Corporate Social Responsibility Is Integral To The Long-Term Success Of Five-Star Hotels Report Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Concept of CSR within the Hotels Industry

Elements of CSR

CRS practices in the Hotel Industry

Benefits of CSR in the Five Star Hotels



List of References

Introduction The hotel industry around the world continue to undergo transformation in order attain competitive edge among other destination places. The desire to provide superior services and positive clients experience necessitate the ongoing changes are also necessitated by. The hotel industry has a significant task in developing the appropriate tourism merchandise (Ayuso, 2006).

There is the need for the hotel industry to provide their clients with quality services while also ensuring their operations are responsible. There is also the recognizable responsibility for the hotel industry to structure their services in order to contribute to sustainable tourism (Ayuso, 2006). The tourism industry can employ socially accountable business activities aimed at promoting sustainable development.

The purpose of this paper is to indicate that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is integral to the long-term success of five-star hotels (Lee


Module 02 Was Xia the first dynasty in China’s history? Please read the excerpt from our textbook and discuss the following questions. (I attached the book from where you need to read and answer the online essay help

(I attached the book from where you need to read and answer the questions) 
(1) Why do scholars split on the existence of the Xia Dynasty? Please list the evidence from the two sides.
(2) What do you consider as solid evidence to prove history? Please use examples to explain.


Tsunami Disasters in Okushiri Island Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Japan has experienced many disasters that have caused massive loss of property and lives. In 1993, the Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake Tsunami hit Okushiri Island located to the west of Hokkaido. This disaster was identified as one of the major Tsunamis that have led to destruction of property and lives.

Sources revealed that about 200 people were killed by the raging waters, and property worth about 66 billion Japanese Yen was damaged (Shuto, 2006). Fire outbreaks that resulted from destroyed power lines magnified the losses. Landslides were also rampant owing to the devastating effects of the earthquake.

In Okushiri town, 29 people were killed by a landslide when a hotel built under a cliff succumbed to the strong forces of the quake (The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 2009). The earthquake affected residents both economically and psychologically. The incident left many people traumatized for losing both their property and families.

In 2004, another tsunami disaster was experienced on the Indian Ocean frontier. It was reported to be greatest in the land since 1900 (Kelman et al., 2006). In fact, it was reported to be the third largest tsunami in the world. Over 227, 000 people lost lives in 11 countries and about 1.7 million others were left homeless (Kelman et al., 2006).

Many children died in the waters and fire outbreaks that resulted from faulty power lines and gas pipes. Statistics also showed that more women than men died. Apart from loss of lives, there was massive damage on coastal ecosystems, coastal forests, mangroves, coral reefs, and rock formations.

Marine life was adversely affected and many sea animals died due to strong waves, industrial chemicals, and liquid and solid waste. This disaster had far-reaching economic impacts compared to the Japan’s 1993 tsunami in Hokkaido.

Several factors contributed to the impact of tsunami disasters. Concerning the 1993 tsunami disaster in Hokkaido Japan, the geographical location of the Onkushiri town was a major factor that multiplied the damages (Shuto, 2006). This area was hit by a tsunami whose tides reached magnitudes of 11 meters in height. As anticipated, the tide washed away buildings and caused massive destruction of coastal structures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Massive destruction of coastal buildings was also attributed to an earthquake that was experienced on the shores of the sea. In addition, fire outbreaks also contributed to the devastating effects of the tsunami (Shuto, 2006).

Just as was the case with the 1993 tsunami in Hokkaido, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had far-reaching economic effects on the economies of affected countries. Geographical location was one of the factors that contributed to the severity of the impacts. Coastal lands were massively destroyed by high forceful tides (Asian Disaster Preparedness Council, 2005). Vegetation and structures near the coastal waters were swept away.

It can be argued that poor planning contributed to negative economic effects after the tsunami. Locating buildings and infrastructure near ocean shores was not a good idea (Asian Disaster Preparedness Council, 2005). In addition, the question of educating and passing information about dangers of tsunami contributed to massive loss of lives.

Governments should have issued a warning to coastal residents in order to avert the disaster (Asian Disaster Preparedness Council, 2005). This would have avoided the massive deaths in one way or another. It is the responsibility of meteorological departments to ensure that in cases of threats such as tsunami, notices are issued to residents so that they can relocate before disaster strikes.

The effects of tsunami in Japan could have been reduced if a well-established land use policy had been developed (Shuto, 2006). Such a policy would have prevented establishment of structures such as buildings on coastal areas that are vulnerable to tsunamis.

If such areas have to be developed, strict design standards should be developed and followed to the letter (Shuto, 2006). In addition, increased awareness on tsunami risks could as well have reduced the number of deaths in the disaster. The government should also construct barriers along the coastline to protect land from rising tides.

Similar mitigation or preventive procedures could have been used during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Establishment of strict building codes in areas that are exposed to tsunami inundation would have prevented massive destruction of buildings and other infrastructure (Kelman et al., 2006). It could as well have prevented destruction of power lines that caused fire outbreaks.

We will write a custom Case Study on Tsunami Disasters in Okushiri Island specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Oil pipelines should be removed from these places as a precautionary measure in order to reduce the possibility of fire outbreaks that result from broken fuel and gas pipes when quakes and tsunamis strike (UNESCO, 2006). Stringent land management policies would have prevented establishment of residential and business premises near seashores, and this would have averted the massive loss of lives.

Enhanced public awareness both before and during the tsunami would have given people time to prepare and evade the disaster (Kelman et al., 2006). Governments in tsunami-prone areas should consider establishing warning systems that will alert people when such disasters strike or when they are about to occur.

References Asian Disaster Preparedness Council. (2005). Social and Economic Impact of 2004 Tsunami. Web.

Kelman, I., Spence, R., Palmer, J., Petal, M., and Saito, K. (2008). Tourists and disasters: lessons from the 26 December 2004 tsunamis. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 12(3), 105-113.

Shuto, Nabuo. (2006). Damage and Reconstruction at Okushiri Town Caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake Tsunami. Journal of Disaster Research, 2(1), 44-45.

The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. (2009). EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International disaster database. Web.

UNESCO. (2006). Five Years after the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean – from Strategy to Implementation. Advancements in global early warning systems for tsunamis and other ocean hazards. Web.


Strategies of Approaching Business Ventures Descriptive Essay college admission essay help

Introduction According to Sarasvathy (2008) there are two distinct strategies of approaching business ventures. Sarasvathy identified that causation is a strategy that is strictly reliant on a plan set initially. She described another strategy referred to as effectuation.

Effectuation model describes the situation in which a business changes in accordance to emerging issues. This model is applied highly by entrepreneurs when venturing into businesses. This essay will focus on evaluating the suggestions of commentators about entrepreneurs and the models.

Academic concepts There are various conceptual factors that are applied to facilitate appreciation of businesses. The factors that are listed below represent the ideas enabling concepts of business ideas to flourish.


This is the degree to which a problem is solved (Needham


A Critical Examination of the Link between Nicotine Dependence and Schizophrenia Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Schizophrenia is as a severe mental illness that is estimated to occur in about 1% of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Schizophrenia is considered a heterogeneous illness because its symptoms, level of impairment and course of illness manifest themselves in different forms.

Primarily, schizophrenia impairs neurocognitive functioning resulting in problems of perception, interpretation, communication and interaction with others. It is also associated with the impairment of the performance of day to day activities, self-care and other social and occupational activities (Ziedonis et al. 2007). Schizophrenia symptoms are categorized into two groups.

The first group exhibits positive symptoms such as disorganized speech and behavior, hallucinations and delusions. The second group exhibits negative symptoms that include cognitive impairment and restricted effect and motivation. These symptoms have a deleterious impact on the social and occupational functioning of the patients (American Psychiatric Association 2000; Weinberger et al. 2007; Ziedonis et al. 2007).

Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are reported to be highly susceptible to developing nicotine dependence with an estimated prevalence of up 88% (Kelly


The Comparison of Montessori Education and a Regular Mathematics Program in Kindergarten Classroom Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Background

Research Question

The Essence of this Action Research

The Setting and the Participants

Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis


Background According to Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences, children can acquire knowledge through different ways because they have different capabilities and competences. It is apparent that every student has special skills and learning needs.

However, teachers often fail to identify the capabilities of their students in part because of the conventional teaching methods that they use in kindergarten classrooms. The success of most education programs is attributed to the application of modern teaching methods. The teaching methods commonly used in well-organized education programs include project work, self-directed learning, literature-based reading, and problem-based curriculum.

Montessori education system emphasizes the importance of a well-prepared learning environment since it enhances high performance among students. Piaget (1970, p. 30) asserts that the development of intelligence and acquisition of knowledge is a continuous process. The facets of intelligence include analytical, creativity, and practical skills.

The primary role of intelligence is to facilitate understanding and invention. Successful learning is correlated with the incessant development of primary sensory motor actions among children. Thus, the more “practice a child gets with sensorial activities the higher a child will perform abstract mental operations”.

Young learners should be guided to generate ideas and to discover mathematical relations on their own rather than forcing them to accept other’s thoughts. Children should gain experience in using mathematical skills through regular practice. This helps them to develop deductive reasoning and neurological thinking, which is essential for their academic progress.

According to Nicholl (1998, p. 37), teaching efforts should focus on knowledge acquisition. An effective teaching strategy should facilitate the development of the learner’s character, emotional maturity, and wisdom. Nonetheless, the teaching methodologies used in most schools are ineffective because majority of students lack essential skills such as analytical ability and creativity, as well as, flexibility in thought.

In this regard, teachers should help their students to develop interpersonal intelligence. This will enable students to assess their weaknesses and strengths. Montessori (1995, pp. 5-12) asserts that infancy is the most important stage in a child’s development and learning because their interest to learn is at its peak. Consequently, educators must utilize the appropriate methodologies to maximize learning at the infancy stage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is against this backdrop that the Montessori teaching methodology focuses on developing young learner’s sensorial and motor skills during their early years. A Montessori teacher must focus on continuous improvement of their professional skills in order to facilitate better learning.

Teachers who are responsible for teaching above average students are aware of the fact that different strategies help them to meet the diverse needs of their students. Nonetheless, the statistics on students’ performance in mathematics indicate that a lot of improvement is still needed in teaching the subject.

The schools in the United States have been unable to improve the math skills of their students. Research indicates that the performance in math in K-12 classes in the US is lower than in other developed countries. Hence, there is a need to improve performance through improved teaching methods.

The foregoing paragraphs highlight the weaknesses of the conventional teaching methods that are used in most schools. Additionally, they highlight the importance of using the most appropriate teaching methodology in order to enhance learning, especially, in math classes. Most educators believe that the Montessori education system can help students to acquire advanced mathematical skills at the kindergarten level.

Consequently, the goal of this study is to gather evidence concerning the positive and negative aspects of using the Montessori system to teach mathematics in kindergarten. Concisely, the study will compare the Montessori system with the conventional education system in order to identify the model that best suits learner’s needs.

Research Question The main question in this study is: what are the advantages and disadvantages of adopting Montessori education as a method of teaching mathematics in a kindergarten? In answering this question, the study will attempt to explain how the Montessori system facilitates learning among children. Furthermore, it will compare the strengths and the weaknesses of the Montessori system with a regular mathematics program in order to determine the extent to which it benefits students.

The Essence of this Action Research It is a well-known fact that students have varying learning needs, as well as, ability to learn. Students can differ significantly in terms of their approach to learning. The conventional teaching methods that are commonly used in kindergartens often mask teachers’ ability to identify their students’ unique learning needs and abilities.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Comparison of Montessori Education and a Regular Mathematics Program in Kindergarten Classroom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, the needs of some students are hardly met in regular mathematics programs. In this regard, it is necessary to identify an improved teaching method that will enable teachers to meet the learning needs of all students in their classrooms. This can be achieved through action research that evaluates the merits and the demerits of existing teaching methodologies in order to identify the best.

Thus, this study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Montessori education system as an alternative method of teaching mathematics in kindergarten. This will involve comparing the strengths and the weaknesses of the Montessori system with those of regular mathematics programs.

The Setting and the Participants The selected location for the study is a privately owned Catholic school in Campbell, California. The objective of the school is to model future leaders of the world. The school provides complete education that not only develops the mind of the learners, but also their character.

It offers a comprehensive content of art-based curriculum that enables students to engage in critical thinking, discovery of their world, and to overcome the challenges they face in life. The school’s teaching program develops the students’ character alongside their academic development. The objective of this strategy is to produce complete scholars who are able to seek the truth and to utilize it in their everyday lives.

The learning program used in the school promotes intellectual, emotional, and physical development of students in all grades. In this regard, the program provides the best setting for implementing the Montessori education system, which is the focus of this study.

The participants were drawn from a class that consists of 12-year-old students. The students are mainly from middle and upper-middle class families. Hence, most of them are from families with relatively stable financial backgrounds. However, nearly 5% of the families depend on financial aid.

Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Data will be collected from the following sources in order to answer the research question. First, I will analyze the results of formative assessments and evaluations such as students’ homework. This is an important source of data because it can shed light on the performance of students. Second, I will use observations in order to monitor students’ progress with learning in class.

Observation is an important data collection method since Montessori education requires little interference with students’ learning activities. The data collected through observation will be used to compare the effectiveness of Montessori education with traditional mathematics programs. Third, I will implement scoring rubrics in order to measure students’ performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Comparison of Montessori Education and a Regular Mathematics Program in Kindergarten Classroom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concisely, it will be used to evaluate students’ ability to acquire mathematical skills, and the effectiveness of the Montessori methodology. Fourth, student focus group discussions will be used to collect data. These discussions will enable me to collect data concerning the students’ knowledge, opinions and learning experiences.

Additionally, I will be able to identify the teaching methods that children are familiar with and the challenges that they face. This will help me to evaluate the effectiveness of my teaching interventions. I will also be able to get new teaching ideas from the teachers who will participate in the discussions.

Finally, teaching journals will be used to collect data concerning my experiences in class in order to improve my instruction methods and strategies. I will be evaluating the strengths and weakness that will be identified in lessons and teaching techniques on a weekly basis. I will use videotaping to identify my weaknesses and strengths during lessons. Moreover, my notes will be peer-reviewed by other teachers in order to identify mistakes.

References Gubbins, J., Emerick, L., Delcourt, M., Newman, J.,


Corporate Responsibility as a Business Strategy Analytical Essay college essay help near me

Introduction Corporate social responsibility is one of the modern tools used by corporations to promote their inimitable characteristics and brand name. As a result, the firm’s sales, customer dependability, and profitability are improved. In addition, CSR has been applied in the human resources management as well as in enhancing business operations (Cavett-Goodwin, 2007).

Thus, CSR as a management tool remains to be a crucial tool that corporations use to enhance their competencies. The increased capabilities will ensure sustained growth in terms of profitability as well as value creation. This research report critically examines business strategies particularly, CSR and how it influences value creation.

Besides, the paper ascertains whether Banyan Tree’s CSR initiatives, which are part of its global expansion strategy, will be helpful in value creation as well as profit maximization.

Banyan Tree Hotels’ entry mode strategies Based on study literature, firms seeking to enter into the foreign market should choose the most suitable entry mode for that particular market. International expansion requires firms to make critical decisions pertaining to entry mode strategies (Anders, 2008). The reason is that the verdicts on the selections of the entrance approach have enduring repercussions on businesses like Banyan tree that yearn to globalize operations.

In other words, entry mode strategies in most cases are huge, irreversible and affect the firm’s performance in the end (Root, 1994). For services, business entities such as Banyan tree hotels have assorted preferences on the entrance approach plans to pick from for instance licensing, turnkey ventures, chartering, mutual speculation, and utterly held auxiliaries.

Nonetheless, the entrance approaches into fresh souks are subjected to countless dynamics including the domestic and peripheral factors. In fact, such imperative dynamics are habitually unusual in all business aspects. Moreover, the level of influence each factor has also depended on the country the firm targets (Root, 1994).

Therefore, managers should critically analyze these factors and come up with the most suitable entry mode strategy that will ensure maximum benefit to the firm. For services enterprises such as Banyan tree resorts, the expansion strategies into the international market should be low risk. As Root (1994) indicated, involvement into the foreign markets comes with increased risks. Therefore companies particularly services firms should consider low risk entry modes in order to survive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Franchising Banyan tree hotels can utilize the business knowledge of other resorts acting as a franchisee in host countries to expand the company’s business activities. Banyan tree hotels and resorts provide capital, technical skills, and business expertise. The firm can use this mode in countries where there is uncertainty in political and economic conditions (Chen


Psychoanalysis of Lacanian Theory and Practice Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

In psychoanalysis of Lacanian theory and practice, is evidence of symbolism, imagery and reality as the story develops. In fact, the story is primarily developed through these aspects of literature. However, all these have a close relationship and conciseness with other forms of psychoanalytic literature.

The purpose of this analysis is to provide a critical evaluation of Lacanian theory and practice. In addition, the discussion describes how this theory relates to other psychoanalytic theories such Freudian theory, especially in its analysis relating to childhood Phobia.

Not Much support has been given in the story that can actually be analysed based on Freudian theory. This is shown in the story where Hans’s father familiarises himself with the Oedipus complex (Kovacevic, 2003). This evidently shows that Hans had some imagination.

In this case, he had fantasies in which he saw his mother entering into a marriage with him. Though Hans never had full knowledge of the complex, there was a possibility that he knew it existed. Freud uses symbolism and imagery, which is connected to the actual events as White (2008) asserts. Hans has a strong fear of horses with a ‘black mouth’.

This symbolizes his father’s well-developed moustache. The story also states that Hans feared horses that had blinkers, which in this case symbolizes the father, who wore spectacles. Looking at his father’s skin, it resembled a horse because it was white. This symbolizes his father’s white skin that was also lovely. Several points tend to describe Freud’s view.

For instance, in this story, Hans has fantasies of him and his mother indicating that he was sexually attracted to her. This is one indication that he was ready to eliminate his father, which actually prompted him to kill his father (Nitzgen, 2011). His sexual desire towards his mother brought a feeling of anxiousness when his feelings became real.

To find a change of expressing his real feelings towards his mother, he pretended to be sick in order to draw her attention. The story ends with his fear towards the father diminishing after resolving his ‘Oedipus complex’ (Daiello et al, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To evaluate this story, the fact that Hans had sexual desire towards the mother is arguable because there is little evidence that he wanted to have sex with her. Despite this, Freud states in the story that “… telling him of the existence of the vagina and of copulation”.

The only evidence shown is that he only desired a contact with her, which in this case can be described as less sexual in nature. It can therefore be argued that the Oedipus complex could have been healed by ‘simple primitive’ contact (Schwartz, n.d). Relating to Lacanian, women have been used as imagery because they are perceived to be objects of pleasure.

A good example is depicted by Mulvey in his formulation of a male gaz. Here, females are taken as objects through which men can gaze and obtain satisfaction. In the story, Hans never gave a sign of hating neither fearing the father but Freud claims that he possesses these emotions, but severally denied.

Because of continuous questioning, he agrees and this hatred is supported when Han knock down a toy horse (Stavrakakis, 2007). This symbolises the father and the horse. Knocking down the horse is an indication of his father’s elimination.

However, it can also be argued that this was an unconscious intention of knocking down a common horse and not a sign of killing his father. Symbolism in Lacan theory has been used as to signify human universe. With this, human desires are achieved as shown by the imaginary function in his body.

In Oedipus complex, Lacan portrays the father as a metaphor and not a real person. In addition, the relationship between a mother and a child has been portrayed as a close sexual relationship, yet we have not been told of the occurrence of any form of sexual contact between the mother and the son (Nolan, 2011).

The child developed a feeling of superego. In this case, the Oedipus complex develops in the son. In turn, it brings the child much close to the mother but is doubtable whether this meant to make the child sexually attracted to the mother.

We will write a custom Essay on Psychoanalysis of Lacanian Theory and Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can further be argued that all the errors that Hans made were deliberate and if he actually intended to kill the father, it is still doubtable because literature does not provide any supportive evidence whatsoever (Strupp, 1991). In fact, the story fails to give any rigid evidence of Han’s intention to kill the father, although it is clear that he feared him. Lacan relates this to what happens in real life, especially when a person’s desires are not fulfilled (Lachmann, 2010).

Han’s excitement that later turned to be anxiety towards the mother could be due to the type of phobia in him, which later turned to be pleasure. However, there is no evidence in this literature, which means that no change in him has been shown in regards to the origin of his fears (Strupp, 1971).

This can be explained in Lacananian theory, where the mother-to-child bond is perceived as a way of making achieving some comfort from other symbolic things posing as a threat to the child. In this case, the child’s attraction to the mother can be perceived as a way of seeking safety and comfort rather than sexual attraction (Kovacevic, 2003).

References Daiello, V., Hathaway, K., Rhoades, M.,


The Primary Causes of Terrorist Political Violence Argumentative Essay essay help online free

Introduction The past decade has seen terrorism emerge as a serious threat to global security. The events of September 11, 2011 where terrorists devastated the city of New York especially highlighted the devastating effects of terrorism on social life. Since then, governments and scholars alike have tried to discover the underlying causes of terrorism by non-state actors.

The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (NDRE) acknowledges that discussions on the causes of terrorism are controversial with different people seeing various underlying causes as the primary causes of terrorism (7). Trying to perceive the major motives of terrorist organizations is paramount to understanding and responding to terrorism (United Nations General Assembly 1).

This paper sets out to determine what the primary reasons for terrorist political violence in the modern world are. This paper asserts that terrorists carry out political violence primarily due to identity grievances of religion, culture, and ethnicity. I will show that identity grievances are the major causes of terrorism by analyzing some of the most prominent terrorist organizations in the world.

Next, I will offer some counterarguments that claim that economic grievances are the primary motivators for terrorism and proceed to rebut these counterarguments through examples. The paper will conclude with a summary of the points made and a discussion of the implications of the arguments made.

Identity Grievances as the Primary cause of Terrorism Religion

Religion is the most important motivation for terrorists in our era. Brown notes that religion has emerged as “the predominant impetus for terrorist attacks” with present day terrorists demonstrating an increase in fanaticism (33). The fanaticism of the new terrorism has made it more dangerous and unpredictable with targets chosen in an indiscriminate fashion.

Berman and David assert that religious terrorism has built on the already strong affiliations that individuals seek with their religion (1945). In a clash between the religious beliefs and those of the state or a foreign power, the religious beliefs are likely to triumph and garner the support of the majority.

While religious grievances are not restricted to any one religion, Islam has stood out as the religion most inclined to use violence to highlight their grievances. Islamic Fundamentalism has led to the creation and proliferation of terror organizations such as Hamas and Al-Qaeda (Lutz and Brenda 132).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These organizations use an overt religiosity to justify and rationalize all forms of violence that they commit against innocent people. Brown reveals that by use of clerical guidance and Islamic scriptures, these groups are able to rationalize their acts of terror and elicit the support of the public (34). Because of their religious convictions, terrorists are able to carry out acts of religious violence such as suicide bombings.

The most devastating act of terrorism, the attack on the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001, were carried out by suicidal terrorists who were willing to kill themselves for an expressed religious duty (Sabucedo and Corte 557). The surge of Islamic terrorism in the Middle East aimed against the perceived theft of Arab resources by the Western world is justified through religious grounds where foreign companies are deemed to be defiling Muslim land (NDRE 26).

The Taliban, which emerged as a liberating force in Afghanistan during the 1990s, emphasized on religion as the basis for its actions and authority. The first 12,000 recruits for this terrorist organization were “students from the religious schools of the radical Islamic Juma’at al Islamiya of Pakistan”.

The Taliban case demonstrates the potency of religion since in this case, a group of less than 1000 religious students with little military experience were able to create an effective militia that at its peak controlled 90% of Afghanistan and caused trouble for Western forces (Berman and David 1946).


Cultural grievances have served as major causes of terrorism in the world. Culture plays a major role in the lives of individual since it influences the manner in which people behave, what they think and how they respond to what they encounter every day. A person’s understanding of life is greatly informed by his cultural influences since culture defines the rules by which the society lives by and the things that are considered important.

Culture dictates the manner in which people view and relate with issues such as race, gender, sexuality, age, and religion. That is why individuals from a traditional Arabic culture might be offended by sexual conduct or orientations that are permissible in Western countries.

Cultural homogenization, which aims at integrating different cultures into one whole, has been responsible for much strive among individuals of differing cultural backgrounds (Sherman and Terry 23). Kuran and Sandholm highlight that conflicts can develop when people are presented with and forced to conform to cultures they do not approve of (221). This is evident in most of the Arabic nations where some aspects of Western culture are viewed negatively.

We will write a custom Essay on The Primary Causes of Terrorist Political Violence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The prevalent culture contributes to the engagement in terrorism activities by community members. This observation is supported by the fact that terrorist behaviors are likely to be perpetuated in areas where political strife and actual terrorist activity are already commonplace.

Victoroff documents that the culture of public glorification of terrorists in regions such as the Middle East has led to many youths seeking to engage in terrorism (18). It is hard to stop terrorism in a culture where songs celebrating the exploits of suicide terrorists who are hailed as heroes and martyrs of the people (18) are made.

Hamas, arguably the deadliest terrorist organization in Palestine, engages in terrorism partly due to cultural grievances. Berman and David observe that this organization was formed to fight the “insidious force of assimilation into materialism Western culture” (1946).

The organization emphasized on the supremacy of Islamic cultural practices and prohibited practices such as gambling, consuming of alcohol, and adultery. The group was able to gain significant public support due to this focus on cultural practices that are endorsed by the Muslim community.


Ethnicity acts as a direct cause of terrorism particularly when discontent and perceptions of injustice exist within an identifiable sub-group of the population. When such a group has no means of political participation, it might resort to terrorism as a means of airing its grievances. Engene observes that ethnicity is based on “distinctions between groups of people in terms of common ancestry or history, or shared linguistic, religious or even racial characteristics” (36).

Research indicates that terrorism is more likely to take place in states that are experiencing ethnic tension. Ethnic polarization leads to a division among people based on their differences and peculiarities leading to a formation of bonds of loyalty between groups in society (Cohen 1). The probability of ethnicity serving as the basis for terrorism is high especially in societies where resources are divided inequitably amongst communities.

Ethnic terrorism, if not effectively dealt with, might lead to full-scale civil war (Kirwin and Wonbin 2). Byman observes that Ethnic terrorists attempt to “influence rival groups and hostile governments by forging alliances based on some ethnic identity and fostering ethnic mobility” (150). The communal bonds created by ethnic terrorism make it very dangerous and hard to fight.

When governments take up action against the ethnic terrorists, the perceived persecution that follows gives the ethnic terrorists the much needed public attention and leads to increased support for their cause. Ethnic terrorism presents a major threat since any reaction to it by the government could heighten awareness of the terrorist’s cause and increase their support therefore making them even more dangerous than they were before (O’Boyle 27).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Primary Causes of Terrorist Political Violence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The case of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lankan demonstrates the significance of ethnicity in terrorism. This group was created in 1976, engaged in terrorist activity with the aim of seceding from Sri Lanka and forming an independent state for the Tamil people.

Hanley, Kongdan and Caroline document that the ethnic strife sparked by government policy led to the popularity of the LTTE (13). In a bid to create a monoethnic Tamil state, the LTTE engaged in acts of terror against civilian and ethnic cleansing operations. In spite of the atrocities carried out by the Tamil population, this terror group continued to receive the support of Tamils in Sri Lanka and abroad, demonstrating the great role that ethnicity plays in political violence.

Counterarguments Poverty

Proponents of economic grievances as the primary cause of terrorism declare that rampant poverty predisposes people to engaging in terrorism. They argue that the income inequality experienced in some countries leads to political violence by the lower classes as a form of protest against their economic condition.

This suggestion is supported by studies that indicate that there is a correlation between support for political violence, and personal economic well-being with individuals with lower GDP are likely to support a revolt compared to those with higher GDPs (NDRE 28). Solimano notes that the risk of terrorism incidents decreases as the level of economic development in a country increases (19).

Such studies propose that economic deprivation makes it easy for people to turn to terrorism in order to protest their conditions or make a living. The economic motivation of terrorists has also been called into question considering the fact that some of the most infamous terrorist organizations are very well funded and organized. Even individual terrorists sometimes come from affluent families.

For example, the world’s most renowned terrorist, Osama Bin Laden did not come from a poor background but rather from a rich family that had connections to the Saudi royal family (Mamdani 770). Further negating poverty as a cause of terrorism, Benmelech, Claude and Esteban reveal that many suicide bombers in the Middle East come from privileges backgrounds and it is inconceivable that their terrorist activities are motivated by financial considerations (114).

The incidents of terrorism in Latin America both during and after the Cold War years are also proof enough that economic conditions are not the main cause of terrorism. Many Latin American countries were faced with multiple incidents of terrorism perpetrated against the state (Salimano 23). Scholars blamed these acts on the Cold War, which had led to poor economies and economic inequalities.

However, terrorism incidents continued to prevail even after the end of the Cold War. Researchers therefore contend that there is no association between economic conditions and incidents of terrorism in Latin America (Feldmann and Maiju 101).


Some scholars suggest that high unemployment rates and a lack of job prospects even among the educated are the root causes of political terrorism rather than identity grievances. High unemployment leads to resentment of authority by the many people who are unable to make a living due to the poor economic conditions that exist.

Enders and Hoover argue that unemployed people might perceive that others limit their economic prospects and therefore turn to terrorism as a way to protest this (267). Unemployment also fosters terrorism by creating a large human pool from which terrorist organizations can recruit.

Benmelech, Claude and Esteban document that when unemployment rates are high, there are more educated and mature people willing to take up terrorism and act as suicide terrorists (116). This argument is reinforced by revelations by Tawil that the crumbling economy in Yemen has led to high rates of unemployment, which has made it easier for Al-Qaeda elements to find sympathizers in the country.

Even when unemployment is rife, it is ideological grievances that encourage acts of terrorism. This point can best be elaborated upon by comparing the terrorism rates in an impoverished country like Haiti and the Middle East. Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world and the country’s economy has been in disarray due to the political instability suffered by the country for decades.

The country has an unemployment rate of over 50% and even the employed few have very low-income levels. In spite of this rampant poverty and unemployment, the citizens of Haiti do not engage in terrorism to air their grievances. On the contrary, Palestinians engage in acts of terrorism against the Israelis.

The religious component among the Palestinians explains their tendencies to resort to terrorism. Capella and Emile state that while tactics such as suicide terrorism are not confined to religious groups; religion offers significant motivation and increases the willingness of the terrorist to sacrifice themselves for their cause (277).

Conclusion This essay addressed the primary reasons for terrorist political violence in the world and argued that terrorists carry out political violence primarily due to identity grievances of religion, culture, and ethnicity. Through this paper, I showed that religion is the major motivator for some of the most infamous terrorist organizations in the world.

I also proved that cultural grievances serve as a major cause of terrorism, especially in the Middle East where some Western cultural practices are abhorred. The essay demonstrated that ethnicity also contributes to terrorism since it divides people along some shared characteristics and leads to polarization.

Preventing terrorism means dealing with the primary causes and for this to occur; these causes have to be articulated. Once the primary grievances are identified, it is possible for effective preventative measures to be adopted.

The arguments made in this paper have important implications for the development of successful counterterrorism measures and policies by governments. Research needs to be pursued on measures through which this primary grievances can be alleviated and therefore mitigate the incidents of terrorism in the world.

Works Cited Benmelech, Efraim, Claude Berrebi, and Esteban F. Klor. “Economic Conditions and the Quality of Suicide Terrorism.” The Journal of Politics 74.1 (2012): 113-28. Print.

Berman, Eli, and David D. Laitin. “Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model.” Journal of Public Economics 92.10 (2008): 1942-67. Web.

Brown, Cody. The New Terrorism Debate. Turkish Journal of International Relations 6.4 (2009): 28-43. Print.

Byman, Daniel. The logic of ethnic terrorism. Studies in conflict


Knowledge Management: Practices as Found in Contemporary American Business and Management Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction: Contemporary U.S. Management and Its Specifics The world of entrepreneurship is facing a new era, i.e., the epoch when the informational civilization is being born, with information quickly becoming the main and the most valuable article of trade, the necessity of being able to use this commodity the right way appears.

The vast amounts of information and the need to process them quickly have spawned the creation of a new type of management – knowledge management, with an appropriate theory to support it. However, even more striking changes have come, contributing to shaping the process of knowledge management.

Because of the numerous factors that contribute to shaping the knowledge management system, as well as the availability of information combined with the need to distribute it fast and evenly, the modern knowledge management is currently facing a number of challenges that an efficient system of knowledge sharing can possibly help deal with.

Knowledge Management Definitions: What Lurks Behind the Term Knowledge management might seem a very straightforward process that cannot be possibly misinterpreted. Since the KM process involves dealing with knowledge, it must presuppose the strategy of information disposal.

The latter, however, involves a plethora of elements and factors, which shape the knowledge management strategy, dictating specific steps to be undertaken. Hence, knowledge management as a phenomenon can be considered from different points of view. Depending on what the focus is, the definition of knowledge management may vary.

When the Focus Is on Knowledge Putting the emphasis on the significance of knowledge acquisition, the first and the most comprehensive definition of knowledge management states the purpose of KM as the means to obtain information. However, the given approach towards understanding the principles of KM puts every single agent of the given process in its place, distributing responsibilities among the supposed staff of the supposed organization.

KM can be defined as the process of organization management that is aimed at revealing the knowledge base of the given organization (Snyder


Strategic Thinking and Strategic Leadership Problem Solution Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction All organisations in the world exist with the purpose of fulfilling certain objectives. These objectives, however, are challenging to attain because of many environmental factors that cannot be predicted accurately on time. Thus, the organisations determine their direction, as well as the scope for purposes of achieving advantage within the changing environment well in advance.

This is done by configuring the resources and the competencies such that the stakeholders’ expectations can be fulfilled. In essence, it is this kind of arrangement and planning that comprises the aspect of strategy and strategic thinking (Johnson, Whittington


US Antidumping Case on Chinese Apple Producers Case Study writing essay help

Any sane government should ensure that it takes measures to safeguard the interests of local companies. This enables local companies to flourish. Growth of local companies has several economic benefits to the country (Wing, 2011). Various government agencies help in protecting local companies from the tactics of foreign companies, which may lead to the collapse of local companies.

The US Commerce Department is the American organization that regulates the market to ensure that foreign companies do not engage in unacceptable activities. Dumping is one of the practices that the US Commerce Department prohibits (Carbaugh, 2010). The Commerce Department imposed an antidumping tax to Chinese non-frozen apple juice concentrate (AJC) exporters.

The Chinese AJC exporters priced their products at an extremely low price. This threatened the existence of American AJC producers. Therefore, the Commerce Department had to act to protect the interests of American AJC producers. However, the US Court of International Trade reversed the decision Commerce Department.

Response by certain Chinese AJC exporters to the antidumping investigation enabled the firms to benefit from reduced antidumping rates. Initially, the Commerce Department had imposed an antidumping rate of 15% on Chinese AJC exporters that responded to the investigation. On the other hand, Chinese AJC exporters that did not respond to the antidumping investigation received an antidumping rate of 52% (Peng, 2011).

However, the Court of International Trade reduced the antidumping rate of the Chinese AJC exporters received. The court reduced the antidumping rate of companies that responded to the investigation from 15% to 1.5% (Peng, 2011). However, the court did not reduce the antidumping rate of Chinese AJC exporters that did not respond to the investigation.

Therefore, it is clear that responding to the investigation increases the probability of a company receiving a much lower antidumping rate. Companies that responded to the antidumping rates had to contend with high legal fees. Therefore, this was more costly to the companies in the short-term. However, the long-term benefits of responding to investigation outweigh the short-term costs.

The US Court of International Trade disapproved the decision of the Commerce Department since it did not use a proper model in comparing Chinese AJC exporters with India’s Horticultural Produce Marketing


Xemba Translations Project Plan Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Project Performance Measurement Metrics

Justification of Metrics

Project Status Based on Metrics

Variance in Activity Time

Task Completion Rate

Impact of Current Problems

Mitigation Measures

Executive Summary


Project Performance Measurement Metrics The broad objectives of the work of any project manager are the delivery of a project on time, within budget, and within the quality criteria. These objectives provide the basis for the development of performance measurement metrics for any project. The following five metrics will be applied to the performance measurement of the Xemba Translations Project.

The first metric is the measurement of the budgeted cost of labor versus actual cost of labor. While general metric dealing with all costs would still provide some information, the nature of labor in this project calls for proper accounting for its use. The human resource for this project came with a price tag. The hourly pay model gives a clear indication of what it costs the company to motivate human resource commitement to the project.

The measurement for this metric will be the number of hours billed versus the number of hours in the project plan. The project will be performing poorly if the budgeted hours are less than the hours actually used in the project for the designated work packages.

The second metric is similar to the first one, although it is related to the cost of acquisitions. It measures the budgeted versus the actual cost of acquisitions. This metric needs monitoring because of the expected increase in the cost of acquisitions. This expectation arose from the realization that the company will need twelve more computers to complete the project.

The measurement of the metric will be similar to the method used to measure staff performance. This is the calculation of the money actually spent on acquisitions versus the money budgeted. If more money goes to the acquisitions compared to the money in the budget for that purpose, then the project will be off budget.

The third metric to be used in the measurement of project performance will be the variance between the scheduled versus the actual time spent on the activities of the project.

The deadline for the project is the beginning of the third quota. A failure to keep time will have consequences for the company’s operations. This measure will come from the Gantt charts for the project, which show the amount of time needed to complete the project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A related metric will be the task completion rate. This metric will combine the Gantt chart values with time indicators to determine whether the project stakeholders are handling their tasks as planned. The task completion rate will help determine whether the pace of the project at any time is commensurate to the targets set to complete these tasks.

This metric, calculated weekly, will give a value indicating the pace of the project. The project is currently behind schedule and there is need to monitor the daily progress of the tasks to ensure that everything ends on time.

The task completion rate will provide the basis for making conclusions about any discrepancies in the delivery of work packages. It is essential to complete the project on time, which is before the third quarter.

The reason why the work packages are important to measure is that they provide critical information for reporting the progress of the project to all stakeholders. The completion of any work package constitutes a project milestone. The calculation for this metric will rely on time.

Justification of Metrics The need to deliver the project on time and within budget informed the decisions that guided the choice of metrics for performance measurement for the project. The five metrics deal with time management or financial management.

The justification for the using labor expenses as a metric for the project is as follows. First, the company committed some employees and contract workers to work on the project. The company bills the project for the time the employees and contract workers spend working on the project.

Secondly, the time that the members of staff spend working on project reduces the overall project time. This means that an observation of how much money goes towards paying for the resource persons is an indirect indicator of the progress of the project.

We will write a custom Case Study on Xemba Translations Project Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The decision to have a separate metric measuring the cost of project acquisitions came from the realization that there is need to keep track of the cost of items earmarked for purchase. The main items that the company will need to acquire are new computers that can replace slower ones.

There is information that the number of computers the company needs to buy to replace the slow computers is more than the number estimated at the beginning of the project. A second reason to monitor these computers is that the supplier will be late in supplying the computers by two weeks. This is because there was a fire that affected their main supplier.

In addition to these two reasons, it is necessary to make a decision regarding the type of computers to buy. The choices that exist now are between laptops and desktop computers. The laptops are more expensive. This means that buying desktop computers may help in managing the budget. However, there are operational factors regarding their use that need consideration.

The third metric regarding schedule management arose because of the need to bring the project back on track. All the work packages are behind schedule. There is need to identify the causes of delay and to find ways of ensuring that the project concludes on time. Keeping track of the schedule will benefit the project in two ways. First, it will ensure that there is an objective measure of the use of time at regular intervals.

This will help in the identification and elimination of the sources of delay in the project delivery. Failure to uncover the causes of delay may cause further interruptions to the project. Secondly, the project needs to recover time because of the delays already experienced.

The only way to measure the degree of recovery needed and the impact of new measures geared towards the recovery of time is by using a performance measure that tracks the schedule.

The task completion rate as a metric will help monitor the actual output derived from the project resources. The first reason for measuring the task completion rate is that this is the only way that the project management team can know whether the resources assigned to the project are creating value for the project.

Secondly, task completion is the basic unit of measurement of the delivery of project goals. It is an accurate means of measuring the progress of the project.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Xemba Translations Project Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The final metric chosen to measure project performance is the rate of delivery of work packages. The work package is a larger unit of work which completion amounts to a milestone for the project.

The first reason for choosing this metric is that it is very important for reporting progress to the stakeholders such as the management. Secondly, the delivery of a work package is a milestone for the project with a complete set of benefits. It is important to keep track of the completion rate of the work packages in this regard.

Project Status Based on Metrics Resource Name Cost per Hour ($) Budgeted Hours Budgeted Cost ($) Work Completed ($) Remaining Hours Projected Hours to Complete Project Time Overrun (hrs) Cost Overrun ($) Elizabeth 70 121.43 8500.1 122 -0.57 0 0.57 39.9 Hugh 70 120 8400 103 17 17 0 0 Kimberly 70 76 5320 72 4 16 12 840 Phoebe 68 98 6664 76 22 20 -2 -136 Ben 68 138 9384 93 45 52 7 476 Zeke 65 384.67 25003.55 153 231.67 245 13.33 866.45 Malinda 75 224 16800 58 166 160 -6 -450 Willis 70 108 7560 160 -52 68 120 8400 Jackson 45 268 12060 177 91 112 21 945 Valene 60 150 9000 116 34 64 30 1800 Kendrick 40 78 3120 86 -8 0 8 320 Marcel 75 432.85 32463.75 268 164.85 200 35.15 2636.25 Clemencia 80 218.05 17444 104 114.05 114 -0.05 -4 Lianne 37.5 204 7650 170 34 110 76 2850 Darius 55 72 3960 30 42 42 0 0 TOTAL 2693 173329.4 1788 905 1220 315 18583.6 Table 2: Analysis table for various costs

The Budgeted cost of labor for the project was 173,329.4 dollars. Projected time overrun shows that the money required for the project to go to completion is 18,583.6 dollars. This is an increase of 10.7% from the original budget. This proves that there is a need to monitor the way the resources use project time because of the obvious increase in the budgetary deficit for the project.

Willis and Marcel lead in both the time spent on the project above the budgeted time, and the time needed to complete their tasks. Special focus needs to go into monitoring the time these two employees spend on the project.

The company budget shows that acquisitions for the project must not exceed 73,670.57 dollars. The report presented, which is related to the need to acquire new computers shows that the company needs to buy twelve extra computers. The initial plan was to buy thirty-five computers.

However, after auditing the existing ones, the total number of computers due for replacement went up to forty-seven. This will escalate the cost by between 11,400 dollars and 14,200 dollars, depending on whether the company acquires desktop computers or laptops.

Variance in Activity Time Task Name Work (hrs) Baseline (hrs) Variance (hrs) Actual (hrs) Remaining (hrs) % Work Complete Computer inventory and requirements 375.95 340 35.95 375.95 0 100% Technical support 197.33 200 -2.67 160.67 36.67 81% Computing support 258 210 48 192 66 74% Document servers 356 330 26 242 114 68% Shared drives 351.2 310 41.2 228.8 122.4 65% FTP Sites 621.67 609 12.67 230.87 390.8 37% Firewalls 417.6 424 -6.4 97.6 320 23% Web-based meetings 430 270 160 260 170 60% 3007.75 2693 314.75 1787.89 1219.87 Table 3: Activity summary of tasks and work packages

Task Completion Rate The activity summary shows that in almost all areas, there will be a need for more time than scheduled. Various factors affected the progress of the project. The important issue to bear in mind at this point is that most work packages will require more time to deliver.

Table 2 also shows that work package delivery is still very low, with the completion of only one work package. The high number of hours beyond the planned time that the project requires before completion is of more interest.

Impact of Current Problems The analysis of the status of the project revealed the following issues. First, two employees will account for more than fifty percent of all cost overruns related to labor. The two employees carry the highest staff costs for the project. Marcel and Willie will require more than 10,000 dollars out of the total projected cost overrun of about 18,000 dollars. This presents three problems to the project.

First, it means that any interruption in the availability of these two employees will lead to further delays in the project. Secondly, the nature of task distribution that led to this situation reveals a fundamental problem with the original organization of the project. The two employees seem to carry an inordinate amount of responsibility in the project.

This may lead to lapses or inclusion of errors in their output because of the strain on them. Thirdly the two employees need extra time to complete their tasks because of the exhaustion of their previous time allocation This is an indication that there is need to investigate the actual distribution of work in relation to the two employees. Is there a chance that the two employees are not creating value for the project as initially intended?

The second main problem that the analysis revealed is that the project will exceed the budget by more than ten percent. This conclusion comes from two observations. The first observation comes from the projection that the cost of staff will exceed the budget by 10.7 %. These projections came from the estimated time the project staff members require to deliver the project.

The causes of the delays that led to the need for more time still exist. For instance, not all information that relates to the operations of the final system is available. It is only wise to anticipate some more delays that may lead to the need for more time, especially in relation to the testing of the new system. The second observation is that the cost of acquisitions will exceed the budget.

The reason for this is that there are components whose necessity became apparent only after the inception of the project. For instance, the budget estimates show that the number of new computers the organization will need to buy to replace the slower ones is thirty-five.

However, the actual number of computers that the organization needs to replace is forty-seven. This will increase the cost of acquisitions by more than 10,000 dollars.

The third main problem the analysis revealed is the risk of catastrophic failure of the system. The two main aspects of the project that will lead to this eventuality are time and technical constraints. The rigid deadline set when the project started, demands the completion of the project before the third quarter. The project is already behind the schedule because of various factors.

The only way to ensure that the project ends on time is to increase the work rate of the employees available or to assign more employees to the project. The second problem related to the technical limits is that the team must work within. Many technical risks exist around the project. If any of the associated risk events occurs, the project will be in jeopardy.

The relationship between this situation and the analysis above is that the project is under dire time and resource constraints. If there is no injection of new resources to support the delivery of the project on time, then the available resources may not be sufficient to mitigate the risks. All it will take for a catastrophic failure to occur is one mistake.

Mitigation Measures The mitigation measures needed to deal with these problems are as follows. First, there is a need to undertake an audit of the work assigned to Marcel and Willis. This will help determine the cause of the huge time requirements that they need to complete their work packages.

In the event that the distribution of work was overwhelming for them, then it will be important to assign more resources to handle aspects of their work packages. If the audit shows that they are incompetent, then the best action in the interest of the project will be to replace them.

Nothing can bring the project back on budget at this stage. Since the management gave an allowance of going over-budget by up to ten percent, there is need to approve the necessary funds to cover for the impending shortfall. This will ensure that the team meets the quality criteria for the project. The board needs to approve a supplementary budget to cater for the financial shortfalls experienced by the project so far.

The risk of catastrophic failure due to time and resource constraints is the most challenging issue to deal with in this project. The risk management matrix revealed that several risks could occur concurrently leading to catastrophic failure. This will require very careful management of the project to keep these risks from taking place.

The best way to ensure that the entire project succeeds is to bring the project online in phases. It will also help to carry out more performance tests than earlier planned. It is also possible to increase the resources available to the project to increase the work rate of the employees. This will enable the project team to handle the risks more easily.

Executive Summary Xemba Translations is in the middle of an IT project geared towards making it possible for telecommuters to work effectively for Xemba. The new risks identified include the likelihood for resource competition among project priorities, and an increase in labor costs.

Other risks are the failure to meet the project deadline and the potential for a catastrophic technical failure due to implementation mistakes arising from pressure to deliver the project on time.

The metrics that will help in measuring the performance of the project are as follows. The first metric is a comparison of budgeted cost versus the actual cost of labor. This arises from the realization that labor consumes project funds at an hourly rate. The second metric is a comparison of the budgeted cost of acquisitions versus the actual cost.

The third metric is the measurement of the actual time consumed by project activities, compared to the scheduled time. The fourth metric is the task completion rate. The project has fifty-five tasks. This metric will help to measure how well the project is performing based on task completion rate. The fifth metric is the measurement of the delivery of work packages.

After applying these metrics, the main problems uncovered during the project are that two resource persons account for more than fifty percent of labor cost overruns. Marcel and Willie need more 10,000 dollars to complete their work.

The second problem is that the project will exceed the budget by more than ten percent. The third main problem is that there is a risk of catastrophic failure of the project arising from the time and resource constraints.

The measures required to mitigate against these problems include auditing Marcel and Willie’s work to ensure they are competent and that they are capable to deliver on their workpackages within the remaining time. Secondly, the project requires more money for it to be completed on time.

It is necessary to approve the required money as soon as possible because it exceeds the 10,000 dollar threshold. Thirdly, from this point, the project manager must observe every process closely to ensure no more time goes to waste.

References Arson, E. W.,


Problems Around Guantanamo Bay Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction The current President of the United States of America, Barrack Obama had promised to close the Guantanamo Bay 120 days from the time he assumed office. Obama was not the first president to advocate for the closure of the detention camp.

President Bush had in the period starting 2006 indicated that he would like to have the facility closed. His sentiments were echoed by the international community, with former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, former UN Secretary General Koffi Annan and German Chancellor Angela Merkel calling for its closure.

In trying to close the facility, Obama has met amongst which is trying to obtain a balance between the security rights of the free world and the rights of prisoners. We now move on to a three-part discussion that gives the background of the Guantanamo Bay, how the existence of the detention camp has been legally handled and the way forward regarding the welfare of prisoners at the facility. These three parts are summarized below:

The inception After the September 11 2001, terror attack in the United States, a consensus was reached that military force be used against countries or individuals suspected to be linked to the attacks. Over 10,000 people were arrested, of whom 700 were sent to the Guantanamo Bay a facility initially used to house refugees.

Initially, the detainees were held at Camp X-Ray, before being later moved to the modern Camp Delta. The facility is nowadays divided into three camps as listed below:

Camp 4- Hosts the most compliant prisoners

Camp 5- Hosts prisoners less compliant than those in Camp 4 but less dangerous than those in Camp 6

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Camp7- Hosts high-value prisoners

By the time Obama was taking office, there were 300 individuals detained at the facility.

Calls for closure The main driver behind the closure of the Guantano Bay has been international public outcry linked to the reported use of torture and denying the detainees their right to legal process. As far as torture is concerned, various reports have pointed at the use of extreme heat, cold and water-boarding confession techniques.

In terms of the legal rights of the detainees, the United States had in 2001 indicated that federal courts would have no jurisdiction over Guantanamo Bay detainees. George Bush also reiterated that Guantanamo Bay was outside the reach of United States laws.

In this regard, trials that were done at Guantanamo Bay could not be deemed as fair, with some individuals bound to spend their lifetime at the facility without trial. George Bush later ordered that the military commission at the facility conduct full and fair trials but it was later discovered that the presiding officers just made up laws to suit their interests.

Legal implications and congressional actions Challenges placed in US courts

2001-The Bush administration ruled all detainees at the Guantanamo Bay were could be held indefinitely without trial.

We will write a custom Essay on Problems Around Guantanamo Bay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2004-The Supreme Court ruled in Rasul vs Bush that US courts had the jurisdiction to address petitions by Guantanamo Bay Detainees.

2004- The Supreme Court held in Hamdi vs Rumsfeld that US citizens detained at Guantanamo Bay must be given a hearing in front of an impartial judge.

2006-In the case of Hamdi vs Rumsfel the Supreme Court ascertained that the military commissions had violated various elements of the United States and international laws.

Congress responses

The McCain Amendment banned torture and the disrespect of prisoners by American forces. The amendment makes it mandatory for military interrogations to be conducted in compliance with America laws. George Bush signed the amendment into law.

Aspects of the planned closure Political asylum-Scholars have argued that individuals that have been cleared of any wrong doing should be released immediately and given political asylum in the United States.

Working with international community-In 2007 the United States announced that they could not close the Guantanamo Bay without collaborating with the international community. The United States noted that for them to release the prisoners at the facilities, their parent countries must be willing to repatriate them and in some cases assure that the prisoners would be imprisoned without torture.

Fort Leavenworth-Some scholars have indicated that the Port be closed immediately and the prisoners sent to Fort Leavenworth, in Kansas.

Analysis There is no legal structure to handle the complexities that the Guantanamo Bay situation presents. It is, however, clear that the United States needs to close the facility immediately. In this regard, the detainees at the facility need to be classified and the international community urged to hasten repatriation efforts.

As far as classification is concerned, the detainees need to be classified in a systemic manner that will determine their rights. This should be done with respect to the Geneva conventions and the Military commissions Act.

Conclusion The most comprehensive solution is to permanently close the Guantanamo Bay and transferring the detainees to Fort Leavenworth, together with the creation of an Article 1 Homeland Security Court.


Senior Management Analysis of Macklenburg County Coursework essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The total Work First caseload for Macklenburg County



Introduction This is an analysis of a senior management work aimed at qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating staff members and their percentage productivity in relation to the case actions performed per month at Macklenburg County. It is meant to display a definite projection of the quality of services provided by the staff and perhaps assist in identifying the loopholes within the workforce.

It is important to note that a comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the available labor plays an integral part in ensuring that the productivity rate is at its standard percentage. Additionally, it ensures that all the relevant parameters are equated to the ultimate productivity of the organization (Rothwell, and Kazanas, 2003). It is, therefore, imperative that correct measures are taken to ensure that a workforce is effectively evaluated.

The total Work First caseload for Macklenburg County The department has a total caseload of 34.8%. This amount is derived by summing all the percentage of caseload of the case actions performed per month. It is important to note that this percentage is below the standard productivity percentage expected of a competitive department.

The number of staff members, working at 80% productivity, needed to effectively manage this caseload. Considering the fact that the total Work First caseload is below the expected percentage, it imperative that the management increases the number of staff members so as to reconcile the current percentage with the recommended percentage.

There are currently 11 employees in the department. This is an implication that the eleven employees contribute to the 34.8% productivity rate registered in the department. However, when the Work First caseload increases by 8% next year, the total percentage will then rise to 42.8%. Therefore;

If 42.8% productivity = 11 employees

80% productivity =?

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This implies that the department needs 20.6 employees so as to meet the targeted 80% productivity rate. Since people cannot be counted in terms of decimals, it is right to assume that the total number of employees needed in the department is 21.

The number of additional staff that should be requested to attain the benchmarked caseload and what the effect would be on the percentage of individual productivity. From the calculation above, it can be noted that the total number of employees needed in the department is 21.

If there were 11 employees before the evaluation was done, it therefore means that the additional number of employees needed is 10. The department, thus, needs 10 more employees in order to meet its intended 80% productivity rate. This information can be presented to the Work First Manager in several ways.

However, the most effective and reliable means of presenting this analysis to the manager is through the company’s Browser Software (Rothwell, and Kazanas, 2003). This is because this is an automated system that is most reliable in presenting such information especially when the information will be needed on a later date.

Conclusion The system has efficient data backup procedures that enable information to be stored for a relatively long time. In the event of any data loss, the management is able to retrieve the relevant information with no much struggle.

I have no special concerns with either the time standards or the benchmarked caseloads. However, the time standard for termination is relatively high. The average time standard of over 0.50 hours may be a cause of alarm to not only the department but also the organization at large (Harnisch, 2008).

We will write a custom Coursework on Senior Management Analysis of Macklenburg County specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Harnisch, O. (2008). Analysis of senior management training needs in international hotel companies – A field study. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Rothwell, W. J.,


Kahn and Verifiability Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How Khun Revolutionized the Philosophy of Science

How Khun’s Contribution helped Nursing

Falsification or Verification



Introduction Thomas Samuel Khun’s contribution to philosophy remains a significant milestone in nursing (and by extension, the field of science). Khun introduced the concept of “paradigm shift” in mainstream science by suggesting that scientific models undergo paradigm shifts (periodically) and therefore, the notion that scientific models develop in a linear manner is untrue.

In this regard, Khun suggests that science cannot solely rely on objectivity but rather, by considering subjective aspects of the discipline as well (Klemke, Hollinger,


Buddhism Believer’s Practice: Meditation Proposal online essay help

There are a number of things that happen in the lives of humans, which are beyond one’s control. For example, no one can control the fortunes and misfortunes that normally occur in human life.

Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of every individual to take charge of his/her own state of mind and control what it thinks about at any particular time. Buddhism asserts that taking control of one’s state of mind is the most important thing that people can do. In Buddhism, this aspect is called meditation.1

The practice of meditation in Buddhism enables the believers to take control of things, such as fear, anxiety, hatred, confusion, and sorrow, which can make them commit sin.2 By reviewing a number of books, I intend to prove in this paper that the practice of meditation is the main driving force behind Buddhism.

Meditation in Buddhism simply refers to practices that its believers use to make their minds think positively. The practice of meditation involves skills that develop and encourage concentration, positive thinking, and clarity regarding living and non-living things.3

When Buddhists engage in the practice of meditation, they get to understand the habits and behaviors of their minds. As a result, they are able to transform themselves into positive and understanding human beings.

Buddhists strongly believe that meditation offers a transformative effect that brings about a new a way of understanding life.4

Every believer is required to learn the concepts of meditation in order to strengthen their faith in the religion. The practice of meditation is normally taught through the Triratna Buddhist Community. The basic practices in meditation are taught according to the original teachings of the historical Buddha.5

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The practices of meditation are considered effective if they are aimed at achieving calmness and emotional positivity among the believers of the religion. The practices are supposed to be taught by members of the Triratna Buddhist Order at Triratna Centers.

These members are highly skilled meditators and the students who learn how to meditate need to have an interest in Buddhism.6

Buddhist meditation is majorly divided into two categories: insight and tranquility meditations. The two categories of Buddhist meditations are combined and used at the same time.7

However, in some cases, the two meditations are used one after the other. In cases where the two are used separately, tranquility is used first, followed by the insight meditation. The two categories of meditation are normally used simultaneously to enable the believers to obtain maximum results.8

Insight meditation, which is also known as vippasana, uses a number of skills taught in Buddhism to enhance the believer’s faith. Insight mediation literally includes the skills taught in tranquility meditation and other areas of the religion.

Insight meditation helps Buddhist believers to practice absolute and important truths. It is said that Buddhist believers who practice insight meditation have the hopes of appreciating the truths of suffering and impermanence.9

The practice of insight meditation is majorly based on the concept of mindfulness. Mindfulness is an improved state of concentration in which the mind is given a chance to take control of the entire system of human beings. When a person is mindful of something, he carefully thinks and observes it.

We will write a custom Proposal on Buddhism Believer’s Practice: Meditation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Buddhist believers, through insight meditation, not only focus on what happens to and around them, but also try to understand how these things come to happen the way they do.10

The believers of Buddhism can only see the fruits of the insight meditation if they identify and understand the important truths taught in the religion. The believers are supposed to practice what the Buddhist doctrines say in everything they do.

The main part of Buddhist doctrines and practices, which is also provided for in insight meditation, is liberation. This implies that a Buddhist believer who practices insight meditation exclusively practices all the doctrines of the religion.11

The second type of meditation, tranquility, is based on the concept of concentration. Tranquility meditation is used to immobilize the minds of the believers and guide them to concentrate on major things that affect their lives.

This type of meditation is intended to achieve its goals by using tools or virtues like loving-kindness and the recollection in Buddha’s sayings.12

Tranquility meditation assists Buddhist believers to achieve a number of goals in life.

Firstly, the believers are assisted to detach themselves from the external world to enable them to develop the need for happiness.

Secondly, the believers use this meditation to acquire a state of exclusive equanimity and self-fulfillment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Buddhism Believer’s Practice: Meditation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, tranquility meditation enables the believers to improve their concentration and reasoning with regard to what happens to them.13

In conclusion, this proposal intends to analyze the concept of meditation among Buddhist believers. The paper uses a number of books to illustrate the importance of meditation in Buddhism. The practice of meditation in Buddhism is primarily divided into two categories: insight and tranquility.

The two types of meditation are based on, among other things, liberation, which is the main doctrine of Buddhism. Consequently, the paper shows that mediation is the core of the practices that all Buddhists undertake in their lives.

Bibliography Gerner, Katy. Buddhism. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2008.This book contains the main concepts of Buddhism. It is going to help me illustrate Buddhism as one of the major religions in the world.

Ingram, Daniel M. Mastering the Core Teaching of the Buddha: An Unusually Hardcore Dharma Book. London: Aeon Books, 2008.This book contains aspects of meditation in Buddhism. It will assist me to explain how meditation forms the core of the Buddhism religion.

Kuan, Tse-fu. Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches Through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskirt Sources. New York, NY: Routledeg, 2008.This book contains the kinds of meditations used in Buddhism. It is going to be helpful in defining insight meditation and how it is applicable to the religion.

Morgan, Diane. Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.This book talks about the main practices undertaken by Buddhist believers. It will help me to show why tranquility meditation is regarded as a core practice in Buddhism.

Segall, Seth Robert. Encountering Buddhism: Western Psychology and Buddhist Teachings. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2003.This book talks about the beliefs of Buddhists. It is helpful in explaining the impact of insight meditation on Buddhist believers.

Shaw, Sarah. Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pali Canon. New York, NY: Routledge, 2006.This book sheds light on the applications of meditation in Buddhism. It will help me to explain the effects of insight meditation on Buddhist believers.

Silva, Padmasiri. An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology. Lanham, MD: Rowman


An Action Plan for Settling Homeless People in Seattle Case Study online essay help

It is evident that Seattle is one of the places with the highest number of homeless people. The government has used a large amount of money in trying to deal with this problem, but no significant changes are yet to be seen.

However, the problem of homelessness in Seattle can effectively be addressed through two major steps. This proposal addresses the steps that can be taken to solve the problem of homelessness in Seattle.

What the mayor of Seattle needs to do is increase the supported housing programs that are already going on in the city. This can be done through a number of ways.

Firstly, the housing programs can be improved by adding supportive services, which should be done on a long-term basis.

Secondly, the office of the mayor should avail comprehensive services that cater for special groups such as the poor families with physically challenged members and young children.

Thirdly, the community partners who are interested in taking part in reducing homelessness in Seattle should be encouraged to team up.

Fourthly, the cost of renting houses in Seattle should be reduced through vouchers and other ways that can allow the poor families to secure rental space (Cnare, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An alternative to the program of increasing supportive housing is to enhance the supply of cheap and affordable shelter in Seattle. The problem of homelessness in Seattle is worsened by the lack of affordable housing units for the poor citizens in the city.

The supply of affordable housing can be increased through a number ways.

Firstly, this can be achieved through the creation of opportunities for building affordable housing units.

Secondly, the currently available affordable housing units should be expanded to accommodate more homeless households.

Thirdly, the office of the mayor should work toward ensuring that affordable houses are built and sold to homeless individuals who have access to some money.

Fourthly, the existing housing market prices should be subsidized to enable these people to acquire houses (Calavita, 2011).

The second way that the problem of homelessness in Seattle can be solved is through the removal of barriers that hinder people from acquiring residential houses.

We will write a custom Case Study on An Action Plan for Settling Homeless People in Seattle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firstly, the barriers can be reduced by enacting regulations that will prevent unnecessary evictions resulting from defaults in rental fees or mortgage repayments.

Secondly, the people should be educated and counseled on financial matters to avoid cases of defaults in mortgage payments.

Thirdly, the people of Seattle should be supported and assisted socially for them to lead a stable life. This may help them to view life positively and start working harder to make their lives better (Cnare, 2005).

An alternative to the program involving the removal of the barriers that hinder the poor from accessing affordable housing is the creation of more job opportunities in Seattle. Unemployment is one of the major causes of homelessness in Seattle.

Many people in the city are homeless because they do not have sufficient money to buy or rent a house. In this regard, the office of the mayor needs to create as many job opportunities as possible.

These opportunities can be created by reducing the current recommended wage-rate to enable companies and organizations to employ more people to do the same amount of work that they normally do (Calavita, 2011).

In conclusion, this action plan proposes a number of strategies that can be used to address the problem of homelessness in Seattle. The strategies proposed include job creation, the removal of barriers that hinder people from buying or renting houses and increasing the supply of affordable houses in the city.

References Calavita, N. (2011). A review of how to house the homeless. Journal of the American Planning Association, 77(3), 298-299.

Not sure if you can write a paper on An Action Plan for Settling Homeless People in Seattle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cnare, N. (2005). United ways three strategies for reducing homelessness in our community. Web.


The Influence of Teaching Experience on Student Dropout Thesis essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Event dropout rate

The teacher’s perceptions of the dropout rate


Prevention in rural school district


Introduction Schooling institutions are regarded as the primary grounds to certify and empower human development (Kohn, 2011). The teachers have the responsibility of certifying, socializing educating and empowering the learners (Lovitt, 1991).

However, the teacher can only archive these obligations if s/he is supported by creation of a good learning environment. Furthermore, the teacher is a key factor in sustaining the education system.

Therefore, the role of ensuring that education system delivers full baked graduates does not fall entirely on the teacher’s competencies but the general schooling environment (Meece


Regression Analysis of Business Statistics Report (Assessment) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Scatter diagram

Correlation coefficient

Relationship between the variable

Regression Results

Evaluation of regression model

R-square value

Regression equation


Introduction Regression analysis is a statistical tool that is used to develop and approximate linear relationships among various variables. Regression analysis formulates an association between a number of variables. When coming up with the model, it is necessary to separate between dependent and independent variables.

Regression models are used to predict trends of future variables. The paper carries out a simple regression analysis between the price of houses and the area of houses.

Scatter diagram A scatter diagram is a graph that plots two related variables on a Cartesian plane. The independent variable is plotted on the x – axis while the dependent variable is on the y – axis. In this case, the price of houses (in thousands) is plotted on the y – axis while the area of houses (in square feet) is plotted on the x – axis.

Scatter diagram tries to establish if there exists a linear relationship between two variables plotted on the diagram. This can be observed by looking at the trend of the scatter plots.

Points on the scatter diagram tend to slope upwards. It is an indication of a positive linear relationship between the prices of houses and the area of houses in square feet. This implies that as the area of houses increases, the price also increases. Few points fall on the regression line drawn in the scatter diagram.

There are several that fall outside the regression line. Further, there is a lot of concentration around 2000 square feet. This concentration affects the linearity of the model. This can be an indication of a weak regression line. A strong regression line is indicated by concentration of points along the regression line.

Correlation coefficient The correlation coefficient is 0.6364. The coefficient is positive and greater than five. This implies that there is a positive linear relationship between price of houses and the area of a house. That is, as the area of the houses increase, the price of a house also increases.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between the variable There are a number of factors that affect the price of houses. A direct factor is the area of the house. However, that is not the only factor that affects the price of houses. Examples of these other factors include the location of the house and proximity to various social amenities.

Only one factor will be used in this regression analysis thus yielding a simple regression. The dependent variable is the price of houses while the independent variable is the area of the houses (in square feet).

The regression line will attempt to establish a linear relationship between price of houses and the area of the houses. A sample of twenty houses is used to estimate the regression equation.

The regression line will take the form Y = b0 b1X

Y = Prices (in thousands)

X = Area (square feet)

The theoretical expectations are b0 can take any value and b1 > 0.

We will write a custom Assessment on Regression Analysis of Business Statistics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regression Results The result of regression for each independent variable is shown in the table below.

Variable Coefficients of the variable a0 Y – intercept 160.3961978 a1 Coefficient of area (in square feet) 0.066744981 From the above table, the regression equation can be written as Y = 160.40 0.0667X. The intercept value of 160.39619 is not dependent on the area of the house but on other factors such as the location of the house. The value captures all other factors that were not included when modeling the regression line.

The coefficient value of 0.066744 implies that as the area (square feet) of the house increases by one unit, the price of the house will increase by 0.0667 units. The positive value of the coefficient implies a positive relationship between the price and area of houses.

Evaluation of regression model Evaluation of the regression model can be done by testing the statistical significance of the variables. Testing statistical significance shows whether the explanatory variable is a significant determinant of the price of houses. A t – test will be used since the sample size is small.

A two tailed t- test is carried out at 95% level of confidence.

Null hypothesis: Ho: bi = 0

Alternative hypothesis: Ho: bi ≠ 0

The table below summarizes the results of the t – tests.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Regression Analysis of Business Statistics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Variable t – values computed t at α 0.05 Decision a0 Intercept 3.078114047 1.9432 Reject X1 Area (in square feet) 3.500704245 1.9432 Reject The null hypothesis implies that the variables are not significant determinants of demand. The alternative hypothesis implies that variables are significant determinant of demand. From the table above, the values of t – calculated are greater than the values of t – tabulated.

Therefore, the null hypothesis will be rejected and this implies that the area (in square feet) is a significant determinant of the explanatory variable. Thus, area (in square feet) is statistically significant at the 95% level of significance.

The value of the intercept is not relevant when testing the significance of the regression variables. Since the explanatory variable is statistically significant, it implies that the regression line can be used for prediction.

The regression model shows that the slope is not strong enough though the regression coefficient shows a positive relationship between the prices and the area of houses.

Thus, the model can be used in predicting the prices since as the price increases there is a corresponding increase in areas of houses. More variables should be added to the regression line so as improve on the regression equation.

R-square value Coefficient of determination estimates the amount of variations of the dependent variable explained by the independent variables. A high coefficient of determination implies that the explanatory variables adequately explain variations the demand function.

A low value of coefficient of determination implies that the explanatory variables do not explain the variations in price of houses adequately. For this regression, the value of R2 is 40.5%. This implies that the area (in square feet) explains only 40.5% of the variation in price of houses.

It is an indication of a weak explanatory variable. Also, the value of adjusted R2 is low at 37.20%. The value of R2 can be improved on by adding more variables in the regression model.

Regression equation The regression line is Y = 160.39619 0.06674X.

Prediction From the regression line, prices of houses can be estimated. For instance, the regression line can be used to estimate the price of a house whose size is 3000 square feet. The computation of the price is shown below.

Regression equation Y = 160.39619 0.06674 X

The house price ($ 1, 000) = (0.0667 × House area (square feet)) 160.3962

= (0.0667 × 3, 000) 160.396 = 360.63114

= 360.63114 × 1, 000

= $360,631.14

A house of size 3,000 square feet house will cost $360,631.14.


History of Hiroshima Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Founding of Hiroshima

World War II

Rebuilding of Hiroshima


Works Cited

Introduction According to historical documentation, Hiroshima was founded in the year 1589 by Mori Motonari (Burgan 35). It was established during the Meiji era and gradually developed into a large urban centre that served other regions and cities around it. Mori Motonari founded the city and established his rule that involved a strong army and several government officials.

Today, the city is characterized by a flat delta, 7 outlets that emanate from the Ota River, and six islands. However, some hills located in the city constitute the main landmarks of the city because of their heights. Historically, Hiroshima is renowned for the 1945 nuclear bomb attack that damaged it heavily (Burgan 36). Historians have defined the attack as one of the critical moments of the 20th century.

Hiroshima is considered a historical city because of the nuclear attack that was initiated by the United States. After the attack, Hiroshima was reconstructed into a memorial city as a way of commemorating the devastating attack. The attack destroyed Hiroshima and killed thousands of people. Recovery efforts included building new schools, renovating damaged buildings, and restoring damaged roads and electricity systems.

Founding of Hiroshima Mori Motonari founded Hiroshima and maintained control over the city by establishing a strong army that resisted external attacks. After approximately 100 years, the grandson of Motonari lost in a battle against Tokugawa Leyasu. This led to establishment of new leadership in Hiroshima. Leyasu handed over certain provinces of Hiroshima to rival leaders in surrounding regions.

These actions weakened Hiroshima. For example, he gave the province of Ari to his friend who had supported him in a battle that led to the capture of Hiroshima. Leyasu was responsible for diminishing the influence that Hiroshima had on the region.

Asano later became leader of the whole region of Hiroshima han. At the time, Hiroshima was the capital of the region surrounding Hiroshima that included other cities and administrative provinces (Burgan 41). Under Asano’s rule, Hiroshima developed and prospered greatly. His rule was characterized by peace and stability throughout the city. There were few internal and external conflicts.

After Asano’s death, his relatives ruled the city for many years until the restoration of Meiji. After a few years, the city of han was abolished and Hiroshima became the capital city of the whole Hiroshima region (Hogan 63). This contributed to development of Hiroshima as a major urban centre because the economy of Japan was rapidly growing during that period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, construction of Ujina Harbor by Sadaaki made the city an important economic centre (Hogan 64). Hiroshima was later used by Japanese military to conduct logistics during the Sino-Japanese War. In addition, it served as a source of supplies for military troops taking part in war. The Japanese government moved its headquarters to Hiroshima during the war.

The government preferred Hiroshima to other cities because of its historical significance. The city was used for conducting negotiations between China and Japan during the Sino-Japanese war (Hogan 66). This led to establishment of manufacturing plants in Hiroshima that contributed to development and growth of the city. This growth continued even during the World War II.

The city experienced further economic growth during the Russo-Japanese War. Development during this period involved production of supplies used by military troops to fights invading armies (Hogan 68). During World War I, Hiroshima was the centre of military operations. The city further developed after the war because other institutions such as churches took interest in its rapidly growing economy.

World War II During World War II, Hiroshima was used as a centre for military operations by the Japanese government. The city was chosen because it produced large quantities of military supplies needed in the war and had several ports that facilitated shipping of supplies. In 1945, a nuclear attack launched by America damaged Hiroshima severely (Powell par2). The nuclear attack was the first in history to be used by military personnel.

The attack forced the Japanese government to surrender due to its severity. Owing to the magnitude of the attack and damages incurred, Hiroshima was later reinvented into a memorial city (Powell par3). The only building that did not succumb to the bombing was named the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. The incident elicited mixed reactions among different nations concerning development of nuclear weapons.

Many nations have since joined Hiroshima in their efforts to eradicate development of nuclear weapons after the incident that led to mass destruction of lives and property. Hiroshima officially became a city in 1889, and later followed by government recognition in 1980.

Rebuilding of Hiroshima After the bombing, Hiroshima was reconstructed into a memorial city to commemorate the attack. Recovery was difficult because after the end of the war, the city was struck by a typhoon that caused massive destruction (Hein et al 53). The city experienced more than 3,000 fatalities that accounted for approximately half its population. In addition, many bridges, roads, and railway lines were destroyed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Hiroshima specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The destruction necessitated rebuilding of the city in order to restore its lost glory as a capital of the Hiroshima prefecture. The government facilitated the rebuilding of Hiroshima. The law contained provisions that directed construction of a memorial park to commemorate the bombing (Hein et al 54).

The government provided funding for construction of destroyed buildings. In addition, it donated land to the city for construction of a memorial park. The donated land was used for military operations during different wars before the nuclear bomb attack. In the year 1949, the city attained the status of a city of peace. Shinzo Hamai, the mayor of the city at the time, facilitated this initiative.

After the naming of the city as a city of peace, the world started recognizing the city as a favorable destination for meetings and peace conferences (Hein et al 56). This prompted the establishment of the Hiroshima Peace Institute association (HIGA). Its main role was to facilitate conferences in the city. In 1999, the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established as an additional measure to promote peace in the city and world.

The city has over the years advocated against development of nuclear weapons by superpower nations. The mayor of the city is the head of the organization known as “Mayors for Peace.” The organization aims to convince cities and nations to abolish development of nuclear weapons (Hein et al 58).

The rebuilding of Hiroshima also involved donations from Japan and other regions. For example, Japan donated streetcars to Hiroshima because they were contributing to destruction of its infrastructure. As a result, Hiroshima developed a streetcar scheme that later became a defining characteristic of the city.

Even though many Japanese cities have streetcar systems, Hiroshima’s system is the most developed and advanced (Hein et al 61). Over the years, Hiroshima has made several changes to the streetcar system to integrate technological advancements.

The nuclear bomb attack destroyed Hiroshima heavily. It destroyed its transport systems, buildings, electricity system, and killed thousands of people. Restoration of destroyed structures and systems was the main activity of the rebuilding of Hiroshima. For example, people salvaged any building materials that were not destroyed and used them to rebuild their homes (Powell par6).

After the bombing, many people speculated that vegetation would not grow again in Hiroshima due to the devastating effects of the bombing. However, after red canna flowers sprouted, people regained hope. As a result, people who had moved to rural areas moved back to the city and contributed to its recovery (Powell par8). Soldiers who had fled during the war returned to the city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Hiroshima by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schools were heavily damaged by the attack, children were evacuated, and learning stopped. As a rebuilding strategy, new schools were constructed and those that had not been destroyed were renovated.

Officials of Hiroshima were determined to rebuild the city. As a result, they decide to build a memorial that would commemorate the 1945 nuclear attack. The memorial was later referred to as the Peace Memorial Park and was designed by Kenzo Tange.

The park was completed in 1954 and comprised a museum that contained materials that preserved memories of the attack (Hein et al 61). The recovery of the city involved both economic and psychologic aspects. The help that the city received from the government was critical in its recovery because it helped to create jobs and revive the economy of the city.

Conclusion Mori Motonari founded Hiroshima in 1589. Initially, it was used as a capital of the large Hiroshima prefecture that comprised several provinces and cities. The historical relevance of the city is based on the 1945 nuclear attack by America. After approximately 100 years, the grandson of Motonari lost in the battle against Tokugawa Leyasu. This led to establishment of new leadership in Hiroshima.

In addition, the new leader gave certain provinces of Hiroshima to other leaders in the surrounding regions. After Asano assumed leadership, the city grew rapidly. After his death, his relatives ruled the city for many years until the restoration of Meiji. After a few years, the city of han collapsed and Hiroshima became the centre of all economic activities in the region.

This contributed to the development of Hiroshima as a major urban centre because at the time, the economy of Japan was rapidly growing. During the World War II, Hiroshima was still used as a centre for military operations. The city was chosen because it had several ports that facilitated distribution of supplies to warring armies in different parts of the region.

In addition, it had enough resources for production of necessary equipment used by armies during war. After the bombing, Hiroshima was reinvented and a memorial park was constructed with the aid of the government. The officials of Hiroshima were determined to rebuild the city.

As a result, they decide to build a memorial that would be used to commemorate the 1945 nuclear attack. This memorial was referred to as the Peace Memorial Park, and it has become a tourist attraction.

Works Cited Burgan, Michael. Hiroshima: Birth of the Nuclear Age. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2009. Print.

Carola, Hein, Jeffrey Diefrondorf, and Yorifusa Ishinda. Rebuilding Urban Japan after 1945. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.

Hogan, Michael. Hiroshima in History and Memory. London: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

Powell, Bill. How Hiroshima Rose from the Ashes. 26 July. 2005. Web.


Assistive Technology for High School Students with Dyslexia Proposal essay help online: essay help online

Introduction There have been a number of issues influencing the utilization of Assistive Technology (AT) for high school students with dyslexia (Draffan et al., 2007; Bryson, 2013). Changes to Public Law 105-17 (2004) in the United States command that assistive technology be taken into account when planning a Personal Education Plan (PEP) for a student with dyslexia.

Whereas this is presently not an obligation formulated in practice or policy for high school students (Herberg et al., 2012), the change serves to further legalize the utilization of assistive technology for high school students with dyslexia (Herberg et al., 2012). In some countries, specific financing for assistive technology (Shahtout et al., 2012; Bryson, 2013) has resulted in greater access to assistive technology.

Also, the technology is currently more effective and cheaper than ever. These associated factors have implied that there is more acceptance of the utilization of assistive technology (Hyde et al., 2009) and more high school students have access to assistive technology than ever before (Ramus


The Trends in Foreign Direct Investment since 1990 Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Uses of FDI

Evolution of FDI Since 1990

The Dominance of Advanced Countries in FDI Inflows

The Changes in the Current Disposition of FDI

Factors Driving the Changes in the FDI


Reference List

Introduction Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a broadly used term. The essential element in the definition of FDI is the movement of capital whether public or private, from one country to another. This can happen through several channels. The concept of FDI is not a new phenomenon.

It dates back to early civilizations where conquering nations brought their resources to make it possible to exploit the opportunities created through conquest. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the trends in FDI since 1990, and to unearth the factors driving the changes in FDI.

In order to do this, it is imperative to take a brief look at the basis for FDI and the applications of FDI both from the view of a host country, and from the view of foreign direct investors.

It is also necessary to explore the evolution of FDI since 1990 in order to pick out important trends in relation to the dominance of developed countries, versus the current changes driven by emerging economies.

The need for FDI may arise from several situations. In the first case, a potential FDI destination assesses its local business opportunities in relation to its strategic advantages. The destination then compares this to its overall internal capacity to take advantage of these opportunities.

It then creates conditions that can help it to bridge the gap with the use of foreign capital. Countries that deliberately try to attract FDI usually are in the process of solving domestic problems such as high unemployment, or lack of local capacity to take advantage of locally available opportunities.

For instance, countries endowed with minerals such as Nigeria called upon multinationals to come and mine its oil because it lacked local capacity to do it. Such countries usually prepare profit sharing agreements and other incentives such as tax breaks and profit repatriation to make the venture worthwhile for both parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second case is when a specific business entity discovers that there are certain opportunities available in a given investment destination. The business entity then seeks to develop the opportunity in order to attain specified business advantages.

In this case, the company that identifies the opportunities takes the initiative to invest in the country that promises certain business advantages to it. A case in point is the operations of the Coca-Cola Company.

This company realized that it is cheaper and more profitable to open bottling plants in host countries, rather than to produce the final products centrally in America for export.

The company then went from country to country establishing local bottling companies under its brand name in order to derive the benefits of operating within local environments.

The Uses of FDI The uses of FDI include job creation in the investment destination, and for the citizens of the country that hosts the parent company. It also includes achievement of economic targets for a host country. The businesses that provide FDI benefit from increased profits, and attainment of strategic objectives.

For a long time, governments have known that one of the best ways of decreasing unemployment locally is by encouraging foreign investors to come and operate locally. When an investor comes into a country, it is necessary for the investor to employ local staff because of the high cost of maintaining low cadre expatriates.

The business immediately opens up several jobs for locals. In time, locals rise to higher levels of management.

We will write a custom Report on The Trends in Foreign Direct Investment since 1990 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to the direct jobs provided by an FDI venture, the government extracts income from the business by direct revenue from profit sharing agreements, direct taxes on profits earned, employee income taxes, and the taxes derived from other businesses established to support the primary FDI initiative.

In the case of China, the country is using FDI as a means of creating jobs for its own citizens. China is becoming an important donor to African countries. Its lending terms however usually include concessions by the local government for China to provide labor for the project.

This ensures that when the Chinese government lends money to a country, Chinese citizens get employment in the same project. This way, the country creates employment for its vast population.

At a macroeconomic level, the volume of FDI that a country receives can be the engine behind economic growth for that state. It is clear that a country such as China has become a leading FDI destination, contributing substantially to its recent economic development.

China proves that a government can choose to open up its markets and industries to FDI to achieve the needed economic growth.

For the specific business that invests in another country, FDI provides it with an opportunity to increase its competitive advantages in all the regions that it operates. A good case in point is service-oriented companies such as audit firms, law firms and logistics firms.

When these companies operate as transnational companies, they are able to serve multinational companies in their regions of interest. This gives them an immense competitive advantage over companies in the same field that do not have an international profile.

Evolution of FDI Since 1990 In 1990, the world was recovering from major shifts in geopolitics. The USSR had crumbled, and so had the Berlin wall. In the same period, the internet began its march towards global acceptance in earnest.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Trends in Foreign Direct Investment since 1990 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The geopolitical realignments, technological developments, and the rise of America as the dominant power in the world led to a drastic change in global economics. Many developing countries were beginning to feel the effects of structural adjustment programs pushed forward by the Breton Woods institutions.

The push towards democratic rule was taking place in earnest all over the world. This wave carried South Africa to independence with the same strength that it carried the breakaway soviet nations to autonomy.

Between 1990 and 2012, the world underwent four major phases in the growth of FDI. In the decade after 1990, global FDI increased strongly from 200 billion dollars to about 1.4 trillion.

The EU was the main beneficiary of FDI in the last four years of the twentieth century. In the year 2000, a four-year slump in FDI coincided with the bursting of the dot com bubble. The cause of the bubble was what the Federal Reserve chair termed “irrational exuberance”.

Investors overestimated the capacity of the internet economy to absorb their capital. Once it was clear that the sector was not going to produce projected returns, investors panicked, leading to capital flight. Many young dot come companies collapsed, leading to massive losses.

There was another period of strong growth in FDR between 2004 and 2007. During this period, the main beneficiaries of FDR were the EU, and the US. However, the inflows to other areas of the world increased consistently in the same period.

The overall global value of FDR peaked at an all time high of nearly 2 trillion dollars. In 2009, the global financial crisis took center stage as the bubble in the subprime mortgage market in the US burst. This led to a global recessions whose effects are still felt to date.

FDR dropped to about 1.3 trillion before starting to rise again. The pattern as at 2010 is the rest of the world economies, apart from the US, and the EU received more FDI inflows in comparative terms. Brazil, India, China, and Russia (BRICS) account for an increasing amount of FDI inflows.

The Dominance of Advanced Countries in FDI Inflows The dominance of the developed countries in the absorption of FDI started on a very strong note in 1990. The US and the EU accounted for more than fifty percent of all FDI inflows. In the next decade and a half, there was a steady rise and fall in the volume of FDI depending on the FDI inflows to these countries.

Whenever the value of FDI rose in America and the EU, the worldwide trend showed a strong correlation to this occurrence. FDI inflows to the EU were historically volatile. In fact, the inflows seem to vary according to the global trends. This shows that trends in the global economy affects the EU the most.

The US mirrors these trends too but it displays greater resilience to global trends compared to the EU. The rest of the world seems to have benefited from the reductions of FDI to the EU. The value of the FDI inflows to the rest of the world increased steadily throughout the two decades under review, as the EU inflows fluctuated.

The Changes in the Current Disposition of FDI In the last five years, the levels of global FDI to the rest of the world compared very favorably to the levels of FDI to the EU. In fact, the levels to rest of the world almost matched the combined inflows to the EU and the US. The BRICS were also making an important dent in the levels of FDI.

The country worth noting in a twenty first century setting is China. FDI in China was statistically irrelevant in 1990. Currently, China’s FDI inflows compare on equal terms with the inflows to all other developed countries apart from the US and the EU.

Factors Driving the Changes in the FDI Several factors explain the twin phenomenon of the dominance of developed economies in FDI, and the recent changes in the role of FDI in the emerging markets.

Three of the factors explaining the dominance of developed economies include the presence of greater competitive advantages in these countries, ease of access to certain factors of production, and the potential to maximize returns because of access to markets with a high purchasing power.



Credit Default Swaps Exploratory Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Credit Default Swaps (CDS) are financial contracts that are similar to insurance policies where the insured parties are required to pay fees to the insurer, and in case of a credit event, the insured is subjected to compensation by the insurer. Some of the credit events where the insured parties are viable for compensation include bankruptcy and defaulting payment.

However, the CDS is different from the typical insurance policies. Unlike in the typical insurance policy, the insured parties in CDS do not need to hold any financial burdens on their side. A case example of the CDS use is where an individual insures another person’s car. In such a situation, if that car is involved in an accident, the individual will be compensated even though he does not own the car.

The Credit default swaps were initiated in the 1990s for the purpose of preventing the risk associated with credit. It was widely adopted in the mid 90s by financial institutions to cater for the risks associated with commercial loans. Commercial banks and other financial institutions used CDS as a cautious measure for the risks associated with offering huge corporate loans.

CDS was preferred because it allows the lender and the debtor to avoid all the formalities and procedures related to the insurance policies. The regulations of the formal insurance policies required that financial institutions compulsorily hold a reserved amount similar to the amount that is lent out.

Therefore, the CDS was easily adopted by most financial institutions because it was a way of transferring the credit associated risks to someone else, thus allowing them to lend more capital (Tett, 2009).

In 1997, one of the earliest users of CDS policy J.P. Morgan consolidated 300 different loans valued at $9.7 billion that had been forwarded to various financial organizations. These loans were then subdivided into small portions and offered to investors such as Broad Index Securitized Trust Offering.

In the late 90s, CDS contracting had been adopted by large corporate and council bonds. Within a span 2 years, the CDS market worth was above $900 billion. However, the early adopters of the CDS structure were fewer; therefore, caution was closely taken to enhance the understanding of the terms and conditions of the agreement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More CDS use was adopted by more countries such as Australia, Switzerland, Canada and Hong Kong. The lending and deposit rates of most countries are however dominated by dollar ratings. The difference between the dollar and the local currencies determines the CDS rates and can even result to losses.

As the CDS contracts were adopted by the corporate and sovereign sectors, municipalities and other financial institutions. These financial institutions mostly use CDS contracts for cases where mortgages and other collaterals are used as loan securities.

Unlike the insurance lending policy, the CDS sellers were not subject to formalities such as holding reserves against CDS in case of credit default. With the improvement of CDS, the financial institutions were allowed to sell insurance collateralised by assets such as residential mortgages (Barry, 2009).

The CDS requires the insured party to pay a fee that is calculated based on the amount insured under specified periods of time. The payment of the premiums is continuous until the expiry of the contract. The compensation may be done in either physical or cash form. In a situation where compensation is being offered in physical form, the insured party present the insured bond to the insurer that in return pays the face value of the loan.

However in case of payment in cash form, the insurer compensates the variation in value between the parity value and the value of the property at that time. Additionally, the owners of the CDS contracts must not be the original owners since they can be transferred to other partied as long as the CDS contract is not expired.


Prime risk is what investors face while investing in loan or debt instruments known as credit risk, which also refers to the risk of default from borrowers (Backshall, 2004). Usage of credit default swaps as a risk management tool has increased in recent times, since many financial institutions in markets around the world have accepted the use of credit default swaps to better hedge their risk (Malhotra, 1993).

Due to the collapse of some major organizations such as WorldCom, Enron, Marconi and other major institutions, concerns have been raised from investors regarding credit risk (Barry, 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on Credit Default Swaps specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, in order to hedge against credit risk financial institutions are seeking help from credit derivatives where investors insure their investments from any adverse movement which would have otherwise lead to lower credit quality (Bomfim, 2001).

The aim of present research is to explore impacts of credit default swaps on UK as well as on US markets in terms of their financial instability and impacts on market driving forces such as interest rate (Chen et al, 2004).

Current research would make out specific financial implications of credit default swaps into selected markets where the major focus of the research would be to develop a direct relationship between market driving forces and the growth of credit default swaps in UK and US (Neal, 1996).

Research problem

The research problem in context relates to the investigation of limitations and advantages of the credit default swap phenomenon on UK and US markets (Rule, 2001). For a positive impact focus would be on finding out the role of CDS as a catalyst to enhance market efficiency and credit growth (Kinnear


Response: When Followers Become Toxic Opinion Essay scholarship essay help

Factors that help leaders from being led astray /mislead Leadership is an ongoing process in an organization. It results from the dynamic nature of the environment. Use of efficient leadership change management and leadership principles make change management successful and keep followers from being toxic.

First, the leader needs to embrace system thinking in an organization. Besides, they need to integrate the three approaches in system thinking in the daily runningand control of their followers.

The three approaches used in this process are life cycle thinking, stakeholder engagement and complexity thinking. These three approaches make theleadership of change asuccess.

Second, the leader should ensure that there are structured communication channels between him or her and the followers. It helps in disseminating information efficiently to all the parties involved.

The leader should be in a position to embrace change at any time and devise creative ways of communicating the change without causing anxiety. Besides, it is necessary to recognize and prioritize stakeholders’ interests and concerns before making decision that are likely to influence the followers (Bennis


Problem with Multigenerational Workforces Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Multigenerational Workforces

Ageing Population

Dealing with Multigenerational Workforces and Ageing Populations


Reference List

Introduction Most companies today are faced with the problem of multigenerational workforces and ageing population. In general, the values and attitudes held by individuals towards work and relationships are largely determined by how they were raised and where they grew up (Werner et al. 2011).

Since the problem of multigenerational and ageing workforces is here to stay, it is becoming increasingly important for human resource professionals in modern day organizations to understand the various challenges encountered in dealing with the different groups so as to formulate appropriate policies and procedures that can enable them to satisfactorily address emerging concerns.

This is further complicated by the fact that not everyone shares the same values and attitudes within each generation. By nature, people are able to quickly fit into varying organizational structures guided by different human resource policies and procedure.

According to Hickman (2009, p. 15), the difference in values and attitudes towards work are as a result of the time in which they grew up. To effectively deal with the multigenerational workforces it is necessary for human resource professionals to assume that there are similarities that tend to bring the generations together while on the other hand, differences set them apart.

Human resource professionals should seek to understand the similarities and differences and consequently come up with strategies to deal with emerging issues. It is advisable for human resource professionals to devise policies and procedures that can cater for a wide variety of individuals.

Multigenerational Workforces Much has been written about the expectations of individuals in different age groups and generations. For employers, these varied expectations present challenges, especially given economic, global, technological, and other changes in the workplace (Weiss 2008, p. 54). In the United States, the commonly identified generational groups include traditionalists, baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y.

As the economy and industries have changed drastically, the ageing of the US workforce has equally become a significant concern for many. Workers over 55 years are now using different strategise to survive. They are notorious for delaying retirement age, and opting to work part time or retire in a phased manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic conditions are the predominant reasons why these workers are bypassing the normal retirement age of 65. Certainly, employers will continue to face challenges of getting the right workforce as the older generation of more experienced employees go into retirement. Finding the right replacement for the retired staff will be a daunting task for employers.

According to Mathis and Jackson (2010, p. 113), young and old generation workforces tend to have a totally different approach to work, and this creates more challenges that must delicately be addressed by human resource experts. For example, many baby boomers and traditionalists are concerned about security and experience, while younger people have different concerns.

Generation Y expect to be rewarded quickly, use more technology, and often ask more questions about why managers and organizations make the decisions they do. Consider the dynamics of a traditionalist manager directing generation X and Y individuals, or generation X managers supervising older, more experienced baby boomers as well as generation Y employees.

However, it is crucial to be aware that stereotyping these individuals by generations may not reflect how actual individuals view their jobs and produce organizational results.

Clearly, it important for managers to fully aware of challenges as well as any possible opportunities associated with multigenerational workforces and ageing populations in an organization. Presently, many organizations are using numerous approaches in order to enhance multigenerational effective and improve approach to management of complex workforces.

Strategies include mentoring, employee recognition, organizing trainings that accommodate every employee with no regard to the generation he or she belongs to, using younger employees to support the older employees, creating an environment in which skills from the older employees can passed on to the younger employees, and establishing multigenerational work groups (Rowe 2010, p. 57).

The old age dependency ratio indicates what proportion of a country’s population is of retirement age and what proportion is of employment age (Pollitt 2006, p. 18). In 2005, the average old age dependency ratio for countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was 24 per cent. As time goes by, it is alleged that this ratio is likely to double and will lead to increased spending.

We will write a custom Essay on Problem with Multigenerational Workforces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In industrialized nations, employers have realized that a high number of employees belonging to the older generation will soon be retiring. Among other concerns is how organizations will be able to fill the result gap in their workforce. This is mainly due to the fact that the younger population may not be in a position to effectively handle responsibilities earlier handled by the retirees.

There will be a growing shortage of experienced employees able to step into the shoes of retiring senior leaders (Mercer et al. 2010). However, economic necessity is not the only driver. The legislation is underpinned by ideals of fairness, and a commitment to civil and human rights.

Although it makes financial sense for people to work longer so that they pay more taxes and delay drawing their state pension, law makers seeking to prohibit age discrimination and raise the age of retirement claim they are driven by moral and ethical imperatives, not just money (Froemming 2000, p. 31).

In general, people of retirement age are considered fitter and more energetic than in the past, making them better able to cope with the physical and mental demands of work. More importantly though, work gives a sense of purpose and meaning to life, a benefit that individuals ought not to be denied simply because they have reached a certain age.

According to Mercer et al. (2010, p. 22), the development of equality legislation has been justified not only in terms of increasing a nation’s global competitiveness and reducing its public spending, but also in terms of increasing an individual’s social or moral well being.

These same two drivers lie behind similar modern legislation outlawing other forms of discrimination. The existence of equality legislation helps to simplify and strengthen the complex anti-discrimination laws that have developed over the years.

Ageing Population Although the effects associated with an ageing population on the formulation of human resource policies and procedures can be significant, they can vary greatly from country to country (Spiers 2003, p. 13). A major challenge encountered when dealing with an ageing population is the commitment by the state to care for retired employees through pension funds.

Certainly, the cost of providing for the aged population increases as more employees retire from active employment. This in turn puts a strain on the economy and subsequently, the rate of taxation has to be increased, placing a huge burden on the tax payer. In general, pension funds come with heavy liabilities which can in turn greatly affect a country’s finances and consequently recruitment and remuneration policies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem with Multigenerational Workforces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As noted by Smentek (2006, p. 26), there are numerous other problems brought about by an ageing population. To address the emerging issues, some human resource professionals advocate for effective succession planning. Generally, succession planning requires organizations to think ahead and devise effective plans for filling workforce gaps as older employees leave active employment.

Well informed human resource experts will ensure that as older employees advance in years and as they approach the stipulated retirement age, they are given a responsibility to mentor the younger employees. By equipping the young generations of employees with critical skills needed to work effectively, human resource professionals are able to guarantee continuity even after the older employs go into retirement.

Besides boosting the self esteem of the older employees, a well planned succession plan helps to build the confidence of younger employees and compel them to be more responsible and reliable employees. An approach adopted by most organizations involves the creation of multigenerational groups that create a platform where both the older and younger generation of employees can interact and freely share their skills.

Infertility and ageing are also to blame for work force problems experienced in some countries. Over time, the number of active employees goes down, putting these countries in a state where the available workforce can not satisfactorily meet the increased market demand for labor force. Other than requiring employers to pay high salaries to maintain the small work force available, the level of production also declines.

Ultimately, organizations that manage to survive are forced to operate at a loss. To address this problem, some countries such as the United States have relied heavily on immigrants.

On the other hand, the United Nations suggests that countries should make careers in public service more lucrative in order to attract and retain a high caliber of employees (UN 2005, p. 39). Although tried by some countries, the idea is yet to be implemented in most countries across the world.

In countries such as China, different strategies are being employed by human resource experts. One such strategy has been to turn to the use of tactics that enable effective use of a smaller work force.

Although strategies to make work in the civil service appealing to many have been used in some organizations, as suggested by the United Nations, the practice has not completely taken root as widely expected by most human resource professionals. Numerous efforts have also been made by various organizations in order to nurture talented individuals and prepare them for future responsibilities.

Another option suggested by the United Nations to deal with the scarcity of employees is to invite professional from other countries with desired skills to take up available jobs (Leibold


Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework Dissertation argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analyzing IKEA internal operations using VRIN tool


Works Cited

Introduction Manchester United FC abbreviated MUFC, is a globally recognized football corporation currently privately owned by the Glazer family. Since its incorporation, this football club has performed tremendously well with respect to profit generation, governance, and ownership structures, besides meeting the different expectations of the club’s stakeholders.

This paper employs the VRIN framework to analyze the competitive advantage that MUFC has over other premier league clubs. The framework shows how MUFC has been able to flourish despite the escalating debt burdens that this football club is yet to offset.

Analyzing IKEA internal operations using VRIN tool Valuable: According to Pearce (2010), the strengths of MUFC currently instigates from the distinctive resourcing, compactly directed logistics, along with inimitable blueprint aptitudes. The football club offers quality products and services namely players, stadia, managers, self-professed supporters, and lavish football patterns that are unique enough to give it global recognition as well as secure long-term financial resources and support.

This strength has ensured that MUFC dominates the English premier league industry and steadily increases the market share in most countries including South East Asia (Pyle, 2010). Amongst the biggest football clubs in Europe, MUFC is ranked third after Barcelona FC and Real Madrid with respect to turnovers.

Besides, MUFC has performed constantly well in the English premier league winning eighteen premier league titles similar to those won by Liverpool. The football club reached two champions league final in the fiscal 2008 and 2009, but won the title in 2008. Most key players have longed to play for MUFC due to its remarkable performance and the never giving up spirit of the players (Pyle, 2010).

Rare: Throughout the English premier league history, MUFC has been able to produce new designs of stadia, managers, loyal supporters, and players besides offering quality products to other rival football clubs. In fact, MUFC is the only player in the English football industry that has been able to offer a variety of designs to the wide football consumer base found across the world (Conn, 1997).

For instance, MUFC is the largest football club in England with a stadium capacity of 75,691. Compared to the premiership rival clubs such Arsenal and Chelsea, MUFC offers the cheapest football match tickets allowing the club to be filled to its capacity in nearly all matches. It is rare to find other English premier league clubs having the longest waiting lists for the match season tickets as is the case with MUFC (Bond, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the side of playing, clubs such as Manchester City, Liverpool, Arsenal, and Chelsea have been making massive investments in football, yet these have not deterred MUFC from deriving massive successes from football. For example, MUFC accomplished its premiership league titles hat trick in the fiscal 2009 besides reaching two finals in the European Champions League in 2008 and 2009.

MUFC generated massive returns from the sale of Christian Ronaldo, the world’s most expensive player, and bought stars players including Michael Owen, Michael Carrick, Dimitar Berbatov, and Owen Hargreaves (Pyle, 2010). Besides the new signings, MUFC retains most of it key players such Ryans Giggs, Paul Scholes, Ferdinand, Fletcher, and Patrick Evra all of whom receive hefty salaries.

Finally, MUFC has hard dying fans and supporters who want to oversee how the football club is managed and the ownership structure (Stone, 2006).

Inimitable: As activities of value chain suggest, MUFC has a strong relationship with all its stakeholders namely players, financial supporters, managers, FIFA, UEFA, and fans starting from the premiership products offered to the services given. Most of the Premier League, FA, Carling Cup, Community Shield, and European Champions League competitors found in the football industry lag behind MUFC in terms of loyalty and global supporters only know a few football clubs that surface.

In fact, MUFC enjoys global recognition due to its ability to offer typical, but stylish football players and stars, stadia, managers, fans, financial supporters, low priced match tickets, and lavish football patterns with a sense of differing consumer needs (Bose, 2007).

MUFC operations, sales, and marketing strategies are also inimitable. This football club has continued to expand and increase its stakeholder’s base across all market segments including Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. MUFC is the only club in the English Premier Industry to attract supporter across the world without changing the original concept of management (Pyle, 2010).

This has been accomplished via creating inimitable merchandise designs founded on revered perseverance. MUFC has developed a durable partnership with football agencies and players most of whom are located in regions where MUFC wants to get players. Finally, MUFC has a pool of experienced managers including Sir Alex Fergusson, David Gill amongst others who spearhead the global development of MUFC brand.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Non-Substitutable: The iconic aspect of self-assembly emphasized at MUFC is more of an imagination. The developments that have led to this football club’s achievement have taken years and the whole commitment of MUFC corporate leaders and other stakeholders.

Even if, other competitors found in the English Premier League industry tried to imitate the management and football approach employed by this football club, they will not only invest costly in building trust with stakeholders, but must do better than MUFC to dissolve the recognition the company has gained (Bond, 2010).

Conclusion Despite the presence and stringent competition from various English premier league clubs, MUFC materializes to be the most flourishing and illustrious UK football club. Compared to arch rivals namely Arsenal, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Manchester City, MUFC won its nineteenth premier league title in the fiscal 2009 among other trophies and financial returns. All the success attributes that give MUFC a competitive edge against its competitors are apparent in the inimitable, non-substitutable, valuable, and rare products and services.

Works Cited Bond, David. “Manchester United Owners Hit by Debt Payment Rise”. BBC Sport, British Broadcasting Corporation, 2010.

Bose, Mihir. Manchester Disunited Trouble and Takeover at the World’s Richest Football Club, London: Aurum Press, 2007.

Conn, David. The Football Business: The Modern Football Classic, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 1997.

Pearce, James. “Old Trafford under the Spotlight”. BBC Sport, London: British Broadcasting Corporation Press, 2010.

Pyle, Steve. Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? Case Study, London: Sage Publication, 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Stone, Simon. “Three more Glazer Siblings to Join United Board”. The Guardian, London: Guardian News and Media, 2006.


Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction Critical Essay college admissions essay help

Design and Methods Used In the Study A study by Aversa et al. to establish the effects of the drug vardenafil on obese men with sexual dysfunction uses all male obese subjects attending the outpatient unit of the health facility (2012). Exclusion criteria for participants include patients on certain medications such as antidiabetic, cardiovascular, statin, and other conditions as described in a previously administered questionnaire.

Twenty subjects participate in the study for 8 weeks by recording their sexual experiences during the study period in a questionnaire and a diary (Aversa et al., 2012). Bronner and Vodušek attempt to manage sexual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this disease significantly affects sexual function (2011).

They suggest the introduction of dopaminergic drugs and the subsequent follow-up on patients diagnosed with PD. They also encourage the use of lubricants by female patients and timely counseling for all patients. Mastalir, Carvalhal, and Portal seek to investigate the outcome of the drug simvastatin in sexual dysfunction because of endothelial dysfunction.

Twenty one patients receive 20 mg of simvastatin while 20 others receive a placebo for a period of six months. Subsequently, they all get 10 mg of vardenafil on demand for four weeks. Tomlinson and Wright, in an exploratory qualitative study with semi-structured interviews, seek to explore the effect of treating SD using sildenafil (2004). The study uses 40 men with erectile dysfunction and questionnaires to get information on the sexual experiences of the participants.

Reis, de Angelo, Sakamoto, Ferriani, and Lara assess serum hormone concentrations, quality of semen, frequency of sexual intercourse, and erectile function in men with epileptic seizures taking carbamazepine (2013). The study uses semi-structured questionnaires and the IIEF-5 form to obtain patient responses.

Method of Analysis Aversa et al. use analysis of variance to assess disparities among treatment clusters (2012). A 50% increase in IELT (intravaginal ejaculatory latency time) is quantified using a two-sided alpha value of 0.05. The arithmetic mean IELT is compared with BMI using a multiple regression analysis. The study considers a P-value <0.05±s.d. as statistically significant and performs all analyses using SPSS and SAS computer statistical packages (Aversa et al., 2012).

Bronner and Vodušek analyze the efficacy of treatment on reported patient responses (2011). Tests such as “serum cholesterol, hormone profile, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF), and the ED Index of Treatment Satisfaction” are done after the treatment of patients with simvastatin, placebo, and vardenafil (Mastalir, Carvalhal,


Reynold Commercial Door Company Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Overview of Reynold Company and products

Company’s vision


Key Individuals

Business variables

Key problems and issues

Overview of Reynold Company and products Reynold Corporation is a renowned family owned professional dealer of quality overhead door equipments. The company that started its operations in 1963 produces top quality garage and door equipments such as sliding doors and electric operators. The products are used in servicing the needs of residential and commercial consumers.

Since its inception, the company has recorded a tremendous growth in terms of structural expansion and financial performance. The growth is attributable to its effective management, production of quality items and effective distribution of products. The company’s excellent performance is also attributable to the quality of its workforce, innovation, teamwork and provision of timely services.

These elements have been the cornerstone of the company’s success over the years. Indeed, the company operates with a mission to servicing its customers to the best of its ability. Its workers are determined to ensure that customers are satisfied beyond their expectations. This element has enabled the company to record high financial turnover due to high sales and return purchasing.

It has also enabled it to establish its business portfolio and build a strong competitive edge over its rivals in the market. This has enabled the company to be recognized as the leading producer and distributor of overhead door servicing equipments globally. Currently, the company has embarked on an ambitious expansion initiative to cover new markets with an aim of expanding its global presence and improving service delivery to its customers.

Company’s vision The company’s key vision is to become the leading consulting service agency globally with strong business operating units. This is essential in enhancing customer satisfaction. It also seeks to be the leading distributor of overhead door equipments with an aim of providing unmatched solution to consumers.

Objectives To produced customized garage door equipments that matches the needs of customers with limited complications

To produce quality items that conforms to the required standards and customer specifications

To enhance its market share and performance through adoption of viable strategies that are economically sustainable

Key Individuals As noted, the company operates under effective and flexible operating structure that fosters its growth. Its flexible operating structure facilitates coordination of activities, control, organizing and building of viable work groups. In its structure, the company has three levels of operation that include the management, production officials and functional workers.

In particular, it has 15 mangers that coordinate activities in all its branches and subsidiary units. They are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that every activity is executed appropriately. The company also has about 250 to 260 employees who are well qualified and hold immense knowledge in the field of electronics. Consequently, it has 30 supervisors whose responsibility is to carryout performance assessment on key business units.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business variables Major business variable that threaten to impede the company’s performance include different customer preferences in terms of product quality, size and efficiency. Other variables include expansion of product portfolio, operating network and enhancement of efficiency in production. These variables are significant since they define the level of performance in any institution.

Key problems and issues As noted, the company is currently facing severe challenges and issues that require adoption of favorable operating policies. Firstly, there is lack of favorable working conditions and guidelines that creates less flexibility in operation. The company’s employees are complaining that they are working under unethical restrictions and poor terms of late.

The company is also facing a challenge in expanding its business portfolio due to financial implications. Therefore, the company’s management must do everything within their power to mitigate the effects of the challenges.


Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB) and National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD) are two leading banking institutions based in the capital city of United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi.

This report comprises of a financial analysis of both banks while taking into consideration financial information in the past three financial years, i.e. 2009, 2010 and 2011. The financial analysis presented in this report includes, profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratio and solvency ratios of the two banks.

Overview of the Banks Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank was founded back in the year 1997 with the mission of conducting its operations in accordance with the Islamic principles as laid down under “Shariah Law” (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Bloomberg, 2013).

National Bank of Abu Dhabi was founded in the year 1968, and since then it has earned a great reputation not only in the region, but also in other parts of the world.

Today, National Bank of Abu Dhabi is regarded as the largest financial institution in Abu Dhabi as far as its lending operations are concerned (National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; Bloomberg, 2013).

Financial Analysis Following is a comprehensive analysis of the financial position and performance of the companies selected in this report:

Profitability Ratios

Profitability ratios are determined in order to evaluate profitability of a business concern. Profitability ratios generally include, gross margin, operating margin, return on equity, return on investments, return on capital employed, etc. (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following profitability ratios have been determined for the banks selected for analysis in this report:

Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Return on Equity 1.51 % 12.62 % 13.48 % 14.77 % 15.27 % 14.05 % Return on Investment 0.12 % 1.36 % 1.55 % 1.53 % 1.74 % 1.45 % Net Profit Margin 7.26 % 43.68 % 44.31 % 60.72 % 61.16 % 56.96 % Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013).

The return on equity has increased significantly from 2009 to 2010 for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. The reason behind this substantial increase is the improvement in the bank’s earnings in 2010 and onwards.

Moreover, since there is comparatively lower increase noted in total equity of the bank, and therefore, resulted in higher return on equity in 2010 and 2011. Similarly, for National Bank of Abu Dhabi the ratio has shown improvement from 2009 to 2010, but declined in 2011.

The reason behind these fluctuating trends noted in return on equity for National Bank of Abu Dhabi is fluctuations in net income during the past three years.

Similar to the trends noted in return on equity for the two banks in the past three years the return on investment for the two banks showed similar trends.

Also, net profit margin also followed similar patterns for both banks. Due to significant increase in revenues of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, the net income increased considerably, the impact of which has been ultimately depicted in the net profit margin during 2010 and 2011.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liquidity Ratios

The liquidity ratios determine the ability of a company to meet its short term borrowing obligations through its internal current sources. Liquidity ratios generally include current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio and net working capital ratio (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).

Following are the current and cash ratios determined for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi for the past three financial years, i.e. 2009, 2010 and 2011.

Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Current Ratio 0.25 0.30 0.33 0.28 0.32 0.33 Cash Ratio 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.13 0.09 0.11 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)

As can be observed in the table above, there is no major difference noted in the current ratios of the two banks over the period of past three years.

The current ratios of both banks have improved from 2009 onwards due to significant improvements noted in the current assets of both banks and a comparatively lower increase in the current liabilities, particularly short term borrowings by the banks.

On the other hand, cash ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has shown a similar trend in the past three years, whereas for National Bank of Abu Dhabi, the ratio has been observed as fluctuating during the past three years.

In 2010, the cash ratio of the bank reached at its lowest point in the past three years, due to fall in cash and cash equivalent reserves.

Leverage Ratio

The leverage ratio, such as debt to equity ratio, determines the extent to which a business entity’s operations and activities are reliant on debt financing as compared to equity financing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, it also shows the extent of debt over equity in a business’ balance sheet (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).

The gearing ratios for the two selected banks in this report are determined as follows for financial periods 2009, 2010 and 2011:

Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Gearing Ratio 1.44 0.58 0.79 0.58 0.94 0.74 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)

The gearing position of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has shown consistent fluctuations over the past three financial years. As for instance, in 2009, the gearing level of the bank is seen at its highest level due to increased preference for debt financing of banks operations rather than opting for equity financing.

This situation changed significantly in 2010 due to a comparatively higher increase in equity of the bank as compared to increase in debt. However, the situation changed once again in 2011 due to significantly higher increase in debts of the bank in contrast to the increase in equity.

On the other hand, gearing situation for National Bank of Abu Dhabi is completely opposite.

The gearing level of National Bank of Abu Dhabi increased from 2009 to 2010 and then declined in 2011; the reason being about a 100 percent increase in debts of the bank and a low increase in equity level. In 2011, total debts slightly declined due to which gearing ratio also came down in comparison with the previous year.

Solvency Ratios

Solvency ratios determine the ability of a business enterprise to survive in future (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).

Following are the solvency ratios determined for two banks for the past three financial years:

Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Debt to Assets Ratio 0.92 0.89 0.88 0.90 0.89 0.90 Cash Flow to Debt Ratio 0.40 0.76 0.42 17.72 7.21 8.38 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)

The debt to assets ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank can be observed as declining during the past three years, but with small differences. The primary reason behind this decline is that the bank’s assets have increased, not in proportion to the increase in debt, which shows that there is less increase in assets due to debt.

Similarly, for National Bank of Abu Dhabi, the ratio declined from 2009 to 2010, but improved in 2011. The reason for the decline is same as has been noted in case of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.

On the other hand, cash flow to debt ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank increased in 2010, but came to the same level in 2011 as it was in 2009. The primary factor, which has resulted in fluctuation in this ratio, has been operating cash flows of the bank.

On the other hand, cash flow to debt ratio for National Bank of Abu Dhabi has been noted as significantly lower than that of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. Moreover, the ratio has declined from 2009 to 2010, but slightly improved in 2011. The sharp decline in 2010 is due to significant increase in total debts of the bank.

Conclusion From the financial ratio analysis of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi’s financial statements for the financial years 2009, 2010 and 2011, it has been observed that there are varying trends and patterns in the past three years for both banks as far as their financial performance is concerned.

The profitability ratios for the two banks have revealed that Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has performed much better, as indicated by significant improvement in net income, as compared to National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

On the other hand, the liquidity positions of the two banks have remained more or less similar in the three years period under consideration. As far as leverage positions of the two banks are concerned, it is concluded from the analysis that both have shown volatility in this respect.

As has been noted, there is no particular pattern is followed in maintaining a certain gearing level by both banks. Moreover, the overall gearing level for both banks remained at high levels from 2009 to 2011, due to high levels of debt financing.

Lastly, the review of solvency position of both banks concluded that the debt to assets ratio for both banks remained at the same level in the past three financial years, primarily due to the fact that the increase in debt and increase in assets for both banks remained proportionately similar.

However, significant differences have been noted in cash flow to debt ratios as there have been significant differences in the operating cash flows of the two banks.

Reference List Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.

Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. (2011). Annual Report 2011. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.

Bloomberg. (2013). Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB:Abu Dhabi). Bloomberg. Web.

Bloomberg. (2013). National Bank Of Abu Dhabi (NBAD:Abu Dhabi). Bloomberg. Web.

Helfert, E. A. (2001). Financial Analysis Tools and Techniques: A Guide for Managers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

National Bank of Abu Dhabi. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Abu Dhabi: National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

National Bank of Abu Dhabi. (2011). Annual Report 2011. Abu Dhabi: National Bank of Abu Dhabi.

Siddiqui, S. A. (2006). Managerial Economics And Financial Analysis. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.


Multigenerational Workforce in Modern Business Environment Essay college essay help

This essay explores the impact of multigenerational labour force and the ageing workforce on human resource management in the current business environment. The paper also seeks solutions to the human resource management issues that emanate from the multigenerational and ageing workforce.

In this paper, it is argued that the contemporary work environment is faced with significant pressure and complexity due to the existing generational gap. This paper begins with the explanation of what constitutes a multigenerational workforce and ageing workforce. The paper also looks into the impacts of these two types of workforce on human resource management in business environment.

This is followed by an exploration of the mechanisms that are being deployed to iron out the complexities of a multigenerational workforce. In the discussion, the paper brings out the issue of best practices in the application of job design strategies and motivational theories in managing a multigenerational workforce.

According to Dwyer (2009), the generational differences in the contemporary work environment have challenged the management of the workforce. The modern work environment faces the challenge of attaining compatibility of employees. This is caused by the fact that there are variations in the age and character of the employees (Tulgan 2004).

This increases the difficulty of uniting employees on work practices in organizations (Hatfield 2002). It is, therefore, important to understand the issues that surround a multigenerational and ageing workforce in organizations to solve the complexities.

It is critical to understand the real meaning of a multigenerational workforce and an ageing workforce. According to Kunreuther (2003), a multigenerational workforce implies that people of diverse characteristics prevail in the same work environment. This denotes the differences in the nature of the generations that are prevailing in the contemporary economic environment.

The most notable way in which the generational gap is defined is by basing on age difference. The age differences bring out a number of developmental features of the employees. For instance, the people in the workforce who were born in the later years of the 20th century are often associated with information technology advancement (Pitt-Catsouphes


Benefits of Employee Motivation Term Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparison between tradition and motivating companies

Benefits of employee motivation


Charts on factors of employee motivation

Reference List

Introduction One may wonder why organizations take their time to come up with employee motivation strategies, but the objective is to retain the employees. Employees are a vital asset of any organization and if they fail to commit themselves to organizational goals, it means that the organization does not offer them some incentives.

A study by Ramlall in 2004 found that at least 86 percent of institutions work hard to attract new employees and 58 percent of the organizations encounter difficulties in retaining their existing staff.

According to Millette and Gagné (2008), whenever an organization loses ten employees, the affected organization loses millions of dollars. Besides the financial loss, the organization also loses the expertise and knowledge the employees may have, which comprises one of the valuable assets of any employee.

Employee motivation could facilitate in avoiding chances of an organization incurring these costs.

There are numerous reasons for emphasizing on employee motivation. Among the reasons include making sure that the employees accomplish organizational and personal goals (Shanks, 2007).

There are significant differences between traditional and motivating companies with respect to how the two handle the issue of employee motivation.

Traditional companies use their management teams to identify the staff to recognize while the motivating companies consult their staff when making decision on the employees to recognize. Using the motivating factors, organizations come up with various methods of employee motivation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some organizations work to enhance the relationship between the employees and their -supervisors (Millette


Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy Proposal essay help

Additional comments These are additional comments whai are based on the digital and social media strategy presented to Sidra Company. Generally, this strategy is developed to assist Sidra in enhancing efficiency in its operations by increasing contact with customers and employees through social media interaction. This is an important strategy due to the increase in the Internet usage and subscription.

Moreover, the strategy is important because customers and employees use the social media frequently, which makes digital and social media the best place to communicate with employees and customers freely and easily.

Additionally, digital and social media strategy will enable the company to enhance public relations because it will provide the organization with the possibliity to respond quickly to inquiries from clients. It will also enable the company to conduct reliable and quality survey research based on customer feedback (Wasserman and Kibani 67).

How to secure the social media accounts The use of technology is on the rise, this has led to negativity and an increase in hacking. Several companies and individuals have been victims of hacking, which affects the operation of business organizations in the social media networks. The organization should make it a priority to secure the social media accounts to verify that customers and clients trust their communication through online channels.

There are several methods that the company may use to secure its social media accounts, for instance, assigning a specific employee the duty to manage the accounts. Social media accounts should be managed by one person in the organization to ensure the administrator of the page is the only person who knows the password. This will protect the password from easy access by unauthorized persons.

Secondly, creating a sign in seal will also improve safety of the account. Additionally, sign ins from other devices whach are not authorized by the organization should be detected and alerts ahould be sent to the administrator’s account. These will certify the safety of the accounts (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 73).

How to integrate social media with website contents Integration of the social media and website should be a priority for the organization. Integrating social media with the website content increases traffic and communication in social media. We will design and integrate social media icons on the website that will lead to the official social media pages of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will enable clients and other interested parties to easily interact with the company from their official social media accounts and pages. We will also design a page section displaying recent and important communication from the social media to enable customers who visit the website to view the trending topics about the organization on the social media (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 81).

Social media account set up Setting up a social media account is challenging because customers communicate with the company using Arabic and English. Social media accounts allow communication in any language because translation is available using Google.

Therefore, the organization will have to register with Google to be on Google maps, and enable the administrator to use Google translator to translate any communication from other languages he or she does not understand well.

Moreover, liaising with other social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook will be important because it will enable the organization to gain authority to use icons and logos of these social media sites on the organizational website.

Generally, the organization has to subscribe with Google affiliate and other social media companies as a business, thus it will be required to incorporate their icons and logos on the company’s website to enable easy access and communication between the company, employees and customers, as well as among other stakeholders (Wasserman and Kibani 28).

Engagement with audience Monitoring engagement with the target audience on the social media is a challenge that most people face and companies is not an exaption. Companies use social media networks as a way of enhancing efficiency in operation. Similarly, Sidra intends to increase efficiency in operating by improving communication with customers, employees and other stakeholders.

We require a program that monitors traffic on the site and social media sites, account and pages of the company to record engagement with clients.

We will write a custom Proposal on Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Determining the level of engagement with the target audience is important because it will enable the organization to evaluate the impact of the digital and social media strategy that is in use. Moreover, it will enable the organization to easily review the impact of the strategy and make relevant and necessary changes to maintain quality operations (Wasserman and Kibani 94).

Response to feedbacks Using social media sites is challenging because clients may post positive as well as negative feedbacks. These are important to the development and growth of the company sinse complany will be able to adapt to cliens’s demands and thus improve its services. Furthermore, quality improvement is based on the feedback given by customers. It is easy for customers to provide feedback through social media communication.

The administrator of the account should respond to both positive and negative feedback. It should be the priority of the organization responding to negative feedbacks. Response to negative feedbacks is a credit to an organization because it is an easy way to clarify on the issues. We will install a program that filters negative and positive feedback to ensure that the administrator of the account easily views the communication in categories.

Negative feedback should be responded first to establish clarity and enhance public relations with the clients. It is a negative feedback that can affect the operation of the organization, therefore, they require prompt response to maintain good relations with the customers and the general public, while enhancing efficiency and increasing levels of returns.

This plan will enable the administrator to respond to both positive and negative feedback appropriately. Moreover, we will develop specific responses to some feedback to assure timely response. Responses such as ‘thank you’, ‘you will receive a response from the administrator’, and ‘thank you for contacting us’ among others (Wasserman and Kibani 103).

How to address concentration on a specific social media account or site Traffic and use of social media sites depend on the preferences of the customers and the target group. However, the organization will have to subscribe to an account with the available social media companies. This will enable the company to address the needs and concern of all customers across the region.

It is likely that the social media site that has the highest number of subscribers who are the customers of the organization will lead to active activities and communication between the customers and the organization. However, the most common social media sites used by organizations in communicating with clients and its employees are Twitter and Facebook (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 38).

The organization may notice over concentration on a specific social media account, for example, Twitter. This can be a challenging situation for the organization. Basically, before implementing this strategy the employees must undergo training on how to integrate this new way of operation into the normal operating method and techniques.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Receiving more response from the target group from Twitter than Facebook will be an evidence for the organization that a large number of the target group are actually subscribed to Twitter.

This will enable the organization to increase its activity on Twitter account to cinch prompt response to inquiries that need quick reply from the organization. Furthermore, the organization will therefore have to encourage its employees to use Twitter to enhance communication with the customers (Wasserman and Kibani 75).

Examples of social media contents The digital and social media strategy that the organization intends to initiate and implement targets different regions of the globe. Social media sites enable organizations to interact with customers across the globe. This will compel the company to make sure that the contents of the social media being used are relevant to the target group.

The groups that we target are from the European region, Africa, Middle East and Asia among others. Regions such as Canada, Europe and America are not aware of Sidra. Therefore, the media content shared with these regions will focus on informing them more about the organization to enhance their understanding and knowledge.

Although countries in the Middle East are aware of Sidra, they are ignorant of social media. Therefore the contents we share with the customers in this region will be educating them on the importance of using social media and encouraging them to increase subscription to social media (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 118).

Marketing plan Marketing is the process that organizations use to inform customers of their new, existing, and future products. Organizations require an effective marketing plan to guarantee addressing the needs of customers as soon as possible. As a company, we will recommend Sidra to establish an effective marketing plan to ascertain that this strategy is appropriately and effectively implemented.

Establishment of an effective marketing plan will require Sidra to conduct extensive research, which will require the services of specialized marketers.

As a company, we cannot offer a marketing plan for the organization, but provide a strategy and it is upon the organization to decide on the company to seek services based on their financial strength. Therefore, the cost of the marketing plan will depend on the provider that Sidra decides to seek services from (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 110).

Engagement with influencers Influencers will play an important role in ensuring that the strategy is successfully implemented in the organization. Sidra will engage with them directly to build a direct association. The influencers that Sidra will engage with directly will be the social marketing agencies in Europe, Canada and America to increase awareness about the organization (Wasserman and Kibani 43).

Ketchum Company input and contributions We, as the organization in charge of developing the strategy, assure Sidra quality services due to the nature of our business and experience in offering such services. We have a good monitoring system that enables the organization to successfully evaluate and supervise the strategy. Our system will enable the organization to communicate with customers in any language.

Communication with any language via the support services will be possible through integration of the Google translator in the system. Moreover, the storage capacity we offer will enable the organization to store reports for the purposes of weekly, quarterly and annual status checking.

Additionally, our program will assist the company in establishing a strategy to aid in client reviews, online status reports and conference calls (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 107).

Works Cited Erik, Cambria, Daniel Muntinga and Smit Moorman. Principles and Practice of Marketing. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Wasserman, Todd and Shama Kibani. Contemporary Marketing Strategies: Digital and Social Media. London: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.


Gender Communication Differences between Men and Women Case Study essay help online

Abstract This report addresses the gender communication differences between men and women working for a particular organization. Communication is an important aspect in every organization as it directly affects the way it carries out its operations.

For that reason, communication is one of the factors that influence the success of an organization. The gender communication differences are a negative aspect of communication, which adversely affect an organization’s operations.

This report looks into a number of factors that contribute to gender communication differences between men and women. Some of the factors discussed include the thought process, giving feedback and problem solving.

This report also discusses all the major communication management principles; these principles are necessary in organizations as they help to enhance communication among the managers and workers.

Some of the communication management principles that have been discussed in this report include engagement and motivation of employees and the maintenance of effective team relations between them and their managers, and among each other.

Lastly, the report illustrates the way in which the communication management principles can be used to harmonize the gender communication differences between men and women employees.

The differences can be harmonized by empowering both male and female workers, availing the right communication tools to them, ensuring that the managers are available when they are needed by the junior workers, and constantly reminding the staff about the objectives of the organization so that they can work together to achieve them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All these factors should be incorporated into the management system of the organization to increase their impact on the employees and the management.

Introduction Background Information

Communication skills are among the most important attributes required in every individual, not only for building up relationships at home, but also at the workplace. Communications skills are among the first things that people learn during childhood and proceed with them to adulthood.

The skills are nowadays considered part of organizational talents, which assist in enhancing the success of an organization. Lack of proper and strong communication skills in an organization can result in poor performance and even significant losses (Pincus, 2006).

Some organizations overlook the importance of enhancing communication in their employees; such firms argue that with the current advancement in technology and communication, very little time needs to be spent on training employees regarding communication skills (Miller, 2012).

Such organizations certainly forget that the employees are their spokespersons outside the company and so, they need to be adequately informed on all the products and services.

The main communication and management skills require organizations to regularly motivate and engage their employees to be effective communicators. Organizations also need to formulate and maintain effective team relations between them and their employees as well as among the workers (Pincus, 2006).

Purpose Statement

Although it has been proven that men and women tend to work closely together in various organizations these days than ever before, there are still a number of differences that appear to pull them apart.

We will write a custom Case Study on Gender Communication Differences between Men and Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the main differences relates to the way they communicate, which is seen to cause a sharp distinction between men and women at workplaces (Miller, 2012). Major gender communication differences are evident between men and women and this makes one of them to be seen as superior to the other (Pincus, 2006).

In order to bridge the gap caused by the communication differences, every organization should incorporate all the key communication skills into its management system.

Research Method

The information given in this report was collected purely through literature review. The issue of gender communication differences between men and women has been addressed by many scholars and so it was easy to find the information in academic sources.

In order to obtain valid and reliable information, more academic journals than books were used.

Gender Communication Differences There are a number of factors that can cause gender differences, especially in relation to the way men and women communicate while at the workplace. The first factor is the thought process, which refers to the different ways by which men and women think over an issue.

Women appear to think more ideally with a lot of associations, while men tend to be factual and liner thinkers. Women tend to connect their thoughts to some real things that exist in the world, while men simply think of the way things happen without necessarily linking them to any phenomenon (Miller, 2012).

The second factor, compartmentalizing, refers to one’s relationship with the people they work with. Men can work with anyone, including people they do not like.

On the contrary, women tend to make associations even at their workplaces and they do not find it easy to work with people they hate or disgust (Griffin


The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

This paper was initially meant to be a presentation in an event hosted by the American Political Science Association. The association commissioned the study and it owns the copyright to this research. The paper is a study focusing on the impressive growth of the Malaysian economy and its origin. The presentation is titled “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” and it was first presented in 2002.

The presentation covers various political and economic activities in Malaysia beginning from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. The article pays special attention to Malaysia’s New Economic Policy (NEP) of 1969. The paper’s main argument is that “the pursuit and achievement of equitable development is largely a function of political dynamics”1.

The article begins by noting that Malaysia has had an impressive rate of progression. This progression has led to a stable economic growth. According to the article, this growth is as a result of both social and economic policies that specifically target the poor in Malaysia. In addition, it is noted that the New Economic Policy is at the centre of the integration between social and economic policies.

The article continues by noting the two goals of the NEP that were spelt out in the Second Malaysian Plan. The mode of inequality eradication in Malaysia is compared to that of China. The paper states that unlike in China, poverty eradication did not focus on a single policy. It is noted that among the policies initiated through the NEP include social spending, rural development, industrial restructuring, and human capital2.

The article then continues to explore each of these policies independently. The presentation’s main goal is to investigate the role of political dynamics when Malaysia was pursuing equitable development. The article lists the records of economic growth in Malaysia from 1971 to 2000. The incidences of poverty in Malaysia between 1970 and 1993 are also listed.

The list indicates declining incidences of poverty and a sustained economic growth. The study then explores the structure of the NEP. According to the paper, the NEP was initially meant to steer the country’s economy and reduce incidences of poverty across Malaysia irrespective of race or ethnicity. The NEP was representative of both the interests of the poor and the capitalistic class.

The article then discusses the rural development policy. It is noted that rural development in Malaysia mostly focuses on the agricultural sector but also spreads to healthcare and institutional support. The taxation and public expenditure policy is also addressed in this presentation. This policy is said to have been successful in redistributing wealth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article goes on to explore the role of health and educational policies as tools of poverty eradication. By formulating effective educational and health policies, the Malaysian government was able to demonstrate an equitable redistribution of resources.

The article concludes by restating the main argument and listing the challenges associated with the Malaysian political and economic actions. The ignored areas of growth are also listed in this presentation. The strong points of the implemented policies are then restated.

One of the elements that I found to be of importance in this presentation is the multi-layered policy implementation by the Malaysian government. Most countries always tend to rely on a single policy to effect significant economic, political, and social change. This presentation details an ensemble of policies that were used in countering inequality and poverty in Malaysia.

This means that this “East Asia economic miracle” did not depend on a single enforcer or policy but it was a collective effort3. Most of the other countries that have successfully dealt with the inequality issue have had to rely on communistic policies. For example, the Communist Party in China reformed the land policy in order to deal with the issue of inequality once and for all.

Although this policy was largely successful, it undermined the spirit of capitalism. However, none of the Malaysian-based policies directly undermines capitalism. This makes the Malaysian case to stand out from most of the other recorded economic turnarounds.

Some policies such as institutional support and capital grants are always employed in communist economies. However, they are mostly structured in such a manner that they support communism. This was not the case in Malaysia because even capitalists benefited from the NEP.

The political aspect of the battle against inequality and poverty in Malaysia presents an interesting angle to this paper. This is because the marriage between effective economic and political policies is rarely witnessed. In Malaysia’s case, the dominant political party had a substantial capitalist representation. This group would have wanted the status quo to remain in order to safe guard its capitalistic interests.

We will write a custom Report on The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is why the effectiveness of the NEP is often referred to as an Eastern Asia Miracle. There are those who argue that the success of the NEP was occasioned by the 1969 ethnic riots. This group argues that the government was hard pressed by the unfolding events and something drastic had to be done.

However, the sustainment of these economic policies refutes such claims because the government could have undermined the policies after the situation reverted to normal. The “miracle” element of this economic turnaround is also highlighted by the economic situations in other developing countries.

Over half of the developing countries in Asia and Africa have at one time or another attempted to undertake an economic policy similar to the Malaysian NEP. Many of these policies fail due to lack of political will and the fact that most politicians are the main beneficiaries of social inequality.

It is also important to note that in the course of over four decades that the Malaysian economy has flourished, the country’s economic policies have not received any major threats from the political class. All these facts make this Asian economic miracle seem more impressive.

The manner in which this presentation is structured leaves little room for errors. However, the presentation should have compared the developments of the Malaysian economy to other economies outside the Asian continent. This is because some economies in South America and Africa bear striking resemblances to the Malaysian economy.

Comparing Malaysia with China and India is somehow out of line because of the obvious differences in population and GDP. On the other hand, several countries in South America and Africa resemble Malaysia in terms of population, GDP, reliance in Agriculture, and low industrial development.

The researchers should have been able to make this connection. In addition, most of these countries have used Malaysia as the case study for formulating their own economic policies.

This article offers an insightful presentation on the role played by politics in effective implementation of economic policies in Malaysia. The presentation offers a detailed account of the events that have transpired over the course of four decades since the NEP was formulated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in

Malaysia.” Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002.

Footnotes 1 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).

2 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).

3 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).


Commercial Activity in Alkhober Thesis college admission essay help

Al-khober is a massive urban city in the Eastern frontier of Saudi Arabia. The city’s is located along the Persian Gulf coast line. Such attributes make this city a hub of commercial activities in this nation and also in the larger Middle East region. The city has a population of about half a million. The city is part of the larger Dammam metropolitan region.

The surrounding area provides adequate support for the city robust commercial activities. The city seems to serve as an opening to the eastern frontier of this nation owing to its strategic location. The key reason that made me opt to undertake my research in this city is that it is my hometown. As such, I will be at ease when undertaking my research. Additionally, am well versed with the city and all activities undertaken.

Al-khober, a coast town attracts many tourists owing to its weather, beaches, culture and hotels. Therefore, tourism seems is a key activity. There are numerous modern hotels that host guests form various nations. Tourism requires infrastructural support such as roads and airports. The King Fahd International Airport is about fifty kilometres form this town and provides easy access to this urban centre.

Furthermore, the Dammam highway provides access by road into this town. Initially, the town began as trading centre for merchants. The town has not lost this aspect. Al-khober is a preferred location for various multinational entities in the manufacturing and mining sector.

This city is characterised by large shopping complexes that serve the tourists and residents. Overall, this town is a business hub where many of the local residents have invested. Among the investors are women who are key in this research.

Challenges experienced in gathering data In undertaking my research, I experienced numerous challenges. First, many of the respondents were unwilling to participate in the research. In the research design, interviews was one of the means of amassing data. Moreover, the research was also to utilize phone calls and emails. Despite the elaborate data collection methods, the research was hindered by lack of cooperation.

During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were reluctant to provide accurate details. They felt that the researcher would utilize the information for selfish purposes. Additionally, other respondents were unwilling to share information since they seemed not to trust the interviewer. They had reservations about the interviewee’s real agenda. Hence, the details provided were not precise, but based on generalizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above research requires precise data. Precise information will enable the researcher make accurate inferences. Generalized responses contain many assumptions that may jeopardise the research. During the research, many emails were sent. The emails contained queries that interviewees should answer.

Nonetheless, many of the participants failed to reply to the emails. The means that a large proportion of the target population was unwilling to participate in the research due to varying reasons such as lack of time and laziness. Due to the above events, the creativity was required. Visiting some of the entrepreneurs that were unwilling to reply to emails and text messages had significant success.

Some of the businesswomen accepted to undertake the interviews. Nonetheless, some of the respondents were still unwilling to participate in a face-to-face interview. In lights of the above details, the researcher should utilize diverse methods of amassing data if the nature of the research permits.


Post Modernism and Nursing Science Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Gone are the days when people took any point as being true as was told. Nowadays, people question how a given statement can be true. This is due the fact that people have learnt that under different conditions, even scientifically proven truth can change. People have embraced the idea that nothing is static, not even the truth.

There are many perspectives from which an idea can be looked at. There is a lot of information found nowadays. Technology has also advanced and has led to many discoveries. Due to this, it has come to the knowledge of people that there exist multiple levels of reasoning in any area.

More importantly, is the discovery that there are limits to everything including science inquiry. This wave of post modernism has swept through all areas of humanity including the nursing science. It is important to note that post modernism is both a benefit and a deterrence of nursing as a science.

Post modernism has brought to the view the idea of holistic therapies where people believe that medication has to go beyond diseases. Health should be more of the patient that it is about the disease.

It is the belief of holistic therapies that healing should begin with the individual first setting his or her mind that he or she needs healing. With this in mind, post modernism has helped in fostering the theoretical view of nursing that treatment is within the power of an individual.

Nursing science takes it that nurses are just supposed to give psychological, physical and to some extent spiritual support which will evoke the inner force within the patient.

It is important to note that just like post modernism, nursing science has come to the view that there is some inner force that helps to heal patients. In this regard, post modernism has actually helped nursing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, post modernism places a lot of emphasis on the patient and safety. The two are the pillars of nursing. In nursing, the patient is the core and safety of the patient is the main focus. Similarly, post modernism looks at the patient as the epicenter of healthcare.

Consequently, patients have been lately included in the recording of events regarding adverse drugs thus enhancing credibility of the information. Moreover, post modernism has enabled nurses to approach issues objectively knowing that truth is not fixed.

This has helped in solving many problems which were quite different from classical ones. It is important to note that every case in nursing is unique thus no laid down principle or precedence applies. This is the same principle that post modernism brings to the board.

On the other hand, post modernism has also hindered the prospects of nursing. To begin with, the idea that truth can be challenged brings about great problems because people challenge every step the nurses take. Moreover, due to the availability of almost any information on the internet, patients are becoming risk averse.

Patients are unwilling to use various medicines due to the negative information about the medicine. It is important to note that some of the information is actually contradicting and also wrong.

This makes the work of nurses difficult because they have to start by changing the minds of the patients who have very low confidence in nurses.

Post modernism has led to increased cultural interactions which have come with a lot of complications. This has complicated the nursing science which now has to take into consideration the cultural diversity in its approach to healing.

We will write a custom Essay on Post Modernism and Nursing Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, holistic approach to healing becomes problematic when diseases involved require express medication. Similarly, healing is not all about some improvable force from inside the patient. It sometimes has to involve immediate and active medication.

Nursing also needs the application of pragmatism. It is important to note that though truth exists in the world, being certain when it is found is difficult. Consequently, pragmatism requires that nurses should constantly be searching for the truth.

Pragmatism has led to a lot of improvements in the nursing sector by leading to new ways of taking care of patients.

Arguably, geriatric nursing has highly benefited from pragmatic approach. To begin with, the idea that there is no perfect way of containing pain that old people go through has led to new improved ways of managing pain.

On the same note, it is important to point that geriatric nursing has been left behind technologically and requires research to come up with quality services to the old. Moreover, the elderly exhibit unique symptoms which are distinct from one another.

Therefore, geriatric nurses especially in home settings have learnt to approach each case objectively leading to discovery of new ways of taking care of various conditions. It is important to note that in home settings, geriatric nurses have minimal access to most hospital equipment.

As a result, pragmatic approach is very crucial since these nurses need to devise methods of handling different and sometimes new conditions.


Review: “Interventions Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-analysis” by Baskin T. and Enright R. Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Summary

Interaction with the article

Application of the information in the article


Summary The article explores various aspects of forgiveness on the victims of unfair or inconsiderate acts. The article discloses that forgiveness is vital for the psychological well-being. Once a victim deals with the resentment, he/she can progress on in life. However, most victims are unwilling to open up and forgive.

As such, they project their resentment as anger towards other people in their lives. Thus, many victims who are unwilling to forgive have difficulties creating lasting relationships in their lives. Forgiving is a process which requires a cautious approach.

The specialists assisting victims should facilitate the process by assuming a cautious approach, which will enable their victims express their feelings at their own convenience. Examples provided reveal that forgiveness is a psychological remedy for some of the emotional strains that victims of offensive acts encounter.

The article investigates various clinical methods that would assist people in the process of forgiving their offenders. Initials research had unearthed three methods (Baskin


Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent Dissertation essay help free

Introduction The American society can be described as a melting pot of culture with different people of different nationalities with different cultures coming together to form a nation. The history of America depicts a continent that is sparsely populated by the Indian tribes of America who are the original residents of the continent and whose existence is in jeopardy due to assimilation.

The dominance and identity of the different races in the American society can be attributed to the time of their arrival in America and their numbers as well thus giving them a strong position in being accepted in society. This issue has been the biggest challenge to the minority groups that came to America late, and whose numbers are still low compared to other communities.

Thus, they have tended to be made to look like outsiders in a country where their ancestors came and were buried. One minority group that has suffered the stigma of not being easily accepted in the society is the Asian group and specifically the Arab society. Most of the Asians who have migrated to America have tended to stick to their culture thus further alienating themselves from the community that is so diverse.

This issue has therefore affected the reception of the Arab American literature and its acceptability in society because it ropes in their cultural practices and beliefs, which are not subscribed to by other communities as Hassan (‘The Rise of Arab American Literature’ 248) reveals.

As the study reveals, in a bid to change this situation, authors such as Abu-Jaber have come up with novels written in a form that would integrate the peculiarities of Arab literature with the mainstream American forms of writing as a way of finding acceptability in the American literary world. The study therefore provides a detailed review of the Arab literature using Abu-Jaber’s works as the basis of argument.

Reading Arab American Literature America’s nature as a melting pot of culture is rich in different forms of literature that tend to identify with different groups. This diversity has been the only way for many different groups making up the American society to retrace their steps and curve out an identity for their society.

As Majaj finds, by so doing, different communities in the American society have turned to literature as a way of expressing their culture and practices as well as a way of preserving the same for the future generations (69).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effect of a mosaic society is that the cultures of the groups in that society tend to fade with practices that are more acceptable across the board remaining firm as the only ways the society has for a common ground.

Many writers in America have therefore focused their style of writing on what is perceived to be acceptable to their ethnic or racial communities as a way of selling or educating the larger society of their culture.

The success of literary writers in society has therefore been pegged on the perception of the society on the community of the specific writer and its attitude towards the style of writing the writer will adapt (Hassan ‘Arab American Autobiography’ 9) because the levels of tolerance for different communities’ practices differ. In most instances, these practices are informed by culture.

Strong and rigid culture has been known to attract resentment due to its nature of not conceding anything in exchange for acceptability. Acceptability of culture in society has always been hinged on the universality of the practices making up the culture as well as practices that are tolerable. This one aspect about society has gone a long way to determine the acceptability of literary works in the American society.

The different ethnic groups in the American society play a big role in promoting the works prepared by the members of their community through the numbers in the sales of books. Communities with big numbers tend to promote the sales of one of their own thus reflecting the outcome as a success.

Minority groups can only attract sales from their own, which in the end will be too little to count. Therefore, the population number in the society of given communities counts so much when it comes to success in writing unless the writers’ work is not a reflection of the society from where they are coming.

Arab American literature has gone through so many challenges since the first Arab writers started to publish works in the United States of America (Hassan ‘The Rise of Arab American Literature’ 247). To date, the Arab American literature is still in a state of transformation in such a way that it cannot be definitely defined.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In her interview with Abu Jaber, Shalal notes that most Arab American writers have struggled to penetrate the American society beyond their communities because of literary, social, and political issues that have for a long time acted as an inhibition to their growth. Arab American literature comes across as work meant to preserve and defend a culture as well a society where most cultures have been melted together.

The Arab American society has been defined along cultural, political, and religious lines, which have been resented by the larger American society (Orfaela 117). The need by the Arab Americans to maintain their culture has been expressed in their literary works thus becoming a defining point of their work.

This case has made it difficult for the larger society to be attracted to the work because it pursues a narrow community’s hegemonistic interests that may not be the interest of the whole society in general. The earliest Arab American publications were newspapers that leaned on religion, which in this case is Islam and politics in their countries of origin in the Middle East.

Naaman indicates that this was all done with the belief that the Arab community will one day go back to its homeland and hence the need to preserve its Arab identity (267). The need therefore made this kind of literature a preserve for Arabs who would want to one day go back to their motherland. There is no way that the works would have elicited any interest in the larger American society or commanded acceptability.

Reading Arab American literature requires one to first understand the Arabic cultural practices that provide the tone for the writings. Thus, without this understanding, one may not be able to understand the thoughts or messages as they are being delivered.

Transformations in Arab American Literature The Arab American literature has gone through so many transformations for many years since its advent because the styles and themes employed were narrow in such a way that they were specifically meant to capture a specific audience, which was the Arab community.

Therefore, according to Rana, the authors were whatsoever never interested in capturing an audience beyond their community thus leading to their works being limited in scope (548). The need to uphold a form of filial piety in their works led to the Arab American writers concentrating more on a writing tone touching on their culture and in turn simply making their writings look like an Arabic translation.

The wider American society thrives on the independence of the mind and utmost liberty, which does not expect one’s mind to be tied by cultural beliefs and laws that act as a prohibition to being a creative mind. This case therefore made the Arab American literature produced by early generation Arab Americans seem more of a critique of the American society’s practices as Ludescher (96) finds.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the Arab American literature continued to grow, it grew to a sort of nostalgic tool that would be used for craving for home by the writers. The use of Arab tradition as a defining tool for Arab American literature was simply a way of reconnecting with their homeland by the writers thus making it difficult for their literature to find acceptability among the masses (Ludescher 103).

On the other hand, the need to gain acceptability by the masses has led to a change in tact by Arab American writers. In fact, they have had to come up with works that resonate positively with the society they live in because the acceptability of their works by publishers has been limited due to societal expectations and stereotypes that the larger society holds towards the Arab community.

As Abu-Jaber confirms in an interview with Aljadid, her work has been limited largely concerning what is acceptable for publishing. She has been forced to edit and re-edit some of her works numerous times until they have lost the lustre the writer had intended for them (Shalal Para. 2). Arab American literature has always had two themes that are identifiable with their work. These themes are religion and politics back home.

These two constitute the sensitive issues in the American society because the larger American society is always on the other side of the divide when it comes to matters touching on Arabic politics and religion.

Therefore, Arab American writers have been inhibited with these factors whenever they want to express them in their literary works because most publishers would not want them expressed in their publications. More so, they would receive condemnation from the lager society (Shalal Para. 3).

In search of acceptability, the Arab American literature has had to continuously transform itself over time with the hope that it would create resonance with the American society. Much still, most of the early generation Arab Americans are now gone. In their place, there is a new generation of Arab Americans born and brought up in America, and with distant roots and touch with their motherland.

This group has most of its people identified as Arabs who cannot speak a word in Arabic. Just like the black community in America, all they know of their motherland is that it was where they originated but have no roots completely. This group is at last producing writers who do not have too much attachment to their Arabic culture but in essence trying to create a balance between the two communities to which they belong.

Most of the young Arab American writers have been critical in their writing, a fact that has endeared them to the public. Their criticism though has been balanced in that they criticise both communities. Previous Arab American writers were reluctant to criticise their community because, being in a foreign land, they felt that it would be disloyal to disown their practices.

This view according to Allen has not been so with young Arab American writers who do not feel compelled by the filial piety their customs demand (474). They tend to air their views in an American fashion. Their belonging to the American society has made them understand what the society wants to hear. The big challenges that the previous Arab American writers had can still be traced to the present-day upcoming writers.

The issue of politics as well as religion in the Middle East can be described to be part of any Arab identity. Arabs of all generations passionately hold and express the views.

The American publishers have not tolerated the criticism of Israel in their works since they will be otherwise branded anti Semitic, a fact, which would have much harsher implications from the American public, which has a substantive number of the Jewish population (Shalal Para. 2).

Reading the Arab American literature therefore can be interesting in that the writers employ different forms of writing that they are hopeful will endear them to the public thus making the Arab American literature a form of mosaic that cannot be defined in one way.

Challenges in Arab American Literature Different writers employ different styles that they hope will identify them as Arab Americans because no single writing style has established a foothold in the Arab American society. The continuous transformation of the styles can be attributed to a need to find a foothold.

Therefore, according to Albakry and Siler, the latest style by younger Arab American writers that tends to be critical of their own society is just one of the ways that are being followed to find a standing point for the same (113). A critical point that should be noted about the Arab American literature and acceptability in society is the political situation around the world.

Though the Arab American literature had started picking up, it was upset by the 9/11 events that have since opened new doors for alienation and stereotyping. Most Arab American writers have found it difficult to convince the literary world to look at them with a different eye thus extending the case to their work (Metres 3).

The larger society tends to look at them with a suspicious eye thus resenting any form of writing that is defensive of the Arabic culture or one that seems to be promoting it. Reading the Arab American literature, one finds that more women dominate this field than would be expected of the Arabic culture.

As Naaman points out, women have used Arab American literature to find their lost voice in a society that is believed to be patriarchal (269). It has been identified as one way that women have found a platform to communicate their problems to the larger society, which for a long time has been shut out of the goings in the Arab society or which has been disinterested in the Arabic culture.

The difference that comes out is that most Arab American male writers have tended to lean towards the status quo because they are the beneficiaries of the system at the end of the day.

Cultural Integration Abu-Jaber has employed symbols in different ways in her novels to reveal the theme of culture. They can be identified in the way she has portrayed her subject and the main themes that come out of her work. The division of cultures is identifiable in this work. The motif here can be described as half-half experiences by the characters (Limpar 483).

This technique is metaphorically presented in her work when she portrays her characters as belonging to two worlds to which they are torn apart in identifying with. In the Arabian Jazz, Matussem’s family is seen to belong to two worlds that refuse to fuse comply. The characters are made to shed so much of either world to be accepted in one world.

Nora complains of her life in Jordan where she suffers from gossip from other women. Her two worlds refuse to integrate completely because her American descendants granted her freedom while her new life as an Arab wife is meant to take away the free will (Limpar 485). Matussem too has a division of the two worlds when he marries an American wife.

He learns and admires the American lifestyle thus ending up gravitating and finally relocating to America. Jemorah is a representation of two halves with one being an American half while the second one is an Arab half. These two halves are represented in her race as well as her culture whereby she cannot fully define herself as American nor Arab.

Her origin and skin colour describe her as Arab while her home, the American home country, defines her by the American culture, which she is supposed to identify with. Jazz music too has been defined into a half- half. In the Arabian Jazz, the music whose origin is African American has been called Arabian jazz thus depicting it as being found in two worlds.

Sirine who is the protagonist in The Crescent has also been depicted as belonging to two worlds. Thus, her existence is half – half. Her half Arab and half American have been used to show the confusion that Arab Americans face especially the young ones with very little connection to the Arab world.

The American influence is so strong that it is difficult to ignore or simply do away with while the Arab influence too is strong and emanating from the family. The half–half world is full of confusion as the characters strive to fit in the two worlds while at the same time trying to find a sense of belonging.

Abu Jaber’s book, ‘The Arabian Jazz’ strategically presents the theme of seeking self-identity for Arab Americans especially the immigrants. The author writes from an Arab-American point of view by bringing out the situations that many Arab Americans experience in their live away from home. The Arabian Jazz explores the different ways Arab Americans have tried to integrate themselves into the American society.

This integration has more so been driven by the need to find a new home and a sense of belonging now that circumstances have driven them away from home. The author has chosen fiction as the best way to bring out the story of the Arab American society in America because the use of fiction can allow her to expand her narration and include so many different experiences in one text (Cherif 215).

Retelling a real life story sometimes limits the author to specifics that happened. This case might just inhibit the way the author wishes to tell the story. This argument reveals why Abu-Jaber in the Arabian Jazz has chosen to use fictitious characters to retell a story that so many Arab immigrants undergo (Hartman 160).

Abu-Jaber uses music as a meeting point between two cultures that have a few commonalities in the American society. El-Hajj and Harb find that she uses jazz to marry the Arab and the African, American communities, which are known to be the owners of Jazz music (139).

Due to the need to seek identity in a society that is racially prejudiced, the author portrays a society that is trying to find a starting point for its acceptability in a new civilisation. Matussem finds himself at a loss on what he should do to become fully acceptable as an American because the best linkage he had to the American society was his wife who is now demised.

The picture of an Arab man trying to raise two daughters in a foreign culture makes the story more interesting to read. Abu-Jaber has fused the two cultures through music when she indicates in the book that the racial card used against Arabs made them try to find a definite group to identify with it.

In this case, the issue of Arabs not being defined as white nor black leaves the characters in the book hanging in between therefore forcing them to find on their own the closest group they can identify with (Fadda-Conrey 189). Therefore, for not being white enough to be fully accepted to be white, the characters choose black as the group to be identified with as one that they seem to have common tribulations.

Thus, jazz has been used to connect the two groups together as a form of identity search. Jazz in this case can be viewed as a metaphor to portray a person who identifies himself or herself with something he or she is not. Jemorah seeks to find her identity in this case.

She settles for black as her identity because she is not acceptable as a white though her mother was white while her father was of the Arabic origin (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 294).

Music as a Cultural Tool The author has used music to create a bridge between two communities. In this case, jazz has been chosen because it is the music originating from the black community, which the Arabs are leaning towards in search of their identity. While responding to her employer’s ridicule, Jemorah says that her paternal grandmother was black and that she used such roots to identify herself as black (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 295).

Thus, this identity with blacks can only have a common ground in music because, at the end of the day, the Arabic and the black culture seem to have a distant meeting point. Music is sweet to the ears since it tends to attract attention from all. Music beats from any community are danceable by people from all societies without even understanding it.

Therefore, the author’s employment of music as a platform for marrying the two cultures is a seamless way of integrating the Arab story into the American society without making it look foreign. The author has used music to integrate the Arab culture into the American culture in the conservative Arabic way. This strategy can be found in the choice of jazz as the music to integrate the two cultures.

Arabic culture is very conservative in nature and hence the reason why Arab Americans have taken too long to integrate into the American society. On the other hand, jazz as music is acceptable across the board. Its appeal does not seem to offend conservative groups and hence its acceptability within the Arabic setting.

Therefore, the choice specifically of jazz has been deliberate due to the need by the author to relate the black culture and the Arabic culture. The use of music also fuses well with Arab oral tradition, which is one of the ways the Arabs use to pass their culture down to the next generation. Thus, its use in this case cannot be viewed in the extreme of being just Arabic but as an entertainment topic.

Therefore, music has been used in this book by the author to create a common ground between the Arab American community, the African American community and the larger white American community. More so, it fuses the Arab American community and the African American society.

Food as a Cultural Tool Food has been used as a cultural symbol in the Arabian The Crescent as noted by Fadda-Conrey (194). Food for Sirine and Hanif is their private language since their words flow into eating (Abu-Jaber ‘The Crescent’ 266). Food in this case is a bridge that brings together the different communities not only the Arab communities.

It can be defined as a unifying factor for foreigners seeking to create an identity of their own in a country where their race is prejudiced. Food is the common ground for others who wish to mix with other cultures. It is seen when the two police officers who love the Arab stew become identifiable with foreigners at the restaurant. It simply depicts them as different persons in their community who are also bended on affiliating with groups that are not their own.

The Arab restaurant is a melting pot of culture. Arabs from different parts of the world are seen to come together and shed their ethnic and tribal identities to adopt a single identity that they will further on be identified with while in a foreign country (Fadda-Conrey 189).

Abu-Jaber employs the use of Arabic terms in her work thus giving it a tone that leaves the reader in a form of suspense. The suspense leads the reader to connect the meaning of the foreign words used in the text from the whole text thus drawing him or her to read further.

Food has been used by Abu-Jaber to mean the glue that binds people. The closest the characters in The Crescent have come to have a common ground has been through food. The author has avoided the use of politics and religion as the common ground for her characters due to the reaction that these two subjects evoke when it comes to Arabs and America (Shakir 42).

Therefore, the author has cleverly brought in the subject of food as a means of creating a ground where characters in the work meet. Food can be viewed here as a metaphor more than what it is, food. It can also be used to describe a form of ethnic belonging for a given group of people.

The author has used it to bring together the different Arab groups from the East, West, South, and North. Around food, these people find a common ground since it depicts an emotional bonding session for a group of persons far away from their motherland (Bardenstein 165). The attachment that the characters have towards the traditional food means that they have failed to detach from their motherland.

Longing for their motherland food can be construed to mean longing for their motherland. Though the characters in the stories are in America and are expected to be automatically Americanised, this case does not happen as so. Sirine can be viewed differently from other immigrants coming to the café where she works.

Whereas these other characters in The Crescent can be described as first generation immigrants, Sirine is not one because she was born and brought up in America. However, her attraction towards identifying with her motherland drives her to find work in an Arab restaurant. The confusion that she goes through makes her fail to get married until late when she meets her Arab crescent in the form of Hanif.

Conflict in Need for Identity Abu Jaber’s work explores a situation in a society where two cultures are meeting despite their being incompatible. The American culture is full of freedom and liberal tones while the Arabic culture is full of conservatism and old order, which is affecting a generation of Arab American children who are torn between being Americans and fitting well in society or sticking to their Arab culture to live in the old order one.

Matussem is divided on what to follow when he marries an American woman and/or when it comes to the need to follow his Arab roots. This division of thought drives him to leave for America after he falls for the American dream, which means freedom but which is opposite to what his mother would expect of him as an Arab.

Therefore, he leaves his country to a place where as, Abu-Jaber puts it, “he could recreate himself” (‘Arabian Jazz’ 260). The characters in the book are divided on what identity to conform to since the forces around them seem too strong to betray.

Fatima dissuades Jemorah from going back to Jordan- a country where she was brought up in and where the real Arab culture thrives because of her memories of suffering that she encountered. When she flashes back her life then and her life now in America, she finds America a better place to stay. The conflict is therefore brought in the mind of the characters on what to choose from between the two societies.

They are torn between their two new cultures with one that takes away their freedom and the other one that restores the liberty. The Arab culture is discriminatory in this case because it gives men all the freedom.

As Matussem’s aunt puts it, “a man could let himself fly into the world like an arrow” (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 99) meaning that men would be allowed to do anything as compared to women who would not be allowed to break any rules. In the Arabic culture therefore, women were the preservatives of culture as they were supposed to observe it strictly.

In The Crescent, the main character (Sirine) is an Arab American who fails to psychologically accept the American culture thus choosing to uphold her Arabic culture. The dream of the character can be found in the Iraq exile Hanif with whom the character falls in love. Hanif can be described as Sirine’s crescent and an answer to Sirine’s cultural dilemma because Sirine refuses to be identified with the American culture fully.

Her leaning towards her Arabic culture seems to be controlling her choices thus leading her to finally fall in love with a real Arab. While observing culture in the two books, the distinction that comes out is that the Arabian jazz tends to portray characters willing to be identified with the American culture while the crescent leans towards characters who are conservative wishing to preserve their culture as much.

Food has been used in The Crescent as a symbol of unity and identity because it is believed to bring Arabs of different origins together to the café.

The Role of an Arab Man The writer uses imagery in describing the Arab man as being like an arrow that shoots into the air to depict the amount of freedom that Arab men enjoy at the expense of their women. In the Arab setting, women are supposed to be obedient and submissive to their men. They are also not supposed to break any rules pertaining to their culture as depicted by Fatima when she describes men as having been born lucky.

They can do whatever they want. They are not supposed to be reprimanded or criticised especially by women. Matussem has all the freedom to make decisions on where he wants to settle down. Thus, he goes away from his homeland to settle in America. Though he has chosen America as his new home, he is divided on whether to bring up his daughters the American way or bring them up strictly in the Arabic culture.

This confusion shows the freedom men have in making their decisions and at the same time depicting the limitations they are supposed to put in a woman’s life (Albakry and Siler 112). Matussem according to his native Arabic culture is supposed to bring up his daughters in a purely Arabic manner though he is not tied by the same culture.

By choosing to play jazz music, which is black American, the writer depicts the freedom of choice that Arabic men have in deciding their destiny. Matussem chooses jazz as a way of integrating himself into the American society though Jazz is a Black American music and not Arabic music. He could have chosen to play Arabic music if he wanted. However, due to the freedoms he has, like an arrow, he shot where his heart sent him.

The Subject of Tragedy The author’s portrayal of Fatima is that of a custodian of the old order. Fatima is meant to represent the Arabic culture in its real form as traced to her views on the American culture. She was simply meant to come to America to keep an eye on Matussem so that he does not stray from his culture.

The experiences that Fatima has gone through portray the patriarchal society that the Arab community is when she narrates her experiences as a young Arab girl, which include her witness to her sisters being buried so that Matussem being male is able to enjoy a better upbringing (Abu Abu-Jaber ‘The Crescent’ 119).

The use of narration in this case with folklore opens up the closed Arab culture that a reader might not understand and make the reading of the work more interesting. The narration of Fatima’s experiences can be traced in the short lines that the author employs to create breaks in her narration giving it poetic sounds.

Tragedy has been employed to narrate Fatima’s story and to further reinforce the picture that the author wishes to paint on the differences of the two communities. Fatima in this case is trying to run away from the memories of her childhood as well as those of her motherland, which haunt her.

Therefore, to protect her fellow Arab woman who has not experienced the same from going through what she went through, she opens up her painful childhood secrets that have never given her peace. She narrates to Jemorah these scary childhood experiences as a way of dissuading Jemorah from going to Jordan.

Conclusion The author Diana Abu-Jaber has been able to transcend the two cultures that she belongs to in the effort to come up with very strong literary work. The author has used her writing skills to paint the picture that Arab Americans especially the younger generation born in the United States of America go thorough in their pursuit of identity.

Abakry and Jonathan find that, through her fictitious characters, the author has been able to construct the lifestyle of typical Arab Americans, their culture, as well as their challenges (118). The advantage that the author has is that she is able to narrate her stories from an insider’s point of view thus giving an almost true story or real life story.

The Arabian Jazz can be directly related to herself because it is a reflection of what she has gone through in her life living as an Arab American in both Jordan and the United States of America. The mixing of literary styles has brought about uniqueness in her work. Abu-Jaber has employed both English and Arabic literary styles to give her stories.

The story about Arabs in the United States of America can only be best told in a mixture of both Arabic and American context to capture the attention of the intended audience without losing the plot (Majaj 71). Most of the present Arab American population is made up of generation of Arab Americans who have loose connections to their heritage.

In her interview with the Al Jadid paper, Abu-Jaber talks about a generation of Arab Americans who can neither speak nor understand Farsi nor Arabic. Therefore, it would only be prudent for any writer targeting this group to factor in these issues. The contrast between Abu-Jaber and previous Arab American writers is that she chooses to write in English ostensibly to attract a bigger audience to her work.

Works Cited Abu-Jaber, Diana. Arabian Jazz. New York: Norton and Company, 1993. Print.

Abu-Jaber, Diana. The Crescent. New York: Norton and Company, 2003. Print.

Albakry, Mohamed, and Jonanthan Siler. “Into Arab American Borderland: Bilingual Creativity in Rand JAR RAR’S Map of Home.” Arab Studies Quarterly 34.2(2012): 109-121. Print.

Allen, Roger. “The Happy Traitor: Tales of Translation.” Comparative Literature Studies 47.4(2010): 472-486. Print.

Bardenstein, Carol. “Beyond Univocal Baklava: Deconstructing Food as Ethnicity and the Ideology of Homeland in Diana Abu-Jaber the Language of Baklava.” Journal of Arabic Literature 41.1-2(2010): 160-179. Print.

Cherif, Essayah. “Arab American Literature: Gendered Memory in Abinader and Abu Jaber.” MELUS 28.4(2003): 207-228. Print.

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Group Analysis Report Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Changes normally disrupt the normal work process of an organization. Such changes are likely to remain permanent. Changes result from both internal and external factors, which relate with an organization. Therefore, organizations must find ways of adapting to such changes.

In most cases, we experience conflicts because of changes that occur from both internal and outside the organization. As a result, organizations must adjust their management and communication strategies in order to cope with changes.

Conflicts and their challenges have become major sources of concerns in many organizations. Conflicts are responsible for massive wastage of resources within organizations. In most cases, people only focus on negative impacts of conflicts. However, we can rely on conflicts to achieve good results.

Feedback from conflicts can be sources of opportunities to improve communication and relationships within the work team.

Conflicts provide opportunities for organizations to formulate effective means of communications, address challenges within the group, and change workplace strategies. Specific conceptual frameworks and theoretical models can address conflicts with an organization.

In this case, the organization must understand the concept of workplace dynamics. As a result, an organization can continue to work in an optimal manner and achieve best results.

The purpose of this report is to address the issue of work team problems, perform group diagnostics, and analyze results relative to the ideal of conflict management and workplace dynamics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overview of the workplace group (committee): Rup Landscape Company Rup Landscape Company has served its clients and gained national recognition based on the quality of its landscape and management services it provided in the United Arab Emirates. The company has over 30 years in landscape management.

The management has transformed the company and created a complete commercial landscape company with both construction and management services. The drives for this reentry were to enhance the growth of the company and provide customers with complete range of landscape services and management.

Throughout the history of the company, Rup has provided services with cutting-edge practices and has attracted contracts from various prestigious organizations like the government agencies, Dubai Police, City Center, Dragon Mart, Union properties, GEMS, and Rotana among others.

Most members of the management team have served the company for more than 20 years. They have continued to ensure that Rup remains the industry leader in the UAE landscape industry.

The company has dedicated itself to excellent services. It also offers opportunities to excel and grow their careers. The company has unique work values, culture, and practices.

The company has various committees with various duties. The organizational committee on focus deals with project development processes. The roles of the committee include:

Providing information to the company on maintenance and repair needs

Reporting landscaping needs in the area

Making recommendations to the management for seasonal improvements

Recommending and deciding on the company to award contracts

Approving projects for action

Conflict Resolution In all organizations, there are conflicts. Hence, we have to accept conflict as a part of group dynamics within the organization. Elements of conflicts reflect such ideas of antagonism and undesirability within the committee. However, we have to notes that not all forms conflicts are dysfunctional.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Group Analysis Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Depending on how a firm handles its conflict, there are productive aspects of conflict that can bring in new solutions to a situation, clarify roles and power relationships within committee members, bring irrational aspects of conflicts into the open, and provide a way of solving conflicts.

If a group engages in destructive conflict, then the outcomes can result in loss of the main objectives in the quest for sub-group interests, encourage the committee members to be defensive, and may results in a collapse of the committee.

According to Condliffe, “conflict has three vital components, which include interests, emotions, and values. Conflict processes go through stages of perception, realization, avoidance, flashpoint, intervention, strategy, and evaluation” (Condliffe, 2002).

Conflict models allow people to understand what conflicts are, their root causes and avoidance strategies. However, such models cannot provide all the solutions to conflicts. Rather, they provide us with better ways of understanding conflicts and resolution methods.

We shall use the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model (Swinton, 2006) in an attempt to understand the conflict within the committee of Rup Landscape Company.

The committee has been involved in conflict on several occasions. In few cases, the results have been unsatisfactory and cause disharmony, fallout, and distractions from the core duties of the committee. In addition, the organization also experiences losses attributed to productivity (Tillett and French, 2006).

Figure 1: The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument

Conceptual frameworks and group diagnostics Rup is a formal organization that promotes landscape services and management in Dubai. The committee shares common goals and values. Consequently, Rup has beliefs, values, and norms for its group members.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Group Analysis Report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such values, norms, and beliefs rest on the ideology of developing and promoting success of the organization and career growth of members. Therefore, collaboration within the committee is paramount. The belief system consists of a strong belief in the development and use of best practices within the organization.

The organization instills the value of collaboration and community of practice (Hislop, 2005). It has formal work systems, which members interact through open communication systems.

Conflicts usually occur due to differences in decision-making on awarding contracts and allocating scarce resources to projects, values, and goals. Such conflicts have repercussions for the organization.

The organization has used opportunities from conflict resolutions to build a strong community, reinforce its beliefs, values, and norms. In addition, it has strengthened teamwork within the committee.

Fig 1: Conceptual Framework for Rup

Belief in best practices, values, norms, and goals Rup believes in promoting best practices, values, norms, and goals in the landscape industry. The committee members believe in using Rup’s goal and practices for guidance. Therefore, members can collect, organize, recommend, and award tenders to other stakeholders.

The organization aims to promote develop such values, practices, and achieve its goals through its committee. However, the belief in using, developing, and promoting the use of formal practices varies among members.

There are members with strong beliefs in developing and promoting best practices while other have moderate view about formal practices of the organization. This was according to some of the responses from members of the committee (see appendix).

Members who had a strong belief in promoting best practices, values, and norms in order to achieve organizational goals did not express conflicts.

On the other hand, members who had moderate views about formal practices in the committee had conflict with other members of the committee. These divergent views led to conflicts among members.

Achieving goals The committee members worked together in order to achieve the organizational strategic goals. Goals had two aims, which were to promote the growth of the company and its employees. Such goals enhanced formal approaches to tasks. However, roles and desire to achieve goals differ based on what different members prefer.

The organization had fix deadlines and assigned projects to its members. At the same time, members had the freedom to select the best formal practices of accomplishing tasks.

Most members believed that the committee had to use both formal and informal practices when allocating resources, awarding tenders, and reporting on the progress of various tasks while other members insisted on the use of formal practices in order to enhance the image of the organization.

Collaboration among members In most cases, the committee had to collaborate in most projects. This was the only formal way to grow the organization and achieve both personal and organizational goals. Therefore, the committee had to develop a strong sense of collaboration because of its belief in best practices within the industry.

Conflicts arise when other members of the committee preferred informal aspects of managing certain roles of the committee. Ultimately, the committee worked as a team in order to resolve conflicts in belief systems and strengthen its membership.

Collaboration creates value for the committee The committee collaborates in order to provide best services to clients and ensure the growth of the organization. Committee aims to create a strong community because of its collaborative approach to issues.

Members can make their contributions and expect positive criticism on the best methods to adopt towards a given projects. The committee hopes that collaborative approach will allow all members to contribute and enhance teamwork.

This is a way of reducing cases of conflicts within the committee. The committee leadership promotes collaborative approach towards issues.

Open systems The committee encourages open systems in communications among members. Committee members have the freedom to express their opinions about some decisions about projects. The committee keeps records of important decisions that members make about tasks.

This enables members to track their decisions and improve on areas with faults. The committee encourages its members to refer and report any failures in the decision-making processes that can lead to failure in a project. It encourages open criticism in project management.

Some members believe that the organization can use both formal and informal approaches when making decisions in order to facilitate processes and eliminate bureaucratic tendencies, which cause delay in project completion.

On the other hand, some members promote formal approach for accountability of processes in decision-making.

Formal management system The leadership of the committee relies on formal management systems. The committee has developed from a community of practice because of organizational shared goals. There are no formal contracts within the organization. The committee aims to create formal systems in the company.

The committee can only realize this goal through collaboration among members with divergent views. Thus, it can integrate different ideas in order to strengthen formal processes within the organization.

Formal processes aim to instill accountability within the organization. Thus, committee members can feel that they have personal responsibility for organizational goals.

Group Diagnostic Developing the committee

Hislop (2005) notes how a community of practice evolves among members, and such shared interests can create a strong committee. Members usually share common goals, values, and similar outcomes. In such communities, members should resolve their differences without any external interference.

The committee has been able to solve its disputes as they arise, and members can trace resolutions in the communication log and archive. The committee may have constant conflicts, but its leadership must resolve such conflicts in collaborative ways in order to strengthen the committee.

Conflict Resolution

The committee uses a collaborative approach to solve all conflicts it experiences. Conflicts emanate from different views on decision-making processes. Collaboration allows members to adopt moderate views in projects for a win-win situation for the organization and its clients.

In the end, the committee aims to achieve formal processes in decision-making.

Conflicts occur because the committee considers formal processes as bureaucratic and time-consuming. Therefore, some members prefer informal processes of decision-making. The resulting conflicts take a great amount of time to solve because the process must account for views all members of the committee.

It is important to note that solutions usually result in a strong committee with a reinforced belief in organizational values and goals.

The committee also displays elements of group dynamics just like in any other group. Committee members have diverse behaviors and attitudes. Concepts of group dynamics relate to both formal and informal organizations (Luthans, 2005).

The group dynamics enable us to understand how the committee co-ordinates its structures, functions, process, and conflict resolution mechanism.

The committee works together with the aim of achieving a common goal of developing and promoting the best practices. However, informal processes interfere with the progress achieved and affect choices of projects and periods of completion.

The formal nature of the process requires members to have specific duties based on their expertise and competence. Some members do not observe formal organizational practices in decision-making and distribution of resources, which result in conflicts within the committee.

However, the committee resolves such conflicts through a collaborative process in which all committee members express their views. The aim of conflict resolution is to strengthen teamwork and belief in organizational best practices and formal approach to processes.

Developing teamwork

Effective conflict resolution within the committee encourages teamwork. Members look for various solutions to their problems by expressing their ideas in an open system. Opinions on whether the committee should still depend on its old informal practices or implement changes that focus on formal processes differ.

Collaboration has formed the basis of resolving such conflicts within the organization. The committee promotes teamwork by inviting contributions from all members in problem solving.

Changes for improvement Landscape services and management industry has become competitive in UAE. Many companies have emerged to compete for the same clients. Therefore, only organizations with best practices shall succeed. This is the aim of Rup.

A collaborative approach in conflict resolution has created a strong team that aims to promote best practices within the organization. In addition, it has reinforced the belief in organizational values and goals. Conflicts will emerge as Rup finds the best ways of providing services through effective decision-making processes.

However, some conflicts take a lot of time to resolve. Therefore, the committee should improve on time management when resolving conflicts. It should adopt gradual change processes to ensure that members adopt formal practices within the organization.

Members’ satisfaction varies based on the adoption of formal practices within the committee. Some members promote the use of both formal and informal processes in decision-making, reporting, and awarding tenders. On the other hand, some members advocate for formal processes.

However, the committee aims to solve such problems by adopting a collaborative model. This has ensured that the committee considers contributions from all members and makes decisions on the best interests of all stakeholders.

The committee must understand its own weaknesses in order to improve on adopting changes and decision-making process. The committee leadership should rely on scenario-based models in order to choose appropriate conflict resolution model that can serve the organization under time pressure.

The committee should not overuse the collaborative model to the extent that leads to compromise of goals, values, and long-term goals of Rup.

Conclusion Changes in the modern industries are responsible for many conflicts. Therefore, conflicts are inevitable in such organizations. Rup shows that conflict can be favorable for creating effective outcomes, teamwork, and a strong community.

The organization has been able to achieve such results because of a collaborative approach to conflict resolution.

However, the committee must improve on change and time management because members are reluctant to adopt best practices and values. As a result, conflict resolution is time-consuming processes that delay other projects.

Appendix Contributors Beliefs Satisfaction Leadership Conflict Resolution 9 Members believe in community of practice (COP) Achieve best practices, values, and goals Some members have strong formal processes only Others adopt moderate view on the use of formal and informal processes in decision-making Most members are satisfied conflict resolution outcomes Formal approach because of the aim of the organization to instill best practices within the company Enables great collaboration among members Encourages an open system of communication Encourage the development of a community of contributors Reinforces belief, teamwork, and great collaboration Members are satisfied with the conflict resolution mechanism References Condliffe, P. (2002). Conflict management: a practical guide. Sydney: Nexis Butterworths.

Hislop, D. (2005). knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.

Luthans, F. (2005). Organizational Behavior (10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Swinton, L. (2006). Workplace Conflict Management: Strategy for Successful Resolution. Web.

Tillett, G., and French, B. (2006). Resolving conflict: a practical approach, 3rd edition. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


Cloud Computing Advantages and Challenges Term Paper essay help free

Introduction Cloud computing can be described as a system that enables users to work on their computers, process data, and store information using remote servers, which are hosted on the internet rather than using local servers.

Cloud computing is a very recent phenomenon that is coming out as the next big thing due to the convenience it offers the user (Bisong