Copyright Laws Definitions Essay Essay Help

A copyright is a law that protects the ideas and expressions of people from being stolen or used by other people. Copyrights are usually prepared for literary forms of works, photographic material, musical or song compositions, films or motion pictures and sound recordings.

Copyright laws are designed to protect the expressed idea in the forms stated above and not the idea or piece of information itself (Australian Government, 2009). A copyright law is viewed to be in effect once any of the following two conditions are satisfied which are; creating an original piece of work and the use of the original piece of work in a tangible form such as a book or picture (Standler, 2009).

The copyright laws were originally formulated in the United Kingdom after being derived from the common law known as the Statute of Anne 1709. The rights that were covered in the statute gave the authors or designers of literary or artistic works the right to control how the public used their material.

The law also gave the creator of the work the right to be identified as the main designer or author of the copyright work. The author had the exclusive right to claim the original idea or expression used in creating the literary, artistic, or musical work (Copy right service, 2009).

The types of works that are covered by the copyright law are literary works such as song lyrics, book manuscripts, computer programs and business/academic manuals and documents.

Dramatic works covered by the copyright laws include works such as drama, plays or poems while musical works include song lyrics, music compositions and song recordings. Copyrights for artistic works include creating laws for works such as photographs, paintings, maps, architectural designs, sculptures and technical diagrams.

Interpreting when to enforce a copyright will involve copyrighting the tangible medium of the idea instead of the idea or expression itself. To explain this statement, an idea for a book cannot be protected but the actual contents of the book are viable for copyright protection.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another person might decide to write a book with a similar topic as long as they do not reproduce information contained in another book and pass it off as their own work (Davies, 2010).

The author or designer of any copyright material has the exclusive right to make copies of their work or reproduce it when they feel the need to, they have the right to prepare derivative works such as adapting the material to suit a particular need, to distribute the reproduced work to the general public or the intended market by publishing the work, renting or leasing the copyrighted material or selling the material to the mentioned public or the target market.

The author of the copyright also has the exclusive right to perform the work that comes with the copyright in a public manner as well as display the work in a public format (Standler, 2009).

The duration of a copyright will be determined by the type of work to be copyrighted, the availability of the work to the public, and the status of the author or creator of the work. Literary and artistic works such as photographs, films and songs have a copyright duration of 70 years that is effected at the end of the calendar year.

Sound recordings have a copyright duration of 50 years from the end of the calendar year when the work was originally created by the author or when the work was made available to the public. Copyright laws have restricted acts that are deemed to be punishable by the laws that govern the copyright (Davies, 2010).

Restricted acts to copyrights include reproducing the original work of the author without their consent, leasing/renting, issuing, or lending the work to the public without the knowledge of the author and performing the copyrighted such as a song or musical composition without the consent of the owner.

The acts that are allowed by the copyright laws include all aspects encompassed by fair dealing which describes the copyright acts that are allowed as long as they do not infringe on the author’s original work.

We will write a custom Essay on Copyright Laws Definitions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The permissible acts include conducting research activities using the copyright material, using information in the original work for educational purposes, incorporating copyright work for news reporting and criticism purposes, using the copyright for the purpose of statutory enquiries, parliamentary proceedings, and judicial cases and hearings.

Other permissible acts include producing back up copies of the work for personal use which mostly applies in computer programming software and hardware programs. The act of playing a musical copyright work for a non profit making organization is also permissible (Copyright Service, 2009).

Copyright laws were formulated to deal with cases of plagiarism or theft of ideas/information from text books, visual images or motion pictures and music recordings. Plagiarism is described as taking someone else’s original ideas and using the ideas to create a piece of work without providing a proper reference to the idea.

Plagiarizing work that has a copyright is at times viewed to be a copyright infringement on the author’s original work but in some cases it is not an infringement if the author is dead and the material is older than 100 years. For example, any work created by William Shakespeare is used to develop literary material or dramatic and artistic works.

This will not qualify as copyright infringement because Shakespeare’s works are too old but it would still be plagiarism if Shakespeare is not cited or referenced in the work (Plagiarism Checker, 2006).

Copyright infringement occurs when the work of someone is used or reproduced without the consent of the author or designer of that original work. Students have the copyrights to their assignments as long as they have provided the original idea or information that was used to create the work.

They are however liable for infringement if they do not give the proper credit to the source of information that is not originally theirs (Coopman


The World Trade Organization Role in the World of Trade Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How WTO relate with the regional trade organizations

Nature and characteristics of RTAs

Impact of Regional free trade agreements on WTO


Reference List

Introduction Trade and all the operations that surround trade are governed by set regulations both locally and internationally. Trade is a key area in the economy of nations and makes immense contributions to the growth of nations. There are several organizations that govern the dimensions and the nature of trade worldwide and regionally. These organizations are healthy for the sustainability of trade in the world.

Some of these organizations are the world trade organization and the regional trade agreements. They work to push for considerable reductions in the trade tariffs and subsidies. They are also good tools of securing improved export opportunities for the producers. The world trade organization is a market mover in the world of trade. It is the major firm that supervises and liberalizes trade worldwide.

Through the world trade organization, many agreements have been formed and made to stabilize the field of trade. The trade organization has been highly involved in conflict resolutions processes and helping the member countries to adhere to the agreement rules.

In this highly competitive trade era, there has been a rapid growth of regionally oriented trade agreements which has contributed to the weakening of the multilateral trading systems. The trade agreements are a pertinent part of the world trade organization but they can strengthen trade or at times break the already built up pillars of trade.

Globalization, neoliberalism, free trade and open markets are criticized at a very high rate. In the global market big economies are shaping trade and their interests rule the market. The politically and the economically stable nations are dominating the market trends which simply dictates their interest.

How WTO relate with the regional trade organizations Regional trade agreements are a segment of the international trade and a key feature of multilateral trading systems that presents the members of the world trade organization with opportunities and challenges. They promote free trade at the regional level helping implement reforms domestically.

This helps lesser economies to wheedle aggressive environments, by addressing factors affecting production, which helps them to embrace competition at a suitable pace thus incorporating the amalgamation to the world economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The growth of the regional trade agreements heaves a concern about the declining power of the multilateral trading system. In the European countries, they are mainly pivoted on the European Union. These agreements are deeply rooted in the domestic regions and their coverage is immense.

They have extended to the service industry. Regional trade agreements open up a freedom in competition in the international market. They help build up complex set of connections and regulatory regimes which focus on the trade policies.

There have been some points in the RTAs some disagreement has been depicted in elucidation of some elements pertaining to their procedures with the WTO. But over time they have made up agreements on the procedures to apply to their members. For example, streamlining the examination processes by the WTO which was solved through the creation of the committee of regional trade agreements

The RTA operates under the guidance of regulations and tariffs which are upheld regionally. They are maintained for substantial commerce in the regions. RTAs are the mediums for promoting deeper incorporation in their economies than is presently through the WTO.

It has become hard to scrutinize the consistency of RTA with WTO due to the divergence of the trade agreements. Though this is not the only problem, there has been a pressure for them to clarify the rules for multilateral negotiations to put a clear line of rules.

The RTA builds the base for the WTO agreements with more comprehensive discipline. They assist strongly in the reinstatement of trade roles and solving the global economic predicaments which enhance economic growth and development.

The agreements are generally introduced so as to deal with the issues that revolve around trade and investment. They therefore resolve the crisis in these areas where they also closely identify areas for on capacity building.

We will write a custom Essay on The World Trade Organization Role in the World of Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nature and characteristics of RTAs Traders in economies where they operate without government interventions, they are often forced to form policies that govern their businesses. These policies are commonly referred to as free trade agreements. The policy authorizes mutual gains from the trade. These policies make easier communication of the true supply and demand leading to effective resource allocation.

According to the Office of the United States Trade Representatives (2010, 1), the trade agreements have continually become complex in that they are not only opening up free trade within the signatory countries but they have shaped both international trade and investments flows within their localities or regions.

They are affecting the large regions they are located in for example Asian Pacific regions. The trade agreements have had major implications to the political, social and economic status in the local and domestic levels.

Comparing with the coverage of the earlier agreements the RTAs have expansive coverage. The coverage is approximately 100 percent, even though it has been challenged in the field of agriculture. Under the examination of world trade organization the RTAs, in the industrial sector there is full coverage while in agriculture it is selective coverage.

Another characteristic of the trade agreements is that they eliminate or reduce exercise duties charged to the member countries while trading with each other. They have offered coverage of investments, intellectual property, and deal with technical barriers to trade. The agreements deal with quantitative restrictions (Dent, 2010).

RTAs use the synchronization and elimination of trade procedural barriers to help its members accomplish economies of scales and help them gain a competitive edge internationally. The most imperative one is the ability of establishing a common single market in the region of existence. The RTA help simplifies the rules set for the third world countries which are a great advantage to them.

Though the harmonization of standards has not ventured well in the international level, it has been effective to the regional agreements. These harmonization yields sunshine internally in that they lead to gains internally but yield undesirable effects on the third parties.

In comparison to the unsuccessful trade agreements of the 19th century the modern RTA‘s operations are more widespread and established better.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Trade Organization Role in the World of Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They have been designed specifically to achieve trade diversions. In consequence trade within the RTA has extensively been enhanced and developed in a rapid rate than trade from the non-members. There has been more than 2 percent a growth difference between the member nations and the non-members.

Though trade agreements have to some extent promoted growth of trade within the members’ states; we cannot be ignorant that some regional trade agreements have led to the breakdown of the trade in these regions. Some states have taken an advantage of dominating the market using regional trade agreements to limit markets for their commodities.

The whole quintessence of regional growth by the RTAs deflects the attention from multilateral trading systems. According to the views of Lawrence (1999) liberalizations brought forth by the regional free trade agreements, enhance and strengthen the hand of export and pro-trade forces. They are an open opportunity for the countries joining the multilateral trading systems have to compete among themselves.

According to Allan Winters, RTAs are likened to street gangs which most of us don’t like but they are allover in our neighborhood. He also says that the models been applied in the regional free trade agreements have not been clearly determined where they encourage or discourage the evolution towards free trade. In his view the regionalism increases the risks of upheaval of trading systems.

The free trade agreements have enable the nations enjoy good environment, social and economic health. This is mainly as a result of effort to make trade good for the advantage of the countries economy.

To make business run well among the signatory countries the governments of those countries make sure the infrastructure with the nations are good. This improves the living standards of the people and opens up opportunities for them hence they are able to improve their living standards.

The trade agreements have changed from regional to preferential agreements within the years. This is because countries have signed them with the nations they would like to interact with in business. This makes other nation end up been locked out of the deals and the have to labor hard in order to trade with some of these nations (Khor, 2005).

The bilateral agreements are said and thought to lead to trade diversions. This is where by the partner divert away products that may be more cheaply priced in favor of products from their partner. They therefore sell their goods at a lower price than expected to gain favor with the partners or they end up been inefficient.

The trade agreements between the developing nations lead to low bargaining capacity of the economies which ends up to weaker political situations and negotiation of resources. The developing are able to work well on the basis of non-reciprocity and thrive well in non- reciprocal outcomes n which they are obliged to open air markets (Dent, 2010).

The RTAs have tried to lift up some of the policies and allow flexibilities. The inclusion of many policies puts a lot of pressure on financial resources in developing countries and requires a lot of technical expertise.

Impact of Regional free trade agreements on WTO Regional trade agreements (RTAs) have grown at a high rate in the recent years. These trade agreements are aimed at reducing trade barriers within the member states in a given region. They are enacted in the belief that they will enhance economic growth and development among the member states. The increasing growth of regional trade and trade agreements has created interdependence between the trade partners (Khor, 2005, 1).

The terms of trade within a given regional trade only favors the members of the agreements and discriminates the non members. This has great impact on the World Trade Organization (WHO) whose aim is to enhance multilateral trade between nations.

The Regional trade agreements attempts to increase trade efficiency through eliminating tariff barriers. WHO tries to liberalize international trade and its mandate is to ensure that there is fair trade between nations in the world.

World Trade Organization is superior to the RTA but gives the member of the RTA a certain degree of autonomy. The members of the regional trade agreements are considered exceptional by the WHO. They are allowed to operate within the framework of the RTAs and may not be members of the WTO.

The regional free trade agreements have also improved interdependence and trade between member countries. Countries come together and agree to eliminate trade tariffs between themselves in order to make trade efficient and more beneficial to them. This is meant to promote economic growth between the countries.

There have been debates on whether Regional Free Trade Agreements (RFTA) promotes or undermines the WTO processes in eliminating trade and investment barriers. The economies that come together to form RFTA argue that they are heading towards realizing global trade liberalization that is a major goal of WHO.

It has not been made clear on how the RFTA complements WTO process and therefore the contribution of RFTA in WHO remains not fully unraveled. One of the principles of the WTO is to ensure there is non-discrimination in trade between the members. The members of WTO should be given equal treatment while trading with the other members because they operate under the same conditions.

The same terms applied by one member to another member should be the same to all members. RFTA discriminates non members because they do not apply the same conditions to members and non members. This contradicts the stipulations of the WTO and therefore there is no complementation.

Arguing in this direction, the RFTA are not headed towards assuring future multi-lateralization because they discriminate against non members. Despite this argument, it seem that GATT/WTO rules allows the RFTA to be discriminatory in nature because they categorize them as exceptional because they have potential to discriminate against non members.

Most economies are therefore claiming that RFTA are in keeping with the WTO. Non-discriminatory global free trade in this case is of great benefit to the trading partners as they enjoy the same tariffs for similar commodities. This shows that the superiority of WHO over RFTA is still in place (Viner, 1950, 12).

There is a big challenge in using RFTA in the evaluation of the multilateral rules because the RFTA have varied rules and may not be unified with ease. If RFTA could be allowed to run without any external interference, they can boost investment, labor and environment but may not be the best ground to measure the effectiveness of WTO.

The RFTA are mostly formed by likeminded economies and they are therefore effective regionally and domestically. Though RFTA may not directly meet the goals of WTO, they greatly develop the economies of the member counties. However, the same could be achieved through multilateral approach.

The RFTA may make investments by the member countries inefficient especially where there is proliferation of FTAs in various regions (Krueger, 1997, 8). This creates many rules and regulations that are hard to unify and therefore the partners belonging to more than one RFTA are unable to make investment decisions.

It may pose a challenge in identifying the rules, regulations and incentives that apply to a certain partner belonging to more than one trade pact. Proliferation of FTAs also causes a product to have different tariffs because the tariffs that apply in one region are different from the others (Schiff, 2000, 19).

This causes confusion to the member states as they are not able to make decisions with ease especially if they belong to more than one trade treaty. The presence of differing rates for the same product is against the principle of WTO that there should not be any form of discrimination among trading partners.

The prices of the same commodity will also bring conflict in the market because it will have different rates depending on the treaty that govern the country from which they are imported.

This will greatly hinder the realization of the goals of the WTO in those regions. Proliferation of FTAs with different terms and rules of trade if not well regulated, it may cause a stagnation of multilateral liberalization which is the main goal of GATT/WTO.

According to Rajan and colleagues (2001, 18), RFTAs emphasizes on integrating market operations for its member states in order to improve trade diversions and trade creation within the region covered. This creates new and competitive business environment that will increase productivity and also depreciates prices as appropriate in order to facilitate trade.

RFTAs also try to include in their framework the agreements on tax and investments that help boost the realization of WTO goals. Financial markets are also integrated and product standards between member state s are harmonized in order to ensure effective trade.

There also important issues like labor and environment that may not win immediate support from the WTO though they are important in multilateral trade liberalization (Findlay


Communications Plan for Gourmet Coffee Essay essay help online free

Evaluation of advertising and promotion programs for gourmet coffee When designing an advertisement and promotion program for a new product, the firm launching it must take into consideration several factors. For Gourmet coffee, several advertising programs can be designed and evaluated accordingly. The location of the business and the target market for this type of a product makes it reasonable to analyze the application of the following two promotion methodologies.

If the firm targets an overseas market through establishment of branches, using internet would prove to be the most applicable way to market this coffee. The success behind this is that the target market is reached with ease and at a lower cost.

To achieve success in evaluation of the advertising and promotion programs, Kudler fine foods can do the following:

determine the popularity of the product by utilizing the current inventory processes,

measure customer satisfaction through analysis of repurchases after launching,

check the responses or even solicit for feedback to help them understand their client needs better among other ways (Annon, 2010).

When designing the advertising and promotion strategy for a new product, for example solar charged laptops, the marketer has to consider the following factors; 1) the nature of competition. 2) The size and distribution of the market and the targeted consumer group, 3) the need that you are seeking to satisfy and the positioning plan that the firm wants to achieve in the target market (Engelhoff, 2009).

The successful way to market luxury cars is through exhibition. By having a real experience of what is being marketed makes a customer more attached to a product (Canfield, 2006). The unsuccessful way to market machines would be to use door to door marketing campaign. The reason is that a luxury car, being a Veblen good, requires personal planning even before the purchase is executed.

Effectiveness of direct marketing depends on the nature of the product being launched. Product like services and more personalized consumer goods are favored by this mode. Interactive marketing refers to marketing your product from the customers’ point of view derived from the past experience with them (Heinz, Karr,


Concept of Class Management in Education Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review


Research Questions

Reference List

Introduction Professionals of education and educational psychologists often describe the term class management in various ways such as the manner in which the teacher or instructor holds the business of running a classroom, an art which organizes different classroom procedures and activities and the act of managing the classroom, students and the instructional techniques.

Class management is a complex process and it includes multifaceted and contradicting activities. The central duty of a teacher is teaching his or her children but the teacher’s complementary duties are manifold and varied.

Numerous independent variables implicate this duty like the thoughts and maxim of the school, the written and practical discussion activities in the school, the teachers, the students, the involvement of parents and the rules and relations in schools. Skillful class management requires specific rules and regulations for the effective functioning of learning and teaching procedure.

A structured and well planned attitude from the teachers and students is also essential for effective class management. Students in a classroom have different cultural, religious and socio-economics backgrounds. Their intellectual abilities also differ from one another. Here the teacher’s role in a class room reaches complex level and it requires the ability of effective class room management.

Then ultimate aim of education is to facilitate a structured personality for children, and the teacher often plays the role of a social engineer in his or her classroom.

In the age of technologies and information the teacher’s role has confronted various challenges such as the use of instructional strategies, techniques, tools, psychological learning theories and assessment. Implementation of effective classroom management helps the teacher to improve the teaching process.

Literature review The term class management has a wide context and it plays a vital role in the process of education. Teacher’s competency and class room management are highly interrelated. One requires the other for effective functioning of the learning process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Robert T. Tauber states that “The connection between perceived teacher competency and successful classroom management has existed for more than150 years” (Tauber, 2007, p.5). Here the author remarks the inevitable connection between teacher and classroom management.

Class room management is widely accepted as one of the significant ingredients intended for middle and high school teachers for more than a few years.

The primary and important fact is that it is center to the duty of teaching, and not including superior administration practices the teacher’s occupation is a more difficult and But organization of classroom is a multifaceted process and contradicts the outside impression shaped by incalculable hours used up for a student.

According to Carolyn M. Evertson, and Carol Simon Weinstein several education institutions has followed good classroom management systems and therefore this good management helps to encourage student commitment and it generates chances to learning good subjects. But some schools have underprivileged managed arrangements, so it dissolves student’s time and attentiveness, and concentration.

Besides it decrease, knowledge and also depresses educational achievements. They point out that the teachers managerial abilities are very closely related to all students’ performance and character. Good classroom management helps to control student’s inappropriate activities and enable them to retain from troublemaking and interfering with the other student’s education practices.

The book entitled Handbook of classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues points out that “students’ beliefs about their behaviors guide their actions. Positive beliefs can lead to better classroom behavior, more respect for authority, and increased group participation.

To help perceive themselves positively, teachers must not overreact to a student’s poor behavioral history or academic achievement” Evertson


Research Methodology and Statistics Report (Assessment) essay help free

Various research approaches Correlation study

This is the study that uses statistical measures to identify the relationship existing between variables. One of the advantages is that it provides room for simple observation of variables in their original set-up. It also protects the results hence no room for manipulation. Its disadvantage is that it does not have the ability to relate variables (McMillan and Schumacher, 1993).

Gay, Mills, Geoffrey and Airasian (2006) define a correlation study as “a quantitative method of research in which you measure two variables for each individual. Its collected data determines whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables” (p. 191).

“Correlation study shows the relationship between two variables but do not give inner details and description on the mechanism of the relationship” (Gay et al., 2006, p. 11). In this study researchers are capable of making predictions on things having familiar correlation unlike in casual comparative study (LaFountain and Bartos, 2002, p.32).

Disadvantage is that it is not easy to remember correlational study since cause is not measured. Researchers are not able to “establish the cause of phenomena despite the existing relationship” (LaFountain and Bartos, 2002, p. 45).

Casual-comparative study

This is the method that reveals casual relationship existing between variables. It relates the subject in question to already available data provided by the management. The availability of management in this design helps in providing sufficient information for the study. However, in some instances in-depth study on independent variables is required so as to develop necessary test differences between groups.

Example is a research study done on the causes of death amongst the newborn babies, the researcher selects the record on actual cases of babies who have died within the first month of life and then record the ‘controls’ who are the babies who survives their first month of life.

The researcher then interviews the nurses to compare the history of these two groups in order to determine the prevailing risk factors that might have caused the deaths as opposed to survival (Holland et al., 1985).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advantage is that researchers are “able to make predictions” on things that their correlations are known unlike in casual comparative study (LaFountain and Bartos, 2002, p.34).

The variables used in this study cannot be manipulated, hence making this method desirable. This is quite different from other study methods like correlation. The study tries to “highlight the cause of the effect” making implementation easier (Resenthal and Rosnow, 1999, p. 190).

Disadvantage of Correlation is that is difficult to remember since causes are not measured. Researchers are not able to “establish causes of events despite the relationship” (LaFountain and Bartos, 2002, p.34). Also compared to other study types like quasi experimental study, casual-comparative does not provide “an actual or accurate data to the researcher” (Resenthal and Rosnow, 1999, p.222).

Quasi-experimental study

This study examines the results through comparison of subjects that receive program activities and the results of such similar group that do not receive program activities. The results before and after group’s participation are compared. The advantage of this type of experiment is that it has the ability to reveal causes and effects. Its disadvantage is that it cannot establish relationship between the results (Campbell and Stanley, 1963).

Quasi experiment can be very valuable in providing important information such as; detailed information about the population under study, information that identifies the expected changes and results, detailed data on the level of change that occurs over a period of time, it also provides information on the changing outcomes and those that do not change (Bogdan and Biklen, 2007).

Experimental study

This is the method where the variables defining one or more phenomena can be adjusted to suite the definition of other variables. One of the advantages is that it allows for direct manipulation and control of the independent variable. It limits any other explanations and allows direct casual relationship between variables.

One of the limitations is that it requires a laboratory for the experiment to be undertaken; this affects the outcome since the results are artificially generated. There is minimal control of variables and this may sometimes make the experiments difficult to undertake (Campbell and Stanley, 1963).

We will write a custom Assessment on Research Methodology and Statistics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sampling approaches Sampling is the process where a subgroup is picked from a population and then used as the main study phenomena to reveal the characteristics of the whole population. This makes it easy for the researcher to generalize the issues about the population based on the characteristics of the sample group.

Advantage of sampling methods is that it is easier to collect data from small number of participants. Large population can be described using several variables which might prove to be very expensive (Borg, Gall, and Gall, 1993; Gall, Borg and Gall, 1996).

The following are the different types of sampling approaches used;

Random sampling This is the non-systematic collection of samples from whole population. Every member within the population holds an equal opportunity to be included in the sample, all the process is based on chance. Example when one wants to identify preferred candidate for a post.

A list of citizens who are registered voters within the region is obtained, then the names are written on cards after which the cards are mixed and selected randomly based on chance. Advantage of this method is that it provides opportunity for participation of all subjects. This approach is preferred over others because it provides chance for general results.

For instance if there was a study to collect results from twenty people selected randomly or from 100 people selected using other methods, the small sample is found convenient to work with. Disadvantages include the fact that this method must have a list indicating all population members, it is also more expensive to conduct, time consuming and the data can be easily manipulated.

Stratified sampling In this approach, random samples are collected from identified groups within the population. Advantage of this approach is that it ensures there is proportional presentation of members from a particular group. The disadvantages is that it’s a bit complicated and requires a lot of input since each strata must be defined in a more careful way.

This approach is used where the population comprises of distinct sub-groups that must be studied. In this case accurate estimate of each sub-group is made by taking sample of adequate size from each stratum. Estimate of the whole population can be done by first knowing the total population of each strata then adding their estimates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Methodology and Statistics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cluster sampling This is where samples of successive groups are identified and divided into small units. Cluster sampling results in less accurate estimates of indicators as compared to random sampling. This is because participants found within the clusters may sometimes show similar characteristics.

One advantage of this sampling method is that it is possible to work with local list even without the list of population members; it is also possible to isolate members to avoid unnecessary contradictions. Disadvantage of this method is that sometimes it is difficult to “equate clusters in a level” due to differences in characteristics.

This calls for increase in the size of sample in order to find varied characteristics (Black, 1999, p 118; Wiersma, 1995). An example where it can be used is where population is spread over wide area posing some difficulty in data collection. Cluster sampling is used to concentrate fieldwork in specific clusters.

External and Internal Validity of a Study Gay, Mills, Geoffrey and Airasian (2006) defines validity as “the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure; a test is valid for a particular purpose for a particular group” (p153 and 603). Validity focuses on testing and measuring the intended phenomenon.

There are four types of validity; “Content validity indicates the level to which a test measures a sample of a whole population to establish its characteristics. Criterion validity indicates the capability of predicting test scores hence estimating performance based on the appraised test. While construct validity looks at mental interpretation of test performance” (Creswell, 2008, p172; Gay et al., 2006, p.152).

Internal validity is a case where the research is examined to reveal whether it demonstrated any valid relationship between the variables under study (Patton, 1990). The study is considered internally valid in a case where the effects on dependant variable are due to the differences that exist between independent variables.

Threats to internal validity include; past events, growth, testing, human disadvantages and effects from instruments, statistical regression, selection, mortality and imitation of treatments. On the other hand External validity presents ways on which findings are generalized across entire population or subjects under investigation (Altheide and Johnson, 1994).

Threats to external validity include; “relationship between treatment and attributes, relationship between treatment and setting, conflict between multiple and treatment, pretest and post-test sensitization” (Gay et al., 2008, pp241-247).

External and internal validity are related in that as more controls are implemented which increases the internal validity; the generalization of the experiment reduces. There are several threats that affect validity; however the researcher need to take some necessary measures which include; avoid using pretest results if at all it might have some effects on the posttest results (Katzer, Cook and Crouch, 1998).

Also the length of the treatment period should be shortened when there is prediction that the objects used may not survive the treatment period set, dividing the subjects into half if at all the post-test may differ from the pre-test results. Prediction of non-performance of subjects on an experimental task leads to development of an alternative instruction manual (Brownell, 1992).

To strengthen internal validity researchers must identify all potential barriers before running an experiment. Researchers need to implement control techniques such as balancing samples through random selection. They should further use appropriate experimental designs.

Strengthening of external validity involves experimenting on a phenomenon within labs that are free from real world duplicates. Researchers also need to find out if the environment in the laboratory is the same as that in real world.

Example: A researcher compares the scores of students on discussion question versus those who do not explain their points on the same questions (Yin, 1994). If the findings indicate that those who discuss questions score significantly higher than the other group, it implies that discussion of questions is effective.

If at all the students who elaborate on questions are given more exercises on how to answer the questions than those who do not, then there is involvement of extraneous variable which weakens the quality and validity of the experiment (Cooper and Schindler, 2001; Leedy, 1997).

Example: The percentage change in the incidence of crime in the 106th Precinct may have been the result of the normal decline in crime experienced during the fall of the year and may have had little or nothing to do with 15% increase patrol officers.

The decrease in crime experienced may be attributed to any of these factors; increased patrol effects, low crime due to season, or both factors. The study is considered to be logically confounded since there was no control on seasonal variation in crime (Friel, 2010).

Statistics A variable is a subject that is measured in a research study; it can be in form of an object, event or any other measurable category. It is divided into independent and dependent variable (Hittleman and Simon, 2006; Creswell, 2008). An independent variable is a variable whose characteristics are not changed by other variables, it stands alone. Examples include; “age, gender and training course” (Creswell, 2008, p. 306).

While dependent variable is that variable which depends on other factors, it is subject to change depending on how it is influenced by others (Gay and Airasian, 2000, pp 571-590). A good example is “frequency of smoking” (Creswell, 2008, p. 306).

Case study I

In this case the independent variable include teaching, this is because other factors such as new technology, student’s attitude might not change the meaning. Dependent variables include; student’s attitude, technology, Professor, and students. Student’s attitude is subject to change depending on the interest towards the subject and the teacher involved.

Technology is subject to change depending on people’s ideas and its level of effectiveness. Professor is subject to change depending on how he/she adjusts to the new technology. The student’s are also subject to change depending on how involving the new technology is, they might improve on their study performance or not. This is non-experimental research since the independent variables cannot be measured but only observed.

The statistical method to be used in this study is the unpaired t-test since in both groups students and teachers are independent of each other while the teaching process remains continuous (Creswell, 1994; Glass and Hopkins, 1984). Sample size n= 56 representing only one group, sample mean u= 28 STD deviation = 31.113 Variance = 968.01

Case study II

In this case the dependent variable is the reinforcement schedules since the schedules can only be observed and not controlled. While the independent variables are the rein forcers (i.e. food, money and token) since they can easily be manipulated by the experimenter (Hart, 1998).

In this case unpaired t-test will be used since the parameters are continuous and distributed. Comparison is to be made of the continuous distribution parameter in more than two independent variables; ANOVA will be used to generalize the unpaired t-test. This is an experimental research since the independent variables can be manipulated.

Case Study III

In this case independent variable is the student achievement since it can be controlled and adjusted. While the dependent variable is their Scholastic Aptitude Test since it cannot be controlled it is natural. This is non experimental since the researcher cannot manipulate the results (Stake, 1995).

Correlation analysis is suited for the analysis of this case; this is because the study tends to examine the strength of correlation between two variables that is SAT and scores. The paired t-test is recommended for this study since there are continuous parameters is distributed and compared in more than one paired group (Giddens, 1984; Gay, Mills, Geoffrey, Airasian, 2008).

References Altheide, D. L.,


Motivational Theories and Organizational Performance Relations Synthesis Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Equity Theory

Expectancy Theory

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

Motivational Theories at Belcher limited


Works Cited

Introduction Remuneration and reward of employees are some of the ways that can be used to retain employees. By reward we mean that the efforts of the employee are recognized. Singling out and rewarding workers inspires them to look for ways of undertaking their tasks effectively and lack of it can completely dishearten them. A reward system has to be effective and able to instil the desired behaviour for efficient performance.

The reward system can either use financial mechanism or non-financial. People need to be encouraged and appreciated in order to achieve their mission and that of others. Motivation is the act of encouraging someone to carry out a task better than he intended to. It is common for employees to take up jobs because of the motivation they get. Failure to motivate employees may result in poor performance of a company.

There are generally many forms of motivation, for instance, some employees are motivated by the challenges they encounter while carrying out their tasks, others are motivated by the attention they attract, while majority are motivated by the amount of money they expect to earn.

The last factor plays a great role in the success of every person, most people stay in jobs because of the pay scale, the incentives, and rewards they get from their employer. This paper will look at some motivational theories as it tries to relate them with an organizational performance.

Equity Theory Equity theory is one of the theories of motivation. It is used to describe the relationship between employees and the motivation they get to work hard and their perception about fair treatment in the work place. For a long time, employers have considered their employees as just inputs to be used for the production of goods and services.

However, this perception is gradually fading as employers get more and more enlightened about motivating their employees. From research, it is clear that, employees are not only motivated by money, but also their attitudes. The equity theory was first developed by John Adams in early 1963.

Adams was a behavioural psychologist who held that, employees are always seeking for equity between the outcomes they get out of their efforts and the inputs they bring into a company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An employee inputs are the positive contribution he makes for the betterment of an organization including the work he does, his skills, behaviour, and experience while outcomes are the rewards he gets out of his hard work, this may be in the form of appreciation, promotion, incentives, salary rise, to name but a few (Jonathan 650).

Fair treatment is a virtue that motivates employees to work hard for an organization and also to maintain a good working environment with their co-workers. When employees perceive themselves as being over or under rewarded, they may experience distress which may cause the organization to bring back equity in the relationship.

Equity can be computed in terms of individual employee’s contribution and the accrued benefits (Anon. “Adams’ Equity theory” 2). This means that, the partner who contributes less (in terms of investment, or other financial resources) receives fewer benefits (in terms of financial rewards, love, or financial security).

Lack of equity, in the form of underpayment may provoke anger whereas overpayment results in guilt. The major point of concern is the pecuniary reward received (whether in the form of wages or salary) and it is thus the central cause of equity or lack of the same (Diefendorff 489).

When an employee feels that his contributions are not recognized in terms of pay, he tends to become hostile towards the organization and his performance drops. He no longer works to boost the performance of the organization but just to maintain his job position.

This is when employees starts taking sick leaves or searching for other jobs. Having realized this, all organization should give priority to employee satisfaction since they are the ones responsible for its success (Denise 20).

Expectancy Theory According to Taylor (117), the expectancy theory is concerned with the mental processes that an employee goes through before making a choice. It tries to describe the relation between rewards and performance. Employees perceive that they should be given rewards that consummate with their organizational performance.

We will write a custom Essay on Motivational Theories and Organizational Performance Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a form of organizational behaviour that holds that, employees are likely to perform better if they perceive their rewards to be high. This motivation theory was proposed by Victor Vroom, a management specialist in Yale.

It predicts that, majority of employees will seem to be motivated if they suppose that the reward they expect to get is directly proportional to the work done, and if they value the rewards expected from the organization (Swamson 6).

This theory emphasizes on the need to base reward on an individual’s performance. These rewards should be able to offset the work done by the employees. It is only through this considerate rewarding that employees are motivated to work even harder because they expect the rewards to rise as their performance rises.

Expectancy theory can also be used to describe employee’s behaviour in the work place. If an employee is not well competent in a given area, no reward mechanism can motivate him to perform better. It is therefore important for all organizations to consider the individuals’ personal factors before deciding which reward mechanism to use on them.

This is because, an organization may increase the expected rewards for a particular employee as a way of motivating him to work harder but, if the respective employee does not possess the qualities needed for the job; the increase in rewards will not result in comparable improvement in performance (Lawrence 190).

According to Vroom, there are three variables in the theory of expectancy, these are: Expectancy denoted as E, Valance (V), and instrumentality (I). Expectancy is the belief held by an employee that a specific action will result in a given level of outcome, valance can be defined as the strength of an individual towards achieving a preferred outcome (Smith and Mazin 60).

This valance has to be positive if the individual expects to achieve the preferred outcome. On the other hand, instrumentality can be defined as the extent to which the achievement of first level outcomes determines the achievement of the second level.

All these factors describe the relationship between employee’s behaviour and the level of expected outcome. The higher the level of outcome, the better the behaviour of employees and the reverse is true (Richard 243).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Motivational Theories and Organizational Performance Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Abraham Maslow (a researcher), explored the connection between reward and motivation and came up with a theory called Maslow’s hierarchy of need. Maslow discovered that human beings have different types of needs that they want to be met. They include; basic needs security, self esteem, self actualization, and group needs. To fulfil these needs, sets of motivating rewards have to be used.

Some of the basic needs can be fulfilled through provision of good standards of living by means of honest pay structures (Anon. “Human needs and rewards” 1). Provision of secure working environment coupled with training on safety and health issues can assist in meeting the security needs of the employees.

On the other hand, reward systems on job promotion based on employee’s efforts, skills, and experience can help in raising their self esteem and meet the needs that come with it. Employees’ team working groups that are well structured with good communication help in fulfilling the group needs.

Self actualization needs can be fulfilled by encouraging employee developments by use of appraisal tool where employees gauge their performance. The HRM should use a reward system that helps in meeting most of employees’ needs. This will encourage employees and motivate them to work harder to achieve the organizations goals and objectives.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Herzberg’s two factor theory was developed after carrying out an interview among 203 American employees. Each employee was asked whether they were satisfied in any of the jobs they had taken. They all gave some positive and negative sides of each job and commented that, one is faced with different challenges when he changes the work environment.

Herzberg wanted to know whether there are other factors for employee satisfaction other than rewards (Storey 61). He found out that, employees are normally satisfied (or dissatisfied) with their job because of the motivators put in place (such as recognition).

There are other factors called hygiene factors (such as job security, salary, and other benefits) which do not give positive satisfaction although their absence normally results in employee dissatisfaction.

Motivation factors are used to motivate employees to work harder for better performance whereas hygiene factors are necessary in ensuring that an employee does not get dissatisfied with the work done.

They are merely put in place to provide a favourable atmosphere for the employees but do not necessary motivate them to work. However, both factors have to be present if an organization has to perform well in the ever changing global market (Bohlander 40).

Motivational Theories at Belcher limited The boss of Belcher Limited, Mr. Smith, did not use any of the motivational theories discussed above. For instance, Miss Emily was not given a fair salary merit. She had made a lot of contributions in her first year of employment which was not given recognition. Mr. Smith did not even approve some of her ideas and gave no explanation for the decline. This disheartened Emily and discouraged her from coming out with new ideas.

It is clear that, Mr. Smith did not use the equity theory of motivation; all the employees in the accounts department were given equal salary merit (6 percent) irrespective of the contribution they had made in the company. To make it worse, one of the employees (who had been hired recently) got the highest salary merit (10 percent) simply because he was a favourite of the boss.

We have seen that, the kind of reward given to any employee should be equivalent to the contributions made since this is one of the ways of motivating employees. Giving the new employee a ten percent salary merit did not only discourage the others, but also was not a prudent move on the part of the company. This is because reward scheme should be positively related to the work done, individual’s experience, and skills.

Expectancy theory suggests that, employees make choices on how to work depending on the reward they expect to get at the end of the day. If an employee is assured of getting a higher reward for the efforts he put, then there is a likelihood of him performing better (Likert 80). However, this is not the case at Belcher limited, the reward system seems to be static and is not influenced by individual performance.

Emily received the same salary merit as all the other employees although her performance was far above the others. This discouraged her and she was not even sure of what to expect in her second year of employment. This changed her organizational behaviour and general perspective of her work, she choose to take few days sick leave even though she was not sick.

She even declined from giving more ideas to the company and chose to remain silent just like the others. This is a clear indication that, if an organization wants to succeed, it must recognize and reward the efforts of the work force, failure to do so results in poor performance which in turn lowers production of the organization (Halepota 18).

Emily was satisfied with her job not because of the motivation it gave her, but because of the hygiene factors. She was assured of a fixed salary, job security, and other benefits including sick leave. She just enjoyed working like the others, making friends, taking some time off but was not motivated to put an extra effort.

She even started looking for another job where she could get the motivation she needed because she knew that, she had a lot of potential that needed some recognition and motivation. If Belcher wants to retain its employees, it has to use all the motivation theories discussed above.

As the employees meet the organization’s expectations, it is important for the organization to realize that the employees also have their targets that they want to be met. The employee must be appraised appropriately to enable the human resources department recognize the areas that need to be improved (Bratton and Gold 100). Those who have attained the expectations of the management should be rewarded accordingly

Conclusion Few are the times when supervisors recommend employees for any task well done. They forget that employees are normal beings who feel good if appreciated. Research has proved that, recognition and praise from supervisors and managers is one of the most important reward mechanism for motivating employees.

Employees feel motivated when their contribution to the organization is noticed and appreciated. Supervisors should recognize the value of employees in the organization and the importance of thanking them either through writing or verbally for their precise contributions.

Works Cited Anonymous. Human needs and rewards. Web.

Anonymous. Adams’ Equity theory. Balancing employee inputs and outputs. Web.

Bohlander, George


Promotion Strategies in Effective Marketing Plans Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Discussion To ensure that the rapid diagnostic product achieves success in the market, an effective marketing plan that differentiates the company in the market place should be set up elaborately. This is intended to offer the company an excellent opportunity for early success. The marketing plan incorporates key elements that would help commercialize the rapid diagnostic products effectively.

These key elements include: promotional literature and advertising material; promotional newsletter; customer training workshops; medical/scientific trade exhibitions such as, the media; domestic promotion that includes mailings and telephone contacts; specific target product mailings conducted monthly; key journal advertising; internet home page; presentation and publication of scientific papers; international distribution meetings; multimedia presentations on notebooks and desktop computers; distribution of multimedia presentation on CD; and press releases.

Promotion Literature Advertising will be the major promotional element the company will use to penetrate the market. It will be used both to establish the rapid diagnostic product in the market and increase its sales.

Through advertising in medical and scientific journals, the market will be informed of the very existence of the product and, specifically, its pharmacological, chemical, and physical properties. Clients will be persuaded to use for the cure, prevention, or treatment of disease (Stephens, 2005).

The advertising will adhere to six specific principles; the central sales idea, uniformity of presentation, protested promotion, split second timing, overwhelming of clinicians, and advertising behind advertising.

A central idea will be developed by emphasizing the physical, the chemical or pharmacological properties of the product. It will also include its mode of administration, side effects, and contraindications. The aim will be to differentiate the product from existing competitive products, thereby offering the product uniqueness in its class (Kurtz, 2009).

Uniformity of presentation will include the proper coordination of all promotional activities, including detailing, direct mail and advertising (Kotler, 2000). The advertising material will be protested on selected practicing medical practitioners in selected localities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will be aimed at evaluating the product purpose and effectiveness, so that necessary alterations could be made in the final product. Split second timing of promotion will involve simultaneous distribution of the product, detailing, direct mail, and journal advertising.

The Internet Homepage The internet would provide the most powerful medium for promoting the rapid diagnostic products to the market (Can’t, 2009). The internet has a multimedia nature combined with its capacity to deliver huge amounts of product information to users. This means that it is an effective medium for advertising and promoting products.

Through the internet, the company would not only publicise the products on the net, but also advertise the products to a global public at a fraction of the cost of traditional advertising (Paley, 2000). It is easy to update and expand through the internet. The internet would provide no real limit on how information on the product can be made available to clients.

Furthermore, the company can focus on the product, offering video clips, detailed graphics, photographs and animations, in addition to text. This will enable it to provide more detail not possible with other advertising media (Can’t, 2009).

Promotional Newsletter The company can utilize the email facility of most web browsers in conjunction with lists of addresses to dispatch out e-mail with advertising slants. Although hardcore advertising is generally frowned upon in the e-mail in the e-mail world, the company can create an e-newsletter that provides value added information that would be important to a select group of prospects.

The company will utilize its website to promote the e-newsletter; encouraging visitors to subscribe to the newsletter with the promise that they will be getting necessary information related to the company products. This assists the viewer to initiate contact with the e-newsletter rather than being forced on them.

The company will benefit from the advertising as it will be associated with the newsletter as long as it is a good newsletter. The newsletter will also enable the company to unobtrusively advertise its products and services (Loudon, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on Promotion Strategies in Effective Marketing Plans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Customer Trainings Workshops The company will strive to offer medical training to both its sales force and clients through training and workshops. Training and workshops will concentrate on supporting clients, and promoting professional and online information for customers.

Customer training and workshops will offer clients medical education on the products through strategy, content development, and online broadcast conferences and events. The workshops will bring the medical experts and allow leaders in the medical industry to interact with sales professional through various medical simulations (Paley, 2000).

Medical Science trade Exhibitions The company will take advantage of trade exhibitions to promote the product. Stalls for exhibitions will professionally be designed. The company will engage an advertising agency to provide the design. Promotional materials will be printed and distributed.

Gifts such as wall calendars will be provided for those who visit the stall. These arrangements will be made well in advance and carried to the exhibition site. The company will also provide enough manpower to put up the stall during the exhibition (Kotler, 2000).

Domestic promotions The company will make use of direct mailings for its domestic promotions. This will be a mechanism for disseminating unsolicited and solicited information abut the product. Unsolicited information will be that which is received without having been requested or subscribed for.

Among the materials that will be available by this mechanism shall be direct mailings about the medical products and advertisements from product distributors. Unsolicited materials through the mail will be an important source of medical information for both lay people and medical professionals. The company will use the mails to send literature in response to direct requests or to people on the mailing lists (Loudon, 2004).

Specific Target Program Mailings The company will carefully consider what type of clients to target and the product to promote. The company will establish specific objectives that will be measurable. These objectives will be related to improved medical service to clients, enhance client education on certain topics on the product and enhance target goals for utilization of the products.

The objectives will be program based to assist in deciding on target market (Physicians and patients). The objective will also develop communication methods for offering the product to the target market (Kotler, 2000).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Promotion Strategies in Effective Marketing Plans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Key Journal Advertising Professional journal advertising that shall be engaged by the company will adhere to the medical associations of most countries. Before publishing, the company will ensure that it passes through censorship to comply.

Such requirements expected to be met will include: the advertisement clearly identifying the advertiser and the product; ensuring that the advertisement is not deceptive and misleading; ensuring that the layout, art work and format are such as to avoid confusion with editorial content of publication (Westwood, 2001).

The company will not engage in unfair comparisons and unwarranted disparagement of competitors products. In sum, the advertisement will conform to the principles of clinical ethics.

Multi media Presentation The use of multimedia will be aimed at making communications more efficient and effective, thus assisting the company to accurately discern the need for change and to formulate and implement an appropriate response.

Multimedia communication will enhance the company’s ability to enrich the customer, cooperate to enhance competiveness, organize to master change and uncertainty, and leverage the impact of people and information. Multimedia will contribute to the strategic thrust that facilitates agility and long term success for the company (Paley, 2000).

Multimedia will effectively be utilized in promoting products to customers. The company will utilize the web as a popular medium of delivery of multimedia promotions. The company will utilize web pages using a rich combination of media in promotions.

The web pages will be endowed with pictures to show products, text that describe the product, graphs and charts that further highlight desirable performance characteristics of products and more. Videos could also be included to the clients to see the product in action.

This will deliver a customer testimonial that actually indicates a satisfied customer using the product. The effective use of multimedia on web pages will be a powerful tool for persuasion (Luther, 2001).

Distribution of Multimedia Presentation on CD The multimedia will be employed effectively to provide clients with added value for sale. It will be used to offer assembly and operating instructions, to deliver information on other products that might, based on customers profile be of importance to customers. The will strive to offer customers the product with a video tape as a substitute to a traditional paper assembly and operating instructions manual for the use of the products.

The video will provide instructions on how to use the product. Multimedia presentation on CD-ROM is another medium that will be used effectively by the company for the delivery of multimedia after-sale customer support.

The important advantages targeted will be the capacity to support greater customer interaction and a delivery of a combination of media. CD-Rom based multimedia manuals will allow users to have more choice about the nature of assistance they receive. CD-ROM based multimedia manuals will designed to offer clients options from which to select a form of assistance appropriate for them (Kotler, 2000).

International Distributor Meetings International sales distribution will cover the sales and logistic processes. These sales processes will involve the acquisition of orders. Product sales will start with location of the final demand for the products and services. This is the stage closest to the client, so it interprets requirement patterns and preferences and transmits external client orders.

These external orders are expected to come directly from ultimate clients or from intermediary institutions directly. The orders will then be translated into specific supply chain activities, such as; processing of orders, operations of distribution centres, and holding and control of stocks (Westwood, 2001).

The sales processes will be aimed at creating client loyalty and the performance of the chain. Logistic processes which includes the design of the physical distribution process, order processing and delivery will be carefully designed. International distributors meetings will assist monitor the dynamics in the market environment that might influence product distribution.

In addition, the company will provide graphics such as; logos and photos to country operations. The company’s overseas distributors will take advantage of annual international distributor meetings to discuss promotional practices with their head office counterparts (Can’t, 2009).

The company will have alternative strategies to spell out how the company’s resources shall be combined and adapted to market needs. The company’s international marketers will form communication programs for application in targeted markets. These programs will include; advertising, personal selling, publicity, and sponsorship (Can’t, 2009).

Promotion through Press releases The company will engage in full gear public relations. This will ensure non-personal stimulation of demand for the product by paid placement of important news regarding the product in a print or broadcast medium. This will be aimed at creating the products credibility for advertising to follow. The company will generate publicity by creating special events, holding press conferences, and preparing news releases and media kits.

Through press releases, the company will operate cost effectively and will get an easy way to get free publicity and generate interest and sales for the product. The press releases will also assist the company in generating tons of enquiries from a single press release send to a list of journals that serve the market (Loudon, 2004).

Conclusion In sum, proper coordination of all activities will be ensured to achieve promotional strategies (Westwood, 2001). By overwhelming the medical practitioner, the company will try to keep clients informed about its products through the promotional cycle (Stapleton, 1998).

This will include informing them of the name of the product, explaining the story of the product, what the product is used for, convincing them on its clinical effectiveness, informing of progress of the company, and dispatching samples of the product, for the purpose of maintaining the name of the company to remain fresh in their minds (Loudon, 2004).

Reference List Can’t, M. (2009). Marketing Management. New York: Routledge.

Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing Management. London: Blackwell Publishers.

Kurtz, D., Mackenzie, F.,


Blue Mountains Hotel College International Business Report essay help site:edu

Executive Summary Globalization is an aspect that is transforming major corporations of the world. The corporations that find themselves strategically placed and positioned with necessary resources have exploited the opportunities presented by the globalization of economies. As such, the new century presents an opportunity to many organizations to align their goals with international goals if any meaningful growth is to be realized.

Blue Mountains Hotel College is a hospitality institution found in Australia, which is in the process of internationalizing and entering the Indian market.

As such, a detailed report of the general business environment was carried out where it became evident that to enter the foreign market, especially in the Asian countries effectively, factors of political, social, economical, cultural, and religious and legal have to be considered.

In addition, it is clear that Australian way of doing differs greatly with that of India hence need to scan the business environments necessary before venturing. Porter’s four generic factors model was used where it was identified that the college has the potential and necessary resources to facilitate joint venture in the Indian market to due demand of hospitality human resources.

Although competition in India from other nations is present, the college’s opportunity of exploring training opportunities in the country’s are viable since less competitors are yet to put their ventures in this area.

Further, it was identified that an effective, committed, and culturally sensitive management is key to ensure foreign investment succeeds and grows. On overall, the decision to obtain a joint venture in Indian market was established to be viable and of benefit to the institution.

Introduction Today, many economists and business experts have predicted that no particular business can claim to be purely domestic, where global competition and world events (Yadong, 1999, p.3) affect even the smallest local firms. As a fate would dictate, the realities of the modern world are almost turning all business international.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most businesses are being characterized by shift from domestic concentration and embracing a higher degree of internationalization, a process that is posing many challenges for many companies (Yadong, 1999, p.3). Australia is one of the countries that are experiencing the effect of many of their businesses turning global.

Almost from all key sectors, Australia’s companies are establishing joint ventures with other companies especially in the developing economies, examples of such companies include: ”ANZ Mortgage Solutions, Jenny Craig Weight Loss Centers, Life Resolutions, Terry White Chemists, Forty Winks and Red Clean” (Young, n.d, p.1).

For instance, Australian Company Cookie Man has established an Indo-Australian joint venture in the Indian Market since 2000 (Young, n.d, p.1).

The Blue Mountains Hotel College Australia has many institutions that have invested in training professionals in the hospitality industry. Today, tourism sector in the country is booming a situation that has necessitate need to train highly qualified personnel. One such institution taking up that role is Blue Mountains International Hotel College, an institution established in 1991.

The college is completely a residential private college with diverse composition of students, found in the renowned gorgeous World-Heritage Blue Mountains, one of the Australia’s popular tourist destinations (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

The college is a higher education institution involved in provision and delivery of hotel and resort and tourism management training that later enable the student to qualify for a Bachelor of Business degree at the University of Queensland (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

The college has since its establishment dedicated much time in training and providing the students with a perfect working and living environment that which at the same time recognize, respect and promote multicultural interaction and association among its students.

We will write a custom Report on Blue Mountains Hotel College International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, the college prides in having one of the premier well-developed programs that have potential and capability to introduce students to international careers and opportunities (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

Still operating within its vision, the college is engaged in concerted effort to develop and nurture strong industry partnership that can be useful in enabling the industry to engage in current issues through provision of continuous education pathways and professional development programs (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

The institution throughout the period it has been in operation has maintained its commitment of nurturing a highly qualified student body by developing and providing relevant and current knowledge coupled with necessary skills to its students.

The aim has been to ensure the college’s graduates are well-equipped, highly motivated with critical-thinking skills when carrying out their duties (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education n.d, p.1). The institution’s mission and vision postulate that the objective of the college is to develop, design and promote training based on the industry and dynamisms of the industry.

This is to be achieved through incorporating knowledge of business, finance, marketing, organizational administration and operation, communication and technology and lastly research and consultancy, which are fast becoming the necessary requirements in hospitality industry (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

To ensure the academic standards of the institution are being promoted on higher level, the college has an on-campus ‘virtual’ hotel; the college also invites numerous human resource managers and other senior managers from different hotel groups and properties to the campus to give key talks and recruit the graduates.

To ensure realization of the goals and objectives of the college, the college always recruits the best human resource personnel as staff members and managers.

In most cases, the staff is drawn from the highly skilled pool of national and international professionals who have to carry out training of students by putting into consideration factors such as student’s level of skill, personality and preferences (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Blue Mountains Hotel College International Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As part of its strategy, the college has created a program known as Graduate Privileged Partners Program, where key industry managers are invited to carry out recruitment of final year graduates to their industries (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

At the same time, the college has collaborated with the School of Tourism at the University of Queensland where the college delivers the university’s Bachelor of Business degree courses. Known world-wide, university of Queensland is one of the best universities in Australia and the world (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1).

In recent times, the college has continued to realize growth and expansion both in student population, infrastructure and financial, an opportunity that has prompted the college to weigh the options and viability of venturing in one of the Asian counties.

In addition, its management believes a joint venture with one of the Asian countries will be beneficial to the college in terms of extending its operations in international environment. Therefore, the college’s CEO directed a thorough analysis of the viability of joint venture in the Asian environment, the opportunities presented and the threats available in pursuing such a decision.

Therefore, in preparing the report, a thorough analysis of the environment – political, economic, social, and cultural will be undertaken before giving recommendations on the viability of the joint venture.

Business in Australia Australia, described as a large country with a small population, has numerous parts that remain uninhabited, as most people prefer to stay in urban areas (World Business Culture, n.d, p.1). As a result, the country lacks a substantial domestic market that can spur fast growth to any business venture.

The country has further been described as geographically isolated, a situation forcing most of the country’s businesses to recognize and appreciate the role and need for international markets a situation that is providing most companies with hope to future prosperity (World Business Culture, n.d, p.1).

Moreover, in the past, businesses in Australia have been seen to show less interest or being slow to embrace challenges of internationalization (Jupp 2001).

A map showing different parts of Australia

Source: Lonely planet. Web.

Many business and cultural writers have noted that Australia’s business environment and culture are characterized by the ideas of egalitarianism, where people widely do not give the impression that, they hold a particular rank and therefore, they are ‘somebody’ (World Business Culture, n.d, p.1).

At the same time, many people, especially managers, prefer just to be known as ‘good mate’ (International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education, n.d, p.1). From this, most Australian business people are less risk-takers, where at the same most business structures show an element of non-hierarchical (World Business Culture, n.d, p.1).

In this country, people and managers pay less attention to titles and ranks in an organization since status is much ascribed through achievement instead of the organizational position (World Business Culture n.d, p.1).

Australia society largely shows tendencies of egalitarianism with two common components characterizing it: sameness and equality (Chhokar and House 2007). In terms of management style, most Australians managers do not portray tendencies of superiority to their colleagues and any form of authoritarian style of managing a company or business is always disliked as it may invite hostility.

In most cases, the management promotes consultative style of management putting everybody in the channels of making decisions, and during such consultations, juniors have opportunity even to challenge their managers.

Pragmatism is the fundamental element that continues to dominate management style of Australian managers where at the same time; the managers promote and facilitate socialization among the business’s members.

In terms of communication, Australians like and put emphasis on directness before diplomacy and people are expected to mean what they say; in addition, any form of self-promotional is a disliked form of interaction to most Australians.

Moreover, working in business as a team player is an aspect that thrills most Australians and when a manager creates a positive and cloistered feel in the business, the operations of the business become easier.

For example, in Australia, one will hear words like, “eating humble pie, eating crow, not getting above oneself, not being up yourself, being happy to take a back seat and not putting yourself forward” (Strom n.d, p.1). In other words, any form of self-promotional is a disliked form of interaction to most Australians.

Globalization and multinational enterprises (MNEs) Globalization, as a term has assumed numerous definitions and understanding. For instance, different schools explain what constitutes globalization, whereby there are those who view globalization as a process that is giving birth to homogenization of markets and cultures or the increasing interconnectivity and integration into a single economic unit where barriers of trade have been eliminated (Aniruddha, 2009).

Further, there are those who consider globalization as an opportunity where a firm operates on a global scale and where manufacturing takes place in numerous countries (Aniruddha, 2009).

On their part, Robert Keohane and Nye see globalization to constitute instances of interdependence, and they describe globalization as, “a state of world involving networks of interdependence at multi-continental distances; and for the linkage to occur, it must take place through flows and influences of capital and goods, information and ideas, and people and forces as well as environmentally and biologically relevant substances” (Keohane and Nye, 2000, p.1).

On providing its definition, the IMF through its World Economic Outlook publication described globalization as “the growing interdependence of countries world-wide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology” (Gender and Health Project, n.d).

In addition, globalization has led to increased opportunities in the possibility of boundless growth and prosperity for both the developed and developing countries (Johnson and Turner, 2010, p.5).

The process of globalization has been associated with key globalization drivers: the changing economic paradigm from demand management to neo-liberalism, the assumption of this point is that the current widespread international interdependence of economics has been realized because of the increasing acceptance of economic liberalism as the best method of managing economies (Johnson and Turner, 2010).

Economic liberalism is a concept that was promoted in broadway by organizations such as GATT, which agitated for removal of trade barriers among the nations.

Later, organizations such as WTO came in with calls for non-tariff barriers before later IMF, through its structural adjustments programs, calling for reduction of trade barriers and liberalization of capital markets (Held and McGrew 2007).

Today, the extension of competitive liberalism into domestic economic policy has accelerated the complexity of interdependence and deepened the globalization with numerous implications to the corporate strategies and behavior.

In other word corporations such as those in Australia are finding it easier to carry out businesses in societies that earlier it was difficult to do so. The decline of trade and economic barriers makes it easier for Australian corporations to establish joint ventures in other regions of the world.

The spread of international governance and regulation, while the restrictive legal and trade barriers became eliminated in accordance to growing economic liberalism, it became easier for countries to transact their businesses across boarders with easiness, and appropriate location of policies to regulate the business environment became the major concern.

As a result, the spread of technical standards, competitive policy and labor standards dominated international trade debates for MNEs that were locating to other countries (Johnson and Turner, 2010). What became evident was the movement to more deep integration as suppressive trade barriers became extinct.

In finance and capital spread, progress in international business activities as a result of globalization has been spurred by parallel movement of capital and finance whereby factors such as deregulation, liberalization and technical changes have merged together to change the finance sector with objective of providing the necessary help to the trans-national transactions (Johnson and Turner, 2010).

Numerous reforms, both by the domestic and international bodies like World Bank and IMF have resulted into emergence of non-discriminatory national treatment and market access to financial services.

In diffusion of information and communication technology, globalization process has benefited a lot from the redefinition and reorganization of commercial and economic opportunities (Johnson and Turner, 2010).

It has resulted into key restructuring of the manufacturing system, lowering and speeding up transportation and communication. As such, technological advancement is making it inevitable and irreversible for the globalization process.

In relation to social and cultural convergence, global liberalization and advancement in technology have led to growth in the degree of social and cultural convergence, which in essence is one of the pre-condition for globalization (Johnson and Turner, 2010).

Though numerous local and national cultures are still strong and influential, the importance of global in terms of multilateral activities is spreading at a faster rate and this is being realized through mass media and the power of internet (Johnson and Turner, 2010).

Moreover, the emerging global consumer is driving many companies to be involved in constant creation of global products that have the ability to be accepted in the global market.

Asian market and culture Numerous literature exist on the potential ability of Asian countries to change the world economy in the near future dramatically (Muder, 2010). The same literature predict that the presence of international contact with professionals from this region is going to be high; hence, the region appears potentially placed for commercial and other key activities to proliferate (Muder, 2010).

First, most Asians countries culture is characterized by collectivism rather than individualism mostly demonstrated by western managers (Muder, 2010). The worker identifies himself or herself with the larger group, while business is carried out in a slower, deliberate fashion and anybody who appears to be fast is likely not to go far, and aggressive proposals are largely distasteful in this region (Muder, 2010).

Moreover, most countries in Asian region prefer establishment of strong business relationships based on trust and respect (Muder, 2010) while at the same time, status and rank are highly revered in the country than in Australia.

In particular, doing business in India requires one to have adequate knowledge of the complex Indian culture (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1). For instance, those who want to venture into the country have described India as a country to be highly diverse and complex phenomenon making it difficult to impart general conclusions (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1).

Regionalism, religion, caste, and language have come out as the key factors that need to be thoroughly considered by the potential foreign investors in the country. In India, English constitute the language of doing business although numerous local languages exist (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1).

In addition, hierarchy is very vital and strictly observed, which gives definition to people’s roles, status, and social order (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1). Further, doing business in India when meeting for the first time the handshake is very important and when addressing the Indians, it is always important to use appropriate and formal title, though Sir or Madam are appropriate when unsure of the title (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1).

In addition, on the first-day business, cards play an important role in initiating future contacts, and in giving business cards, an individual should always use the right-hand side.

More importantly, doing business in India involves establishing meaningful relationships since most Indians prefer to deal with only people they trust compared to Australians who put more emphasis on formal rules to guide their interactions and agreements. Tendency to know someone more deeper is not a celebrated virtue among the Australians as compared to Indians.

Furthermore, arranging for meeting in India is a process that should take place in advance, and punctuality observed. During the negotiations, Indians do not make a decision based on mere statistics, empirical data, or PowerPoint presentations, but rather they largely rely and make use of their intuition, feeling, and faith in their guidance (Kwintessential Ltd n.d, p.1).

Hence, it is always recommended to avoid high-pressure tactics and shun away from confrontations or use of force, while criticism and disagreements should be solved in a more diplomatic language, and when a negotiation is brokered the deal needs to be honored (Kwintessential Ltd, n.d, p.1).

What drives Decision to internationalize business? The central driver of internationalization as expressed in most books of international business, is the level of managerial commitment to oversea expansion (Czinkota, Ronkainen, and Moffett, 2008).

For example, Czinkota, Ronkainen, and Moffett (2008) note that commitment grows gradually from an awareness of the likelihood of foreign markets and they ultimately lead to the company embracing international business as a strategic necessity (Czinkota, Ronkainen, and Moffett, 2008).

Management will spur the numerous international business activities, and the company may expand through strategic measures such as strategic alliances, joint ventures, or foreign direct investment (Czinkota, Ronkainen, and Moffett 2008). A firm may be motivated to expand to international market from two broad factors of proactive motivation and reactive motivation (Czinkota, Ronkainen, and Moffett, 2008).

In addition, proactive motivations constitute factors such as “profit advantage, unique products, technological advancement, exclusive information, tax benefit, and economies of scale while on the other hand, reactive motivation has factors which include competitive pressures, overproduction, declining domestic sales, excess capacity, saturated domestic markets and proximity to customers and key infrastructures” (Czinkota, Ronkainen and Moffett, 2008, p.25).

From the above observation, it becomes clear that to experience success in international business and development, it is important to formulate effective multinational strategies (UNIDO, 2006).

First, it should not be forgotten that the 21st century is witnessing the growth and spread of virtual and intelligent organizations where virtual organizations are acting as networking centers that outsource almost all of their operations while intelligent organizations generally seek competitive advantages through learning and knowledge management (UNIDO, 2006).

Nevertheless, multinational strategies for a long time have embraced factors such as progress in technology, liberalization of investment flows and the increased competition among various organizations (UNIDO, 2006).

Potentials of Global growth and strategies for market entry The modern business challenges have forced many organizations and business entities to look for ways to sustain growth and survival.

Due to competitive pressures and the desire to maintain and strengthen their position in the market, companies are put under pressure to always be on a constant look-out for possible exploration available and promising opportunities in order to realize advantage over competitors and expand beyond the limits of the domestic markets.

The process of expansion that a company may favor to pursue in the global marketplace is not only spurred by limitations in the domestic market but also due to the globalized world. In such a case, the market share in the domestic market becomes threatened by the presence of the foreign investors and as a result, numerous key factors become the major force in prompting a company to seek international and global operations.

These factors include markets, cost, competitive factors, and the international business environment (UNIDO, 2006). As Australia tourism continues to grow, many investments have been directed towards establishing tourism-training institutions both by domestic and foreign investors. As a result, competition is high as compared to a market like India, where tourism industry is growing, but training institutions remain limited.

Pattern of global expansion Many organizations have pursued the idea of internationalization with a lot of care and caution whereby, an elaborative systematic process needs to be undertaken, and the process should involve strategic planning and risk minimization (Rugman and Brewer, 2001).

In the ideal sense, companies need to venture into markets and entry modes that are more familiar and less risky before eventually contemplating on moving into deeper levels of international commitment once they establish confidence and experience in foreign business.

Upon discovering that an opportunity seems viable in the foreign market, a company needs to pursue the process of internationalization methodically and competently to avoid any failure that may result into wastage of resources (UNIDO, 2006).

As a first step, internationalization needs a management body that is committed and will ensure effective and efficient allocation of the necessary staff resources, market and competition analysis, and financial investment (UNIDO, 2006). After ensuring there is a committed management body, the next step is to realize that international markets as compared to domestic markets largely differ in many aspects (UNIDO, 2006).

As a result, the company needs to put into consideration the following factors: political, social and cultural factors in the international environment specifically of the host country to put venture in, local and relevant international laws, geographical and natural conditions, and infrastructure and labor (UNIDO, 2006).

Along the pattern of expansion, the company can adopt different axes, which describe how and under which speed a company can enter the foreign market.

The axes are impetus for international business where the impetus can be a passive response to unsolicited orders, which represent a low business risk or an active search for opportunities and greater levels of internalization, which in essence can grow through positive experiences resulting from passive response (UNIDO, 2006).

In addition, internal verses external handling of operations where the company can rely on intermediaries well a versed with the particular foreign market; mode of operations and commitment, where the company need first to start with lower-risk operations before assuming greater risks; and geographical diversification, where the company an first start with a country or a region it is full versed with and confident business with pickup more first (UNIDO, 2006).

On their part, Faulkner and Campbell summarize that strategic issues that affect international strategy can be categorized into three main groups (Faulkner and Campbell 2006). This is in addition to those that determine which segment to select, and whether or not they manifest global competition; those that affect the company’s ability to resource and deliver the product at a competitive price anywhere in the world.

Lastly, those that are concerned with how a company should organize itself to control its international activities are considered (Faulkner and Campbell 2006). In this regard, they suggest that global strategy has three main objectives, which are efficiency, risk management and innovation learning and adaptation.

Regarding competitive advantage to foreign market entry strategy, Porter (1985) noted that competitive advantage arises when a company creates value for its customers and to achieve this, companies should select specific markets in which they can excel and present a moving target to their competitors through a systematic continuous improvement of their position in the market (cited in Armstrong, 2000 ).

Further, Porter identifies the role of differentiation where it constitutes offering a product or service that is perceived by the larger industry to be unique and focusing on fulfilling the needs of a particular customer clientele in the market (Armstrong 2000).

As a result, Porter developed a framework of three generic strategies that companies with interest in foreign market can adopt, which include innovation, quality and cost leadership (Armstrong, 2000).

Prospects for the Blue Mountains Hotel College For the college to exploit the international market in India more profitably, it needs to analyze and evaluate five key drivers: home country, suppliers’ country, customer country, and partner and competitor countries.

Under the home country driver factors, the college will consider factors such as college’s globalization starting point, the college’s history and culture, the college’s management background, brand nationality, corporate governance, home market, political and legal regulatory climate.

With regard to Supplier country features, the college needs to put into consideration factors such as workers wages and productivity, technology, finance capital, factor supplies, political and legal regulatory climate and operating costs and risks.

With regard to customer country features, factors such as customer preferences, elasticity of demand, income per capita and income distribution, customer knowledge, distribution infrastructure, society and culture, political and legal together with the regulatory climate will be necessary.

Moreover, under the partner countries consideration in key areas of complementary services, complementary technology, complementary capabilities, market knowledge, and political, legal, and regulatory climate will be necessary.

Finally, on competitor countries, it will be necessary to put into consideration home, supplier, customer, and partner countries of competitors, global and local competitors, customer and supplier bypass competition, political, legal, and regulatory climate specifically on trade agreements and home country policies.

Challenges in the Indian market has to with: inability of foreign firms to fit into the Indian market structure, difficulties of penetrating the market especially for foreign firms, existence of large income disparities which in turn dictate consumption, and as () note the Indian market, “remains extremely difficult challenge for companies that are mostly used to Western markets” (O’Callahan 2010,p.1).

On opportunities, the college is likely to exploit on the increasing tourism prospects in India and therefore, a viable market for trained personnel will be lucrative, the government effort to promote tourism by lessening key requirements for foreign operators and India’s high population provides promissory prospects for the college.

Porter’s five force model and diamond model and Indian market Porter, in 1980, developed the famous Five Forces of Competitive Position, which has become an effective model in analyzing and evaluating the competitiveness in terms of strength and position of any given business entity.

The five forces that Porter developed his model on include, “existing competitive rivalry between suppliers, threat of new entrants to the market, bargaining power of buyers, power of suppliers and threat of substitute” (Anon, n.d, p.1).

Of great contribution by Porter was the analysis of the competitiveness of nations where the author developed a ‘diamond model’ that became effective in identifying competitive strength of various nations and their industries. The ‘diamond model’ has factor conditions, demand conditions, related industries, and corporate strategy, structure and rivalry, as the main components.

With regard to Blue Mountains Hotel College, factor conditions for the institution include skilled staff and other human resources, and well-developed infrastructure that can sustain international threats.

In terms of risks in terms of demand conditions, India is a fast-growing developing nation with an expanding hospitality industry, but human resource is still inadequate hence, opportunity to train more personnel is a prospective venture.

In terms of related industries, India has many international hospitality companies located in the country, but they have largely dwelt in provision of products and services with less investment in training opportunities; and regarding the college’s corporate strategy, structure, and rivalry, it is evident that the institution has developed a strategy based on its short and long-term objectives.

Moreover, foreign investment appears as a long-term objective that with commitment and availability of key resources, it is viable. At the same time, the college continues to perform well in the domestic market as it has collaborated with one of the world’s leading university an opportunity it can exploit to appeal to international students.

Conclusion Globalization is inevitable and companies together with corporations that embrace international business are likely to outperform those that decide to remain rigid and domestic. Blue Mountains Hotel College is one of the institutions that have demonstrated capacity and ability to excel in international business, although the opportunity is yet to be exploited.

To achieve the institution’s mission of expanding, it is necessary first to develop an effective multinational competitive strategy that should define the main area of concentration for the college to carry out its activities. Further, there should be a committed management to pursue the objectives of the strategy.

These are not the only requirements, the institution need to investigate and analyze Indian’s ways of doing business to avoid conflicts of interest and this will involve studying the country’s culture and major beliefs.

On greater scale, the management instituted with responsibility to carry out the institution’s activities in the country should be culturally sensitive and more trained on key aspects of Indian corporate management.

On overall, an effective institution’s, market, economic, political, social, cultural, and legal analysis will be essential in ensuring environment scanning is adequately undertaken. Nevertheless, the objective to venture into Indian market through joint venture is viable, necessary, and timely and if undertaken within proper framework, it has potential of ensuring the growth and expansion of the institution.

Reference List Aniruddha. 2009. Why is globalization good? The Rising Sun Article. Web.

Anon. N.d. Michael E Porter’s five forces of competitive position model and diagrams. Web.

Armstrong, M., 2000. Strategic human resource management: a guide to action. London, Kogan Page Publishers. Web.

Chhokar, J. S., and House, R. J., 2007. Culture and leadership across the world: the GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. NY, Routledge. Web.

Czinkota, M., Ronkainen, I. A. and Moffet, M. H., 2008. Fundamentals of International Business. NY, Wessex Publishing. Web.

Faulkner, D. O. and Campbell, A., 2006. The Oxford handbook of strategy: a strategy overview and competitive strategy. London, Oxford University Press. Web.

Gender and Health Project. N.d. What is globalization? Web.

Held, D. and McGrew, A. G., 2007. Globalization theory: approaches and controversies. MA, Polity Press. Web.

International Center of Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education. N.d. The Blue Mountains International Hotel Management. Web.

Johnson, D. and Turner. 2010. International Business: Themes and Issues in the Modern Global Economy. (Attached notes).

Jupp, J., 2001. The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins. UK, Cambridge University Press. Web.

Keohane, R. and Nye, J., 2000. Globalization: What’s new? What’s not (And So What?). Web.

Kwintessential Ltd. N.d. Doing Business in India. Web.

Muder, J., 2010. An Introduction to International Business Culture-Asia. Web.

O’Callahan, T., 2010. How do Foreign Companies Market to India? Web.

Rugman, A. M. and Brewer, T. L., 2001. The Oxford handbook of international business. London, Oxford University Press. Web.

Strom, M., N.d. The Seven Heavenly Virtues of Leadership. Australian Institute of Management. Web.

UNIDO. 2006. Alliances and joint ventures: Patterns of internationalization for developing country enterprises. United Nations. Web.

Yadong, l., 1999. Entry and cooperative strategies in international business expansion. Greenwood Publishing Group. Web.

Young, R., N.d. Franchising Begins to Bite in India. Web.

World Business Culture. N.d. Doing Business in Australia. Web.


The Future of Able Corporation Argumentative Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Discussion on Strategic Management

Two paradigms

Needs assessment covers these important functions of HRM

The People

Employee Appraisal



Able Corporation is a diversified corporation which has production establishments in several states that are either horizontally or vertically integrated. Able is now one of the leading innovators of power tools and other home equipment.

When Able Corporation started its vision, everything then referred to technology. But its founders realised it has to be more than just technology: Apple has to survive as an organisation to meet the needs of its customers not just in technical ways.

The truth about Able Corporation may have already been laid open to the public, that it is not as successful as it used to be. Able’s fate lies somewhere not in the balance, and may be in the hands of the wrong people if things won’t go out how it should be.

The question now is, “Is there still a future for Able Corporation?” Will the company thrive under a new strategy and management? Let’s see how the company made its humble beginning.

Able Corporation sought to “change the way people behave” versus just competing in the market-place for traditional products. In doing so, it has been able to establish first mover advantages through radical concepts of power tools, and relatively perfect market timing to establish its advantage.

Others seem to compete in commodity businesses with incremental innovations, while Able Corporation created a new concept in the consumer’s mind. It is most likely for this reason that other executives see Able Corporation as a strong innovator in power tools using battery.

Able’s mission statement is to provide the best of power tools and other home equipment. This information can be sourced from the internet, provided by the website Business


Developing Grand Strategies Essay college essay help: college essay help

It goes without saying that any multinational company faces a set of challenges in the local and international market in the course of time; the only ability to meet those challenges in a constructive way that would benefit the company performance in the short and long run is to do that strategically.

The company management has to assess the current position in the market and think of wiser ways to utilize resources and costs, as well as the opportunities for the future expansion. Hence, the grand strategies designed within the company top’ executives may help not only to retain the competitive position of the company, but to enhance it and to gain the competitive advantage in the strategically essential market areas.

However, before responding to the needs of global management and international expansion, one should evidently take a proper case of securing the company’s position in the local market, since it represents the sound basis for further development. In case it is weak, the company is unlikely to achieve further success. This fact is also supported by the opinions of Bartlett, Ghoshal and Beamish (2008):

“By responding to country level heterogeneity through local adaptation of products, services, and processes, a company can reap benefits in three fundamental areas: market share, price realization, and competitive position” (Bartlett, Ghoshal,


How to Achieve Quality through Benchmarking Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purpose of this study


Literature review

Findings and analysis



Introduction Many companies are putting more emphasis to product and service quality and customer satisfaction for various reasons, ranging from increased competition to deregulation (Ostrom and Grayson, 1995).

The new millennium dictates that corporations and organizations will be involved much more in searching new tools, techniques and strategic paradigms in order to meet and, where possible, exceed the ever-increasing customer expectations (Motwani and Sower, 2006).

The modern customers are not just satisfied with the low-cost products and services being offered in the market but also they are demanding high quality products and services, high variety products and also fast delivery of the products, all at the lowest possible cost (Motwani and Sower, 2006). In essence, these requirements will conflict since each one shows the potential to drain resources at the expense of the other.

As a result, there has been a dire need to develop optimizing tools that can be used in providing guidance as far as planning and budgeting process in an organization is concerned with aim to satisfy the numerous and varying needs of the customers (Motwani and Sower, 2006).

Quality is a concept gaining a lot of attention in many organizations, for instance, Lacobucci, Ostrom and Grayson (1995) note that customer needs and expectations drive the improvement of new modified products and services to the market.

In addition, emphasis on customer has become so critical to concept of quality management due to the fact that the customer remains at central position in shaping the level of quality to be delivered (Jablonski, 1992).

When the improvements undertaken fail to identify customer satisfaction and needs, they largely fail to qualify the test of quality, and such quality can be seen as to start and finish the role of ensuring customer’s needs are satisfied.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Purpose of this study Quality is a concept that modern companies and organization cannot assume or bypass. New millennium market battle grounds are being fought using quality to leverage the market competitive advantage.

Companies with better quality products and services are more confident navigating the murky waters of market competition. Therefore, as a way of improving and enhancing the concept of quality it is necessary to identify, analyze and evaluate some of the quality management techniques being used by many companies today.

As it is well known, there exists many quality measure techniques but it is the uniqueness of benchmarking and voice of market and customer that is drawing much attention of modern managers and other professionals. Hence, the aim of this paper will be to identify, analyze, and evaluate how quality can be achieved through these key quality techniques: benchmarking and understanding of the voice of market and the voice of customers.

Background Sukhija (2009) writes that it is a complex process to get customers to define what they want so that companies can effectively adhere to their demands and needs.

Further, the author postulates that when companies engage in the process of defining quality to the customers, there are numerous mistakes likely to be incurred and hence the author poses a question, how companies can avoid the common mistakes of defining quality for the customer (Sukhija, 2009).

The issue of quality and the various questions associated with the concept may appear ambiguous but their ambiguity has to be solved if business entities want to survive in the market, hence much emphasis has been paid to the solution techniques that have been employed in finding answers to these questions.

Moreover, the process of designing solution techniques has resulted into quality management techniques or tools. primarily, Raman Sukhija notes that when concerted efforts are employed to define quality, the aim is largely centered on key question of, “what do customers like about the company’s present or future products or services” (Sukhija, 2009, p.6).

We will write a custom Research Paper on How to Achieve Quality through Benchmarking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality management is what characterizes many companies and other organizations today, where senior management in many companies are establishing and adopting quality management frameworks geared towards improved performance, and as such, key principles guide quality management process.

These principles are: customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, system approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making and mutually beneficial supplier relationships (Sukhija, 2009, p.12).

Each of these principles has the ability to influence and direct quality management in a company differently but in an interdependence relationship. The basic idea of quality management is that there should be definition of good standards, then a concerted effort to meet those standards through quality management processes.

Some of the quality management processes and techniques that have been widely used to identify and modify quality of products and services in a company include: benchmarking and understanding the voice of the market and the voice of customers.

Since quality is concerned with fulfilling customer needs and wants through improvement and provision of superior value, it is always necessary to understand those needs clearly; therefore, customer voice refers to the customer’s needs both in intrinsic and extrinsic nature (Crow, 2002, p.1).

To capture consumer voice, various methods are used that include “direct discussion or interviews, surveys, focus groups, customer specifications, observation, warranty data, field reports and many more” (Crow, 2002, p.1).

On the other hand, benchmarking in terms of quality has generally involved planned efforts to make comparison of the company to the others in the field, examining how they have been able to achieve their quality objectives and goals (Griffin, 2006).

As such, benchmarking is evolving as a technique whose usefulness is steadily growing in terms of identifying and analyzing improvements, which can be undertaken in an organization, and in the process improve quality.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Achieve Quality through Benchmarking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, understanding the voice of the market is implicated in the voice of the consumer whereby when the customers’ needs are identified it becomes possible to know and supply the market with the necessary products or services.

Literature review Erick Reidenbach observes that the voice of market in defining quality provides somehow guesswork, but more importantly is the fact that it is essential in creating a roadmap that is useful in directing major initiatives of a company in order to realize the best in market as far as quality is concerned.

The author continues to state that in order to realize successful quality initiatives, there needs to be a clear understanding of what quality is (Reidenbach, n.d, p.1). For instance, the author believes that people are the ones who possess the ability to know what quality is, since they are the ones who make judgments about quality before deciding to make purchasing decisions.

In this way, people rely on the forces of the market hence being able to listen to the voice of the market. Voice of the market starts with identification of a key process known as critical to quality elements (CTQs).

As a first step, CTQs starts by discovering a product and the subsequent and potential markets the company seems to be targeting, and according to the philosophy of the concept, “the better the focus, the clearer the understanding of how that product or market defines quality” (Reidenbach, n.d, p.1).

When products are poorly defined, there will be overall poor results in CTQs that demonstrates potentiability of being less actionable, and as a consequence, the information becomes unworkable (Reidenbach, n.d, p.1).

When the above procedure is completed, it becomes the role of the organization to organize focus groups of consumers who are drawn from the targets, and the main aim with this activity is to find out how consumers define quality and value.

One key aspect not to forget here is that when constituting the focus groups the company should not discriminate on those of its competitors and the end objective should be to generate a set of performance criteria that constitutes an overall quality construct (Reidenbach, n.d, p.1).

Upon fulfilling the above process, the company should proceed and construct questionnaire that should be presented to the current and likely buyers from the target markets, while the buyers should also be drawn from the competitors.

The aim here should be to instruct the respondents to rate the performance of their suppliers on the provided scale (Reidenbach, n.d, p.1). After this process, the result should be subjected to factor analysis to identify the numerous set of attributes through placing them into smaller factors also known as latent dimension.

Mohamed Zairi identifies quality function deployment (QFD) as a new and fast spreading technique used to bring the voice of the customer into decision making process of any given company (Zairi, 1994).

QFD has been defined as, “a technique that can improve the process of developing and producing products” (Zairi, 1994, p.44). At the same time, the technique has been defined as a way or method of designing and optimizing the entire process of developing new products with a lot of focus on customer needs.

The author further notes that QFD has the ability to accelerate business delivery process through transparency and functions through the various pierces by dismantling the existing barriers and making sure that all the functions are aligned, and all of them are in a good position to work and deliver customer wants.

QFD works by following key processes where the initial point is to understand the customer requirements, a phase that will later constitute design requirements. After this, the process is enhanced by converting the technical specifications into proper elements with major objective being to create an end product that is capable of performing to the customer requirements (Zairi, 1994).

The third step of QFD is making decision by determining how the expected design of the product or service can be changed in order to benefit the end customer. The last step of QFD is where there is planning and scheduling of the various operational activities. In essence, the entire process of QFD is categorized into four phases: “product or service planning, design, process planning and operational activities” (Zairi, 1994, p.44).

Quality has further been associated with benchmarking where it is seen as a modern activity which at the same time is a continuous process. Defining benchmarking, Zairi (1994, p.61) states that it is,” the search for the best industry practices that will lead to superior performance”.

In essence, benchmarking constitutes the ability to change the minds of the people while at the same time instill in them a permanent inquisitiveness and a constant inquiry about methods of work, process management and control and the application of knowledge of ingenuity.

Zairi, identifies four types of benchmarking: internal benchmarking, whereby there is comparison of internal operations between two or more sister companies; competitive benchmarking, which involves comparing the company to other competitor companies using particular product or function of interest; functional benchmarking, whereby a comparison between similar functions within the same company is carried out; and lastly, generic benchmarking, which constitute a process of establishing comparison of the company functions or procedures which appear to be more similar (Zairi, 1994).

On how to detect the voice of the customer in quality issues, Webber and Wallace (2007) observe that if customers were to leave the organization, then the organization would subsequently stop to function.

As a prerequisite, companies and corporations are required to meet their customers’ needs and expectations, and the ability to identify customers’ likes and dislikes helps the company to continue to provide the necessary product or service to the customer and in the process ensure the company survives (Webber and Wallace, 2007).

The author discovers that in quality control issues, companies need to dynamically seek the voice of the customers since such efforts will provide numerous benefits to the company.

Such benefits may include: a company showing its customers it cares as far as their needs are concerned, it provides useful intelligence reports on the competitors of the company, informs customers about the company’s new products and services that customers were not aware of, reinforce the importance of the voice of the customer to the company’s employees and makes the company’s employees have a feeling that the company is actively involved in meeting their needs (Webber and Wallace, 2007).

Findings and analysis As the literature has explored the concepts of benchmarking, customer voice, and market voice, the concentration has largely been in exploring the concepts with no such efforts to analyze the concepts deeper and their linkage to quality. Little information exist as to what constitutes ways of listening to the voices of consumer and market, how can benchmarking be carried out to generative productive results.

Therefore, this section will explore key identified issues and how they can be utilized to improve quality. First, with regard to customer voice, listening to customers enables an organization to identify key areas to conduct quality control; the basic question is how can listening to customers be promoted?

When a company is involved in listening to the voices of customers, the key aim is to generate critical marketing and sales information, customer engagement data, product market performance and complaint data.

To have this information, the company may use surveys, formal and informal feedback, customer account histories, complaints, fields’ reports, win/loss analysis, customer referral rates, and transaction completion rates (Blazey, 2009).

The generated information can help the company to enhance its quality control measures since the organization is able to gain knowledge on its current and future customers and markets.

When future customers and markets are known the company embarks on a process of producing quality products and services. Further, the company is able to analyze and gain knowledge on the emerging customer requirements; needs and expectations, hence keep pace with changing market demands and changing business methods.

Further, voice of the customer and voice of the market information need to be analyzed by a powerful tool for concrete and dependable results to be realized. Identified tool for the synthesis of this information is the Pugh Matrix (George, 2003).

The tool works in a way whereby, information from customer and market voices is weighed on criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. In such way, the company is able to determine the strengths and weaknesses and appropriately work on strengths.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is another tool used by companies for purposes of quality. The technique described to be a structured way of defining the needs and wants of consumers and later changing them into particular set plans in order to generate specific products to fulfill the customers’ needs (Crow, 2002).

QFD has been regarded as one of the best communication tool but the problem has emanated from the fact that most companies have utilized the technique as an end instead of using it as a means. As such, Crow observes that the real value of QFD is when the technique is regarded as a process used to communicate and make decisions (Crow, 2002).

In this way, QFD should not operate in isolation but need to utilize knowledge and experience from a team of people from other fields who are involved in developing products. These people may be from the fields of: “marketing, design engineering, quality assurance, manufacturing and manufacturing engineering, test engineering, finance, product support, and many more” (Crow, 2002, p.1).

From literature review, it was evident that benchmarking as a tool used to realize improvements in organizations was widely being used, but to most organizations, much emphasis had been put on internal benchmarking with little emphasis on competitive benchmarking. Benchmarking aims to identify the existence of gaps and suggest the ways of filling the gaps.

Competitive benchmarking is necessary in the modern business world; and as competition continues to intensify, the consumer population continues to undergo changes. Competitive benchmarking is what will shed light on how the company can go about the issue of quality by using first hand information collected from customers and competitors.

Further, effective benchmark tools will provide an organization with accurate information as far as matters of quality are concerned.

To ensure accuracy of data and information, benchmarking tools have to pass the same test where standardization of the tools is critical where the company should have standard definitions for the various events, the standard protocol for collecting data, which should include how and when, and lastly, a defined set of procedures for carrying out monitoring and evaluation.

Management team at Select Knowledge Company notes that in order to improve the usefulness of the application of benchmarking tools in the various processes of the company, there is need for a systematic approach where the company’s result needs to be compared against its major competitors.

After the comparison has been done, there should be an analysis of the results and a comparison of processes that lead to improvement of quality (Select Knowledge Company, n.d).

Further, the management team advices that before a company can initiate a benchmarking exercise, it is always important to collect as much intelligence in advance as possible since it is through such initiative that due consideration will be given to all the relevant facts

Conclusion Modern business performance has come to be directed by the customer’s perspective, which in turn continues to dictate the designing, production, storage, transportation, and distribution of products and services. Customers have their own image of what the business products or services should be and as a result, most customers have become sensitive to the issue of time, quality, service, and cost of products and services.

Quality is the specific element turning out to outdo the others. Today, despite greater concentration on producing low-cost products and services, companies have been forced to accelerate the quality standards of their products and services. Earlier, quality decisions in most companies were an internal generated decision where less involvement of the customers was seen.

This kind of decisions as time would show ended up failing since many errors were committed by the companies’ management. In other worlds, companies generated wrong decision about the market.

Faced with such instances, companies had to discover the importance of generating information from the external environment, where it meant that market, customers and competitors were to be the key sources for company information.

The process of retrieving and analyzing information from these sources could not be done with the usual techniques that existed but rather needed more advanced techniques if useful and accurate information was to be generated.

Much of the collected information largely became vital in company improvement decisions specifically the issue to do with quality. As such, quality techniques such as benchmarking and listening to Market Voice and Customer Voice became key tools in generating information and data that could be used to improve quality of products and services.

These techniques have provided many companies with the opportunity to analyze the market, the customers and also the competitors. The techniques are not static but rather dynamic where they are under constant improvement with regard to changing competition and operation management.

What is necessary is that when using the techniques to investigate and access quality information and data, it is always necessary to follow due procedures and ensure the accuracy of information is guaranteed.

References Blazey, M. L. (2009). Insights to Performance Excellence 2009-2010: An Inside Look at the 2009-2010 Baldrige Award Criteria. Web.

Crow, K. (2002). Voice of the Customer. Web.

George, M. L. (2003). Lean Six Sigma for service: how to use Lean Speed and Six Sigma Quality to improve services and transactions. NY, McGraw-Hill Professional. Web.

Griffin, P. (2006). Quality Benchmarking. Web.

Lacobucci, D., Ostrom, A. and Grayson, K. (1995). Distinguishing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: The Voice of the Consumer. Journal of Consumer Psychology. Web.

Jablonski, R. (1992). Customer focus: the cornerstone of quality management-Management Issues. Healthcare Financial Management. Web.

Motwani, J. G. and Sower, V. E. (2006). Benchmarking in services. Emerald Group Publishing. Web.

Reidenbach, E. To Identify CTQs, Listen to the Voice of the Market. Web.

Select Knowledge Company. Managing for Quality. Select Knowledge Limited. Web.

Sukhija, R. (2009). Quality Management: An Excellence Model. New Delhi, Global India Publications. Web.

Webber, L. and, Wallace, M. (2007). Quality Control for Dummies. NJ, Wiley Publishing, Inc. Web.

Zairi, M. (1994). Measuring performance for business results. NY, Springer. Web.


Human Resource Management and Organizational Culture Qualitative Research Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

A human resources (HR) department plays a vital role in any large organization. The department is responsible for recruiting highly skilled individuals who carry out specific duties, and also has to develop loyalty and enhance the morale of employees in the company. The HR also deals with issues concerning performance evaluation, employee benefits and compensation, and adherence to company and personnel policies.

The department is therefore responsible for developing a favorable corporate culture that serves these purposes within an organization. Without a capable HR department to hire, culture, and inform employees, the company is destined to fail.

Microsoft Corporation, a US-based multinational technology company, is one of the biggest and most successful firms in the world. For a company of such a high level to compete in the technology industry, investment in the brightest minds is vital for it to retain its market leadership status. Microsoft has always been regarded as a great employer because of its attractive remunerations, benefit programs and work culture.

As the company grew rapidly in size in the 1990s, however, it lost most of the important aspects in its corporate culture that had made it the favorable destination for job-seekers. People began to feel that the company was too big, resulting into several disadvantages for the employees.

People who left said that bureaucracy had increased and internal politics had started to dominate in regular proceedings in addition, key decisions were only approved by top management, hence discouraging the culture of risk taking and innovation. The number of middle managers had also increased as the company added more layers of management due to its enlarged workforce, thus slowing down the decision making process.

Microsoft was trying to a great extent, to fit everybody in various roles and creating new job positions, but wasn’t paying attention to some of the underlying problems that come with a large workforce. By increasing the number of management levels, the organizational structure changed and became tall and rigid.

A tall vertical structure resulted into lesser roles for the various management levels, which restricted employee freedom and responsibilities. The tall hierarchical structure made it difficult to communicate messages and ideas especially if they have to go through each layer of administration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Morale among employees decreased since it became unclear how the promotion ladder looked like. Therefore, company policy, administration and working conditions may lead to job dissatisfaction if they are not favorable towards the employees.

In the late 1990s, the top management at Microsoft decided to take a comprehensive restructuring of the company. The main aim of the program was to change the company’s attention from being product oriented to customer oriented. The program was also intended to counter some of the drawbacks of its large size and form a new culture at Microsoft.

Higher level managers were given more power so as to speed up the decision making process in order to encourage innovativeness. In the early 2000s, several of Microsoft’s former and current African-American and female employees filed discrimination charges against the company, resulting into a negative public image.

The lawsuits accused the company of unfair promotion and performance evaluations methods, unequal pay packages and wrongful termination of employment. The lawsuits were subsequently converted into class action suits to cater for all former and current black and female employees respectively.

The lawsuits also specified that Microsoft managers were allowed to exercise discretion when making performance evaluation, which tended to reveal racial and gender biasness. Microsoft refuted all these claims by saying that it had always been committed to diversity.

Microsoft started to take measures that would boost its public image, such as being more open and respectful towards others. It also committed itself towards enhancing communication to a form that would be acceptable by its employees.

The bad publicity led to a sharp decline in stock prices in the period between late 1999 and mid-2000. Stock options were then perceived as the major contributor of employee benefits, and the low stock prices meant that they no longer served as the motivating factor. Steve Ballmer became the CEO in 2000, and faced an uphill task of motivating employees and lowering the high staff turnover. (Chakraborty, 2010 151)

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Human Resource Management and Organizational Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Microsoft’s profits declined sharply in the following, from year 2000’s US$ 9 billion to 2002’s US$ 5 billion. In order to cut costs and improve on its bottom line, Microsoft decided to reduce some of its employees’ benefits in 2004.

Some of the cut-backs included a reduction of the percentage discount on the stock options from the current 15 percent to 10 percent, a reduction in the vacation time for new employees from three weeks per year for two years to two weeks per year.

Employees were directed to make a US$ 40 co-payment in case they chose to buy brand-name drugs instead of buying FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) approved generic equivalents of the said drugs. Microsoft also instructed new parents to take 4 weeks of paid leave within the first 6 months of parenting, which came with an additional 8 weeks of unpaid leave.

Although these measures were meant to save the company an estimated US$ 1 billion per year, they were not received well by employees as the staff attrition rate increased from 6.7 percent to 9.4 percent between 2002 and 2004.

Due to inflation, family requirements and other personal needs, benefits are an integral part of an employee’s job, which affects their level of satisfaction and commitment towards the company. Many companies today have to choose between profits and appealing benefit programs. If an organization opts for profits, it risks lowering employee motivation or even losing a few good employees to competitors.

A company should therefore aim at maintaining its qualified employees by ensuring job satisfaction, since the cost of losing good employees is usually higher than the cost of retaining them. Employees are more powerful now than in later years due to increased job opportunities and growing economies. They expect an employer to offer reasonable pay, vacation time, pension plans as well as other benefits.

Microsoft in this instance failed to consider what motivated the employees when it started to concentrate solely in its own needs. By cutting back on the benefit program, Microsoft was already taking steps that were sure to de-motivate the people.

Thus from the above, employees also don’t like a work environment characterized by too many rules since they always feel like they are the ones who are being targeted. Companies should therefore play a balancing act of meeting their goals while maintaining the needs of their staff.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Management and Organizational Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Targeting employees’ benefits in a cost restructuring program will cause employees to be disengaged at work, which leads to further costs for the company.

Disengaged workers will also be less loyal to the company, thus causing a significantly high employee turnover rate. Companies ought to involve employees in the formulation of policies and ask for feedback before implementation of new policies, rather than announcing their date of effect, as was the case with Microsoft.

Employees at Microsoft were beginning to get frustrated by the changes in the company to such an extent that began calling themselves ‘Microserfs’. The mood in the workplace was dampened by even the slightest of changes, such as the removal of towels in the locker rooms.

The HR department had not anticipated such an effect on the workers, claiming that the benefits in place were still far better than the industry’s standards. Microsoft’s delay in launching a key product, Windows Vista, also lowered the employee’s spirits and they began to wonder why all those decisions were being made. Ballmer decided to change the head of the HR department so as to counter personnel grievances. (Kanfer, 2008 45).

Lisa Brummel was appointed as the head of the HR department in April 2005, and was given the task of motivating and retaining the employees. She first realized that the company had to change from its previous ‘one size fits all’ system to a diverse system that incorporated the needs of individual employees. The system that was in place applied to all workers without paying attention to their individual requirements.

Clearly, Microsoft was not in touch with its employees’ needs. In this case, communication in such a system is ‘one way’, as the top management imposes its requirements on all employees without asking for feedback thus, employees will tend to believe that they are not valued by the company, which results in low motivation and instances where employees talk negatively about the company with their peers.

A work environment that is perceived to be fair and consistent gives employees little to criticize about. A favorable work place enables employees to focus more on their work and contribution towards the company, rather than gossip and unrest.

A new policy should therefore be explained to the staff beforehand, so that the employees understand its intention and whether it is necessary. If such a policy has never been implemented in the past, employees have a right to know why management has decided to enforce it. Employees also prefer an environment where expectations are clear, and where rules apply to everyone in the organization.

A key aspect to consider in creating job satisfaction is the capability of an employee to realize that there are potential opportunities for career growth and promotion. Employees who are given opportunities to better their careers at an organization will tend to be more productive, and will save the company the time and costs incurred in recruitment exercises.

Training programs should aim in developing employees by first realizing individual interests. If well perfected, these programs will develop future company leaders who may lead to good results since they have grown with, and fully understand the company.

Brummel made efforts to communicate with the employees so at to identify areas that led to work dissatisfaction. She realized that even though Microsoft offered satisfactory salaries, workers were not content on the current performance appraisal system. Employees also said that they did not fully understand the compensation and benefit programs.

Microsoft therefore lacked clear criteria for providing recognition. Brummel responded by introducing the ‘myMicrosoft’ program which offered features such as career development, various discounts, management training as well as on-campus services, which caused mixed reactions.

The ‘myMicrosoft’ plan involved a career development program, which enabled the company’s employees to plan their careers by elaborating on a promotion plan. Management training was meant to enhance accountability and roles among managers.

Employees could also get discounts on various services such as vehicle repair and housekeeping. On-campus services such as food options and access to laundry and dry-cleaning were also meant to enhance employee welfare. She also started an internal blog and an intranet portal where employees could write their suggestions.

The compensation and performance evaluation system that was previously in place was termed as the ‘forced curve system’. The system awarded ratings on a scale of one to five, and was used to measure annual performance and ‘long term potential’ of the employees.

Employees were ranked and placed on a curve, whereby the highest rated employees made up the first 15 percent of the curve while 10 percent made up the bottom part. A-listed employees received raises, stock options and training while ‘B’ employees, the middle 70 percent of the curve, received lower raises.

Employees who were in the bottom part of the curve received no raises or bonuses, and were either given advice on how to improve or relieved of their duties. Many employees disapproved this system since it only awarded the best ranking to a fixed number of people, even though more employees may have performed well enough to deserve the ranking.

A forced distribution system is a just an example of a technique used in multiple person evaluation, others are ranking, paired comparison, group appraisal and human resource accounting. A common feature of all these methods is that they evaluate an employee in comparison to another.

Some of the limitations of the forced distribution system are; it’s quite difficult to evaluate people who possess different behavioral characteristics, the system only illustrates the position of an employee but it fails to portray how better or worse off an employee is when compared with a peer, its very tasking when a manger has to rank a large number of employees and furthermost, there is no clear guideline to follow when ranking employees, and this gives room for biasness.

The ‘forced curve system’ only increased pressure among employees since the workers in the bottom half of the curve were not only struggling to get noticed; they were fighting to retain their jobs.

Employees were therefore judged according to their position on the curve regardless of the fixed number of workers who could be in a given grade. Brummel modified the system, maintaining the grading system and bonuses but did away with appraisal based on an employee’s position on the curve.

A favorable appraisal system needs to identify all employees who are performing according to or above their expectations, so as to award merit instead of seniority. Merit systems are always based on performance and can offer good grounds when making promotion decisions.

Training and development programs should also be formulated, whereby employees are educated on the proficiency they should display if they want to receive better raises or promotions. Feedback helps to inform an employee about their current performance and what they can improve on so as to go up the corporate ladder.

Feedback also reveals reasons as to why an employee performed satisfactorily or poorly. Such reasons will be useful for an employee’s personal development. Therefore, not all employee benefits should to be based on a monetary basis.

The “Commitment Rating” system was subsequently introduced as the new basis for bonuses while a three-tiered ranking system was launched as the relevant factor for stock options and an employee’s long term potential. The new system still ranked employees in the three classes; “outstanding”, “strong” and “limited”, but ensured that the number of employees who could be in each group was not fixed.

Microsoft also came up with several other perks in order to boost motivation, such as discounts on hybrid cars and a transport service that served several residential areas. A new workplace was set up that had open areas in which employees could interact. Office walls were glass white boards that could be used by employees to write anything, from art to new ideas, and the setting could be customized according to individual needs.

The aim of the “Workplace Advantage Strategy” was to encourage team work. Workers could also choose from a range of available designs how they wanted their offices to look like. This strategy was in contrast to the ‘one size fits all’ strategy that was previously in place. An internal survey was subsequently conducted to get reactions about the new workplace design.

The survey showed that most of the team work, about 70 percent, done previously was through informal ways, although there was no specific informal meeting place for employees in the various groups. The new workplace design made it easier for employees to interact freely with each other, which fostered brainstorming sessions. All these changes were meant to boost employee morale.

Teamwork, if correctly managed, can also lead to job satisfaction. Management should ensure that there are mechanisms put in place that handle disagreements, so as to make sure productivity is not impacted negatively. Managers who encourage teamwork and handle conflicts will realize increased productivity in work groups, and employee motivation.

Employees are also more satisfied when they get a chance to work in favorable team environments. Managers should encourage groups to arrive at their own conclusions, without necessarily specifying for a given result from the teamwork. Instead, employees should be trained on the importance and relevance of group work. (Mathis, 2007 48).

The quality of the work environment is significant feature to consider since it contributes to job satisfaction. An internal work environment is composed of respect and the reception that employees receive from their peers and management. The physical work environment is made up surrounding features as well as the working conditions.

A well designed workspace will have a positive impact on an employee’s conduct and performance. Physical elements will not lead to the desired results unless management focuses on the welfare of its staff.

The first task of management is to realize that employees are influenced by everything around them, from lighting, ease of movement to orderliness of the workplace. Therefore, procedures ought to be followed to ensure that only the favorable features of the environment are left behind.

The physical environment should be fostered in a way that is appealing to employees, since they will be using it on a regular basis. A comfortable workspace has a significant effect on the satisfaction and productivity of employees. Employees who rely a lot on team work should have open areas that encourage interaction and collaboration.

However, provisions should be made to allow for private workplaces, so as not to infringe on an employee’s privacy. An attractive workplace has a large impact on how other environmental factors affect an employee.

An appealing work environment will be advantageous to both the company and its employees, since the staff will be satisfied and hence lead to improved attitudes. Satisfaction among employees increases their loyalty towards the company, and they will thus be more productive.

Microsoft Corporation soon experienced the benefits of improved employee motivation. The staff turnover rate decreased to 8.3 percent in 2007, from 10 percent just two years earlier. Employees could now feel that they were valuable, and this resulted into increased loyalty. The company’s revenues were also positively affected, jumping from US$ 39.788 billion in 2005 to US$ 51.122 billion in 2007.

Microsoft enforced the improved performance appraisal system in 2007, whereby 37 percent of employees received a rating of “outstanding”, 58 percent got an “achieved” rating while only 5 percent had “underperformed”.

Employees welcomed the new system since it was more transparent than the previous version. Employees also place more value on a proper feedback mechanism that links rewards to performance, which in turn causes more job satisfaction. (Vanita, 2003 45)

Employee recognition plays a critical role in developing and maintaining employee satisfaction. Programs put in place should be fair, correct and should have appropriate timing. Awards should also be in the right amount, not too many and not too few. They should be few enough so as to increase their value but at the same time common enough so that all employees believe that the rewards are attainable.

Positive feedback encourages an employee to perform better next time, as compared to a reprimand which warns an employee from repeating an undesired result again. A good recognition program will thus communicate vital values that employees should develop so as to reach their potential, and ultimately lead to the achievement of broader organizational goals.

Increased motivation allows employees to exercise creativity and innovation in the workplace, which will in turn have a favorable impact on the company’s profitability and competitiveness. Management should therefore focus on employee motivation so as to encourage innovativeness, rather than basing all its efforts on performance evaluation.

Companies that encourage their employees to think outside the box will find out how knowledgeable they are. Employees also offer a cheaper means of solving problems, as compared to hiring consultants. Brainstorming allows employees to come up with new ideas and challenge old ones, without fear of criticism. (Bratton, 2001 96).

Empowered employees will be more resourceful and more innovative, and the company will be in a better position to compete in the industry. Management should realize that even though empowerment resides in an employee, the company is responsible for developing policies that bring about empowerment. Companies that continue to empower their employees encourage leadership and responsibility.

Most companies don’t apply this concept because they are not willing to forfeit some control to their employees, or tend to apply it selectively to only a few members of staff. A culture that employs empowerment correctively will reap the benefits, due to better service delivery and a motivated workforce. (Torrington, 2008 152)

In conclusion, organizational culture has a direct effect on employee job satisfaction and performance. A culture that allows for open communication, interaction and training will increases employee motivation, which has a major influence on the company’s profitability. Management should for this reason ensure that the right systems are in place to allow for a favorable work environment.

Development of this culture is therefore a responsibility of senior management, if they are keen on lowering employee attrition rates. When a company lacks of clear management policies that aim on employee empowerment, then such a culture is virtually unachievable.

Employees also have a significant role to play in the formulation and development of a favorable culture. Their duty is to disclose issues that they feel would affect their work environment, as well as coming up with suggestions on how they could improve on their job performance.

Management’s role is to assess the employees’ morale on a regular basis, and identify areas that result into low productivity, rather than hoping that employees will adapt to all new policies. A contented workforce is one that has favorable interactions between employees and the company, the end result of which is synergy and unity in the achievement of overall organizational objectives.

References Bratton, J., 2001. Human resource management, Theory and practice. New York: Routledge.

Chakraborty, B., 2010. Employee motivation and retention strategies at Microsoft. New York: Sage

Kanfer, R., 2008. Work motivation past present and future. New York: Routledge.

Mathis, R., 2007. Human Resource Management. New York: Cengage Learning.

Torrington, D., 2008. Human Resource Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Vanita P., 2003. Effective communication in human resource development. New Jersey: Atlantic Publishers.


Marketing Strategy for Bottled Water in Hong Kong Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Core proposition

Competitive positioning

Marketing objectives

The other marketing objective concerns product turnover


Core proposition This strategy is about an offer of bottling water to the Hong Kong market as the target audience. Bottled water is not something new in this market so some of them may be aware of the advantages of consuming it over traditional water.

It is likely that this product will receive a great reception from these intended members because of the fact that it contains minerals like sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate which are healthy for them.

This makes them healthier and better tasting than ordinary tap water. This specific brand of bottled water has vitamin C as an additional feature that makes it quite distinct from the other brands in the market and this is likely to make it stand out from the rest.

The central promise to the Hong Kong market is to offer them bottled water that will contribute to better health and will be accessible to them because of its low prices. The quality of the product will be top notch and customers can prove this through ISO standards followed during the product’s production process (Raymond, 53).

Competitive positioning The first thing that will distinguish the product from the competitors’ offerings is the fact that the new brand will be healthier than the offerings. It will contain an added mineral that is not prevalent in other bottled water brands in the Hong Kong market which is vitamin C. This means that consumers can benefit from better immunity against diseases and better functioning of body organs.

This particular brand will also stand out from the market because of its competitive pricing. This will be designed to reach those individuals who may want to enjoy the benefits of bottled water but may not have the financial backing to do so. Our product will also be environmentally friendly.

The packaging utilised and the production process will be eco friendly. This is likely to appeal to those individuals who are highly concerned about the sustainability of consumer products (Laemer


Central Issues in Human Resource Management Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Fair practices and behaviour

Eliminating discrimination


Works cited

Introduction In an organization, the Human Resource Department serves the purpose of helping it in accomplishing its goals as well as meeting the needs of its workforce. The HR Department is the hub of an organization since it acts as a liaison between all the different parties concerned with improving the performance of the organization.

With the current diversity in the workforce, the functions of the HR Department are increasingly becoming of essence in the success of a company.

Therefore, a central focus of the department’s interventions is an effort to uphold equal employment opportunity (EEO) and anti-discriminatory practices (Ivancevich, 27). This means that the department makes sure that the place of work is free from all forms of unlawful discrimination and harassment as well as providing programs to help the employees overcome past and present disadvantages.

Fair practices and behaviour In an organization, promoting fair practices and behaviour cuts across the activities of the HR Department. In this regard, the Emirates Telecommunication Corporation – Etisalat Human Resource Department ensures that the organization act in accordance with the law, avoids fines, and establishes a discrimination-free place of work (“About us,” para.2). It achieves this in several ways.

To begin with, the Etisalat HR Department promotes recruitment, selection and promotion practices that are open, competitive and based on the merit of the applicant (“What is EEO?”, 2).

The department avoids discrimination during the recruitment process so as to avoid breaching the law and give the organization it is representing the best opportunity of getting the right individual suited for the position. If this is not followed, the job applicants can sue the company for unfair treatment during the recruitment process.

When drafting the job description and person specification, the company’s HR professionals are obliged to state plainly the duties the recruit will be expected to perform and the vital skills that are necessary in accomplishing the duties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the specification does not include any obligations that are not directly associated to the job, for example, for the work of a forklift truck driver, the job specification does not include a good command in the English language since this may not be very necessary. On the other hand, for an editorial or an administrative position within the company, specification of this is of essence.

In writing a job advertisement, the HR professionals are obliged not to state that the vacant position in the organization must be of a specific gender, race, sex, religion, or nationality. However, giving such specific requirements is lawful if it is an occupational requirement.

It is not allowed by the law of the U.A. E. for the HR professionals to advertise for positions indicating that the applicant’s success relies on him or her not having any disability that may reduce his or her performance.

In some instances, the Etisalat HR department endeavors to treat disabled individuals more favourably by announcing that the position is only available to disabled job seekers. To steer clear of discrimination because of age, the HR professionals desist from using words in job advertisements that may result in bias on the grounds of age.

The use of such words as ‘young and dynamic’ is not considered as a fair practice in the recruitment exercise. In certain instances, the HR professionals specify that one being of particular race, sexual orientation, age, or religious belief is an occupational requirement for the advertised position, for example, it may be possible for them to specify that being an Emirati is a requirement for one to work as a cashier in a town within the country.

This is important in ensuring that the company has an ‘authentic’ Emirati atmosphere within the town.

A central issue in Etisalat human resource management is ensuring that all the employees have access to training and development. The department makes sure that all the employees, regardless of their backgrounds, are doing a commendable work.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Central Issues in Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is achieved by making the employees realize that their input within the organization is important and they have the opportunities to develop their full potential and pursue a career path that is within the best of their interests. The quality of the work is usually watered down when workers fail to recognize the value of their input in the company.

Therefore, the company’s HR Department usually enacts programs intended to encourage all workers that the workplace is their second home and that their diversity adds value to the success of the company.

It is of essence to note that people most of the time react better to their surrounding when their emotional well-being is appropriately taken care of. That is why when a company gives rewards to workers who may seem to be unfairly treated, they will be able to feel appreciated and not harbour negative emotions.

In the company’s business environment, the HR Department takes part in employee development by motivating all the workers without any discrimination, regardless of whether they are Emiratis or expatriates.

Motivation through rewards, including tangible things such as monetary benefits and intangible things such as recognition and acceptance, ought to give ideally the outcomes desired by the entire workforce. Studies have revealed that employees are more likely to accomplish duties for which they are rewarded without any bias.

However, when the HR Department is discriminating in this aspect, the employees can develop undesirable behaviour and their motivation and development can be reduced.

This means that the HR Department is endowed with the task of understanding the reward system of the organization it represents in order to influence the behavior of all the workers. This entails understanding what the reward system is meant to do, how to apply it, and how to address the diverse workforce response to it.

Another way that Etisalat’s HR Department uses to encourage personal development within the organization is by ensuring that the workers engage in effective communication since it is the key to optimal day-to-day running of the activities of the organization. It is important for workers to adhere to good communication practices when addressing one another, regardless of their diversity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Central Issues in Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Embracing effective communication necessitates the HR Department to keep the employees conversant with the activities taking place behind the scenes as well as rendering a listening ear to their various needs and requirements. Effective communication leads to personal development because employees usually respond well to an environment that cares for their emotions without discriminating against them.

The company’s HR Department promotes fair practices and behaviour within the organization by providing flexible working schedules that meet the needs of all the workers and produce productive workforce. When workers attempt to strike the right balance between their lives at home and their lives at the workplace, some of them fail to achieve this and end up being stressed and worked up.

This may lead to increased cases of absenteeism and decrease in the level of productivity. Having a career is different from having a life.

For example, to prevent harassment at the place of work, the company’s HR Department ensures that the married workers have instances in which they can be off duty and spend some quality time with their loved ones. Recognizing the needs of all the workers outside the place of work is an important aspect of realizing their dedication when undertaking various duties.

A central issue in Etisalat’s human resource management involves addressing employee’s relations and grievance handling procedures. It is important to note that these procedures should be accessible to all workers and deal with grievances at the place of work promptly, confidentially, and fairly. Uncomfortable workers are usually known through observing their body language.

For example, if an Emirati worker is feeling uneasy at the presence of a white manager near him or her is an indication of a bad relationship between the two. In some cases, a worker may even end up losing his or her train of thought because of this. In such instances, after successfully identifying such a problem of lack of good relations, the company’s HR Department then enacts appropriate strategies to solve the problem.

Almost all the tasks within an organization oblige one to have a good interpersonal relationship with others so as to accomplish them. Efficient performance of the duties require a tremendous understanding of others and even the worker’s own interpersonal skills.

Therefore, to handle grievances, which are common in a workplace setting, especially if the employees are of diverse backgrounds, the company’s HR Department frequently advises the employees to be ready to recognize the needs and perspectives of one another and compromise in certain occasions.

For example, the global internet company Google has successfully implemented this initiative since it has workers of various backgrounds.

Etisalat’s HR Department ensures that management decisions are made without bias and that there is respect for the social and cultural backgrounds of all the workers and clients. This leads to satisfied employees who are generally more productive on the job.

If unfair managerial decisions are made, the whole organization can be brought back to zero because of the resulting dissatisfaction from the employees. It is within the mandate of a company to develop candid ways of making decisions that respects the diverse backgrounds of its workforce.

In this current dynamic work environment, negative influences from outside can have an influence on a company having stable internal work environment and accredited standards of employee behaviour. In most cases, external negative influences force organizations to make drastic actions that will ensure that they are not affected.

For example, negative changes in the economy can force a company to downsize its employees so as to reduce costs. Recent investigations have revealed that the practice of downsizing, especially if it is discriminatory, is able to lower employee satisfaction because the remaining employees generally fear of becoming the next possible targets.

It is essential to note that for companies to accomplish their objectives, maintaining their investment in all the employees is very important. This culture ought to be maintained even if the company is restricting or downsizing its employees. Therefore, to foster fair practice and behaviour, Etisalat’s HR Department play a crucial role in determining the efficiency of downsizing and restricting.

Since such practices have a huge impact for human resource development, the company’s HR Department is obliged to challenge or redirect efforts of the organization in this aspect so as to avoid negative employee behaviour in the place of work through unfair treatment.

Eliminating discrimination Eliminating discrimination at the place of work is a central issue in human resource management since the current workforce is becoming more diverse. Discrimination is treating somebody with prejudice or harassing him or her due to his or her affiliation to a particular group.

It is an unlawful practice for an organization to discriminate against a worker or a job seeker because of their age, sex, pregnancy, disability, race, colour, ethnic background, marital status, career’s responsibilities, homosexuality or transgender. The HR Department usually strives to avoid two forms of unlawful employment discrimination: disparate treatment and disparate impact (Mathis and Jackson, 101).

The department avoids disparate treatment, which takes place when members of a protected class are treated differently from others, by using the same set of standards to judge recruits and employees. For instance, to monitor the progress of employees, the same performance management policies and procedures are given to both white and black employees within an organization.

If illegal discrimination has taken place, heavy fines can be imposed on the organization when an employee files a lawsuit. For example, a manufacturing company in Cleveland, Ohio, paid about one million dollars to settle an EEO lawsuit involving twenty individuals.

They claimed that S


Marriage essay help: essay help

Abstract Bowen developed a family therapy theory to facilitate the solving of family disputes that were frequently arising. To accomplish his goal, he used his model to intervene a minor problem that had occurred in his own extended family.

As a result, it worked so well, giving a positive outcome. This he says was a significant break through for his model implementation. He dedicated his life to family therapy and, as a result, developed this theory that was named after him. Furthermore, has been cited as an excellent theoretical idea ever produced in family therapy.

Introduction The individuals who first discovered the concept of family therapy acknowledged that existing social and cultural influences contour ones morals about themselves and their families. Bowen, however, was the first to discover that a family’s history plays a vital role in determining an individual’s thoughts and principles. Most importantly it facilitated the continuous flow of these thought and principles to the coming generations.

Bowen was born in a large and cohesive family where he was the last child. He studied medicine and became a medical doctor by profession. Later on he seized from pursuing dyads and started pursuing triads.

He attended a conference that had been convened by one of his students from where he explained his theory. He used his family as a case study in explaining the theory in relation to development and function of a family. It is evident that Bowen’s theory focuses on mutualism and individuality.

History of Theory Titelman, (1998) portrays that, in the early years, the occurrence of family disputes triggered the invention of solving techniques. Thus, family therapy is identified to have originated in the 19th century in the United States and England.

In the 1950s, some clinicians started observing and providing therapy to family members through a movement called child guidance and marriage counseling. As a result, these clinicians came up with ideas about theories that relate to the family and depicted that a family is not only about an individual’s perception (Titelman, 1998).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gladding, (2002), states that Bowen Murray was born in Tennessee in 1913 and passed on in 1990. In late 1940s, he involved mothers in the treatment and study of patients suffering from schizophrenic at Menninger clinic.

In 1954 after moving to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) he shifted his focus from individuals to the family aspect. At NIMH, he involved more members of the family in psychotherapy and research of patients suffering from schizophrenic (Gladding, 2002).

Blume (2006) reveals that he founded Georgetown family center in 1959 when he moved to Georgetown University. Most importantly his theory was transformed to emotional tribulations that were less severe. He conducted a detailed research between 1959 and 1962 which involved families in diverse age groups.

Bowen’s first orderly presentation was published in 1966, and it highlighted his developing ideas. Most significant is the fact that he used his concepts to intervene an emotional crisis in his family, this yielded positive results (Blume, 2006).

Philosophical Underpinnings Triangles

Rasheed, Marley and Rasheed, (2010) illustrate that this is a family system that has got a three-person relationship; hence, this can consist of a child, father and mother. Furthermore, it is perceived to be more firm and as the foundation of a vast emotional system that can hold tension devoid of outside interference (Rasheed, Marley and Rasheed, 2010).

Differential of self

Bowen (1978) depicts that “Self” is in born but the amount of it developed by an individual in to the family relationship is determined during adolescent and childhood. Hence, if an individual develops less “self”, he ends up having a superior influence in the family. It is noteworthy that such an individual controls the performance of other family members (Bowen, 1978).

Nuclear emotional systems

Rassool and Gafoor (1997) depicts that this identifies core issues that govern the on set of family disputes. One issue is the marital conflict whereby it has been noted that an increase in tension results to more anxiety among spouses, thus they are required to drop the anxiety and focus more on the problem without dictating to one another.

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‘Belief in Action: The Salvation Army, a Global Not-for-Profit Organization’ Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Budgets, human resources and finances

Governance and strategic vision

Strategic positioning

Human resources

Sustainable growth


Reference list

Introduction Strategic planning/analysis in management is a continuous process and is used to provide a framework for future organizational growth. The efficiency of an organization is determined by how effective its strategies have been formulated and implemented and how strategic the organization is in realizing its objective of providing and preserving excellent service (Bryson 2002, 173).

Strategy planning entails laying down cautiously how the organizational goals will be achieved and it includes spelling out objectives, or definite results, for every premeditated goal. Consequently, attaining a premeditated goal characteristically involves achieving a set of objectives along the. Organizations usually include budgets and human resource in their plans so as to be more specific when laying out their objectives.

Inclusion of budgets in the laying out a plan is crucial as it helps in showing how the scarce resources are going to be distributed, for example assets, human resources, expenses and operational costs. Strategic planning goes through a process from setting the mission, objectives, situation analysis, strategy creation, execution and finally control so as to achieve positive results and an effective plan of action (Bryson 2004, 248).

“Strategic planning is inextricably interwoven into the entire fabric of management and not separate and distinct from the process of management” (Steiner 1997, p.3). Management in all companies has issues characterizing it because running a business however small or big it is, involves making sound and intelligent decisions for the business to keep its doors open.

According to Appelbaum, St-Pierre


Victory of Mittal Over Arcelor in Global Steel Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction According to Caldeira and Ward (2001), Resource-based theory helps to “understand how organizations achieve sustainable competitive advantages”, and its main focus is mainly on the effectiveness of the organization in its pursuit of competitive edge in the market.

A firm can be said to be a collection of physical, human and organizational resources; however, the firm will enjoy significant success relative to its rivals if it can manage to amass adequate intangible resources that gives it a unique identity that will be difficult to imitate.

As Conner (1991, cited in Gossy, 2008) argued, “the performance differentials between organizations depend on having a set of unique inputs and capabilities.” According to resource-based theory, competitive advantage does happen only when “there is a case of resource heterogeneity and resource immobility” (Barney and Clark, 2010).

The Meaning and Principles of Resource Based Theory Silviano (2006) states that, according to resource-based view, a firm’s ability to nurture outstanding and unique capabilities boost its ability to adapt to the dynamic economic environment as well as to improve its survival prospects. Barney (1991, cited in Gossy, 2008, p. 27) argues that in order to provide competitive advantage, a resource must fulfill the following four criteria:

Valuable: the resource must have strategic value to the firm (for instance, by exploiting opportunities or neutralizing threats).

Scarce: the resource must be unique and costly for rival firms to acquire.

Imperfect imitability: It should be impossible to perfectly imitate mainly because it is not easy to acquire; since the link between the capability and the achieved sustained competitive advantage is ambiguous; or because it is socially complex).

Non-substitutability: competitors cannot substitute the resource by another alternative resource to achieve the same results.

As Grover et al (1998, cited in Gossy, 2008, p.84) explain, “the essence of a resource-based theory is that, given resource heterogeneity and resource immobility and satisfaction of the requirement of value, rareness, imperfect immitability, and non substitutability, firms’ resources can be a source of sustained competitive advantage.”

Understanding the development of such capabilities and competences involves viewing the assets and resources of the firm from a knowledge-based perspective (Grant, 2009, p. 3).

The theory prioritizes the need for leaders to value competence as an intangible business asset that can go a long way in enhancing productivity of the firm; indeed attributes such as experiences, organizational culture and competences play a significant role in ensuring that the firm’s performance is sustainable (Gossy, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Conner (1991, cited in Gossy, 2008, p.140) suggests, “An in-house team is likely to produce technical knowledge, skill, or routine that fits better with the firm’s current activities.”

The battle between Mittal and Arcelor before merging and the victory of Mittal According to Oglesby and Adams (2009), Mittal replaced Arcelor as the leading global steel company when it purchased ISG and later bought Ukrainian Kryvorizhstal thus raising its annual production capacity to more than 65 tons.

Conclusively, this also means that no other steel company in the world has had the mechanism to perfectly copy the firm’s industrial processes and marketing strategies. Therefore, Mittal can be termed as a firm whose resources are imperfectly imitable on those grounds.

Mittal initiated the move to swallow its biggest rival, Arcelor, just as it had previously acquired underperforming assets from Mexico, Kazakhstan and Algeria. Such moves made Mittal to earn applauses from governments as a necessary outsider who revived a decaying firm.

The ability of Mittal to do this vividly depicts it as a company loaded with valuable resources, hence able to both exploit available resources and neutralize threats. The ability of Mittal to effectively resist and successively withstand opposition from the Luxembourg government clearly categorizes it a company with highly organized resources that were rare compared to those of its competitors in the steel making industry.

According to Arcelor FCS Commercial Magazine (2005), Mittal reacted very promptly to signals from the market. This is in comparison to Arcelor, which is said to have been less reactive, enabling Mittal to come up with a sharp analysis that helped to develop and implement action plans immediately.

In addition, according to Global Steel Consultants (2006), Mittal’s strategy has always been to grow by acquisition, and for that reason, it has continued to grow even after merging with Arcelor.

We will write a custom Essay on Victory of Mittal Over Arcelor in Global Steel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mittal’s initial plan to merge with Arcelor attracted a six months battle from governments, the banking industry, analysts, and shareholders. This was marked with a lot of opposition that made Arselor’s management resolve to merge with Severstal, a Russian company. The management had further suggested an dividend increment to its shareholders incase they rejected Mittal’s move to merge with Arselor.

Finally, governments, shareholders, and analysts supported the merge between the two companies. From the unfolding of these events, it is evident that Arcelor needed a merge with another steel producing company though they could not find any other firm whose resources could merge or substitute those of Mittal. Not even Severstal could measure up to Mittal. This is simply because Mittal’s resources were non-substitutable.

As Robinson (2009) stated, prior to the merger, Mittal was still the world’s largest steel company. This outstanding stability and credibility of Mittal over Arcelor prior to the amalgamation has made the current ArcelorMittal firm to maintain its superior performance and competitive advantage over its rivals globally.

Mittal’s victory evidently sustained in the ArcelorMittal group According to ArcelorMittal leads other big steel-producing firms in the world due to its superior quality products and industrial processes. According to 10 Reasons You Should Buy Arcelor Mittal Bars over Other Big Steel Producers (2009), the reasons for its superiority over other firms are four-fold: Chemical properties, physical properties, processes, and commercial terms.

Reasons behind the superiority of ArcelorMittal There are various reasons that led to ArcelorMittal taking a superior position in the market. First, Sulfur, phosphorus, and nitrogen are all impurities of steel. ArcelorMittal produces steel bars with lower amounts of these components compared to those produced by other companies. Hence its steel bars are pure and of high quality.

Second, whereas most steel-producing companies produce short steel bars that make them weak, problematic, and non-uniform, ArcelorMittal produces steel bars that are uniform and strong. Third, the firm uses colossus sum of money in research every year to improve the quality of its products and retain its customers. ArcelorMittal always seeks to attract and nurture the best people.

All industrial plants are in the process of certification. Fourth, ArcelorMittal has the most competitive prices for its products compared to that of other big steel companies. Its rebars are also packed in 2MT ton bundles for ease of handling. The bars are also available in standard length of 12 meters.

Conclusion ArcelorMittal has demonstrated the success a firm can have through mergers, more so due to the enormous resources that may be applied to ensure all faculties of the firm are strong.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Victory of Mittal Over Arcelor in Global Steel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, adequate resources allow the firm to formulate strategies that cannot only allow it to establish its identity and competitive advantage, but also to maximize its profitability. Moreover, the resource based theory postulates that a firm will be competitive only if it utilizes its resources capabilities on sound strategies.

Reference List Arcelor FCS Commercial Magazine. 2005. Steel solutions for a better world. (Attached material).

Barney, J. B. and Clark, D. N., 2010. Resource-based theory: creating and sustaining competitive advantage. Journal of Marketing Management. London, Oxford University Press.

Caldeira, M. and Ward, J., 2001. Using resource-based theory to explain the successful adoption and use of information systems and technology in manufacturing small and medium term enterprises. Global co-operation in the new millennium. (Attached material).

Global steel consultants. 2006. Mittal and Arcelor: Do they fit? (Attached material).

Gossy, G., 2008. A stakeholder rationale for risk management: implications for corporate finance decisions. Gabler Verlag. Web.

Grant, R.M., 2009. The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. Berkeley, University of California.

Oglesby, R. A., and Adams, M.G., 2009. Business Research Yearbook. Global Business Perspectives, Volume Xvi, Number 2. International Academy of Business Studies. (Attached material).

Robinson, S., 2009. The mergers and acquisitions review. United Kingdom: Law Business Research Limited. (Attached Material).

Silviano, E. (2006). The resource-based theory of the firm and firm survival. Small business economics, 30:231–249. Springer: Spain. (Attached material).

10 Reasons You Should Buy Arcelor Mittal Bars over Other Big Steel Producers. 2009. 10 Reasons You Should Buy Arcelor Mittal Bars over Other Big Steel Producers. (Attached Material).


Understanding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Meltdown through the Perspective of Human Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Human Factor

Three-Mile-Island: Review of Facility

The Control Room and Plant Equipment Design

Human Error Types and Models

Human Reliability Analysis

Human Factor Integration

The HFI Plan



The 21st century will not only be defined by technology but also by the existence of complex organisations that leverage advances in the field of information technology, computers, and advanced management techniques. This is the reason why a corporation can have a main office in London but can do business all over the globe 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

Aside from that the needs of a growing population such as urban centres that can hold tens of millions of people also necessitate the creation and maintenance of complex and gigantic structures such as those that deliver water, electricity and gas. The intricate systems that these structures contain multiply the probability of errors.

Although there is a system of checks in place these types of facilities cannot afford malfunction or human errors. One good example is the nuclear facility in Three-Mile-Island that experienced a meltdown. The cause of the malfunction is linked to what managers now call as “human factors” and a clear understanding of what it means can help prevent future problems of this magnitude and potential consequence.

Human Factor Before going any further it is imperative to get a clear understanding of the impact of human factors on the organisation, technology, and work and safety aspects of a nuclear plant. An excellent backdrop for this study is the definition for this concept as seen below:

Human factors is a multidisciplinary field that draws on the methods, data, and principles of the behavioural and social sciences, engineering, physiology, anthropometry, biomechanics, and other disciplines to design systems that are compatible with the capabilities and limitations of the people who will use them.

Its goal has been to design system that use human capabilities in appropriate ways, that protect systems from human frailties, and that protect humans from hazards associated with operation of the system (Moray


Organization Management Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Internal factors affecting the performance of a company

External factors affecting the performance of a company


Reference List

Introduction Organizations are reflective of a conglomeration of different factors within and outside its setting. The success of any organizations is always accredited to the good leadership style employed by the top executives.

However, the performance of an organization depends upon a variety of factors including internal as well as external factors. Internal factors may include management strategy adopted by the company while external factors entail issues such as government policy, competition and globalization, as well as the general environment within which an organization operates.

Top managers perform a pivotal role in the management of any organization through their role of devising strategies as well as formulating policies guiding the company’s operations towards achieving the set goals and objectives (Hanson, 2008; Sadler, 2003). Besides, they also have a mandate of directing and coordinating the overall operations of companies.

Through their controlling and leading role, the managers are responsible for allocating resources to various departments in addition to leading the other people in the management team to effectively carry out their duties. Consequently, the top managers greatly affect the performance of the organizations.

However, other stakeholders such as management team, government as well as the industry are equally important in the performance of the firm (Hooke, 2010).

Internal factors affecting the performance of a company The strategic leadership theory holds some facts as far as the link between top managers and organizational image and performance is concerned. To begin with, the executive managers are involved in offering leadership roles that propel the performance of their organizations. As leaders, the executive managers design the company goals and objectives that are meant to steer the operations of the firm (Hooke, 2010).

Furthermore, the managers formulate policies as well as devising strategies to ensure that the designed goals and objectives are achieved. The company is therefore governed by the policies formulated as well as strategies adopted by these managers (Minichilli et al, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The policies therefore govern every facet of the company operations including relationship among the employees within the company, their relations with the superiors as well as the customers. Consequently, the operations of an organization are immensely affected and so is its performance (Minichilli et al, 2010).

On the other hand, strategies adopted by the executive managers also have direct impact on the performance of an organization (Richard, 2009; Sadler, 2003). According to Richard well informed managers have the ability to shape the organization they lead (16). The management strategies implemented determines to a large extent the competitiveness of a firm compared to its opponents in the industry.

Hitt et al (2009) argue that a company’s competitive ability is enhanced when the managers establish as well as implement strategies that add value to the company (4). For instance, such competition was witnessed between Airbus and Boeing where both the companies adopted different competitive strategies to not only survive in the market but also make profits.

Airbus introduced super jumbo with a large capacity while its competitor chose a medium-sized plane with a passenger capacity but efficient thereby winning the competitive battle (Hitt et al, 2009).

Generally, Richard concludes that such authority to make decisions on behalf of the company is only left for the top managers in centralized organizational systems but delegated to lower organizational levels in decentralized systems (Richard, 2009).

Executive managers are also bestowed with an important role of controlling the allocation of resources within the organization. They therefore have the authority over the distribution and allocation of resources to the various company departments (Jing and Avery, 2008).

Well-informed managers would ensure equitable distribution of such resources which in turn improve the performance of the farm as each department’s requirements is taken care of. However, poor resource allocation would create scarcity of such vital requirements in some departments thereby impacting negatively on the organizational performance (Jing and Avery, 2008).

We will write a custom Essay on Organization Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The executive managers are therefore conferred with the authority and power to allocate essential resources as well as create rules that govern such allocation. Consequently, the top managers have a direct impact on the performance of a company.

However, Golsorkhi et al (2010) takes a different perspective concerning such powers (111). They argue that the managers’ power is regulated by the norms of a proper conduct as shared by their counterparts as well as junior employees within the organization (Golsorkhi et al, 2010).

They reiterate the interdependence of organizational structure and the agency as stipulated in the structural theory. According to the theory, the resources are controlled by the existing rules and regulations which happen to form a social system (Golsorkhi et al, 2010).

External factors affecting the performance of a company The performance and reputation of a company is also accredited to other factors apart from the management strategies adopted by the top managers. These external forces may force the companies to adopt certain strategies that would affect their performance positively or worse still, negatively.

At the outset, political forces may compel an organization to adhere to the laid laws such as tax laws and environmental compliance (Ofosu-Amaah, 2000). These legislations will shape the company to be socially as well as environmentally friendly hence improving its public image and reputation (Ofosu-Amaah, 2000).

Moreover, governments may decide to offer subsidies to organization in which they have ownership in an attempt to increase their productivity as well as sustain employment in those companies.

For instance, nations such as France, Spain and Germany have acquired ownership in the Airbus thereby ensuring that the company prospers in business thereby curbing the heightened unemployment rate (Hitt et al, 2009). However, elevated taxes levied on the organizations may eject them from their operations.

On the other hand, ecological perspective refutes the fact that organizational success is wholly accredited to the top managers but to the environment within which the organization operates. The environment here may include such factors as globalization and competition (Pine and Davies, 1999). In the recent past, there has been an augmented interdependence between different economies as well as organizations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such relations have improved the performance of the involved organizations as they can exchange modern management strategies as well as innovations necessary for both their survival as well as profitability. Conversely, competition has impacted on the performance of different organization in the same industry (Pine and Davies, 1999).

Through competition, companies have resorted to mergers in order to overcome the business hurdles currently witnessed in the competitive market. Such merger enables the organizations to learn from others’ management strategies as well as tackle pertinent and complicated issues in the industry together (Hanson, 2008).

By adopting other successful organizations’ strategy, the companies in competition are able to improve their performance enormously (Hitt et al, 2009).

Conclusion Organizations are reflective of a collection of a variety of factors within and outside its setting. To begin with, the performance of any organization is influenced by the management strategy adopted by the management team as well as other external factors including the general environment within which it operates competition, globalization as well as government policies such as tax laws.

Reference List Golsorkhi, Damon et al (2010) Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Hanson, D. (2008) Strategic Management: Competitiveness and globalization. 3rd edition. Asia Pacific, Thomson.

Hitt, Michael et al (2009) Strategic management: competitiveness and globalization: concepts


Compensation Packages Comparison Term Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Abstract


Executive pay

Non executive or midlevel pay



Abstract The paper commences by taking a look at executive pay positions in the United States. It looks at the various forms of compensation alongside basic salaries. These are then compared to other executives from outsourced companies around the world. It has been shown that US CEOs are the most highly paid.

On other hand, mid level and low level outsourced positions are dependent on the location of the individual. People in Japan, Switzerland, Germany and Denmark pay their mid level workers much higher than their US counterparts. However, outsourced jobs in developing Asian nations such as Vietnam and the Philippines are much lower than they are in the US.

Introduction Compensation packages can easily be understood through an analysis of CEO pay as well as through an analysis of mid level job positions because the nature of their pay differs very substantially.

Executive pay In the United States, executives can receive any of the following: a basic salary, some bonuses or incentives, some long term plans, compensation protection, perks and even employee benefits. Usually, some CEOs are given a basic salary alongside other kinds of short term incentives or bonuses.

In this regard, one may be entitled to some monetary compensation based on revenue growth or other types of incentives associated with the nature of one’s position. Sometimes, executives may be given a combination of their base salary alongside other forms of incentives that are largely calculated using formulas.

The difference between short term compensations and long term compensations is that the period under consideration varies. Long term incentives usually get measured for periods longer than one year. It is also possible for executives to be entitled to certain other perks like a limousine, health insurance packages, retirement plans, housing and access to loans with very low interest rates or no interest rates at all.

Alternatively, a person in an executive position may be entitled to stock options when the respective organization is interested in aligning stock price with interests of the said CEO. However, because of susceptibility to abuse by CEOs who may choose to artificially raise stock prices; most organizations may prefer putting a cap on the stock options available to their executives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should be noted that stock options are still preferable over cash compensation owing to recent historical events that attested to unethical accounting behavior i.e. the financial crisis of 2007 to 2009. Furthermore, stock options normally place executives at an advantage when it comes to taxation issues.

Some firms may also decide to offer some of their executives an opportunity to access stocks through the use of restricted stocks. These kinds of stock options are retained at the same value at which the executive purchased them during commencement of his or her term in office (Pizzigati


Bank of America Philadelphia Branch Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition of a Group

Operation Staff Group


Reference List

Introduction Although people may work or perform other roles individually, there comes a time when they have to cooperate with other individuals. Groups are a common phenomenon not only in workplaces but also in other areas of life. For groups to function effectively, certain conditions must prevail. Group process determines the way individual members of a group are able to contribute to the overall goal of a group.

It actually refers to development and changes in relationship among members of a group and therefore dictates how well the members are able to work together. Workgroups cannot be avoided in today’s global economy.

The way workgroups members are able to coordinate towards an organization’s goals and objectives contribute highly to the organization’s performance. In this essay I will analyze my observations on a group in a work setting. I observed Bank of America Philadelphia branch employees in one of their weekly meetings.

Definition of a Group Group is a commonly used term. This makes it problematic to define. Many definitions of a group try to set out the difference between a group and a team. A group is mostly defined as a collection of individuals with common characteristics such as workers in a particular department in an organization (Corey, Corey


Customer Needs Versus Availability of Resources Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Business organizations operate with the aim of making profits. This is achieved if the organization provides goods/services of superior quality to its customers. This is because quality goods/services help to widen the client base of organizations.

Quality can only be achieved if the needs of customers are effectively studied and incorporated into the products/services offered by the business organization. However, business organizations are usually torn between the satisfaction of customer needs and the expenditure of resources; especially when such resources are not available.

As highlighted in the discussion above, it is not usually an easy task to reconcile customer needs with availability of resources. Resources are normally the foundation on which organizations are built since they open up investment opportunities and help organizations to utilize other opportunities efficiently.

The satisfaction of customer needs is equally important to business organizations since it gives the business an assurance of sustainability. It is thus of essence to carefully harmonize the two for the benefit of the organization.

In a case where an organization over-economizes its limited resources and fails to meet the needs of the customer, the organization risks losing a substantial portion of its revenue because it will definitely lose customers.

On the other hand, where an organization overspends in a bid to meet customer needs, the organization will most likely meet problems that will jeopardize the efforts the organization has made to meet customer needs. For instance, if too much money is spent on researching what customers want to be improved on a given product, the organization may miss the money actually to incorporate what the customer wants.

Even if the organization gets resources to meet customer needs in terms of product quality, it may fail to get money for advertisements that are very important in creating awareness (Goral, 2010, p. 1-3). This could result in losses since the resources spent on quality improvement may fail to achieve the intended results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that a balance needs to be achieved between satisfying the needs of customers and the use of limited resources, proper utilization of resources should be given more priority. This is because some customer needs may be short-lived and thus, a blind effort to meet the needs of customers may be met with failure in the long-run.

In this case, the resources will have been depleted and thus, the organization will have closed avenues for alternative investment. This may lead to bankruptcy which may necessitate liquidation (Crow, 2002, p. 1). It is, therefore, of essence to realize the importance of prioritizing proper use of limited business resources in order to ensure that a business organization is able to sustain itself.

In as much as the carrying out of certain business operations may be beneficial to a business organization, scarcity of resources may necessitate overlooking of such operations. Just like operations that are beneficial to business organizations, the meeting of customer needs may be partially ignored due to scarcity of resources in order to sustain the organization.

However, ensuring that limited resources are properly utilized in a bid to meet customer needs will be the best option for any organization. That is, proper reconciliation should be performed to ensure that customers have most of their needs met and at the same time, ensure that limited resources are properly utilized.

Bibliography Crow, K. (2002). Voice of the Customer. Available from,

Goral, T. (2010). Managing the Enterprise on Limited Resources. Available from,


How to Best Align Operational Structures with Strategy Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Proposals of the authors on how to best align operational structures with strategy Kaplan and Norton (2006) first looked at six ways in which organizations may choose to align their structures with strategy. In one of the oldest models, the authors assert that companies may choose to align their structure with strategy through centralized functions. This mode was quite common during the industrial era because it provided a means of gaining from economies of scale.

However, the lack of adaptability in this method caused organizations to look for other routes such as decentralization by product and geographical region, matrix functions, networked organizations, Velcro organizations and even virtual organizations.

Regardless of all these tactics, this quest to find the right organizational structure is often fruitless because the right way to bring out value in an organization is to focus on the balanced scorecard.

The writers believe that one should look for a structure that creates the least amount of problems and then work out a system for aligning that structure with the organizational strategy. In doing this, there are four perspectives that the proposal handles. In terms of operations strategy, the perspective that would best fit is the process perspective.

In the process perspective, business units decide to share or synergize their processes and hence generate savings or gain other benefits. Usually, it may be possible to find companies sharing functions such as distribution, research, manufacturing and purchasing. Therefore, amalgamating these processes does lead to substantial gains by the economies of scale.

Furthermore, a business unit with a core competency can share that capability with another business unit and thus lead to value addition.

For example, in technology drive organizations, a core competency such as the use of optics in Canon Incorporated caused it to benefit from the same optics in its other products. This type of perspective deals directly with operational structures because business processes are what constitute operational structures (Slack et. al, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Four perspectives Kaplan and Norton (2006) beleive that the sources of value creation through the scorecard occur at these levels: customer level, growth and learning level, process level and financial level.

In the customer’s perspective, the authors affirm that when firms align their various business units then this is likely to lead to better results because of an ability to deliver the same value in various outlets (if the organization is a franchise).

Alternatively, customer perspectives sometimes arise out of the sharing of certain relationships common to various units. This implies that services will be delivered conveniently and the products will be better created. Customers can also get more comprehensive services in one organization compared to what they would normally get from specialist providers.

The other perspective that can alter corporate strategy is the process perspective. As explained earlier, this aspect comes about when business units arise and then synergize certain processes that are common to them. It leads to cost savings and efficiency.

Learning and growth is also another perspective that can arise out of the synchronization of knowledge management as well as human capital development. This creates an enterprise wide advantage because today’s business environment is characterized by a need to develop intangible assets. Those who do not take the time to do so may not be in a position to increase their value and hence beat their competitors.

Organizations can do this in various ways. For example, if a firm happens to be a multinational then it can take advantage of its wide employee pool in order to fill its management positions. A case in point is General Electric which accords its various workers opportunities for promotions from different geographical units and this has created a vast number of experienced management.

Alternatively, companies may choose to develop their employees through training opportunities in different product units. Knowledge management can also be done through the sharing of knowledge management ideas between various business units.

We will write a custom Assessment on How to Best Align Operational Structures with Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, the financial perspective is mostly achieved through the efficient use of business resources such that most wastage is eliminated during production, purchase or distribution. Conversely, organizations can also get opportunities to work on their corporate governance through the balanced scorecard and this will ensure effective use of company materials or finances without those losses that arise out of unethical use.

Certain business units may also have a lot of commonalities and can be easily synchronized. Therefore effectively integrating those units can lead to a lot of cost savings.

Furthermore, some business units may have better relationships with certain external parties compared to others. Bringing these levels together could cause disadvantaged sectors to benefit from those sectors that already have established themselves (Kaplan and Norton, 2006).

Conclusion The article endorses the use of the balanced scorecard as a method for aligning structure and organizational strategy. Through the four perspectives, one can see how the balanced scorecard does lead to value creation.

References Slack, N. Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2007). Operations Management 6th Edition. NY: Prentice Hall

Kaplan, R. and Norton, D. (2006). How to implement a new strategy without disrupting your organization. Harvard Business Review 84(3), 100-109


Discussion on the Greater Providence Deposit college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Improvement of Control Procedures in Disbursement of Loan Funds

Improvement of Loan Review Procedures

Ability of Auditors to Detect the Fraud

Indications of Deficiency in the Control Environment


Reference List

Introduction The case study in this paper is based on Greater Providence Deposit and Trust in which an employee in management embezzled funds in loan disbursement.

This discussion focuses on the improvement of control procedures in disbursement of loan funds, loan review procedures and the role of segregation of duties in this fraud as well as the auditors in detecting the fraud and the control environment of greater providence in terms of deficiency.

Improvement of Control Procedures in Disbursement of Loan Funds Greater Providence Deposit and Trust needs to be aware of the fraud risks it faces especially in its dealings with loans. This will require the improvement of its internal control systems to be able to identify, detect, mitigate and prevent fraud (KPMG, 2006). There is need for proper authorization of transactions and activities in light of loan disbursements.

This calls for the proper controls in the authority of loan disbursement whereby when authority is given there are measures to ensure that the limit of authority is actually followed. It is recommendable for the segregation of duties in ensuring proper authority (Romney


How Can We Account for the Globalization of Production? Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Historical development of globalization of production

What are the main drivers of globalization of production?

The role of financial structure

Role of transnational corporations and technological innovations


Reference List

Introduction With the fall of communism, the world became enjoined in a unitary global political economy, but of great importance was the formation of global markets, crossing national borders an event that resulted into globalization.

For some time, the definition of globalization has conceptualized on the process of economic exchange in finished goods and commodities but as the trend shows, this historical definition is changing as more global production concept sets in. Revolutionary advances in communications and information technology have facilitated globalization of production (Maswood, 2008).

The factors that have resulted into globalization of production can be traced to include trade liberation in the postwar era, neo-protectionism in the 1970s and 1980s and the Plaza Accord of 1985 (Maswood, 2008).

Globalization in its essence is regarded as a logical extension of the liberalization process and the interdependence networks that were created among the nations after the Second World War. More so, it has been largely been influenced by the illiberal forces of neo-protectionism and by the exchange rate adjustments that took place in 1980s (Maswood, 2008).

As the world becomes more global, barriers in trade and transport become minimal resulting in reduced costs of conducting businesses across nations. This in turn leads to increased trade between producers located in one country and consumers found in another country (Hanson, 2001, p.1).

Today, as globalization continues to entail increased trade in finished goods, there is also continued fragmentation of industrial operations internationally where industries are moving to locate their firms in a country operations can be carried out with minimal cost (Hanson 2001, p.1).

Hill, McKaig and Richardson (2010) define globalization of production as, “the sourcing of goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production like labor and capital” ( p.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To the author, this is taking place in the world because there is developments in the technological environment and numerous regions are presenting varying and unique advantages as far as economic is concerned. As these happen, there is increased transportation of voluminous goods covering long distances.

In addition, many people are moving further and further from their original places due to impacts of information and communication (Hill, McKaig and Richardson, 2010).

The role of communication is further played in the global environment in that it is becoming cheaper to purchase numerous component parts at cheaper prices. Lastly, as manufacturing continue to take place there is greater sourcing of components from different locations within the particular nation or from outside the country (Hill, McKaig and Richardson, 2010).

Historical development of globalization of production Scholte (2000) noted that globalization is at forefront in helping capitalism to become more widespread and strong than ever. As such, globalization can be seen to be another form of ‘hyper-capitalism”. According to the author, globalization has in great measures modified the ways that accumulation usually takes place and to one hand the changes are associated with commodification (Scholte 2000).

As a result, globalization has stimulated the growth of consumer capital, finance capital, and communication and information capital. Economic activities viewed in this perspective present a scenario where the activities are seen to have acquired a capitalistic logic.

Analyzing globalization in terms of organization, evidence shows that there is much accumulation through offshore centers and transborder companies as a result of globalization while at the same time, the growth of transworld spaces continue to motivate an unprecedented wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions leading to further concentration of capital (Scholte, 2000).

The history of Globalization of production can be linked to the era of expanded commodification where Marx viewed commodities to be objects through whose production and exchange surplus was being created, extracted and cumulated. Hence, to Marx, a resource becomes ‘commodified’ when it is incorporated into the mainstream of capitalist process of accumulation (Scholte 2000).

We will write a custom Essay on How Can We Account for the Globalization of Production? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, commodification may take place in many ways; take a case where a forest is commodified through exploitation by the timber industry, a song on the other hand is commodified through recording and sale by the music industry (Scholte 2000).

According to Schaeffer (2005), globalization of production may be called redistribution of production and is a process that started in the postwar period. According to the author, production was redistributed primarily from USA to other Western Europe countries together with Japan and poor countries were isolated.

Globalization of production hence originated as a partial and limited process instead of a universal development (Schaeffer 2005). During this period, redistribution of production was carried out because various governments, businesses, and consumers adopted policies and practices that changed the location of jobs in manufacturing and agriculture from USA to other locations.

Scholte notes that as commodification expanded, industrial capital was required and this led to production of range of commodities that included manufactures from large-scale factory production.

Starting from late nineteenth century onwards, commercial and industrial capital were boosted with finance capital where financial instruments like stocks and bonds became largely commodified and businesses transacted in these articles became a form of amassing in its own right (Scholte 2000).

From 1960s, the tendency of globalization has further contributed to the widening the scope of commodification in three key areas: consumerism, which is related to global products, which in turn has extended the range and variety of industrial capital.

Second is the growth of supraterritoriality which in turn has contributed to the expansion of finance capital, where global banking, global securities and global derivatives business have led to growth and increase of the volume and the variety of different financial instruments that act as channels of accumulation in their own right (Scholte, 2000).

Third, globalization has led and motivated the spread of commodification into other new and unfamiliar regions largely through information and communication and as such, commodities like computer software and telephone calls have become objects of accumulation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Can We Account for the Globalization of Production? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consumerism is connected to globalization in three main ways: first, many of the principal consumerist articles are largely transworld products and many of these products succeed through ‘global branding’, where transborder production at the same time continue to promote and facilitate consumerism; secondly, the various items of consumerist desire have originated directly from the technologies of globalization, for instance tourism is as a result of large scale air travel companies; third, global environment has contributed a critical role in producing the hedonistic desires on which consumerism has been based in order to thrive.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the growth and rise in consumerism tendencies has led to globalization of production where global products are becoming popular in different societies.

What are the main drivers of globalization of production? Globalization has been defined as,” a process of increasing and deepening interactions between individuals and organizations across the globe, facilitated by advancing communications technology and the opening of markets to trade and investment” (Anon, n.d, p.4). In this definition, key elements that define globalization emerge.

First, capitalist markets in the world are growing and expanding thereby minimizing obstacles to trade and investment. Second, there is increasing interconnectedness among various firms, governments, and individuals allover the world.

Third, information and communication technology is seen to be advancing together with transport and lastly, there are observable qualitative modifications in organizations and societies as a result of emerging global interactions (Anon, n.d, p.4).

The results of globalization to an extent have influenced globalization of production where globalization of production is seen to thrive due to numerous reasons ranging from reduced inter-state and trade and market barriers, increasing communication and technological advancement, increasing consumerism of global products and also increasing cooperation and inter-dependence between various governments and corporations.

Yucel, Elibol and Dagdelen (2009) note that with the setting in of globalization, global production became inevitable especially with the decline in obstacles in regard to flow of goods, services and capital investment particularly after the Second World War.

At the same time, modification and development in technology has also been at forefront in encouraging globalization of production and this has particularly happened with advancement in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies.

According to Stonehouse et al (2004), there are different categories of forces that are influencing globalization and in the process, encourage globalization of production.

These forces are: technological forces, such as industrialization, transport revolution and information and communication revolution; social forces operating in the form of consumerism, convergence in customer tastes and development in education and skills; economic forces such as overall increasing incomes, world trade improving and flourishing, world financial markets, other potential market forces and also world competition; lastly, political forces taking place across the globe in form of reduced trade barriers, intellectual property rights, privatization, development of trade blocs, and technical standards (cited in Paraschiv and Albescu, 2008).

The authors finally note that the lowering of trade barriers among different countries has made globalization a possibility while changes in technology have made it a reality (Paraschiv and Albescu, 2008).

On his part, Ernst (1997) observes that globalization is resulting into qualitative changes, which can be described as a shift from partial to systemic forms of globalization.

As such, competition in the world is increasing at a faster rate and for companies and other corporations to fit well into the competitive environment they have been forced to integrate their earlier ‘stand-alone-operations’ in their individual countries and shifted then into international production networks.

Most of these companies are looking to areas they can conduct their operations more effectively and also where they can penetrate the vital market growth being witnessed in the whole world.

To these companies, motivational factors to venture into international production has originated from the reduction of transaction costs, clusters of specialized capabilities and contested growth markets, the need to speed up response to technological change and lastly du to the changing market requirements (Ernst, 1997).

The role of financial structure Moulaert and Scott (1997) note that there is an ongoing systematic shift of industrial production from the developed countries such as USA and Europe to the developing countries specifically those located in the Pacific Rim, Southern and Eastern Europe and also those in Latin America.

According to the authors, this global change in industrial production has resulted into de-industrialization process in the most developed countries. The authors note the increasing role of capital as the main driving force of the global economy whereby financial capital has become an independent autonomous force in the new and globalizing world.

Further, with relation to the financial capital, whoever is given the responsibility has power to determine the financial structure mostly between creditors and debtors, or between financiers and investors is seen to dominate the major decisions, which shape the global economy (Moulaert and Scott 1997).

Today, there is a global reach of finance to many societies or nations, which in turn has spurred the world’s national economies and other major business transactions. In addition, there is a constant and regular introduction of new financial instruments that are ensuring there is an ever-increasing volume of capital, which is required to promote and maintain the expansion of the global economy.

The current international financial structure has in large measures separated itself from state regulations and is only in small measures influenced by international monetary organizations and as a result the role of the financial structure has been facilitating global reach of capital and other decisive production by many corporations involved in international production and trade.

Further as a result of supportive and flexible financial structure there is more heightened international capital mobility and international financial markets continue to grow influencing international capital flow to increase (Milberg, 2004).

Role of transnational corporations and technological innovations As competition soared, companies could not concentrate in one particular region or country for survival they needed to move to other regions (Letto-Gillies, 2005). With international trade barriers being looser and more flexible, International companies found it possible to transfer their various factors of production to other regions.

However, the critical role these transnational companies have played is their ability to ‘export’ sophiscated skills, technologies and expertise’s to regions they move to. In return they regions have increased their industrial production capacity.

Further, due to relatively low a cheap labor in other countries transnational companies found it relatively easy to conduct their operations by minimizing costs, a situation that motivated many transnational companies to internationalize their production.

Technological innovation and advancement on the other hand has ensured that appropriate technology can be adopted by the MNCs at a reduced cost thereby accelerating international production. Also technological advancement such as internet, communication and transport have ‘joined’ the world making it easier for MNCs to ‘export’ their production units to other countries at a faster speed.

Conclusion Globalization has given birth to different forms of international interaction. However, it is trade that has characterized and purely defined globalization. Although much has been written and researched about globalization of trade, little has been done about globalization of production.

Evidences shows that globalization of production has been spurred by factors such as decline in trade and other political barriers between different countries, integrated international financial structure that is becoming more flexible, advancement in technological innovation especially in communication, transport and information technology.

Therefore more research in globalization of production is necessary in order to see how the concept continues to modify the world as far as trade is concerned.

Reference List Anon. N.d. Perspectives on Globalization. Web.

Ernst, D., 1997. From Partial to Systemic Globalization: International Production Networks in the Electronics Industry. University of California. Web.

Hanson, G. H., 2001. The Globalization of Production. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Web.

Hill, C., McKaig, T. and Richardson, S., 2010. Globalization: Global Business Today. Web. .

Letto-Gillies, G., (2005). Transnational corporations and international production: concepts, theories and effects. MA, Edward Elgar Publishing. Web.

Maswood, S. J., 2008. International political economy and globalization. World Scientific. Web.

Milberg, W., 2004. The changing structure of international trade linked to global production systems: what are the policy implications? Policy Integration Department World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization International Labor Office, Geneva. Web.

Moulaert, F. and Scott, A, J., 1997. Cities, enterprises and society on the eve of the 21st century. Continuum International Publishing Group. Web.

Paraschiv, D. and Albescu, F., 2008. Globalization and developments in shipbuilding industry: focus Romania. 7th International for Research in Logistics, AVIGNON. Web.

Schaeffer, R. K., 2005. Understanding globalization: the social consequences of political, economic, and environmental change. UK, Rowman


Pumpkin Patch Business Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction The purpose of this case study is to consider the external and internal environments, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, core competencies, and future strategies of Pumpkin Patch.

Company Overview According to Pumpkin Patch (2010), Pumpkin Patch is a New Zealand based corporation- it is Australasia’s largest kids wear business with its operations in UK, US, NZ, and Australia; together with its subsidiaries, the group specializes in designing, advertising, retailing and wholesaling of kid’s wears.

The business possesses five operating divisions that consist of four geological areas where its retail chain operates and one wholesale or direct division consecutively in UK, US, Australia, and NZ; its subsidiaries comprises Pumpkin Patch LLC, Torquay Enterprises Ltd, Pumpkin Patch Originals Ltd, Pumpkin Patch (Australia) Pty Ltd, Pumpkin Patch Ltd, Pumpkin Patch Wholesale LLC and Pumpkin Patch Direct Ltd.

As part of its business strategy, in June 2009, Pumpkin Patch restructured thirty-five retail shops in the US that ran below Pumpkin Patch LLC and closed-up fifteen other shops.

Analysing the external environment of Pumpkin Patch Demographic

Pumpkin Patch is a New Zealand-based business with its operations in Australia, UK, and US as well;

New Zealand has a total population of 4,213,418 from where the Pacific population now build-up 6.9 % of the total NZ population. Multiple ethnicities are most common among younger Pacific populace and the average age of the NZ-born Pacific group is 13 years contrasted to 39 years for the overseas-born;

The Pacific group as a whole has a greatly younger age composition than the total population, which means that the target customers (kids) of Pumpkin Patch is higher.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, Australia has a population of 22,451,601m, and the population has five unlike quintiles of gross household-income per week starting from AU$ 319 to AU$ 1096 weekly; generally, more than 90 percent of Australian citizens represented the middle-income class.


The 2010 fiscal year substantiated to be rather complicated for the company because of the continuance of the recessionary affect that the company faced in 2008 to 2009 period creating difficult general retail environments for all of its trading entities. As per Yahoo Finance (2010), during this time, the share prices of the company faced a sudden slump as shown in the figure below:

Figure: Basic Chart of Pumpkin Patch Ltd (PPL.NZ) for 2006 to 2010

Source: Yahoo Finance (2010)

In spite of these tough situations, Pumpkin Patch engendered a quite remarkable development in income and sustained to expand the Pumpkin Patch brand in its twenty-two markets; the result reflects the strength of the Pumpkin Patch brand and the quality of the teams it has around the world.


The political conditions of both New Zealand and Australia are quite stable and the governments of both the countries try to afford the highest business friendly environment to all its industries with a view to raise the GNP; most importantly, the government of New Zealand always encourage and assist the growth of the local and international NZ companies.

On the other hand, despite of a few number of problems due to lawful barriers such as environmental and labour legislations, the market of the US and UK generates enough revenues as well.

We will write a custom Essay on Pumpkin Patch Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Socio-cultural

The Pumpkin Patch Company is committed to ensure the highest level of satisfaction to all its stakeholders, including its employees and the local communities. It believes that it is socially responsible to reduce its adverse affects in the environment by introducing more and more eco-friendly production procedures.

It also induces its shareholders, partners, suppliers, and other associates to care and to stay beside the neighbouring communities. It possesses a formal Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy that gives a direction to every single subsidiary about the type of culture that the group promotes in order to comply with the environmental laws.


The company believes that in this rapidly changing competitive world it needs to adapt the latest technological infrastructure to gain competitive advantage. Therefore, its IT department constantly works for ensuring the greatest technological assistance. Moreover, it is imperative to note that the company has hi-tech instruments that help it in rapid production.

Core competencies

Management and People– the company possess an extremely efficient top management that has amazing administrative skills for controlling such a large business like Pumpkin Patch. It employees are very specialized in the production of the kids’ outfits.

Promotion- it has special promotional packages that includes discount-vouchers, Pumpkin Patch promotional-codes, money-off coupon codes for great discounts, and many other packages for customers.

Fashion Designing- additionally, its key competency is its expert team of fashion designers who are indeed very creative and imaginative in the designing works.

Product Offerings- it is noteworthy that most of clothes that the company offers are simple, light coloured, and of pure cotton. This competency helps the company because children more often like to wear comfortable dresses in sunny weather. However, it also offers bright-coloured and gorgeous dresses as well.

Retail Outlets– its retail outlets are located near busy streets so that more customers can keep visiting the stores. The decoration of the outlets are eye-catching that attracts the customer too.

Pricing- because the company offers dresses at relatively cheaper prices than its competitors, the pricing of the products is its core competency. This induces the customers to be loyal and to stop the switching costs.

Industry Analysis In the clothing industry, the barriers to entry are relatively high because of the requirement of a huge sum of money to start the business with; apart from that, efficient production staffs and creative fashion designers are essential to sustain in the competitive market, which are very scarce too.

It will be tough for the new entrants to sustain because the production expenses of the clothes are high and the resources, technologies, and machineries required in operations are most of the time unavailable.

Although, there are many competitors in the industry, companies specialising in kids’ wear are very few; therefore, there are few competitors providing direct substitutes.

The bargaining power of the buyers is moderate and the switching costs are slightly high. Conversely, the presence of numerous suppliers in this industry means that their bargaining powers are low; nevertheless, suppliers of fashionable brands are inadequate denoting high threat.

SWOT analysis of Pumpkin Patch Strengths

Pumpkin Patch has outstanding brand awareness and quality image, which helps the company to increase its profit day-by-day.

The experience, dynamic and efficient designers always show their creativity;

According to the annual report 2010, the Board of Directors are responsible for ensuring that the Company and Group is properly managed to improve and protect the rights of shareholders;

It offers quality products with reasonable price;

In spite of these challenge of global financial downturn, it generated a very significant development in income and continued to grow the Pumpkin Patch brand in its 22 markets.


Slow growth rate in the US retail market and wholesale market;

Rapid change of fashion trends and customer’s mind to select children cloths;

Fluctuation of market share price in stock market;

Employees’ right is not protected under Fair Work Act 2009;

Pumpkin Patch spend relatively low budget for market research and promotional activities.


Pumpkin Patch has Strong capital and resources for further expansion, for example, it has already launch of its new brand Charlie


Cultural, Gender and Racial Differences in Sports Qualitative Research Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Racial Bias

Gender Bias

Cultural Bias



Cultural, gender and racial differences in sports are often observed but rarely acknowledged as important facets to sports management. Currently, there are many racial profiles regarding sports; like the common assumption that African Americans are better at sports than whites or Asians and males are better at sports than females (Bloom


Application of Organizational Theory to Healthcare Organizations Report best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Contingency Theory of Organization

Institutional Theory of Organization


Reference List

Introduction Healthcare organizations have gone through extreme transformations during the last few decades. This has been done in parallel to the mounting pressures that these organizations have faced in the same duration of time. The origin of the pressures is both from internal and external sources which have in turn affected the manner in which the organizations are run, structured and organized.

When it comes to organizational management, healthcare organizations function in a similar manner like any other organization. Organizational theories help to explain how organizations function and how they are structured in the face of internal and external forces. This paper extends the application of organizational theory to the healthcare organizations.

Specifically, the contingency and institutional theories of organization will be examined and applied to the healthcare sector. The theories will explain how the healthcare sector is transformed, organized and restructured to achieve organizational goals even in the face of uncertain and dynamic environments.

Contingency Theory of Organization The phrase contingency theory was invented by Lawrence and Lorsch in 1967, even though the previous work of Burns and Stalker and Woodward facilitated the laying of its foundation.

The fundamental thesis of contingency theory of organization is that there is no one effective means of organizing but rather the structure of an organization that will facilitate its best performance is determined by the characteristics of the environment within which it exists. In other words, the best structure for an organization is dependent on elements of its environment.

These elements are called contingencies, or contingency variables, and include size, technology, geography and uncertainty. Elements of the organizational structure that are dependent on these environmental features include “the degree of formalization, differentiation, decentralization, and integration” (Johnson, 2009, p. 50).

The entire organization does not experience similar contingencies, but instead a number of sub-departments within the organization experience varied environments and contingencies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, structural characteristics may also be different. Johnson (2009) argues that, “the greater the variation of environments faced by individual sub-units within the organization, the greater the need for differentiation, and so the greater subsequent demand on coordination and control,” (p. 51). Therefore, the contingency theory of organization operates at both the departmental and organizational levels.

As the complexity and uncertainty of an organization’s environment increase, there is a greater demand for information processing within the organization. This implies that as the organization becomes more and more complex and uncertain, it requires more effective means of processing information.

In the process, the organization’s structural features including formalization, hierarchy, and decentralization should be structured to optimize information processing.

The contingency theory assumes that in any organization, there is the existence of an original state of fit between the organization and its environment. When one of the organization’s contingency variables changes, a misfit between the organization and its environment occurs and the organization is then forced to adapt its structure so as to fit with the environment.

As organizations engage in the process of adaptation, their environments influence how they differentiate their internal structures and units. Lawrence and Lorsch (1967) argued that environmental forces include geographical, economic, technological, and political aspects. These elements force organizations to differentiate structure within the organization as a response to the environmental factors.

This differentiation in turn generates internal fragmentation. The central administration of the organization works to enhance integration by undertaking activities that aim at improving efficiency or productivity. Nonetheless, the integration is sometimes irrational and based on a pre-determined order and governed by political processes instead of certain idyllic and the best possible choice process (Covrig, 2005).

The contingency theory posits that different organizational forms can adapt to the same environment. Those organizations that adapt most readily have the advantage. Adaptation includes achieving an effective balance between the organization’s external environment and internal strategies similar to managed care and iron triangle.

We will write a custom Report on Application of Organizational Theory to Healthcare Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In healthcare organizations, internal strategies include possessing the appropriate technology at the appropriate time, maintaining and hiring appropriate skill levels of individuals, and ensuring that those individuals perform the right tasks at the right time. The theory suggests that the organizations most likely to survive are those that are the most effective at making such adaptations (Johnson, 2009).

The term contingency refers to an event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a possibility that must be prepared for. As such, contingency is about possessing the knowledge, skills and abilities to respond to a changing situation. Analyzing and responding to the contingencies that influence leader effectiveness may provide one with the ability to succeed in an ever-changing healthcare environment.

Healthcare leadership is about stepping up in times of uncertainty and moving forward to minimize potential threats and exploit opportunities. The leader who is able to respond to ever-increasing levels of environmental uncertainty through the utilization of more than one style of leadership will be most likely to increase employees’ levels of motivation, satisfaction and productivity (Bokowski, 2009).

Institutional Theory of Organization The institutional theory of organization addresses one major issue: “why so many organizations are so similar and how the organizations relate to their environments” (Meyer


First-mover, Later Mover Theories Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help

Business managers find themselves in a dilemma on the best market entry strategy to adopt among the first and late mover strategies when making an entry into a new market. Theoretical and practical investigations and evaluations into the merits and demerits associated with these approaches could help them make informed decisions on the most appropriate market entry strategy for their firms.

Among the advantages a business organization is likely to gain with the first mover strategy is a significant occupation of the target market. This can be in terms of resource capitalization and buyer switching costs. Schnaars (1961) argues that switching costs stem from the financial burden of initial transaction costs, employee training costs, customer learning costs, and the cost of qualifying a new supplier.

Theoretically, switching costs facilitate the creation of value and share of the market although it may not translate to higher profits. Another advantage argued on a theoretical framework is buyer choice uncertainty. Uninformed buyers tend to stick to initial products irrespective of the fact that newly launched products may be of a superior quality to their preferred choice. This perception revolves around brand royalty (Schnaars, 1961).

Reinganum (1983) asserts that sustained leadership in technology is an advantage gained through mechanisms based on the learning curve and product patents. The learning curve theory demonstrates the advantage of falling unit costs with an increase in output volumes. In view of this, fierce rivalry may result from competing firms adjusting product prices downwards to bar new entrants.

This rivalry often causes other firms to under price their products to gain an upper hand in the share of the market. This was the case with the mining of uranium at Proctor. Gamble endeavored to gain a sustained advantage by integrating this strategy in its pursuits to gain an upper hand in uranium mining. This was also the case with Lincoln Electric Company.

The firm entered the market with patented products that were superior coupled with a distinct technological dynamism that lead the company to operate on distinctly high profits. First mover advantages can also be sustained by patenting products, a case with Xerox.

Patents played a key role in barring competitors from entering the target market until forced entry was achieved through anti-trust actions. Wernerfelt and Karnani (1987) product detailed descriptions of managerial innovations that led first movers into greater profitability in product manufacturing and distribution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another advantage is that firms may preempt the scarcity of resources in the form of machinery and related equipments. Weiss (1976) argues that first movers can gain an advantage in controlling already existing assets which may not have been necessarily created by the firm. These assets span the geographic space, product positioning, and input and output processes.

The preemption of input factors may be in terms of a firm’s current and superior knowledge about market conditions. The knowledge includes prime market geographic locations.

Geographic locations can enable the first mover to establish appropriate product space as the case with Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart targeted several geographic locations making its supply chain extremely efficient. That led the firm to realize huge and sustained profits.

The above commitment leads a firm to maintain greater outputs making it extremely difficulty for new entrants to penetrate that market. These commitments can be partially achieved through price cuts and other strategies.

Smaller firms cannot risk entering such markets since they may ruin their chances of making sustained profits. The case with Dow chemical industry illustrates this scenario. This firm gained a near market monopoly by manipulating prices in view of the large investments it had made.

On the hand, the first mover strategy suffers from various disadvantages while on the other hand the late mover benefits from these disadvantages. Spence (1977) affirms that first movers may enjoy first mover monopoly. The magnitude of profits enjoyed by first mover firms diminish as late movers switch to the newly created market enjoying the infrastructure and other innovations specific to the new market made by first movers.

Late movers are adept at product and technology innovations. In addition to that, late movers may benefit from employee screening done by early movers. Late movers may find readily skilled labor in the new market. Spence (1977) cite the case of EMI that developed the first scanner. The company could not aggressively penetrate the market since it lacked skilled personnel and infrastructure to reach the target market.

We will write a custom Essay on First-mover, Later Mover Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That shortcoming was exploited by the Pilkington firm which put to advantage its ability to create a market infrastructure. That led it to gain enormously by drawing upon its experience and asset utilization. Other companies on record to have gained from the disadvantages of early movers were IBM and Matsushita.

Risk and uncertainties coupled with different technologies is another disadvantage spanning the first mover approach and advantage of the late mover approach. The effects of this approach revolve around the size of the market, the ability of rival firms to resolve market uncertainties, and the availability of skilled labor. Well illustrated cases were Model T ford and D-C 3 companies. Another firm was Toyota.

Toyota endeavored to exploit the first mover mistakes of Volkswagen in entering the US market. When Toyota planned to enter the US market, it incorporated the weak aspects of Volkswagen, a company that dominated US market for long. This saw the market share for Volkswagen dwindle as that of Toyota rose.

The third disadvantage of first mover that is also an advantage of late mover approach is a shift in technology. New entrants may evaluate technological discontinuity of rival firms and come up with new innovations that are better tailored to meet customer needs. That becomes a striking gateway for late movers.

Reinganum (1983) argues that incumbent firms may take longer to perceive threats from aggressive followers and late movers in terms of technological innovations.

Such examples include the failure of steam engine manufacturers to respond to newly invented diesel engines, the American Viscose’s inability to recognize the threat by rayon as a substitute for Viscose, and the industry transition from germanium to silicon. Another example includes IBM and Burroughs’ constant onslaught on Docutel’s automatic teller machine.

The fourth disadvantage of the first mover and fourth advantage of the last mover approach is the inertia inherent in asset optimization. This approach is characterized by failure of a firm to optimize its fixed assets, product lines, and organizational inflexibility.

These elements hamper organizational ability to adapt to environmental changes that gradually may lead an organization to decline despite short term profit optimization. Specific examples include steel production methods in the US in the 1950’s and 1960’s. These firms continued to invest in obsolete technologies irrespective of the cost and inefficiencies inherent with these furnaces.

Not sure if you can write a paper on First-mover, Later Mover Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other examples include Xerox’s failure to innovate its products on time, an opportunity IBM seized upon. Ford’s decision to continue manufacturing the T Model despite challenging environmental competitions and the introduction of chips into the market for women and children which prior to that introduction had been a reserve for men in pubs and bars (Spence, 1977).

On the other hand, late movers are disadvantages by their failure to acquire a profitable chunk of the market. Once the new entrant has gained a share of the current market, it could be difficult for the late mover to penetrate an already occupied market. This disadvantage may be facilitated by technological leadership of the first mover compared to the new entrant’s inferior technology (Reinganum, 1983).

In addition to that, consumer behavior may determine the success or failure of the new entrant. It has been shown that consumers show prevalence and loyalty to products they are conversant with compared to new products. In addition to that, the perceived value of a product influences consumer loyalty (Schnaars, 1961).

Late mover approach suffers from the disadvantage of patents. First mover products may be patented and late movers may have no economic advantage through innovations of such products (Shaw


Americanization of Russia and its Impact on Young Generation Research Paper essay help online

Introduction Currently, the world is characterized by globalization and its effects are evident in all countries. It affects all sectors which are inclusive but not limited to political, economic and cultural sector. Culture is one of the sectors which are greatly affected by globalization because it is a wide topic which refers to people’s way of life.

However, although there is free flow of cultural ideas between different countries and different continents, American culture has extended to almost all countries in the world since it is considered to be superior to other cultures (Marling pp.7).

As a result, all the other cultures in the world have been greatly impacted by the American culture. Russia is no exception as the American culture has had great impact on it. Since culture is diverse, this paper shall focus on the positive impacts of the American culture on Russian language and some cultural changes that have been caused by Americanization.

Background Information Cultural diffusion is a common occurrence in the age of globalization as there are many factors that influence the same. Although all the other countries are affected by Americanization, Russia has been greatly affected especially due to the Western domination in to the East after the fall of the USSR.

Consequently, Russia is characterized by American cultural symbols. Although there are negative changes especially in relation to spending, Americanization has contributed greatly to social improvement. Since language is often used a means of communication, it has been seriously affected by the Americanization.

This is due to the fact that that globalization has facilitated free movement of people from Russia to America (Bogardus pp.189). On the same note, people from America can settle in Russia and as a result, Russian language has been greatly influenced by the American English.

Americanization of the Russian Language Russian language is one of the Eastern Slavonic languages and it is spoken by about two hundred and seventy seven million people from Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. However, it is also spoke in other countries like United States, Canada, Israel, Finland and Poland to name just a few.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The language has got a long history as it dates from the tenth century although it appeared in writing much later in the seventh and the eighteenth century. However, despite the fact that it was only a few authors who would have written in Russian during the era of the Soviet Union, a lot of people were using the language by then (Ager Para 2).

In view of the fact that language is prone to growth, Russian language has been growing rapindly since its establishment. Despite the fact that Russian language has been greatly influenced by English, there is a big difference between the two languages as studies indicate that it takes ten percent longer to communicate in Russian than in English.

As highlighted earlier in this paper, American influence on the Russian language had been in existence for quite some time. As a result, the language has been affected in various ways. For instance, there are some America words that have been incorporated in the Russian language. Moreover, English became a very popular in Russia especially towards the end of the end of the twentieth century.

Consequently, a lot of people especially the young people and children started to communicate purely in English. To make the mater even worse, some could not even communicate in Russian although it is their vernacular while others can only hear but cannot use it for speaking even at home.

Studies indicate that Americanization of the Russian language was not only a matter of concern to the scholars but also to the parents. Due to that, many parents made it a rule for their children to communicate purely in Russian especially in the home set up.

According to the studies of Melnyk (Para 4), influence of English on Russian language increased during the post Soviet era although before then there were still some similarities. For example, the same studies illustrate that some English words like weekend and girl friend are pronounced the same way in the Russian language.

However, during the post Soviet era, influence increased due to Western movies, teaching of English in Russian Universities, Western press as well as due to the increased Western books in Russia. Currently, due to technological advancement and development of a global economy, more English words related to the same fields are being used in the Russian language.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Americanization of Russia and its Impact on Young Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such words are inclusive but not limited to email, broker, voucher, browser, coupon, user and provider. Most words in Russian slang are characterized by Russian affixes and English roots. For example, Russian words like mastdait meaning to criticize originates from English meaning must die.

Due to Americanization, some of the Russian words are currently being used while referring to some of the English words which have got similar sounds. For instance, studies of Melnyk (Para 6) illustrate that a word like mylo which means soap in Russian is used while refereeing to email just because the two words have got similar sounds.

Additionally, young people in Russia are currently using a lot of English words in their vocabulary such as cool and wow.

Impact of Americanization and Other Cultural Changes on Young People As much as Americanization in any country affects people across all the age brackets, young are affected more than any other group in the society. This is due to the fact that it is the group that is most active not to mention that it is also the group that interacts more with the foreigners.

Most of the young people travel to America for study purposes and interact with Americans in the local learning institutions. In addition, it is the same group that is greatly influenced by music and the American movies. As a result, there is so much change in their life due to Americanization.

Their language is mostly affected as the study indicates that their speech is characterized by slang which has got its roots in English. No one can negate the importance of a vernacular language but on the other hand, there are numerous benefits that a bilingual or people who know more than one language reap.

In reference to Russian language, Americanization is very important as it is easier to express oneself in English more than in Russian. On the same note, it is important to point out that Americanization has led to development of certain words that are very helpful in expression.

Americanization of Russian language is very significant to immigrants from Russia in the United States. This is due to the fact that it prevents or eliminates culture shock as knowledge of some of the American words helps Russians to get assimilated easily in the American culture. Culture shock becomes a major problem especially to people who are not acquitted with the American way of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Americanization of Russia and its Impact on Young Generation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, in the studies of Luria, Seymour


New Zealand’s Domestic Airline Market Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction In the recent past, a lot of changes have taken place in the New Zealand domestic airline market. There have been changes in the volume of travellers plying the domestic route, changes in the number of players in the market, and changes in sales volume among others.

It is estimated that in the year 2007, revenue from this sector amounted to about 1.6 billion New Zealand dollars. Industry experts are of the view that for a period of seven years from the year 2000, the domestic market was dominated by two key players. These were Air New Zealand and Qantas. It is only much later that new entrant in the market started challenging this dominance.

For example, the entry of Pacific Blue in the market in November 2007 brought with it a lot of changes to the market. Faced by this financially strong new competitor, Air New Zealand and Qantas had to change their strategies. This saw the reduction in air fares and increased flight frequency among others.

This development brings into fore the issue of strategic groups in this market (Leask


Youth Arts and the Regulation of Subjectivity Qualitative Research Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction The youth culture is often viewed in a negative light. The term youth culture often evokes images of drugs addicts, sexually irresponsive people and criminals. Many programs have been started to help youths avoid engaging in such risky behaviours or help them stop participating in such activities for those who are already in it. The use of arts and the media is one such intervention strategy.

Arts can help youths stay away from engaging in risky behaviours by keeping them busy with constructive activities. Second, arts help youths to connect with each other and share ideas, experiences and worries.

Most importantly, arts instil in the youths various skills with which the youth can use to better their lives for instance by using them to obtain gainful employment (Cahill, 2008). This paper analyzes an arts-based intervention project for the youths. The project is called the EMERGE Media Initiate Project started by the Information Cultural Exchange (ICE).

Project of Choice: The EMERGE Media Initiative Project Background information about the Project

The Emerging Communities Media Initiative (EMERGE) was started by the ICE to provide young members of the small and emerging communities with training in media-related fields such as editing, writing, program production and scripting among others.

In addition, the project offers English language lessons to the participants. The project was started in recognition of the challenges faced by emerging communities in communication, settling in and accessing essential services.

The types of young subjects being produced by the project

The EMERGE Media Initiative Project aims at producing young radio broadcasters from the small and emerging communities. This project was founded from the realization that many communities are coming up due to increased rate of immigration of people from other parts of the world to Australia. The immigrants often live in communities that are isolated and alienated from the others.

In addition, different communities form in different parts of Australia. Unfortunately, the emerging communities live in isolation and do not get the opportunity to interact with other small or mainstream communities. Immigrants often have their own unique experiences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The whole process of leaving their home countries and settling in an alien country is a long process that in most cases is full of huddles and challenges. This is more so for the young people. Young immigrants may encounter challenges from social, economic and educational areas (Information and Cultural Exchange, 2010).

Social challenges include a deep need to fit in with fellow young people in a new area. Unfortunately, this need to fit in may lead them to engage in socially unacceptable behaviours such as excessive drinking, drug abuse and sexually irresponsible activities. Economic challenges include poverty and inability to find meaningful and help employment opportunities.

This often happens to immigrants who in pursuit of greener pastures find that the grass is not always greener on the other side of the fence. Immigrants often get low-paying and low-calibre jobs, contrary to their initial expectations.

From the educational perspective, challenges for immigrants include difficulties in catching up with their classmates or difficulties in adapting to the new educational system which is different from the educational system of their home countries. All these challenges facing young immigrants make them vulnerable to illicit behaviours and are thus at high risk of conforming to these behaviours (Cahill, 2008).

The EMERGE Media Initiative Project acknowledges that the media is a very powerful tool of bringing about change in any society. The project focuses on the radio medium because it is the most commonly used communication medium in the emerging communities.

The project aims at producing young people who are experts in radio broadcasting, scripting and production. The young subjects often come together to share their ideas, learn from each other and showcase their talents in radio production and broadcasting (Information and Cultural Exchange, 2010).

The project’s targets

The EMERGE Media Initiative Project targets the small and emerging communities of Australia. These are communities of immigrants from other parts of the world who come to settle in Australia. These emerging communities have several things in common which bind them together. First and foremost, they are aliens in a foreign land. As a result, they feel isolated and out of place.

We will write a custom Essay on Youth Arts and the Regulation of Subjectivity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These feelings can increase the risk of the young people from these communities to engage in risky behaviours. Second, members of the emerging communities need a platform on which they can share their unique stories and experiences. This helps to make their stay in the foreign land a bit easier (Information and Cultural Exchange, 2010).

Third, many members of the emerging communities leave their home countries without their other family members. Most often, they could be young people who leave their home countries and go abroad to advance their studies. They could also be young people who have lacked employment opportunities in their home countries and thus go abroad to look for greener pastures.

As a result, these young people live in the foreign land away from their parents and siblings. In short, they are without the parental guidance that young people need to go through their different stages of development. As a result, young members of the emerging communities are at high risk of engaging in risky behaviours such as drug abuse and irresponsible sexual activities (Hooks, 2009).

Engagement in such activities is on the most part as a result of peer pressure and the need to fit in and be identified with their peers. It is also in part due to frustrations they may encounter in the alien land or the new freedom they now have (Powell, 2007). It is for these reasons that the EMERGE Media Initiative project was formed.

The project targets young people from the immigrant communities who are at risk of engaging in risky behaviours. Through the project, the participants are helped to nurture certain media and technical skills which enable them to produce programs through which the communities can share their life experiences and help each other.

The skills also help them to become self sufficient and to shy away from risky behaviours. In short, the project gives members of the emerging communities a sense of identity which they can be proud of (Kelly, 2001).

Goals of the targets’ involvement To help the emerging communities communicate effectively with each other

The EMERGE Media Initiative helps the small and emerging communities to communicate with each other. The project helps the communities to produce radio programs through which they connect with each other. The project recognizes the importance of the radio as a communication channel in such small communities.

Members of the communities can share their stories and their experiences of settling in Australia through the radio programs. Because these communities are from distinct origins, they can conduct their programs using their vernacular languages. The vernacular language further helps them to connect with each other because it is one of the common things they share in the foreign land.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Youth Arts and the Regulation of Subjectivity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, through the telling of stories and sharing of experiences, members of these small communities can help each other out when one or more of their members are faced with problems or challenges (Information and Cultural Exchange, 2010).

To help the emerging communities settle well in Australia

The EMERGE Media Initiative also helps members of the emerging communities to settle well in Australia. This is especially done through imparting skills in the written and spoken English language among the members of the emerging communities. The English language is an important language that is spoken throughout the globe.

By learning the English language, members of the emerging communities are in a better position to interact with the locals. This makes it easy for them to settle down.

Besides interacting, knowledge and proficiency in the English language helps the emerging communities to fit in well in the Australian educational system and also to obtain gainful employment opportunities. This would not be possible if they did not know how to communicate in the English language (Green, 2003).

The EMERGE Media Initiative helps the emerging communities to settle in Australia by teaching them the Australian cultures. Culture is the manner in which people of a given society live. It entails the manner of eating, dressing, and talking to mention but a few.

Culture is important not only in the social scene but also in the business scene. The project teaches the emerging communities the cultures of the Australian people so that they know how to behave in any given situation. This helps to avoid conflicts with the local people as well as culture shock (Kelly, 2001).

Skill development

One of the key achievements of the EMERGE Media Initiative is skill development. The project teaches the young people of the emerging communities a diverse range of skills in the arts. These skills include: story telling, writing, script production, interviewing, editing, recording, program production, and project management among others.

Armed with these skills, the young people from the emerging communities are in a position to produce their own programs that enable them to achieve the purpose of the project. In other words, skill development helps the youth to become independent rather than rely on the support of the project’s managers.

This independence of the emerging communities is illustrated by the program the Voice of the Nile which was started by earlier participants of the projects who are members of the Sudanese community. This program helps the Sudanese people to connect with each other, share their experiences and help each other in times of need.

In addition to using the skills to produce their own programs, the skills also help the emerging communities to obtain gainful employment. The learning programs the participants go through are adequate enough to help them find employment opportunities in the media industry (Information and Cultural Exchange, 2010).

To enable service providers and agencies to provide essential services to the emerging communities

The EMERGE Media Initiate also brings together the emerging communities and service providers. Through the project, members of the emerging communities get to learn where and how they can access essential services. On the other hand, the project helps the service providers to learn about the existence of the emerging communities.

Access to essential services is important for the small and emerging communities like those of the immigrants in Australia. Because these communities are new to the place, they lack the ability to know where they can find such services at cost effective prices (Te Riele, 2006).

Legal, educational, and social protection services are especially important for these communities. Without them, members of the communities particularly the youth can become vulnerable and at high risk of engaging in socially unacceptable and harmful activities.

Conclusion Youths at risk refer to young people who are vulnerable and have high probability of engaging in risky and irresponsible behaviours that can destroy their lives. Youth at risk include among others young people from dysfunctional families, youths who do not perform well in academics and are therefore likely to drop out of school and youths with bad prior life experiences such as physical or emotional abuse.

Youths at risk are highly likely to engage in drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviours and criminal activities (Baker


Project Management: Maturity Models Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The business world in the early 90’s saw organisations start managing their own projects and the title of project manager became increasingly relevant within the organisational setting. Many organisations moved towards a principle called the PRINCE2M to create consistency in the way they managed their projects and to help the increasing number of project managers in their work (Kezner, 2005).

Due to the demand for project management and the rising number of project managers in the industry, organisations started basing their recruitment and strategic planning models on competencies of project management. However, project management requires more than certification from an accredited institution.

It requires more than just training of managers. A successful organisation must have processes, tools, policies and standards that will help it to excel in all the projects it undertakes and this excellence cannot be obtained in the absence of other management systems which must be integrated for the project management standards to work effectively.

Apart from the project infrastructure, an organisation requires high performing individuals but the two aforementioned variables working in isolation cannot guarantee long term or consistency in performance.

To start with, this infrastructure cannot establish itself; it needs efficient human capital to establish it and this may take several years. The establishment itself needs to follow certain standards and principles for it to be successful and this call for a model that can be used to guide managers through the process. Project managers need to know what they need to do and the methods that they need to arrive at a certain destination.

This is why maturity models are important in project management. The work of the project maturity models is to describe the scope of the projects and the activities that may be related to the project. It also entails the establishment of the key process areas that are vital in the achievement of successful outcomes

What is a Project Management Maturity Model? This is a progressive process that allows businesses, firms and organisations to make consistent and evident improvements in the course of the development of a project. Many people think that a project maturity model is a tool that can be used to transform a project rapidly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a misconception because it is supposed to be a continuous process where the outcomes of project improvement are seen as time goes by and as the project moves towards its completion. Maturity levels for a project depend on the nature of the project and the needs of the organisation.

They also depend on the level of maturity the organisation wants to achieve and in most cases projects that are singular or unique in nature do not require a high level of maturity as opposed to regular and multiple projects (Kezner, 2005).

Project management maturity always focuses on continuous improvement even if the highest level of maturity has been achieved. These continuous improvements are necessary because the modern organisational world is highly dynamic meaning that there are emergent issues that need to be addressed. These include logistical constraints and technological advancements.

This means that an organisation must be flexible enough to outsource external help while developing a project to the required level of maturity because this allows for an unbiased and neutral outlook of the processes that are guiding the development of the project (Cleland, 2006). Organisations also need to be aware of their current level of maturity before it can embark on the process of continuous improvement.

This means that there must be a complete assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, objectives and competencies and this assessment has to be objective for it to guide the process of continuous improvement of the projects being undertaken.

A project management maturity model can help organisations to decide on the level of maturity that the projects it is undertaking should achieve and this can be guided by a complete assessment carried out by professional consultants who are well versed in the project management trends. There are five levels of maturity that can be used to judge any project (Gareis, 2005).

The least desired level of project maturity is called the chaotic level and in this phase of project development there is neither a registered process nor noticeable presence of best practices being used currently in the organisational setting.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Project Management: Maturity Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second level of maturity is called the active level and in this level the processes in the project are effectively document and there is a noticeable attempt to carry out the works in the project using these documentations though the results of the project at this level may not be noticeable.

They may appear ad hoc because the project has not started following the strategies and the disciplines of the organisation to the letter (Kezner, 2005).

The next level is the efficient maturity level where there is an evidence of the disciplines and laid out processes being followed by the parts of the project though not all parts of the project may be sticking to these laid out guidelines to the letter.

The next level of project maturity is called the responsive level where there is consistency in the application the required processes which are normally measured and set to optimal standards. At this level, the management is responsive to any changes that may be required during the project management process (Delaware, 2006).

The last level of maturity is called the business driven level and this level is achieved when the project is able to generate its own data and information that may be used to make in depth decisions which may be applied in setting up standard and practices that guide organizational practices.

This level follows continuous improvement ensuring that projects in any organisation utilise the best practices along a relevant down process which is not too stagnant meaning that continuous improvement efforts are out in.

Not all project maturity models follow the aforementioned levels of maturity but good models like OGC and P3M3 are likely to give the best results in project management because they go beyond the project management activities that are being carried out at the individual level meaning that they encompass other activities within an organisation that build and maintain a program ensuring tat effective methods and managerial practices are used (Wetzel, 2002).

If organisations undertake a maturity assessment against the aforementioned models, they will be able to effectively verify what they have achieved, analyse their strong and weak points which will help them to chart a course that will prioritise actions that will enable the organisation to achieve a higher level of capability through constant improvements guided by the best practices in the industry.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management: Maturity Models by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How can organisations improve their overall productivity using the models? Program management maturity models help organisations to break down the process of organisational improvement into manageable bits by allowing it to address the lower KPAs before the higher KPAs. First, organisations identify the level they are operating at and then identify the place they want to be.

It is not compulsory for all organisations to be at maturity level five because the ideal maturity level is determined by the level of importance of the project.

When organisations identify where they want to be, the models helps them to get ways of taking them where they want to be. The program management maturity models often guide organisational processes meaning that for the company to get to the place it wants to be it must address its existing policies, processes, standards and structures and see whether they are efficient enough to take it where it wants to be or they need to be changed.

Sometimes, maturity models force organisations to change the way work is done within its structure therefore affecting the working practices of people (Stevens, 2002). In some cases, this change can be significant and the maturity models help the organizations to handle the transition.

One of the project management models that has helped organisations to improved their overall productivity is the sigma six model which helps them to create an effective roadmap and ensures that all the suggested solutions work in favour of the organisation.

The sigma six models help organisations to increase their ability of collecting metrics which in turn create a solid platform for ongoing improvement through establishment of key performance indicators. P3M3 is another model that has helped organisations to improve their productivity.

To start with, the model helps organisations to make effective procurement decisions but the most effective application of the model is in skills development. Using the P3M3 competency map, it is possible to create a roadmap of training programs that are relevant and are in accordance with the abilities of organisations.

This model has proved to be effective in human resource management within organisations because it allows organisations to structure their competencies around the competency framework and this is a very effective assessment for benchmarking people within an organisation.

The importance of organizational strategy and how project management link to objectives to achieve results Organizational strategy is very important in project management and aligning project management to organisational strategy helps the program to achieve the desired results because of its alignment to organisational objectives.

Traditional business managers focused on getting the job done without regard for the objectives of the organisation meaning that they did not focus on the business results for which the project was created. It is important to note that projects are investments and this implies that money to fund the project must support the business or organisational strategy.

In the modern organisational setting a project is successful if it meets the strategic objectives of a company or an organisation regardless of whether the results are able to cover the margins of the investment. For organisational strategy to be achieved and for objectives to be used to achieve results in project management, there must be a strategic leadership (Phillips, 2002).

These leaders and project managers must be able to make effective decisions and concentrate on achieving the strategic vision of the project.

Another important element of organisational strategy in project management is strategic project portfolio management which outlines the priority of project execution according to the strategic impact of the project, the perspectives and the outlook of the business and the resources that the organisation has at its disposal.

A project must have a strategy which means that for it to meet the objectives of the organisation and produce the desired results; there must be a definition of the competitive advantage of the product which will help in articulation of comprehensive project strategy that will help the product to be a winner in the market.

Simply put, linking project management to the strategic objectives of an organisation is something that must be upheld in the modern organisational environment because organisations have evolved and the most important thing in an organisation is its strategic direction and objective (Lock, 2007).

Any process that does not factor the strategic direction and objectives of an organisation is absolutely redundant in the modern organisational setting.

As days go by, the organisational environment is becoming more and more competitive and organisation are facing fiercer competition which means that an expansive concept of project management that goes in line with organisational strategy will definitely help organisations to attain a competitive advantage by ensuring that the outcomes of the project are aligned with the organisational objectives.

The transition towards an expansive concept of project management calla for a change in organisational structure and culture which will help in modification of processes which will make project management a strategic process.

Project communication methods and role of the stakeholders Communication in a project is a very important process. The methods that are used in communication depend on the type and the scale of the project. These methods may be verbal or written; they may also be interactive or collaborative but as stated above, the nature of the project determines the communication method used.

Large projects would be compromised by verbal communication. Large projects require written communication at every stage because it allows for documentation and referrals during and after the project. However, written communication is governed by legal and linguistic factors that revolve around privacy protection and accessibility.

In a case where the stakeholders are distributed over a wide area, there is a risk of dilution of clarity of information meaning that the project communication managers must use cross functional and inter-organisational communicational channels to ensure that relevant and clear information gets to the stakeholders (Kwak,2005).

Face to face communication is increasingly being phased out by advances in technology but it is a very important tool when the project managers are meeting the stakeholders. It is also good for formal briefings for mass audiences. E mails are the best forms of written communication because of its speed and posterity though they may be unread by the target recipient.

Newsletters are very good for creating general awareness about a project. Notices and posters may not be as effective as emails but they are also important for communicating changes especially the simple ones.

Manuals and formal project documents are other important communication methods for projects because they are usually detailed also serve as user guides. Finally blogs have become effective ways of project communication because they are being used by project managers to keep stakeholders updated and also serve as marketing avenues

Role of Stakeholders in a Project Project stakeholders are entities inside or outside the organisation that may be either sponsoring the project, has an interest in the project because they stand to gain from it or may be impacted upon by the completed completion. These include the customer, project managers, the team and the sponsors. The most important stakeholders are the sponsors, the managers and the customers.

The role of the sponsor is to finance the project and to give the manager the authority to make vital decision that concerns the objectives of the project. They also help the project manager to resolves some aspects of the project objectives that may not be clear.

The project manager’s role is to take charge of the approved plan, to maintain relationship with the clients and to manage the expectations of the clients. The managers make vital decisions regarding the project and also manage the team that works on the project.

The work of the customer is to provide directions for functional quality through the expectations they raise (Ireland, 2006). They keep the project manager and the team ob their toes ensuring that the outcome of the project is in line with their expectations.

Project Quality, Successes and Failures Poor quality of project management can compromise a successful project especially when the manager overlooks the specifications of the sponsor and the client. The latter determine the quality of a project. Quality of a project is not determined by the materials used or the infrastructure in place neither does it determines the levels of flawlessness.

A project may have defects and still meet the expectations of the client while another may be flawless but it fails to meet these expectations. This means that the first ting that the project manager and the team should take into consideration is the expectations of the client and then out a plan that will help them to meet the expectations (Kezner, 2005).

An example of a successful project management process has the following components. To start with, it must have criteria for correctness and completeness which will give the team a common expectation of what the client requires. Secondly, it must have a quality control process to ensure that the deliverables are of high quality and they meet the expectations of the customer.

The third is the quality assurance process that minimises the levels of errors in the project. Examples of troubled projects include evidence of higher maintenance and supports costs, poor quality solutions that dissatisfy the customer, missed deadlines and they also exceed the budget and poor team work within the team.

It is important to note that quality management is a continuous process that the team and the managers need to focus on throughout the entire life of the project.

Conclusion A better part of this paper has addressed the nature of project maturity models and how they are useful in project management.

Maturity models can enhance the success of the project by providing a roadmap that will ensure that an organisation makes continuous improvements on the project and also ensure that the projects are carried out according to the specifications of the clients. Most maturity models can enhance the quality hence the quality of a project but the model that has proved to be very effective is the sigma six model.

References Cleland, I. (2006). Global project management handbook. NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Delaware, P. (2005). The right projects done right! NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Gareis, R. (2006). Global project management handbook. NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Ireland, L. (2006). Project Management. NY: McGraw-Hill Professional..

Kezner, H. (2005).Using the project management maturity model. Oxford. OUP

Kwak, Y. (2005). A brief history of Project Management: The story of managing projects. NY: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Lock, D. (2007). Project management. Chicago: Gower Publishing, Ltd

Phillips, J. (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Stevens, M. (2002). Project Management Pathways. WA: APM Publishing Limited.

Wetzel, M. (2003). Fifty key figures in management‎. NJ. Rutledge


Was the American Revolution Really Revolutionary? Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The role of the American Revolution in history seems to be great indeed: in spite of the fact that some historians define it as a successful American attempt to reject the ideas set by the British government, this event has much more significant aspects and impacts on human lives.

By its nature, a revolution is an effort to change something in order to improve the conditions under which people have to live; it is a change from one constitution to another; it is a beginning of the way that should considerably improve everything. In fact, such definitions are close to those offered by Gordon Wood and Howard Zinn.

These writers made effective attempts to define the nature of the American Revolution as well as to help the reader build a personal opinion.

The nature of the American Revolution is considered to be better understandable relying on the ideas offered by Wood because one of the main purposes which should be achieved are connected with an idea of radical ideological change so strongly supported by Wood:

The Americans did not want to follow the rules dictated by the British people but to create their own constitution and live in accordance with their own demands; and Zinn’s approach based on the material needs is poorer as the results of the American Revolution did not prevent the development of poverty but spread it on the American citizens only regarding British interruptions.

Body To understand whether the American Revolution was really revolutionary, it is necessary to comprehend the essence of each word in this phrase. The idea of revolution is certainly based on some changes to be achieved. The main goal of the Americans was to gain independence from the British Empire and to become a powerful country in the world.

The results of this revolution were all about American independence and the improvements of living conditions for American people, in other words, it was obligatory to decrease the poverty rates. However, the methods and purposes set during the revolution deserve more attention to be paid. There was a necessity to compare the American and British styles of life (Wood).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Americans were eager to defend their rights as well as to prove their liberty out of the British Empire. What they achieved was the possibilities to develop manufacturing, to establish their own government, to expand any kind of religion, and to vote relying on their own interests.

Wood and Zinn evaluate these achievements from different perspectives: Wood’s ideas seem to be more radical, and Zinn’s ideas are regarded as conservative ones to protect wealth of the country.

As it has been mentioned above, Wood’s approach is based on the radical ideas according to which a revolution presupposes an idea of an ideological shift under which human rights may be recovered and salvation of liberty will be achieved.

He tries to explain that changes which have been achieved influenced considerably the relations between Americans as well as between family members and even between the governmental representatives (Wood).

Zinn, in his turn, focuses on the material backgrounds which are inherent to people: as there is a considerable extent of rich and poor people, supporters of the revolution should get the right to have the same opportunities and develop their knowledge.

The main achievements of Americans were based on the creation of the Constitution under the conditions of which people should be divided again into the representative of the elite and those members of the middle class. The point is that Zinn is more attentive to the examples from the history to support his position. However, the simple facts used are not as possible as the sophisticated arguments offered by Wood.

The language of the American Revolution is based on rebellions, burdens, and attacks which made people be united for some period of time only in order to win the enemy (Zinn). This is why it was more important to concentrate on the moral or even ideological dimension that should lead to the required political separation (Wood).

We will write a custom Essay on Was the American Revolution Really Revolutionary? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So, the evaluation of the American Revolution and the attention to the approaches offered by Wood and Zinn help to comprehend a true essence of the event under analysis. Wood’s approach concerning the ideological shift of the conditions defines a revolutionary nature of the events which took place at the end of the 18th century. Americans were in need of being separated from the tyranny of the British Empire.

Their main purpose was all about separation and independence, and the elimination of poverty among people should be considered as an additional outcome. Wood’s definition of the revolution seems to be correct; however, at the same time, it is wrong to say that Zinn’s attempt was not correct, it is better to admit that his idea was not as powerful and persuasive as the one of Wood is.

Conclusion In general, the success of Wood’s argumentation of the American Revolution and its nature helps to understand that this event played a very important role in the American history. People should realize that during that period of time, Americans made one of the most powerful and influential attempts to prove their dignity, their rights, and possibilities.

It was possible to achieve the desirable success only by means of the ideological shift described by Wood, and Zinn’s ideas are focused on the consequences which may be observed after the revolution was over.

Still, the American Revolution changed American society considerably and make Americans more confident in personal powers and abilities to change ideologies and follow their own interests to become one of the largest and the richest countries in the whole world.

Works Cited Wood, Gordon. The American Revolution: A History. New York: Modern Library, Random House Publishing Group, 2002. Print.

Zinn, Howard. “Tyranny is Tyranny.” In A People’s History of the United States. History Is a Weapon. n.d. 25 Oct. 2010.


The Electronic Hallway: Snow Removal Report (Assessment) essay help

This case study focuses on the public admistration and issues covered in this case study were centered on the snow removal activity within the city and the fact that all residents in the city deserved equal treatment from the public offices no one place was more important than the other. As observed regularly snow storms have paralyzed the everyday activities in many states.

Snow removal is an activity that is mandated on the local authority administration, whereby as the bylaws dictate, the City council has an obligation to provide the services efficiently without bias to all residents of the city. However in carrying out its obligations, the Manhattan public authority, which was in charge of the exercise failed to do so in a number of ways (Cheshire 1997).

First as indicated above, the Authority failed to provide services equally to all residents according to Le May (2006), a public Authority ought to carry out its mandate without bias to the public, however the administration failed to do this whereby, in reference to the “electronic hallway case study on snow removal”, the theory of public administrations is to give and provide equal services to all citizens and residents affected by the snow storm, but the practice is that some parts of the city are favored and given preferential service while the rest of the city is left to suffer and the citizens are left and forced to fend for themselves.

Thus as the case study indicates, Manhattan was highly favored during the snow removal exercise at the expense of the whole city. As a result of this biasness, the residents of the other cities, Queens, Brooklyn, the Bronx, and Staten Island accused Mayor John Lindsay for misusing the city’s snow removal reserves and showing preferential treatment towards Manhattan at the cost of the rest of the city.

Personnel Administration and Unionism in Public Administration Apart from that where the city local administration displayed open bias, there are other issues that touch on Personnel Administration the Public body undertook various activities that were in contradiction to personnel administration these include:

less staff which resulted to in adequate labor to tackle the snow removal process however the city administration resulted to hiring more personnel after an outcry fry various stake holders so as to have enough personnel to fight the snow.

Another issue was that the snow removal equipment was also always breaking down but it was proposed that more mechanical staff to be hired to keep the equipment in use in perfect condition for such situations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the snow removal equipment was not enough for the whole city so more equipment was suggested to be bought, and hiring of private owned snow removing equipment when an urgent situation concerning snow arose.

This was however solved as the Mayor and the relevant authority authorized for the purchase of more equipments hence showing according to Le May (2006) that public administration bodies should be autonomous in order to deliver its services and mandate without external political, economical and social pressures, nevertheless, they should a Bureaucratic process that ensures that services are delivered without bias or exploited by corrupt individuals in the administration.

The actors who were concerned in this activity were the public administrators who were supposed to carry out the snow removal activity in the whole of the city. The city Mayor was to make sure that all the city residents got equal attention and service by the service providers. Some city residents were affected by the snow storm and could not get to their respective places of work or school.

The personal forces in this case study include the decisions the mayor made that showed prejudice to the rest of the city as only Manhattan was being serviced.

The fact that most of the snow removal equipment was faulty and there was less personnel working shows that this was a personal force on the mayors side and also the employees themselves in that the equipment was not serviced regularly so that it could perform the work it was supposed to without problems on the employees side some of them could not make to work as the snow hindered their way.

From the above there are various public administration concepts that the Administration failed to address when carrying out its mandate in the city. First, the administration failed to balance its values according to importance and preference as needed by any public body, instead in undertook activities like removing snow in some cities while totally neglecting the other areas which were in dire need of the same services (Le May 1996).

Also when it comes to balancing of values in the administration of the city, from the case study, one can note that, the city is divided into three sections that are primary, secondary and tertiary that is attended to in terms of priority. Primary and secondary sections are intended to allow police station, fire station and hospital vehicles to proceed to at least one or two blocks of an emergency in a tertiary street.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Electronic Hallway: Snow Removal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theoretical perspectives that help us to understand what happened in the case are the carrying out a research on the city’s ability in such a snow crisis was carried out to categorize and eradicate the main weaknesses in snow removal program.

The use of the US Weather Bureau statistics showing the patterns and amount of average snow fall, statistics on snow build up rates, the precedence plan invented to clear out major streets first.

According to exhibit 5 the primary streets are the ones that are regarded as major traffic arteries, or highways, parkways, expressways, drives or bridges: feeder roads to bridges, tunnels, ferries, airports, bus routes, all street with areas which have food, treatment, amusement, shopping, streets with important facilities like police and fire stations, fuel stations and transport terminals.

Secondary streets are regarded to have convincingly traffic example: all alternative routes to primary streets, major shopping streets, access streets to industrial or commercial areas. Tertiary streets on the other hand are all the other streets not covered by the primary and secondary streets.

According to the United States National Research Council (1999), the case discloses that the Department of Sanitation assesses its snow removal path yearly, making notes of changes in routes of buses, directions of streets and major changes in the areas so as to facilitate effective snow removal mechanisms when need arises.

The assessment facilitates for effective snow removal and disposal activities and problems that may arise for each district since each district has its own planned program for spreading salt, plowing and hauling snow. Snow removal is much easier on weekends as compared to weekdays. During weekends traffic is light and this allows snow vehicles to easily penetrate the streets to clear the snow.

Parked cars however bring about a hindrance when it comes to the removal of snow from the streets as these vehicles are heavy and they can hit a parked car as they are turning so employees who operate the snow removal machinery are instructed not to penetrate in streets where parked cars could bring about a problem.

The snowplowing activity is however the last resort when it comes to snow removing in the city. According to the case, a total of 1,760 collection and flusher trucks with plow blades attached on them can be used to clear snow from path of moving traffic, bus stops, at intersections and near fire hydrants.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Electronic Hallway: Snow Removal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Snowplowing is carried out according to precedence levels of streets apart from an emergency call in the case of police, ambulance or fire as these emergencies take priority over everything else.

Snow plows work efficiently in snow that is about eight inches deep, if the snow is mainly thick, then the plow may not be able to move. Traffic affects the speed of the plow, at rush hour; the plow is generally slower when compared to the times of the day when there is no rush.

In reference to the case, snow removal equipment is examined in September to pinpoint the areas that need repairs, these repairs are then carried out in later in the month and the equipment is tested in November. During these tests, the equipment is scrutinized at frequent intervals of the snow removal activity to determine whether the equipment is alright and can perform well during the snow removing activity.

Vehicle failures are however associated with vehicular age and storm duration as compared to equipment maintenance. A spreader lasts between ten to fifteen years and their damages are usually minor that do not require a lot of time to fix.

According to the case, the Department of Sanitation has over 9,000 employees who can run the 2,800 department’s snow removal apparatus. This department also offers services for whole inhabited city all year round.

The Sanitation Department makes sure that it is ready for snow fighting operations by: employing mechanics on September 15th in all garages on a snow contract basis to service and ensure that the snow removing machines are in good shape and that they will not breakdown quickly, the swapping of employees and equipment from day to day and night waste collection on the 15th of November, an analysis by sanitation district supervisors of each district by 15th November, the analysis is to ensure that there are enough workers working on each shift, to ask other city departments to supply additional workers top carry out activities including snow removing mainly, hauling snow, training to employees from other city departments about the duties of their assignments.

The employees during the winter period have three shifts in which they can work, from 8am to 4pm 1500 employees working, 4pm to midnight 900 employees, 12 midnight to 8am nearly 300 employees on duty. On Sunday there are about 300 employees on duty from midnight to 4pm on Sunday between 12am and 8am there are no employees on duty at 8am on Monday all employees return to their assigned duties.

During a storm or in anticipation of a storm the Department of sanitation chooses from the following three options; to depend on the employees that are on duty that particular time, to prolong the shift on duty at that certain time or to call in additional employees. Such decisions rely solely on the weather forecast for the day.

Communication for the snow removing exercise is advanced and there is a hotline that is directly connected to the U.S. Weather Bureau’s New York forecaster that is used for relaying information between the two organizations at frequently, any signs storms are relayed across as soon as they are spotted.

On top of this the Sanitation Department has eighteen weather surveillance stations on the city’s outskirts from which the beginning of precipitation, depth of snow, temperature rates, and speed of buildup of snow are relayed every half an hour to the Headquarters.

In reference to the case the Chief of Operations is in charge of the decisions and operations carried out to combat the situation. When a storm occurs the department under the orders of the Chief of Operations, informs the districts supervisors and their respective offices and officers through a teletype alert system.

A forecast of two or three inches receives the same amount of primary action as a serious blizzard until weather forecasts predict changes in the weather conditions, furthermore the department is on duty twenty four hours a day. As the snow storm worsens chosen commands from previous storms are used to ease the current situation.

The nature of the policy system and the policy making process in snow removal exercise is dependent on previous snow storms and the depth of the snow. The depth of the snow determines which procedure is to be used when removing the snow from the city.

Preparation of the snow removal activities depends on the weather forecast predictions and the mechanical state of the vehicles and equipment’s to be used in the procedure not forgetting the man power needed to operate and service the machinery needed.

According to the case, the administrative ethics were not carried out as expected as majority of the city dwellers raised complaints about the mayor giving orders that favored Manhattan at the expense of the whole city. All city dwellers should be given equal treatment as the snow affects all and not just one part of the city.

The city dwellers have accepted the method of dividing the city into districts and streets so that each area may get the same service as the other despite the economic differences that may be imminent. This division should ease the clearing of snow and make the process go smoothly without mishaps such as preferential treatment.

The administrative ethics in this case is questioned. Public offices are meant to serve and provide service to the public without any strings attached or discrimination towards one part of the people the office is meant to be giving service to, unlike in this case where services are offered unequally.

Therefore, case study highlights various public administration concepts are parting efficient running of public administration. As indicated the department of sanitation failed in a number of concepts which were supposed to be used especially in removal of snow.

The mayor for instance failed to balance the needs of the city by undertaking to remove snow from one city while ignoring the others due to political and economic values as he was facing a re-election. In addition, him being a public official, he acted unethically due to his selfish decisions hence making the whole snow removal process a political issue.

Nevertheless, the public administration bodies should be allowed to run independently as seen in this case study whereby the department has categorized how the process should be carried out and even zoned the areas.

Due to this automy the department can effectively address issues as they arise without following the rigorous and bureaucratic channels that are stipulated. For instance in cases of emergencies, the department can prefer to remove snow from a place that was classified as a low priority area hence enabling swift delivery of services (LeMay, 2006).

In addition the department has adopted effective public administration mechanisms whereby they undertake to hire personnel and snow removal machines during the winter period. By so doing, the department will be increasing the manpower required to tackle this issues on a need to need basis while at the same time cutting down on the expenses that would have been incurred during the non- snow periods.

This also in-cooperates the concept of decision making process of the department. As indicated by the case study, during the snow periods the department undertakes decision on how to tackle the snow removal process using a certain process which is all subject to the budget available.

Thus to be able to make wise decisions, the department relies on various other departments and professionals to come up with a final decision that takes care of all issues for example relying on the metrological department to come up with a precise chart on the weather patterns. Another important concept is the communication system that is in place in the department.

It is noted that “the Department of Sanitation has an elaborate communications network for updating forecasts, mobilizing resources, and reporting on snow conditions.

The Department maintains close liaison with the U.S. Weather Bureau’s New York forecaster on a telephone hot line established between the two agencies during the snow season. This line is used for obtaining weather information at regular intervals, and storm warnings are transmitted on it as soon as they are foreseen and/or develop.”

Also the department takes into consideration clientele pressure and government policy that are in place. For instance, during the bias removal of snow in Manhattan while sideling other cities resulted in a public outcry that resulted in the Mayor acting fairly and delivering services to all.

Also there was pressure from other stakeholders who were requesting the department to hire new members of staff and work all around during winter and also for the purchase of new equipments to tackle the snow removal and sanitation in the area

References Chesire, L. (1997) How Snow Shovel, will Travel. All About Snow. Retrieved from:

LeMay, C. (1996). The Electronic Hallway: Snow Removal. Retrieved from

LeMay, M.C. (2006) Public Administration: Clashing Values in the Administration for Public Policy. New York: Cengage Learning.

United States National Research Council (1999). Winter Maintenance Technology and Practices-Learning from Abroad. United States National Research Council. Retrieved from:


The Origin of Rhetoric Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction The origin of the rhetoric theories is rooted back to the times of Ancient Rome and Greece. Though Aristotle is recognized as one of the first philosophers who raised the question of rhetorical art and coined the notions of ethos, pathos and logos as the main components of effective persuasion patterns, some researchers point at the links between Aristotelian lectures and Homer’s Iliad.

This essay suggests that despite the importance of applying all three components of ethos, pathos and logos for a successful attempt of rhetorical persuasion, the dialogues from Iliad by Homer demonstrate that the situational constraints can prevent the speaker from persuading the listener and need to be taken into consideration for choosing the most effective strategies.

It would be quite interesting to discuss the influence of Homer’s Iliad on further development of rhetoric theories, trying to identify the main sources of persuasion in the work, comparing the rhetoric patterns implemented by the characters to Aristotle’s conceptions.

In this paper, we focus on the Book Nine of Homer’s Iliad which is devoted to the attempts of king Agamemnon’s “ambassadors” to persuade Achilles to fight against the Trojans. “Language in use creates and changes the opinions that are our only available knowledge” (Bizzel 38).

The purpose of this paper is to analyze persuasion in The Iliad, analyze whether the notions of logos, pathos and ethos are applicable to the dialogues from Book Nine and if they are, why Phoenix, Ajax and Odysseus fail to persuade Achilles.

Aristotle emphasized the three most important components of persuasion, namely ethos, pathos and logos. The Greek philosopher used the term ethos for defining the credibility of the orator’s words which depends on the character and trustworthiness of the speaker and the impression which he/she produces upon the listener.

It is important that the person who delivers the messages should be accepted as a specialist in the field whose opinion is worth listening to. The authority of a person is an important component of the notion of ethos, but this authority should relate to the field of discussion; time and place also traditionally mentioned when ethos is discussed are also important.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pathos denotes the emotional coloring of the speaker’s words used with the aim of appealing to the listener’s feelings and evoking the emotional response. This component varies because the emotional reactions always vary and are difficult to predict. Still, this component is significant for motivating the auditor to share the speaker’s mood and recognizing the attitude before sharing the belief.

Logos denotes persuading by reasoning, turning to the logical laws, providing the listeners with food for thought and pointing at the logical links between various factors. Though Aristotle did not appreciate unethical persuasion, discussing the logos component, the philosopher introduced the notion of enthymeme, a rhetorical syllogism which makes the auditor recognize a false statement as true.

Frobish (2003) discusses ethos in context of Homer’s Iliad. He states that in Homer’s work, ethos “does not refer to some quality of character but to a haunt or an accustomed place of activity”; however, it is possible to “talk of character as it relates to persuasion” (Frobish 19). He highlights that in the Iliad, a man was a sum of his actions.

Let us provide a brief example that illustrates the essence of logos, pathos and ethos. A doctor says to his patient that he/she should decrease consumption of salt, as salt is harmful for his/her health. If a doctor highlights the appeal of logos, he/she would provide a patient with results of scientific researches and statistics.

In case pathos is highlighted, a doctor would say that a patient will die very soon if consumption of salt is not decreased.

Ethos implies that a doctor would highlight his knowledge and experience which give him opportunity to advice on salt consumption (compare: at a soccer match, a doctor tries to persuade a listener that one soccer team is better than another; this question does not refer to his competence of a doctor, and the place does not strengthens this authority as well – this is the illustration of how we settle the mentioned discrepancy about ethos).

Logos, Ethos and Pathos in Iliad In the Book Nine of The Iliad, Homer depicts the dialogues between Phoenix, Ajax and Odysseus sent by the king Agamemnon, and Achilles. Let us analyze these dialogues from the perspective of logos, ethos and pathos.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Origin of Rhetoric specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We will try to find cases of using these three appeals in the speeches of the men sent by the king Agamemnon, critically evaluate their effectiveness, define the weak points of their reasoning and the main reasons of their failure.

First of all, we need to pay attention to the fact that the king’s “envoys” are the worthy men of stature and credibility in the eyes of Achilles. This is a strong appeal to ethos: the king expects that the authority of these people will help them to succeed in their negotiation.

Still, Achilles as the auditor is aware of the fact that it is Agamemnon who sent the orators and this fact prevents him from sharing the beliefs of people whom he considers trustworthy. Let us analyze the dialogue between Odysseus and Achilles.

The narrator begins with pathos, describing the terrifying situation and trying to evoke the emotional reaction in the listener: “For haughty Trojans and their famous allies/ have camped close to the ships and barricade/ and lit many fires throughout their army” (Homer 186).

However, Odysseus does not limit his narration to using the pathos component only and tries to intensify the effect produced by his words, implementing other persuasive patterns. He continues: “So rouse yourself, late through it may be,/ If you’ve a mind to save Achaeans/ from their suffering at this Trojan onslaughts./ If not, you’ll suffer future agonies./ You won’t find any cure for such despair (Homer 186)

In this excerpt we see the example of combination of pathos and logos in the speech: the expressions “late through it may be”, “suffer future agonies”, “despair” demonstrate strong appeal to a listener’s emotions, while predicting the possible consequences of the auditor’s choice and actions, Odysseus uses the logical laws.

Odysseus also promises numerous gifts which Achilles will be given in case he agrees to fight against the Trojans: this part of the monologue refers to the notion of logos as well: the narrator describes the benefits which a listener will get in case he agrees. We can notice that Achilles understands the ethos of the dialogue: he calls Odysseus “Divinely born son of Laertes, Resourceful Odysseus” (188).

Besides, Odysseus speech sounds rather persuasive, because he uses all possible means for influencing the listener’s decision: appeals to his feelings, points at possible devastating consequences and tries to take advantages from the auditor’s attitude to him.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Origin of Rhetoric by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fact that the main Aristotle’s patterns can be found in the speech of the main character can hardly be denied, and the question of the main reasons of their failure in persuading the auditor arises. Ahilles explains that he does not need the gifts he is promised (Homer 191) and this statement can be related to the weakness of the logos component.

An example of more successful logos is present when Achilles provides a strong argument, explaining that in case he fights against Trojans, he will lose his life, but his fame will remain, while if he goes home his fame will die, but he will stay alive (Homer 192). Thus, the weakness of the logos component and Achilles’ awareness of the fact that it was Agamemnon who asked Odysseus to persuade him caused the failure of the first speaker.

After Achilles’ response, Phoenix begins talking. In his monologue, we see highlighted pathos and logos in both what and how Phoenix says: he tells Achilles his story in emotional manner and advices to avoid mistakes he talks about (Homer 198).

We can also find the elements of ethos at the beginning of Phoenix’s speech: he reminds Achilles of how Achilles was sent to him when he was “young, knowing nothing about war…” (Homer 192). He says that Achilles is like a son for him, which highlights Phoenix’s authority and services in bringing Achilles up.

Again, with his answer, Achilles demonstrates that Phoenix’s appeals are ineffective for him, “…do not confuse my heart with these laments, these speeches of distress…” (Homer 198). Both pathos and ethos components of Phoenix’ speech do not influence the auditor’s decision though Achilles himself recognizes that he is impressed with the words and has to make efforts for overcoming the manipulator’s strategies.

Ajax, the third narrator, focuses on pathos in his speech. He uses expressive phrasing and appeals to Achilles’s feelings: “For Achilles has turned his great spirit/ into something savage in chest./ He is cruel and doesn’t care for friendship of his comrades…” (Homer 199) He finishes his speech with highlighting ethos: ”…We, of all Achaeans, are the ones/ most dear to you, your closest friends…” (Homer 199)

Again, the speaker does not manage to persuade the listener. Achilles talks about the issue which has a stronger emotional I pact on him, “… my heart chokes with rage when I recall how that son of Atreus behaved towards me… (199).

Though all Aristotle’s appeals are present in the speeches of Phoenix, Ajax and Odysseus, their attempts to persuade Achilles appeared to be ineffective because of additional circumstances which need to be taken into consideration while evaluating the effectiveness of the ethos, pathos and logos components.

Aristotle would respond that the realization of the ethos component with such an honorable person as Achilles is problematic from the very beginning.

The auditor is certain in his own position and disregarding his respect to some of both ethos and pathos components is also diminished with the fact that the speakers deliver Agamemnon’s messages and the listener’s personal attitude to the king overlaps his opinion of the speakers. The dialogues under analysis can be regarded as the battle of the clashing egos, and it became a serious hindrance for the success of the persuasion patterns.

Logos, Pathos and Ethos versus Honor, Material, Power and Justice An interesting approach to analysis of the persuasion components in Iliad is offered by Reyes in his “Sources of Persuasion in the Iliad” which was published in Rhetoric Review in 2002. In this study, the researcher outlines four appeals of persuasion used perpetually through the course of The Iliad: honor, material, power and justice (Reyes 23).

The analysis of the particular sources of persuasion used in The Iliad does not contradict Aristotle’s theory of ethos, pathos and logos but rather provides a more detailed explanation of the strategies used by the speakers for appealing to the auditor’s feelings. When a narrator appeals to honor, material, power and justice, his/her speech can contain components of ethos, pathos and logos, highlighted stronger or weaker.

Relating the dominant persuasion themes of the epic poem to the Aristotle’s teaching, Reyes admits that “Homer can be cited as the first to see persuasion as teachable, as something that one person can give to another” (Reyes 31).

Thus, the conscious implementation of the persuasive strategies by Homer’s characters reduced the effectiveness of the components. Along with the situational constraints such as the interpersonal relationships between Agamemnon and Achilles and their personal traits became the main reasons for the failure of persuasion strategies used by Phoenix, Ajax and Odysseus.

Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of various attendant circumstances and the situational context is important for evaluating the effectiveness of the ethos, pathos and logos components of the persuasion strategies used by the orators for the purpose of influencing the auditor’s decisions.

The example of the dialogues from Homer’s Iliad demonstrates that implementation of the Aristotle’s rhetorical theories can be insufficient for persuading the listener.

Bibliography Bizzel, Patricia and Bruce Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. Bedford: St. Martin’s, 2001. Print.

Frobish, Todd S. “An Origine of a Theory: A comparison of Ethos in the Homeric Iliad with that Found in Aristotle’s Rhetoric.” Rhetoric Review 22.1 (2003): 16-30. Print.

Homer, Johnson, Ian C. Johnston and Ian Crowe. The Iliad. Arlington, Va.: Richer Resources Publications, 2006. Print.

Reyes, Mitchell G. “Sources of Persuasion in the Iliad”. Rhetoric Review 21.1 (2002): 22-39. Print.


Psychosocial Report (Assessment) college essay help

Brandon, a fifteen-year old male addressed a hotline trying to solve his family problem, uncertain and even conflict relationship with his father. This can be a sign that his individual functioning is not distorted by some abnormal factors. The boy reveals his understanding that family is one of the essential values and wants to have a good family.

He tries to verbalize possible reasons for his stress: difficult relationship with mother, parents’ divorce, negative influence of the father’s girlfriend. Brandon provides some possible reasons for his stress so his perception is logic. His responses are clear and informative, so he is unlikely to feel strong negative emotions during the interview.

He is reasonable and quite positive: he understands the importance of positive family relations, further education, and has some future plans. Nothing indicates at his possible addictions, however, it is still unclear whether he takes some medicine, drugs.

It is also necessary to point that there is no information about his health state which can be very important while defining the reasons for his stress and suggesting possible ways to diminish the stress and solve the problem.

Apart from his normal individual functioning it is possible to point out that his relational functioning can be also characterized as a norm. Brandon wants to have good relationship with his father. Brandon cares about his sister and does not want her to get hurt. He has friends. He also mentions his uncle and grandmother who can help him, so he has a good relationship with these people as well.

Brandon also points out that he attends his school counselor weekly and discusses some problems there. However, on the other hand, he has conflicts with his father and does not show cooperation with him. Brandon cannot also build a good relationship with his father’s girlfriend.

Of course, he is not necessarily responsible for those conflicts. Nevertheless, the existence of these interpersonal conflicts with his father and his father girlfriend reveal a certain relational malfunctioning. On the basis of the existing information it is quite hard to make adequate conclusions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is possible to conclude that the reason for Brandon’s stress is his biased attitude towards his father and his father’s girlfriend, not only in his being abused by his father.

To assist Brandon, it can be helpful to obtain more information about him and the situation in their family. Of course, it is necessary to have more data about Brandon’s health state and possible problems (drugs, alcohol, sexual problems). Of course, one of the most suitable solutions of the problem can be found in the very good and sincere talk between Brandon and his father. Brandon should prepare his arguments.

He should reveal all his concerns and also explain his behavior (poor academic performance, etc.). By all means, this should be the first and very thoughtful step which should be made by Brandon himself. The client can be quite right avoiding addressing to some authorities since this may produce some macro risks: it can only increase the conflict and lead to far more serious problems, one of which is a complete family breakup.

Another helpful advice which can be given to Brandon is to reveal some details of his family situation to his school counselor who can invite his father for several conversations. So, Brandon and his father can get some professional help without addressing authorities or revealing overt initiative from Brandon’s part.


Company Supply Chain of Amazon and Mobil Oil Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The plan

Pros and cons of the plan



Introduction The supply chain in the plan is designed to deal with problems of low profitability and lack of physical resources in Amazon. It will also address the need for personalization of services and greater consumer reach for Mobil.

The plan The new integrated network between the two firms will be focused on offering consumers sales services for twenty four hours. Although, Amazon was already doing this, now Mobil will also get the opportunity of providing such services as well (Miliotis, 2010). Additionally, this new supply chain will be focused on offering direct sales to clients.

Mobil will not just focus on its traditional supply chain partners such as wholesalers, retailers and the like. Now the firm can get a chance of dealing directly with consumers and hence be better able to personalize its services as well as customize some of its offerings. The plan will involve the collection of information from a variety of sources so technology will be playing a critical role here.

The amount of time needed to get material from either firm to the market will be substantially reduced. Amazon has traditionally been managing supply chains for other companies so it would greatly benefit by adding yet another outlet to its business. Amazon will use a huge share of its resources in order to sell Mobil’s good and then deduct a portion of its profit.

To this end, Mobil will be saved from excessive inventory and will be exposed to a wider client pool than it would have been through its traditional outlets. Mobil on the other hand already possesses warehouses. It will therefore provide Amazon with yet another opportunity to increase its physical supply chain network (Exxon Mobil, 2010).

Also, because transportation costs have always been a problem for Amazon then the latter organization will tap into the resources already possessed by Mobil. Little information structure investment will be needed because Mobil will take advantage of what Amazon has set up for itself.

It should be noted that both these organizations have been having a hard time tapping into their potential and it would probably be best for them to solve this problem by merging. The two organizations will also need to come to an arrangement of what the right price will be for their products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recent reports have shown that Amazon’s overemphasis on free shipping and affordable prices have compromised on its profitability. In order to avoid a repeat of the same, these two parties will come up with realistic prices for their commodities. Lastly, the two companies will focus on handling the returns of their investments because there are always immense returns on ordering through the use of such a model.

Pros and cons of the plan Since formation of an integrated supply chain network between Mobil Oil and involves bringing together two separate corporate cultures, then this may prove to be a disadvantage. There should be some resemblance between the two organizations and when this is lacking then chances are that trust will be lacking between the two groups.

Another issue is the need for thorough planning before implementation of the process. Stakeholders from Amazon and Mobil oil need to think of all the logistical needs, inventory needs, information needs and capacity needs of the integrated network before implementing it. Failure to do so could result in bottle necks in execution. Furthermore, there may be a debate over who will be in charge of operating controls.

One firm may feel as though the other is dominating. In relation to the latter problem is the issue of extendedness. Perhaps the time, resources and time dedicated towards this integrated network will not be able to yield immediate results. Therefore, the two firms need to agree on the extendedness of their relationship by getting into a contract.

The major advantage of this plan is that the gains that Amazon was repeating from its e-supply chain can be shared with Mobil oil. On the other hand, the profitability that Mobil oil was enjoying can also be enjoyed by these respective firms. There will be mutual sharing of the pros and cons of the supply chain (Miliotis, 2010). Even the burdens that each company’s supply chain was exerting on both firms can now be shared and reduced.

Also, these organizations will greatly benefit from information exchange. has not reached or tapped into its full potential in supply management so it will need as much information as it can get in order to improve. Mobil on the other hand has been dependent on the traditional supply chain model.

The best way of dealing with inefficiencies in both organizations is to merge the two systems together and hence establish a superior supply chain network. This network will also provide a way of enjoying costs savings for Mobil oil and Amazon. The two organizations will be in a position to give accurate responses, optimize their facilities as well as optimize the levels of stock that either of them selects.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Company Supply Chain of Amazon and Mobil Oil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The overall performance of these firms is likely to go up because both of them will not just be using traditional measures of success to assess the effectiveness of their supply chain.

Traditional measures here include lead times, inventory costs and correction or detection of defects. Non conventional performance measures in this case refer to customer satisfaction, customer contribution to product design, long term partnerships and good information use.

Conclusion The integrated supply chain network between these two companies is designed to optimize the current resources that the two organizations have while still making sure that the missing elements in these supply chains are efficiently handled.

References Exxon Mobil. (2010). About the Company. Retrieved from

Miliotis, P. (2010). Supply chain and e-supply chain. Web.


Mega Byte Restaurant Essay (Article) best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction The key to a successful business is customer satisfaction. Customers want to have their needs addressed in the right way and manner, and only then it is possible to win their loyalty and drive business growth since satisfied customers will always want to come back and even give referrals.

Mega bytes restaurant does not underestimate the power of customer satisfaction and hence the reason the management decided to assess how well their customers were satisfied.

A survey was conducted for a period of three months in which customers were asked to rate their satisfaction. Surprisingly, the survey revealed that customers had issues, for example, the waiting time was long. Information from the respondents showed that lack of customer satisfaction was a product of many factors as outlined below.

First, the customers had to wait for seats and this was the major source of dissatisfaction followed closely by poor arrangements of the buffet table. Thirdly, the tables were not clean and that at times, the rooms were so drafty. Those were cited as the major causes though in addition to them, other minor reasons were cited as waiting for coffee for a long time, missing utensils, failure to provide dietetic sweetener and lack of ashtrays on the table.

In order to address the issues and improve customer satisfaction, management resulted to getting a team of employees who used the Seven Step Model (SSM) to critically analyze the root cause of the problem, potential causes and probable solutions in an analytical approach. The following is a systematic procedure and analysis of the seven step method.

The Seven-Step Method According to Winston and Mark (2008, pg.9), the first step is project definition which entails defining the problem in terms of the current situation and what is expected, determining the importance of analyzing the problem and establishing evaluation measures. In this case, the problem was defined as customers waiting too long to be seated and the team had to analyze issues such as when the waiting started and when it ended.

Therefore, the problem that needed to be solved was waiting time taken by a customer to be seated. The second step involves assessment of the current situation, which implies that baseline date is gathered, designing flow chart and sketches, identification of relevant variables and data collection instruments, collecting information and taking a summary of the variables effect on the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any useful additional information can be gathered at this time. In this case, current situation was assessed in terms of floor set-up (arrangement) and the number of customers who waited for more than one minute before being seated as well as on what days of the week waiting time was higher.

Baseline data showed that waiting time was high during weekdays and during the busy hours. The main reason for waiting during this time was unavailability of tables merely because they were waiting to be cleared and not because they were occupied by clients or lack of space at preferred sitting position which normally was the non-smoking region. The third step is to analyze the potential or probable causes of these problems.

This step requires that a cause and effect diagram is constructed to assess the conditions that could be leading to the problems at hand. The causes should be verified through appropriate measures such as observation or controlling variables.

The team at mega byte restaurant cause and effect diagram showed that the distance from the kitchen to the tables was one of the factors that contributed to uncleared tables and waiting for non smoking sitting positions.

The fourth step in the model entails developing a number of alternative solutions and screening them thoroughly to come with the best possible solution and implementing it. In the case of mega byte restaurant, the team opted for a solution that could be tested easily just by observing. Temporary workstations were set up in the non-smoking area and no other changes were made.

The team then wanted to establish the number of people who had to wait for more than one minute before being seated after the change was effected. Step five involves checking the results.

In this step, the effectiveness of the solutions undertaken in step four is assessed, additional relevant and baseline data is can be added at this point and a repeat of necessary steps conducted. Disparities between the planned and the actual results should be explained and accounted for.

We will write a custom Article on Mega Byte Restaurant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the case study, there was drastic improvement in waiting time after implementation of the solution in step four having dropped from as high as 40% to as low as less than 5%. In step six, standardize the improvement. This means adopting and incorporating the improvement in a manner that it fits well into the organization’s operations and policies.

Strategy implementation and ensuring its success is also done at this stage as well as identification of other areas that can improved by application of the same strategy and the subsequent implementation if any. In the case of mega byte restaurant, institutionalization of the improvement was done by replacing the temporary workstations with permanent ones.

The last and final step is establishment of future plans. It focuses on assessing whether the gap between what is and what should be needs to be narrowed further and if need, who would be the key participants.

A summary of what was learnt should be availed to act as a guideline to future projects or for reference purposes. From the case study, mega byte team of employees decided to focus on the next major issue listed as customer complaints and in particular poor arrangement of buffet tables.

How to Boost the Seating Capacity The sitting capacity can be boosted in several ways; one being the main reasons as to why people take time to sit is associated with uncleared tables or search for a sitting section away from the smoking areas. This issue can be addressed by first addressing the issue of preferred sitting section.

From the study, it is evident that most clients prefer the non-smoking section. More tables can be added to the section and also convert a part of the smoking section to non-smoking to increase the sitting capacity of the people.

The tables are far from the kitchen; this can be addressed by redesigning the floor in such a way that the tables are located near the kitchen to reduce the physical distance. Time taken by the waitresses to take the check to the counter can be minimized by introduction of self service where the clients are required to pay before they are served. Payment mode can also be diversified to incorporate cash payment system.

Such mechanisms will give the waitresses more time to clear the tables. The waitresses salaries should be reviewed and paid a salary that commensurate their services and also look for ways to boost their morale so that they clear the tables in good time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mega Byte Restaurant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Staff Reduction It would not be advisable for mega byte restaurant to reduce staff since during the busy hours they have shortage of staff. It would be advisable to look into the root causes of high turnover of the staff and look into the staff welfare with regard to their pay.

Incentives such as rewards should be given to the staff to motivate them to server the customers in an effective and efficient manner. Reason being satisfied customers are likely to be loyal and bring in others thus creating more jobs hence employ more staff instead of reducing the number.

Relevance of the Study The study team learnt various skills such as formulating the problem statement which requires posing the solutions as the problem. This skill can be used in addressing other issues concerning the business such as the reasons behind improper setting of the buffet table.

Collection of data with accuracy and ability to use and interpret baseline data to get relevant information was also another aspect learnt that would be very useful in solving the other problems the organization is facing.

Eliminating the Smoking Section May Cause Waiting Time to Decrease From the case study, introduction of temporary workstations in the non-smoking zone led to an overall reduction in the number of people who waited for more than a minute to sit. This shows that most of the clients preferred to sit on the non-smoking section.

The study showed that percentage of people who waited for seats after temporary work stations were set up in the non smoking section reduced from as high as 40% to as low as less than 5%.

Considering that most of the clients are business people who travel a lot and mainly meet to discuss business or official matters, few people will want to smoke from the restaurant since most people prefer to smoke when they are relaxed and without interfering with the comfort f others. Hence, to some extant, elimination of the smoking are can lead to decreased waiting time.

The SWOT Analysis According to Bohm (2009, pg 2), the SWOT analysis refer to strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Each organization needs to understand its SWOT analysis to be able to remain competitive in the market or industry. Strengths refer to the strong aspects of an organization that gives it a competitive edge over the other competitors.

Mega byte restaurant has a strong management team that understands the importance of customer satisfaction and thus addresses issues from customers’ point of view in a systematic and procedural manner. This gives a competitive edge over the competitors who try to look for solutions without considering what the customers’ needs and wants are.

However, it has weaknesses too in that it does not adequately cater for employees welfare hence high turnover that is costly to the firm and drains funds that could otherwise be used to expand the building. Employees’ motivation is very important in determining their productivity and this is an area that is wanting with regard to mega byte restaurant.

The design of the building is also wanting and needs redesigning to save on time and energy spent on physical movement. Considering that the firm is normally very busy and especially during weekdays, it stands a better chance to improve on its services, satisfy customers, and generate more business revenues and profits that will allow it to grow and expand.

The fact that customers opt to wait for seats instead of leaving implies that it stands a better chance than competitors in winning and retaining customers. The biggest challenge or threat is that if the firm fails to address the customer complaints addressed by clients during the survey, the might easily lose on to competitors in terms of both customers and employees.

Conclusion /Alternative Mega byte restaurant has the potential to meet its customer needs if proper measures and procedures are put in place. The case looked at how customers could be served in a more satisfactorily manner by reducing waiting time to be seated. This was done by increasing workstations in the non-smoking zone and this greatly reduced the waiting time.

In the alternative hypothesis, elimination of smoking zone will not decrease the waiting time. This can be supported by the fact that even with introduction of more workstations in the non-smoking zone; the smoking zone was still operational.

Based on gathered information, elimination of smoking zone will lead to a reduction in waiting time but not fully since other factors such as uncleared tables have to be considered as causes of increased waiting time.

References Böhm, A. (2009). The SWOT AnalysisAkademische Schriftenreihe. Norderstedt, GRINVerlag. Web.

Winston, W. L and Mark, C. (2008). Practical management science. OH, Cengage Learning. Web.


Strategic Marketing Principles Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strategic Marketing Principles

Cooperative spirit

Selectivity and Concentration

Principle of customer value

The principle of differential advantage

The principle of integration



Introduction Marketing is primarily aimed at identifying and meeting customer preferences to and retain them (Coxhead Et al, 2005, p v). Consumer education has increased and they are more demanding than ever before. The changing business environment calls for a change in the methodology, perception and approach from marketing managers.

Continuous review of marketing strategies is therefore important for any organization that aims at surviving in the current competitive business world. The ultimate goal of strategic marketing is the improvement of profit margins of a firm. Firms identify market segments that are likely to increase profit in the future.

Strategic marketing plans therefore aim at creating marketing time frames and the mode of implementation to capitalize on the promising market segments. Besides improving a firm’s performance, strategic marketing also aims at increasing customer satisfaction by engaging one on one with consumers. Besides, other goals of strategic marketing include growing a firm’s market niche and improvement of innovation and penetration.

Sahaf too acknowledges that strategic marketing is dynamic and in that context, it is only better for marketing managers to master strategic marketing principles (p17). The principles will help in guiding them through their thought, actions and decision making.

Strategic Marketing Principles These principles according to Sahaf include; the principle of cooperative spirit, the principle of selectivity and concentration, principle of customer value, principle of differential advantage and principle of integration (p 17). These principles will be used as the guidelines in critiquing the article. Strategic marketing principles help in development of customer relationship.

In the article, Relationship Marketing and Organizational Performance Indicators by Shaker, T. Ismail


Employee Relations Issues in Potential Reasons for Workplace Violence Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Interpersonal conflict

Identifying signs of work place violence

Reasons for workplace violence

Cost of conflict and violence

How to manage workplace violence



Employee relations issues are the day-to-day occurrences in the working environment among employees, friends, family members, strangers, and even employer. They may be positive or negative leading to workplace violence.

Workplace violence may involve physical violence, threats, insults, molestation, intimidation, or any act that disrupts peaceful environment at workplace (The USDA Handbook on Workplace Violence Prevention and Response, 1998).

Such issues arise when employees are not equipped with the right methods of solving the matters arising in their work place. The probability of work place violence is always high since people spend most of their time at workplace, exercising teamwork in most activities.

According to the National Security and intelligence Unit in America and Canada, statistics have shown that the fastest growing crime is workplace violence. This is not only happening in the US but all over the world. Murder cases have been reported many times resulting from work place violence, making the level of security at workplaces wanting.

The following essay will cover on the employee relations issues and the potential reasons for workplace violence whose major cause may be interpersonal conflict and management decisions among others.

Interpersonal conflict Interpersonal conflict refers to a situation where colleagues in a work place or an employer and his junior collide, and they may not be getting along well. Most people in workstations spend so much time conflicting amongst themselves, avoiding conflicts, or recovering from conflicts. It includes bullying, intimidation, harassment, competition among workers among others.

Interpersonal conflicts in workstations may lead to stress since colleagues spend the better part of the day together. It may also lead to physical violence when a solution is not found on time. Below are some of the reasons that lead to interpersonal conflicts at work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sharing of work among colleagues may lead to conflict whereby some employees feel that their partners are not contributing enough to a share of work given. Other interpersonal conflict arises when employees feel that there is no one to run to in times of conflict especially when senior personnel collides with his/her junior.

Different professional groups working in the same unit may also be a source of interpersonal conflict where by one team suffers form superiority complex and intimidate or harass the other group. This is mostly evident in the medical professions where doctors always look down upon nurses thus resulting into conflict.

If job description is not clearly outlined to the workers, conflict with the supervisor may arise when one does not accomplish what is expected of him/her or between employees when blaming each other on a piece of work not done. At times, the workload may be beyond the employee ability, where by their leader are not sensitive and they give them deadlines to meet the targets (Hoel


The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract Saudi Arabia is trying to implement an education system for young children to impart the right values and morals to them so that it does not affect the culture and tradition of the Arabs. The Ministry of Education of Saudi Arabia has a major role to play in this regard and as such it must develop Early Childhood Education Programs that uphold the Arab Muslim values to prepare the children to face the challenges of the future.

To achieve this, education must have priority over all other mundane things of the day to day life of the Arab community. Special emphasis should be made to include English learning in the curriculum so that the Arab students in Saudi Arabia will be able to seek more knowledge in a world that is developing at a fast pace towards ultra modernization.

With English learning, Arab students will become the torch bearers of a new era and in that attempt they will be able to relive the past glory of the Arab civilization. The new generation of the Arab students has to become world citizens of tomorrow and witness the remarkable developments in all fields of knowledge.

With right education they will attain enough confidence to move ahead and send a message to the rest of the world about the rich values, tradition and morals of the Arab society. The Arab students with the help of English language learning will in due course herald positive change in the society in every walk of life.

In the present context, there is a need to examine the prevalent social and educational systems carefully in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which have been successful in the past and improve them further so that the Arab students get the education that will prepare them for the great opportunities ahead.

The Arab value system will not be affected negatively by English learning; rather it will only help the Arab students to have a modernized outlook so that it will create a strong and stable Saudi Arabia, every Arab could be proud of.

Introduction Universal Education and the influence of religious beliefs

Education accelerates development in human beings, and the first and foremost aim of universal education is to allow people to exercise the freedom to lead the life they want and provide the right tools and opportunities to satiate their dreams.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bahgat (1999) states, “Education is essential and all standards of training and teaching throughout the world of mankind should be brought into conformity and agreement; a universal curriculum should be established and the basis of ethics be the same.” This means education has a universal quality by which it taps the inner forces of an individual.

Moral values happen to be the constructive core elements of any social fabrics and they are the real expressions of the individual’s self that lies in the subconscious spiritual reality of a person. The right kind of education will recognize these forces and make them a catalyst in motivating a child in school and bring about a meaningful and lasting change in him which in turn will contribute to the world community at large (Bahgat, 1999).

There are different cultures in the world and the value of education is recognized by all. It is only through education that ignorant person gains knowledge, the fearful becomes brave and fearless; it shapes the personality of an individual and makes him a perfect human being.

It is only through education that people will become more humane and civilized. Education has such a great impact on the human mind and as such the differences perpetuated by education will have immense magnitude (Bahgat, 1999).

Educationists all over the world are concerned over the gradual degradation in the morals and values in the students in the modern times. When a person attains knowledge, it is then directed for the betterment and progress of the society and the children are taught good morals and values that stay with them throughout their lives. Education is instrumental in bringing positive change in the person as well as the community.

An educated member of the society will have the will and determination to overcome all kinds of divisive forces and conflicts in the society and work towards a united and enlightened community (City Montessori School, n.d.).

Education is defined as a continuous and creative process through which a person gets an opportunity to develop his dormant capabilities. The creative process, therefore, begins in a child from the moment he starts learning in the school. With proper education a student can rightfully attain harmony between his own religion and reasoning, as it encourages the individual to investigate reality.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The human mind is trained gradually to recognize the truth, no matter where it originates from. Each and every person in the society has a responsibility and should amalgamate it with one’s own community and the world outside so that a positive change is instilled. The best educational approach is directed towards the personal growth of an individual and aims to bring in a social transformation.

It is essentially based on the belief that human beings are spiritual in nature and the elements of universal education answers the true needs of the human society and brings its different sections closer to culminate in the unification of the world. Education shall help a person to understand the ways of life and at the same time it must infuse universal qualities that are synonymous with the human race (City Montessori School, n.d.).

The family and the community as a whole have a dual responsibility in developing the student’s moral character and improving his intellect. Parents, grandparents and the neighbors have an important role to play here.

The child must be provided with the best environment possible so that proper growth and development takes place over the years. Education leads to the awareness that people need to be free from all religious bigotry and fanaticism that has gripped the world in the present times. With a broader outlook achieved through education, they can become more tolerant towards other religions and communities (City Montessori School, n.d.).

There is a strong influence of religion on the education system of a country. Every country has its own specific culture and Saudi Arabia too has its own distinct religion and culture. The Muslim community in Saudi Arabia has been a conservative one where education was closely linked to religion. Arabic language is the language of Islam and because of this reason it has gained considerable importance in the Arab community.

Followers of Islam have high respect for Arabic language and teach their children to read and write the language from a tender age. It is taught in the Madrasas and it is a must for every primary school student in Saudi Arabia. Children are trained to read the Holy Quran so that from an early age itself the children are aware of their religion and its teachings (Abdan, 2002).

Culture is a definite method of organizing and improving human activity that in turn is characteristic of the people in general and portrays their national and individual ethnic identity and also reflects the religious environment. In the modern times, the international and intercultural links are developing at a quick pace and the Muslim culture is being redefined and its place in social progress is seen in a new perspective.

It has an undeniable influence compared to other religious communities in forming the new world culture. The Arab world too is going through many changes and English is being taught in most of the private schools so that the coming generation of Arab students does not get left behind in any way.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They have to become global citizens with a broad outlook that will teach them to accept other cultures with an open mind and become more tolerant towards other religions of the world. The Arab people need a universal education that will bring them closer to rest of the world and English learning is the only way to achieve it in the coming years (Abdan, 2002).

The present Arab educational system


Currency Wars in Japan Report college admission essay help

Recently, several nations around the world have attempted to devalue their currencies through artificial means. This has resulted in global currency wars as countries battle for economic recovery by intervening so as not to allow their currencies to float freely in the market. Besides China, the other country that has been criticized for fuelling this battle is Japan.

The Japanese government has historically been concerned about the rising value of the yen against other countries. Therefore, it has been engaged in buying and selling of dollars so as to make the country’s products competitive in the international market.

Most recently, on 15 September 2010, the Japanese government unilaterally intervened in the foreign exchange market with the intention of lowering the exchange rate of the yen. It sold about one trillion yen that was equal to about twenty billion dollars (Grey; Butler).

As illustrated by the figure below, the Japanese government took the biggest ever one-day currency action since the value of the yen had risen by more than ten percent since the month of May. It is important to note that the action was contrary to the international agreement that prevents industrial powers from effecting unilateral currency moves in the financial market.

Figure1: USDJPY Monthly outlook from October 2009 to October 2010.

Since October 2009, USDJPY has been on a downtrend and now the pair is at its 15-year record bottom (Prescience; Nasdaq). The behavior of the pair for the past one year can be contributed to a number of fundamental and technical factors. The downtrend suggests that the yen has been growing stronger against the dollar.

During the period, the Japanese government has traditionally maintained its interest rates at low levels. This is a strategy by the country to artificially keep the yen weak in the international market so as to increase profits for its exports (Keating; Hotten).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, from the chart above, it is evident that the interest rate action has not had very much impact on the behavior of the pair (Saettele). The USD continued to fall against the JPY signifying the speculation of the United States Federal Reserve possible expansion of the country’s quantitative easing program.

The balance of trade represents the quantity of goods that the U.S. is importing in relation to the quantity that it is exporting to other countries. If the U.S. is exporting more than it is importing, then it implies that it will have a positive balance of trade. On the other hand, if it is importing more than it is exporting, then the balance of trade will be negative.

Currently, the U.S. is accustomed to operating at a negative balance of trade since it imports more goods from Japan than it exports to Japan. It is believed that most of the U.S. negative trade balances come from much more importing of goods from China and Japan. The balance of trade influences the value of the United States dollar in the foreign exchange market.

Using the monetary approach exchange rate theory, the demand and supply of the dollar affects the value of the United States dollar. When the U.S. is importing more goods from Japan than it is exporting, which results in a negative balance of trade, it has to convert U.S. dollars into Japanese yen by selling U.S. dollars on the foreign exchange market.

This increases the supply of the United States dollar in the open market. As the supply of the U.S. dollars increases, the value of the currency reduces. The figure 2 below illustrates how the price point for the United States dollar decreased as the supply of the currency is increased.

Figure 2: U.S. dollar-supply rising, price falling.

According to the monetary approach exchange rate theory, the demand for yen may have played a significant role in the fluctuation of the pair.

We will write a custom Report on Currency Wars in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Businesspersons carrying out investments in the country and require the local currency or foreign corporations who are purchasing the country’s exports may have caused the demand for the yen to go up, which increased its strength (Economy Watch).

Therefore, the increasing strength of the yen resulted in the downtrend. In addition, instead of allowing its currency to float in the market, there were interventions to prevent its appreciation.

Figure 3: Yen demand rising, price increasing.

The devaluation of the Japanese yen is advantageous for the country since it has more exports than imports that make up its Gross Domestic Product. Since it is largely dependant on exports, maintaining its currency at weaker relative levels encourages other countries to purchase its products at cheaper prices.

Because the demand for the country’s products has increased in the international market, more jobs have been created, which has led to increased economic development. The depreciation of its currency has also assisted Japan to have a lower current account deficit.

The improvement in the country’s current account has resulted from the more sales it has made from its competitive exports. It is believed that the main cause for a current account deficit in any country is the reduced levels of domestic savings. This is because of the increased levels of consumer spending.

Lastly, the depreciation of the Japanese yen has resulted in increased inflationary pressures because of at least three reasons. First, the boost of the country’s exports has resulted in the rise in Aggregate Demand (AD). Consequently, this has led to demand inflation.

Second, imported goods to the country are generally more costly than goods produced locally. Japanese consumers have inevitably experienced an increase in the price of imported products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Currency Wars in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cost of manufacturing products, which require imported goods, has also risen. Lastly, it is believed that the depreciation of the yen has lowered the incentives for producers and exporters to reduce costs and produce at greater efficiency.

In conclusion, the intervention of the Japanese government to prevent the appreciation of its currency has played a crucial role in the economic development of the country. Because of this initiative, its goods are able to compete favorably in the international market. In addition, it assists in increasing the profits of firms when they exchange foreign earnings back into the yen.

If there were no such intervention, the economic growth of the country could be lower than it is now. In addition, the initiative that Japan took to devalue its currency competitively in the foreign exchange market assisted it in tackling some of its domestic problems. These are the problems of its aging population, increased public debt, and the yen’s susceptibility to deflation.

References Änderung, L. Dollar – Yen – Devise/Währung – Line-Chart. Web.

Butler, J. Begun, The Currency Wars Have. Web.

Economy Watch. Monetary Approach to Exchange Rate Determination. Web.

Grey, B. Economic crisis threatens to unleash global currency wars. Web.

Hotten, R. Currency wars threaten global economic recovery. Web.

Investopedia. Economics Basics: Demand and Supply. Web.

Keating, J. E. Why do currency wars start. Web.

Nasdaq. Forex: USD/JPY still close to 15-year low. Web.

Prescience. USD/JPY nears 15-year low ahead of Philly Fed, U.S. jobs data. Web.

Saettele, J. USD/JPY Monthly Technical Forecast. Web.


The Business Environment of India Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to prepare a country report of India in order to assess the business environment of this country and to provide the CEO with important information for making a decision about business. In order to do so, this paper considers political, social, and economical environment of India, Gross Domestic Product, FDI, geographical position, natural resources, work force values, and consumer attitudes.


NCAER (2010) argued that the global financial downturn caused by the Western countries in 2008 and prolonged all over 2009 has seriously injured the world economy but China and India have gained tremendous economic growth under the recessionary economy. India has achieved such challenging success for its policy, business innovation, and skilled human resource.

Prabhudesai (2010) analysed the economic survey of India 2009 and pointed out that the country is going to record 7% GDP growth in 2009-10 whirl it largely connected with the US Economy and the quick recovery of financial crisis.

Indian policy has vastly aimed to accelerate the economy with balanced Human recourse development, Information Technology, Agricultural and infrastructural development while the county is the pioneer of global outsourcing market.

Meanwhile the government and private sector of the country to grasp greater equity in the banking sector while it has also aligning of attracting FDI1 inflow, export oriented Industrial growth and regulatory reforms in higher education.

Country Profile Geographic


Role of Planning Professionals Qualitative Research Essay college essay help near me

Introduction The purpose of this essay is to discuss the role of a planning professional in the creation of a social and spatially just city. A planning professional is described as an individual who works in the field of urban planning and development. The main role of a planning professional is to optimize the effectiveness of the urban community’s land resources, land availability and infrastructure as they perform their duties.

The duties of a planning professional include formulating plans that will be used in developing and managing urban areas that are undergoing some form of development. Other tasks that the professionals perform include analyzing the compatibility of the land use to economic, environmental and social factors.

The role of a planning professional has continued to gain more prominence over the last century as urban planning in cities and urban areas have continued to grow.

Urban Planning Urban planning is defined as those activities that are directed towards improving the welfare of a population located in a city or an urban area by creating convenient, reliable and efficient structures that will be used in the present and future time frame (Chang 2010). Urban planning is a management tool used by most governments and countries the world over to deal with effective urbanization and development activities within cities.

Despite the fact that urban planning has faced a slow growth since its inception one hundred years ago, a number of countries around the world have adopted innovative approaches that can be used to develop their cities to meet the 21st century planning standards (Fyfe and Kenny 2005).

These new approaches include spatial planning in integrating the functions of the public sector to those of regional or local areas, land regularization and management approaches, new techniques of master planning, and urban planning techniques that are aimed at producing spatial forms such as compact and urbanized cities (UN-Habitat 2009).

The known Spatial planning in a built-up area refers to the systems and designs that are used to sway the distribution of the residents in spaces of various scales. The activities that fall under spatial planning comprise of regional setting up, urban planning and national spatial plans (Cowan 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Urban planning has however faced challenges in the past such as environmental challenges, climate change, demographic problems, land misuse and unavailability, rapid urbanization, shrinking cities, economic challenges, social-spatial changes, changes in governance and noise, air, land pollution (Seto et al. 2007).

The most common challenge that affects urban planning and urban professionals are the socio-spatial challenges that arise from new spatial forms and processes that are beyond the control of local authorities. Socio-spatial changes usually affect the functions that take place within cities as they affect the fragmentation and specialization of these functions.

There have been notable contrasts in the suburban areas of most cities with tenement zones such as the low income and high-income areas becoming more apparent. These contrasts have emerged as a result of the changing land market, changing uses of land and new policies that govern land use and urban development (Naison and Mangiza 2009).

These challenges have slowed down the growth of urban planning over the years, making it difficult for any new developments to take place in the sector. They have also made it difficult for any meaningful progress in urban planning to take place due to their complex nature. So that the field of urban planning can be able to progress and move ahead, specific steps need to be taken to overcome the challenges that threaten urban planning.

These steps include addressing the above challenges in the form of a global urban reality that affects all countries and employing the skills, talents and capabilities of professional urban planners (Sclar 2010).

The Role of Planning Professionals Urban planning professionals can fall under various categories, which include:

real estate developers, transportation planners, metropolitan planners, economic development planners, regional planners, civil engineers, neighbourhood planners and strategic urban planners.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Planning Professionals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Urban planners usually work for developers or governments that have initiated large scale commercial development projects in the urban setting. In setting up a strategy for development, urban designers have to deem several issues which include things like the zoning codes, land availability, crime in the area, traffic congestion and land sustainability (Hall 2001).

Urban professionals play an essential role in the urbanization process, which is characterised to be iterative and dynamic in nature. The scope of their work can be described to be classical articulation where the planning professional’s role mostly deals with presenting a decision-maker with the relevant solutions and courses of action that are important in the planning process.

Once the decision-maker approves the solution and sets it out as a policy, the role of the urban professional is to carry out the decision according to the decision maker’s mandate.

While performing their duties, planning professionals incorporate the use of methodological and technological expertise to develop plans that will be used in urban planning activities. Methodological and technological techniques are used in defining the problem and formulating appropriate alternatives that would be used to address these problems (Barton et al. 2009).

Planning professionals are usually involved in decision-making activities that determine what information will be used in managing the urban development process and whether this information will be presented to the major actors of the process. Once they have made the planning decision, the next stage involves the implementation of the decision.

The role of the planning profession in this stage is to exercise judgement and discretion due to the ambiguous nature of the urban planning process and public policy that deals with urban planning. This ambiguous nature is characterised by many uncertainties and rigid policies that are used in formulating urban development plans.

The job of the professional becomes essential in this stage because legislators lack the technical know-how to deal with the ambiguous nature of urban planning which inevitably leads to them creating vague and unclear policies (Sclar 2010).

The job of a planning professional is deemed to be technical in nature as they have to translate the development objectives developed by the government into strategies that can be used in urban planning activities. The goal of these strategies is usually to implement the objectives set out by the government that has been designed to meet urbanization and development.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Planning Professionals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Bertaud (2010), the most critical role of a planning professional is to set up a framework that will be used in the area that has been identified for development. This framework is usually made up of three components, which include land-use regulations, investments in infrastructure and taxation laws that are related to urban development.

The professional planner has first to review the existing regulations on land use, which have been formulated by the government to ensure that the intended development is consistent with those regulations (Bertaud 2010).

If there is a need for a new land use regulation, the planning professional has the task of drafting a new guideline that will meet the requirements of the new development.

The new guidelines have to follow the six steps of urban planning which include determining the objective of the urban plan, formulating the strategy, determining the number of inputs and outputs that will be used in the development activity, the outcomes and impact of the program to the area that has been identified for development.

When the planner drafts the new regulation, they have to ensure that there is a projection of what the impact of the regulation will be on the intended area’s structure (Bertaud 2010).

Planners should always look at what effect the new regulations will have on the market. Many regulations that deal with land use usually have some adverse side effects like for example regulations that require high standards for housing will see the development of objectives that define housing conditions, and the sizes of the buildings (medium, small or large housing).

The side effects of such a regulation would see the houses being sold at a higher price in the real estate market, making it difficult for a large number of people to access decent housing.

This leads to a situation of overcrowding in the existing houses reducing the standards of housing in the area or city. The planners should also ensure that the new regulations do not affect the density of the area that has been identified for development (Bertaud 2010).

Regulations that increase or decrease the density of an area have an impact on the price of the land which could go up or down considerably, thereby affecting the relative worth of the land. For example, imposing a regulation in a low-density area will reduce the price of the land.

The adverse effects of these actions will see the planning activities for the city requiring more low-density land for development because of massive demand for low-density areas.

A regulation imposed on a high-density area would have the reverse effect of increasing the price of land, but it contributes to the decrease in land availability, which is required for development. The outcomes of such effects will affect the prices of land in the market leading to a situation of instability and uncertainty in formulating urban plans (Bertaud 2010).

The other role of planning professionals is to assess the investments that have been made in the existing primary infrastructure. Primary infrastructure is made up of roads, electrical connections, water and gas supply. The investment that has been made on fundamental infrastructure has an impact on the demand and supply of land available for development within a city’s boundaries.

The infrastructure will also have an impact on the prices of buildings, or houses that have been developed within the primary infrastructure framework. Planners are therefore charged with the role of understanding the infrastructure of the area that has been earmarked for development (Walton et al. 2005).

Infrastructure usually has a double impact on the urban planning as it allows for development to take place in certain piece of land. The double effect of this is that infrastructure influences the supply and availability of houses or buildings. The planners should, therefore, measure this impact with regards to the supply. The other role requires planners to observe the laws of taxation when it comes to urban planning and development.

Governments the world over usually impose taxes on land and also on the amount of rent that has been paid for the land. Taxation on land raises enough revenue that will be used by the city planners and municipal council to maintain and sustain the infrastructure found on the land (Kochanowski 2006).

The taxation of land has an impact on land use as it determines whether the land will be used by the owner or sold. High land taxes might force some landowners to sell off their land to the city, which will in turn, reform the land for further urban development. Land taxation is therefore seen as an essential tool in ensuring the efficient and effective use of land.

The role of the professional planner when it comes to land taxation is to be aware of the effect that these taxes will have on land use. If high taxes lead to the limited use of land, the planner has the task of consulting the relevant authorities to request them to reduce the high taxes so that the land can be properly used (Kochanowski 2006).

The same applies to the reverse situation. If the land taxes are low, the land will be disused where unnecessary developments will take place in areas that are not designed for them.

Bertaud (2010), therefore notes that all professional planners involved in urban development should focus on the three areas identified; regulations, infrastructure and taxation when they are formulating plans to be used in development. They should also analyse how these three areas affect the spatial development of cities and whether there is room for economic growth.

The Role of Professional Planners in Developing Socio-Spatial Cities Spatial planning is the consideration of what can and should happen in a particular region or area. This type of urban planning involves investigating the interaction that takes place when different policies and practices are employed in urban development projects.

Spatial planning goes beyond the traditional practices that govern land use in urban areas by setting out strategic frameworks that will be used current and future development activities.

Spatial planning extends the work of the professional planner from that of land use management, development of layout plans or formulation of land use regulations to include activities that deal with living conditions or the liveability of certain areas marked for structural development.

Spatial planning also attempts to bridge the gap that exists between the economic, social environment and urban development activities making the process of urbanization also to be focused on sustainability. Spatial planning also plays the role of coordinating sectoral policies by creating recognition of the objectives of these policies and how they relate to the economic or social environment (Thompson 2007)

The American Planning Association (APA 2010) describes the role of a professional planner in spatial planning as that of researching, designing and developing programs that will be used in urban planning development.

Professional planners also have the role of leading public change processes by effecting social change, performing technical analysis of urban areas and educating the general population on urban development planning. While most planners choose specific roles or areas of specialisation in urban development, majority of professional planners practice most or all area of urban planning (American Planning Association 2010).

The major role of professional planners as identified by APA is to create a plan that will be used in development activities. These plans are usually based on the objectives, goals, and strategies that have been developed by the municipal council or the city by-laws for urban development projects and activities. Apart from formulating these plans, the professional planners also have the role of implementing or enforcing these plans.

They achieve this by coordinating the work of the actual implementers of the plan, such as the construction workers, the developers, or the site contractors. A further task of the professional planner is to carry out field studies on how land is being presently used in a particular area. This is done by performing interviews on the people using the land and also assessing the current structure of the land (APA 2010).

The Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS 2010) identifies the role of regional and urban planners to be that of developing short and long term plans that will be used in land management as well as in the revitalization of communities based in urban, suburban and local areas.

The planners accomplish these activities by helping the local officials to alleviate any social, spatial, economic, or environmental problems that might affect the community and formulating recommendations that will be used in developing the appropriate infrastructure. Professional planners also have the role of providing recommendations that will be used in developing zoning regulations for commercial, public and private land.

These recommendations are usually based on forecasts and projections for urban developments in particular areas within the city’s limits. Planners also have the role of promoting the best use of land and land resources amongst community members in a specific area.

Professional planners have also been known to perform the role of addressing the environmental, social, and economic problems that affect city dwellers or people that live in an area undergoing certain levels of developments.

The plans they formulate and develop are mostly used for the construction and development of essential community structures such as hospitals, churches and recreational facilities such as gyms or stadiums (BLS 2010).

Professional planners also participate in decision-making activities on what natural resources will be used in development activities. These natural resources include land, minerals, rock and soil that are important in urban development projects. If using these resources will prove to be a threat to the natural ecosystem, the planner has the task of informing the developer of these adverse impacts.

A number of planners are engaged in activities which are aimed at environmental preservation with their roles and activities mostly being centred on the control of air, water or land pollution, the preservation of land and forest areas, wetland preservation activities, and the conservation of natural habitats or ecosystems (Bureau of Labour Statistics 2010).

Professional planners also have the role of drafting relevant legislation that will be used in developmental activities that will address social, economic, or environmental challenges that affect particular communities that live in the urban areas. Planners usually study and analyse the current practices on land use before they develop reports that will be used in urban planning.

The information that is usually contained in these reports includes the location, power lines, water supply, gas supply pipes, roads, street lights and other essential amenities that are important for to the area (BLS 2010)

The report also analyses the kind of activities or land-use practices that have been exercised on the area under evaluation. With this information, the professional planners try to optimize the land use by formulating plans that will see developments such as buildings or houses being initiated in the area.

These plans are usually used as guidelines and blueprints by the people who are responsible for setting up these structures. Planners are also involved in rehabilitation activities by examining the current structures in a given urban setting and determining whether there is a need to improve these buildings (Bureau of Labour Statistics 2010).

The field of spatial planning has played an essential role in the planning and development of urban areas. The role of professional planners has mostly been relegated to preparing and designing layout plans that will be used to develop towns, cities. Once the developer gets these plans, the work of the planner is seen to be complete until the next developer comes with a new project for development.

This limited role has made it difficult for them to plan for spatial and social problems that might arise as a result of land allocations and extensive developments in city areas. Urban professional planners have not been active in searching for new ways that can limit the number of spatial issues that arise due to land disuse and depletion (Wang and Zou 2010).

Role of Professional Planners in Developing “Just” Cities Professional planners have to consider the societal context when they plan for a city. A city is usually identified by the people and therefore, professional planners have to consider the societal characteristics of these people when they create a “just” city.

All the aspects of planning require the professional planner first to understand what a just city is after which they should seek a balance between the city resident’s who are going to be impacted by the development activity and those who are going to benefit. A “just” city is defined as a city that has equitability in resources and in the number of planning and development activities that take place in the city.

Fanstein (2005) defined a “just” city as one that was democratic, equitable, sustainable and growing. However, planning for a just city that incorporates such values is an elusive and challenging concept.

Illiberal majorities might view democracy to be indifferent while the high cost of trying to achieve equitable distribution of resources might create resentment to those forced to give out more. Sustainability might diminish the growth of the city’s population leading to high unemployment rates and an increase in social justice.

Professional planners are faced with the challenge of creating a socially “just” city given the various disparities that exist in society. Planning for a just city also involves incorporating the views of the affected citizens to ensure that the planning process does not discriminate against them.

The social inequalities such as crime, different income levels and level of education make it difficult to ascertain the planning outcomes of the urban development process.

The role of professional planners in developing a just city is to ensure there is social justice in land use, environmental, economic incentives, technological innovations and local resources. Planners should have experience in dealing with disputes that arise as a result of economic disparities as well as resolving environmental and economic equity issues (Campbell 2010).

The professional planner’s activities in the recent past have mostly been characterised by downtown developments, freeway planning, public and private partnerships and other urban planning activities that do not add up to equitable planning and development.

This has limited their responsibilities when it comes to economic justice and equity. The planner’s role in the present and future context will, therefore, be to reconcile the two aspects by ensuring that there is growth in the economy and that there is equal distribution of resources without degrading the natural ecological system (Campbell 2010).

The role of the professional planner in creating a just city will be to arrange the procedures and approaches that will be used in making important decisions by using techniques such as bilingual translation, political pluralism, the developing of market mechanisms and conflict negotiation.

Bilingual translation will require the professional planner to relay the necessary economic and environmental information to the affected citizens of urban planning. Campbell (2010) notes that professional planners should use economic and ecological bilingualism to achieve a socio-spatial framework that will be used in urban planning.

The role of the planner in conflict negotiation is to reduce the gaps that exist between the economic, social and political environments. Conflict negotiation is essential for a planner in developing a “just” city as it balances all these environmental contexts. Conflict negotiation and resolution is more likely to be successful when there is a specific dispute that needs to be resolved.

The political pluralism approach will require the planner to incorporate political ideologies in their planning approaches to ensure that their vision of a just city includes political frameworks. Market mechanisms are essential for the professional planner as they bridge the gaps that exist in economic disparities and the environmental priorities of the affected groups.

The role of a planner in creating a just city will also involve taking into consideration technological improvements such as alternative resources, land use and design, and bioregionalism (Campbell 2010).

The importance of developing socially and spatially just cities is to ensure that there is an equitable distribution of economic and ecological resources, to ensure that there is an appropriate use of land and land designs, layouts, to ensure the social aspects of the city’s residents have been taken into consideration and to ensure that everyone benefits from the urban development activities.

Developing socially just spatial cities ensures that the difficulties experienced in plan implementation are reduced considerably and there is development of a just, democratic city (Fanstein 2005).

Socially and spatially just cities are also important as they reduce ecological devastation on the natural environment and they ensure that there is equal distribution of economic outcomes by considering the views of affected citizens.

Socially just cities foster economic growth and justice reducing crime and unemployment levels in these cities. Socially and spatially just cities reduce the variations that exist in tolerance levels, quality of public services, utility infrastructure, the availability of affordable housing, a reduction in economic segregation and a reduction in autonomy.

Conclusion Professional urban planners need to recognize the importance of social and spatial planning in urban development projects. This recognition has been referred to as new regionalism because cities, towns and urban areas have been recognised by planners as important spatial units in a globalized world.

New regionalism has been seen to be an essential approach in urban planning as it has reduced the level of land misuse and the depletion of natural resources that takes place in areas that are facing urban developments. The role of professional planners is therefore essential in ensuring that new regionalism is achieved in urban planning activities.

References American Planning Association (APA) (2010) What is planning? Web.

Barton, H., Grant, M., Mitcham, C., and Tsourou, C., (2009) Healthy urban planning in European cities, Health Promotion International Journal, Vol, 24, No 1, pp 91-99.

Bertaud, A., (2010) The role of government, urban planners and markets. Web.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2010) Urban and regional planners, Occupational outlook handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Web.

Campbell, S., (2010) Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Web.

Cowan, R., (2005) The dictionary of Urbanism, Tisbury, UK: Streetwise Press

Chang, G., (2010) Urban planning and development, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 136, No.3, pp 177-285

Fanstein, S. (2005) Planning theory and the city. Journal of Planning Education and Research. Vol. 25, pp121–130.

Fyfe, N., and Kenny, J., (Eds) (2005) The urban geography reader, Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Hall, T., (2001) Urban geography, 2nd Edition. London, UK: Routledge.

Kochanowski, P. S., (2006) Site value taxation in a declining city, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol, 50, No.1, pp 45-58

Naison, D., and Mangiza, M., (2009) New role of urban planning in a changing environmental climate. Web.

Sclar, E., (2010) Urban professionals in the 21st century: challenges for pedagogy and professional practice, Columbia, US: Centre for Sustainable Urban Development Earth Institute. Web.

Seto, E. Y., Holt, A., Rivard, T., and Bhatia, R., (2007) Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing health impacts of urban planning decisions, International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 6, No.24.

Thompson, S., (2007) Planning Australia: an overview of urban and regional planning, Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

UN-Habitat (2009) Planning sustainable cities: policy directions, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Gateshead, UK: MapSet Limited

Wang, Y., and Zou, Z., (2010) Spatial decision support system for urban planning: case study of Harbin City in China, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol.136, No.2, pp 147-153

Walton, J. S., El-Haram, M., Castillo, N. H., Horner, R. M., Price, A. D. and Hardcastle, C., (2005) Integrated assessment of urban sustainability, Engineering Sustainability, Vol.158, No.2, pp 57-65


Female Performance in Standardized Tests Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Female Performance in Standardized Tests

Advantages of Standardized Tests

Disadvantages of Standardized Tests


Works Cited

Introduction In order to understand how females perform in standardized tests, defining the term-standardized tests would be important. A standard test is a test that is programmed or standardized such that the mode of their provision and grading is somehow fixed.

These tests treat all the takers in an equal manner in that, they are given the same test under the same conditions and therefore they are perceived fair as compared to other tests such as non-standardized tests.

Although these tests are perceived to be fair in the manner of administration and all other procedures pertaining to them, on average, females normally perform poorly in these tests having a significant difference between their scores and scores by males.

Many scholars and other groups that are concerned with female welfare have tried to look into the root causes of such disparities between female and male performance.

Some scholars argue out that these tests are administered in a gender biased and boys or males are perceived to be favored by the tests whilst in other cases , stereotypes held by the society regarding women inability to score well in such tests are to blame for low scores by women in standardized tests.

These tests are somehow seen as the gatekeepers to women progress since they are used to make important decisions such as programs to be undertaken by students and the schools they enroll in. This paper will focus on how women perform in the standardized tests and explain whether such are beneficial or not.

Female Performance in Standardized Tests Generally, boys perform better as compared to women in standardized tests. Those who advocate for girls argue that girls tend to perform well, they are academically active, and majority of them manage to secure places in higher education institutions. The minor gap between their performance and that of boys is mainly attributed to sociological and psychological disparities, which include but not limited to confidence and self-esteem gaps.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the girl crisis crowd argue it out differently and point out that boys perform better in standardized tests such as “scholastic Assessment Test and law school, medical school, and graduate school admissions tests” (Pinnick et al 115). For example, in 1998, boys scored 35 points ahead of girls in math and 7 points ahead in English during the Scholastic Aptitude Assessment Test (Pinnick et al 115).

He argues that the lower score in girls is not attributed to unfairness or biasness, but other reasons play part such as, a greater percentage of girls as compared to boys sit for the standardized tests and gives a ratio of 54% to 46% respectively.

In addition, the college board profile of SAT and achievement Test takers shows that a large number of girls from “at risk” category sit for the tests as compared to the number of boys who take the test from the boys “at risk “ category.

The number of girls who sit for the SAT from poor families or families with low income and parents with poor educational background is also high as compared to the number of boys who sit for the same having a similar background. Due to the large number of disadvantaged girls taking the test, the average score of girls tent to be lower as compared to that of boys (college bound seniors, cited in Pinnick et al, 115).

The SAT should therefore not be entirely used to create a bias against the girls’ performance, criticize them, or draw a conclusion that boys perform better than girls do since there are various factors that should be put into consideration. Girls are perceived to perform poorly in the standardized tests without considering that the test results are normally skewed.

On the side of boys, the trend is that there are more male geniuses as well as male idiots. Therefore, the male scores are highly spread in terms of abilities and disabilities as compared to the spread in girls’ scores.

The list of males who drop out of school, the failures, and those with learning disability is also large as compared to that girls, the implication is that these males do not take the standardized tests leaving a large of males with potential to do the test as compared to that of females.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Female Performance in Standardized Tests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Over the past few years, statistics show that girls have come of age in their performance in mathematics and sciences, yet there are no significant improvement in boys’ performance in languages.

According to a1995 research conducted by Hedges and Norwell (cited in Pinnick et al, 116), an observation of girls performance in math showed that there was an insignificant deficit although it could affect the number of females made it in technical and scientific careers.

On the other hand, the number of boys with poor writing skills was alarming and posed a great danger considering that the world is rapidly growing as information driven economy.

Stereotypes play a major role in determining the performance of women in standardized tests. There has been a stereotype that men perform better than women in standardized tests have.

According to Inzlicht and Zeev (cited in Alexander $ Winnie 623), if women were given say for example a math test in a group that men were the majority, and the same women placed in a group with other women for the same test, women would score lower in the men’s group than in the women group.

That was attributed to the stereotype that men are generally better as compared to women and therefore they would lack the confidence.

According to Kendall (399), females tend to perform poorly in standardized tests due to Gender biasness and hidden curriculum that present in both informal and formal educational systems.

For example, females in the US have a greater opportunity to receive formal education as compared to the females in the developing countries where in most cases they are seen as housewives who should stay at home, take care of the children as well as the homesteads as men go to school and work. However, the same females in the US are not exposed to the same or equal learning opportunities as men in the same social class.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Female Performance in Standardized Tests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For a long time, females have received differential treatment from teachers and families and this has affected their self-esteem, making them feel as if they are less important as compared to men. This has made them fail to take courses that are science related or math and even when they take, they score poorly.

Though this perception has changed slightly, the number of girls or females who enroll for courses such as computer science and design is still wanting. Even in cases where females enroll for such courses, most of them will do data entry and clerical jobs while men will engage in more tasking areas such as development of computer programs.

In most parts of the world, females are a group that is socially stigmatized and this affects their performance in standardized tests. It happens that they are constantly reminded either intentionally or unintentionally of their membership to the social groups that are associated with negative stereotype regarding intellectual ability.

This contributes to poor performance in standardized tests. However, this ideology can be changed or used to improve their performance by identifying them with other social groups that are associated with positive stereotypes.

This hypothesis was proved by Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (McGlone 9) where different social identities were given to women who were pursuing their undergraduate program before the standardized test was administered to them. The test results showed that women who had an identity as students from a selective private college scored better than those who identified with their gender or a test irrelevant identity.

It can therefore be said that standardized tests can be used as a tool to help women perform better in other tests by disregarding the stereotypes associated with their gender and focusing on their abilities and potential just like any other human being.

In addition to how stereotypes affects females performance in standardized tests, its important to look at how standardized tests involving mental rotation displays a huge gap between male and female performance.

Such tasks require the student to visualize a still two or three-dimensional objects from various perspectives and determine how the mentally rotated object is similar to another comparison object. Men are believed to perform better in such tests while women are viewed to be weak in how they conceptualize the images.

Therefore, even when such a test is to be administered, the female students’ attention and focus will not be entirely to the test, but rather divided between the test and the way their failure would confirm a preconceived stereotype regarding their performance in such tests. This divided attention will therefore to some extent account for their poor performance in standardized tests.

Over the years, standardized tests have been a major determinant of educational opportunities accessed by the students. They determine which students gain access to secondary education and securing places in institution of higher learning. As if that is not enough, they also determine the institutions to be joined by the students in terms of facilities and quality of education.

Ordinarily, a person would think that the road ends there; unfortunately, it is the beginning of another journey since, more often, these educational opportunities are the key to success in securing competitive job opportunities and boosting the economy. Some standardized tests such as the PAST determine the students to benefit from valuable college and higher education scholarships based on their performance in the test.

For instance, the National Merit Scholars offer $27 million every year as scholarship to high school juniors. Though there are many students in dire need of the scholarship, not all of them can benefit from it since it is not enough. The implication is that more than one million students compete for the scholarship by taking the PSAT.

Generally, the average score of girls in the PSAT test is lower than that of boys and therefore end up receiving only 40% of the scholarship even though they constitute the biggest percentage of the test takers (56%) (Women Equity Resource Centre Para 8).

With all that in consideration, it seems that these standardized tests at times are gatekeepers to female progress. To understand this concept better, let us look at how things were before enactment and implementation of Title IX’S. By then, test administration and interpretation of results showed aspects of gender biasness as well as stereotypes instead of revealing the interests and capabilities of the students.

A good illustration is that in the 1960’s were a pink vocational test, which was for women and a blue vocational test for men. Such tests indicated that women had neither the ability nor the capability to become presidents. Based on such tests, SATS could at times be seen as gatekeepers to women progress.

However, the intensity of gender biasness has reduced since enactment of Title IX and most SATS currently emphasize on a context of national educational reform (Women Equity Resource Centre, Para 9).

Advantages of Standardized Tests Though standardized tests have a number of flaws, they are beneficial in some way. These tests ensure that all students or the test takers are given the same test without favoritism and the grading system is standardized in such a way that test scores are identical irrespective of who is taking the test. This shows objectivity in the tests and eliminates any doubts that may be harbored by the scorer if a subjective test is otherwise used.

Though not all, some standardized tests are a good predictor of students performance in the school applied for. Standardized tests such as MCAT help in testing whether the student has crucial skills required to be successful in a medical school. Though the test does not give 100% guarantee, research has shown that it is a better tool as compared to interviews (standardized tests para.2).

Aggregation is also crucial as it gives more precise and steadfast assessment on a groups potential in terms of understanding and ability to perform. A large group of people normally takes the test and therefore aggregate scores provide more accurate information since assessment error is reduced when there is an increase in sample size (standardized tests Para. 3).

Disadvantages of Standardized Tests SATS are a poor indicator or benchmark of a student’s success in subjects such as mathematics and physics. Women performance in the test is significantly lower as compared to that of men in graduate and undergraduate math and physics courses hence stand a higher chance of elimination during the admissions screening process.

These tests do not take into consideration factors such as the gender gap that is on the boys case or better put, it favors the boys. Gender gap has a great implication since it is prevalent across all demographic traits, which include but not limited to course work, parental education, class rank, grade point average, as well as family income.

Wallace (Para.4) also supported the idea that Standardized tests are a poor indicator of a woman’s potential and therefore it should not be used by colleges and universities to evaluate a student’s eligibility in securing a place. The argument is that a test that takes three hours is inadequate to portray all the characteristics of a successful candidate.

Another flaw in the test is that there are so many and varied preparation techniques and do not necessarily show what the student is familiar with. For example, some firms claim that their product can help a student get a score hat would assist the student land into the dream college.

The main question lies in whether admission to college should be based on four short week knowledge or on twelve years knowledge investment in education. Wallace (Para 5) added that use of standardized tests implies unintentional favoritism to males and those from upper class by the colleges or universities.

The tests are biased tending to favor only those who have a shared culture and common upbringing background with the test makers. Schools should therefore come up with better mechanisms to evaluate a student instead of discrimination.

Bearing in mind that the role of a woman has increasingly changed allowing the woman to study and further her studies as much as she wants, use of standardized test would not be an ideal idea since it discriminates against women, which is counterproductive (Wallace Para.7). Standardized tests do not give the student a chance to be thorough and do good work.

The tests are done in haste since they have timed sessions for doing the test. For instance, a math SAT will primarily focus on answering many simple questions paying little or no attention to the difficult questions; here, the student cannot do much since only 25 minutes are allowed to do 20 math’s questions.

Though the questions are not very difficult, students never get time to go through their work and correct mistakes if any. Other than poor work in math test, the essay session does not necessarily test quality of the work done but rather the quantity since the students are encouraged to write a lot in a short time.

Standardized tests are used by the government to control or direct concentration towards certain preferred areas. For instance, a need to add a new section in the math section test might compel changes in the local curriculum in order to compensate for the new section added.

Tests then become the forum used by government and school systems to convey what policy makers believe is important in the curriculum and requires more attention. Such tests that influence decisions are known as “high-stakes.” The test can also be used to buy educators to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in terms of development (Jones Para. 4).

Conclusion Based on information gathered regarding female performance in standardized tests, it can be concluded that on average, females score low in the standardized tests. However, this does not mean that they are foolish or have less potential as compared to males. Other factors such as gender biasness, gender gap, parent educational background, income levels among other factors play a role in their performance.

Most girls from “at risk” categories sit for the test as compared to the number of boys who take the test from the same category. Standardized tests have their advantages and disadvantages though they should not be used to solely determine a students’ potential since they do not reveal all the qualities that may be required.

Works Cited Alexander, Patricia


Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

The Province of Manitoba (2010) states that, non-funded private schools also referred to as independent schools, are run by individuals or groups of people whom have to be licensed by a representative of the public schools Act which was created in order to ensure that the children are getting an equivalent level of education to that provided in pubic schools.

Non funded private schools do not have to meet some of the requirements that funded private schools have to for instance, hiring certified teachers of the country they are operating in and use of the same provincially approved syllabus. Non-funded private schools are run as businesses and they have the right of admission and they get their funds from their students paying fees and tuition money.

Therefore, the income and expenditure of the school depends on how much money the parents of the students are willing to spend which varies from school to school depending on the location of the school, the peer tuitions and the schools financial donation.

Mortimore (1991, 34) notes “extravagant tuition rates in these schools claim are used to fund high salaries for the teachers and afford improved environments for learning, a low student to teacher ratio, undersized class quotients and services like, libraries, computer and science laboratories.”

In terms of education, non-funded private schools have to offer top of the range education to their students and also provide first-rate extra curricular activities as that is the main reason they are up and running.

Parents prefer private schools only if the eminence of education is equal to the extravagant high charges demanded by the schools. Looking at the explanation of private schools overcharging their clients one often wonders why teachers are always looking for better paying jobs as they claim that they are overworked and underpaid.

So the question is why then do private schools overcharge their clients and underpay their staff? Where does all the money go? The directors and owners of the school may be exploiting their clients and their staff while keeping all the money for themselves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Armstrong (2000, 56), quality in education is defined as the maximum use of school systems to bring forth an individual who will use the theory learned in class practically and prosper in life.

Quality in education is signified by the characterized inspection which creates alertness which in turn raises purpose for government policy makers and politicians. It has been argued that the reporting system put to use in the schools inspections is crucial for supplying advice on progression in terms of both provision and the quality of education.

The definition helps one learn that quality education will help an individual become a better person in the society as this quality education will equip the individual with necessary tools to enable one to give back to the society through his occupation.

This definition on the other hand also leads to the conclusion that people who did not have quality education do not flourish in life. This is not true as a person’s success does not depend only on the quality of education they received as children.

Quality and effectiveness in education go hand in hand, as the higher the quality of education, the more the effectiveness of the education, when put to use whether practically or theoretically.

Quality and effectiveness however, vary from person to person what one person may think is quality and effective, is not what another person may look at as quality and effective. Levels of quality and effectiveness vary also from school to school as there is no definite universal measurement used to determine the quality and effectiveness in schools or in individuals. (Armstrong 2000 p4)

School quality and effectiveness are linked to each other as they are interdependent. Effectiveness of education relies on the quality of education offered, if one offers low quality of education then the effectiveness and efficiency of that education will be low, if the quality of education offered is high, then the effectiveness and efficiency of education is also high.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In reference to Mortimore (1991, 34) effectiveness in schools has brought about important modifications in the education policy in many countries by stressing the answerability of schools and the reliability of education providers to provide all children with opportunities for elevated success hence developing the dire need for school improvement.

Murphy (1992, 98) emphasizes that school effectiveness indicated the necessity for school improvement in specific by concentrating on adjustable school aspects like the time day to have certain subjects taught.

School quality and effectiveness are important as they not only help students, parents and government officials to know which schools are performing well but they also encourage students to work hard to keep the quality and effectiveness of the school in check.

In the same case school quality and effectiveness may also be affected when the students and teachers slack off as they see their school quality and effectiveness is moderate. This slacking off would lead to a drop in the quality and effectiveness of the school.

Business forces that play a part in the quality and effectiveness in schools are the amount of resources the school has at its disposal and the end result of the school and individual students.

The fact that parents dig into their pockets to fund the high level of education their children receive from non-funded private schools, means that they expect their children to get good quality education to ensure their children can use the education they have received to better themselves.

This in itself is a business as they invest into their children’s education and they expect returns that are profitable, people make investments expecting high returns and it no different when it comes to schools and education. Resources at the schools disposal may influence the students to concentrate on extra curricular activities that would in turn affect their studies this would affect the quality and effectiveness of the school.

According to Armstrong (1990, 6), quality in non-state funded private schools is defined by how well the students perform in their education and other co-curricular activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The board of governors, teachers, parents and government officials monitor the quality in non-state funded private schools so that they can pin point out areas that need to be changed or improved upon so as to maintain the quality of the school.

Monitoring is done through inspection of the curriculum to find out if the level and quality of education offered in these schools is equivalent to the level and quality of education offered in public schools.

Quality in schools and education is measured through fitness for purpose in the non-state funded private schools. Through the fitness for purpose, the school is able to ascertain a position in the competitive market of education, to obtain proof of accomplishment and attainment and to make sure that their clients are content and get value for their money.

This method of measuring quality in non-funded private schools scrutinizes the requirements of the schools mission statement, its aspirations, its intentions and its learning end products. Another method used to rate the quality of education in non-state funded private schools is by use of best practice.

Best practice is a method in which researchers compare and contrast these schools with the schools known to provide the best level of education in the same categories (Armstrong 2000, 5).

According to Owen (1999, 2) benchmarking is way of improving that exploits other peoples superior performance to progress or develop one owns processes. Benchmarking is a system of recognizing what must be developed, looking for ways to enhance the developments then putting into practice these developments. In short, bench marking is used as a way on improving one school by using other schools ideas.

The state sector uses industry standards and accountability to measure quality in schools and education. Industry standards are used to find out whether the non-funded private schools are needed and if the level of education they offer is up to standard with the public schools at nation wide and universal standards (Armstrong, 2000, 6).

In reference to Powell (1991 56) Accountability on the other hand is the measurement of accomplishment markers for competence and success. The state uses accountability to show value for money and to validate efficiency in these schools.

According to Lock (2000), non-funded private schools area accountable to the public as these schools can easily go out of business and close down if their customers are not content with how they run eh school or the results the schools offers. In this way non-funded private schools become accountable as they use the policy customer is always right.

Non-funded private schools run by religious organizations are accountable to the particular religion that funds the school. For example Lutheran schools teach religious education in accordance to Lutheran religious views, values and beliefs.

Non-funded private schools are also accountable to the state the state through a number of laws and regulations put in place by the government that they have to follow like the provision of safety provisions in the schools for both students and staff and medical facilities in the school at all hours when the school is in session.

Quality, school improvement, effective leadership and strategic planning are linked as they influence each other and play a role in the outcomes of each other. According to Hopkins, Ainscow,


Fargo Publishing Company Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Benefits of integrating HRM

Current problems related to Fargo Publishing

Recommendations to improve Fargo Publishing

Measuring the Cost savings of these Recommendations


Benefits of integrating HRM Every successful sector in every industry has a strong correlation with the critical service component rendered by human resource personnel as a specialized function. The human resource management component is a definite process that ensures organizational efficiency in hiring, training, appraising, and offering the right compensations packages.

In addition to that, HRM component is critical in overseeing employee labor relations and in ensuring a safe and healthy working environment besides other concerns of fairness. Organizational employees remain the most fundamental asset in driving organizations towards achieving their strategic goals.

Thomson and Hecker (2000) argue that integrating these aspects of human resource management comes with a host of benefits that span an organization. These include strategic workforce planning.

This benefit is achieved by identifying well talented employees and retaining them within the organization to ensure appropriate workforce capacity is maintained. Coupled with this benefit is improved organizational and human resource productivity by optimizing on their talents and abilities.

Improved financial performance has been identified as another benefit of integrating HRM into running an organization. Human capital is an asset most companies have not exploited to give them a financial edge (Thomson


Channelling and Pricing Strategy Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Globalisation has facilitated trade among countries. It has made the world a global village where goods made in one country can get access to another, off-course after meeting logistics set by the exporting and importing countries. Selling in international market has advantages to the producers of a certain product with the most notable benefit as large access to market. Japan and United States have good trade relation.

Goods from Japan can be sold in United States of America without major trade barriers other than duties and import quotas. When venturing in the market, the marketing team, product and development team and the general management must decide on appropriate channelling and pricing strategy. These strategies will assist the products enter Unites States market and remain competitive thereafter.

There are different rationales that are used when determining the channelling and pricing strategies to use (Grant, 2008). This paper looks into channelling and pricing strategies to be adopted in domestic market and United States of America market on goods made in Japan. It will also justify the choice of United States as a secondary market.

Justification for choice of United States as the second market area United States has the world largest economy. The country has embarked on massive international trade and places limited trade barriers and restrictions to international trade. In the efforts of ensuring that there is fair competition among all players, both local and international, the country has removed/given subsidies to local producers.

It removes subsidies when local products are likely to be produced at a lower price than imported goods. On the other hand, it may use taxes on imported goods to create equality in imports and locally produced goods. Secondly, the country gives subsidies when local products are produced at a higher price than imports. This offers a growth to free trade.

United States is a world market destination; this will assist the company is targeting customers who are not only Americans residents but from other countries.

To facilitate such a trade, United states have a re-import re-export mechanisms which means that if imported goods are to be exported from United States at their raw state, then taxes which were paid for the goods is refundable. The only thing that is not refunded is intention to import declaration fee (IDF) and handling charges. This move will assist in targeting traders from other parts of the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal market is another factor that has made the choice of United States. The population of United States is increasing by day. According to United States bureau of census, the population of the county as per 2009 census stood at 310,600,915. This number is increasing with at least one birth every 7 seconds and in every 37 seconds on average the country record’s an immigrant.

The net effect is an increase in one person for every 12 seconds. The population on the other hand is composed of people from different parts of the world. This move will help in reducing negative perception of goods made from other countries.

This is facilitated further by good relation that exists between the United States and Japan. The culture of the people facilitates trade with other countries; the most important thing the people look for is quality and price of the product; they are less concerned about the country of origin (US. POPClock Projection, 2010).

United States has a well developed transport and communications network. This will facilitate transport of goods from Japan to United States where there are options of using water transport of using air. Japanese national carrier fly’s to United States at-least three times in a day. This will facilitate trade among them.

Getting a licence for an international business is easy in united states; the country also has a special taxation policy aimed at encouraging foreign direct investment. Japan and United States have a double taxation policy which ensures that income taxed in united States will be an allowable amount in Japan. This will reduce chances of double taxation of the company’s income (Alexander, 2010).

Channelling strategies Channelling refers to the method used to ensure that good move from the manufacturer to the market where the consumers they can get them. The way goods are distributed and places where they are found are elements of channelling.

The methods adopted for channelling determines the effectiveness of a certain venture. In international trade, getting into the market involves massive campaigns and persuasion to customers to accept a company’s products.

We will write a custom Essay on Channelling and Pricing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of United States, the channel strategy that will be adopted is a combination of four strategies; they are competition strategy, value strategy, direct strategy and third party strategy.

Direct strategy The company will establish a permanent business in the country which will be receiving goods from Japan and distributing then in the country. They will be whole-selling and also retailing. These establishments will be stationed at different strategic points. They will not be manufacturing but their task will be distributing.

Third party strategy Third parties like super markets will be target market for whole sale goods. They will either be encouraged to buy from the company’s branch in United States or import directly from Japan. This will ensure that a larger number of customers will get access to the products.

Competition strategy After venturing in the market, an S.W.O.T. analysis will be conducted for the company to ensure that it has understood the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that it has. Good produced by competitors will be analysed and a gap that they don’t fulfil established.

This is the gap that the company with its products will aim at filling. Continuous product improvement will be made to ensure that the company is ahead of its competitors in product differentiation and quality.

Value strategy To remain competitive in the highly competitive United States market, the company will ensure a continued product improvement. Internal processes will be improved to ensure that goods of high quality are produced from the company. This will make the company competitive, increase customer satisfaction and the end results will be loyal customers.

To help in entering the market and increasing sales, there will be a number of marketing campaigns in the country. Advertising and marketing costs will be borne by the company. Research and development will be the order of the day to ensure that the needs of customers are recognised and addressed appropriately (Kotler


Stress Management in the Workplace Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Stress is among the major costly and significant cause of health troubles and mental agony. Stress at work place is considered the major primary stressor. Work stress is thought to affect individuals psychological and physical health as well as the organizations effectiveness in adverse manner. Work stress is one of the ailments that are acknowledged worldwide to be affecting the healthiness of the organization and the health or workers.

Workers who are stressed out will probable have a low motivation towards their work. In addition, stress can be detrimental to such member of staff as it possesses potential danger to their safety at work and in generally their efficiency is extremely low.

Pressures at workplace and at home can cause stress. Sometimes it may be beyond employees mandate to protect the staff against the stress caused by external factors for instance domestic strife but they can protect them from the stress that arises from work (Mandler, 2008).

Stress has proved to be a major challenge in the realization of the organization objectives. It may have adverse effects on the organization and the workers. Effective and good management and an aspect of good organizational structure and culture play a vital role in stress prevention.

In case the staffs are already stressed, the management should be aware of the situation and possibly devise a mechanism of addressing the challenge. There is generally low or minimal stress when one is adorned with resources, time, and experience to manage the challenges in any given situation.

Stress can be viewed as a negative experience that deprives the organization of the productivity potential and it is an inevitable consequence of an occurrence. Stress depends on the peoples perceptions and attitudes towards a given situation and this determines how they will cope with the situation.

To be able to develop stress management strategy for any organization, it will be essential to understand the causes of the stress in any given organization (Davis, Eshelman, McKay


Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment Qualitative Research Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China


Reference List

Introduction Increasing competition among business organizations cause business organizations to become innovative and to pay keen attention to the trends in the market in order to maintain sustainability and ensure profitability. Many factors within the environment shape business organizations and market dynamics.

These factors determine the levels of competition in the market and hence the profits made by business organizations. This implies that business organization should modify these competitive forces to enable them gain competitive advantage in the market and thus improving their position in the market (Morrison 2008).

These factors may include entries of new competitors in the market or the threat of substitute product or service. Human beings are rational and would normally shift to substitute products or services especially when the cost of switching to the other product is low and again when the product or service has relative performance and price advantage.

They may also include the purchasing power of the buyers or even the bargaining power of the potential and actual suppliers. Another major force comes from the existing players in the market. The strength and the size of the existing competitors and the new players in the market must be given much consideration and should not be underestimated.

Business organizations tend to exploit the existing barriers to new players in order to maintain competitive advantage over them. They develop business tactics that enable them capture and maintain the loyalty of their customers (Ries and Trout 1981).

Strong competition in the market between existing businesses organizations normally lead to low returns especially if the existing players are almost the same size or when the products or services rendered by these companies are similar.

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China Coca-Cola’s acquisition of Chinese leading juice company, Huiyuan Juice Ltd is a clear indication of its aspiration to conquer the world market. Coca-Cola Company owns businesses in almost all countries in the world either singly or through partnerships with other companies. According to Weisert (2001) today Coca-Cola owns 24 bottling joint-ventures in China.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It partly owns some of these companies and also operates as a corporate partner with some. Coco-Cola started its investment in the country by importing its products and selling them to foreigners in the country, but has stabilized in the market today to become one of the leading beverage producers in the country.

Its business strategies of focusing on localizing its productions as well as building infrastructure in collaboration with the Chinese government and other local companies has enabled it to establish itself throughout the country. Coca-Cola is a major player in the Chinese market today and according to Weisert (2001) it generates annual sales of about $1.2 billion.

Coca-Cola has survived in the Chinese market for a long time due to its innovativeness, its localization of production, its corporation with other companies and the government as well as its greater understanding of its customers, the market trends and the factors that influence its products in the market.

According to the case study, the company changes its products to suit the taste and preference of its customers. This implies that Coca-Cola Company carries out constant market survey that enables it understand the trends in the market as well as the factors that may impact on consumption of its beverage products. This is the reason which made possible for the company to divert its focus from production of carbonated beverages to fruit juice.

It realized that it was bound to lose its market share due to the respiratory infections that had affected Chinese citizens in 2003. The carbon gas from its beverage products was viewed to be a major contribution of that condition. They therefore had to be innovative in order to save its market share from falling.

This means that Coca-Cola does not generalize its customers but does as much as it can to retain its market share across the globe. It employs global-local approach in production that ensures that the taste and preference of all its customers are taken care of. This implies that Coca-Cola has the potential and capacity to develop a unique product for its customers in each region.

The global-local approach has enabled it escape the negative impacts of economic cycles (Perner 2008). It also applies the global-local approach in marketing its products. It ensures that its marketing strategies take into account diversity in the social cultural behavior of various communities. Its commercial advertisements meant for its Chinese customers cover almost all aspect of Chinese cultural festivals.

We will write a custom Essay on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Weisert, (2001) it is the first foreign company to advertise on CCTV. The company has been able to effectively apply its ‘think local, act local’ approach in maintaining its market share in the country. It has been able to successfully balance its localization strategy while maintaining profitable product lines.

Its innovativeness enables it maintain sustainability in the market. Its ability to produce varieties of beverages and creative branding and packaging which match the market trends has enabled it to withstand the unending changes in the consumers’ taste and preference.

The company sells its international known brands such as fanta and coke to its Chinese customers as well as the Diet Coke and Tianyudi (a non-carbonated drink) brands which are also doing fairly well in the market. Its innovativeness enables it beat many beverage companies in the market including new players.

The company understands that taste and preferences are dynamic factors and therefore occasionally introduce a new brand in market after some time. For example, according to the case study, it acquired the Huiyuan Juice Ltd in order to diversify its product portfolio and as a result meet the demands of the various market segments within the country.

According to Weisert (2001) after introducing Tianyudi brand in the market in 1996, it introduced the Xingmu (Smart) brand in the market in 1997. Xingmu was able to outpace Tianyudi in the market since it was a new brand even though it was a carbonated drink.

Perhaps the major social factor that has greatly contributed to the company’s ability to conquer the Chinese market is its corporation with the government and other local companies in joint ventures. In 1970s the company was not allowed to sell its products to Chinese people.

Over time the company has been able to woo the government to allow it to fully operate in China; and today, the company’s products account for about 35% of the country’s carbonated beverages (Weisert 2001). It assisted the government in most of its facilities’ development by providing technical assistance and financial resources.

Most of the company’s bottling facilities are owned on joint venture collaboration with other companies including government agencies. This gives it a local image in the market which in turn gives it a competitive advantage over other companies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Its interaction with the domestic companies and government agencies gives it an advantage in acquiring other firms such Huiyuan Juice Ltd which enables it expand its business operations in the country thereby increasing its revenue generating opportunities. Its collaboration with the government in some of the governments activities also enable it acquire a more local image.

Demographic factors also influence Coca-Cola’s investment in China. The Country has the highest population in the world with the total population being over one billion. Again, China also has one of the largest economies in the world which is estimated to be the second after US.

This has been a major reason as to why Coca-Cola seeks to expand its market share in the country by buying the leading juice producing company in China. It strong economic growth has increased the purchasing power of its population; therefore it is important to produce beverage products that deliver economic values to its customers and attracts the customers more to the company.

Although Coca-Cola Company seems to be enjoying monopoly in beverage production in some countries, it also faces challenges from other companies which are also established and others, upcoming. Pepsi is one such company that challenges Coca-Cola in competing for the market share in America.

The Adidas and Nike companies also compete against each other in order to gain competitive advantage over one another in the market. They are both struggling to come up with new fashions and technologies in sports.

One factor that worries the company’s management is the fickle-mindedness of their Chinese customers. They seem to have a very dynamic taste and preference which only focus on the present trends and not on the long term impacts of brands in the market. This implies that it is difficult to capture their loyalty.

Conclusion Marketing sustainability requires flexible management and innovativeness in order to always match the market trends. International companies need to focus on a global-local approaches that are sensitive to consumers’ taste and preference. This means that business organizations have to put in place measures that enable them acquire an in-depth understanding of consumers’ trends.

Reference List Morrison, M., 2008, Porter’s Five Forces: Competitor Analysis. London: Richard Byrd Company.

Perner, L., 2008, Introduction to Marketing. Los Angeles: University of Southern California

Ries, A,


Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China


Reference List

Introduction Increasing competition among business organizations cause business organizations to become innovative and to pay keen attention to the trends in the market in order to maintain sustainability and ensure profitability. Many factors within the environment shape business organizations and market dynamics.

These factors determine the levels of competition in the market and hence the profits made by business organizations. This implies that business organization should modify these competitive forces to enable them gain competitive advantage in the market and thus improving their position in the market (Morrison 2008).

These factors may include entries of new competitors in the market or the threat of substitute product or service. Human beings are rational and would normally shift to substitute products or services especially when the cost of switching to the other product is low and again when the product or service has relative performance and price advantage.

They may also include the purchasing power of the buyers or even the bargaining power of the potential and actual suppliers. Another major force comes from the existing players in the market. The strength and the size of the existing competitors and the new players in the market must be given much consideration and should not be underestimated.

Business organizations tend to exploit the existing barriers to new players in order to maintain competitive advantage over them. They develop business tactics that enable them capture and maintain the loyalty of their customers (Ries and Trout 1981).

Strong competition in the market between existing businesses organizations normally lead to low returns especially if the existing players are almost the same size or when the products or services rendered by these companies are similar.

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China Coca-Cola’s acquisition of Chinese leading juice company, Huiyuan Juice Ltd is a clear indication of its aspiration to conquer the world market. Coca-Cola Company owns businesses in almost all countries in the world either singly or through partnerships with other companies. According to Weisert (2001) today Coca-Cola owns 24 bottling joint-ventures in China.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It partly owns some of these companies and also operates as a corporate partner with some. Coco-Cola started its investment in the country by importing its products and selling them to foreigners in the country, but has stabilized in the market today to become one of the leading beverage producers in the country.

Its business strategies of focusing on localizing its productions as well as building infrastructure in collaboration with the Chinese government and other local companies has enabled it to establish itself throughout the country. Coca-Cola is a major player in the Chinese market today and according to Weisert (2001) it generates annual sales of about $1.2 billion.

Coca-Cola has survived in the Chinese market for a long time due to its innovativeness, its localization of production, its corporation with other companies and the government as well as its greater understanding of its customers, the market trends and the factors that influence its products in the market.

According to the case study, the company changes its products to suit the taste and preference of its customers. This implies that Coca-Cola Company carries out constant market survey that enables it understand the trends in the market as well as the factors that may impact on consumption of its beverage products. This is the reason which made possible for the company to divert its focus from production of carbonated beverages to fruit juice.

It realized that it was bound to lose its market share due to the respiratory infections that had affected Chinese citizens in 2003. The carbon gas from its beverage products was viewed to be a major contribution of that condition. They therefore had to be innovative in order to save its market share from falling.

This means that Coca-Cola does not generalize its customers but does as much as it can to retain its market share across the globe. It employs global-local approach in production that ensures that the taste and preference of all its customers are taken care of. This implies that Coca-Cola has the potential and capacity to develop a unique product for its customers in each region.

The global-local approach has enabled it escape the negative impacts of economic cycles (Perner 2008). It also applies the global-local approach in marketing its products. It ensures that its marketing strategies take into account diversity in the social cultural behavior of various communities. Its commercial advertisements meant for its Chinese customers cover almost all aspect of Chinese cultural festivals.

We will write a custom Essay on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Weisert, (2001) it is the first foreign company to advertise on CCTV. The company has been able to effectively apply its ‘think local, act local’ approach in maintaining its market share in the country. It has been able to successfully balance its localization strategy while maintaining profitable product lines.

Its innovativeness enables it maintain sustainability in the market. Its ability to produce varieties of beverages and creative branding and packaging which match the market trends has enabled it to withstand the unending changes in the consumers’ taste and preference.

The company sells its international known brands such as fanta and coke to its Chinese customers as well as the Diet Coke and Tianyudi (a non-carbonated drink) brands which are also doing fairly well in the market. Its innovativeness enables it beat many beverage companies in the market including new players.

The company understands that taste and preferences are dynamic factors and therefore occasionally introduce a new brand in market after some time. For example, according to the case study, it acquired the Huiyuan Juice Ltd in order to diversify its product portfolio and as a result meet the demands of the various market segments within the country.

According to Weisert (2001) after introducing Tianyudi brand in the market in 1996, it introduced the Xingmu (Smart) brand in the market in 1997. Xingmu was able to outpace Tianyudi in the market since it was a new brand even though it was a carbonated drink.

Perhaps the major social factor that has greatly contributed to the company’s ability to conquer the Chinese market is its corporation with the government and other local companies in joint ventures. In 1970s the company was not allowed to sell its products to Chinese people.

Over time the company has been able to woo the government to allow it to fully operate in China; and today, the company’s products account for about 35% of the country’s carbonated beverages (Weisert 2001). It assisted the government in most of its facilities’ development by providing technical assistance and financial resources.

Most of the company’s bottling facilities are owned on joint venture collaboration with other companies including government agencies. This gives it a local image in the market which in turn gives it a competitive advantage over other companies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Its interaction with the domestic companies and government agencies gives it an advantage in acquiring other firms such Huiyuan Juice Ltd which enables it expand its business operations in the country thereby increasing its revenue generating opportunities. Its collaboration with the government in some of the governments activities also enable it acquire a more local image.

Demographic factors also influence Coca-Cola’s investment in China. The Country has the highest population in the world with the total population being over one billion. Again, China also has one of the largest economies in the world which is estimated to be the second after US.

This has been a major reason as to why Coca-Cola seeks to expand its market share in the country by buying the leading juice producing company in China. It strong economic growth has increased the purchasing power of its population; therefore it is important to produce beverage products that deliver economic values to its customers and attracts the customers more to the company.

Although Coca-Cola Company seems to be enjoying monopoly in beverage production in some countries, it also faces challenges from other companies which are also established and others, upcoming. Pepsi is one such company that challenges Coca-Cola in competing for the market share in America.

The Adidas and Nike companies also compete against each other in order to gain competitive advantage over one another in the market. They are both struggling to come up with new fashions and technologies in sports.

One factor that worries the company’s management is the fickle-mindedness of their Chinese customers. They seem to have a very dynamic taste and preference which only focus on the present trends and not on the long term impacts of brands in the market. This implies that it is difficult to capture their loyalty.

Conclusion Marketing sustainability requires flexible management and innovativeness in order to always match the market trends. International companies need to focus on a global-local approaches that are sensitive to consumers’ taste and preference. This means that business organizations have to put in place measures that enable them acquire an in-depth understanding of consumers’ trends.

Reference List Morrison, M., 2008, Porter’s Five Forces: Competitor Analysis. London: Richard Byrd Company.

Perner, L., 2008, Introduction to Marketing. Los Angeles: University of Southern California

Ries, A,


Techniques Employed by Managers in Ensuring Success of Plans in their Firms Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract


Strategy formation

Strategy evaluation

Project management approach


Works Cited

Abstract The leadership of any organization is always tasked with the responsibility of effecting ventures or projects that are aimed at making their firms grow on various fronts. To achieve this, various resources are at their disposal and what is expected of them is to utilize these resources effectively to attain the set objectives (Blaxill


Pragmatic Development Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature Review


Discussion of Results



Abstract The present study is the actual replication of the study of Chang (2010) on the analysis of developmental pragmatics and evolution of speech acts of L2 learners with the increased proficiency levels in English. The speech act of apology was analyzed with the help of tools and analysis instruments similar to those of Chang (2010), but with the introduction of a new sample of L2 learners with the levels from moderate to proficient.

The purpose of the study was to enlarge the body of knowledge in developmental pragmatics and to investigate the order of linguistic acquisition in combination with the theoretical account of interlanguage pragmatics.

The article specifically deals with the acquisitional pragmatics field, investigating the development of such pragmatic competencies as expressing an apology in the L2 at various proficiency levels. The conclusion reached in the present study is fully consistent with the replicated study of Chang (2010) on the direct impact the increase of linguistic proficiency produces on the speech act competencies and variability.

Introduction The current attention to interlanguage pragmatics results in the necessity to conduct deeper, more grounded and expanded research in the field of language acquisition and pragmatic performance of L2 learners. There is much research being held nowadays in the field of developmental pragmatics, though the field itself is rather young, and findings in the discussed area of scholarly attention are scarce.

There is much incongruence between the actual pragmatic performance and the development of pragmatic competence, as it is discussed from various angles in the currently available studies. Hence, more attention is now paid to the developmental pragmatics as a science able to help unveil the hidden cognitive and learning processes occurring in the L2 learners’ knowledge base during the English language studies.

The most significant findings in the field pertain to the studies of apology, request, and gratitude expression evolution by L2 learners.

However, only students with high proficiency levels have so far been subject to research; different age groups and specific speech acts have to be researched to achieve a much more profound understanding of the evolutionary processes in self-expression and variability of speech acts of L2 learners in the process of language acquisition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present study is the continuation of Chang’s (2010) work on identifying the apology expressions found in the responses of Chinese students.

While the focus of the present study is on the same study design and instruments, it offers a clear step forward in enriching the idea of developmental pragmatics because it intends to provide data on other age groups, enabling the further comparison and generalization of results in communion with the results of Chang (2010).

Literature Review The present study takes the interlanguage pragmatics findings and interlanguage competencies as the theoretical framework for the research.

The works on which the theoretical and practical inferences are based are the one of Cheng (2005) that represents a cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of gratitude speech acts, the study of Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1986) dedicated to the theoretical and applied domains of pragmatic failure, and the work of Cohen (2004) explicitly explaining the subject of developmental pragmatics and pragmatic ability of L2 learners.

Such researchers as Bataller (2010) who investigated the immersion technique as a contributing factor to the development of interlanguage competence, and Trosborg (1987) discovering the importance of sociolinguistic competence in the formatting of communicative appropriateness awareness have also contributed to the theoretical basis of the present research.

The book of Trosborg (1995) on interlanguage competence offered much theoretical material for consideration in the framework of the present research. The scholar decomposed the notion of the communicative competence and outlined the main components contributing to the formation of interlanguage proficiency for L2 learners.

These essential components include the linguistic competence (the mastery of the target language code), the socio-linguistic competence (informing the L2 learner about the socio-cultural rules of the native-speaking society), the socio-pragmatic competence (enabling the L2 learner to assess the appropriateness of contextual meanings), and the strategic competence (helping the speaker to bridge the gaps in language knowledge and fluency by other communicative strategies) (Trosborg, 1995).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Pragmatic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some other findings of Trosborg (1995) are of great value for the whole field of developmental pragmatics research; the author outlines the psycholinguistic competences that enhance the L2 learner’s interlanguage proficiency acquisition, including the knowledge and skills component.

Methods Participants. As the purpose of the present work was not to create a new body of knowledge on the pragmatic development of L2 learners, but to extend the existing body of research on the issue, a group of L2 respondents was chosen for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data for the study.

The present group of 12 students represents a new age category as compared to the study of Chang (2010), thus enabling the comparison of results obtained in the present study with those of the original study’s author. There are various levels of proficiency within the group resulting from various backgrounds of respondents (China, Taiwan etc.) and hours per week previously allocated to the English language studies.

The proficiency of the respondents is from intermediate to advanced (according to the researcher’s estimate), and they represent older ages than the respondents used by Chang (2010) do. The respondent sample is based on Taiwanese and Chinese immigrants to the USA, mostly female (n=11), with only one male.

The respondents have been living and studying English in the USA for a different number of years (from 1 to 22 years), and started studying English at school in their native settings at the age of 10-17 years old. Only one woman reported studying English on her own, at home, from 32 years old; she is 46 years old, which implies that she has been studying English for about 14 years until the moment of the study.

To assess the proficiency levels evident in respondents participating in the present study, one can see the self-reported proficiency levels indicated by them in the questionnaires, systematized according to the respondents and categories of competencies. The figures in the present table should be decoded the following way: 1 – Very poor; 2 – Poor; 3 – Fair; 4 – Functional; 5 – Good; 6 – Very good; 7 – Native-like.

Table 1. Proficiency Levels of Respondents.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Reading proficiency 5 – 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 Writing proficiency 5 – 6 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 Speaking fluency 6 – 6 5 4 4 6 6 5 5 5 7 Listening proficiency 5 – 6 5 6 4 6 5 5 5 5 7 Instrument Design. Since the present study replicates the study of Chang (2010), the instrument design of discourse completion tasks has been borrowed from the original study. The construction of tasks included consideration of participants’ understanding of scenarios and their ability to respond to them adequately.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pragmatic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The scenarios were altered slightly, eliminating the figure of the teacher and substituting it by an abstract high-status partner, either an elderly person or some other respectable acquaintance. However, the four scenarios were generally retained and included bumping into people, losing a borrowed book, being late or rude to someone.

Each scenario was used two times, with one variant including the peer relationship of a student to another student, and the second variant containing the student – high-status person relationship. Description of context is provided to each scenario, with the opportunity to give the answers to open-ended role-play questions. The unified set of scenarios applied in the present work may be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Scenarios for the discourse completion task questionnaire.

Item Speaker-Hearer Apology Situation 1 Student-co-worker You lost a book that you borrowed from a co-worker. 2 Student-supervisor You lost some paperwork that you should submit to your supervisor. 3 Student-supervisor You complained to your co-worker about your supervisor being very demanding. The moment you finished complaining, you found that your supervisor has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 4 Student-friend You complained to your friend about another friend – Judy’s English being very poor. The moment you finished complaining, you found that Judy has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 5 Student-co-worker You were one hour late for a scheduled meeting with your co-workers. 6 Student-friend You were one hour late for a planned get-together with some friends. 7 Student-high-status person You bumped into an elderly person on the street and he/she fell down. 8 Student-friend You bumped into a close friend and he/she fell down. Data Collection. The method of data collection was chosen similarly to the one of Chang (2010) – it is the discourse completion task questionnaire (DCT). The DCT is still seen as the most effective tool for the students to produce an L2 apology reflecting their linguistic proficiency, and for teachers to investigate the pragmatic competency in L2 apology.

The DCT also involves written replies, which adds material for consideration in the process of data analysis, driving some competence conclusions from the given replies and grammar, spelling and other mistakes students may make.

The first stage of the DCT questionnaire fulfillment included the completion of the form with biographical data pertaining to the study; the students were to indicate the country of their birth, the period of studying English both at home and in the USA, and finally they had to state by which means they thought the prime portion of language acquisition occurred in their life.

The second portion of data they needed to provide was their self-assessment on four competencies, including writing proficiency, speaking fluency, listening and reading proficiency as well.

The DCT for the present study was distributed to participants asked to write down that they would respond in English to eight role-play situations. Similarly to Chang (2010), no rejoinder was available for the students. The percentage of replies equals 100%, expect the second respondent who did not indicate her proficiency levels in the studied competencies.

Data Analysis. The theoretical findings on analyzing the speech act of apology were used to generate the coding scheme for analysis; Chang (2010) consulted a professional in the sphere of coding, thus ensuring the unified coding scheme for speech act evaluation, and ensured the reliability rate of 91%.

The discussed coding scheme completely fits the requirements of the present study replicating the one of Change (2010), therefore the same coding scheme will be used; it may be seen in Table 3.

Table 3. The Coding Scheme of Apology Strategies of the present study.

Source: from Chang (2010), p. 413.

Upon coding the data, the researcher intended to conduct similar analysis procedures as those ones applied by Chang (2010) – the frequency of apology strategies usage, and the content of strategies used by respondents. To assist the first data analysis task, all apology strategies were grouped into ‘IFID’ and ‘Adjunct’ categories, according to the pattern utilized by Rose (2000).

Frequency of each strategy’s usage was calculated on the background of the whole number of strategies used by all respondents in all situations. Secondly, the frequency of each strategy’s occurrence in the responses of each participant was counted to identify the most frequent and widespread apologies.

Finally, the number of apologies used as well as the number of strategies used in general by category was calculated to generate a rating scale of popularity and usage of certain apology strategies by the indicated group of respondents.

To answer the second question, the researcher needed to assess the order of each strategy’s usage in certain proposed scenarios. In this case, each scenario was researched for the number of various strategies applied by respondents, with the proper summary of the results on the expansion of apology repertoire with the growing proficiency level.

It was necessary to disregard the contextual requirements of the scenario offered for the sake of answering the present research question.

Therefore, ignoring the situational context, the variety of strategies was arrived at by using two means also borrowed from the study of Rose (2000) – first of all, the usage of each certain apology was counted across all eight scenarios, with the proper rating scale generation to see the emergence of each strategy in the whole questionnaire context.

Secondly, the occurrence of each particular strategy was assessed in each separate scenario, to investigate the patterns of occurrences and to produce relevant inferences on apology usage aimed in the present study.

Discussion of Results Frequency of apology strategies. As it has already been mentioned, the approach generated by Rose (2000) and borrowed by Chang (2010) is also applicable for the present study; the apology strategies were broadly divided into two categories, IFIDs and adjuncts, to calculate and compare their usage in all scenarios disregarding the context.

The analysis of coded qualitative data showed that the number of IFIDs used is really high (66; 28.4%) as compared to any other apology used. However, it is also evident that adjuncts are used by the present group of respondents are also varied, and they are utilized in multiple contexts, with the most popular ones being the intensifier, repair offering, and concern (13.3%, 12% and 10.4% respectively).

This finding supports the conclusion of Chang (2010) that students with higher proficiency levels employ many more adjuncts in their expression of an apology than smaller children and people with lower proficiency levels do. It is hard to say whether the usage of the discussed adjuncts is influenced by the contextual specificity of scenarios, since no tendency of such kind could be observed, as one can see in Table 4.

Table 4 also shows the distribution of each strategy in each given scenario, giving the figures from 6 to 12 strategies applied in each scenario. The figures 6 and 7 prevail in the majority of scenarios, leaving only scenarios 4 and 5 with the largest number of apologies invented by the respondents.

Scenario 6 shows the implementation of 8 various strategies, which implies that it is the third most diverse situation for respondents to make an apology.

Though the results are not the direct breakthrough in the number of apologies investigated by Chang (2010) and showing that high school students gave from 8 to 14 different apologies in each scenario as compared to schoolchildren of the 3rd grade who stopped at 8 strategies in scenario 8 being the most diverse in responses, it is still clear that the evolution of apology implementation is in place.

The present finding may be derived from the fact that the respondents with higher proficiency levels managed to use from 3 to 5 strategies to respond to each scenario, which implies a certain measure of progress in self-expression.

However, as it has already been mentioned, the IFID type of apology has been detected as the most frequently emerging reaction, which is consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that IFIDs were dominant in all grades researched, and were used indiscriminately often by representatives of each focus group.

The fact that they are common for all groups investigated by Chang (2010 and in the present study presupposes the universality and the first apology coming to mind to all L2 learners (which is also natural for native speakers as well).

However, the correlation of the 1st IFID “I am sorry” or “Sorry” met 63 times in the responses with only 3 occurrences of the 2nd IFID “Please forgive me” also draws a parallel with the former research of Chang (2010) indicating it to be rare and practically non-occurring in the written and oral practice.

Table 4. Comparison of the use of apology strategies in eight scenarios.

Reaction/ Strategy Scenario1 Sc.2 Sc.3 Sc.4 Sc.5 Sc.6 Sc.7 Sc.8 Total IFID Regret/ Apology 8 6 5 7 10 9 9 9 63 Forgiveness 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 Admission of fact 9 6 0 0 0 2 0 0 17 Blame 4 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 10 Lack of Intent 0 0 2 3 1 0 2 2 10 Acknowledgment 0 1 2 3 3 2 0 0 11 Intensifier 8 4 0 1 4 3 6 6 32 Repair 10 10 2 1 1 3 2 0 29 Forbearance 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Concern 0 0 1 2 2 0 10 10 25 Explanation 0 1 2 1 1 7 0 2 14 Minimize 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 7 Justification 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 2 10 Alerter 0 2 2 2 2 0 1 0 9 Total no. of strat. 41/6 32/7 18/9 27/12 30/11 30/8 31/7 32/7 241 Proceeding to the discussion of adjuncts, one has to note that they are surely both proficiency and situational, since the inventory of apologies used in the scenarios 7 and 8, as compared to the scenarios 1 and 2, will be completely different for all group members disregarding their proficiency level.

Thus, for example, the most commonly met strategy for the scenario 7 and 8 is concern for the bumped person, with the majority of respondents showing equal concern for the elderly person and the close friend. The present study provides further evidence of this fact because it shows the incidence of concern apologies usage the highest in the 7th and 8th scenarios (10 times in each).

Sub-strategies of ‘admission of the fact’ and ‘lack of intent’ were commonly used in the scenarios 1 and 2, which is also consistent with the findings of Chang (2010).

The figures 10 and 11 for acknowledgement and lack of intent apologies respectively show that the respondents from the present respondents’ group applied the apology revealing their responsibility for the incident practically in every situation, though not every respondent did that.

Intensifier being on the second place after apology and regret shows that the higher proficiency level group often adds intensifiers to the apologies voiced, which is fully consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that the increase of intensifier usage was observed only with higher grades of respondents, being totally unpopular with the 3rd grade students, and being much more common in the 10th grade.

Table 5. The comparison of respondents’ usage of various apology strategies.

Reaction/ strategy R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 R 6 R 7 R 8 R 9 R 10 R 11 R 12 IFID Regret/ Apology 0 6 8 5 4 3 7 7 8 7 6 2 Forgiveness 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Admission of fact 1 2 2 0 1 6 2 3 0 0 4 3 Blame 2 0 3 0 2 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 Lack of Intent 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 Acknowledgment 1 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 Intensifier 2 1 5 4 2 1 2 4 3 5 2 1 Repair 0 2 1 2 3 2 3 6 3 4 2 2 Forbearance 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Concern 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 Explanation 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 0 1 Minimize 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Justification 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 1 0 Alerter 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Total no. of strat. 12/8 18/8 33/11 16/7 16/8 24/12 23/9 31/9 21/7 21/6 19/7 13/8 The content of the apology strategies. Proceeding to the discussion of the apology content, one needs to note that the regret-apology forms were mostly used in 90% of situations first, then followed by other categories of apologies; they were used in the forms “Sorry”, “I am sorry”, “I am so sorry”, and “I am very sorry”.

The phrase “I apologize” was met only twice, which implies the indisputable popularity of “sorry” and its derivatives in voicing an apology. No misinterpretations were noted in the responses of the discussed sample, with no usage of ‘excuse me’ phrase in the described scenarios.

The strategy of ‘admission of the fact’ is used more often in all scenarios by the present group of respondents, which supports the hypothesis of Chang (2010) on the evolutionary usage of apology forms by students with higher proficiency levels.

As a matter of fact, admission of the fact is recognized as a more complex form of an apology, hence its more frequent usage supports the idea of the findings arrived at in the present group being a logical support and continuation of Chang’s (2010) research.

The ‘lack of intent’ strategy was also used predominantly in the scenarios 1 and 2, as well as 7 and 8. The overwhelming incidence of that strategy’s correct usage supports the idea of the developmental patterns of apology as a speech act of L2 learners.

Table 6. Frequency of apologies implemented by respondents in all scenarios.

Regret/apology 26.14% Intensifier 13.3% Repair 12% Concern 10.4% Admission of fact 6.27% Explanation 5.8% Acknowledgement 4.56% Blame 4.15% Lack of intent 4.15% Justification 4.15% The innovative apology tool of older groups – emergence of avoidance strategies. The present study revealed an interesting tendency in the responses of the present sample that had not been previously investigated by other researchers. While no rejoinder was available for the usage in the DCT questionnaire generated for the present study, no deviations from the coding scheme were expected.

However, the incidence of avoidance strategies was viewed in several scenarios applied by 3 respondents. One of the respondents reacted the following way to the scenario 4, when the friend of hers heard her complaining about the poor English she had: “Sorry, I have to go”.

It is a clear avoidance of the need to give apologies. Another situation was observed in the scenario 8: “Oh, I am so happy to see you that I bumped you. We have to see each other more often!”. It is the strategy of turning the offence into a humorous situation and avoiding saying anything similar to an apology.

Scenario 4 also showed several responses similar to assuming that the friend Judy did not understand any of the complaints because her English was really bad, which means that no fault in the situation was detected by respondents.

Avoidance of complaints is also widely spread in scenarios 5 and 6, where the respondents voiced their hope that nobody had noticed their absence and lateness. 3 respondents stated that in case nobody asked them about lateness, they would just join in and say nothing.

Such absence of the wish to apologize may be presupposed by the age of respondents, experience in life and the unwillingness to pose themselves in a weaker position by searching explanations, justifications, and offering repairs.

However, another most common strategy used in the same scenario was offering to pay the bill, without even mentioning an apology, which notes the practical attitude to lateness, and the wish to compensate the fault with food and drinks, and not an apology for the offense and lack of respect.

Conclusion The present study represents the continuation of research in the field of L2 learners’ communicative competency development research on the example of the speech act of apology.

The findings refer to the developmental processes in the apology reflection field of Taiwanese and Chinese L2 learners of moderate to high proficiency levels, and contribute to the findings of Chang (2010) on the expansion and variability of apology strategies applied by various proficiency groups of L2 learners.

The study was based on the written DCT data collected from L2 learners in the classroom, taking a step forward in the interlanguage pragmatic development research. The discussion of results obtained in the course of the present study indicates that students extend and enrich their apology strategies, use more complex strategies more readily in various scenarios with the higher proficiency levels of English knowledge.

However, the research produced seems rather isolated from the common body of research in the developmental pragmatics, as the necessity to introduce the longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in a combination was repeatedly indicated by researchers and practitioners of the field.

Lack of the ability to compare the L2 data with a similar sample of L1 speakers represents the major limitation of the research, thus preventing it from generalizations. Context specificity research is also potentially beneficial for acquiring better understanding of the internal incentives of L2 learners to choose the apology strategies, so it has to be attributed more attention in the future research.

References Bataller, R. (2010). Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 43, Iss. 1, pp. 160–175.

Blum-Kulka, S., Olshtain, E. (1986). Too many words: length of utterance and pragmatic failure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 8, 165–180.

Chang, Y.- F. (2010). ‘I no say you say is boring’: the development of pragmatic competence in L2 apology. Language Sciences, no. 32, pp. 408–424.

Cheng, S.W. (2005). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. PhD Diss., University of Iowa. Retrieved from

Cohen, A.D. (2004). The interface between interlanguage pragmatics and assessment. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference. May 22-23, 2004. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Keizai University.

Rose, K. (2000). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 22, pp. 27–67.

Trosborg, A. (1987). Apology strategies in natives/non-natives. Journal of Pragmatics , no. 1, pp. 147–167.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.


Literacy Linguistic Usage Qualitative Research Essay online essay help: online essay help

The concept of language is a complex one; it has been long ago discovered to be not isolated from the communicative situations and individual differences of speakers. The linguistic discourse has hence become a subject of close scrutiny, and the socio-cultural, individual, institutional and other implications of language usage have come to the forefront of scientific attention.

The connection of language, identity, and social practices of individuals has to be studied in the whole complicity of their revelations in the overall discursive essence.

There is much empirical evidence nowadays on how identity is reflected through language, and on the ways language becomes and indispensible part of the human social practices and experiences. There are also findings on how the connection between language and identity can be used to enhance language learning and acquiring linguistic proficiency.

The article of Joseph (2006) summarizes the main ideas of how language has become a useful tool in both expressing one’s identity and evaluating the identities of other people on the basis of their language usage peculiarities.

Joseph (2006) emphasizes the fact that language is now used more in the function of representation than communication, and that the transformation derives from the cultural and individual diversity of speakers evident nowadays.

One more useful finding of Joseph (2006) is that the conventional vision of realization of only national identity in language is now actively debated because of the need to take into consideration the individual contribution every person makes into the linguistic usage and identity formation as well as realization through linguistic means.

The opinion about language representing identity in action is shared by Lane (2009); the researcher has made this conclusion based on the results of the survey conducted with two immigrant Finnish groups residing on the territory of Canada.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their national identities reflected through language turned out identical, but the social practices they implied by language usage differed substantially, thus making them distinct. Therefore, individual identity becomes a significant component of linguistic usage patterns and is reflected though symbolic attributes in linguistic practices worldwide.

Language is also based on identity realization through the individual practices and experiences, both within the language learning and usage framework and beyond it. This point can be well illustrated by the work of Darville (2009) proving that true literacy in language learning can be acquired only in case when learned items can be tied to the learners’ real life experience.

It means that literacy should be perceived as practice, with the language representing a social construct that is exercised in the context of learners’ lives, perceptions, opinions and feelings (Darville, 2009).

Another finding in the field of tying the learning process to the students’ identity is provided by Hamilton (2009) – the author investigates the role of individual educational plans, and the role of teacher as a mediator formulating the plan according to the students’ educational needs, ambitions, and state requirements.

Another powerful work on the significance of identity considerations in language studies has been provided by Atwood (2007) – it is an account of the Nunavit training camp in which Indigenous women were taught their ethnicity, traditions, customs and crafts. At the same time, they were taught literacy, which was hard for teachers because of lack of self-esteem and understanding of the literacy’s importance for Nunavit women.

It became possible to engage the camp participants in learning to write and read only when the parallel between their customs and literacy was drawn, making them realize the power knowledge could give them (Atwood, 2007).

The author finally makes a conclusion that identity is a part of people that defines their paths, and the Nunavit historical context of oppression and traumatic educational experiences are also barriers in learning hard to overcome within knowing the history of each particular group.

We will write a custom Essay on Literacy Linguistic Usage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, it is vital to apply the findings on the relationships between language and identity in the practical sphere of learning and teaching languages.

The serious step forward was made by Fairbairn and Fox (2009) who outlined the major barriers in studying English for immigrants and non-citizens in Canada and the USA, and marked the regressive attitude towards their cultural, social and individual identity taken by the North American governments.

Their account shows how seriously the distinction in understanding and learning English is revealed by immigrants becoming victims of standardized and unified principles of learning and assessment.

The set of key changes needed to restore the adequate access to English learning for non-English speakers is provided on the basis of identity, social background, and individual peculiarities’ considerations. This account proves that identity reveals itself in speaking one’s native language, and at the same time in learning a foreign language as well.

The topic of learning a language being indisputably connected with social practices is pursued by Alderson (2006) in his overview of the diagnostic testing type and its role in the adequate language testing.

The author makes the specific emphasis on the fields of knowledge tested by diagnostic and other tests, making a conclusion that the diagnostic test is of particular importance in language testing, providing the framework for assessment of the way students may apply their language knowledge, their reflection of knowledge obtained etc.

Because of the long time it takes to take the test, and lack of facilities for testing at educational establishments, the diagnostic test is not popular with teachers; however, it possesses the highest potential in multi-faceted testing and adequate assessment of knowledge farther from the formalistic, unified testing types that do not reveal the true knowledge of students.

Drawing a conclusion from the present set of articles, one has to note the close, organic relationship existing between human identity, experience and language (often realized through human literacy).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Literacy Linguistic Usage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On finding out that relationship, researchers and practitioners in the field of linguistics have obtained a set of tools to assess the impact of identity on language usage, to identify the most constructive experience-based methods of learning and assessment.

In addition, nowadays literacy linguistic usage are obtaining social significance, so the application of various communicative means as well as their choice by speakers may add much useful data for the applied linguistic research, and enrich the modern vision about the discussed relationship and its causes.

References Alderson, J.C. (2006). Diagnosing Foreign Language Proficiency: the Interface between Assessment and Learning. London (UK): Continuum.

Atwood, M. (2007). The Alphabet of Hope. Writers for Literacy. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Darville, R. (2009). Literacy as practices, teaching as alignment: A message in a bottle. Literacies, No. 10, pp. 14-18.

Fairbairn, S.B.,


Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free

The number of theories considering the teamwork of a teacher and a student is really uncountable. Thus, the approaches that have been used so far can hardly be calculated. Still the process of learning is far not that effective as it is desired to be. That is what has made Paul Greenbank consider the ways of improving it once again.

After conducting a research in this field, the author has come to the conclusion that this method of organizing cooperation between a teacher and a student has its certain advantages that not all people know about and that makes them withdraw from using this method in their practice.

As Greenbank proceeds with his conclusions concerning the given method of working in a team, it becomes clear that the suggested way of teaching can be an actual way out of the situation when neither the student has will to study, nor the teacher has the wish to teach.

Indeed, the mutual interest in the study can improve the situation much, and the eagerness of the teacher can balance the unwillingness of the student, so this is what could make the fairy tale of a student studying the given material with a heavy interest or at least without showing his disgust.

The collaborative method of research is the road paced together, a teacher guiding his student and correcting his mistakes, and encouraging him to go on further and continue the progress made (O’Doherty, 2008).

This sounds like a dream that we have never had in our lives but the future generation might, and making the educational committee work in the direction of approving the idea of collaborative research as the basis for education can be a goal to strive for.

However, it is far not that easy as it might sound, Greenbank warns. The research of his (which, in fact, was not collaborative), shows a thorough work on the topic, and the results that he has drawn up are far from being satisfying. It has turned out that the method works right only with those students who are initially aimed at serious and fruitful work, the students who are resourceful enough and ready to work on their own as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is, such method of organizing work will not be efficient in case the students are not willing to make their contribution as well. In such a case, it would be a mere one-man-show where the teacher would be the researcher, the guide and the editor at once.

This very moment has driven Greenbank to make sure if the results of the research conducted in such a way are good enough.

As it turned out, the method works only with the students of a particular temper. These are the people who, once starting the task, are bound to take it to the very end and find the solution whatever it might take. In this case the teacher plays his part of a spectator and a guide that can be of some help at the particular moments when the student is confused about the further actions.

If the student’s character does not feature the qualities in question, and the temperament that provides them is the sanguine one, the research is doomed to a failure.

However sad it might sound, it seems that the mankind, or at least its studying part, is not yet quite ready for such experiments.

Meanwhile, most of senior schools and higher educational establishments have been practicing the given method for quite long, and the generations of students brought up on the basis of the collaboration with the teacher have transformed into diligent and creative workers who have achieved certain success in their fields.

The question of whether such way of conducting research is reasonable remains open. Still it seems to me that we are not developed enough to level the student and the teacher.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This might be achieved further on, as the students get used to the idea of getting necessary knowledge on their own, the teacher being simply a guide and a consultant on their way to the cognition. But nowadays that sounds far too idealistic and driven too far from the facts of the reality.

Maintaining the notorious momentum that has been spoken for so long and so much about (Harris, 2007) only works right as long as you have this very momentum, as long as you feel the feedback. In this case, the work can be handled within a minimum amount of time. However, it takes too many qualities combined to be able to achieve this very momentum and to get it to the full spin.

Just consider the following: to be able to work on this very level a student must be organized, creative (the given two already pose a contradiction to each other!) and resourceful. The student must be able to concentrate on the subject as fully as the teacher does, moreover, he has to be just indulged into the process as the teacher is, otherwise it would be a mutual torment.

To sum up, Paul Greenbank has the point discussing the drawbacks of the new method of conducting researches. It might look like a good idea for teachers, but the students might simply not be ready to address to the teacher as to a peer in a research.

However, the possible way out could be not changing the structure of education, but trying to bring up a child so that he or she could possess the wanted qualities. Being resourceful and responsible is not reaching for the stars, actually. The idea is that we still have a long way to go to improve our selves and change our ways of cognizing the world.

Reference List Harris, T. (2007) Collaborative Research and Development Projects. Heidelberg, Berlin: Spindler Verlag. Print.

O’Doherty, E. (2008) Education in a Changing Environment: Conference Book. Vol.4. New York, NY: Informing Science. Print


High School Bullying Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction High school bullying manifests in more ways than one. It may be perpetrated through emotional, verbal, or physical abuse. Basically, those who bully their fellow students exert some level of subtle coercion on their subjects and do it repeatedly such that they dominate their subjects in a social or physical manner (Levinson, 2002, p. 1).

Bullying is usually outlawed and discouraged in many schools in the United Kingdom (UK) but currently the country does not have any clear legal definition of the term (Oliver, 2003). However, other countries such as the United States (US) have a clear-cut definition of bullying and those proved to have committed the act usually face legal action at a school or state level.

High school bullying normally takes the form of group or individual domination over vulnerable targets and usually involves the witnessing of unfair acts by bystanders who most often condone such actions so that they do not become the next victims (Swearer, 2009, p. 4). Nonetheless, USA Today reports that:

“school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do, and may even derive enjoyment from it, and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if brings them joy on some level” (p. 5).

This complicates efforts to tackle high school bullying because some students often see it as a normal occurrence and therefore do not collaborate or take part in initiatives to curb the vice.

It becomes extremely surprising that bullying is not only perpetrated by fellow students but by teachers as well. This often occurs because of the imbalance of power between students and teachers that which leaves room for subtle coercion from the teachers (Swanwick, 2010, p. 349).

This study further exposes this topic but with the assertion that bullying can only be stopped if student cooperation is fostered and if moderators are introduced into the school system so that dispute resolution can be easily enhanced. This study will however accomplish these goals in a professional context such that the contents of this study can be considered for publication in a professional journal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering this unique goal, we will establish the professional journal to be considered and why it is appropriate for this study. Emphasis will also be made on the kind of audience to read this article because the contents of this study need to be at par with other similar articles in the journal to be selected. This therefore means that this article will be developed in close similarity to the similar articles in the selected journal.

To achieve a precise outcome, we will evaluate some of the existing articles in the selected journal to establish the development criteria for preferred articles. Lastly, we will also evaluate the author guidelines in the selected journal and in so doing; we will develop a list of guidelines that outlines this study.

Journal Selection The Journal of human behavior in the social sciences will be the journal of choice for this study. Considering the nature of bullying as largely a social issue, this journal will best accommodate such a problem because it seeks to analyze developing issues relating to human behavior at all cognitive levels (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Moreover, the journal will provide an outlet where other schools can learn about the underlying human/ student behavior issues that dictate or necessitate bullying in the first place. In detail, the journal analyzes the complexities associated with social work and even categorizes the different levels characterizing human relationships in a social environment (which can be easily compared to a school scenario).

The journal of human behavior encompasses up to date research on human behavior and incorporates only groundbreaking studies based on empirical evidences or theories which dictate human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

The journal also explains the complexities of human behavior in a conceptual and empirical basis through the outline of existing study frameworks explaining human behavior. Articles are therefore initially descriptive in nature and then later diagnose and predict human behavior with the provision of possible explanations to human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Authors’ Guidelines For consideration by Taylor and Francis (the primary publishing house for the Journal of human behavior), a number of guidelines ought to be adhered to by all authors for their manuscripts to be considered for publication. Firstly, authors should present an unbiased work where certain social parameters like age, race, culture, sex and the likes are offered a significant degree of consideration (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on High School Bullying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The final work should therefore be purely based on merit. Secondly, all developed works ought to be developed in an efficient manner and also submitted in good time and in the best possible quality (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Thirdly, editors are at liberty to reject a given piece of work based on personal discretion.

However, in certain cases, the editor is also at liberty to consult with other stakeholders for a second opinion before a decision for consideration or rejection of manuscript is made (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Fourth, the peer review process done to all research articles should be done with a high degree of confidentiality and lastly, all manner of conflict of interest should be exposed before consideration for publication (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Article Review and Target Audience An article titled “Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work” by Gosallie Pockett, cited in the Journal of Human behavior sets precedence for this study’s article because it explains the Australian education system that fosters cooperation between students and external social agents in creating a good learning environment for Australian universities.

The article identifies the importance of teamwork and its impact on socialization and acculturation of students in Australian universities. The article also further goes on to indicate where professional standards can be emphasized to increase collaboration and improve teamwork among students; more like what is needed to eliminate bullying in high schools.

This article will therefore be largely similar to the article about high school bullying (to be developed in this study) because it will outline specific areas where professionals in the education sector can consider in eliminating high school bullying (Taylor and Francis, 2010, p. 1).

The target audiences for articles from the Journal of human behavior are majorly social workers and policy makers. Teachers and other educational stakeholders fall into this category and are therefore suited as a good audience for this journal because they deal with a high number of students with variable personalities in a social set up (school) (Routledge, 2010, p. 1).

Professional Paper High School Bullying

Bullying has become a key concern in the public sector for decades now. There have been increased concerns from obvious quarters such as the general public and educational professionals of high school bullying; specifically because it affects the emotional well-being of students and the academic development of victims/perpetrators (Vernberg, 2010, p. 2).

In a study done on primary and high school students in the UK, it was established that about half of all primary school pupils and 54% of all high school students sampled, thought that bullying was a big problem for the British system of education (Sehgal, 2010, p. 3).

Not sure if you can write a paper on High School Bullying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In related research, it was reported that about 60% of all students sampled thought their school was on the right track in tackling bullying but the rest thought that their schools either neglected or was on the wrong path towards eliminating bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 2). Other studies report that some teachers are better at dealing with the problem than others (Oliver, 2003, p. 2).

This especially manifests through the way teachers listen to their students because some are good at it while others are not (Savage, 2009, p. 238). In addition to policy development, many educational professionals, teachers and parents alike have sat down in various school committees to come out with viable solutions to the ever-present problem of child bullying in high schools (Anderson, 2010, p. 3).

The government has also been on the forefront in coming up with viable programs such as Bullying: Do not suffer in silence and anti-bullying policies (Thompson, 2002, p. 115). However, the biggest problem even in the development of anti-bullying policies and programs is the neglect of student views. This deficiency has therefore left a gap in the understanding of high school bullying.

Contextual Analysis

A study done by Child line international (a non-governmental organization group dealing with youngster issues) identifies that bullying manifests itself in various forms. Its manifestation was however representative of power imbalances between students which leads to situations of vulnerability and inequality among students (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).

Some social parameters were also identified as elements that dictated the level of student vulnerability such as physical appearance, race and such like variables (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).

The most common type of bullying identified the world over is name calling (Oliver, 2003, p. 3). Contrary to common belief, physical aggression does not stand out as much as verbal abuse. Verbal abuse currently manifests itself in various forms like the common habit of students spreading rumors or gossip about other children. However, this type of bullying normally goes on among students of lower forms (Shore, 2006, p. 3).

Physical aggression and name-calling is however more observed among older students.

A small number of students usually report certain types of bullying on the lines of racial or sexist comments but equally small minorities of students in lower forms are usually more engaged in name-calling, on the lines of sexual preferences; like gays are normally called derogative names because of their sexual orientation (Macklem, 2003, p. 45).

However, the level of bullying in such manner varies across the type of school, culture or setting involved. On gender grounds, recent research affirms that girls are equally vulnerable to bullying as boys but the nature of bullying varies across the gender divide (Sanders, 2004, p. 78).

In this manner, it has been affirmed that boys are usually more prone to physical abuse than girls but girls are more prone to bullying on sexual grounds than boys; with many girls purporting that they have often been inappropriately touched in a sexual manner (Geffner, 2001, p. 66).

Responding to Bullying

A significant number of schools are noted to ineffectively respond to bullying incidences, majorly because they adopt one-off initiatives as opposed to undertaking long-lasting relationships through influencing ongoing programs (Davis, 2007, p. 3).

A good initiative among school management is through appointing anti-bullying counselors or assigning different responsibilities to different individuals regarding the type of role to play in eradicating bullying in high schools.

Key concerns in the responsiveness of schools to bullying, rests on the approach teachers take in listening to student concerns (Oliver, 2003, p. 4). Good teachers are noted to express some degree of empathy in addition to dealing appropriately with student concerns.

Conversely, schools which have been identified to have a poor record at dealing with bullying are observed to deal with the problem majorly at assembly grounds and in school councils, in addition to taking student concerns lightly without first listening to the students.

The emphasis on teachers is especially important because most students express the fact that teachers often have a huge responsibility of presenting themselves as good examples to which students can emulate and confide in (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). Teachers can therefore respond better to bullying by setting a good example to the students.

Effective Responses to Bullying

In trying to establish the most preferred strategies to eradicate bullying from the students’ points of view, cultivation of friendships, avoidance, and taking matters into ones own hands are important strategies that can be used. These strategies are further analyzed below:

Standing up for Oneself

In a research study done to analyze the effectiveness of talking back to a bully, more than half of the young students sampled thought it was more effective for victims to talk back or be assertive to bullies (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). The most common type of assertion was verbal assertiveness.

This kind of strategy was deemed effective because it broke the continuous cycle of bullying where students were constantly targeted by certain individuals because of their vulnerability. In so doing, it was established that talking back in an assertive manner was likely to reduce the appropriate profiling of victims by a potential bully.

However, some observers point out that adopting such a strategy is likely to leave the victim vulnerable to more instances of bullying; especially involving physical harm (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). A large number of identified students almost entirely think such a strategy is fully practical.


Ignoring a bully is expected to work because of the dynamism of human behavior identified among bullies. In detail, this strategy is expected to work because the primary intention of bullies on their victims is to make them angry and reactive.

If a victim doesn’t express anger, the bully is likely to experience some level of dissatisfaction, which may potentially break the cycle of bullying. Nonetheless, it has been established that this strategy has its potential weaknesses because in extreme cases, a bully may go to extreme levels to seek a response from his/her victim by committing a grave act to the victims.

Victims therefore run the risk of experiencing worse types of bullinf if they ignore the bully in the first place. However, this strategy is expected to work because of the psychological satisfaction associated with bullies when they bully their fellow students.

For instance in name calling, a bully gets more satisfaction by watching the victim get mad bout it but if such a reaction is absent, it potentially becomes dissatisfying on the part of the bully if the victim becomes blind to such provocations.

Hitting Back

Unlike earlier forms of strategies identified in this strategy, a significant number of students believe that standing up to a bully by hitting them back is a good strategy to end the endless cycle of bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

More specifically, students believe that hitting a bully back in the case of physical bullying or talking back in the case of verbal or emotional bullying is likely to deter bullies from further causing harm on the victims. This kind of sentiment is especially harbored among older students than in younger students (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Learning martial arts as a self defense mechanism is the number one strategy identified by students as the most appropriate form of self-defense against bullies. However, on a short-term basis, reacting to a bully in an unregulated manner is likely to deter a bully from further inflicting harm to a victim. Learning martial arts like karate, or self-defense tactics is therefore a long-term strategy in reducing the risk of bullying.

Nonetheless, this strategy enjoys varied support across gender lines because girls don’t give much support to it when compared to boys (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). Instead, girls, prefer a milder kind of strategy in tackling bullying.

This observation is almost replicated along racial lines because Asian and black children are normally observed to support the “violence with violence” strategy as a way to reduce the risk of bullying when compared to their white counterparts (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Some parents also support this strategy especially if they believe their children are not in a position to prevent instances of bullying or when school officials have neglected the issue altogether (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

However, this strategy has its potential weaknesses just like the above-mentioned strategies because victims often risk suffering the risk of more violent attacks from bullies who are more determined to instill their superiority on their subjects.

Talking to Someone

Many students find it easy to talk to a friend when they are experiencing bullying from fellow students. However, it is established that students in lower forms are likely to talk to their mothers instead of fellow classmates or friends.

This fact has an implication on the type of policies or programs to be developed to curb bullying because policies and programs built around friendship networks are likely to be more effective than those built around other parameters such as teacher-student relationships (Smith, 2003, p. 165).

It is therefore established that if students have a strong network of friends, they are likely to wade off bullying tendencies much easier than students who don’t have the protection of such networks.

Friendship networks do not only provide a safeguard against bullying but also help victims cope better with bullying. In fact, there have been reports where students often don’t know how to cope with bullying and then end up taking their own life (Osborne, 2001, p. 1).

These are the kind of students who don’t share strong friendship networks because they lack the moral support from external parties (Garrett, 2003, p. 138). Friends have therefore been identified as the most important link to the success of anti-bullying campaigns because they are usually in a position to witness bullying in and out of the school.

In this context therefore, friends are better placed than adults and teachers in tackling bullying because they can provide the necessary support when needed. Moreover, students normally cite friends as easier to talk to when it comes to speaking out against bullying.

Some friends have even been identified to stand up to certain bullies on behalf of their friends and protect them from violent attacks. However, the biggest problem with involving friends is that they can be picked on by the same bullies when they stand up for their friends.

Seeking External Help

When students are faced with compromising situations or when they feel that they have no other alternative to dealing with bullies, external help from agencies like the police, or child services should be sought.

In as much as these agencies give the necessary help, some students often cite certain concerns with approaching agencies like child line because they may not really understand the kind of bullying they are going through in the local context.

The police have also been identified as a bureaucratic institution because students cite concerns such as going to court or the fact that the police would have to bypass parent involvement in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Nonetheless, student counselors are a better pick than the police or child line services because they are better placed to understand bullying in the local context and can therefore give the necessary advice in tackling the problem.

The UK Child mental service has also been cited by many students as one of the most effective agencies in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). These external agencies provide professional help for helpless victims of bullying.

Conclusion It is clearly evident that before any agency decides to tackle the problem of bullying, they ought to understand the fact that students often engage in a process of risk analysis before they report bullying instances in their schools. However, there are no clear-cut solutions to the said problem because human behavior is largely unpredictable and different solutions normally work in different contexts.

This study has analyzed and provided remedies to the problem from a student point of view with the aim of representing what may actually work on the part of students (who are both the victims and the bullies). Collectively, this study points out that anti-bullying policies and programs may fail to materialize if they fail to acknowledge the intrigues that happen in the students’ social world.

In this manner, it is important that all stakeholders involved in tackling high school bullying engage the process from the “bottom-up” approach instead of the “top-down” approach. Moreover, students should be involved in every step of the policy making process because they offer the key to the sustainability of such initiatives.

References Anderson, J. (2010). How to Stop Middle and High School Bullying. Web.

Davis, S. (2007). Schools Where Everyone Belongs: Practical Strategies for Reducing Bullying. London: Research Press.

Garrett, A. G. (2003). Bullying In American Schools: Causes, Preventions, Interventions. New York: McFarland.

Geffner, R. (2001). Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions. London: Routledge.

Levinson, D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. London: Sage.

Macklem, G. L. (2003). Bullying and Teasing: Social Power in Children’s Groups. New York: Springer.

Oliver, C. (2003). Tackling Bullying. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit.

Osborne, E. (2001). Citizenship and PSHE. London: Folens Limited.

Routlege. (2010). Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Web.

Sanders, C. E. (2004). Bullying: Implications for the Classroom. New Jersey: Academic Press.

Savage, T. V. (2009). Successful Classroom Management and Discipline: Teaching Self-Control and Responsibility. London: SAGE.

Sehgal, N. (2010). 50% High School Students Admit Bullying in Last Year’s Survey. Web.

Shore, K. (2006). The ABC’s of Bullying Prevention: A Comprehensive Schoolwide Approach. London: NPR Inc.

Smith, P. (2003). Understanding Children’s Development. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Swanwick, T. (2010). Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory and Practice. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Swearer, S. M. (2009). Bullying Prevention and Intervention: Realistic Strategies For Schools. New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor T. and Francis, L. (2010). Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work. Web.

Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective Strategies for Long-Term Improvement. London: Routledge.

USA Today. (2010). A water shed Case in School Bullying. Web.

Vernberg, E. M. (2010). Preventing and Treating Bullying and Victimization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach Qualitative Research Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The contemporary society faces the concept of globalisation. As every issue, globalisation has its advantages and drawbacks that cover all sectors of human activity.

Cultural issues should be taken into account as well as peculiar features of every language including teachers who would teach certain languages and approaches applicable to different categories of students in terms of age groups, skills for learning a second language, and implementation of those skills into practice.

One of the burning issues for the linguistic sector of cultural heritage are the methods used in class for teaching people whose native language is not English. In this respect, drama used in class to facilitate the process of acquiring English language can be effective when all criteria are followed. For instance, active participation should be combined with a thoroughly prepared plan to follow during the class activities.

The discussion of the effectiveness of drama implementation for second language acquisition will include such issues as theoretical background and adaptation of certain methods for use with second language learners, concepts and strategies used by the great English educator Dorothy Heathcote, training teachers to use drama with second language learners, effectiveness and limitations for implementation of this approach in class.

The discussion will exclude explanation of lessons and will not provide examples of plans of lessons for use of drama for more effective second language acquisition. The literature selection is based on the effectiveness and readability of sources and their practical use for the discussion.

The review is organised in accordance with an essay structure where an introduction present the scope of the review, the body includes the basic themes for discussion with topic sentences opening each new paragraph, and a conclusion containing a summary of the review with some recommendations for further research and analysis.

Historical Background Approach by Dorothy Heathcote

Though many researchers present their vision of the second language acquisition process, it is necessary to emphasise the importance of contribution made by a distinguished English educator Dorothy Heathcote. In this respect, this educator can be considered a pioneer in adjusting drama to the class implementation and analysis of the method’s effectiveness and applicability to different settings and categories of learners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training teachers to use drama

Training teachers to use drama in class is very important because a failure can result in inadequate interpretation of information by a student and inadequate assessment of learning efforts by a teacher. In this respect, one of the most brilliant statements by Dorothy Heathcote can be regarded the following: “Teaching is creative work…” (Heathcote, 1991, p. 26).

In other words, the author means that training educators can be considered a part of teaching and an important aspect of implementation of drama for learning.

The teaching-learning activity is analysed as a flow of energy surges by Armstrong-Mills (1997) who shares her personal experience of acquiring knowledge on using drama in class and implementing it with children: “Whatever was happening seemed to be related to an increase of energy and concern with the events we were making” (p.93).

The main idea in this case is that educators learn to do something and then can try those methods and approaches immediately with children in class by implementing theory into practice. In other words, teaching can be considered equally important for educators and learners.

Nature of educational drama

Drama and its implementation in class is the changing issue that progresses as far as the educational methods and techniques progress every year. As reported by Heathcote (1991), the changes in the use of drama have shifted the emphases from individual learning to improvisation:

There has been a shift in direction from an interest in the personal development of the individual pupil, through the acquiring of theatrical and improvisational skills to the recognition of drama as a precise teaching instrument, which works best when it is part of the learning process (p. 42).

In this respect, drama can be used in a great variety of ways and treated differently by different educators who support different views on education. So, Cook (1973) suggests a brief but extremely clear explanation of drama as educational method and justifies its use: “The natural means of study in youth is play [while]… a natural education is by practice…” (p. 145).

We will write a custom Essay on Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this respect, drama provides educators with an opportunity to teach children in the most effective way that can be used with second language learners as well as with monolingual children (Kao


Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation Argumentative Essay essay help

Introduction A balanced score card is a tool used by senior management to measure organizational progress in attainment of set goals and objectives (Smith 2007, p.166). This does not imply that other tools cannot be used to measure performance and therefore, management is at liberty to use other tolls even where balanced scorecard has been used.

A balanced score card focuses on four areas namely financial, internal processes, customer as well as learning and growth (Schniederjans 2007 p.163). These are also known as the four legs of a balanced score card and without any of them, the whole system is incomplete. Financial perspective enables a firm measure where they want to be in terms of finances and the image that they create to the shareholders.

The firm main financial areas of concern are operating income and return on investment (Matthews, 2002, p.107). Customer perspective focuses on serving customers in a satisfactorily manner and the image that the firm portrays to the customers.

Internal business processes focus on how the firm can improve its internal processes and operations in order to achieve efficiency while learning and growth focus on how can the firm can improve on the skills and abilities of the employees.

This paper will discuss on how a balanced score card can help management in developing new organizational goals, how to integrate corporate vision and values with the four perspective of a balanced scorecard. In addition, the paper will also look at how the scorecard can be used to communicate organizational goals to employees and the role played by the compensation mechanism.

Development of New Goals for UNUM Corporation by Chairman and Chief Executive

The chairperson and chief executive of UNUM realized that their goals by then were not sufficient to achieve success in the organization. He therefore focused on achieving goals that are more meaningful by engaging balanced measures that would incorporate the interests of all the parties who had a stake in the organization.

He realized the importance of teamwork in achieving meaningful goals and therefore formed a team of thirteen senior managers who were to engage in the process of designing and implementing balanced goals and measures. A balanced scorecard was to be used and the four legs of a balanced score card were the focal point.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The chief executive therefore informed his team that he wanted them to develop a customer scorecard, a financial score card and an employee productivity score card. He then acknowledged the importance of education and knowledge and gave the team ample time to learn about the balanced score card since it was a new concept (Hannabarger, Buchman and Buchman, 2007, pg. 9).

James Orr therefore sought to develop new goals by use of a balance scorecard that has four different but closely integrated aspects and failure or negligence on one aspect might lead to business failure.

Relationship between Development of Corporate Vision, Corporate Value and Balanced Score Card

UNUM has a vision to achieve leadership in business. Integrated in the vision is the desire to serve the customers in a satisfactorily manner and have therefore incorporated in their values aspects that will make customer satisfaction a reality. They therefore intend to respect their customers and deliver what the clients want as well as what they promise to deliver.

To assess their efficiency in customer satisfaction, a scorecard has been designed to measure how customers appreciate the quality and performance of their product. Achieving goals need employee support and employees therefore should be equipped with necessary skills and knowledge as well as remuneration packages that match their skills and expertise.

In achieving business leadership, UNUM must make sure that employees are equipped with appropriate skills through adequate training and that they understand their roles properly. A scorecard has been developed in which employees’ opinions can be assessed to see how organizations vision is being met while still upholding the values. In its vision to achieve business leadership, the firm must achieve operational effectiveness.

In its values, it focused on the importance of proper, open, and clear communication that will allow free flow of operations and emphasized on improving and reengineering their processes. A balanced score card was developed to that would be used to measure growth in operating costs. The benchmark being that in the year 1998, the total operating costs should have declined by at least a third.

The shareholders are integral part of UNUM and achieving business leadership implies that the shareholders will be a part of the success and should enjoy and celebrate the success. The firm has therefore established values that focus on performance and setting individual goals that are in line with organizational goals.

We will write a custom Essay on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To ensure that the shareholders feel as part of the success, a balanced scorecard has been designed to measure shareholder value. The benchmark is to have the company as a top 125 in the Stand list.

How UNUM use the Balanced Scorecard to Communicate Its Corporate Goals to Employees throughout the Organization

The process of implementing a balanced score card requires that the organization communicates to employees constantly in a way they understand. To ensure this, UNUM started by defining what each score card vision meant. The UNUM people vision ‘we will have the mind of a customer and the pride of an owner’ explained the company’s expectations from the employees.

The scorecard established a measure that would be used to give feedback on employees’ perception. UNUM organized workshops to determine or the reasons why employees did not trust the managers and the results based on employees’ perception were communicated to the organization.

The firm also uses a 360-degree appraisal system that is used to give feedback on how managers are in line with corporate behavior (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997. Employees are encouraged to think and act like owners by use of a goals stock option plan.

For example, in 1998, if the balanced score card goals were met, employees would be given a grant to purchase shares and incase the goals were not realized, the employees would miss the grant.

The employees are made aware of how the stock works and they are given financial information on quarterly basis in order to understand how the plans works through a guide known as ‘know your options’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

The annual bonus that are given by the firm achieving the annual goals also serve as a communication tool since employees work hard to meet the annual target goals in order to benefit from the bonus. In achieving, operational effectiveness, the firm uses statements such as ‘Bending over Backwards’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

Revisiting achievement and the way they were achieved is used to motivate employees to work and commit themselves to making things better by ensuring that resources are deployed effectively and the company performs better than competitors do. The chairperson has also developed some questions that are for use across the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The questions focus on the firms’ goals in terms of overall goals, customer satisfaction, and people goal, operating effectiveness and shareholders value. The questions seek to understand how employees understand the firms’ goals, what they are doing to ensure their success and seek their opinion on what they think should be done or not done.

Role of Compensation Mechanisms in the Balanced Scorecard at UNUM Corporation

Compensation mechanisms act as motivation to the employees to work towards achieving organizational goals (Niven, 2006, p.213). The goal stock plan that gives employees a grant to purchase shares in the organization motivates workers to work as if the business is theirs.

They strive to achieve the best since they know that failure to achieve the goals that have been set will not be a loss to the organization alone but rather they will miss that golden chance of getting a grant to purchase the shares.

In pursuant with their goals of getting the stock plan option, employees are able to understand how the organization works in terms of generating revenue and eventually invest it to achieve company growth (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

In the long run, the company grows as a result of outstanding performance from the employees who work and take pride in it as if they were the owners and employees benefit from the compensation scheme.

UNUM does not focus on company and employee growth only; it takes into consideration the welfare of other stakeholders such as the shareholders. Shareholders are paid their dividends in good time and they are first made to understand how the company runs in terms of its operations. This gives other investors confidence to invest in the company and this enables the company to generate more capital when needed.

The company therefore has greater potential to expand since it is not limited by capital restrictions. It also serves to improve the company reputation and more customers and investors can believe in it giving it a better competitive edge over the competitors. The compensation mechanism therefore draws employee attention to focus on areas that are of great significance to the organization.

Balanced Scorecard as either a Diagnostic Control System or Interactive Control System at UNUM Corporation

prior to making a conclusion as to whether UNUM uses balanced score card as either a diagnostic control system or a interactive control system, a distinction between the two systems of control will be given for purposes of better understanding. According to Simmons as cited in (Kellen, 2003), a diagnostic control system is a system that assists organizations in monitoring and evaluating their present and past state.

Management set thresholds within which performance is acceptable, beyond the threshold, whether on the upper or lower side calls for management attention to diagnose the cause of deviations and attempt to rectify the situation.

This system enables a firm to keep in line with the set or target goals, as management is control through constant monitoring of progress. On the other hand, an interactive control system gives the firm additional control measures that makes the firm ready to handle strategic uncertainties in case hey strike.

Simmons as cited in (Kellen 2003) defined them as “the formal information systems that managers use to personally involve themselves in the decision activities of subordinates.” These control systems therefore create room for newer information and learning in the decision making process.

After understanding the difference in the way the control systems work, it can be said that UNUM Corporation uses integration of both control system. This can be justified by the fact that the firm measures performance against some predetermined targets.

For example, there are annual targets that are to be met and incase of deviation, management has to establish the cause of variation and design mechanisms to ensure that it will not happen in the future. This indicates use of diagnostic control system.

On the other hand, management tries to get new ideas and opinions from employees on how the can improve the process and their performance thus making employees’ part of the development. Such activities involve use of interactive systems where new ideas are welcome.

Balanced Scorecard for UNUM Corporation

Cause and Effect Relationship between the Four Perspectives of UNUM Corporation

UNUM people perspective serves as the learning and innovation perspective of the organization. It requires the employees to think like customers and act as owners and this challenge them to be very creative in everything they do in the organization. They look for additional information and newer ideas that will help other employees grow as the company grows.

This helps the organization achieve efficiency and have improved performance as all employees work towards achieving common goals. The operating effectiveness perspective focuses on ensuring that the company’s resources are utilized in an effect and efficient manner.

If all resources in terms of labor and capital and other resources were to be utilized in the best way possible, then it implies that the firm would achieve its goals and even exceed them. This gives the firm an advantage since with lower costs it can be able to price its products better than the competitors can. The customer satisfaction perspective aims to ensure that the firm’s customers are satisfied.

To achieve customer satisfaction means that the firm must first understand the needs and wants of the customers. Then come up with a marketing mix that will meet these needs in a satisfactorily manner by ensuring the right quality and using the appropriate mechanism to deliver the products or service.

Once the firm does this, it is almost guaranteed of customer loyalty from all the satisfied customers ceteris paribus. The company will therefore continue to enjoy increased sales and have more customers as this will earn it good reputation.

The shareholders value focuses on creating a good image to the shareholders and maximizing their wealth. This can be achieved through being able to meet organizational objectives and especially in terms of returns and profitability.

The firm will then be able to pay attractive dividends to the shareholders and have prices appreciate and this would happen if the total return on investment and profitability were favorable (Matthews, 2002, p.107). This is an incentive to potential investors, who will have confidence in the company and invest in it thus attracting more capital.

How the Corporate Vision is reflected in the Goals and Performance Measures with Reference to the four Perspectives

The corporate vision of UNUM Corporation is to achieve business leadership and not just being market leaders but also being leaders or achieving success in everything that they undertake. The UNUM people perspective goals are have improvement every year in their scores against the benchmark survey. The benchmark survey acts as the measure for this perspective.

Having the desire to constantly improve is a progressive aspect that shows the desire to succeed. The firm does not just wait for the success to come but engages in continued monitoring to assess how well they are working towards their success. In the operating effectiveness, the firm has set a limit beyond which the costs should not exceed as the measure.

The firm has also set a time limit within which they want to achieve their goal of reducing costs by one third. This two aspects blend into the corporate vision well as the firm should be able to define what it calls success in each case. As for this case, the firm knows that success will be achieved if costs are reduced by one third by 1998.

The firm wishes to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they deliver quality products to the customers. However, they will not just sit back and assume they have delivered quality but will rather seek opinions of the customers to know whether they are satisfied.

The firm also intends to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they have more customers who prefer their product and feel that it is among the best. The firm is focused on having good share prices that will maximize shareholders wealth and be able to pay dividends to the shareholders.

A firm that is doing badly cannot afford to pay dividends and this means that the firm will have achieved success. The firm also wants to achieve leadership by being ranked among the top 125 companies listed on the standard


Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Corporate philanthropy is the contribution that business makes to the general population using its finances as part of its corporate social responsibility. The activities undertaken by the organization will have a positive impact on the lives of the beneficiaries and sometimes even the business itself.

Most businesses are involved in various philanthropic activities, which vary depending on the community’s main problems and the business’s interests. In addition, the philanthropic activities are usually focused on improving the quality of life of the workforce of the company, their families and the general population where the company operates or may be intending to operate in future.

It may also be targeting the environment in which the organization operates through the improvement of the natural resources of the area that the organization operates in. primarily, corporate philanthropy can be undertaken through various means, which include giving gifts (products of the company or other company’s product), and having the employees of the company doing various activities which benefit the general community e.g. cleanup of the area near the organization.

In addition, an organization can directly be involved in the philanthropic activities or may form a foundation to carry out its philanthropic activities. These foundations are not involved in any business activities; their sole purpose is managing the philanthropic activities, with funding from the parent organization (Anheier, H K and List R 2005 p 67).

However, corporate philanthropy is not only a means of giving back to the community it also benefits the company in various ways.

Principles of Business sustainability and development Principles of sustainability explain the measures that an organizations need to put in place to ensure that they are to able cater for the current needs without having to compromise their ability to meet the needs in future (Landrum, Landrum and Edwards, 2009, p 3). In addition, organizations can ensure their sustainability by properly controlling and improving their main assets. These assets can generally be classified into:

Capital provided by nature: the organization should ensure that its activities do not create damage to nature. The organization must ensure that its activities are nature friendly. A good example is where a company produces or uses of products which are recyclable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human capital: this refers to the people who are affected by the company’s activities or its products. These may be the consumers of the products which the company produces, people who live near the organization, or the employees of the company.

Primarily, the organization should safeguard the interest of the above groups; by ensuring that the products do not harm the consumers directly when they use them, or the products do not harm employees when they are making them.

The products may also harm people indirectly if they lead to adverse environmental condition in the area where the company operates. Indeed, human capital is important since it provides both the workforce and the consumers for the organization.

Social capital: this refers to the social structure of the people who use the products, are affected by the product or the employees of the company.

Manufactured capital: This refers to the assets which the company uses its production.

Financial capital: The Company must also ensure the sustainability of its finances. The organization must ensure that it puts measures in place to ensure that it continues to have desirable profits. The organization must also ensure that the sale of its products continues to improve as well as the value of its shares (William, 2007, p 19).

Corporate philanthropy as a sustainability and sustainable business practice Corporations that involve in corporate philanthropy may do so due to varying reasons. They may be involved in philanthropy if the activity will lead to an increase in its profit either directly or indirectly. The corporation may also be involved in philanthropy as a corporate citizen so as to improve the quality of life of the respondents regardless of whether the activity will lead to an increase in its profit or not.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the organization may be involved in philanthropy so as cater for the social and political influences in the region within their operation. This means that they may be involved in philanthropy so as to self-regulate its activities and avoid government controlling its activities (Anheier and List, 2005, p 68).

Corporate philanthropy improves on the human capital of the organization. Employees who engage in corporate philanthropic activities of the company help their leadership skills and are therefore important assets to the company (Shepp, 2010). The philanthropic activities of a company also lead to improvement in the relationship between the employers and the employees.

This in effect leads to improvement of the motivation and loyalty of the employees. Improvement in the above attributes will lead to increase in productivity of the employees. The philanthropic activities also lead to improvement in the relationship between the customers and the corporation due to the direct involvement between the employees and the consumers.

The money spent on philanthropic activities is not used in vain; and this may act as a form of advertising to the company. The philanthropic activities help to improve the image of the company by showing that it cares for the needs of its consumers and the general population. This helps improve the loyalty of the consumers towards the company since the company caters for its needs as a consumer.

In addition, corporate philanthropy attracts media attention towards the company, helping it to raise its corporate image. The activities that a company undertakes in corporate philanthropy may also improve its image towards the government.

This may lead to its tax exemption or reduction in the tax that the government charges its activities. All these lead to improved financial position of the company; hence, corporate philanthropy, apart from taking money away from the company, also helps in generating money for the company though in an indirect manner (Neryan, 2009).

Corporate philanthropy may also strengthen the human capital of the organization. This may happen if the organization engages in programs to provide education and training of the people who are in institution that offer training for the professional requirement that the organization requires or any other institutions that offer education.

This may be in the form of bursaries and scholarships to students who are in high school or even in colleges (Porter, 2008, p 461). These scholarships and bursaries enable the organization get high quality employees who will as well be loyal to the company since the company helped them acquire their skills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization can also help improve on the quality of products that it produces indirectly through investing in the research and training activities of universities or colleges which deal with its products.

This helps to improve the products of not only its company, but also the product of other companies, thereby making the consumers to get high quality products. Eventually, this will lead to the company having a competitive edge over its rivals even if the initiative benefits even the competitors (Porter, 2008, p 456).

Corporate philanthropy can also help in improving the quality of life of the people who live in the area where it operates. This is through the improvement in the infrastructure, provision of better housing and through support of initiatives which help in improving the environment of the area (Porter, 2008, p 462).

This initiative not only benefits the organization, but also helps in improving the environment in which the business operates. Moreover, improvement in the quality of life of the residents of the area in which the organization operates helps in improving their social welfare, as well as improving the environment in which the organization operates.

Conclusion Corporate philanthropy is a very vital practice of business sustainability and sustainable business development practice. The benefits that the company gets in engaging in corporate philanthropy outweigh its disadvantages if the corporate philanthropy is carried out in a strategic manner. A company can engage in corporate philanthropy as a means of enhancing its sustainability and improve on its image.

This is highlighted by the fact that, even with the economic recession, companies are still willing to be involved in corporate philanthropy.

This is clearly highlighted by the fact that even after it financial crisis and ultimate bailout JP Morgan Chase, an American investment bank which triggered the economic crisis promised $1 million to the victims of the Haiti earthquake even though the company may have tight budgets to meet its financial obligations (Schepp, 2010).

References Anheier, H. K. and List, R. (2005). A dictionary of civil society, philanthropy and the non-profit sector. London, Taylor


International Negotiations Term Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Opportunities of negotiations

Possible obstacles

Strategy advice


Reference List

Introduction This memorandum is aimed at planning the forthcoming negotiations between India and Pakistan. It will discuss the way how the representatives of India can act during the negotiations, the applicable strategies to follow, the possible opportunities and obstacles for the negotiations. We hope that this briefing paper will be helpful in the preparation for the negotiations and will contribute to their effectiveness.

First of all, it should be said that the future negotiations between India and Pakistan can play an important role in the development of the history of the both countries.

In case the parties manage to find a consensus, the existing problems will be solved, and the war of interests that lasted for more than a century can finally end. This is a considerable motivation for arranging a sufficient negotiation strategy, which will be prolific and will let the both countries move forward from the standstill they appeared at.

Framework Before discussing the opportunities that the negotiations can bring it is worth thinking of the pre-negotiation work that can be done by India. First of all, there is an undisputable need for social network to be done. In case of intractable conflicts management, it is vital to create a peace infrastructure, which will be responsible for preventing the military actions or violent attacks.

This infrastructure should better be represented by an independent organ, in order to be impartial in attitude to the parties. What is more, India may consider involving civil society of its own and of the confronting party, in this case of Pakistan, into the peace establishing program. Such network can serve as a profound basis for successful negotiations.

This is due to the fact that the studies have shown, that the introduction of unofficial third parties into the conflict can contribute significantly to its resolution (Chigas, 2008).

There is also an option of introducing an independent agent, who will be able to produce fresh views on the problem and offer some new solutions (Salacuse, 1999). In addition, the independent mediators can help to design a coherent political strategy for the parties (Crocker, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, while the representatives of government have a power to negotiate and make decisions, there are some spheres which can only be controlled by the civil society (Saunders, 2001). For instance, only the citizens of Kashmir are able to establish certain attitudes towards Indian and Pakistani rules, and only the citizens of the opposing sides are able to be either tolerant or confront each other.

Therefore, in order to achieve the desired results at the negotiations, you need to consider the interests of the mentioned nations, which can both serve as a support for your ideas or prove an impediment to achieving agreement.

Opportunities of negotiations Obviously, the representatives of India should be ready to present the ideas about what innovations can be implemented in the current policies. In order to produce these ideas, it is important to analyze the interests of the two parties. Lying on the surface are the opposed interests, which have been the reason of the multiple controversies between the countries.

For instance, both India and Pakistan are willing to take political control over the territory of Kashmir, and none of the parties is ready to give up this target. Each of the parties has a solid ground for its position, and it seems that there is no resolution that I going to meet the requirements of the both sides.

Therefore, at this point the negotiations can either leave the issue unresolved or lead to the acceptance of one of the party’s options. However, in case one of the sides weakens its position or expresses a will to compromise, there can appear new options for the conflict resolution. However, in order to do this, there have to be some stronger interests found.

For example, for both countries the interest above sharing Kashmir may be a will to establish peace and respect after more than 50 years of disagreement. Therefore, you need to know exactly what the hierarchical order of Indian interests is, in order to be able to define the primary and secondary ones during the negotiations.

There are also compatible interests; to be specific, on one side India demands the stop of the terrorist attacks, which, according to the country’s version, are being organized by Pakistani people. On the other side, Pakistani government has been trying to unite the Muslim professionists, which is impossible again because of Kashmiri conflict.

We will write a custom Term Paper on International Negotiations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is more, the both parties show impartiality in response to each other’s demands, and refuse to take the responsibility for the ongoing events. Indeed, Pakistan government rejects the fact that the terrorist attacks are organized or anyhow sponsored by them, stating that this is a choice of Kashmiri to take such measures (Cheema and Nuri, 2005).

Similarly, India denies the conflict of religions and expresses an opinion that the religious differences do not prevent Kashmiri people from peaceful coexistence with Indian citizens (EPDMA, 2007). In this case, the compatible interests are connected with the domino principle. This means that in case either of the parties refuses from its position, the other party will also have to give up.

Therefore, the possible options here for India are to agree with the division of population and territory according to the religious preferences, or to convince Pakistan to contribute to the preservation of peace on the territory of Kashmir.

The both variants exclude the need for terrorist attacks in future and can bring agreement on this level. Thus, your task is to decide in advance, how flexible, or, in contrast, how strong are you going to be in respect to this issue.

However, the negotiation theory states that “all-gain agreements an only be achieved when the parties stress the cooperative, and not just the competitive, aspects of their relationship” (Cruikshank, 1989). This, our task is to search for some common interests, if such exist. The deeper analysis of the struggle for Kashmir shows that the territorial distribution is not the ultimate purpose of the conflict.

In fact, both India and Pakistan express an opinion that the citizens of Kashmir should not have their rights violated. On one hand, Indian government states that Kashmiri will have their rights and liberties defended under Indian rule, motivating it by the contrast with Pakistani rule where human rights are being violated (Wirsing, 2007).

On the other hand, Pakistani government argues that the citizens of Kashmir should be able to choose the ruler for themselves; the representatives are deeply convinced that Kashmiri seek either to gain independence, or to become a part of Pakistan rather than be a part of India (PA, 2010).

Thus, despite the different points of view about the situation, both India and Pakistani are eager to protect the political and social rights and liberties of Kashmiri people. From this perspective, the interest of protecting the liberties of Kashmiri is common for both of the negotiations participants.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Negotiations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The last mentioned interest, shared by the two parties, increases the possibility of finding the zone of possible agreement (ZOPA). Indeed, there is a multitude of point where India and Pakistan agree, for example:

Kashmiri people should choose the government themselves

The citizens of Kashmir are free to confess any religion

It is essential that both India and Pakistan take part in helping to determine the development of Kashmiri politics, due to the history of the countries.

Taking into consideration the named arguments, it can be derived that the Kashmiri conflict can be weakened if not resolved by setting the ZOPA at the protection of rights and liberties of the Kashmiri people. With this purpose, you could offer Pakistani government to organize a set of activities, which will be supported by Pakistan and India, and will be aimed at helping the citizens of Kashmir to make their choice.

These activities can include creating a Constitution of Kashmir, offering the country the options like separating into an autonomic Republic, or dividing into pro-Indian and pro-Pakistani parts, etc. This approach will also need a series of studies and social investigations to be carried, and their costs can also be shared between the parties.

In this way, neither India nor Pakistan will have to give up their positions, and the resolution of the situation will be determined by Kashmiri people as by an impartial member.

However, the main point about ZOPA is helping Pakistani government to see it and to motivate them to reach it, as the consensual knowledge is vital for establishing agreement in negotiations (Hampson, 1999). You should keep in mind that the opposed site has a skeptical attitude to your offers, so it is important to prepare a solid foundation for your arguments.

The mentioned decision is only one of the options available for the negotiations. It is worth remembering that your task is to achieve joint gains, and for this purpose you will need to (a) be able to share information effectively; (b) be ready to deal with the new appearing problems, and (c) be eager to continue improving the decision during the negotiations (Brett, 1998).

These three factors can make the negotiations prolific and bring benefits to all its participants. However, you should remember that the mentioned joint gains need to be seen by Pakistani government, and if they are not, your task is to show them.

In order to do this, you have to be ready to present to the Pakistani government a list of advantages they would face in case of reaching the ZOPA. This will increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.

Possible obstacles Besides the mentioned above opportunities of the forthcoming negotiations, there is a number of factors, which can prevent the negotiations from being successful, in particular for India. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to be managed during the negotiations process.

The very first barrier to the negotiations progress is the general rule, which claims that “the prolonged nature of intractable conflict gives rise to self-reinforcing escalatory dynamics” (Chigas, ). In case of India-Pakistan conflict, which lasted for more than 60 years, this rule is likely to work.

The situation suggests that the absence of progress in the conflict has lead to the deep convictions of the both sides of their rightness and of the incontestability of their decisions. Due to this fact, there is a little chance for any party to weaken the opposing BATNA, or to prove the dominance of their own ones.

This inflexibility and unreadiness to accept another position increase the deep-rooted nature of the conflict and prevent it from being resolved with the negotiations.

As for the measures that can be taken in order to overcome this barrier, one of the options is to call for bringing the relations between the countries to a new level. You can demonstrate Pakistani representatives all the negative consequences of the long lasting conflict, and show them the promising perspectives of accepting a new, flexible position.

Another possible obstacle for the negotiations success is the divergence of ideology and belief systems of the two parties. This factor belongs to the ones that usually create additional conflicts and make it harder to settle the agreement (Hampson, 1999).

Besides the political conflicts, there is an underlying foundation of cultural peculiarities, which determine the religions, social attitudes, moral rules, norms of behavior, etc. In other words, what seems to be a perfect solution for Indian people, might be viewed as absolutely unacceptable by Pakistani people, and vice versa. Tolerating these differences is often hard because of their significance for each of the parties.

The ideology also affects the perception of the situation by the parties, suggesting that the war of interests is becoming even more intense. For instance, while India took a liberal position in attitude to Religion, for Pakistani people this issue is a matter of life. Indeed, it is known from the history that Muslims are famous for their devotion to faith, which is often proved by violent means.

Moreover, violent attacks are often seen as the only way to demonstrate one’s faith. In contrast, Hinduism rejects any form of violence, and treats the means of Muslims as unacceptable. Similarly, the differences in value systems affect the perception of Kashmir conflict by the parties, which suggests that there is an increased risk of misunderstanding in the negotiations.

Due to the two obstacles mentioned above, there appears another one, which is a mistrust between the parties. To be specific, Indian government accused Pakistan to sponsor the terrorist attacks for many times. However, Pakistani government keeps rejecting this version and in addition to this refuses to contribute to providing peace.

Thus, until the guilty ones are found, there will be a mistrust from the side of India, which can hinder the negotiations. In order to overcome this, Indian government has to do everything possible to make sure that Pakistan is not motivated to organize such kinds of attacks. It should also be noted that Pakistani government also has some bias towards Indian rule.

The reason of their distrust lies in the fact that Indian government failed to carry a referendum for Kashmir independence, promised more than 50 years ago (The Economist, 1999). In order to remove this condition, the government of India has to provide a guaranty of implementation of all the resolutions accepted at the negotiations; for example, with this purpose a corresponding contract can be signed.

In addition to the discussed impediments to reaching a compromise, there is one that can be decisive for the negotiations. This impediment is the existence of many official parties. You should take into consideration, that there is a number of fundamentalist groups, which are fighting either for Kashmir independence or its joining Pakistan. These groups will most possibly be used by Pakistani spokespersons to support their arguments.

The parties like US or China are also likely to support Pakistan, while the UN is on the side of Kashmiri and their right for independence. These multiple parties introduce the newer and newer views on the situation, which, as a result, hampers making one right decision at the negotiations.

With the addition of new interests, the task of the negotiations is not to finally resolve the Kashmir conflict in Pakistani or Indian way, but to meet all the requirements and leave nobody dissatisfied. The existence of multiple parties has always been one of the main barriers to decision making, and the more parties are there, the more complex the conflict becomes (Hampson, 1999).

What is more, even when the third party has a benevolent intention to help to resolve the conflict, it is often doomed to fail because of its inability to consider the non-objective factors (Chigas, ).

For instance, even though the UN tries to evaluate the situation objectively, it will never be able to realize the deepness of the cultural differences and values, which suggests that there is a very little chance for the UN to introduce a solution, satisfactory both for India and Pakistan.

It has to be utmost clear to the both parties that their conflict has a very deep and broad nature. Besides the Kashmir conflict, there is also a number of other problems of political, economical, social, religious character, which make the relations between the countries tense. Therefore, an expectation to resolve all the issues at once is rather unrealistic, and can bring above disappointment.

The main mistake here is the strong belief of each party that the successful negotiations are those which can meet all their requirements. Thus, in order to overcome this obstacle, you should be ready to accept a different negotiation scenario, which will suggest making quick decisions right at the place if it is needed.

After all, the experience of the composite dialogue of 2003-2005 suggests that the step-by-step problem resolution can be more effective than rapid efforts to introduce dramatic changes (Kux, 2006).

Strategy advice Now that all the opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations have been discussed, and the needed framework was mentioned, it is important to plan the way of handling the negotiation process. In order to do this, you need to choose a negotiation strategy that would be appropriate for the situation.

Obviously, in the conditions of a prolonged and complicated struggle of interests, it is impossible to find one appropriate resolution for all the existing problems. However, several aspects can be considered, which can help to improve the general situation and increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.

In case if your only task were to reach your aims at any costs, the appropriate strategy would be positional bargaining. However, in the modern world, where the civilized society suggests that there is a need to tolerate differences and compromise, this strategy is unacceptable. In addition, in case of conflict with Pakistan, positional bargaining would only aggravate it and cause the greater resistance from the opposing side. That is why, integrative bargaining is much more beneficial for both parties in this case.

The essence of integrative bargaining lies in searching for optimal decisions, which can fully or partially satisfy the needs of the two parties. One of the options for implementing this strategy is dividing the main interests into several minor interests, or trying to find a number of meanings in one idea. Thus, the will of both India and Pakistan to administer Kashmir covers a number of other wishes, such as:

gaining more territory

becoming a more powerful country

gaining political authority

resolving the religious issue

In this way, we can see that the controversial ideas often have some underlying motives, which have a chance to be conciliated. That is why, you can try to apply this method to India’s interests and offer Pakistan to do the same. This will make the situation more clear and increase the chances for finding a fresh solution for the two sides.

Try to show Pakistani spokespersons, that the interests of their country are being considered, and that the both positions are equally important in this situation. Your task is to remove the mistrust that has been existing for decades, and make the opponent open to new solutions.

In fact, there is a multitude of approaches which can be helpful to lead the negotiations in this way. They include the basic speech patterns, or the way in which your speech can be organized in order to sound more persuasive. Integrating politics with linguistics can be helpful, as the “critical thinking and interdisciplinary research” can contribute into the success of the negotiations (Eagle, 2009).

For instance, sometimes such tools, as ad hominem or bandwagon effect can be used, in case if they are relevant and supported by the facts, of course (Wright, 2001). You can also use an appeal to authority, for example by mentioning how the prominent countries of the world managed the similar conflicts.

In addition, one of the most persuasive strategies is putting the interests of the community before the interests of an individual. Thus, it is important to clarify that the India-Pakistan conflict is caused because of the citizens’ interests, and that its resolution should also be based on it.

One more good strategy is to postpone the denial, or, to be more specific, to agree before rejecting the opponent’s idea. Whatever is said at the negotiation, try to show understanding of the Pakistani position and respect for it, and only after that start to give opposing ideas. All these techniques can help you to achieve the desired goals and to make the negotiation results beneficial for India.

Apart from the mentioned strategy, you should consider organizing the requirements and needs of India in hierarchical order. In addition, the general advise is to start with the minor issues, and “put Kashmir on a back burner” (Kux, 2006). This approach is based on the idea that the aim of the negotiations is to improve the relations between the countries, make them less tense and more trustful.

That is why, a gradual approaching of the countries may serve as a basis for a natural Kashmir conflict resolution in the future. Of course the main points should be discussed; however, working on economical and social problems should be put first. This will also guarantee that the negotiations will bring at least some changes for better, even if the main issue will remain unresolved.

As for the decisions you are going to introduce, remember that all the ideas should be fair, efficient, and feasible (Cruikshank, 1989). Fairness means that it is necessary for the two parties to agree on the uprightness of the decision. What is more, such conclusion is not to be left for a third independent party; otherwise, the decision is to be worked out until the both parties accept it as fair.

The decision efficiency points at the fact that its implementation will satisfy all the parties. Here not only India and Pakistan should be taken into consideration; the other parties in the face of other countries and fundamentalist groups also should agree with the efficiency of the decision. Finally, the feasibility of the decision has to provide the possibility of its implementation.

Therefore, it is not advisory to show too much expectations about a certain decision, and count on its magic effect. For example, expecting that the next day after negotiations Pakistan and India will turn into the closest political and economical partners is far from feasible.

However, making steps in this direction and gradually improving the relations between the parties is a feasible expectation. Therefore, try to be realistic, and support this attitude in the opponent.

Concerning the approach to problem solution, it is obvious that the key point for you is to look for joint gains for India and Pakistan. It was proved that even in the settings of cultural divergence, the joint gains are able to unite the countries for achieving shared aims (Brett, 1998). Therefore, even in case of inability to find a compromise, finding joint gains can be helpful in conflict resolution.

What is more, your task is not only to find the joint gains, but also to present them as advantageous to the opposite side. This is due to the fact that the attitude of Pakistan to India is rather biased, and it would be irrational to count for their instantaneous support of all your ideas.

That is why, be ready to (a) find the new joint gains in the process of negotiation, and (b) show them to Pakistani spokesperson and motivate them to reach these gains together.

Conclusion This memorandum contains the information needed for India spokesperson to lead successful negotiations. It discusses the possible opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations, and gives suggestions about the party’s behavior during the process of negotiations. The paper is based on numerous studies about negotiations and international relations, and thus will hopefully help India to gain satisfactory results at the negotiations.

Reference List Brett, J, Adair, W (1998). Culture and Joint Gains in Negotiation. Negotiation Journal, 1(3): 61-86.

Cheema, P, Nuri, M (2005) The Kashmir Imbroglio: Looking Towards the Future. Islamabad: Islamabad Policy Research Institute.

Chigas, D (2005) Negotiating Intractable Conflicts: The Contributions of Unofficial Intermediaries. Ch. 6 in Crocker, C, Hampson, F


Responding to “Marketing Shapes Consumers Needs and Wants” Coursework essay help online free

Taking position It is certain that needs and wants exist that must be satisfied by human beings in the course of their survival. Various marketers; therefore, endeavor to gratify the needs of the populace, and they do it through advertisement to inform the public that they stock what they want. I, therefore, disagree with the statement that marketing modifies the consumers’ wishes and wants.

Instead, marketing simply imitates the needs and the wishes of the clients. “A defender of marketing would maintain that the marketing system merely reflects society’s needs and wants” (Reynolds


Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting

Role of ethical standards in the workplace

How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective


Introduction Ethical behaviour can sometimes be tricky in its form; how a business carries itself can leave a good or bad impression on consumers and other production business associates. Most businesses are today interested in profits than anything else, thus failing to check on critical aspects such as ethics and social responsibility, consequently this is the reason for their downfall.

Evidently, companies that practice ethical values are incomparable to businesses that just want to make profit (Crystal, 2010). Implementing Business Ethics in a company’s strategic plan enhances the work environment. Additionally, it leaves benefits that include improved job satisfaction, a higher degree of organizational commitment and reduction of employee turnover.

Right things are not always easier to deal with since small quandaries in a firm are particularly the major challenges. Staff should know the right ethical act and the action to accept as appropriate form of promoting integrity and professionalism.

Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting The benefits in practicing business ethics in the workplace are wide depending on the organizational culture and policies. Business ethics can lead to employee satisfaction, flexible work schedules and more responsibilities. Improved job satisfaction is a major benefit for boosting employees’ morale, in the aim of completing tasks correctly and in a timely manner.

Making sure the employees are happy can result in a more productive environment and the employee feels appreciated as opposed to over-worked. According to Carpenter and Sanders (2009), one solution could be a simple change of the work schedule to allow flexibility in the employees’ lives.

For example, giving employees the option to create their own schedules satisfies the employees, because they are able to balance time from their structured work.

Flexible working hours are a great start to increase employee satisfaction but it is not the only option. There are other strategies to boost employees’ loyalty and determination while increasing the turnover rates (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Role of ethical standards in the workplace The main reason to include ethical standards in a business plan is to enhance social responsibility for protection of company’s assets. How well do the employees protect their company’s assets? The treatment employees get highly influences their behaviours. The employees are usually proud of the company and its assets if the company accord they respect.

The opinions of the employees at the firm are evident from their behaviours at workplace. The employees’ pride blossoms when the environment delivers respect and the staff are valued as individuals and, treated with fairness and equity in general.

The employees need to perform with unquestionable ethics and integrity. Assigning responsibilities to employees and showing respect by praise or rewards them improves their efforts thus leading to job satisfaction, since they know that the management appreciate them.

Today the most damaging acts emerge from the most obvious ethical problems and irresponsible situations. The subversive acts employees practice in order to protect their own turf at the expense of colleagues affects the working relationships, environment, productivity, trust, and, job satisfaction.

Violations concerned with ethical standards are a high cost to company’s economical performance as well as, cultural reputation. When implementing a business strategic plan, the management of a firm must provide solutions to the small-scale problems. This involves an analysis to make ethics a core value in various departments, other than just having some code of ethics as an organizational culture.

Enhancing the ethics as core values involves setting up an executive tone in the policies or business ethics. This means that the leader has to lead by example (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

He/she adheres to the highest ethical standards or behaviours as a guide. Mistrusting and lapse over judgement of the leader causes the negative consequences to the company. Displaying a message that implies dishonesty as an acceptable act, is asking the subordinates to practice the act.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, it is important to have written guidelines in the strategic plan. This outlines the ethical policies for instance, a group can engage in a brainstorming session in translation or customization of general code of ethics to fit relevant aspects of the department. This code will serve as a helpful reference for the employees when they meet common ethical quandaries and thus enhance employees’ morale.

What holds together commitment in organizations? Employee involvement, motivation, and attitude are a few antidotes that contribute to the dedication of the organization. A higher degree of organizational commitment can result in dedicated commitment of the employees’, organizational structure and the factors involved in the commitment of the organization.

According to Hahn (2007), “The alteration of commitment is possible if people recognize its factors; personal characteristics, job-or role-related characteristics, structural attributes and work experiences.” This statement is true to its saying; treat people the way you would like them to treat you. A manager will thus respect and trust that employees will do what they are committed to do.

How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective Can an ethical organizational structure influence the commitment of the employees’? Well, understanding that the culture and structure places employees’ on jobs so that work is completed and goals achieved. The structure of the organization influences the level of commitment.

Hahn states that (2007), “formalization, functional dependence, and decentralization are all related to commitment.” These factors affect the employees and therefore managers should consider personal attitudes, work experiences, and organizational characteristics by altering needs to improve commitment (Hahn, 2007).

Thirdly, it is important that the strategic plan communicate a leadership vision. The written code of ethics requires orientation and training programs through video, role-plays, games or other regular addresses in meetings, presentations and, speech. It is also important to enhance ethics of reporting the wrong acts. There ought to be an easy and safe way of reporting violations and questionable proceedings.

In line with Hahn (2007), “The employees should be in a position to deliver bad news to the management without the fear of negative career repercussions.” They also need to be reassured of immediate actions or investigations.

Several tasks can reduce employee turnover. Receiving employee feedback, applying attractive compensation packages and job stability will assure long-term ethical performance by existing employees.’ Carpenter and Sanders states (2009), “The business that neglects the feedback of its employees is doomed.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to research, employees who are involved in the day-to-day operations of their organization receive attractive compensation packages such as health benefits, and healthy work environments and this assures increase in company’s turnover and proper work ethics (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

Lastly, consequences of unethical behaviours ought to apply equally at all levels. A manager who violates the policies must face similar consequences as the level-one employee with a similar offence.

References Carpenter, M. A.,


The Prosperity Gold Copper Project Report college application essay help

Introduction The Project under consideration would be situated in the Cariboo-Chilcotin District where Williams Lake is a regional service centre. Many people in the district consider as an opportunity to enforce the economy and to decrease the employment rates. The mine would cover 35 square km territory in Teztan Yeqox watershed that includes Taseko River, Fish Lake, and Little Fish Lake together with surrounding area Nabas.

The First Nation together with Environmental Assessment Office in British Columbia expressed their strong opposition to the Mine Project admitting that it has considerable adverse effect on fish and grizzly bears habitat.

In particular that Panel states that the public hearing being the main tool for gathering date from the indigenous people about current use of lands and impacts on cultural heritage. The results of the Panel revealed that the Project would turn out to be significantly adverse environmental effects on fish, navigation, resources for traditional purposes, and on cultural heritage of First Nations.

Background The presented project was submitted to the Minister of Environment by Fisheries and Oceans Canada under the auspices of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act for the Panel Review (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

The chief issues for Fisheries and Oceans Canada consisted in the Project proposition to use lakes as storage areas for waste rock and tailings within the Teztan Yedox. The federal review panel discussed this project for 30 days at public and committee meetings, including such questions as land use, cultural, economic, and social problems with regard to this Project.

It should also be noted that British Agreement on Environmental Cooperation presented in 2004 also took responsibility for checking and regulating the Project. Environmental Assessment also proved to be controversial and provides a lot of ambiguity over the Mine Project. Additionally, the quality of assessment was overall ineffective.

The objectives Analyzing the case, it is necessary to point out to what extent Taseko Mining Project follows all requirements of Environmental Assessment process and what adversities and effects it would have in regional context. More importantly, the focus should also be made on the analysis of First Nations opposition to the Project and what measures were taken to consider the requirements of the aboriginal population.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proponent description/Project description Taseko Mines Ltd. introduced the Prosperity Gold-Cooper Mine Project in British Columbia. The project would include building, operation, abandonment and decommissioning of a large mine destined for a 20 years operating life. In order proceed with the Project, it is necessary to gain the permission from the authorities and to obtain a license on conducting the planned operations.

The Mandate of the Panel Review. The Panel Review Mandate is to provide an evaluation of the environmental effects of the proposed project, including any alterations that the Project can introduce in the environment with regard to socio-economic conditions and health issues, physical and cultural heritage, land and resource usage for traditional goals of the aboriginal population.

The Panel shall also aims to provide conclusions and recommendation on the importance of the environmental impact of the Project on the Territory (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 265). During the hearing, the Panel rejected the project because it did not manage to meet the needs of First Nations and because it has adverse effects for environment.

Regional context It should be stressed that the project will have a considerable impact on aquatic environment. In particular, it would include the re-routing of surface flows and the impoundment of the aquatic habitats, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake in order to construct a Tailing Storage Faculty. Hence, the Prosperity Lake would be located to south of the TSF and to the east of Wasp Lake.

The lake would be built by constructing a water retention dam. The eastern side of the Upper Fish Creek will be surrounded by a headwater channel system that would be composed of north and south flowing channels (Levy, 2009, p. 5).

These water channels would be controlled and diverted into the Prosperity Lake through erected spawning channel. In its turn, the Prosperity Lake would deliver water to the TSF and to the open pit that would delivers water to Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 5).

Evaluating the introduced alterations, the project would provide permanent changes to the Fish Creek baseline hydrology. Such alterations involve the total removal of Little Fish Lake and Fish Lake. As a result, surface water stream flow will be decreased by 65 % within the period of operating in the Fish Creek watershed which will lead to diminishing of water area.

We will write a custom Report on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, the main effects on hydrology involve water diversion channel by 1, 25 Mm3 annually in the direction to Lower Fish Creek and resumption of water flows in the post-closure of Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 8).

The assessment have revealed that the proposed mitigations would turn out to be negative for the territory under consideration because it would have an irreversible impact on surface water hydrology until the post-closure stage when the flows are re-routed in Lower Fish Creek. The flow re-routing would take a time span of about 27 years period that is necessary for filling up the pit.

The Panel Review also concluded that the Project would have adverse effects for the population of grizzly bears. This is explained by the fact that this species is under the threat of extinction due to excessive ranching activities and rapid development of logging due to the rise of the operation industry. The point is that logging continues to influence the habitat due to the rise of human activities (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

The Prospect Employment Perspective for the Population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. The economic analysis has revealed that the Project provision involve a simplified version of the population assessment that can led to unequal allocation of labor force. As a result, there is a probability that the unemployment rate will increase.

In addition, there are rough calculations of mineral resources preserved on this territory and there are no guarantees for the population to be insured by work places on a long-termed basis (Kuyek, 2009, p. 4). According to socio-economic impact assessment, the mineral resources of gold and copper are 0.41% and 0.21% correspondently.

The situation is aggravated by the fact that the gold is distributed throughout the mine and it is impossible to retrieve it until the copper is mined. Besides there are some other valuable mineral resources that are not included into the Project provisions, but will be still mined and damaged.

According to the consideration of the Review Panel did reach a consensus concerning the economic benefits of the presented Project due to the fact that its Terms of Reference restricted it to regarding only social-economic impacts of the alterations the Project would have on the environment.

Nevertheless, the panel admitted that the Project would create 275 jobs annually in operation and constructions stages and nearly 600 indirect places only during the 20 years operation period.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the construction has ambiguous perspectives for the employees for a period of more than 20 years, which creates more concerns with the Project and its environmental impact assessment (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

Discussion First Nations’ participation to the EA process While evaluation the effects of the project on cultural, social, and economical issues related to this territories, numerous ambiguous questions have appeared. In particular, there are serious concerns with Assessment of Socio-Economic Impact. First of all, it is difficult to precisely identify the territory on which the project will be located.

In addition, the information about the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment is quite confusing. The failure to consider some significant provision in accordance to pertinent legislation can have a negative impact on health of the indigenous population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. More importantly, the cost-benefit analysis revealed that the Project failed to examine the people’s needs, including justice and equity in activities.

The Socio-Economic Analysis has also discovered that the Project would have considerable problems in cultural and social terms. In particular, the project does not guarantee that long-term period of dislocation and disruption will not worsen the cultural and social situation because the project fails to analysis the social infrastructures and communities located on this territory (Kuyek, 2009, p. 5).

The projects have also failed to take into consideration the destruction of social system caused by the disruption of natural ecosystem.

The inconsistency of project procedures and plans also consist in a failure to understand the impact on the Aboriginal people. There will definitely be serious effects of the Tsilhqot’in people who were initially against mine development, believing that its construction will damage their economy, cultural heritage, and their lifestyles (Kuyek, 2009, p. 7).

Additionally, First Nations’ concerns with the current land use were not in vain because the Project provided considerable and irreversible shift to the landscape and to the navigation. They were deprived of the places for hunting, fishing, and agricultural activities and, therefore, they had to introduce considerable changes to their lifestyles.

The First Nations also expressed their resentment towards the Project because Taseko’s plan to destroy the chief rivers, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake was not acceptable. In this respect, it is quite difficult for Taseko to gain the trust of aboriginal people because the knowledge about these peoples was adolescent and irrelevant.

Conclusion Challenge for Sustainable Development

Regarding all issues, regulations and proposals, it should be admitted that the Project has faced a great number of challenges and problems (Sallevane, n.d). In particular, the project has turned out to be adverse to the environmental, cultural, and social issues because its constructions and water flows re-routing has considerably influenced the ecology and hydrology of the examined territory.

Secondly, due to the lack of economic and social date, the Project failed to conform to the First Nation requirements as the indigenous population stands against any cultural, social, and environmental changes. Third, the Project failed the community’s needs for employment and development (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 26).

What Can We Learn from This Case Study?

A thorough analysis of this particular Case has revealed that any Projects providing changes to the environment should consider a bulk of issues because considerable shifts in the natural ecosystem can lead to the destruction of firmly established cultural, social, and economic norms within a community.

The Panel discussions and decisions have made us learn a lot of information and legal issues that protect the environment from adverse effects on the part of the industrial field. Moreover, the Assessment has provided a lot of facts about Project’s gaps to present their emergence in future.

Reference List Environmental Assessment Office. 2009. Prosperity Gold-Copper Project Assessment Report. British Columbian.

Kuyek, Joan. 2009. Rewiew of the Proposed Prosperity Mine Socio-Economic Assessment. Mining Watch Canada.

Levy, David. 2009. A. Review of the Prosperity Mine Aquatic Impact Assessment. Levy Research Services, Ltd. Web.

Sallevane, John. n.d. Giving Tradition Ecological Knowledge Its Rightful Place in Environmental Impact Assessment. Web.

Western Economic Diversification Canada 2009. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Web.


Information System Design Reflective Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Abstract The future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011 sets new tasks before BIF specialists who deal with the hooligan groups in the UK. The main idea of this report is to consider possible solution to the information systematization from different countries via the computer system.

This computer system is aimed at collecting, evaluating, analyzing and disseminating information before it is used by the BIF specialists. The program is rather useful and may reduce specialists’ time on dealing with the information.

Still, many obstacles may be faced while implementing it. Thus, the computer system should be created, but before this the information should be collected, the work planned and the difficulties analysed. This report dwells upon those aspects.

Introduction People got used to the information technologies which became an essential part of their life. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without those facilities. Omitting the part where informational technologies help people communicate with each other, search for information and entertain, it should be mentioned that the information technologies are helpful in more serious affairs.

First of all, information technologies help people run business, enter into cooperation with different companies worldwide and support human security. It is important to remember that all the security systems of any organisation are based on the innovative technologies. All the video cameras in different organisations are connected to the computer systems which help follow the situation.

Moreover, there are a number of different computer systems which help collect and analyse information in such a way that it may be used in catching some criminal groups further.

The main purpose of this report is to provide the analysis and express personal opinion on the computer system which may be helpful for collecting, analysing, and disseminating information more effectively and efficiently than it was made before, relating it to the future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main purpose of this computer program is going to be the more effective identification of the hooligan groups and their organisation with the purpose to reduce the violation actions.

Initial Thoughts on the Feasibility of the Proposed System When the Home Secretary asked me to conduct a research and write a report devoted to the computer system directed at the improving the situation within hooligan groups up to the European Champions League final in May, 2010 in London, I thought that the task is rather complicated, but due to the modern technologies it is feasible.

Thus, the Home Secretary wants to consider whether it is possible to create a system which would help BIF specialists make decisions on the basis of the collected, analysed and disseminated information which is going to be generated by the “fully computerised system”.

The proposed system is feasible, still the concise purpose and utilisation of the system should be carefully considered. It should be noted that the European countries have already created such systems, that is why it is unnecessary to dwell upon the importance and the convenience of the similar systems in other countries.

I suppose that it would be useful to create such system which would help BIF specialists collect and arrange information. It would reduce their time on the operations mentioned above and would increase it for judgment and functioning. My personal initial judgment of the proposed system is that it would not too difficult to create it, and at the same time it is going to be extremely useful.

But, the necessary computer system design is not the only thing which should be completed. After the system is utilised, the system designers should think about its security. This is one of the first things which I thought about when I became to check the controversial points to the proposed system feasibility.

The information is of unique importance and should be properly protected as the hooligan groups in the United Kingdom have rather useful relationships with international hooligan groups and are linked with some right-wing political groups.

We will write a custom Essay on Information System Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This causes some problems for the proposed system feasibility, still, it may be corrected. The computerisation of the collected information is an ideal tool for processing that data. It is important to remember that the information processed in this way should comprise only the part of the decision.

The Kind of Information to Seek, the Sources to Seek It from, and the Fact Finding Methods to Employ in Order to Get it, in Order to Gain A Full Appreciation of the Problem Situation

Before getting down to designing a proposed system a thorough research should be conducted. On the basis of the main idea of the further system, we should check what functions it should perform. The problem seems rather easy, still, the supporting clarifications and elaborations may cause a number of problems.

First of all, it is important to understand what kind of the information we are going to collect. The design of the system should be based on this information as well as on facts where this information should be collected.

Thus, system requires the information about the members of hooligan gangs, their names, address, places of their work, family, interests and contact information. These facts will help the BIF specialists identify the psychological type of each person and implement some actions which could prevent them from violence.

Moreover, the collection of this information may help BIF specialists get to know the further plans of the hooligan groups and prevent those in the European Champions League final in London. Moreover, it should be remembered that it is not so easy to gather this information. The UK services should contact their colleagues in other countries and ask them to get access to the protected information about hooligan groups.

The channels via which the information is going to be delivered should be properly protected. Furthermore, it may be useful to check different social networks for the useful information. Facebook may contain some information about the friends and the future events the groups plan. The contacts may be considered from these nets as well.

The BIF specialists may use the information they manage to get from the reliable sources delivered to UK and European police forces. All the information mentioned above and the sources where it may be considered should be properly understood while computerisation of the information and creating a system requires from the designers to be strict and attentive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information System Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to remember about the technology and the equipment, necessary for proper functioning of the system: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, network, and the Internet, people, and procedures. Thus, it may be concluded that it is necessary appreciate all the facts mentioned and correlate those with the system design.

Even the slightest change in the source of the information may change the effectiveness and efficiency of the work. It is also remember the stages according to which the work on the computer system is going to be completed as about one of the ways to understand the problems situation, feasibility, analysis, design, implementation, test, and maintenance.

A List of Personal Thoughts on the Task Which Has Been Asked to Undertake The Difficulties Which Might Be Faced

There are a number of problems we may face while designing the computer system for information collection and analysis. One of the first problems is the equipment. The implementation of such a great plan requires high quality equipment which will be able to support the necessary software. The information protection may be a great challenge for the system.

There are so many different threats on the Internet, starting with the viruses which may attack the system, and finishing with the computer hacker who may crack the computer program and avoid the authorised access to the system.

Moreover, the information leakage may prevent the proper work of the system as well as some problems which may appear at the testing stage. One more difficulty which may be faced is my inability to get the whole information as limited access is a guaranty for the project’s success.

The Suitability of the Resources at the Disposal

The resources which the organisation has in disposal are huge. All the European organisations which work with hooligan groups are ready to provide it with the information for the sake of the human security from hooligan groups and the violence actions they usually provide. Moreover, the information resources are suitable. Still, it is impossible to say the same about the equipment.

On the one hand, I do not have access to some facts which are protected due to the security considerations. On the other hand, I may say that the computer equipment which was used before did not require such high standards, so it is natural that the organisation does not have it. Thus, it is impossible to say that computer equipment as well as software is suitable for now.

Recommendations to Make to the Home Secretary with Regard to This Proposed System

There are a number of recommendations I want to provide the Home Secretary with. First, it is necessary to employ the computer specialists who are going to deal with the computer design of the system and the implementation of the ideas considered above. Second, the costs should be considered, both on the sole costs and constant costs aimed at supporting and serving the equipment and software.

The contacts with organisations which deal with the hooligan groups in different countries should be established. The principles of the computer system design should be followed in order to protect it from any of the problems which may appear, like the problems with “emergent properties, propagation of effects, incommensurate scaling, and trade-offs” (Saltzer


Samsung: Market Expansion Towards Year 2025 Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Globalization has resulted in an improved trade among different countries. There is movement of goods and services from one country to another. The policies of comparative and absolute advantage are economic tools which have facilitated the development in international trade. Electronic industry is drastically changing with many phone making industries on the increase.

This has resulted in making of different models of phones, laptops and other electronics. One of the world leading electronic makers is Samsung. It is located in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea, and forms the world’s largest conglomerate company by revenue. The main products by the company are Television sets, Radios, phones, Camera tape recorders, and recently it has diversified to a growing laptop market.

The idea to have such a company was coined in 1969 by Lee Byung-chull and started as a small electronic workshop. The company’s main mission is to inspire the world to create a better future for human species. The company aims to introduce its laptops to Australia. Australia is the world’s smallest continent but Samsung has not tapped the market with its new development.

This paper evaluates the decision to venture in Australian market, the focus on developing/forecasting options for 2025. It will also undertake this task by evaluating social, economic, political situation of Australia. In the last pages of the report, it will give recommendations on the leadership style to be adopted in the venture.

Brief background of Samsung

Samsung is an international South Korean company which was established in 1969 in Daegu, South Korea as a small electronic shop. The first venture of the company was to manufacture Television sets, radios, Calculators and other home electronic appliances like refrigerators.

This was in the era of black and white T.V. sets and in 1981, the company had made over 10million black and white T.V.s. as opportunities arose the company diversified to other electronic ventures and in 1988 merged with Samsung Semiconductor


Strategies of Leadership Report (Assessment) college essay help

In the order to become successful, an established manager and leader, I need to look at all elements encompassed in the roles of a leader. To begin with, I will concentrate on the communication skills I possess. As I have rated myself overtime, I have found out that, while listening to people, I do so without interrupting the speaker.

As a leader, one needs to understand my means of communication, (my verbal communication, accent, and my body language). A leaders mind is not supposed to wander of when one talks to him/her, moreover a leader needs to send signals that he/she understands, and that is what am learning to nature (Elerts, 2006).

In addition to this, I have come to learn that decision making should be effectual (Cameron, 2009). In relation to this, I regard myself as a reflector and a pragmatist. Therefore, all I decide on must always make sense and stand in the taste of time.

Priority is mandatory when one is to make up a personal development plan (Mathews, 2000). Things that are not of urgency should come last and urgent matters should be prioritized (Stoner, 2010).

This helps to maximize and make the most out of time. Over the years, the people I work with have received motivation from me. This attitude regardless of how small or big, makes one have the zeal of carrying on (Garner, 2001). In my plan motivating is essential as I have seen it work.

Whichever status one acquires, he/she needs to report to those above or to relevant authorities (Lee, 2004). These things though small carry up so much weight in ones personal development plan. In order to perfect and become one successful entrepreneur, I have realized that there are things I can’t avoid. One of these is time management. I have realized the need to incorporate time management skills in my development plan.

For successful leadership to occur, time should be spent sensibly (Brown, 2002). Time is not only a resource but is also very limited. Therefore, I have recognized the essence of ensuring I don’t misuse my time, all activities must be in writing and each allocated its own time (McVilly, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my plan, I noticed that, the aspect of technology is necessary. For success, I need to be aware and conversant to the changing technology (Masons, 2001). My plan outlines the exact technology I should put in place, and how I should achieve this and get it in to the system. This means that I need to learn more and more frequently on the changing trends of technology to be up to date.

As a reflector, I have noticed the need for research as it is a key to success. Apart from researching, my development plan points out specifically what I need to do with the research without wasting time (Smiths, 2008). To be above or ahead of the pack, regular research programs must be initiated. Since this is a personal development plan for the whole year, it is of absolute importance to focus on my strengths and my weaknesses.

To begin with, I want to highlight my strengths that will help me in achieving my goals. Among my strengths I do have excellent communication skills. Nothing can be done without communication and therefore I do capitalize on this strength.

I do listen to what others have to say and work on bettering it. I also have a positive thinking towards life, and in particular about what I want to achieve. My passion in knowing new things is what keeps me in achieving the “unachievable”.

My weaknesses are that I fear venturing into uncertainties. I also lack the patience when no results seem to come in my way. However, I receive feedback from time to time from people and so I have decided to be calm when results trickle in slowly. Moreover, I have the zeal to venture in to the uncertain fields after giving it more thought.

Nothing is achievable without goals (Metzner, 2000). Hence I have set up goals in two categories. This includes:

Short term (in the next three months)

Develop my communication skills to perfection

Work on two researches every month

Develop a test product for the market

Long-term ( in one years time)

Have a customer base of 100 people per day

Achieve my higher diploma in printing technology

Establish a printing firm in my home town.

Subsequently I must have a system of monitoring these goals to come into reality (Clancy, 2005). This can be called my checks and balances unit. The plan clearly expects me to do thorough study, get a place where I can access capital for the business, go back to college, and make sure everything is according to plan.

We will write a custom Assessment on Strategies of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since we live in the world of uncertainties, it is important that in my plan I put measures that will counter any arising problem. In case of an unexpected occurrence, my plans must proceed or switch to plan B. This not withstanding, risks involved must be outlined. In this case, my plan should show clearly the next source of funding, the move I must take to counter my competitors and so forth.

My plan clearly outlines changes also found in current plan or rather deviation from current planning. Specific measures are in place to explain what exactly will lead to a change of plan from original plans (Haggers, 2006). On the other hand, it also outlines clearly things expected in the future. I need to explain my vision and make sure that all those who help me in achieving my vision are much aware of what is expected.

Again I need to lay out strategies in place for achieving this plan. To add on this, my plan has put in place management measures for implementation. Everyone involved is aware of what is required of them. There are tools in place to monitor the smooth running so as to hit my target.

Again, there is regular communication of what is happening. This helps in letting people know the status of where you are and how far from the goals you are (Johnsons, 2001).

In a synopsis, it is important to have a plan that clearly outlines and guides you towards achieving what you want. No prosperity in life comes from nothing that is not written down (Wisker, 2010). This is so because the writings will be as a reminder in your day to day life knowing that you need to achieve the set target.

References Brown, G. 2002. Time Management Skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cameron, G. 2009. The business students study: skills for study and employment. London: Prentice Hall.

Clancy, M. 2005. Managerial achievements. London: Pitman Publishing Limited.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategies of Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elerts, G. 2006. Communication skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Garner, P. 2001. Motivating People at the work place. London: McGraw Hill.

Haggers, M. 2005. Managerial Planning. New York: Dover Publication.

Johnsons, B. 2001. Setting managerial goals. Sydney: Krieger Publishing.

Lee. C. 2004. Chain of Command. Chicago, McGraw Hill Publishing

Masons, K. 2001. Technological changes. London: Pitman Publishers.

Mathews, W. 2000. Prioritizing management. London. McGraw Hill.

Metzner, H. 2000. Achieving the unachievable. Berlin. Dortmund university press.

McVilly, D. 2009. Time Management. London: Longman Publishers.

Smiths, A. 2008. Research in management. London. Pitman Publishers.

Stoner, H. 2010. Allocating Priority. New York: Oxford University press.

Wisker, G. 2010. Achieving prosperity. Palgrave: Macmillan Publishers.


Current Economic Climate Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Strategic change is an important concept for all business organizations that want to survive in the constantly changing global economy. Strategic change is defined as the change that takes place in a company’s strategy. It is the organization’s attempt to align its strategies with those of the external environment.

It involves changing the organizations vision, mission and objectives as well as the strategies that are used to achieve these objectives. Changes in the external environment such as economic changes, political changes and environmental factors require organizations to adapt in-order to survive.

Adapting to the external environment will require companies to change their business strategies so as to remain relevant in today’s economy. There are a number of approaches that can be used in carrying out the strategic change process.

These approaches have to take into account the employees of the organization, the cultural setting and value system that are in use within the organization and the business environment that the organization operates in. The next section covers the various strategic models that can be used by managers in the strategic process (Hughes 2006).

Strategic Change Tools and Models Strategic change models and approaches are used to reflect the intentional and strategic changes that take place within organizations. Clear goals and measurement scales are used in these approaches to gain some feedback on how the change process will affect the business operations of the company. The type of strategic change model that is used should be in line with the process of change implementation for the organization.

The change process involves preparing the organization for the change process. This will involve communicating the changes that will take place to the important stakeholders of the company such as the employees, investors and shareholders to ensure they that they are all prepared for the change (Gunn 2009).

Once the necessary changes have been communicated to all important stakeholders, the next phase of the process will involve implementing the change management plan. The changes will be implemented in accordance with the agreed business goals, objectives and strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next stage after implementation will involve providing ongoing support to the implementation process as well as undertaking improvements to the change management plan.

The purpose of this stage is to ensure that there is a continual support of the changes that are taking place within the organization. The last stage of the change process is important as it ensures that the changes have been implemented successfully within the transformed organization (Gunn 2009). There are a range of strategic change models that can be used in initiating change within organizations.

These models include Lewin’s three step model, Kotter’s eight steps for organizational change, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Beckhard and Harris’ approach to organizational change, the Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, Carnall’s change management model, Stacey and Shaw’s responsive processes, Senge’s systematic model and William Bridges model of managing transition in an organization (Cameron and Green 2004).

The models that will be focused are Lewin’s three step model, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, William Bridges model and Kotter’s eight step model.

Lewin’s Three Step Model The first model which is the Lewin three step model was developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951 for use in the organizational context. His model for organizational change is the most recognised and used by many company managers today. Lewin introduced the three step model for organizational change as a result of a study he conducted to determine the phenomenon of group change amongst an organization’s employees.

He noted that organizational change amongst employees lasted for a short time as employees returned to their original behaviour after the change was implemented. Lewin concluded that for change to be more permanent, the old habits of performing work had to be completely eliminated. His solution to permanent change saw him develop the three step model of change (Robbins 2009).

For organizations to achieve effective organizational change, they had to employ the three step model which is made up of unfreezing, change and freezing. The unfreezing step involves ensuring that the organizations employees have a need or desire for change. This need is usually achieved by conducting a confrontation with the employees or employee education that will ensure their perception of organizational change is different.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Current Economic Climate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stage ensures that the organizational members understand the need for change as well as create a desire for change amongst these members. The unfreezing stage also ensures that employees are made aware that the old way of performing business is unacceptable and they should therefore embrace the new system of change (Robbins 2009).

The next step was where the actual change occurred. This stage ensured that the organization moved to the desired state of change that had new policies, procedures, structures and goals. The refreezing stage involved reinforcing the changes into the organizational system by ensuring that these changes were consistent with the employee’s behaviour.

To demonstrate the three step model an example will be used of a call centre that has been receiving poor customer evaluations. The company’s managers have realized good customer service is important in achieving success and therefore want the company to be more customer-focused (Mills et al 2009).

The use of the three step model will see the company unfreezing the current status of customer service in the call centre. This will be done by conducting staff meetings and reviewing customer surveys to determine how to improve customer service. The change step will involve providing the customer service representatives with the necessary training that will initiate a change in how they interact with customers.

The refreezing stage will involve rewarding the representatives on an hourly basis as well as rewarding them with bonuses for any positive customer feedback and surveys (Mills et al 2009).

Lewin’s model for organizational change basically requires a significant commitment on the part of the organization before, during and after the change. This model is suitable as it considers the organizations, internal and external environment (Kritsonis 2005).

Bullock and Batten’s Planned Change Model The change model was developed around project management activities which included exploration, planning, action and integration. The exploration stage involves identifying the need for change and acquiring the specific resources that will be used to initiate the change. The planning step involves including decision makers in the development of the change management plan that will be used in the change process.

The plan is then implemented which results in the action stage. The integration phase is initiated once the change plan has been fully implemented and aligned with changes that have occurred within the other areas of the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Current Economic Climate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This approach of organizational change views the change process as a technical problem that can be solved with a technical solution. This method is suitable for less complex organizational problems and in dealing with isolated cases (Cameron and Green 2004).

Processual Model of Organizational Change This approach to organizational change ensures that the complex nature of change is managed in an ongoing and dynamic way. The task of managers who use this model of change is to navigate through the complexities of change by examining the available options and resources.

Instead of directing change, the manager’s role becomes that of ensuring the organization’s members respond to the change by embracing the necessary skills and knowledge to effect the change. The processual model is based on the premise that organizations facing change go through a variety of dynamic states that interlock and overlap forcing the change process to be analysed on emergent character context (Ramanathan 2008).

Understanding organizational change under this approach therefore involves studying the events that lead to the change and how the change affects the overall processes of the organization (Ramanathan 2008).

An example of this approach in an organization that is undergoing a major change in all of its business processes will be to conduct staff meetings, staff education, training and communication networks that will ensure that the complex components of the change process have been broken down into manageable and simple components.

Kotter’s Eight Step Model This method of organizational change was derived from Kotter’s study of 100 different organizations that were undergoing change. The results of the study highlighted eight key lessons that were later modelled into the eight steps of organizational change. These eight steps were used to address some of the power issues that arose during the organizational change process.

The first step of the model involved the creation of a sense of urgency which involved studying the market trends and changes after which the requirement for change within the organization would be analysed, the second stage involved the formation of a powerful guiding coalition that would be used to steer the change process, the creation of a vision was the third step in the eight step model.

This stage involved developing a vision that would be used to bring about change within the organization (Sabri et al 2007).

After coming up with the vision, the next step involved passing on the set goals and vision to the important stakeholders of the company after which they would be authorized to proceed on the set goals. This involved getting rid of the obstacles to change within the organization. The next step of the model involved planning and creating short term wins.

This would involve looking for short term visible improvements that would be used in the change process. After this was done, the improvements would be consolidated into the change process so that they can continue producing more change within the organization. Once the changes were consolidated, they would then be institutionalised into the culture of the organization (Singh 2010).

An example of how this approach can be used in effecting organizational change in a consultancy company that is facing a decrease of business is to create a sense of urgency that will assess the competitive nature of the consultancy’s environment after which a team will be formed to deal with effecting the necessary changes to the firm’s business operations.

A vision will then be developed to empower the team members and the rest of the employees within the organization to act on the vision which will see the actions being consolidated and institutionalized into the company.

Nadler and Tushman’s Model for Organizational Change This approach to organizational change emphasizes the importance of the transformation process and how organizations are made up of different components and parts that interact together. These components exist in a state of relative balance that ensures they fit together.

The four important elements that make up this model include tasks which encompass the work to be done, the skills and knowledge of individuals, the formal organization which is the explicitly defined process of the organization and the informal organization which encompasses the less explicitly defined understanding of the organization’s processes (Bezboruah 2008).

According to this model, the successful handling of change inside an organization means ensuring that all four components of the model have been identified and controlled. If a change takes place in one component, changes have to be effected on all the other three components to reduce the chances of organizational homeostasis from occurring.

Homeostasis refers to the organization returning to the old way of doing things which leads to a lack of congruence. This model is therefore important in dealing with the power and control issues that arise due to the homeostasis condition within the organization. An example of the application of this method is when a production company has a market demand to produce a new product.

The demand will require a specific task to be performed in order to produce the required output. This will involve incorporating the other components of the model which will be the individual’s skills and knowledge, the formal and the informal processes of the organization (Anderson 2010).

William Bridges Managing Transition This model of organizational change focuses on the transition process that takes place during change. William Bridges’ focus on transition creates an extensive understanding of what happens in an organization during the change process. He views transition to be a process that involves eliminating the old way of doing business and adopting new methods/techniques.

This model engages three stages which are the new beginning, the neutral zone and ending. The ending stage involves completing the old system of company operations before the new changes are initiated.

The neutral zone involves dealing with employee reactions once the changes have been implemented while the new beginning involves defining the purpose of the change and what the outcomes of the changes will be (Bridges 2009).

Conclusion The above models and approaches to organizational change demonstrate that change can be implemented in a just and fair way within an organization that is undergoing change. The methods can be used depending on the type of change the organization is going through.

The basis of these methods is to ensure that the change process is not cumbersome and complex to the people who have been charged with the responsibility of initiating change within organization. The strategic change models ensure that the change process has been broken down into more manageable processes and components.

References Anderson, D.L., (2010) Organization development: the process of leading organizational change, California. US: Sage Publications

Bezboruah, K.C., (2008) Applying the congruence model of organizational change in explaining the change in the Indian economic policies. Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, Vol.5, No.2, pp 129-140

Bridges, W., (2009) Managing transitions: making the most of change. Massachusetts: Da Capo Press

Cameron, E., and Green, M., (2004) Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers

Gunn, S.B., (2009) The essential management toolbox: tools, models and notes for managers and consultants. New York: John Wiley and Sons

Hughes, M., (2006) Change management: a critical perspective. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Kritsonis, A., (2005) Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, Vol. 8, No.1, pp 2-7

Mills, J.H., Dye, K., and Mills, A.J., (2009) Understanding organizational change. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers

Ramanathan, T.R., (2008) The role of organizational change management in offshore outsourcing of information technology services. Florida, US: Universal Publishers

Robbins, S.P., (2009) Organizational behaviour: global and Southern African perspectives, Capetown. South Africa: Pearson Education

Sabri, E.H., Gupta, A.P., and Beitler, M.A., (2007) Purchase order management best practices: process, technology and change management. Florida: J. Ross Publishing

Singh, K., (2010) Organizational behaviour: text and cases. India: Pearson Education South East Asia


Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Dickens is regarded as the master of style because he has the ability to describe scenes in colorful detail thus making the scenes being described to come alive. The two pieces of work that will be the main area of concern in this analysis are ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’.

Analysis Charles Dickens’ writing reflects his extraordinary gift of observance. Not many novelists can accomplish what this author has managed to achieve in his books. He has the capacity to lay out images of things and people in a manner that the ordinary human being would not envisage.

Dickens’ writings integrate what he observes with what he remembers and imagines. Seldom does one miss even the most trivial of details in his work. It is these trivialities that bring out his most critical strength in literature (Gissing 63). In ‘Oliver Twist’, the following passage exemplifies this feature:

“his gaze encountered the terrified face of Oliver Twist, who, despite all the admonitory looks and pinches of Bumble, was regarding the repulsive countenance of his future master with a mingled expression of horror and fear too palpable to be mistaken even by a half-blind magistrate” (Dickens Oliver 18).

The capacity to describe vividly probably stemmed from Dickens’ attention to detail even in his real life. In letters that he wrote to his colleagues, Charles often noticed the most peculiar things about people. One particular letter was written to Wilkie on the 17th of January 1858. He describes an incident in which he had gone to visit a mental asylum and found a man who was dumb and deaf.

It was only during the late stages of his illness that others began to notice his insanity. Dickens asked about his occupation and found that he had worked as a telegraph operator.

He speculated about the nature of messages that he sent to different parts of the world in his mental state. Charles did not think about the obvious things; he looked as the mentally-ill patient’s perspective from a totally unexpected angle. It was this talent that he transmitted to his novels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Something else that comes to mind when reading this author’s classic tales is his propensity to find romance in unpleasant or routine scenarios. Dickens can find something valuable out of even the most wretched of places. He takes a seemingly insignificant and disagreeable occurrence and then relates it with the story in a manner that enriches it.

For instance in ‘A Tale of Two Cities’, he describes a battle scene in Bastille as a “vast dusky mass of scarecrows to and fro, with frequent gleams of light above the billowy heads, where steel blades and bayonets shone in the sun” (Dickens A Tale 244). Through this description, he brings out the tense and belligerent atmosphere so effectively, and thus enriches the story.

In ‘Oliver Twist’ several descriptions of drudgery and filth fill the chapters. In one scenario, he describes the tenements as “fast closed and molding away… houses had become insecure from age and decay and were prevented from falling into the street by huge beams of wood reared against the walls” (Dickens Oliver 5).

It is clear from this description that the state of poverty in that tenement was excessive. The author emphasizes this state of affairs by adding the description of the beams. Such creativity makes one feel like one is in those establishments, and thus enhances the narrative.

It is easy to find unforgettable scenes in Dickens’ work. The reason behind their impressiveness is his ability to paint them rather than merely narrate them. For instance in “A Tale of Two Cities”, the author refers to France for the first time in chapter five. At this moment, he talks about a broken wine cask. He then backs up the picture of wine casks with some descriptions of the surrounding noise.

In another instance, the author paints a picture of the grindstone scene. He talks about the men who sharpen their swords and knives elaborately. Such scenes make the work appear as though it is an actual painting rather than mere prose. The author thus manages to affect the audience’s responses through these spatial representations (Stange 384).

Like any other great writer, Dickens drew inspiration from a number of historical occurrences or figures. However, he was not interested in recapturing these crucial moments of history in every detail possible. Charles simply wanted to draw lessons from them.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he often told his biographer how he had read the book “French Revolution” by Thomas Carlyle hundreds of times; most structural elements of “A Tale of Two Cities” come from this book. Instead of reconstructing the past, Dickens chooses to tell the story of his characters through these historical patterns.

When describing ancient practices, such as the whipping post, Charles reminds the reader that he is talking about an extinct practice. As such, one does not feel lost in a bygone era. Everything that takes place in the lives of his characters resonates with the social order of the time (Hutter 448).

Therefore, the suffering and death that took place gains a lot of relevance in the mind of reader. This serves to keep all scenes highly relevant and thus captivating. It is these sorts of tactics that make Dickens’ work exceptional.

On must realize that it is not just the great description of these scenes that makes Charles Dickens novels so remarkable. He also has an instinctive skill of integrating disorderly events into one remarkable and united tale. The story of ‘Oliver Twist’ exemplifies this strategy; throughout the narration, there is a mystery that must be solved by the protagonist.

He needs to find his true identity, and when he achieves this, then he will find his true position in society. All of the adventures in the book are tied to this goal, even though the ambition does not seem to be so obvious in the beginning.

It is these overarching themes that make the words and descriptions in the book so meaningful. Charles Dickens does not just write ‘Oliver Twist’ for the sake of writing; each description is filled with meaning. The scenes have a huge impact on the outcome of the story. For instance

“Mr. Brownlow went on from day to day, filling the mind of his adopted child with stores of knowledge, and becoming attached to him, more and more,. And his nature developed itself and showed the thriving seeds of all he wished him to become” (Dickens Oliver 53).

This passage captures the very essence of the book. Oliver always wanted to be independent; having grown up in the streets, he had to adopt a certain degree of self determination. On the other hand, Oliver still wanted someone else to make choices for him since the latter option would cause him to be accepted by the middle class or other respectable members of society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Brownlow fills him with knowledge, he is allowing the boy to reconcile these two needs. It takes a stroke of genius to capture such conflicting goals in small passages such as the one quoted above. Charles Dickens was able to combine verbal prowess with meaning-making perfectly in this excerpt (Miller 83).

Charles Dickens’ style also elicits emotions from its audiences owing to its directness. ‘Oliver Twist’ is quite a poignant tale, but only the author’s descriptions create these effects. For instance when Dickens talks about Oliver’s imprisonment, one fully identifies the plight of this young boy. He is in an underground prison, which could fall at any time owing to its weak foundations and decaying structures (Dickens Oliver 3).

Furthermore, the room is absolutely dark so that Oliver cannot see his surroundings. If one cannot see the walls, then it is almost as if one is covered by nothingness. A picture of gloom and hopelessness may take over one’s life. It is no wonder Oliver went to the corner so that he could at least touch something real.

Dickens then contrasts the coldness of the walls with the gloom in the room, and asserted that the protagonist preferred the cold. The loneliness and isolation that this boy feels is unmistakable; Charles cleverly uses two highly undesirable elements to bring out the magnitude of Oliver’s troubles.

If the boy was in such as state as to prefer a cold, hard surface over the nothingness, then it must have been completely unbearable for him. The witty choice of words draws out audiences’ emotions.

It is only when an author is able to wear the characters’ shoes that he can think about his reactions to them. If Dickens had not imagined himself to be Oliver in that dark room, he would not have thought about the temporary comfort that the walls accorded the protagonist. Such vividness and capacity to draw out people’s emotions is what causes many readers to admire Dickens’ work.

Any novelist should aim at pleasing his audience. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’ are some of the most pleasant novels in English literature (Baysal 14). Therefore, in this realm, Dickens has succeeded as an artist. However, it should be noted that not everyone admired this style of writing during Dickens’ lifetime.

Some critics such as James Stephen thought that appealing to audiences’ emotions rather than their sense of reason was crude and corny. These critics classified ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ as historical fiction, so they presumed that it should be philosophical in nature. Other critics of his time such as Aldous Haxley claimed that it was vulgar to fake emotions as Dickens had done because sincerity was a talent in literature.

While these criticisms may be valid to a certain extent, they do not address the root-cause of Dickens’ stylistic preferences. Dickens wanted to write ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ in a manner that would educate the masses about an important historical event.

He was not writing for the historians or the scholars, so it should come as no surprise that these audiences found his work unsatisfactory. The dates and events were accurately stated in his book and that is what mattered. Fictional writers must prioritize the needs of their readers as it is not possible to satisfy everyone.

Many readers were drawn to Dickens’ work because he used characters that they were already familiar with. For those who did not about such characters, Dickens always made a point of introducing them ever so carefully.

It was this element that constantly won them over. In doing so, Dickens would use habits that are common to all in order to achieve this aim. By drawing on common humanity, Charles was able to make his scenes come alive (Forster 125).

“Now that he was enveloped in the old calico robes… he was badged and ticketed, and fell into his place at once – a parish child-the orphan of a half-starved drudge.. to be despised by all and pitied by none” (Dickens Oliver 8).

Dickens was aware that all human beings have experienced indifference or disdain. Using phrases that captured these sentiments ensured that even the middle class could understand Oliver’s status.

Conclusion Dickens was a master of style because he had a talent of observance, which manifested itself in the form of intricate details. Furthermore, he would find romance in the most unexpected places. As if these were not enough, Dickens often painted images of his scenes rather than just describing them.

Perhaps the most important aspect of his work was his emotional appeal. He achieved this by putting himself in the shoes of his characters. He also introduced unfamiliar audiences to the world of his books using common humanity. It was these stylistic strategies that made him a literary genius.

Works Cited Baysal, Alev. Caryle’s Influence upon A Tale of Two Cities. 8 Jun. 2007. Web.

Dickens, Charles. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1867. Googlebooks. Web.

Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. NY: Bentham, 1859. Googlebooks. Web.

Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1872. Googlebooks. Web.

Gissing, George. Charles Dickens: A critical study. 2001. Web.

Hutter, Albert. Nation and Generation in A Tale of Two Cities. PMLA 93.3(1978): 448-462. Web.

Miller, Joseph. Charles Dickens: the world of his novels. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1958. Googlebooks. Web.

Stange, Robert. Dickens and Fiery past: A Tale of Tow Cities Reconsidered. English Journal 2009: 381-390. Web.


Allure Cruise Line Essay essay help

Who will be Allure’s main competitors in this market? Cruise lines are one of the fast growing companies in the USA and each year the number of the competitors is going to increase. Working in one and the same industry, the companies are going to create as many specific offers as possible in order to win. The main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line in the industry are the similar companies which provide the clients with the similar services.

There are a lot of different companies in the USA which offer similar services, however, most of them cannot be considered as the company competitors as they are big international company and do not have the contradicting interests with Allure Cruise Line.

Costa Cruises, Windjammer Barefoot Cruises and The Maine Windjammer Association (Cruise Lines? 2009) are the main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line as the spheres of their interests coincide. Working in Florida and having the similar tours these companies compete severely.

Each of the companies wants to become the leading one and that is why more and more practical and innovative decisions are made. Moreover, the competition becomes stronger as the sphere is interesting and attracts more and more participants.

How will Allure distinguish itself from its competitors in these markets? One of the main spheres of impact the Allure Cruise Line is best into and is going to compete in is the number of tours offered for the clients. The comfort and the services the clients of the company are offered cannot be compared with any other one. The company distinguishes itself from other similar companies by the quality of the services, the comfort of their ships and the possibility to choose the place of destination and departure.

The customers are offered a range of services which are going to be satisfied within the shortest period of time. The location of the Allure Cruise Line offices is one more distinguishing features as the company has the representations in many countries.

Additionally, the company is planning to expand into Mediterranean and make sure that it occupies more and more territories. Therefore, one of the main distinguishing features of the Allure Cruise Line is its desire to expand not only nationally, but also internationally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How will they position themselves differently? The positioning of the services is one of the most complicated affairs in the changing environment. The service positioning relies on the company customers who are to express their desires and demands in the relation to the company services. When the demands and desires are expressed, the company managers are to access the costs on the realization of those desires and the service positioning strategy.

“The service positioning strategy is a choice of which client segments the organization wants to serve, how it intends to attract and retain those clients, and what methods/know-how it uses to deliver the intended benefit” (The Berkeley Consulting Group, n.d., n.p.).

The opportunities and threats are to be considered before applying to the service positioning strategy. To be successful, Allure Cruise Line should apply to al its resources and refer to the capabilities it has. Financial resources, staff skills, facilities and assets, and knowledge are to be applied to while implementing the service positioning. The mission and the vision of the organization are to be met.

Reference List Cruise Lines. (2009). List of Official Cruise Web Sites. Retrieved from

The Berkeley Consulting Group. (n.d.). Berkeley Methodology. Web.


Magical Realism: Garcia Marquez Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Magical realism is explained as the desire of the author to show the ordinary life of people with the instances of unreal, fantastic events. In most cases the desire to present the magical realism in short stories is explained by the desire to create a fairy tale, however, the reasons are deeper.

Garcia Marquez used magical realism to write fascinating short stories such as “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” and “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” that captivated his readers and kept them interested up to the end of the stories showing human attitude to those who seem strange or not look like others.

The stories under consideration are absolutely different, however, they show human attitude to absolutely strange people. The “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” tries to show people how they usually consider others knowing about them nothing. A man is found dead and strange people express a desire to bury the body in accordance with the rules.

Reading the story it becomes obvious that strange people are ready for much when they do not know a person, but they like him/her. The main idea of the story is to show how people who absolutely do not know the body make everything for him just because they feel sympathy to him, just because they like the appearance of the man.

The villages know nothing about him, but his appearance helps them create the whole story of his life, they imagine that he had a wife and many other aspects which make sure that he was a good person. The imaginary realism plays the role of human consciousness and the desire to think about people only positive and good things.

The next story has almost the same meaning, but in this case the judgment of people is shown. In “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez discusses human opinion about a person they do not know. The magical realism is aimed at presenting more vivid picture, to express human thoughts more powerful and with specific images.

People always have personal opinion about others, and the author tries to make this opinion better. Reading the story, a strange man appears in different images. Some people believed that he was an angel as he had the wings. Others believed him to be a poor one as he was dirty, etc.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it may be seen that different people created their opinion about this person on the basis of the particular images. The transformation of the hero depended on one particular thing either in the cloths or on the face expression of the man.

Therefore, it may be concluded that referring to the magical realism Garcia Marquez tried to show the inner world of human beings their relation to strange people and the aspects which create the opinion of different people. The social public opinion is created on the basis of the points of view people express.

The more similar ideas, like in “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” the more guarantee that the society will accept the person on the basis of this opinion. However, the general social opinion may be absent as there is no common opinion about a person, like in the short story “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez by.


Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Females and Poverty


Employment and Economic Dependence

Political Leadership



Introduction Although our society has made positive steps towards reducing discriminations and inequalities, a considerable proportion of people around the world are still living under discrimination and inequalities. Usually, such inequalities are often based along gender, racial, ethnicity, religious and among other discriminatory lines.

The United Nations and civil right groups, among other positive parties have been active in fighting for the reduction of global inequalities. Many programs that have been precisely designed to mitigate global inequalities have thus been started in many countries.

Among the forms of discrimination that have been of concern to human rights groups is gender discrimination. We are now becoming aware that some forms of global inequalities are gender based. As such, understanding the link between gender and global inequalities is fruitful in mitigating global inequalities.

Females and Poverty Has global poverty been taking a global dimension? Although there is no sufficient data to support this particular assertion, we can still observe that compared to men, more women have been sinking into poverty (Dhongde 2007). According to a 2005 United Nations report on gender inequalities, about 50% of women in developing countries have become poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011).

On the other hand, about 30% of men in developing countries became poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011). Here, the trend has especially been bad in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. A total of about 140 million women became poorer in Africa (during the period mentioned), while about 500 million became poorer in Asia (Dhongde 2007).

Thus, we can see a worrying trend where poverty is increasingly taking a gender dimension in the developing world. Due to the presence of multiple programs in the developed world that have helped to empower women there, the number of poor women has not been increasing there as fast as in the developing world.

However, the overall proportion of women that live in poverty is still high. Since global inequalities are measured on the threshold of poverty and on empowerment capacities, we can observe that global inequalities are (at least to some extent) based on a gender.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the factors that have helped to drive gender inequalities is the existing family model. Often, when compared to men, women have a more economical and social burden in raising families (Chen 1994). For example, although the number of single parents has been increasing, it is often the women who usually continue to feed, educate, and raise their children.

Without help from their former male couples, women are thus taking an economical burden here; hence, increasing the number of poor women around the globe (Kapan 2009). On the other hand, on separating with their wives, many men do not bother to finance the needs of the children that they leave behind.

Although many developed countries have designed laws that have been tailored to protect children and their mothers from such situations by compelling fathers to financially contribute towards the needs of their children, the challenge has not been completely overcome yet.

Moreover, due to limited financial resources, many women (even in the developed world) are finding it difficult to seek legal redress in such matters of parenting. Since women are increasingly and unfairly given the burden of meeting the financial costs of the society, many of them have thus been sinking into poverty (Deaton 2011).

Education Another factor that has been exacerbating poverty levels among females is gender stereotypes on education. Unlike the western culture, multiple cultures across the globe have been against the education of females. Even in developed countries, the prevailing environment had been against the education of females.

Such an environment has an origin from previous cultures, which had regarded the education of females as unnecessary since women were expected to stay in their homes and do domestic work. Many developed countries had to develop affirmative action, among other programs that were tailored to help the girl child excel in academics (Kapan 2009).

Gender disparities in education are especially prominent in developing countries. Most countries in the developing world are still associating with cultural beliefs that regard a female as a person that should solely prepare for marriage, stay in her home and help in domestic work (Chen 1994).

We will write a custom Essay on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even in exceptional situations (in developing countries) where some level of liberalization has been observed, and the female has thus been allowed to pursue education, multiple factors have still hindered the academic excellence of the girl child (Kapan 2009). For example, when not in school, many girls here are still expected to do domestic chores at their home; thus, limiting the number of hours that they can spend on their studies.

Moreover, there is also a gender stereotype that girls cannot excel in academics as their female counterparts; hence, deteriorating the confidence of girls and thus limiting their capacity to excel in academics. The usefulness of education in economically empowering a populace is known.

For example, people that have university level education earn an average of about 30,000$ more (per annum) when compared with those that do not have university education (Deaton 2011).

The same case is true in the developing world where people with university and college certificates are more economically empowered than the uneducated. With a disadvantage in education empowerment (when compared to males), females are thus disadvantaged in economic empowerment; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.

Employment and Economic Dependence Compared to males, many women undergo discrimination when seeking for employment. Again, such a direction is especially prominent in the developing world. Often, crooked employers will seek to sexually exploit females that seek employment opportunities at their firms; hence, limiting the capacity of women to seek for employment on an equal basis as their male counterparts.

Exacerbating the problem even further is a common stereotype that females cannot especially perform well in certain kinds of jobs; hence, limiting the capacity of females to acquire certain types of employment (Chen, 1994).

Moreover since many women in the developing world depend on their husbands (and, or males with an income) to meet their economic needs, many women have found it hard to venture into economic generating activities. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa have also been limited in economic empowerment due to the HIV/AIDS disaster (Pritchett 2006).

Here, the number of women that have been infected by the HIV virus is twice the number of men that have been infected (Pritchett 2006). Due to their deteriorating health, women that have been infected with the HIV virus have thus become less able to participate in income generating activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With a decreased capacity for women to obtain employment and other income generating capacities, the capacity of women to economically empower themselves is thus limited; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.

Political Leadership The political leadership of most (if not all) countries is male dominated. Due to multiple factors (including those that we have seen above), it has been difficult for females to rival their male counterparts in acquiring political leadership. With a poor representation at the government levels (where important decisions on policies are made), it is not very difficult for the wellbeing of women to be compromised.

Knowingly or unknowingly, it is possible for a male dominated leadership to align with policies that silently discriminate on the empowerment of women (Pritchett 2006). Thus, with poor representation in leadership at government levels, the capacity of women for self determination has been limited; hence, creating a loophole that can be used for gender discrimination (Dhongde 2007).

Conclusion The issue of global inequalities is one that is becoming a concern for any person that believes in equality and human rights. With progressive steps having been made towards mitigating global inequalities, several challenges remain. As it has been seen, the challenge of tackling global inequalities has persistently been differentiated into the developed world and the developing world.

Thus, gender discrimination is common within countries that are still developing. Still, developed countries have a number of steps to climb before they can completely eliminate the challenge of gender discrimination within their countries.

Generally, females are disadvantaged in multiple areas that relate to their economic empowerment. Hence, when compared to their male counterparts, higher poverty levels can usually be observed among females. Therefore, to the extent of dis-empowering women in the areas that I have discussed, global inequality is gendered.

References Chen, S., 1994, “Is poverty increasing in the developing world?” Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 359–76.

Deaton, A., 2011, “Counting the world’s poor: Problems and possible solutions,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 125–147.

Dhongde, S., 2007, “Measuring the impact of growth and income distribution on poverty the developing world,” Journal of Income Distribution, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 25–48

Kapan, T., 2009, Patriarchal households are unitary: New evidence, Columbia University Press

Pritchett, L., 2006, “Who is not poor? Dreaming of a world truly free of poverty,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 21 no.1, pp. 1–23.


How customers behave when they are in a Hotel Reception Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction New customers are often disoriented when they are in a new hotel and therefore need assistance to find their ways around the hotel or have their needs met. They usually do not know whom ask for a help or advise or where to begin from.

Taking an example of foreign tourists who often visit different countries all over the world, and have to deal with people with different cultural backgrounds and speaking different languages, they normally tend to shy talking to natives or ask them something due to the feeling of indifference.

The visitors, when they arrive to the hotel for the first time, may meekly look for ways to sort them out but to the contrary, some customers may act thoughtlessly in a manner that is impolite and end up disrupting the other ongoing activities. An understanding between the customer and the receptionist is therefore vital for each party to meet the desired goals.

Behaviors demonstrated by foreign tourists in a hotel reception Foreign tourists tend to be curious or have the desire to acquire new knowledge about the hotel they are in. This is demonstrated in the way they look around for posters or pictures which would add to better know the place place. They gaze on everything seeking for new clues to make sense of their new surrounding.

They go forward to seek information about the new things by asking questions to the receptionists about the hotel offers, charges, norms and services. They prefer hanging out with big groups, often consulting each other about this or that thing or service and they often take flash photographs even of other customers. They also push their wais into queues and it takes them a long time to get consultations from hotel staff.

By seeking information, they reduce uncertainties about the hotel, which clarifies expectations and therefore gains them social acceptance. Feedback is also observed in the process of information seeking. This is seen in the customers’ efforts to gauge how to behave themselves in the new hotel.

They may in turn ask the receceptonists on what behavior is expected from them, what to bring or not to bring into the hotel, or rather how to behave in the hotel surrounding.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another form of observable behavior is seen when the customers select among the different forms of alternatives on what they want to consume. The customers order various products for comparison before making the final decision. They may first consult by asking the receptionists or other visitors to be reassured that they get the best of what they want (Hallowell, 1996).

Considering a group of foreign tourists who get into a hotel seeking accommodation services within a defined time frame, they would first ask for a list of options on what kind of accommodations are available in terms of their space, charges and quality.

Some tourists like Italians are quite used to sophisticated services and would usually abide to hotel expensive tastes. Some would totally be annoying by disregarding and openly criticizing the services being offered (Dick


Price Strategy as a Major Element of Marketing Mix Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Price is one of the major elements of marketing mix. It is a fundamental strategic issue, which is also link to product positioning. Moreover, pricing affects other elements of marketing, such as channel decision, promotion and product features. At the same time, there is no clear cut formula to that is used to determine pricing; some general steps might be followed to arrive at pricing a new product.

Pricing must factor in the legal and competitive environment that a company operates upon. From a competitive ground, the firm must take into consideration the implications of pricing on competitors.

For instance, setting a product at a very low price may generate a price war, which isn’t going to be of benefit to either side. On the other hand, from a legal ground a firm is not exempted to price their product at any desired level. For instance, there is a possibility of price control which prohibits product from being over charged

It is imperative to identify pricing objective in order to decide on the optimal pricing. Current profit maximization is a common objective; it aims at minimizing current profit and brings about revenue and costs.

Maximizing current revenue is another objective that seeks to maximize the present revenue without regarding profit margin. Consequently, maximizing quantity should be considered as well since it minimizes the quantity of customers served and the quantity of units sold, so as to minimize long-term costs as experience curve would have it predicted.

There are various ways or strategies to price a product. Some of the policies include; premium pricing, economic pricing, promotional, geographical and value pricing. However it is entirely depend with the satiation on the ground when it comes to implementation.

Johnson and Johnson is an already established company or brand for that matter. Hence, some of the strategies may not be fit for them. Value pricing could be the most appropriate strategy. The approach is applicable when external factors like increased competition or recession compels companies to offer value on products, in order, retain customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It simply means getting value for your money, for instance, the amount spent makes it a worthwhile experience. In some ways, it is same as economic pricing. However one must never mistake value added, in regards to product and services. Price reduction does not normally increase value.

Promotional pricing is another strategy that could be used especially as a marketing tool. It is a very common approach. There are quite a number of instances of promotional pricing, for example, free offers, discounts and vouchers. A promotional pricing item tends to create controversy. A number of countries all over the world have stipulated laws that administers the period which a product can be put up for sale.

Geographical pricing is a must to be considered form of pricing, bearing in mind that Johnson and Johnson is an international brand. It observes pricing variations in different spheres of the world, for instance, rarity value, in other words, where the cost of shipping increases price.

In some places more tax is demanded on a particular type of product, hence, it makes them either more, or a little less expensive. Laws that limit the number of products to be imported again increase the revenue. Jonson and Johnson implementing both or either of these strategies can greatly increase market in the Baby care line.

References Kotler, P.


Sony Corporation Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Industry analysis

Macro economic factors


Introduction Sony is the global leader in electronics industry with operation in over 140 countries. The firm is involved in designing, improving, manufacturing and sales of electronic equipment and instruments, marketing of softwares and game consoles to final markets. In addition, it is involved in distribution of recorded music both at business format and musical genre.

The company is also engaged in financial service provision in Japan where it provides non life and life insurance, internet banking services, rental and credit financing. Finally, through its subsidiaries the company provides network and advertising business services.

Industry analysis In U.S.A., electronics industry is one of the leading and the fastest growing sectors with electrical and electronics subsector contributing an estimated 10 percent of all produced goods. In 2008, the total sales were valued at an estimated US $ 244 billion, annual growth of (3.2) percent and employment size of 389,257.

Telecoms was the most active sector recording an annual increment of 18 percent while computer line slipped 5 percent due to global drop in computer prices and weak demand from Asian continent (Raymond


The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important countries not only in the Middle East, but also in the globe. This is because this country is known for the quantity of oil that it produces in the world. Furthermore, this nation is recognized for two important mosques and key in the lives of the Muslims across the globe.

Due to this, this republic is working towards ensuring that it bears a sufficiency in all fields. Especially in this time and age, this country is working towards ensuring that the defense and security sectors are catered for. In order to achieve this, this nation has entered into agreements with the British aerospace in order to supply the kingdom with the most modern technology in the defense.

During my cooperative training I had the opportunity to work with the British Aerospace. During this period I was able to get more information about the tornado Aircraft. This aircraft is the nucleus of Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF).

This report consists of a summary of my experience during this training period. It provides details about the Tornado engine, its maintenance, and some of the problems that were encountered and suggestions to set them right.

Organizational history The British Aerospace Company is a company which is located in Europe. It is a company which is regarded as Europe’s largest and it is the third largest aerospace company in the world. This company has a turnover of 10 million pounds and booked orders which are worth more than 11 billion pounds. The number of staff who is working in this company total to 88,300 qualified personnel.

The main operations of this company dwell in the commercial and defense aircrafts. Alongside this, the company is also involved in aircraft maintenance, flight training, advanced navigation and communication systems, rockets, arms and ammunition, civil engineering, optical systems, satellites, ground defense systems, and the ship services.

The company has or is divided in three divisions. These divisions are the helicopter systems, naval systems and the Al- Yamamah project. Tornado Aircraft

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aircraft is a two seat supersonic combat aircraft which is capable of great flexibility of purpose and design to fulfill a wide range of operational requirements. It has variable geometry wings, multi – spool, reheated turbofan engines, giving it a speed in excess of Mach 2 at high altitude. The variable geometry wings together with high lift devices, ensures that it can land and take off at slow speeds at dispersed sites.

During the time I was in this company, I realized that there are two kinds of Tornado Aircrafts. That is the Tornado Air Defense Variant (ADV), and the Tornado Interdictor Strike (IDS). The difference that exists between these two aircrafts is that the ADV and IDS, is based in the reheat section.

Furthermore, the IDS is 1.39 m longer than the ADV which is the main external difference in front fuselage section to accommodate the AL radar, Sky flash missiles, avionics and extra fuel tank. It also has wing nips which sweep at 68 degrees rather than 60 degrees as on the IDS aircraft.

The Tornado is not a pure British design, but Italy and Germany also joined in designing and producing this aircraft. The Tornado weapon system represents the closet approach yet to an ideal multi –m role combat aircraft, sought by military aircraft design engineers. Its success is attributable to the skilled application of a number of high technology features incorporated into a basic airborne vehicle. The major roles of Tornado

The Tornado is designed to fulfill a number of roles. These roles include close air support, interdictor strike, air strike superiority, interception, land based maritime strike and reconnaissance.

Characteristics of the Tornado The Tornado has got specific characteristics which make it stand out from the other aircrafts. This is based on the fact that it is designed in order to fulfill the above stated functions.

The main characteristics of this aircraft include the short takeoff or landing and the ability to accelerate rapidly to a high subsonic speed to permit operation from dispersed or damaged airfields in forward areas and immediate reaction to quickly changing battlefield conditions. High speeds at low level so that the enemy defense receives little warning during the time of attack.

We will write a custom Report on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The smoothness of the low gust with the wings swept at low levels ensures that the crew maintain their fighting efficiency. High specific excess power or rate of climb and good acceleration ensure efficient interception or, in the reconnaissance role, evasion. All weather capability enables the Tornado to maintain round the clock pressure on enemy targets and to intercept enemy aircraft by day or night, or in bad weather.

Good load carrying ability and flexible weapon or fuel load interchange ensures that most effective interdictor or close air supervision use over a wide range of target distance combinations. This plane has a good sustained maneuverability which ensures excellent self defense and attack capability against enemy aircraft.

Lastly the multi – spool engines ensure that the aircraft has got a good specific fuel consumption which produces a long range in the strike reconnaissance roles and a prolonged loiter capability in the air superiority role. The table below gives a summary of the IDS and the ADV aircrafts in terms of their specifics. (See Table 1 and Diagram 1)

Tornado Aircraft dimensions: The aircraft construction During the study, I discovered that the aircraft has got an elaborate structure which demands the construction process to be elaborate. In essence, the aircraft structure can be divided into a number of major components. These parts include the Fuselage, wings and the tail unit. The fuselage is further divided into the front, center and rear fuselage sections.

The method which is used in the construction of this aircraft known as the, “Semi – Monocoque.” This method utilizes frames, sub-frames, lonegrons, diaphragms, webs, beams and skins in the construction of the fuselage, with spars and ribs used in the construction of the wings, fin, ailerons and flaps.

The frames, longerons, spars, ribs and skins are designed to withstand the bending, twisting, compression and torsion loads that an aircraft feels during flight. It is worth noting that the materials which are used in utilizing this aircraft should be able to withstand the loads which the aircraft feels and at the same time be light.

Front Fuselage The fuselage consists of frames, diaphragms, webs and skins, manufactured to form an assembly consisting of pressurized structure, forwards equipment compartment, the left hand gun avionics compartments, left hand gun compartment, liquid oxygen compartment, rear equipment compartment, right hand avionics compartments, right hand gun compartments, nose landing gear compartment and the spent cases compartments.

The center fuselage This extends from the forward transport joint at the frame 9 to the rear transport joint at frame 16, and it is constructed of closely spaced frames and skin assemblies. The frames vary depending on their functions. The wing box contains the wing pivot bearings which are mounted in the top structure. This wing box is usually manufactured from high strength machined titanium alloy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internal frames are located between the forward and the rear face walls to provide additional strength to the structure. The wing slots seals exist to maintain the fuselage shape. They are also used in order to reduce drag. These pockets are closed by inflatable seals. The wing pocket has got two seals, that is, the upper and lower seals on each side of the Tornado.

There are usually interconnected to allow for pressure variations due to the various altitudes which are attained during flight. The main landing gear is usually placed in two compartments. These compartments are located on the underside structure of the center fuselage.

The main landing gear retracts forward and inward, the struts being rotated to allow the wheels to be housed flat within the shadow compartments. Fuel is usually stored in the fuselage which is located in the center of the tornado. There are a total of 16 fuel cells in two groups, six in the front fuel group and 10 in the rear fuel group.

Rear fuselage This fuselage extends from the transport joint which is located at frame 16 and extends to the frame 19. This is done so that two engines can be mounted in the compartments which are on each side.

In addition to the makeup of the engine, the rear fuselage also provides fittings for the fin, air brakes the engine doors and the arrester hook. The rear fuselage consists of frames which are divided by beams. The hydraulic system components are located in these regions.

The engine bay is a part of the Tornado which is enclosed by two doors. These doors are locked in position using a mechanism which is known as the release shoot-bolt. Air breaks are also mounted in the recesses of the fuselage. They are made up of aluminum alloy. The air breaks are located in a closed position sustained by a hydraulically operated lock units.

Wings Wings are crucial components of the Tornado Aircraft. Their ability to sweep wing and rotate a pivot axis by means of an actuator is one of the aspects of this aircraft that makes it outstanding. The wings are designed in such a manner that they can carry two wing pylons for the carriage of external stores.

The wings are attached to the trailing edge flaps which are installed on the lower side of the trailing edge. These flaps are equipped with carriage rib and a roller system which has two screw jacks.

Damage evaluation and inspections There are two main categories of this section. These include the reference system and the inspection of damages. The reference system is a method which is used in defining surfaces, positions and contours. It is a system which operates using a basic system which is supplemented by an auxiliary system. This system is used to locate places on the plane which might be having repair issues.

On the other hand the inspection of damage is an action which takes place when a person seeks to establish if there are aspects of the aircraft which are not in good working condition. There are several aspects which are taken when carrying out this inspection. These include the access for inspection. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the structural damage of the aircraft is assessed.

The preliminary visual inspection is the process which involves the visual inspection of the exterior surfaces of the aircraft. Detailed visual inspection involves the deliberate process of establishing the actual problems which may be noticed on the airplane.

Tornado systems The Tornado has got several systems. These systems include the fuel system, the environmental system, the electric system, and the wheel or tires system. The fuel system; the aircraft fuel load is usually located in the front fuselage, the center fuselage, the fin and in the wings. The main fuel tank is usually located in the center fuselage.

The main fuselage consists of numerous fuel cells which are interconnected in a way that form two separate groups which are designated in the front fuselage. The environmental system; the main task associated with this system is to convert the liquid oxygen into a form that can enable the pilot to breathe in flight.

The oxygen system is made up of two parts. These parts are the main oxygen system and the oxygen emergency system. During the emergency cases when the pilot needs to come of the plane, this system ensures that the pilots get 100% oxygen.

Tornado Engine The study process made me realize that the Tornado has got a very unique engine. This engine matches the unique characteristics which are used by the engine. The Engine KB 199 was developed by Turbo Union in order to ensure that the Multi – Role Combat Aircraft is realized.

The required characteristics demanded the engine to have a bypass engine. This should have a capability of reheat for both the hot and cold gas streams. The thrust reverser is basically fitted with the intention of short landings.

In addition, for the sake of maintenance, the engine is divided into several basic modules. These modules enable one to be able to note what they are working on at any given point.

It is worth to mention that when removing a module, its identification plate must be kept with its own module, and when refitting a module, that plate must be refitted to the carrier. This eases the process of maintenance. See (Table 2: Table of engine modules, Diagram of the engine and the attached diagram)

Types of engine modules During my experience I learnt that the Tornado has got sixteen modules. Some of these modules include the Low pressure compressor module. This is a three stage axial flow unit which comprises two main assemblies, that is, the engine and the rotor. See (Diagram 2 Compressor module (M01).

The intermediate pressure compressor module is a compressor which comprises alternative rows or rotor and stator blades. These consist of an integral disc assembly to which the blades are secured by dove tail roots and retained in the discs by the segmented plates.

The high pressure compressor module consists of an outer casing and an inner casing. The outer casing is a part of the intermediate casing module. The inner casing consists of a number of rings bolted together in each pairs. See (Diagram 3 Intermediate pressure compressor module (M02)).

The intermediate casing module is a module which forms the foundation unit of the engine which is known as the Master base Module. Their thrusts are attached to the outer case of the module. Engine performance parameters

There are several parameters which are used in establishing the functionality of an engine. In this case the parameters include the engine thrust and the specific fuel consumption. The thrust is a gas jet exhausting at a high velocity from a nozzle in the opposite direction of the jet. I later realized that the aim of the designers of these natures of engines is to aim at having engines which have higher thrusts.

The specific fuel consumption may be considered to be what is next to thrust. This is because it is one of the most important aspects regarding the performance of the engine. This aspect is used to determine the amount of fuel which is used to achieve pone unit of thrust over a finite period of time.

Engine maintenance procedure The maintenance of the Tornado engine is carried out at the engine shop. When the engine arrives at the engine shop it is subjected to various diagnostic tests to check on its functionality. In this case they include the baroscopic, hardness test and the MCD check.

Conclusion Just like any other machine or aircraft, the Tornado engine has got its share of the problems which have solutions. When I was under training in this company I realized that some of the problems which are associated with this engine include the interference with the foreign objects which damage the engine (FOD). The high hours can also lead to bearing debris circulating in the engine oil system.

This leads to massive wear and tear of the engine. Other problems are associated with thermal fatigue and operating in an environmentally hostile environment.

Despite the challenges and problems, one of the sure ways of maintenance of these engines is through subjecting them to thorough inspection and system evaluation. Consistent servicing of these aircraft reduces the risk of the problems which are associated with them thus they are able to function properly for a much longer period of time.

Works Cited Rouhollah, K. Ramazani and Joseph A. Kechichian. The Gulf Cooperation Council: Record and Analysis, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 1988. Print.


Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs Report cheap essay help

Introduction Preliminarily, the market plan outlined below is for a Skagen Designs, a renowned international design company that is based at Reno, Nevada in the U.S. and specializes in the making of quality and affordable watches, jewelry, sunglasses, clocks and other related products.

Having been humbly founded in 1989 by Henrik and Charlotte Jorst, the company has been able to grow from a small wrist watch shop to a revered multinational company with an international reach and huge profits being realized by the founders.1

Even more importantly, Reno, Nevada has been able to provide a good avenue for Skagen design’s products in terms of its rich history, vibrant trade and economic industry, unique geographical set-up, shifty—but amiable—weather patterns and above all; a well established system of governance that ensures a positive economic progress.

It is these reasons—amongst many others that will be expressively stated later—that the Skagen designs was established in this locale. However, in spite of their unmatched success in the watch-business; there has been an increasingly growing need for expansion based on the fact that they have outgrown their current market jurisdiction as well as the need to set up more branches and become a global outfit.

The fundamental purpose of this marketing plan is, therefore, to help getting investor funds that can be used in spreading the market tentacles of Skagen designs while intermittently laying down a simple, yet exhaustive, plan that can be used in these expansion efforts. For the purposes of this paper, this marketing plan is intended for branching out to South Africa.

Executive Summary Before making a marketing plan for an organization; it is extremely important that we begin by assessing the current nature of operations, their nature of profitability and the challenges being faced. It is only by having knowledge of such that we will be able to construct a circumspect plan able to deal with past, present and future prospects of the organization.2

Therefore, in the bid to make a fitting plan, there are several marketing dynamics at Skagen designs that need to be assessed. Such factors include productivity, profits, growth, turnover, stability and cohesion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These measures of effectiveness may vary depending on the company, its mission, environmental context, nature of work, type of product or service and customer demands. It is based on the above viewpoints, among many other issues that this Marketing plan for Skagen designs is proposed.

Company Description (Overview of the Company) 23 years ago when Charlotte and Henrik Jorst made the bold decision of venturing into the unchartered waters of the watch-selling-business, no one would have guessed that the company, which was started in an apartment in New York, would grow to the highly esteemed international design company it is today.

However, after starting the business on a rocky foundation of selling relatively expensive watches, Charlotte and Henrik made a milestone move in 1990 when they found a manufacturer who could design their custom-made watches at a lower price than their previous manufacturer.

By 1992, Charlotte and Henrik had already designed over 30 different models of watches named Skagen Denmark and towards the end of that year; these two entrepreneurs (through a couple of marketers and advertisements) had sold everything they had made and realized a turnover of $800, 000 just from the comfort of the apartment in New York.

Based on the almost-zero tax rate of businesses in Nevada, the couple, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst, decided to move there and continue with their watch business in1993 which was, at this time, gaining more and more reputation.

After another milestone break in 1995 when the couple took their designs for trials and sold everything, all that followed was the periodic change of offices from big to bigger apartments with their sales also growing steadily. This, probably is the reason in 1998 and 1999, the company was named by the Inc. Magazine as one of the 250 fastest growing private companies in America.3

As of 2000, the company began to Branch out in countries like Netherlands and Germany and by 2003, it had expanded greatly, having its outlets in Ukraine, Kuwait, Italy, France, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Belgium and the UAE, just to mention a few.

We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, the company deservedly enjoys huge success while operating as a subsidiary of Fossil, Inc. which completed making an acquisition of Skagen designs on 12th April 2012 at $231, 7 million.4 In spite of witnessing immense progress, the company still faces stiff competition from many other companies. In addition, the company needs to continue branching out since it has already exhausted the potentials of its current branches.

This, therefore, calls for progress and establishment of a marketing plan that will be able to see them through their plans. It is with this in mind that the plan below, which is targeted for South Africa, is formulated.

In doing so, principal focus is going to be on analyzing goals, aims, objectives of the marketing plan, strategic actions of the plan, situational analysis, risk analysis, feasibility study of the plan, budgetary estimate, stakeholder analysis and potential benefits among many other macroeconomic facets.

It is only by viably assessing these salient facets that the marketing plan will be able to lay down a concrete foundation on which future implementations can be made by Skagen designs.

Strategic Focus and Plan Vision

Skagen designs has the vision of being an influential force in the world of watches, jewelry and other related products—especially with regards to reaching its uniquely designed and high quality products to its highly esteemed clients.5

In doing this; the company prospects to transform open up new branches that will enable it to serve thousands of people in different regions all at the same time with ease. Additionally, the company needs to cooperate with other like-minded companies and individuals so as to tap into the richly flowing market potentiality offered by this multicultural society.


Essentially, Skagen designs’ main mission is to achieve a multifaceted success in various regions by designing impressive and unique, yet affordable products, while ensuring that the customers are given outstanding customer service.6 Essentially, this calls for delivery of quality products and service to its highly esteemed customers.

Moreover, the management is also charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the staffs are, deservedly, treated. Of course this policy, just like respect, is a two-way traffic. Consequently, the staffs in the company are compelled to ensure that the management, as well as each customer, is individually treated with utmost professionalism and respect.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By observing these salient statutes, the company’s mission not only ensures that the primary role of financial success is achieved; but it also makes certain that everyone associated to the company has a sense of purpose towards the well-being of the company and to one another.7

Goals, Aims and Objectives

To propose a plan which will be able to help the company expand its business tentacles to South Africa in an easy way

To establish the importance or value of marketing the company in a better way

To assess the risks that may be faced while marketing the company

To source additional resources that can be used to further the marketing plans while also creating a budget for the same

To delineate problems being faced in the organization (with regards to its marketing endeavors and grope for ways of forging ahead while intermittently outsmarting these problems/challenges.

Strategies and Action Plan to Achieve the Objectives and Avoid Risks

In order to ensure more financial profits, we plan to introduce more quality products together with other relevant services which will, eventually, total into better profits. As for the aspect of getting more clients and accommodating them; the plan of going into South Africa, and many other countries that will duly follow, will take care of this challenge.

Finally, to siphon the strength of our competitors, we plan to market Skagen designs in a more robust way. This will, undoubtedly, give Skagen designs substantial leverage—on top of the fact that the good performance of the company will give us dominance and a more respected name in the international market.

Marketing Analysis Financial Analysis

Despite enjoying good financial success over the recent past; Skagen designs still requires some hefty amount of investment to be injected so as to make it possible for the effectuation of its marketing plans.

In order to satiate this need, the company’s management recently got into a business partnership with Fossil, Inc thus creating better prospects for the company in terms of better goods and services thus more profits (Citybizlist, 2012).8

This will greatly help in raising more funds for the extra costs needed for more branch out to South Africa and the marketing funds that will be needed thereof.

On top of that, the good relationship between the management and other financially empowered people promises good tidings in terms of financial prospects for the company. However, Skagen is not entirely banking on this as its ultimate source of funding. It is for this reason that other viable money-getting schemes are being sourced.

Human Resource (HR) analysis

As was glimpsed earlier, the company’s management got into a partnership with Fossils, Inc. This, therefore, necessitates for changes and plans to be made be made on areas such as the human resource department and how the company will function bureaucratically in its leadership endeavors.

According to Citybizlist, (2012), Charlotte and Henrik Jorst still enjoy the mandate of overseeing the productions in the company while Fossils, Inc mostly handles the financial aspects of the organization.9

In the branch prospected in South Africa, this chain of command balanced between the management at Skagen designs and Fossils, Inc. will be maintained. However, a branch manager will be appointed in South Africa to oversee the operations of the new branch, just like it has been the company’s tradition in other branches.

Moreover, the operations of the human resource department in the new branch will, essentially, be in the same format like that of the current parent branch—with a few positions and provisions being created for joint meetings with the management, stakeholders and other concerned parties.

The similarity in the operations of the HR department simply means continuity to the already existing HR precepts thus increasing efficiency.1011 The only slight variation will be that, overall decisions will be made by the CEOs, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst in conjunction with the relevant personnel at Fossils, Inc.

Target Market

A keen assessment by market analysts indicates that Skagen already has a substantial amount of clients just like its umbrella company, Fossils, Inc.

The partnership between these two companies will therefore be a welcomed idea by most clients who already know the nature of products and services offered by these two revered companies. However, a few managerial changes might have to be made, as has been detailed in the HR management section.

Consequently, the clients may have to get used to the blended leadership between Fossils, Inc and Skagen designs. In the new branch at South Africa, this managerial change will not have a huge impact based on the fact that it will be the first outlet to be established there. In fact, starting the South African branch will be a good opportunity for the management to see a fresh and first-hand impact of their merger with Fossils, Inc.

Yet still, studies on the South African market—specifically in Johannesburg where the new branch will be based—show that the country has a rich blend of middle and high class people. Based on the fact that Skagen’s products usually target middle and highly economically-empowered clients, South Africa thus offers high chances of success and viable economic markets.

Additionally, Johannesburg has always been a great attraction site for both local and international tourists. In their touring endeavors, there are usually high chances of people shopping for products such as watches. The opening of this branch thus offers huge positive marketing prospects for Skagen designs.12

Even more importantly, most African countries look up to South Africa as a trend-setter in the continent based on its highly industrialized nature. Opening a branch in Johannesburg can therefore lead to increased demands for Skagen’s products thus leading to the opening of many other branches in Africa, and beyond.

Moreover, the dynamics and highly sophisticated nature of designer shops in the modern world calls for and the raising of market standards to meet the needs and wants of our clients.13

In relations to this, the prospected branch in South Africa will incorporate state-of-art furnishings, a wide range of watch brands, clocks, sunglasses together with hippy and well-designed jewelry. These products and services will be present in both simple and sophisticated forms so as to accommodate the current diversity of modern shoppers.14

More importantly, the designers will ensure that the buildings and other related designs included in the South African branch are modeled in a classy and trendy way that will, appeal to the aesthetic-loving modern day shoppers.

This is also based on the fact that the South African branch targets classy—yet averagely financially empowered clients. It is for the same reason that there will be price-friendly services at this branch; just in the same way it has always been in the most Skagen outlets.

Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholders play a very important role in any organization—and in Skagen designs, it is no different. As a matter of fact, expansive consultations have been constantly made with the stakeholders so as to know their take on this marketing plan. So far, they have been in full support. Nonetheless, more consultations are yet to be made since this marketing plan is still at its baby stages thus does not require a lot of input from them.

Sustainable Competitive Advantage Assessment (SWOT analysis)

An assessment of the sustainable competitive advantage of the plan based on the business principle of SWOT analysis is done below.


The strengths of our prospected plan include the following. Firstly, Skagen designs Ltd. has been in the watch business long enough to know the red and green lights of its operations. Our firsthand experience gives us much advantage over our competitors.

Secondly, we have a professional strategists and planners who have successfully planned and successfully done other projects. This project is, therefore, bound to be a success story just like the other projects they have planned. Thirdly and lastly, our brand name and that of Fossils, inc. are highly respected in US and the world at large thus laying a firm foundation for the success of this plan.


Some of the weaknesses, or rather the challenges, of our plan include the following. To begin with, in spite of the market research projections prospecting a good reception for our plan, we are not entirely sure whether they will respond in the same positive way as we hope.

The presence of many watch businesses in South Africa may also provide a tougher competition than we anticipate. Finally, despite raising immense funds for the plan; we are still not utterly sure about getting the remaining funds.


The opportunities here include: the expansion of our customer bases. The expansion may also bring more profits which would then be used for opening even more branches thus actualizing the vision of us having branches all over the world. Finally, the new marketing endeavors will offer employment opportunities to several people.

Threats/ Risks

The most basic threat of this plan is the incapability to raise funds which might thwart everything that many people have tirelessly toiled for. On top of that, the current rigid and bureaucratic regulations regarding marketing and advertisements in South Africa may drag the implementation of our plans.

Also, the rather dynamic and unpredictable nature of our targeted clients may additionally inhibit the company from achieving its full potentiality.

As a rejoinder for the various points that come up in the SWOT analysis, it is noteworthy to state that the management of Skagen designs Ltd, and Fossils Inc. by extension, have several contingencies in place to mitigate the abovementioned weaknesses and threats while augment the strengths and opportunities. We can, therefore, boldly say that the plan is bound to offer sustainable competitive advantage.

Marketing Plan Budget Much of what is entailed in the budget to be used in achieving the objectives of this project are yet to be representatively disclosed by the finance experts to the relevant parties. Nonetheless a rough estimate of $4 Million (for the entire year’s expenditure)—as is given in the table below.

Remarkably, the budget is highly confidential for obvious reasons such like the need to protect our investment ideas.

This high confidentiality is, essentially, the reason it will only be sent to the relevant leadership in the company—as well as to those people who have affirmed their interest in participating in soliciting funds for this project. A highly detailed and informative budget will be sent or hand-delivered by our financial personnel to such people.

Activity Previous year’s Expenditure Proposed Expenditure Sales Expense