalization
Key Influences driving Globalization in the Hotel Industry
Barriers of Operating Across Borders
Introduction The purpose of conducting this study will be to examine the impact of globalization with particular focus on the international hotel industry. Globalization is defined as the process of integrating the economies, financial markets, cultures and societies of various countries through the use of global communication and trade networks that exist around the world.
Globalization is also defined as the integration of local, regional or national economies into the international economy used by the rest of the world to conduct activities such as foreign investment, trade and money transfers (Sharma and Morrissey 2007).
The driving forces of globalization around the world include technological factors where the introduction of new technological innovations within the international market drives globalization, economic factors where the economic growth of various countries around the world affects the rate of globalization and also political, socio-cultural factors where government and societal systems determine how the process of globalization will occur within various industries. In recent times however, the term has also come to include various factors such as language or communication barriers and the circulation of national ideas, (Bhagwati 2004).
In general, globalization affects the world in various ways one of which is the industrialization of countries where the introduction of global markets that are able to foster worldwide production have been able to ensure that consumers are able to access various products and services within the international market. The emergence of international trade across borders has also been a strong indicator of globalization as well as the emergence of global financial markets.
Financial markets have contributed significantly to consumers being able to access borrowing facilities across international borders without necessarily having to revert to the home market. Another aspect that signifies the impact of globalization is the economic market where a common market that allows traders and sellers to buy or sell goods has enhances the interconnectedness of trade thereby increasing growth of international trade around the world (Pan and Donato 2007).
The job market is also a strong indicator of globalization in the world as increased levels of competition within the labour market signify the strength of both national and international economies. Increased levels of competition ensure that workers are able to gain competitive salaries and wages which are now less dependent on the success or failure of national economies in the world.
Other aspects that are used to provide an indication of globalization around the world include the political context where government policies are developed to foster globalization activities as well as competition amongst countries when it comes to the production of goods and services. Ecological factors are also important indicators of globalization especially when they are used to explain the global environmental challenges that are taking place around the world as a result of global warming (Croucher 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impact of Globalization In the past few years, the international hotel and hospitality industry has been impacted by globalization and the various effects of globalization that exist in the various faucets of international industries around the world.
Some of these effects have been notable from the fields of technology where the revolution of information technology and the introduction of various innovations have contributed in a significant way to globalization while the growth of economic integration has played a major role in the integration of suppliers within the international trade networks.
The intensified competition especially within the hospitality industry has also contributed to the effects of globalization where the emergence of newer and innovative hotels creates a complex business landscape that is mostly influenced by the goings on of the global market. According to Brotherton (2003), many hotel managers are faced with the challenge of maintaining a competitive advantage against their rivals within the same industry to ensure for their profitability and survival.
The impact of globalization in the international hotel industry has been both positive and negative where hospitality managers have been forced to invest in knowledge economies to balance their exploration and exploitation activities.
The positive side of globalization is that hotel managers are forced to engage alternative modes of coordinating their production and transaction activities for the benefit of their employees and clients while at the same time ensuring that they make strategic decisions which will be beneficial for the survival of the company in the dynamic hospitality market (Gross 2008).
The negative side of globalization is that managers and marketers working within the hospitality industry have to keep on changing their tactics to ensure their products and services remain relevant to the changing consumer markets. In the event re-branding or re-stratification efforts fail, the hotel might lose its identity and image amongst its clients and also loss its position in the industry as a provider of various hospitality services and products (Brotherton 2003).
One of the impacts or effects of globalization on the hospitality includes the aspect of asset evolution where hotels and companies operating within the international hospitality industry are able to liquidate their assets so that they can be able to meet the expectations of their shareholders and investors.
We will write a custom Essay on Professional Development and Contemporary Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Asset evolution impacts on the hospitality industry where hotels and companies are forced to maintain a bottom line-growth thereby sustaining the level of competition that exists within the industry. As mentioned earlier, the technological environment has played a major role in globalization and it therefore affects the activities and functions of the hospitality industry where hotels are forced to turn their assets and properties into more flexible hotel operations.
This is meant to improve efficiency and effectiveness in many international hotels especially in the field of customer service that deals with room bookings, hotel reservations and cash payments. The labour market which is one of the strongest indicators of globalization has also impacted on the international hotel industry where the supply and demand of skilled and professional labourers determines the general growth of the industry (Pan and Donato 2007).
The international hospitality industry requires professional hospitality managers who possess the necessary skills and knowledge that will be used to capitalize on opportunities within the industry for the hotel’s advantage.
The labour market ensures that a company is able to gain professionals who will adapt business operations to the changing economic realties in the global context. Government regulations have played a major role in the globalization of local, regional and national economies around the world where the liberalization of world markets determines the amount of international trade that will be conducted in various countries.
Government regulations impact on the international hospitality industry where hotels are allowed some freedom when it comes to selecting the forces that will reduce business transaction costs as well as production costs that have continued to increase with fluctuating global economies (Kumar 2008).
Key Influences driving Globalization in the Hotel Industry One of the major driving forces of globalization in the hospitality industry is cost effective methods of doing business where competitors are driven to operate across borders in search of cost effective and efficient methods of conducting hotel operations. Hotels that operate within the international industry have began to realize that the larger they grow in size, the fewer costs they will incur when it comes to producing goods and services for their customers.
Many managers have also began to realize that operating within the international hospitality market increases their profit margins which means that the company is able to attract more investors and shareholders willing to invest in the company. Diversifying operations into the international markets allows many business managers to tap into tourist markets that have not been explored by the local and national hotel industries (Brotherton 2003).
Another key influencing factor that drives globalization within the hospitality industry is global competition which has continued to increase over the past decade as more and more tourism and entertainment consumers become internationally oriented rather than national, local or regional consumers of hotel products/services.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Professional Development and Contemporary Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A continent that has exploited fully the globalization process taking place across the world is Europe where many of the countries that fall under the European Union have created tourism industries that are focused on the needs of both the international and local consumer.
Hotels in countries such as France, Spain, Germany, Italy and Holland offer products that would meet the needs of both the local consumer and also the international tourist, language barriers side. The growth of the European Union has also played a significant role in the growth of the international hospitality industry in Europe where various hotels based in primal locations are able to compete on a level playing field for international customers.
While this increase in competition has been good for the industry overall, it has created a situation of critical mass where many hotels and tourism firms operate in Europe. Competition has forced many of the international hotels and firms operating within the continent to look for other areas to invest their businesses in so as to counter the effects of critical mass (Gu et al 2007).
Global brands also drive globalization within the international hospitality industry where hotels are forced to design products and services that will meet the cultural, societal, ethnic, political and technological needs of the international customer (Gu et al 2007).
Global brands differ from local brands in that they meet consumer expectations in a more diversified context while local brands meet the needs of local consumer. Globalised brands ensure that hotels operating within the international hospitality industry are able to market their services to customers who are already agents of the globalization process since they are constantly moving from one country to another.
International hotels that develop multicultural brands are able to appeal to a large number of customers who are heavily influenced by their ethnic beliefs and practices. Incorporating hints of multiculturalism also enables international tourists to experience some of the cultural offerings in existence within the host country (Kumar 2008).
Barriers of Operating Across Borders A major barrier when it comes to establishing hotels in international countries is the organizational structure that the hotel’s management or hospitality company will incorporate in the host country. Hotels usually face an uphill task when it comes to deciding which organizational structures can be used across borders.
Hotel managers are also faced with the challenge of determining whether these structures will ensure that the business is able to operate at maximum efficiency so as to meet customer service requirements set by the industry players. Every globalised country in the world lives by certain standards and values systems so when developing organizational structures, managers have to take into account the cultural, political and social systems that exist in the host country to ensure that their business operations do not interfere with them.
Dubai which is one of the world’s most famed city for having many international hotels has been able to maintain its cultural practices where foreign countries interested in establishing hotels within the country have been forced to adapt organizational structures that take into account the predominant culture of the society in Dubai which is Islam. Employers who engage both international and local employees have to take into account their cultural differences when developing pyramid structures for management (Pan and Donato 2007).
Access to global capital presents a major barrier to hotels operating across their own borders where hotels and industry firms interested in investment options within other countries experience difficulties because of the limited investment capital allocated to hotels and the hospitality industry in general.
This can be attributed to the fact that the industry has not been fully accepted in many financial markets around the world and therefore hotel managers have to strive to demonstrate to investors and shareholders that they can be able to yield substantial gains on investment. Such a prerequisite presents a major challenge especially for hotels that wish to diversify their operations to the international market.
These hotels have to demonstrate their ability to achieve positive returns on investor and shareholder contributions on an international scale rather than on a local or regional scale. Hotels that have been able to operate within the three major financial markets in the world; New York (NYSE), the London Stock Exchange market and the Tokyo financial market have been considered to be globalised businesses within the international hospitality industry (Deresky 2008).
As a result of multiculturalism, the work ethic in the host country where the hotel intends to operate in might be different from that of the parent country where for example employees who work for a cultural country such as Saudi Arabia might have to go to the mosque for prayers during midday. Because of the high level of customers most international hotels deal with, the manager might have to develop work duties that will ensure that the Muslim or Islamic employees are not inconvenienced in any way when attending to their prayers.
Work ethics also becomes a significant factor when determining the optimum effectiveness and performance of employees within the hotel. As international hotels might deal with high multitudes of tourists especially during the peak seasons, managers have to determine the ethics and values of employees in the host country they are operating in so that they can be able to utilise these values for optimum results (Herrman and Lipsey 2003).
Recommendations The most suitable solution that can be used by hotel managers who have decided to operate across borders will be to strike a balance between the cultural, social and political systems of both the parent and host company and also take into account the various global considerations of working in an international market.
Decentralised organizational structures will ensure that the company is able to take into account all the work aspects of the host country without compromising on the overall goals and objectives of the hotel. The access to global capital can only be remedied by business plans that have taken into consideration the international customer’s changing needs and expectations. Managers who want to establish their businesses across the border have to develop sound business plans that will draw the necessary amount of investors into the plan.
With regards to the barrier of work ethics, managers need to develop policies that will govern the operations of the international hotel in foreign countries to ensure the work values and ethics of employees have not been compromised. The study and discussion has been able to ascertain therefore that globalization has a significant impact on the operations of the international hotel industry.
References Bhagwati, J., (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press
Brotherton, B., (2003) The international hospitality industry: structure, characteristics and issues. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science
Croucher, S.L., (2004) Globalization and belonging: the politics of identity in a changing world. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Deresky, H., (2008) International management: managing across borders and cultures. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall
Gross, M., (2008) Tourism management. New York: Free Press
Gu, J., Humphrey, J., and Messner, D., (2007) Global governance and developing countries: the implications of the rise of China. World Development, Vol.13, No.2, pp 274-292
Herrman, H., and Lipsey, R.E., (2003) Foreign direct investment in the real and financial sector of industrial countries. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Heidelberg
Kumar, P., (2008) Globalization: challenges for the developing world in the new millennium. New Jersey: McGraw Hill Publishers
Pan, Y., and Donato, R., (2007) The asymmetries of globalization. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers
Sharma, K., and Morrissey, O., (2007) Trade, inequality and growth in the era of globalization. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers
Renewable Energy Co. Report cheap essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the case study
Issues presented in the case study
Analysis of the case study
Summary of the case study The increase in dependency on fossil fuel and other non renewable energy sources is facing challenges because of environmental concerns and economic reasons. Fossil fuel releases green house gases and is prone to price fluctuations while hydroelectric power is dependent on environmental conditions.
Many countries are looking for alternative energy sources that are renewable cleaner and independent from price fluctuations. Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy are the main renewable sources of energy. This paper gives a summary of the renewable energy sources that two students contemplated and researched after finishing their graduate school.
Issues presented in the case study The issues presented in this case were mainly concerned with the energy demands in Ontario. The need for the electricity supply mix to be replaced was the main issues that brought about the aspect of alternative energy sources. Large and Berkeley found out that renewable energy source was the way to go since other energy sources presented economic problems, environmental problems and scarcity.
They did an analysis of the different renewable energy sources and discovered that they could only venture into the renewable energy source that used the technology which they were best suited to capitalize on. A renewable energy source such as geothermal is pretty cheap but requires a lot of capital in order to establish its economic viability. Solar photovoltaic energy also requires a relatively large amount of capital although the standard offer price is pretty cheaper than some of the other sources.
Analysis of the case study Large and Berkeley provides several different analysis of their research. They tabulate their data to compare between all the renewable energy that they researched on. There is also an analysis of the different energy sources that supply energy in Ontario. In an analysis of 2005 energy sources, it is evident that nuclear energy was the dominant energy source followed by renewable and coal in that order. Conservation was the least energy source that came behind gas and cogen.
Another analysis done for the future supply of energy in Ontario in the year 2025 indicates that renewables will take over from nuclear to become the dominant energy supplier. Nuclear takes the second position followed by gas and cogen, conservation and gasification in that order.
The graph below shows the general trend of the energy sources from the year 2005 to the year 2025.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.
Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation
Series 1 represents the energy fractions in the year 2025 while series two shows the fractions in the year 2005.
In addition, Ontario’s standard offer program payment schedule tabulated in the file shows that solar photovoltaic energy is valued at $0.11 per Kilowatt hour. This price is way above the other energy sources that are offered the same value of $ 0.11 per kilowatt hour. All the prices are at base price.
The photovoltaic potential of Canadian cities is also compared to that of other cities. From the table, it can be deduced that Canadian cities have relatively high photovoltaic potential compared to many other world cities. The city of Regina is the sixth city with the most solar photovoltaic potential. It is followed by Calgary, Toronto, Vancouver, and St. John.
Another comparison was done on some quick facts for the renewable energies researched. The standard offer program price for solar voltaic energy potential is 42 cent per kW installed while that of other renewable energy sources like wind, hydropower and biogas is 11.08 cent per kW.
While there is an inflation index of 20 percent of the price increases by the consumer price index for all other renewable sources, the solar photovoltaic energy project has no inflation index. When the capital cost of the renewable energy sources are compared, solar photovoltaic energy leads with an estimated capital cost of $10, 000 to $14, 000, per kW installed. The table below summarizes the above analysis.
We will write a custom Report on Renewable Energy Co. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed
Solar photovoltaic wind hydro biogas Standard offer time 42 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh Inflation index None 20% of the contract price increases by the consumer price index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index On-peak rate Not legible Not eligible 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) Capital cost (estimated) $10,000-$14,000 $2,000-$2,750 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed Average lead time 1-6 months 3-4 years 4 to 7 years 2 years Environmental permits None None for 2 MW
All projects require an environmental screening process None for 5 MW
Other permits Building permit zoning
Municipal permit Navigation Canada
Transport Canada possible official plan and zoning amendments
Possible bylaw changes
Property tax reclassification
Ministry of Natural Resources Water supply issues
Municipal permits Official plans and zoning bylaws
Connection Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement
Electrical safety authority certification
Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement
Electrical safety authority certification
Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement
Electrical Safety Authority Certification
Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement
Electrical Safety Authority Certification
Resource South-facing, inclining approximately 45 degrees Shores of the Great Lakes Areas with high elevations
Exposure to prevailing wind directions
Steep rivers, streams, creeks or springs Flowing year-round
Hilly areas with high year-round rainfall
Proximity to renewable biomass Industry association Canadian solar industry association Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) www.canwea.ca
Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA)
Ontario Waterpower Association (OWA) www.owa.ca
Ministry of Natural Resources
Canadian Bioenergy Association (CANBIO) www.canbio.ca
Canadian Biogas Association
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
Adapted from Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation
Results From the graph in figure 1, even though the energy output and usage increases, the general trend is that renewable energy is slowly but gradually taking over the energy scene. From the table above, it can be deduced that solar energy is the most expensive in terms of standard offer time. Solar photovoltaic energy also requires the most capital cost. It is also quite expensive in terms of average lead time. However, solar energy needs no environmental permit and has the least number of permits needed.
Recommendations It is beyond doubt that renewable energy is the most appropriate alternative energy source that can be utilize for sustainable economic growth and environment management.
Since fossil fuel prices are always fluctuating, they affect economies and thus contribute to inflation. Fossil fuels also contribute to greenhouse gases because they produce carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Carbon dioxide depletes the ozone layer which is essential for blocking ultraviolet rays that may otherwise cause skin cancer. Sulfur dioxide is known to cause acid rain that corrodes man made structures.
Renewable energy sources are clean, cheaper, and stable for economic development. In my own opinion, since wind, solar, hydroelectricity and biogas, all depend on environmental conditions, I would recommend geothermal energy to be sourced in tectonically active areas. This renewable energy source does not depend on climatic conditions. It is available throughout the years and the earth’s interior is not going to cool soon.
Reference List Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation.
Appendix Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Renewable Energy Co. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.
Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed.
Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed.
Solar photovoltaic wind hydro biogas Standard offer time 42 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh Inflation index None 20% of the contract price increases by the consumer price index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index On-peak rate Not legible Not eligible 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) Capital cost (estimated) $10,000-$14,000 $2,000-$2,750 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed Average lead time 1-6 months 3-4 years 4 to 7 years 2 years Environmental permits None None for 2 MW
All projects require an environmental screening process None for 5 MW
Other permits Building permit zoning
Municipal permit Navigation Canada
Transport Canada possible official plan and zoning amendments
Possible bylaw changes
Property tax reclassification
Ministry of Natural Resources Water supply issues
Municipal permits Official plans and zoning bylaws
Connection Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement
Electrical safety authority certification
Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement
Electrical safety authority certification
Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement
Electrical Safety Authority Certification
Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement
Electrical Safety Authority Certification
Resource South-facing, inclining approximately 45 degrees Shores of the Great Lakes Areas with high elevations
Exposure to prevailing wind directions
Steep rivers, streams, creeks or springs Flowing year-round
Hilly areas with high year-round rainfall
Proximity to renewable biomass Industry association Canadian solar industry association Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) www.canwea.ca
Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA)
Ontario Waterpower Association (OWA) www.owa.ca
Ministry of Natural Resources
Canadian Bioenergy Association (CANBIO) www.canbio.ca
Canadian Biogas Association
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
Adapted from Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation