Table of Contents What to do
Approach and Changes
Outsourcing is a way in which organizations allocate some of their activities and departments to outside firms. Business organizations usually give out some of their departments that are not the main line of their business to be managed by other firms.
This is done to relieve these organizations off some duties and activities to facilitate their effective fuctioning without having a lot of side activities to run. This case study will look into how Continental Airplane outsourced its Information Technology department to the Electronic Data System (EDS) in the 1990s. This agreement between the two organizations came out with both positive and negative impacts.
What to do Janet Wejman, the Chief Information Officer of Continental Airlines at one point questioned the agreement between Electronic Data System (EDS) and the Continental Airline. There were a lot of changes taking phase at Continental, and the changes led to some strains in the agreement between the two organizations.
After passing through a lot of different situations when changes were taking place in both Continental and Electronic Data System, Wejman should now approach Electronic Data System differently. Wejman earlier believed that information and data management in a company is too sensitive to be outsourced. She should now view EDS as a partner to work with in boosting the company using information and technology. Therefore, she ought to see the importance of outsourcing and also consider EDS’ goals in the agreement too.
Approach and Changes Over the years, Continental Airline has been experiencing changes in its management, financial base and customer relations. This series of changes necessitated changing needs for Continental Airline. For instance, looking at the changes in the management of Continental in the year 1995, it is noted that a new goal for the airline was realized. This change in management that entailed replacing more than half of the existing vice presidents led to making of huge profits after a long period of little gains.
As a result, this caused the airline to change from seeking to cut on their cost of business to viewing the importance of information and technology. To meet this new need of Continental, there must be a change in the initial agreement. Initially, Electronic Data System had a main role of data processing, system development and integration. This has to change to a view where IT will be discussed and its importance to the airline outlined too. EDS has to move from just building and maintaining systems to the consulting part.
Another issue that came out from the change in management is the broken relationship between EDS and Continental. Most of the personnel and managers that were present during the signing in of the contract dropped out after the management changes in 1995 implying that only a few people had firsthand knowledge. Both Continental and EDS will have a new need of maintaining their relationship. To meet this, it would be necessary to create more partnerships and discussions between the two companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Original Agreement EDS insists on complying with some terms of the original agreement even though it is evident that some changes have to be introduced. Therefore, Wejman has to be flexible when dealing in things involving the agreement between EDS and Continental. It becomes easier for her when she learns that the management is so much willing to use IT in solving its problems, and it is also ready to invest in that.
his shows that the management of Continental is going to allow new technology in and therefore, Wejman can introduce such technologies when trying to be flexible. (Sparrow, 2003)
In the original agreement, the two were not so much closed to each other. None of them was restricted to go ahead and have a similar contract with another party. Continental was free to seek other service providers for circumstances that are special. On the other hand, EDS was also allowed to provide its services to other customers.
EDS persisted in this term of the agreement until it coordinated a large number of activities having seven airline clients in the United States. This makes Continental Airlines to be a small portion of the business, a state it did not want to be in. Wejman as the Chief Information Officer should be able to get other partnerships or making new deals with EDS to help out in this scenario.
Failing to fit into the agreement might see Continental Ailrines going through tough times since it did not have the fundamentals to manage all the required programs, software and hardware then. There is much need for well managed programs and technological information in a business.
Through IT user friendly, systems are developed and there is also enhanced speed for customer processes (Sparrow, 2003). Therefore, Wejman should be flexible in a way to make sure these terms of agreement that EDS complies to are considered or a better alternative is taken in cases of impossibilities.
Continental relies so much on EDS for its technological dealings. This is not bad, but it has to be kept on check always (Brown, 2005). Janet Wejman as the head of information has the duty of managing this reliance of Continental on EDS for technological needs. For example, Continental had to rely on EDS again in implementation of technical changes in the Go Forward Plan.
We will write a custom Case Study on Continental Airplane in Electronic Data System (EDS) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This ended up with some managers complaining that EDS did not play its role in the implementation. The ASAP system is another example to prove the problems caused by Continental’s over-reliance on EDS. This system was an initiative to help the customers’ experience to be efficient and better. There was a delay in bringing out ASAP, and the blame was on EDS once again.
Wejman should ensure that when technological duties are assigned to EDS, they are followed up to avoid the inconveniences. With this, she would have helped reduce the consequences of relying on EDS so much. She can also manage the reliance of Continental on EDS for technological needs by seeking other service providers for some services. Wejman should also manage this by checking at the levels of interaction between the personnel of Continental and those of EDS.
When we have some managers passing their technical needs to Wejman’s staff before reaching out to the EDS, we might have the needs solved at that level. This is possible for technical needs that are less urgent and severe. In this way, the reliance on EDS would have been managed a bit.
Outsourcing is very crucial and at the same time important to an organization. Therefore, there is no need to avoid it but to manage its extent. Outsourcing helps the client business to focus on other important areas that comprise the firm’s core activities. It also gives the business an opportunity to get some services from qualified personnel (Mclvor, 2005).
References Brown, D. (2005). The Black Book of Outsourcing. Chicago: Wiley Publishers.
Earl, M. J. (1998). Information Management: The Organizational Dimension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mclvor, R. (2005). The Outsourcing Process: Strategies for EEvaluation Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sparrow, E. (2003). Successful IT Outsourcing. London: Springer Publishers.
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Viacom Company Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Abstract
Viacom Company Overview
Circumstances that triggered the need for CSR initiatives
Targeted outcome from these initiatives
Managing people and financial resources to accomplish CSR goals
Abstract Companies across the globe have devised different corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to address the common social challenges affecting their customers. Among the companies with comprehensive and well structured CSR initiatives include the Viacom Inc. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the CSR initiatives of the Viacom Company. Reflectively, the company strives to factor in the three Ps of management strategies comprising of the Planet, Profit, and People in its CSR activities.
These seer values are designed to facilitate sustainability due to acceptance by the community and coexistence, thus, earning the company a competitive advantage over other service providers in the same field of operation. Specifically, the paper adopts a holistic approach in extrapolating corporate social responsibility, environmental stewardship, and quality in service delivery with an added value tag at the Viacom Company.
Viacom Company Overview The Viacom Inc. Company is a mass media company based in the United States of America and has several subsidiary brands within its business activities. Founded in 2006, the company is the fourth largest in the global mass media industry and provides services such as radio, cable television, movies, and publishing.
The company generated revenue of US$ 13.887 billion in 2013 and currently has an asset value of US$ 22.250 billion. The company operates in the competitive and dynamic global mass media industry. The company functions as a private entity with diverse interest in the entertainment industry.
Since its inception, the company has remained profitable due to its competitive business models and series of CSR initiatives. The organizational overview of this company consists of several divisions such as the BET Network, Paramount Pictures, Viacom Media Networks, and the Viacom International Media. The company operates under a board of directors (Viacom, 2014).
The company’s management philosophy is systematic governance with flexibility for innovation and creativity. This philosophy operates on the assumptions of confident, competent, and responsible business activities. The philosophy encourages a practical approach to addressing daily challenges in running the business and monitoring progress of the implemented strategies. In addition, the philosophy provides channels for constant motivation and rewarding the customers through a series of CSR initiatives (Viacom, 2014).
Viacom Company has managed to maintain innovation and commitment to quality in products through the ‘create share value’ policy which promotes customer loyalty. Besides, the company has participated in a series of corporate social responsibility activities through ethical managerial commitments designed to support socially responsible activities in the business such as the annual ‘Viacommunity Day’, which enhances its resource based approach to CSR (Viacom, 2014).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The competencies exhibited by the company are part of its overall strategic management and ethical corporate responsibility model. As one of the most efficient company in the global mass media industry, it defines its success from the opportunities it offers to the loyal customers who form part of the corporate social responsibility pillar. This competitive strategy has enhanced the corporation’s competitive advantage in the market.
The CSR initiatives are more than a public relations exercise since the green campaign, the annual ‘Viacommunity Day’, education trust, and health initiatives are part of the company’s management philosophy meant to promote the ‘create share value’ policy (Viacom, 2014).
Circumstances that triggered the need for CSR initiatives Addressing social based concerns through the creation of shared responsibilities was the main reason for the establishment of the different CSR initiatives. The company was interested in eliminating their customers’ dependence on incentives by governments and other private organizations.
For instance, the ‘Get Schooled’ initiative by the Viacom Company was informed by the need to provide a long term solution to education crisis in the US and other parts of the globe. It is a private sponsorship program which supports schools by developing infrastructure, training teachers, offering financial support to students, and leadership training. The aim of this initiative is to guide and support youth in their career life.
This initiative is run by employees of the organization. Through partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the company has been in a position to provide education to disadvantaged students across the globe. The initiative is supported by the ‘roadblock’ commercial that shows the power of educating the community (Viacom, 2014).
Besides, the need to raise the level of HIV/AIDs awareness inspired the creation of the ‘Rap-It-Up’ Emmy Award. Through this initiative, the company was able to address the social concerns in different societies as a result of the effects of HIV/AIDs. The ‘Thin Line’ program aired on MTV by the company is an initiative that was meant to protect the youths from digital abuse.
Moreover, the ‘Comedy Central’ program by the company has been active in raising environmental awareness across the globe (D’Amato et al. 2009). Another CSR initiative aimed at addressing educational concerns across the globe is the ‘Kindergarten to Cap
The War on Drugs in the US Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the War on Drugs
Pros and Cons
Results of the War on Drugs
Introduction Drug use is a common practice in nationals all over the world. In the US, recreational drug use has occurred for centuries. Unlike with other consumer products, drugs can have adverse effects on the individual. For this reason, the government tries to regulate the use of drugs among its citizens. In the US, the negative impacts of drug use became evident in the society at the end of the 19th century, when it was observed that psychotropic drugs such as cocaine and morphine led to addiction.
The government therefore started imposing prohibitions on the use of and trade in these drugs. In 1914, the Harrison Administration passed the Harrison Narcotics Act, which imposed greater restrictions on psychotropic drug trade. However, the most significant government action in response to drug use occurred under the Nixon administration, when a war on drugs was declared.
History of the War on Drugs The modern war on drugs in the US can trace its beginning to the Nixon administration. On June 17, 1971, President Richard Nixon declared that drug abuse was “a national emergency” and he proceeded to rank it “public enemy number one” (872). He declared a “war on drugs” and dedicated significant federal resources to this task. A number of notable events led to the start of this war. While drugs had always been a part of American popular culture, trends in drug use during the 1960s led to the need for a war on drugs.
During the 1960s, the US witnessed a spike in drug use among middle-class white youth (Benavie 34). The prevalent drug use among this class led to drugs losing some of their stigmatization and this increased drug consumption. The government came up with radical policies to solve the drug problems in the country. This commitment to fight drug abuse has remained strong in each US president since that time.
Key Points In its history, which spans over four decades, the war on drugs has had a number of significant moments. The first major moment in the war was in 1973 when the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) was formed. This agency was tasked with reducing the availability of illegal drugs in the US.
It set out to accomplish this task by curtailing the supply of drugs, especially from the international market. Another key moment was in 1981 during the Reagan administration. The President called for touch actions against drug users since he saw this as a more effective method than trying to cut the supply of the drugs. During this period, the US adopted a “zero tolerance” policy against users of illegal drugs. This “tough on drugs” policy has continued to characterize the approach used by successive administrations.
Pros and Cons A significant benefit of the war on drugs is that it led to a sharp decline in the production and distribution of illicit drugs. Due to the punitive penalties attached to dealing in illegal drugs, people were dissuaded from engaging in these activities. The overall quantity of illicit drugs available in the country therefore decreased.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The war increased awareness of the negative effects of drugs among Americans. The government earmarked millions of dollars for education programs that were meant to empower the community. These programs highlighted the destructive nature of drugs and urged Americans to stay away from drugs.
A major demerit of the war on drugs is that it prevented the government from engaging in action to address the causes of drug abuse among most US citizens. Niesen notes that by positioning drug abuse as a problem to be dealt with by individuals and families, successive US administrations have avoided resolving the possible root causes of drug abuse, such as poverty and unemployment (872). Another significant demerit of the war is that it contributed to the large systematic corruption in the criminal justice system. By criminalizing drugs, the government created a situation where many individuals were in violation of the law and eligible to criminal penalties (Nicholson 305). To avoid these penalties, many detained drug users bribe law enforcement officials or criminal justice personnel.
Effects on Media, Economic, Policy, and Public Opinion
The mass media was significantly affected by the war on drugs. To begin with, the Nixon administration made extensive use of mass media to advise the public on the dangers of drug use. Niesen documents that the media was advised to give regular reports on the rise in drug-related deaths and print research findings that would help deter drug experimentation (875). The media endorsed sensationalism as a strategy to provoke public interest on the topic of drug abuse.
Public opinion concerning recreational drug use was affected by the war on drugs. Before this war, moderate drug use was normative behavior among youths and many middle class Americans.
The “war on drugs” led to the public view that all drug users were addicts. When declaring drug abuse “public enemy number one”, the Nixon administration did not distinguish between drug addicts and social users. Nicholson et al. note that the “war on drugs” approach promoted the perception that any drug use is abuse where illicit drugs are concerned (305).
Economically, the war on drugs led to an increase in government expenditure. The prohibition of drug use increased government spending on drug prevention. From the onset, the government dedicated significant resources to wage the war.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The War on Drugs in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, law enforcement and criminal justice resources were used to deter illegal drug use and punish individuals who violated the law. On the other hand, the “war on drugs” greatly benefited drug dealers. Nicholson confirms that the “war on drugs” approach has contributed to the sustenance of a profitable black market in drugs for decades (305).
Results of the War on Drugs The US has been involved in an intensive “war against drugs” for over four decades. The war has led to an increase in the number of inmates in American prisons. Drug offenders make up a significant portion of the prisoners in US penitentiaries (Jones 492). The Bureau of Justice Statistics reveals that over 50% of federal convicts are imprisoned on drug related charges (Sledge par. 4). Most of these drug offenders are social users who do not have criminal records.
The War led to the emergence of a huge black market that deals in illicit drugs. Williams reveals that criminalization of drugs destroys the legal economy and an underground economy emerges to satisfy the demand (326). As such, the “war on drugs” has led to the growth of a powerful black market that dealt in the illicit drugs. This black market enjoyed great profits since it could inflate the price of the drugs and obtain a large profit margin.
The war on drugs has failed to mitigate drug use among Americans. Millions of Americans continue to use illicit drugs in spite of the aggressive government efforts to stop illegal drug use. As of 2000, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reported that an estimated 11 million Americans were regular users of illicit drugs (Block and Obioha 108).
Recent Trends In reaction to the fact that the traditional war on drugs has been hugely ineffective, there have been notable shifts in how the government and the community view the problem of drug use. Some policy makers have recognized that recreational drug use is an integral part of the American culture.
Promoting a drug-free life is therefore unrealistic. They have therefore called for the decriminalization of some drugs. Marijuana is one drug that has been legalized in some states in an attempt to deal with the drug problem. Block and Obioha note that legalization does not imply that the government is advocating the use of addictive drugs such as heroin and cocaine (108). Legalization means that it is not a criminal act to use, sell, or buy drugs.
Another trend has been in the emergence of preventive programmes that aim at harm reduction without preaching and propaganda. Such programs acknowledge that drug taking is a fact of life and aim to prevent drug abuse, which causes detrimental outcomes.
In addition to this, there has been a move towards viewing drug abusers as individuals in need of medical assistance instead of viewing them as criminals. Research shows that regardless of how successful criminal penalties are in reducing drug use among people, treatment is more effective.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The War on Drugs in the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Drugs remain to be an important issue affecting the American community. This war costs the government billions of dollars per year and the lives of many people are disrupted as they are subjected to criminal penalties for using or dealing in drugs.
In spite of these significant economic and social costs, the war on drugs has proved largely ineffective. There is no possibility that it will lead to the eradication of the drug problem faced by the country entirely. The US government should therefore consider alternative approaches to deal with the drug problems faced by its citizens.
Works Cited Benavie, Arthur. Drugs: America’s Holy War. NY: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Block, Walter and Violet Obioha. “War on Black Men: Arguments for the Legalization of Drug.” Criminal Justice Ethics 31.2 (2012): 106-120. Web.
Jones, Michael. “Prison overcrowding: the sentencing judge as social worker”. Widener Law Journal 18.1 (2009): 491-498. Web. Web.
Nicholson, Thomas, David Duncan, John White and Cecilia Watkins. “Focusing on abuse, not use: A proposed new direction for US drug policy.” Drugs: Education, Prevention
How do Religion, Culture and Ethnicity Affect the Success or Failure of a Global Enterprise in China? Analytical Essay essay help site:edu
There are many factors that would tend to have a significant impact to the success or failure of global enterprises or businesses operating in international scenes. As a matter of fact, these factors are highly regarded in every segment of the modern business world, considering their significant impact on businesses.
These factors would tend to serve as perfect guidelines for global entrepreneurs in their business plans, especially when they intend to venture into new markets or when planning to expand their businesses to other regions. There is no doubt that these factors form part of the most important things that global entrepreneurs would consider when laying planning for their businesses.
This paper observes some of the ways in which factors such as religion, culture and ethnicity affect the success or failure of global enterprises. In order to offer valid information of how these factors may influence global enterprises, China is used in this paper as the country to research. The paper also highlights the factors that could impact upon the decision making of the global entrepreneur in the selected country.
Cultural and ethnic diversities in China and their Impact on Global Enterprises China is not only recognised as the fastest advancing economy in the world, but also as one of the most multicultural countries in the world today. The multiculturalism of China would come as a result of globalization and other factors that would include technological changes, an aging workforce and high demand for knowledge and skills in various areas.
Globalisation simply refers to the constant process through which different cultures, societies and economies interact with each other on global scales. Globalisation is said to be synonymous with the economic development and success of a nation, and this is evident in China where various aspects of globalisation have continued to play a significant role in transforming every sector of the economy (Combs et al. 2006, p. 517). Ever since the era of globalisation, China has undergone a massive social and economic transformation.
The industrial revolution was arguably one of the most important periods in the globalization timeline. This period would see a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of commodities in various regions of the world. This, in turn helped to improve global business relations between countries through exports of products.
The first phase of globalisation would come to an end after World War I. This war had brought adverse implications on the economic scenario, leading to a number of major crises that would affect the world in the 1920s and 1930s. Some of these crises are the gold standard crisis and the Great Depression..
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Globalisation in the modern era, which occurred after World War II, has had a greater impact to the global business scenario, compared with the previous phase of globalisation. The global leaders had used this opportunity to enhance economic ties between countries allover the world. More importantly, it was also in the course of this time when many major countries came to attain their independence.
Following this significant advancement, the involved countries would start their own bilateral systems which served as avenues for economic relations with the rest of the world. These developments helped to strengthen the global economic situation, thus leading to improved trade relations among countries.
Other significant developments whose occurrence had been facilitated by globalisation include the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UNO), the World Trade Organization, creation of global corporations, and blend of tradition and culture across the nations. These factors played a key role in making China a multicultural country as people of different ethnicities found their way into the country mainly for economic-related reasons.
As various scholar and researchers have concluded, the largest impact of globalisation on countries would occur in the course of the modern age. For example, it was during this era when widespread development would take place in all sectors of China’s economy. This has further contributed to increased interactions between China and other countries, and in that case, sharing of cultural aspects, ideas, and traditions would occur, putting a direct influence on the country’s globalisation process.
In a matter of decades, China has changed from a determinedly Chinese nation to one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. As it would be observed, the aspect of cultural diversity has had far-reaching implications for the Asian country. China’s diverse cultures have significantly continued to impact many aspects of the way the nation relates with other countries around the world, especially in matters to do with business and commerce.
Multiculturalism is a construct that would tend to bring significant implications to societies (Cox
Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations Exploratory Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Significance of a Salesperson
Expectations of a Salesperson
Public Relations, Publicity, and Corporate Advertising
Publicity in Future
Introduction The ultimate goal of every business is to sell its products to as many customers as possible in order to make high profits. To achieve this goal, businesses employ various strategies, which include advertising, public relations, publicity, and direct salespersons to market their products. This paper will discuss the importance of each of these strategies in the process of marketing a product.
Significance of a Salesperson Salespersons make significant contributions to their companies since they possess a variety of values that alternative marketing systems such as e-commerce cannot replace. To begin with, a salesperson is an expert who is well connected in a particular market segment. This enables him to reach out to customers and to identify their needs, thereby creating opportunities for new product development and market share expansion.
An effective salesperson is usually likeable and is capable of building strong relationships with customers. The relationships enable customers to identify with the company’s product, thereby increasing the chances of repeat purchases. Salespeople identify important leads that ultimately turn into huge sales.
They are passionate about the company’s product and explain its benefits to customers in a manner that creates a lasting emotional impact. It is this personal connection rather than the product or brand that turns potential customers into actual customers. In a nutshell, salespersons are very important since they enable companies to take business away from their competitors.
The type of the product being sold determines the significance of the salesperson. For instance, first moving consumer goods (FMCG) such as bread usually do not require a salesperson because the consumers already have adequate knowledge about them. Additionally, the product is so important to the consumer that they have to buy it without being persuaded by a salesperson.
However, for a service such as insurance a salesperson is very important because the product is costly, has complicated features, and is often associated with rip-off. In this context, a salesperson is not only needed to explain the benefits of the product, but also to convince customers to purchase it.
Expectations of a Salesperson The main expectations of a salesperson include the following. First, a salesperson expects to maintain a high customer satisfaction rate. This helps in reducing customer attrition by improving the loyalty of existing clients. Second, a salesperson expects to maintain a positive and professional attitude.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A positive attitude is important to a salesperson since he is bound to experience rejection in the market. A positive attitude provides the motivation to pursue new leads in order to meet sales targets. Third, a salesperson expects to meet his sales targets within the set timeline. In order to realize this expectation, the salesperson is required to have excellent negotiation skills and product knowledge.
The sales role is a position that I would be interested in. This decision is supported by the following facts. To begin with, the role will enable me to make valuable contributions to the company. Undoubtedly, selling is the most important activity in any company since it directly generates revenue.
The sales role is also important to me because it creates new challenges that have to be addressed through innovative strategies. This not only eliminates boredom, but also provides numerous opportunities for learning and creativity. Working as a salesperson is a highly rewarding career in nearly every company. For instance, most organizations provide their sales personnel with a fixed and a variable pay. The variable component provides the opportunity to the salesperson to increase his income according to his ability.
Advertising Policy Ethics determine the long-term benefit of advertising. Specifically, the society’s perception or attitude towards an advert can lead to an increase in demand or a total rejection of a product. An advertising activity is considered to be ethical if it demonstrates respect to the target audience.
Showing respect in advertising involves anticipating and addressing the intentional and the unintentional effects of an advert on the society. Based on these perspectives, my advertising policy would be to create responsible desire. This involves using advertising to create desire or stimuli in a manner that does not create harm in the society. Basically, this policy is based on the principle of do good and no harm.
The proposed policy is likely to be effective because it addresses all the elements of a firm’s triple bottom line. The elements include profitability, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. Creating responsible desires leads to sustainable advertising. Adverts that do not cause any harm to the society and the environment will not be resisted by social activists or banned by the government. Thus, they can be used for a long time to stimulate the public to purchase a particular product, thereby increasing the company’s profits.
Public Relations, Publicity, and Corporate Advertising Publicity, public relations, and corporate advertising have the following similarities. First, they are all used to create awareness about a company and its products. Second, they all depend on the print and electronic media to convey information about the company and its products.
We will write a custom Essay on Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Publicity, public relations, and corporate advertising are different in the following ways. Publicity is the act of drawing the attention of the media in order to improve the visibility of a brand, product or a company in the public. The main objective of publicity is to garner as much media coverage as possible in order to create awareness about a brand or a product.
Unlike advertising, publicity is often not paid for. Moreover, publicity does not involve controlling what is being covered by the media. Thus, publicity can be positive or negative. For instance, Virgin Cola brand received positive publicity in the US when the chairman of the company that produces it, Sir Richard Branson, drove a Sherman tank down a street in New York in 1998 during its launch. The main strength of publicity is that it enables companies to create brand awareness at a low cost.
Public relations activities are concerned with influencing the public’s opinion through the media. Thus, its main objective is to improve the reputation of a brand or a company. For instance, after the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, BP used public relations in 2012 to regain its reputation as an efficient firm in the oil industry. Thus, the main benefit of public relations is to help companies to minimize the negative impact of various events on their brands.
Advertising involves paying media companies to convey specific information about a brand or a product. Unlike publicity, advertising enables the company to determine the message that the media presents to the public about its product.
The difference between advertising and public relations is that the later positions information as news, whereas the former presents information as an appeal to make a purchase decision. For instance, Nokia Lumia 920 gained market share in the US in 2012 after its advert presented iPhone 5 (its main competitor) as boring.
Publicity in Future Publicity will continue to play an important role in improving the competitiveness of products in future because of the following reasons. First, publicity ensures credibility since the message about the product emanates from an independent source. As the public becomes more informed about the consequences of consuming various products, publicity will be one of the tools that companies will use to enhance the credibility of their brands.
Second, publicity is cost-effective and provides a lot of information to the public. As competition increases in various industries in future, companies are likely to turn to publicity to improve their brand awareness at low costs. Finally, technological advancements such as the use of the internet and smartphones to access real-time information will enhance the suitability of publicity in marketing.
Conclusion Advertising, publicity, and public relations are used by marketers to improve the brand awareness for their products. Unlike advertising and public relations, publicity is cost-effective and is likely to be used in future by companies that have limited marketing budgets. Apart from implementing the aforementioned strategies, companies should employ salespersons to sell their products. However, the need for a salesperson depends on the characteristics of the product.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertising, Publicity, and Public Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Amstrong, G.,
Corporate Governance Sector in UK Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Corporate governance is the relationship between the daily running of an organization and its ownership. It entails the processes, procedures, decisions, and controls that define the effective running of an organization vis-à-vis the ownership. In UK, the effectiveness with which corporations operate has been an arduous journey, which is still in growth. This paper will look into the forces that led to these changes including the Enron Scandal.
The paper will also describe findings with reference to the Tesco PLC (2013) case. Finally, the author will conclude on the effectiveness of the UK corporate governance sector. London Stock Exchange is the custodian of governance rules in UK. LSE manages the agency relationship between owners of a company (shareholders) and the day-to-day controllers of operations for profit making purposes.
General Background The UK corporate governance sector has had numerous changes and the reports have had a key role to play in these changes. Changes have occurred primarily based on the need to remunerate corporate chiefs fairly, the need for careful investment of shareholders’ money continually, and the need to improve shareholders’ returns.
Although these are the basics, other factors come into play because of the changing economic times buoyed by technological advancement, a shifting social-corporate relationship, and competition. The following reports are an indication of the metamorphosis of the corporate governance and recommendations accrued over time.
Cardbury Report 1992
The report, commissioned in the wake of numerous UK scandals, aimed at instilling integrity, transparency, and accountability in the entire decision-making processes in an organization. Corporate governance in UK lies upon that bedrock. It established auditor independence, encouraged information flow to the shareholders, and established a structure in which an organization could run independently (Chapman, Hopwood
Roll Rite, LLC Evaluation Essay college application essay help
Introduction Roll Rite, LLC is a private company in the US that specializes in the manufacture of tarp equipment. It was the first company to design and manufacture a high-tech electric tarp system. The equipment is mainly used in the trucking industry. Owing to its aggressive growth caused by unrivalled innovations, this would be the right time for the firm to venture into international markets.
Based on the high number of prospective countries where the company would export its products, the process of identifying the best foreign markets to venture into could be a rigorous process. Business organizations sell their products and services in foreign markets that could result in improved sales growth and equity (Chan, Covrig and Ng 1501; Lileeva and Trefler 1070; Müller 100).
However, many companies do not conduct evidence-based analyses before they venture into foreign markets. As a result, such companies end up making huge losses. This paper discusses the data, market indicators and steps that the leading producer of tarp and allied products would utilize in order to select the best three markets to export its goods.
The need to rank markets It is always prudent for business managers to rank potential markets so that they have an outline of the expected business trends. Managers should not rely on business assumptions that are not supported by real market data. This happens when some members of the team could have some hidden agendas, which could imply that foreign markets could be selected based on personal reasons rather than for gaining competitive advantages.
In order for the management team of Roll Rite, LLC to identify correct markets that have the potential to help the firm realize improved financial growth and competitive advantage, it should engage in series of informed decisions. The decisions could be made based on the market data obtained from markets with regard to attributes, strengths, and weaknesses of the firm and its manufactured goods. Thus, the ranking could provide an essential starting point that could support collective-based discussion to culminate in the selection of the best foreign markets.
However, Roll Rite, LLC will not basically rank potential markets to justify the selection of the viable markets. The involved team may make some other crucial considerations that could guide it to know the order of pursuing the identified foreign markets. For example, budget constraints of the firm could make it avoid some foreign markets that could be characterized by high operations.
If this happens, then the company could enter into markets that do not have very high scores, but which are marked by manageable financial costs involved in daily operations. In fact, the firm could venture into close markets like Mexico and Canada, although they could have lower rankings than African markets, which could be associated with high costs of operations. Also, the team in charge of analyzing the external markets could consider some important strengths of the firm, for example, a wealth of experience in regard to dealing with specific markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the decision of the team will not only be based on the outcomes of analytical models used to assess foreign markets. Such models will be updated on a regular basis to reflect market dynamics and growth trends of Roll Rite, LLC. It will also be important for the management of the firm to remember that the analysis of market indicators is a long process.
How Roll Rite, LLC will select foreign markets The firm has gained a substantial market share in the US due to its innovative products and excellent customer service. It has developed a great image in long durability of its products, which are manufactured using the best technologies. The firm has been recording consistent financial growth over the years though the market for tarp products has been marked by a high level of competition.
In an attempt to assess its potential in foreign markets, Roll Rite, LLC would want to identify the markets that could have the most potential for its tarp systems. Although the company is marked by a significant financial strength, it would like to enter markets that are characterized by high penetration rates and low investments in the forms of advertisements and promotion.
The management team has felt that it would be easier to enter into the markets that have been already using tarp systems imported from the US. On the other hand, it would be quite difficult to penetrate easily into foreign markets that use tarp systems produced by local manufacturers (Kim and Wei 90).
In fact, the local manufacturers could adopt low pricing strategies that could drive Roll Rite, LLC out of the market. Thus, the sources of tarp systems in foreign markets will be an important factor to consider before the management can settle on a particular foreign market. The following steps would be followed in a model that could enable the firm to accurately identify external markets that could help it to gain competitive advantage and improved financial outcomes.
Step one: Developing indicators As a result of the management team analyzing past sales, conducting competitive market research, and discussing with other market players in the trucking industry, it argues that the following indicators would impact the final decision with regard to the choices of foreign markets.
These would include the level of US exports of tarp systems and components. The rationale would be that the firm has gained competitive advantage solely on product innovations and durability. It is documented that the firm has been doing pretty well in markets characterized by a high level of competition from other tarp systems’ manufacturers. Therefore, the most essential product-based indicator would be the level of exports from the US business rivals into external markets.
We will write a custom Essay on Roll Rite, LLC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Past leads and sales would also be important product-based indicators that would influence the market choices. It is clear that the trucking industry is controlled by some US and foreign competitors. Thus, it would be essential to analyze the sales of these companies.
Industry size indicators
One of the indicators in this category would be the population. Generally, product sales correlate with the number of individuals that characterize markets. Therefore, larger populations would result in better sales than smaller populations. The per capita income of the people in specific markets would be quantified to determine income levels.
Populations that are marked by high income levels are also characterized by higher sales than the populations with low income levels. Also, it would require the analysis of the total market for tarp systems. This would involve the identification of specific market niches that have the potential for the products.
Market growth indicators
In assessing the potential of the foreign markets, the management team would determine the growth trends of the tarp systems’ markets (Petersen, Pedersen and Lyles 1110; Shrader 50).
For instance, it would enter markets characterized by higher growth rates than those with stagnated or negative dynamics. In fact, it would be pretty hard for Roll Rite, LLC to engage with new distributors without past dealings with tarp systems from the US in a stagnant market.
Country Imports from the US (millions USD) Market growth (%) year over year Ease of business Canada 300,347 2.7% 50 Mexico 226,153 4.7% 35 China 122,016 0.4% 90 Japan 65,145 -6.9% 25 Germany 47,442 -2.8% 20 United Kingdom 47,442 -13.7% 30 Brazil 44,116 0.7% 45 Netherlands 42,654 5.0% 70 Hong Kong 42,450 13.3% 80 Korea 41,555 -1.7% 40 Figure 1. A table showing the data for the three main market indicators (2013).
For simplicity, the value of imports from the US by foreign markets, average growth rate, and the ease of doing business were used as the indicators. Figure 1 shows that Canada imported products of the highest value from the US while Netherlands imported goods and services of the least value.
Although the foreign markets recorded good import figures, it is clear that a good number of foreign markets showed negative growth with regard to foreign products from the US. This observation brings complexity in the analysis of the best markets to carry out business. For example, although the United Kingdom is ranked number 6 in terms of the value of imports, the country recorded a decrease of about 13%.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Roll Rite, LLC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, Roll Rite, LLC would be careful not to venture into markets that might be attempting to reduce the value of products they import from the US. Such a move could lead to huge financial losses. It would be interesting to monitor the growth trend of Hong Kong over the next one year to assess if it still has high growth rate with regard to the US imports.
If the growth rates were maintained, then the company would consider the foreign market as an excellent vehicle to gain competitive advantage and increase market share. Although other ranking features will be introduced in the subsequent sections, Canada has recorded very high value of imports, and the growth rate is also good.
The higher the value of the ease of business market was given the easier it was to conduct business with the county. For example, China has the highest value of the ease of business. It could be that there are less legal hurdles that could hinder a company to operate in China. Also, it could have a conducive political environment that favours investments by local and foreign business establishments.
Step two: Changing the data into indicators that can be used for comparison This step involves assigning the data to the indicators used in the first table some point scores so that the market performance outcomes for all the countries can be ranked using numbers.
Various approaches can be utilized, but team members will have to judge and apply the right scores so that there would be comparability between the indicators. In regard to Roll Rite, LLC, the country with the highest value of imports from the US was considered the benchmark upon which the other states in the table were assessed. The following table shows the data with specific ranks.
Country Imports from the US (millions USD) Rank Market growth (%) year over year Rank Ease of business Rank Canada 300,347 1 2.7% 4 50 7 Mexico 226,153 2 4.7% 3 35 4 China 122,016 3 0.4% 6 90 10 Japan 65,145 4 -6.9% 9 25 2 Germany 47,442 5 -2.8% 8 20 1 United Kingdom 47,442 6 -13.7% 10 30 3 Brazil 44,116 7 0.7% 5 45 6 Netherlands 42,654 8 5.0% 2 70 8 Hong Kong 42,450 9 13.3% 1 80 9 Korea 41,555 10 -1.7% 7 40 5 Figure 2. A table showing the three indicators of the foreign markets and their rankings.
Next, it was important to introduce scores into the table. For this case, the country with the highest value of imports, Canada, was assigned a score of 100. This was used as the reference score for other foreign markets. Also, the raw point scores for the other market indicators were assigned using a similar approach. The following figure is a table with the indicators, rankings and raw point scores.
Country Imports from the US (millions USD) Rank Raw import points Market growth (%) year over year Rank Raw growth points Ease of business Rank Raw ease points Canada 300,347 1 100 2.7% 4 22 50 7 55 Mexico 226,153 2 75 4.7% 3 28 35 4 70 China 122,016 3 55 0.4% 6 15 90 10 40 Japan 65,145 4 40 -6.9% 9 8 25 2 85 Germany 47,442 5 30 -2.8% 8 10 20 1 90 United Kingdom 47,335 6 29 -13.7% 10 6 30 3 80 Brazil 44,116 7 25 0.7% 5 17 45 6 60 Netherlands 42,654 8 21 5.0% 2 30 70 8 50 Hong Kong 42,450 9 20 13.3% 1 70 80 9 45 Korea 41,555 10 19 -1.7% 7 12 40 5 65 Figure 3. A table showing the market indicators, rankings, and raw points.
Step three: Weighting indicators Not all market indicators could have great significance in selecting the foreign market. In other words, some market indicators should always be considered more essential than the rest. It is recommended that every market indicator should be assigned a weight that correlates with its importance in foreign market assessment (Deng 80).
The three indicators were assigned values between 1 and 3 (3 was the highest weight). Specifically, the ease of business was assigned a weight of 3 while market growth and value of imports were assigned weights of 2 and 1 respectively. The ease of penetrating a foreign market by Roll Rite, LLC was a very important aspect in business operations. This was the most important indicator that should be assessed in detail when planning to venture into foreign markets where the firm has little or no prior experience.
The second most important indicator for Roll Rite, LLC was market growth because, without proper market growth analysis, the firm could start operations in a foreign market that has resolved not to engage in business, for example, with companies from the US (Yeaple 300).
Lastly, the least important indicator for the company was the value of imports because, based on its business aggression, the company could enter a foreign market with a low value of imports from the US, but end up gaining a significant market share and financial growth.
Country Imports from the US (millions USD) Rank Raw import points w Market growth (%) year over year Rank Raw growth points g W Ease of business Rank Raw ease points Biz W Canada 300,347 1 100 1 2.7% 4 22 2 50 7 55 3 Mexico 226,153 2 75 1 4.7% 3 28 2 35 4 70 3 China 122,016 3 55 1 0.4% 6 15 2 90 10 40 3 Japan 65,145 4 40 1 -6.9% 9 8 2 25 2 85 3 Germany 47,442 5 30 1 -2.8% 8 10 2 20 1 90 3 United Kingdom 47,335 6 29 1 -13.7% 10 6 2 30 3 80 3 Brazil 44,116 7 25 1 0.7% 5 17 2 45 6 60 3 Netherlands 42,654 8 21 1 5.0% 2 30 2 70 8 50 3 Hong Kong 42,450 9 20 1 13.3% 1 70 2 80 9 45 3 Korea 41,555 10 19 1 -1.7% 7 12 2 40 5 65 3 Figure 4. A table showing market indicators, rankings, raw points, and weights of indicators.
In order to arrive at the final scores, the weights of the markets and point scores were multiplied. The result was a score for each indicator. Afterwards, the three score values for each market were summed up to obtain the total score.
The following table shows the completed calculations.
Country Imports from the US (millions USD) Rank Raw import points w score Market growth (%) year over year Rank Raw growth points g W score Ease of business Rank Raw ease points Biz W score Total score Canada 300,347 1 100 1 100 2.7% 4 22 2 44 50 7 55 3 155 299 Mexico 226,153 2 75 1 75 4.7% 3 28 2 56 35 4 70 3 210 341 China 122,016 3 55 1 55 0.4% 6 15 2 30 90 10 40 3 120 205 Japan 65,145 4 40 1 40 -6.9% 9 8 2 16 25 2 85 3 255 311 Germany 47,442 5 30 1 30 -2.8% 8 10 2 20 20 1 90 3 270 320 United Kingdom 47,335 6 29 1 29 -13.7% 10 6 2 12 30 3 80 3 240 281 Brazil 44,116 7 25 1 25 0.7% 5 17 2 34 45 6 60 3 180 239 Netherlands 42,654 8 21 1 21 5.0% 2 30 2 60 70 8 50 3 150 241 Hong Kong 42,450 9 20 1 20 13.3% 1 70 2 140 80 9 45 3 135 295 Korea 41,555 10 19 1 19 -1.7% 7 12 2 24 40 5 65 3 195 238 Figure 5. A table with the calculated scores of the market indicators.
The following data show the order of the foreign markets based on their total scores that are shown in the above table. The highest scoring market is the top while the lowest scoring market is at the bottom.
Country Total score Ranking Mexico 341 1 Germany 320 2 Japan 311 3 Canada 299 4 Hong Kong 295 5 United Kingdom 281 6 Netherlands 241 7 Brazil 289 8 Korea 238 9 China 205 10 Figure 6. A table showing the order of foreign markets based on their total scores.
The three best markets (Mexico, Germany, and Japan)
The three best scoring foreign markets were Mexico, Germany, and Japan respectively. The management team of Roll Rite, LLC should use the model results to form the basis for discussion as they plan to venture into the three markets that were shown to have the best scores.
Although Mexico was not characterized by the highest market growth, it was the second best market with regard to the value of imports from the US. Thus, it seems that the country has a conducive business environment that could benefit the company. Interestingly, Germany was marked by negative market growth trend, but it was the score best market in the overall score. The negative growth could have been contributed by political events, which could go away in the near future.
Thus, it is an ideal market that Roll Rite, LLC should focus on entering in order to increase its market share. Japan is a highly industrialized country and with a significant value of the US imports (Chen, Lee and Isobe 134; Makino and Montgomery 480).
Roll Rite, LLC could gain a substantial market share in Japan based on its innovative ways of manufacturing tarp systems. In conclusion, the model has presented an excellent approach to study the potential of foreign markets with regard to Roll Rite, LLC. The firm will focus on the outcomes of the model to launch further market research studies to understand the markets better.
Works Cited Chan, Kalok, Vicentiu Covrig, and Lilian Ng. “What determines the domestic bias and foreign bias? Evidence from mutual fund equity allocations worldwide.” The Journal of Finance 60.3 (2005): 1495-1534. Print.
Chen, Gong-Meng, Bong-Soo Lee, and Oliver Rui. “Foreign ownership restrictions and market segmentation in China’s stock markets.” Journal of Financial Research 24.1 (2001): 133-55. Print.
Deng, Ping. “Investing for strategic resources and its rationale: The case of outward FDI from Chinese companies.” Business Horizons 50.1 (2007): 71-81. Print.
Isobe, Takehiko, Shige Makino, and David B. Montgomery. “Resource commitment, entry timing, and market performance of foreign direct investments in emerging economies: The case of Japanese international joint ventures in China.” Academy of Management Journal 43.3 (2000): 468-484. Print.
Kim, Woochan, and Shang-Jin Wei. “Foreign portfolio investors before and during a crisis.” Journal of international economics 56.1 (2002): 77-96. Print.
Lileeva, Alla, and Daniel Trefler. “Improved access to foreign markets raises plant-level productivity… for some plants.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 125.3 (2010): 1051-1099. Print.
Müller, Thomas. “Analyzing modes of foreign entry: Greenfield investment versus acquisition.” Review of International Economics 15.1 (2007): 93-111. Print.
Petersen, Bent, Torben Pedersen, and Marjorie A. Lyles. “Closing knowledge gaps in foreign markets.” Journal of international business studies 39.7 (2008): 1097-1113. Print.
Shrader, Rodney C. “Collaboration and performance in foreign markets: The case of young high-technology manufacturing firms.” Academy of Management Journal 44.1 (2001): 45-60. Print.
Yeaple, Stephen Ross. “The complex integration strategies of multinationals and cross country dependencies in the structure of foreign direct investment.” Journal of International Economics 60.2 (2003): 293-314. Print.
Contract Law: Breach of Contract and Remedies Available Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction A contract as an accord between businesses or individuals who may by mutual consent agree to do something or one may agree to undertake something for a consideration.1 Agreements can oral or written, or even implied depending with the issue at hand.2 In most cases, contracts end up in court claims for failure by one arty to fulfill his part of the bargain, whether in part or full.
For any claim to contractual material breach to be successful, the injured party must establish that: indeed there was a contract; the defendant is indeed the right party to bring a claim, the contract was breached, and the claimant suffered monitory losses.
In a similar case held in 1853,3 it was held that if a party privy to the contract has rendered it difficult to fulfill his part of the contractual bargain, at end of the agreed term that party is directly liable for breach.4 This paper will discuss the relevant facts in Mr. Cosimo and Natural Stone House performance case and advice needed by Mr. Cosimo to pursue the case and Natural Stone House to counter the case.
The legal Issue(s) (Contractual) Relevant facts to the case
Natural Stone House (“NSH”) under Mr. and Mrs. Alfredo was contracted by Mr. and Mrs. Cosimo to supply and install granite surfaces for the kitchen comprising a bench-top, a servery top and splash-backs July 2013. Mr. Alfredo showed to Mr. Cosimo samples of granite. Ultimately, Mr. Cosimo selected Verde Sorrento granite for the kitchen surfaces. A quotation was made by Mr. Cosimo and handed to Mr. Alfredo on 31 July 2013.
The quotation entailed $5,370 for the bench-tops and about $1,595 for the splash-backs. On 12 August 2013, revised the quotation and offered a single price of about $6,495 which was accepted by Mr. Cosimo. Mr. Cosimo also paid 50 percent of the total cost.
This meant that Mr. Cosimo had seen that the granite bench-tops supplied by Mr. Alfredo were the material he really needed. NSH supplied the material and as agreed and started work on 21st September the same year. However, Mr. Cosimo was not pleased prompting him to cancel the contract.
Mr. Cosimo is intending to bring the matter to court. He thinks that NSH has breached the contract by delivering bench-top which was not fit for its purpose and of an unacceptable quality. It is also the view of Mr. Cosimo that the materials supplied must befit the work anticipated. It was also anticipated that NSH would raise counter-claims. Using all relevant contractual principles, this paper advises Mr. Cosimo of the strength of his claims as well as the strength of the anticipated counter-claims.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason behind the client’s need to obtain advice
There are various reasons clients want to be advised on legal matters particularly contractual claim. In this case, however, main reason why Mr. Cosimo needs legal advice is basically to know how the court deals with contractual claim cases.
The client may want to be advised on how to adduce the evidence and also convince the judge regarding the facts to the case.5 The client may also want be advised on what kind of evidence if in writing to present before the lord judge. Likewise, if it is oral, then the client may want to know how to proof it existence via circumstantial evidence or witnesses. 6
The client may also want to be advised on how to claim and proof damages resulting from the violated contract.7 That is, the claimant after vividly proving that indeed a contract exited and terms were breached, he or she should then proof to the judge that she or he suffered financial loss in the process.
In most cases, the claimant must present beyond reasonable doubt before the judge some evidence to proof the financial loss.8 Specifically, the claimant will also be seeking to know whether the money claimed would solve the problem.9 The client may also want to know the leverage that defendant is likely to get in terms of claim defenses.
Applying relevant principles of law and authority and Legal advice The aspect of material breach will no doubt come up. In Suisse Atlantique case (1967) House of Lords defined fundamental breach as a contractual breach which entitles the wronged party to treat or a consideration as it is a violation and rescinds the agreement.10 In this case, the judge would want to know among many other things whether the other party (defendant) did not meet (intentionally) his part of the bargain.
Since, the breaching party (Mr. Alfredo) did not intentionally breach the contract; Mr. Cosimo would argue that though was not stated in the contract, it was within the powers of Mr. Alfredo to supply kitchen graphite bench-tops of high quality and right standards.
However, this would not be a material breach as it does not deprive Mr. Cosimo of the real intention and purpose of the deal. In this case, Mr. Cosimo would not be allowed to repudiate the agreement but would only demand for some cure which would be in the form of fixing the issue or reduction in price of the project.
We will write a custom Case Study on Contract Law: Breach of Contract and Remedies Available specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of the money be claimed, it is likely to be less material if the issue at hand is something that can be made good with less expense or reasonable effort, whilst upholding the agreement. Taking into consideration the goodwill by Mr. Alfredo to fix the problems as well as the willingness to acquire material from a supplier of their choice, probably this would not be a material breach, and as such, Mr. Cosimo would not be able to terminate the contract.
The claimant should also consider the chances that the defendant or breaching party will fix the problem.11 In contract law, in the event that the issue is likely to be fixed and that the breaching party has shown intentions to the same, the court is likely to rule that the contractual violation was immaterial. In this case, Mr. Alfredo offered to exchange it for a different type of granite to the same value to be selected by Mr. Cosimo, either from NSH or an alternative supplier. Mr. Alfredo did this as a gesture of goodwill.
The other aspect that Mr. Cosimo should know before proceeding with the court action is whether Mr. Alfredo breached the agreement in bad faith. In contract law, if the violation of the agreement stemmed from bad faith or was willful and the case is taken to a court of law, the judge is more likely to rule in favor of the claimant because of the material breach.12
For instance, if the court establishes that Mr. Alfredo completely ignored the terms of the contract, then he would have materially repudiated the contract.13 However, if it establishes that a breach or violation emanated from circumstances that were beyond the control of Mr. Alfredo then he is not likely to be held responsible for materially breaching the contract.
Alternative Responses to the Issue The client (Mr. Cosimo) will respond based on the likely defendant’s counterclaims.
Procedural strategies or tactics
In the case of Mr. Alfredo, there are rules of civil procedure which may be strategically employed. For instance, he may begin by applying for summary judgment, or apply for security for costs or apply strike out the claims altogether.14 Mostly, these tactics are used in cases that are highly importance. In such situation, Mr. Cosimo may employ tactics in order to impart pressure on the other side and in the process form part of a winning approach.
Variation of a written contract
Mr. Alfredo could also file a defense particularly based on supposed variation of a contract after it had been performed. That is, Mr. Cosimo only reacted after the granite bench-top had been put. In addition, it was the same material that Mr. Cosimo had checked in July and made an order.
In contract law, it is common practice claim that the agreement was considerably varied by just a conversation, in this case, by facsimile a letter in response so as to dispute the fact it was violated.15 This would eventually put the judge or courts of law in a challenging position since it would require oral evidence which normally takes place only during the final trail.16 As such, the defendant would have managed to buy more time. This tactic would provide the defendant with more time to put together his evidence particularly the oral evidence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contract Law: Breach of Contract and Remedies Available by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The premise is that any mistake made in court is likely to cost the party a lot therefore there is need to get prepared well. The defendant may as well argue that the contract was varied. In contract law, it is common practice, even where a contract is written, for the defendant to disown and even argue that it was altered or changed and as such, he or she did not in any way contravene the terms of the contract.
This is also a very risky road to be taken by the defendant therefore he or she must buy enough time in order to put down tangible evidence.
Mr. Cosimo should first know that in a contractual claim, the defendant is allowed to raise enough legal defenses. Usually, it is not enough for the defendant to merely deny legal offenses; he or she must counter the claimant’s allegations with reasonable evidence or argument. The main reason for raising these legal aspects at earlier stages is because he or she may not be allowed to raise them at latter stages.
The outcome of the dispute and remedies are available for the parties
The court is likely to rule that the contractual breach was immaterial and as such the contract was still in force. Therefore, the only cure for Mr. Cosimo is to request for materials that fit her desires. In other words, the only remedy available to Mr. Cosimo is reparation with orders to cost. In the case of Mr. Alfredo, the cure would be restatement of the contract with no orders to cost.
Bibliography Casenote Legal Briefs, Contracts Murphy Speidel and Ayres (Aspen Law
Customer Intimacy and Other Value Disciplines Case Study scholarship essay help
Introduction This essay is based on an article, Customer Intimacy and Other Value Disciplines by Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema (1992). The Value Disciples model focuses on three areas, which organizations should act upon in their operations to gain market shares. Treacy and Wiersema (1992) note that an organization should choose one of the value disciplines and concentrate on it constantly and vigorously, but it must also not ignore the other two areas. The two areas must meet the industry standards.
Operational excellence enhances organizational operations through quality services at low prices. Organizations should focus on efficiency, management of the supply chain, and streamline operations.
Product leadership should focus on innovation, product design, development, short time frame, and branding in a highly dynamic market.
Customer intimacy requires organizations to succeed in customer service and attention by tailoring products and services to meet specific needs of customers. In addition, organizations should also concentrate customer relationship management, exceed customers’ expectations in product and service delivery, focus on customer lifetime value, and be reliable and close to customers.
Therefore, according to Treacy and Wiersema (1992), these are the three ways to achieve market leadership.
The problem or opportunity for the organization Losing market share
Compaq, Home Depot’s competitors, and Adidas lost market shares to their rivals because of the failure to understand and focus on the three ways for achieving market leadership. On the other hand, organizations, such as Compaq, Nike, and Home Depot gained significant market shares from their competitors because they focused on one of the value disciplines.
Firms could lose market shares due to several reasons. For instance, Compaq lost market share to Dell other competitors because of weaknesses in its delivery systems. Dell realized that Compaq and IBM delivery systems were weak. While its competitors concentrated lower prices, Dell developed an efficient operating model that eliminated dealers and distributors. This enhanced operational efficiency and excellence. As a result, Dell was able to acquire a significant market share from its competitors.
Second, organizations lose market shares when they fail in product development. Product development requires creativity, which might be lacking in an organization. Firms that lose market shares have failed to recognize and embrace new ideas from outside. Unlike successful firms, organizations that lose market share fail to develop and commercialize their ideas fast.
This could result from a failure to engineer business and management processes quickly. When organizations fail to pursue new solutions persistently, their products may become obsolete as competitors develop better ones to meet emerging needs of customers. Therefore, product leaders must persistently seek for new solutions and commercialize the resultant products. Johnson
Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Preservation of Relationships
Protection of Privacy
Flexibility of Proceedings
Introduction Professional practices require guidelines that ensure people work in a healthy environment and interact without conflicts. Work policies are not adequate to guarantee employees’ safety and assure them of proportional compensation when they are injured or their property destroyed. There is the need to ensure employees work in unity and assist each other to ensure the goals of their organisations are achieved.
Organisations cannot achieve their objectives if there are unresolved conflicts between workers and management (Henshaw 2012). Therefore, there is the need for the establishment of dispute resolution mechanisms to ensure all conflicts are solved as soon as they occur. In addition, this ensures disputes are solved in appropriate ways without violating the rights of workers or other parties involved. This paper analyses how the dispute resolution mechanism of NZS3910: 2013 Conditions of Service.
Preservation of Relationships The article explains various ways of ensuring there is a healthy relationship between contractors and engineers. These two parties play important roles in ensuring projects are completed within the specified time and that they are of the desired quality. The article highlights the need for effective communication between the contractors and engineers to ensure the following issues are addressed.
First, there is the need to ensure contractors are in total control of their projects and thus that can predict the outcome of construction processes (Salacuse 2014). Therefore, the article gives the contractor the power to communicate in writing to the engineers and inform him of any proposed changes that will ensure adverse impacts of various situations are minimised or eliminated.
This means that they are in charge of monitoring the progress of their projects and inform engineers about any unexpected situations that may affect the quality of their work. The effect may lead to poor quality work or delayed completion of projects.
In addition, it advocates for meetings between contractors and engineers to ensure they have adequate time to discuss issues that may affect the quality of projects. These meetings may be planned by either of them to ensure they present their views on ways of reducing costs of managing the effects of the external environment that may affect the quality or duration of a project (Henshaw 2012).
These meetings should be held immediately the concerned parties notice that there are issues that must be addressed. It is necessary to explain that projects are very delicate and thus there is the need for contractors and engineers to pay attention to their proceedings. This will ensure all situations are monitored and appropriate changes made as soon as they are noticed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the contract allows the engineer to request his contractor to make changes to a project to ensure the quality of their work is not compromised. Engineers are supposed to make recommendations and specify the time within which corrections are supposed to be done (Otis 2009).
For instance, if an engineer suspects the quality of material or design is inappropriate in a given area, he has the right to request the contractor to make changes within specified period that should not exceed five days unless under extreme conditions. These provisions promote healthy relationships between contractors and engineers and ensure their projects are completed within specified time. In addition, they help in eliminating misunderstanding between these parties and ensure there is adequate dialogue whenever conflicts arise.
Protection of Privacy The contract highlights the need for the contractor, engineer and other stakeholders to provide the necessary information required to ensure a project succeeds. This means that withholding useful information from other parties is an offence that may attract prosecution and termination of contract (Salacuse 2014). Therefore, all parties are supposed to evaluate the role and importance of their information to the success of their projects.
However, there are some issues that are not bound by this provision. This means that the parties have the right to keep or share some information depending on their assessment of their appropriateness in the success of a project (Sears 2010). First, the contractor or engineer has no right of using the personal information of another party for reasons other than the ones it was requested for. This means that the personal information provided during a contract period is used within a specified time and not after the completion of a project.
In addition, the state will collect personal information from an individual when it is necessary to do so and if the intention is within the scope of a project and its contract. Individuals have a right to have their personal information kept in secret and disclosed after they are consulted and agree on the issue (Adrian 2014). All information stored in state offices should be protected from unauthorised access and disposed according the appropriate procedures.
Flexibility of Proceedings The clause advocates for timely communication between contractors and engineers about any changes if there are fears that any of the following is bound to happen. First, sometimes the contract price may be altered because of changes in prices of the materials used. The contractor is supposed to notify the engineer in writing and inform him about the changes and how they impact the cost of their construction (Otis 2009).
In addition, all projects usually have scheduled periods within which they must be completed. However, some issues may arise and make contractors unable to complete their projects within the stipulated time. Therefore, they are supposed to communicate with engineers to ensure they understand this situation and make arrangements to accommodate the delays. This ensures disputes between engineers and contractors are minimised.
We will write a custom Essay on Dispute Resolution Mechanisms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, all parties involved in a contract have a statutory duty of ensuring they reduce the impacts of unexpected events (Sears 2010). All stakeholders are supposed to request for a meeting to discuss proposals that will avoid or reduce the impacts of unexpected situations. Advance notices are usually given to all stakeholders to ensure the value of any variation arising from the matter is not affected.
Moreover, engineers are supposed to inform contractors if they discover any defects in a project. In addition, a five day period is allowed to remedy the situation. This allows the contractor adequate time to make appropriate changes and inform the engineers if they can manage the situation (Otis 2009). This is a reasonable way of assessing the suitability of a contractor to manage complicated tasks and if he proves to be unsuitable the engineer may hire another person to do the job.
This will not affect the project or performance of the first contractor because he will have understood the situation. These provisions are based on the fact that there are unavoidable circumstances that may cause conflicts between contractors and engineers. Therefore, the project should be flexible to ensure the effects of unexpected events are accommodated without compromising the quality of a contractor’s work.
Conclusion It is necessary to establish a healthy relationship between a contractor and engineer to ensure projects are completed within their stipulated time and are of high quality.
The privacy of the contractor or engineers’ information is important in safeguarding their rights and ensuring they work in healthy environments. Projects must be designed in ways that accommodate unexpected changes; therefore, they must be flexible to ensure they enable contractors and engineers to make changes that are aimed at improving the quality of constructions.
References Adrian, J 2014, Construction Productivity: Measurement and Improvement, Stripes Publishers, New York.
Henshaw, J 2012, A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry: OSHA 3150 2002, CreateSpace Independent Publishing, New York.
Otis, L 2009, Construction Dispute Resolution: Leading Lawyers on Understanding the Benefits of ADR, Educating the Client, and Navigating the Effects of the Economic Downturn, Thomson West, Minnesota.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dispute Resolution Mechanisms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Salacuse, J 2014, The Three Laws of International Investment: National, Contractual, and International Frameworks for Foreign Capital, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sears, K 2010, Construction Contracting: A Practical Guide to Company Management, Wiley, New York.
The Search for Order by Robert H. Wiebe Critical Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary Written by Robert H. Wiebe in 1967, the book, The Search for Order, is a perfect chronicle of the Americans’ search for economic, political, and social order between 1877 and 1920. The search kicked off immediately after the Reconstruction Era until 1920 just before the vagaries of the Great Depression set in.
The Reconstruction, which was occasioned by the Civil War, failed and people started looking up to themselves and this change was supported by the growing industries. This shift from government dependence to self-actualization was at the center of the controversies that followed including the introduction of the Gold Standard, the agrarians’ fallout, and the bulging need for professionalism in the country among other issues.
Theodore Roosevelt’s triumph to presidency consolidated the calls for professionalism in every aspect of the American livelihoods including politics. The First World War was a shocker to the US, which mistakenly thought it had enough diplomatic ties to control such an occurrence. The key concern in the book is the progressive movement that gripped the Americans, which seemed to be the genesis of the disorder that Wiebe seeks to address via this book.
Critical Analysis Conventionally, by exploring the undying spirit for search for order amongst Americans from the late nineteen century, Wiebe, through the law of unintended consequences, highlights the ripe disorder that defined the American society at the time. One of the critical issues that I learnt from the book is the disorder that prevailed after the abortion of the Reconstruction and the subsequent quest for restoring order in the American society.
Wiebe (1967) confesses, “Americans in a basic sense no longer knew who or what they were…The setting had altered beyond their power to understand it and within an alien context they had lost themselves” (42). As aforementioned, Americans embraced professionalism in their dealings and thus they departed from the earlier way of handling issues via moral lenses. Americans embraced officialdom and thus “the heart of progressivism was the ambition of the new middle class to fulfill its destiny through bureaucratic means” (Wiebe 1967, 166).
Unfortunately, while bureaucracy was initially meant to bring order and progression, it soon degenerated to chaos as the changing social, political, and the economic environment introduced new challenges. People wanted accountability from the government; however, this push was not strong enough following the government-engineered Reconstruction Era, which aborted miserably. People had lost faith in the same government that they wanted to be accountable.
Therefore, in the raging confusion, the very ideals highly regarded in society like anticorruption started to wane. Corruption and political persecutions found their way back into the mainstream government. Unfortunately, the masses were too disorganized to voice their issues- they had neither inner push nor reason to champion for reforms. Therefore, “with no purpose beyond disclosure and conviction and very little organized support behind them, they captured the headlines, and then disappeared” (Wiebe 1967, 172).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, as aforementioned, Wiebe’s purpose of compiling this book was to highlight how Americans realized order in a seemingly hostile and disorderly environment. Therefore, even though the author starts by highlighting a disorder, he quickly moves to the central theme and explores the journey to an ‘orderly America’. By the turn of the twentieth century, the cards were changing as allegiance shifted from politics to professionalism.
In a span of 11 years, Americans had three presidents all of which were progressives. President Theodore Roosevelt in particular was a darling to many Americans due to his liberal stand on governance. He brought order in a hitherto disorderly society grappling with the vagaries of a changing environment.
While William Taft was somehow undecided on liberal issues, by the time he rose to power, the progressives had already been established and they carried on with Roosevelt’s spirit until Wilson Woodrow won the presidency and continued with restoring the order that Theodore had initiated. By 1912-1913, the American society had achieved domestic ‘order’ and so they started pushing for foreign policy and investments overseas.
Unfortunately, as aforementioned, the outbreak of the First World War was a shocker to the Americans as their teething diplomatic ties were thrown into disarray and the disorder moved from domestic to the international arena. However, Wiebe is only concerned with the domestic order and as he closes up the book, he notes that the 1920s brought order in the American society –an order that had been elusive for many years.
Conclusion Wiebe’s book, In Search for Order, is a masterpiece as it gives an impartial view of the American’s search for order immediately after the abortion of the Reconstruction all through to the 1920s after the First World War.
The book is thematic and Wiebe does not dwell on the disorderly era for long, but he shifts to the theme of his book. He does this by dedicating a larger part of his book to the ‘search for order’ aspect. The book is informative and from it. I learnt of the Americans’ resilient journey towards ‘order’, which they ultimately realized according to Wiebe’s chronicles.
Reference Wiebe, Robert. 1967. The Search for Order, 1877-1920. New York: Hill and Wang.
We will write a custom Book Review on The Search for Order by Robert H. Wiebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Strategic Entrepreneurship within the Current Market Dynamics Report essay help
Summary The business sector continues to undergo tremendous developments in the 21st century. With numerous technological advancements, wider market bases, higher consumer purchasing powers, and market liberalizations in many parts of the world, entrepreneurs and businesspersons continue to enjoy high profits margins from their investments.
Despite these advancements, the resulting business environment becomes competitive with increased risks, inadequate forecasting abilities, emerging structural systems, and fluid firms as well as industrial boundaries. All these factors compel management teams in business firms and franchises to engage in innovative ideas that can withstand the new business landscape intertwined in dynamism, complexity, chaos, and contradictions.
Formulation of plans plays an imperative role in effective management of business opportunities. It is from these strategic management plans that leadership structures in any business entity develop the ways of maximizing the opportunities, while reducing the risks associated with the threats and weaknesses evident in the venture.
Plans and objectives offer the engaged workforce clear goals and expectations within given periods, thus creating a hard-working labor force. This increases the chances of high productivity, hence earning more profits to the business. Strategic planning, proper management, adequate entrepreneurial skills, and efficient workforce provide the grounds for successful business set-up with the ability to enjoy competitive advantage over the rivals in the market.
Key Learning Points Strategic management is a process that guides the day-to-day activities in a business entity; it helps in continuous renewal and growth of business by providing contexts essential for development and implementation of business operations. Business entities formulate such plans by developing missions, achievable objectives, strategies, as well as setting policy guidelines (Schendel
Importance of Effective Communication in BPM Projects Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of effective communication
Choice of an effective communication method
Introduction Business project management (BPM) refers to an approach that involves synchronization of business processes and operations in order to satisfy the needs of customers (Chong, 2010). Its main role is to improve the efficiency, flexibility, and effectiveness of businesses processes through innovation and incorporation of technology. In order to achieve success during BPM projects, it is imperative to understand, develop, and apply effective and efficacious communication strategies (Chong
The Nature of the Work of Teachers Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The main aim of this research paper is to establish the nature of work of teachers and the motivation behind it. The interviewing process has been used as the data collection tool. Generally, interviews provide in-depth information pertaining to participants’ experiences and viewpoints of a particular topic (Turner, 2010, p.754).
After gathering data from a teacher through interview, the gathered data was analyzed and a comprehensive list of an average teacher profile was created. The findings from the teacher revealed that all teachers belonged to the teachers’ union, which participates in collective bargaining services on behalf of teachers with relevant authorities.
Literature Review According to Macbeath (2012, p. 77), it is almost inevitable that schools in some form will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, and it is also inevitable that teaching and learning will continue to expand to sites other than schools. This statement triggered a research study on teaching profession.
Generally, teaching is a process of monitoring learners by way of inferring emotions, beliefs and knowledge, ability to detect gaps between correct knowledge and possible incorrect students’ knowledge, the ability to communicate this knowledge to the students, and finally, having the ability to provide feedback through assessment and corrections to students (Dessus, Mandin
A Dystopian State: Astutopia Reflective Essay college essay help
Astutopia is the name of the aspired New World Order. This world aims to end global warming marked by overpopulation, which has gradually depleted the environment and associated resources. The guiding symbol is shown below; this symbol represents the land envisioned by the ruling government. This land can only be attained if everyone works hard to support the cause.
The New World Order aims at reducing the current population by half, and thereafter, it ensures balance is maintained by conducting IQ tests once in every 10 years to get rid of less smart people. The IQ tests evaluate the smartness of individuals using transmitters that are connected to the brain, and smartness is assessed based on three strikes: economic, logic and efficiency. Failure in either one of the strikes is an indicator of stupidity.
The number of newborns each year is closely monitored by the government. This New World Order ensures that the little resources left can be salvaged and used to restore the environment. It also dictates that members of one district should not interact with members of another district to prevent a revolution.
Ministry of Plenty The have-nots (not smart people) work tirelessly in accordance with the objectives of the haves (very smart). Upon completion of assigned work to the satisfaction of the haves, the have-nots are given some money, just enough to meet their basic need for food and hoping for a better future.
This hope is enough to keep them working for the good of the aristocrats. Education and hospital needs are received by only those people who show their identification cards that are issued by the smart. The parent of any child spotted without the card is thrown into the dungeons of death.
The dungeons of death are mining valleys where anyone violating the law works for the rest of his or her life until he or she dies. People in the dungeons are provided with water, and the heavy work here is intended to slowly suck all the energy from their bodies until they die. There is no communication with one another, and any slight sluggishness is met with several lashes.
Ministry of truth The dungeon of death acts as a consistent reminder of the consequences of violating any one of the teachings approved by the Ministry. The Ministry develops teachings and doctrines in favor of the ruling government, and all institutions act as propagation media. The education system reinforces the essence of the dungeons, and the aim is to instill fear within the children so they can adhere to laid down teachings and doctrines. Teachers help in the selection of very smart persons, and the birth of smart people is controlled using tubes and the IQ tests. Individuals who pass the IQ tests are allowed to give birth while those who fail work in the mines or other menial jobs like farming and cleaning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ministry of Love Anyone who tries to disagree with the objectives of the ruling class will be instantly killed while his or her relatives will be thrown into the dungeons of death.
Stability of governance will be reinforced using surveillance cameras that will be installed in all prohibited areas, for example, at the boundaries of districts. In addition, each district will be fitted with security lights having these surveillance cameras to monitor the conduct of people (NightWatcher).
These people will be warned of the existing cameras to make them aware that they are being watched; thus, avoid doing wrong. The government will also explain that it does not intend to punish anyone; hence, the reason for creating awareness. Aerial surveillance teams will also survey each district at predetermined times to monitor ongoing activities. Aircrafts will be installed with cameras capable of capturing an area of 36 square miles (Timberg). This technology is meant to caution citizens so they can avoid trouble.
Astutopia was born in 2050 after the land fell into a state of deprivation; there was no water, food, fuel and land due to overpopulation, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. It was important to salvage the little left; hence, the testing began. Screening was done in all districts by the elite group.
People were ranked in the order of most productive to least productive. All the people falling in the lower quarters of the list were thrown into the dungeons of death until the desired number of people remained. All departments of internal security worked collectively to ensure that no endorsed law was violated.
Using the surveillance system explained above, it will be easier to note the slightest of violations, thus ensure prompt action. The registry of persons continues to ensure that the balance in population numbers is well maintained to avoid overpopulation. The divide and rule method is used to confine people in their particular districts and avoid assembling of persons that could lead to the downfall of this Astutopia.
This is a very daunting task because it does not line with my humane character. I was earnestly and fervidly involved in developing the concept of Astutopia, and I even played a greater part coming up with the consequences of aversion. Initially, it seemed a very interesting challenge, but upon narrowing down to the actual details of Astutopia, I felt the humanity in me being threatened. Every person played a role based on ability, but generally, everyone played an essential role to finishing the entire project.
We will write a custom Essay on A Dystopian State: Astutopia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited “NightWatcher.” NightWatcher Security, 2011. Web.
Timberg, Craig. “New surveillance technology can track everyone in an area for several hours at a time.” The Washington Post, 6 February 2014. Web.
U.S. Census Bureau. International Database. 19 December 2013. Web.
A Sick Medicaid System Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Low-income earners benefit from Medicaid, which provides the means to receive health care. The U.S. federal government put in place measures to ensure that all states complied with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The states were required to secure Medicaid records.
Different states adopted different options that they deemed fit for them. States could either update their current (legacy) systems or develop a new one. Maine developed a new system that turned disastrous (Oz, 2008).
Overview The Medicaid System was developed with an aim of assisting persons with low incomes to obtain health care services. Since the program was sponsored and funded by the government, it had to comply with some of the laws put in place concerning healthcare and other related issues. In 1996, the government enacted an Act that required healthcare providers in the states to secure Medicaid records.
Every state had to find a way of integrating their Medicaid claim systems to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Different states adopted different options that they thought best suited them. One of the ways in which states complied with the provision was by maintaining their ‘legacy’ systems while updating them and providing a web link to the system.
However, other states (such as Maine) decided to develop a totally new system in order to comply with HIPAA and ensure that it was flexible enough to accommodate changes whenever need arose. However, the option of developing a new system proved disastrous in this case.
In the case of the Medicaid system, the states that decided to maintain their ‘legacy’ systems benefited more than those states that decided to create a new system. One of the advantages was the ability to save more money while at the same time complying with HIPAA.
Maine’s Department of Human Services (DHS) spent $70 million within six year while developing and maintaining the new system. A significant proportion of this amount went to paying CNSI.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another advantage of not adopting a new system was the fact that there was no need for employing new staff for the development team. The IT department head of DHS knew that the team needed between 60 and 70 members in order to complete the exercise in time (1st October 2013).
The states that maintained their legacy systems did not require more staff to develop a system since all they needed was to update their current systems and link them to a website. Another advantage is the fact that there was no need for training.
Maine, which decided to develop a new system, had to train the providers how to use the new system. However, training was not done and this lead to more problems. Another advantage of using the legacy system is the fact that there was no risk of getting more errors. The new system was characterized by numerous errors.
Problem Definition One of the problems that has been identified is the development of a new system rather than maintaining the ‘legacy’ Medicaid system. However, the main problem that was associated with the failures of the new system was the lack of communication among programmers. The lack of communication led to the waste of resources including time and money.
It led to the loss of money that was required to outsource the development procedures to other companies such as CNSI. Even before the problem of lack of communication was sorted, it took a long time, which lead to disappointments among the medical practitioners.
After the issue was sorted, the DHHS director announced that the new system was working as efficiently as the old one. This was after spending millions of dollars in a system that was supposed to work better than the previous one.
Recommendations Gopal, Mukhopadhyay and Krishnan (2002) argued that communication is one of the issues that affect software project management. According to them, communication is most vital during the software development process. Communication and coordination is required in order to ensure that there is improved performance.
We will write a custom Case Study on A Sick Medicaid System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this case, Maine’s DHS should have ensured that there was proper communication between the state’s programmers and those of CNSI. They worked on different parts and yet did not consult each other. For this reason, the different parts of the system conflicted and created numerous errors. After the nomination of a physician to head the unit, things worked for the better.
Miller and Luse (2004) also identified that communication was important among information systems staff and other users and managers in order to ensure that the projects are successfully developed. They pointed out that ineffective communication led to the failing of IS projects.
Conclusion Communication is vital for the success of any organization especially when it comes to the information systems staff. They require coordinating with other users and managers in order to ensure that systems are successfully developed (Miller
Marketing Strategy and Organizational Effectiveness in Samsung Essay best college essay help
Samsung is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. The firm’s brand is recognized in many parts of the world and this has strengthened the value of its products in various global markets. In the mid 1990’s, several management initiatives helped the firm to improve the value of its products in the market. The firm’s management positioned it as a global brand which helped the firm to build a strong corporate image.
During that period, the firm had more than 10 popular products in the market which had strong customer loyalty in different markets. The firm’s rise as a global brand was made easy after it had withstood the Asian financial crisis of 1997.
It managed to turn around its operations which helped it register positive results in less than five years (Khanna, Song and Lee 142). This paper will discuss how Samsung can improve its performance in the market.
Samsung needs to come up with more competitive strategies to help it deal with the changing market environment. The technology industry is experiencing a lot of changes, which require Samsung to develop new strategies to maintain its competitive edge in the market. Samsung has managed to become one of the largest mobile device manufacturers in the world, surpassing Nokia and other firms.
This is because of its focus on high –end smart phones which have superior technological functions compared to substitute models manufactured by its competitors. The firm needs to look at ways of extending its influence into other markets.
This is because U.S. and European markets have been projected to experience a slump in consumption patterns in the near future (Khanna, Song and Lee 142). The firm needs to formulate new ways of increasing the value of its products in the market to overcome high competition from low priced substitutes.
The firm lacks a strong recognized brand which can be compared to Sony’s Walkman or Microsoft’s Windows. The firm’s recent focus on smart phones and L.E.D. television sets has made it stand out as a learning organization, which is ready to take a leading position in the technology industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm needs to develop a long term value proposition in the market by developing an easily recognizable brand to help it strengthen its market position. Samsung needs to capitalize on emotions of its global customers by giving them a signature product which is capable of making them appreciate other products, manufactured by the firm (Khanna, Song and Lee 143).
A strong and easy to recognize brand will have a positive effect on other products which are manufactured by the firm. This will increase the value attached to them by consumers thereby making them more competitive in the market.
Some products which are released by the firm into the market have achieved a mature life cycle within a very short time. This puts more pressure on the firm to release newer versions of similar products into the market.
It is necessary for the firm to put in place measures that can help it take advantage of opportunities in lower segments of the market; since the upper income market segments will continue to experience slow growth in revenues. It is projected that the middle and low segments will continue to expand and this will open up potential opportunities for profitability in the firm.
The firm needs to reinvent itself to capture lucrative global markets to help it experience more success in its operations (Khanna, Song and Lee 145). It also needs to embrace cross cultural management strategies to help it maintain a competitive edge in different global markets.
Samsung has a diversified business portfolio and this has made it easy for the firm’s management to implement several innovative practices in its operations. It managed to compete favorably against Japanese companies by shifting away from analog to digital technologies in the late 1990’s.
Therefore, the firm needs to maintain its strength in manufacturing by building strategic alliances with other global firms, to help it strengthen its value proposition in the market. These strategic alliances will be crucial in helping the firm improve the quality of relationships it has with its customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Strategy and Organizational Effectiveness in Samsung specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Samsung needs to take note of the business environment it operates in. Samsung needs to ensure that its operations satisfy different market needs which are served by its wide product range (Khanna, Song and Lee 146).This will help the firm to understand different consumer segments and their needs.
The firm’s processes are highly innovative and this has helped the firm to introduce revolutionary concepts into the market. The firm has a good product mix and it needs to extend the market’s attention to other high quality products which it manufactures. A lot of interest in the firm’s products in the market is focused on its mobile devices and L.E.D television products.
The firm produces high quality washing machines, refrigerators, microwaves and other household products, which have the ability to bring in more revenues if they are marketed well. The firm needs to increase its market share in household appliances because these products have a longer life cycle in the market compared to mobile devices and L.E.D TV’s.
The market for home appliances is not as competitive as other market segments which the firm operates in (Khanna, Song and Lee 147). It needs to market these products in selected markets more aggressively to improve its performance in the market.
Samsung can use various management models to improve its performance in the market. The firm needs to adopt Management By Objectives model to improve its internal and external business processes. The MBO model will help Samsung’s management to focus on goals which are easy to achieve to help the firm improve its financial results.
The firm’s management needs to track issues that have an impact on its survival in the market, to come up with radical proposals which address them. The MBO approach gives the firm a chance to formulate strategic plans and performance indicators, which help to monitor its operations in the market (Bradley 81).
The MBO model will enable the firm’s management to analyze results of various product categories it sells in the market, to assess their value to its operations.
The firm also needs to carry out a value proposition analysis for its target markets and consumer segments. This will help the firm’s management to analyze what motivates specific consumers to purchase its products and the value they get from using these products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Strategy and Organizational Effectiveness in Samsung by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The firm needs to come up with new production systems to help it achieve long term organizational goals (Bradley 79). The value proposition analysis should take note of resources, which the firm has set aside to help it achieve its long term goals.
Works Cited Bradley, Nigel. Marketing Research: Tools and Techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Khanna, Tarun, Jaeyong Song, and Kyungmook Lee. “The Paradox of Samsung’s Rise.” Harvard Business Review (July- August 2011): 142-147. Web.
Company Metadata and Master Data Management Research Paper essay help free
Metadata is a type of data that is factual and that acts as extra information through which organizational data is presented. The data is concealed in a document, attached and created in a computer file. It can take the form of revised history and comments between a document and the editors such as in the case of word processing in Microsoft Word. Metadata can be described in terms of how data is formatted.
It is divided into two; structured and descriptive metadata. Structured metadata involves the plan and pattern of data structures, while descriptive metadata is where an individual creates data content. Metadata can be used in describing digital data in a specific discipline, and by relating the information and the context of the data files (Baca, 2008).
There are various security issues related to metadata. One such issue is the possibility of information leakage, an aspect that could easily damage an organization.
A patient or any other unauthorized personnel may, for example, illegally access a patient’s health information and that related to other sensitive details, a situation that is not only harmful to the client, but to the hospital as well. To prevent leakage of such information, there is need to use data loss and leakage prevention technologies. This is the easiest way of ensuring that data stored is kept safe and confidential (Baca, 2008).
Data Loss prevention is widely known for closely monitoring endpoints, networks and data sources for accidental outflow of susceptible information. Metadata can be integrated in several ways. An organization can, for example, start by evaluating where priorities exist like in terms of the various stakeholders involved through data integration.
Additionally, the BI Metadata Repository Manager system can be used to come up with a write protect documents that gives access to other links online where one can get a document in a HTML format, based on metadata.
Another way in which metadata can be integrated is in corporate metadata that assists in saving time and money while creating metadata. This method increases the quality of information delivered from data warehouse to business users, and leads to better decisions being made based on the information provided (Vitt, Luckevich
Girls Uncovered: Book Analysis Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help
“Girls Uncovered: New Research on What America’s Sexual Culture Does to Young Women” is a book that champions the need for young women to preserve their purity. The book reiterates that girls need to take control of their sexual conduct for them to be able to enjoy a fulfilling womanhood. The book is very relevant especially in an era where heightened sexual activity dominates teenagers’ lives.
“Girls Uncovered” is authored by Freda Bush and Joe Mcilhaney. Both authors are pediatricians and they have substantial experience when it comes to raising girls. This book is written as a guide for parents who are in the process of raising daughters.
The book offers statistical and research-based evidence that enables parents to give their daughters advice that is relevant to the current sexual culture. The authors successfully delve into the sex topic in a straightforward manner. The book’s main goal is to present the benefits of abstinence to young girls, and show how this abstinence can be achieved.
The opening chapters of “Girls Uncovered” cover statistics that concern the aspirations of young girls. According to the authors, most girls express the need to have a stable marriage and a career when they grow up. The book continues by showing how engaging in early sex can have detrimental effects on these aspirations.
Among the adverse effects of premarital sex that are discussed in this book include; sexually transmitted diseases, physical scars, emotional scars, and teenage pregnancies. The authors focus on all these factors in detail except for abortion, which is barely mentioned in the book.
In addition, the authors take time to address some of the common misconceptions about sex. For instance, the authors fault the notion that girls and boys are affected in the same way by premarital sex. The book covers the emotional, hormonal, mental, physical, and psychological aspects of premarital sex.
One of the strong points of this book is that the authors stress on the need for parental involvement when raising daughters. According to the authors, girls are more likely to be misguided than boys are1. This is why girls need the input of both a father and a mother when it comes to receiving advice. The advocacy of parental responsibilities is the hallmark of this book.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role played by a complete set of parents in a girl’s life is emphasized in this book. The involvement of parents in a girl’s life can be assumed to apply to boys also. The fact that the authors focus on girls as their main subject nullifies the need to mention the role parents play in a boy’s life. The book nobly urges parents to assume a meaningful position in their children’s lives.
This concept seems foreign to several modern parents. Most modern parents are eager to delegate this role to teachers and nannies. This book does not advocate for tyrannical parenting but it champions for willful involvement by parents. The authors are also able to avoid portraying this involvement in a ‘legalistic’ manner. However, parents are urged to take genuine interest in the lives of their female offspring.
For instance, the authors suggest the use of honest and open communication. In addition, parents are required to respect the unique needs of their daughters during this interaction. The authors are able to sustain this tone throughout the book and this makes the book more solid.
The book’s chapter on emotional attachment is particularly interesting. In this chapter, the book makes reference to a hormone known as oxytocin. According to the authors, oxytocin is a hormone that is responsible for the bonding that occurs between mother and child2. The authors note that this hormone is also produced during sexual encounters.
This means that the concept that a sexual encounter can exclude emotional connection is a fallacy. This chapter cautions the ‘hook-up’ generation against trivializing sexual encounters. For example, the book lists several emotional miscommunications that can result from casual sexual encounters.
The emotional attachment subject stands out because it contradicts the manner in which sex is portrayed especially by the new media. Televisions and films often depict sex as a casual fixation that is not related to emotions.
There are very few weaknesses in this book because the authors have done a good job in presenting a solid argument. The few issues that surface in this book are almost negligible. First, the book’s title bears some weaknesses. For instance, the title does not assume a proper book-title version. The long nature of the title is more befitting for an academic paper than it is for a book.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Girls Uncovered: Book Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A shorter and more precise title like “America’s Sexual Culture: Impact on Young Women” would have made a more significant impact. In addition, “Girls Uncovered” sounds more like an obscene film parody. Conducting an internet search using this title proves this point further. The other weakness is that the book tends to be a bit repetitive. The authors seem to be trying to fit a little information in a big space.
This makes the book repetitive in a few instances. For instance, some chapters are longer than they should be. This repetitiveness makes the readers feel as if they are in another boring parental seminar. The authors should have protected the integrity of the book by ensuring that they get straight to the point without elongating issues.
American parents are bombarded with various issues that have to be put into account when raising teenagers. There is a lot of information pertaining to parenting of teenagers and parents sometimes have trouble navigating through it. For instance, the media is filled with psychologists who claim to have the answer to effective teenage parenting.
However, the practical application of these theories often falls short of parents’ expectations. This is especially true for parents who have to raise girls. The authors of this book advocate for abstinence. Most girls’ parents in America have given up on abstinence and they have instead chosen to pursue alternatives such as teaching their daughters safe sex methods.
Other parents have accepted that the modern world cannot accommodate abstinence. These defeatist attitudes have dominated American parenting. “Girls Uncovered” presents research of what the defeatist attitude produces. Some parents do not even bother trying to pursue the abstinence option. The authors outline the various benefits that come with abstinence as an incentive to the complacent parents.
In America, it is almost impossible to separate abstinence from religion. Most people are of the opinion that the only reason girls abide to abstinence is because a particular religion forces them to do so. The link between religion and abstinence is also solidified by the fact that the abstinence message is often carried by pastors and other church leaders.
However, there is a difference between the abstinence message contained in this book and the one that is usually conveyed by religious leaders. Religious leaders urge girls to uphold abstinence and earn heavenly rewards. The message in this book is that girls should uphold abstinence and reap its benefits almost instantly.
Therefore, girls who have no interest in religion always mistake the abstinence message to be part of the gospel and they are likely to dismiss it. It is up to religious leaders to change the tone of their message. Their message should start with the instant benefits outlined in this book and then finish with the big picture.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Girls Uncovered: Book Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The religious message should show that it benefits both the body and the soul to pursue abstinence. In addition, the message should not be confined to churches but it should also be spread out to other areas in the community.
This book can be instrumental in instilling a sense of accomplishment among its girl-readers. Most girls often feel like they are ‘missing out’ by practicing abstinence. However, the authors detail very realistic benefits that come from abstinence. Emotional health is very closely related to spiritual health.
This means that readers of this book will grow spiritually after having to grow psychologically and emotionally. Disciples of Christ need all the emotional growth they can get in order to get them to grow spiritually.
This book has the potential to benefit various groups of readers. Parents and young girls are most likely to find this book helpful. The authors of this book are able to demystify the American sexual culture and propose a complete overhaul of the culture.
The book also acts as a morale boost for those girls who have chosen to abstain from sexual activities. Among the various issues that need to be changed in the American society, sexual culture is the most urgent one.
Bibliography Mcilhhaney, Joe, and Freda Bush. Girls Uncovered: New Research on What America’s Sexual Culture Does to Young Women. New York: Moody Publishers, 2012.
Footnotes 1 Joe Mcilhhaney and Freda Bush, Girls Uncovered: New Research on What America’s Sexual Culture Does to Young Women (New York: Moody Publishers, 2012), 18-19.
2 Joe Mcilhhaney and Freda Bush, Girls Uncovered: New Research on What America’s Sexual Culture Does to Young Women (New York: Moody Publishers, 2012), 70-71.
The CLASS Act: Analysis Essay essay help online free
The CLASS Act was part and parcel of the 2010 PPA that was enacted by the government with the aim of boosting the healthcare concerns of the working Americans. It was purely administered by the government. The Act was voluntary and it aimed at proving healthcare benefit on areas such as severe cognitive impairment, disability, and long term physical illnesses.
This healthcare benefit was supposed to cover the entire life of the applicant. According to the argument put forward by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the CLASS Act was supposed to lower the federal budget. However, the Act has not solved the issue of long term care so far.
To begin with, the estimates provided by CBO were not accurate. This concern was raised by the Congress even before PPACA was endorsed. For example, there was double counting of the premiums that were collected.
The CLASS Act has failed to take care of long term care because it did not secure the funds needed to settle the benefits of the program. It misconstrued the latter with the cost of expanding PPACA entitlements (Brown
Creating partnership: Enterprise Resource Planning Coursework essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Complexities of measuring ROI in an inter-organizational systems implementation
Decision making in an inter-organizational systems implementation is a continuous process that involves many stakeholders. Since the decision makers possess different experiences, measuring ROI becomes a complex process. It becomes difficult in choosing the most effective methods for measuring ROI and risks involved in the system are more due to lack of certainty (Gable, 2003).
When decision makers are many, they are likely to have different opinions, which have to be considered. The problem of diversity also arises because varied loyalties from organizations that collaborate with each other have to be respected, which adds complexity to the system implementation.
In addition, some partners may not be willing to present essential information and when they avail it, it lacks credibility in measurement of ROI making the implementation process more complex (Parr
The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
In her essay The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex, Gayle Rubin strived to outline factors that contribute to the fact that even today, women continue to be subjected to different forms of a societal/patriarchal oppression.
While doing it, she made a deliberate point in mentioning a number of discursively relevant theories that provide a partial insight into what may be considered the dialectically predetermined reasons for the earlier mentioned situation to continue remaining an integral part of today’s socio-political realities.
In my paper, I will outline the major qualitative aspects of the author’s line of reasoning (in regards to the theories of Marx, Levy-Strauss and Freud). I will also argue that, contrary to what Rubin implies throughout the essay’s entirety, there is indeed a certain rationale in referring the notion of women’s patriarchal oppression, as such that has been biologically rather than ideologically/socially predetermined.
The first major theoretician of gender inequality, to which Rubin refers in her essay, is Karl Marx. Although, in his writing he never tackled the subject matter explicitly, he nevertheless did succeed in exposing Capitalism, as such that indirectly contributes to the ‘domestication’ of women.
The validity of this idea Rubin illustrates in regards to the discursive implications of the Marxist view on of the generation of the so-called ‘surplus product/value’, as such that ‘fuels’ the free-market economy’s proper functioning. As the author noted: “If the total value of the things the worker has made exceeds the value of his or her wage, the aim of capitalism has been achieved.
The capitalist gets back the cost of die wage, plus an increment-surplus value” (161). This, of course, presupposes that, in order for capitalists to increase the amount of ‘surplus output’, generated by hired employees, the latter must be exploited in the most effective manner.
In its turn, this explains the phenomenon of the so-called ‘corporate culture’, when workers are being instilled with the sense of loyalty towards their exploiters, and the fact that women are assigned to take care of housework-duties, without being paid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By acting as unpaid ‘housewives’, women allow their husbands to concentrate more on their career-advancement (as a reward for their increased ability to generate more ‘surplus product’).
This, however, naturally results in women’s continual ‘dehumanization’, as their status of ‘housewives’ (euphemism for the notion of lowly female servants) automatically imply their lessened intellectual abilities. Thus, Marxist theory suggests that it is specifically Capitalism, as the form of a socio-political governing, which creates objective preconditions for women to continue suffering from a patriarchal oppression.
Nevertheless, Rubin rightly suggested that this point of view cannot be referred to as such that represents an undisputed truth-value.
The reason for this is apparent – there are plenty of examples of women having been subjected to the different forms of a patriarchal oppression not only in Capitalist, but also in pre-Capitalist and Socialist societies: “Women are oppressed in societies which can by no stretch of the imagination be described as capitalist” (163).
The validity of this suggestion Rubin illustrates in regards to the theory of Levy-Strauss, who views the oppression women as a byproduct of male-dominated societies striving to ensure their structural integrity.
For example, in the tribal societies of Polynesian natives, it represents a commonplace practice for males who seek to attain a social prominence by bestowing gifts upon each other – even though that the act of a gift-giving is not being even slightly justified, in the economic sense of this word.
By indulging in this practice, natives are able to strengthen the extent of their ‘kinship’ with each other, which in turn makes it easier for them to face life-challenges.
We will write a custom Essay on The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Levy-Strauss, the fact that the practice of incest is being traditionally considered utterly inappropriate is best explained within the discursive framework of a ‘gift-giving culture’ – it is exactly because by marrying men outside of their own family/tribe, women establish kinship-ties with potential would-be-enemies, which explains the origins of an anti-incest sentiment in just about every human society.
It is needless to mention, of course, that by being objectualized as ‘gifts’, women inevitably end up facing a patriarchal oppression, because the very practice of their earlier mentioned objectualization deems women inferior to men: “If women are the gifts, then it is men who are the exchange partners. And it is the partners, not the presents, upon whom reciprocal exchange confers its quasi-mystical power of social linkage” (174).
Nevertheless, because Levy-Strauss’s theory suggests that the ‘exchange of women’ is the necessary prerequisite for the emergence of culture, it automatically implies that without such an exchange, there would no human civilization, as we know it – a rather controversial idea.
After all; whereas, people’s strong affiliation with the ‘women exchange’ practice reflects the sheer extent of their existential primitiveness (the measure of their closeness to apes), their capacity to push forward scientific and cultural progress is being reflective of their ability to suppress ‘monkey’ within.
This is exactly the reason why it is namely in Western scientifically and culturally advanced societies, where women are entitled to the same scope of civil rights and liberties, as men are.
In her essay, Rubin also made numerous references to the Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, as such that provides a psychological insight into what causes women to experience deep-seated anxieties of inferiority, which in turn make them more likely to end up being mistreated.
According to Freud, the actual cause of these anxieties is the fact that, throughout the course of their lives, women never cease experiencing the sensation of ‘penis envy’: “The girl turns from the mother and represses the ‘masculine’ elements of her libido…
She compares her tiny clitoris to the larger penis, and in the face of its evident superior ability to satisfy the mother, falls prey to penis envy and a sense of inferiority” (187). It is quite clear that the psychoanalytic view of the subject matter implies the essentially biological roots of women’s patriarchal oppression.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this is something that Rubin cannot accept, which is why throughout her essay, the author continues to imply that the extent of just about theory’s (the tackles the issue of women’s oppression) validity reflects its spokespersons’ willingness to refrain from succumbing to ‘biological determinism’.
For example, while referring to the theory of Levy-Strauss, Rubin states: “The ‘exchange of women’ is a seductive and powerful concept. It is attractive in that it places the oppression of women within social systems, rather than biology” (175). Yet, it is specifically the conceptual framework of biology, within which the issue of women’s oppression should be discussed.
We need to understand that, biologically speaking, the representatives of Homo Sapiens sub-species are nothing but hairless primates. In the societies of primates, males dominate – the very laws of nature predetermined such a state of affairs.
This is the reason why, contrary to what many feminists believe, throughout the humankind’s history, there has not been even a single example of women having exercised the de facto matriarchal dominance within the society.
As Henslin pointed out: “The anthropological record shows that all societies for which evidence exists are (or were) patriarchies… Stories about long-lost matriarchies (societies in which women-as-a-group dominate men-as-a-group) are myths” (297).
Nevertheless, this is not only the result of the fact that, as compared to women, men are physically stronger – the very biological constitution of female bodies makes the representatives of the ‘weak gender’ to be differently ‘brain-wired’. The reason for this is apparent – as compared to what it happened to be the case with men’s ‘external’ genitals, women’s genitals are ‘internal’.
It is its turn, this causes women to exist in the state of a constant sexual tension – unlike men, women are quite incapable of detaching their rational psyche from the physiologically predetermined workings of their bodies. Because of that, female whole bodies can be well conceptualized in terms of a sexual organ (this is why women get easily aroused, because of having clearly non-sexual parts of their bodies, such as hands, touched by men).
Whereas, men’s sexual arousal is best compared to a skin-itch, which disappears after having been scratched, women’s sexual arousal is best compared to a skin-rash, which only gets worse while scratched. In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for women to be able to realize the full extent of their existential potential only through socialization (preferably sexual) with men.
As Weininger noted: “A woman does not value herself by the constancy and freedom of her personality… (she) can only value herself at the rate of the man who has fixed his choice on her” (123).
This presupposes women’s comfortableness with being objectualized – hence, establishing a metaphysical ground for women to continue facing patriarchal oppression. The above-statement also exposes the conceptual erroneousness of political philosophies that promote the idea that it is possible to enforce gender-egalitarianism.
Works Cited Henslin, James. Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2011. Print.
Rubin, Gayle. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex.” Toward an Anthropology of Women. Ed. Rayna Reiter. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1975. 157-210. Print.
Weininger, Otto 1906, Sex
A Case for Global Ethics Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why Global Set Ethics are needed
The Global Ethics
Can the Global Community agree on the Ethics?
Setting the Ethics
Introduction Globalization is changing the world into a close-knit society where people of differing nationalities and cultural backgrounds interact on a frequent basis and engage in actions that influence them. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2009) note that because of these interactions, there have been numerous attempts made to establish a set of global ethical standards.
This attempts have been prompted by the realization that global ethic will encourage good business practices in all countries. However, the goal of achieving a set of global ethics is yet to be realized and some scholars have even argued that this goal is utopian. According to them, universal ethical standards cannot be achieved because of the cultural differences that exist across the globe.
These opponents also argue that global ethics might not be the most desirable since conditions vary between nations. This paper will argue that global set ethics are required and they would promote standard ethical behaviour all over the globe. The paper will highlight what this ethics would be and demonstrate that it is possible for people around the world to agree on such set ethics.
Defining Ethics Ethical scholars and philosophers have always held the view that ethics are important for the establishment of a well functioning society. According to Smilja (2011), ethics imply “social codes that point to a particular behaviour or restrict it” (p.397).
Ethics are of great importance in the decision making process of individuals since they prescribe a legitimate and illegitimate behaviour. A clear set of ethics enables people to determine what conducts the society will judge as “right” or “wrong” and therefore engage in the most socially appropriate behaviour.
While ethical norms are easy to come up with in a homogenous society, the case is not the same for a multicultural community since each culture has its own particular beliefs, values, and ethical systems, which may not be compatible with those of other cultures.
Evanoff (2010) elaborates that ethical beliefs are culturally constructed and this explains the differences in ethical systems across cultures. In spite of this, it is both necessary and possible for people from different cultural backgrounds to agree on a set of ethics that they can uphold.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Global Set Ethics are needed Multicultural interactions are more likely to happen today than at any other point in human history. It is therefore necessary for people to have an ethical system that can guide their interaction and assist in dealing with problems of mutual concern. The rapid development of transportation and technology has converted the world into a global village.
In addition to that, interaction among people of differing nationalities is more prevalent today than at any other time in history (Chryssides
European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom Synthesis Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The consumer protection policy refers to the stipulated mechanism which gives the consumer the freedom to shop and enjoy various products within their establishments. For instance, the European Union (EU) policy and regulation offers freedom to customers or consumers linked to the European Community to operate freely and shop anywhere and to enjoy protection and price advantage and the supply of quality goods to them.
Vulnerable consumers refer to those that are exposed to unfair pricing systems, low quality products, limited consumer rights, inadequate access to information and the repression of speech. Vulnerable consumers may include normal buyers, organizations or individuals who are exposed to unfair consumer practices from the supplier, dealers, government or the representative unions.
According to the Consumer Protection Strategy of 2007 to 2013, the primary role of consumer protection is to enhance equal classes of protection and security within the EU. It also facilitates a rich integrated domestic market.
According to the EU, the objective of a good customer protection approach includes the ability to empower the consumer through the creation of a transparent market which can supply the consumer with a wide spectrum of options in terms of quality of prices of commodities. It is also the objective of the policy to safeguard the consumer from all risks and threats.
The Consumer Policy Strategy focuses on different priority areas that include favorable consumer protection policy, fair oversight of consumer market and state consumer policies, facilitating consumer policy through the establishment of market regulation tools and placing of customers at the helm of other EU policies.
The strategic policy is expected to inform and educate the consumers through integration of the practices of the EU centers. The UK, a member of the EU is bound by the directive of the domestic UK law.
The consumer protection claims are handled when the complaints are forwarded to the director general who deals with fair trade. It is however not easy for consumers to complain straight to the OFT1 and they have to employ a middleman. This study evaluates the European and UK policies of consumer protection. The essay will focus on the impact of fair, favorable or unfavorable policies on the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background Consumer protection constitutes laws and rules organized to facilitate consumers’ rights protection and ensure fair trade. It is also the role of the policy to safeguard the weak and vulnerable consumers. Consumers who cannot take care of themselves or who are afraid to take a step of claiming their rights have the advantage of obtaining anchorage from the consumer policy and regulation approaches.
The policy not only protects the consumers but also enlightens them on the various rights and existence of consumer support agencies. The agencies include Consumer Protection Organization, Federal Trade Commission, ombudsmen, business consultancies and government organizations.
A consumer2 is a person who procures goods and services for consumption or direct ownership. His aim is to keep or use the service or goods and not sell them.
Vulnerable clients When a consumer is weak or not equipped enough to fight for his or her rights in respect to commodity prices; he or she is said to be vulnerable. Exploitative policies among the various nations under the EU have subjected consumers to inflation and sub-standard products and services for a long time. Efficient and effective legislation safeguards consumers against health risks and risks related to unnecessary expenses.
Weak consumers cannot file their complaints when faced with inappropriate services and low quality products from sellers and manufacturers. They are forced to buy and use what to them is substandard and inconvenient but due to the need for the particular commodity, they are forced to succumb to the demand and go on procuring it.
The EU3 and UK policies both outline measures for the consumer protection but not all are put into consideration especially when the issues are related to health, ethics and quality production.
Other types of vulnerable consumers comprise of those informed individuals who are always ready to fight and express their concerns but lack the intervention of a ‘middleman’ or somebody who can represent them in the judicial system or at the high office for immediate action.
We will write a custom Essay on European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vulnerable consumers4 may also include the normal buyers who buy essential commodities like food and clothing even if the prices are compromised. They are highly taxed and tend to pay extremely high to acquire the product differently from other consumers from different locations who use the same product.
The consumers may need to complain but the communication channels may be “blocked” by certain interested parties. The conditions can also become oppressive and inconvenient because of little intervention from the observers and other agencies under the EU. The observers can be government agencies, foreign experts and rights’ protection facilities.
Regulation and consumer policy Proper regulation and consumer protection help both the consumer and the market to work more efficiently. The policies are usually concerned with advertising, complaints, mergers and competition, transparency, fairness and consumers’ rights. The consumer protection policy and regulation in Europe and the UK5 prioritize advertising as a move towards the creation of a competitive and fair market.
The advertising clause serves to improve information quality by maintaining responsible and appropriate standards. The EU Consumer Policy works towards enhancing the consumers’ concerns at the EU level and various issues are addressed through legislative processes. The clause on mergers ensures that all issues are evaluated in the merger or through competitive enquiries.
The principle of consumer regulation is usually responsible for facilitating sensible industrial regulation and evaluation with focus on ensuring consumer s’ rights regulation. The clause on super complaints deals with market failure and makes informed decisions by using the power of the super complaint network.
The consumer’s product safety approach assures the consumers the safety of given products and the authority to question safety standards and deceptive operations of the market.
The European consumer policy and regulation The European consumer policy and regulation is a destination approach in terms of performance, structure and evaluation. The strategic approach focuses on the consumers’ rights in the market mechanisms. It stresses on a number of considerations. The approach considers the clause on fair consumer protection and regulation to be an efficient one in safeguarding consumers’ interests.
In this case, the Council Commission focuses on simplifying the laws by amending the major directives on consumer protection. The commission’s responsibilities constitute the publishing and making of a Green Paper Publication on the evaluation of consumers’ protection. The commission necessitates harmonization towards an improved trend and facilitates an effective consumer protection strategy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on European consumer policy and regulation in contrast to the United Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The approach by the European agency focuses on favorable redress and enforcement of the consumer protection laws. The consumer is mandated to monitor the state enforcement systems through surveying and close examining their performance. For an effective, fair and open market, the European consumer policy6 and regulation focuses on the fair evaluation of the consumer market.
It also monitors the national consumer policy. Market surveillance has been enforced through employment of devices such as RAPEX (Rapid Alert System) and also through cooperation from USA, China and other countries working together with the EU in ensuring the continued maintenance of consumer safety. The policy and regulation approach has always prioritized consumer protection.
The commission’s responsibility is to ensure that the consumers access health, transport and industrial facilities. It also ensures that all products of general interest and global service at the EU level are protected. Education is crucial for the consumer and the European commission on consumer protection policy and regulation because it promotes information, sound decision making and awareness in the consumer.
The commission finances the initiative aimed at providing information to prospective consumers like actions by the European Consumer Center Network (ECC-Net). The commission also participates in campaigns in newly established member states. The consumer policy strategy of 2007 to 2013 aims at uniting the 27 national domestic markets to form the biggest retail market internationally.
In the wave of the latest expansion, Eurostat targets 495 million EU inhabitants. The prospects of e-commerce are not fully exploited. The consumer strategy is yet to be formulated by the commission. Reports on consumer expenditure show 58% rise in the EU’s GDP.
Many considerations have in the past been made by the commission but at the moment, all units represented can be able to enjoy the advantage of the retail market with vulnerable groups especially the elderly risking being penalized.
The Green Paper Review on consumer acquisition stipulates that the operational consumer protection laws are based on little harmonization and permit member states to adopt a better formulated legislation. The Green Paper unveiled a public consultation forum which was later terminated in 2007.The forum focused on reviewing the consumer acquisition policy.
The forum proposed three options for the purpose of harmonization. The first option involved full harmonization of the policies on consumer protection. The second option incorporated little harmonization supported by a symbiotic recognition clause.
The third option integrated harmonization which involved the establishment of firms in the various member states; all complying with the rules and regulations applied in their states. The Green Paper proposes the reviewing of the main directives on consumer protection and the establishment of new consumer credit directives. The paper also adopted the drafts of two evaluation reports.
One was a directive on financial services and the other was about general product safety. The Commission for Health and Consumer Safety operates under the docket of the European Commission. The present commissioner’s post is occupied by Toni Brag. This docket is responsible for issues of public and animal health, food safety and the consumers’ welfare functions.
The policy by the commission on the promotion of warnings on smoking of tobacco has been an effective market approach towards public health stimulation. Progress has been realized and the commission has been able to address the issue of pictorial warnings. This fact has enabled a majority of the European nations to impose bans on public smoking.
This legislation was proposed by Marcos Kyprianon, head of Barossa Commission on the subject of health and consumer protection. In 2007, Commissioner Marcos unveiled a project that handled the short supply of “organs’ donation” within the EU. This plan involved promotion, donor cells and specially informed medical staff.
The various commissioners with remarkable adjustments include Richard Barco from Ireland (Jenkins Commission), Stanley Clinton from the UK (Delver Commission i), Grigoris Wafts from Greece (Deloris Commission ii), Christian Scrivener from France (Deloris Commission ii), Emma Boning from Italy (Santer Commission), David Bryne from Ireland (Pride Commission and John Dali from Malta (Barossa Commission).
The present portfolio of clauses and acts involves the president, vice president , director general of the agencies and legislative personnel.
The assembly portfolio involves agriculture and rural development, climate actions, competition panels, development schemes, digital agendas, economic affairs, monetary affairs, education and cultural networks, environment, financial programs and budgetary scheme, health and consumer policy, industry and entrepreneurship, international cooperation, humanitarian aid and crisis response and justice, citizenship and fundamental rights.
These entire parameters make the European Consumer Protection Unit what it is today.
UK’s policy and regulation on consumer protection The UK being a part of the EU is legally bound by the policies of the EU. The intervention of the EU law, the UK policy and regulations are emerging to be independent entities with different procedures and regulations to safeguard the consumers.
The UK tends to recognize the different areas that the EU has attempted to enforce the policy but failed and the UK has in the past made attempts to resuscitate it. In the different circumstances, especially where domestic laws are crucial, matters concerning consumer protection are usually evaluated and involve contract restitution tools or criminal laws.
The issues pertaining to consumers are configured and evaluated as complaints are forwarded to the general director in charge of air trade. Direct complaints from the consumer to the OFT are not allowed. An intermediary has to relay the complaint to the OFT. The intermediary provides legal information and advice to the respective complainant.
He can also decide to take the complaints to the trading standard for further evaluation. Following the restriction placed on the Enterprise Act 2012, uncollected complainants face the challenge of not knowing whether their complaints will be considered or not. This aspect becomes difficult for the individual consumers who are unable to access the outcome of their complaints.
The consumer can in certain circumstances forward large volumes of complaints to be evaluated systemically. The OFT is reported to be lenient and rarely takes companies to court but prefers “slim” touch regulation policies. The consumers’ complaints raised against the organization or company do not go through publication but pass through investigative work.
Certain consumer protection laws like the unfair stipulation of the Consumer Contract Regulation of 1999 or Distance Selling Regulation of 2000 were directives derived from the UK implementation. The OFT becomes responsible for enforcing this regulation.
However, these policies can lead to a problem considering that the legalization tackles individual’s complaints and ignores systemic complaints from them. The OFT plays the role of the UK’s official “watchdog” in respect to competition and consumer insights. It oversees the operations of the market at the local and international level through trading standards offices.
General advice on consumer operation can be drawn from the consumer docket or through the Citizens’ Advice Bureau Brand. The UK Policy and Regulation integrates several acts and clauses.
They include Sales of Good Act 1979, Unfair Contract Terms Act of1977, Consumer Protection Act of1987, Electronic Consumer Regulation of 2005, Consumer Protection Regulation of 2000, The Enterprise Act of 2002, Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulation of 2008 and General Product Safety Regulation of 2005.
These acts have existed for a long time and have maintained the UK’s dominance within the European community. These policies on consumer protection have affected many acts of parliament, government departments, statutory instruments’ lobby groups and citizens with the goal of facilitating a market economy that is fair. The policies ensure that consumers enjoy quality and safe goods and services.
The primary zones of regulating consumer matters include the product safety evaluation that protects people from buying potentially harmful goods. It ensures favorable terms for goods and services by elimination of unfair terms. It also includes financial regulation to facilitate credit access by ensuring that it is affordable.
The zone also requires that consumers fully understand the terms and obligations attached to loans and credit facilities. The other zone deals with strong competition especially from the private sector by elimination of cartels, destroying monopolies and dissolution of mergers.
Even though the UK is a part of the EU’s internal market, it works alongside other countries from Europe and EU institutions by outlining and enforcing transitional policies. A lot of parties play different roles in the maintenance of the policies with respect to the established laws. Examples of them include the Bank of England, OFT, Financial Services Authority, Competition Commission and the European Commission.
The Consumer Advocacy Group is a crucial organization that maintains justice and transparency with respect to the consumers’ protection policies. The supposed super-complainant aims at empowering the consumer’s concerns. The consumers in this case become vulnerable by not having individual access to vital information. The information can form a basis of evaluating the market.
Eight types of advocacy groups have been structured since the year 2007 and they include CAMRA which is a lobbying cluster that deals with quality and nature of beer and the Citizens Advice Bureau which provides free legal advice and specific help on consumers’ rights in the UK.
Others include Water Voice, Consumer Direct, Post Watch and General Consumer Council of Northern Ireland, Good Garage Scheme and the National Consumer Council. The Consumer Association has tangible authority of taking action as envisaged by the Completion Act of1988. The association is a lobby assembly and is sponsored by subscription of regular consumers.
The street fundraising initiative that originates from charity mergers is usually an offensive and aggressive move that violates legislation and policies outlined by regulating agencies. Different acts facilitate different clauses and fields. For product safety, the Consumer Protection Act facilitates safety of both goods and services.
For finance and credit, the Consumer Credit Act of 1974, Financial Services Act of 2010, Financial Services and Market Act of 2010 and financial ombudsmen services facilitate monitoring policies. The Competition Act of 1998 and Enterprise Act of 2002 generate healthy and fair competition and practices.
UK’s assistance to the vulnerable consumers The UK’s regulatory policy makes her a stronghold when it comes to consumer protection. The clause on fair trade allows individuals from England, Wales and other parts of UK to enjoy fair trade. Fair trade refers to a good pricing system, fair competition and market procedure. This act tends to empower the weak and depressed consumers as it gives them hope of justice and fairness.
The policies are able to outline what is unfair and inform the consumers on the current market structures. The product safety regulation clause protects consumers, general public and various stakeholders from using harmful products and services. For example the Tobacco Awareness Scheme is aimed at informing individuals with little or no information on tobacco and narcotics about the dangers of using drugs.
Customers or consumers benefit directly or indirectly from this clause. They benefit directly through information availability and indirectly through third parties. The financial regulation clause helps the less informed consumers and general public on financial services. The policy helps individuals to recognize the need for accessing realistic loans and credit facilities.
It is the mandate of the Consumer Protection Commission and Agency to facilitate fair monetary organizations and authentic signatories. Two types of consumers are found in the UK.They include those consumers who seek financial advice from established individuals and successive personalities and those who play the ‘try and error’ technique. They latter operate by chance.
To them, financial gain is based on luck and previous experience. The consumer policy and regulation tends to address the needs of these consumers by creating educational programs in media and social communication networks like Face book7 and Tweeter8.The clause on competition policy and regulation within the private quarters helps in controlling cartels and fighting monopoly.
Monopoly has been a menace to the common consumers who have been subdued by the cartels in favor of certain individuals. They help in abolishing mergers that appear unfair and improperly constituted. The consumers are able to enjoy commodities The Consumer Policy and Regulation protects consumers from the freedom from monopoly and egocentric individuals.
The role played by the OFT has been a crucial one in solving consumers’ complaints through legal means. The OFT is able to speak for the weak, irresponsible and vulnerable consumers. The movement of the complaints from the OFT to the trading standards helps the organization to conduct comprehensive investigations.
The proximity focus by the OFT is to maintain links with its consumers through formation of small groups that act as a representatives of the consumer cycle. The groups are able to convey the complaints to the OFT. The OFT’s nature of not prosecuting companies has been able to encourage different companies to solve their issues and consumer complaints amicably and responsibly.
Consumers are safeguarded from fear of facing prosecution; especially if it is a scheme that undermines the Consumer Regulation and Policy. The OFT “watchdog’s” role has helped the UK community to understand the importance of a better consumers’ regulation and policy.
The freedom that the Enterprise Act of 2002 offers consumer bodies to be structured as super complainants allows the consumer to maintain the proximity of contact between the consumers and the OFT. The Citizen Advice Bureau provides free information and advice to vulnerable consumers who encounter problems in accessing important policy information especially when assessing costs.
Certain consumers find it difficult to file their complaints because they cannot afford advocacy fees. The Water Voice or Consumer Water Council helps the consumer in accessing safe, pathogen free and clean water. Safe water benefits vulnerable consumers in sewage polluted areas, poor drained areas and areas experiencing underground leakages.
The good garage and auto mobile repair schemes have helped consumers in accessing better automobile services. People who do not have enough information on car servicing and maintenance, cost of purchase and repair can depend on the scheme for direction.
Recent invention in automobiles has been re-coded and appreciated as the consumers are availed with important information to earn their desired vehicles based on their willingness to buy and access the services. The policy assures the consumer of an efficient delivery system, resource policy and legislative measure. The Sale of Goods Act of 1979 facilitates efficiency of sales to the targeted consumer.
The act assures vulnerable consumers of the right sales. The act connects the consumer with producers thus enabling an effective network of business. Consumers who are usually exposed to diverse challenges on the kind of products or services to go for are offered a variety of options by the policy. The Unfair Contract Act of 1977 is a practical clause for the vulnerable and less experienced consumers.
The act teaches them about the importance of fair trade and competition. The principle of regulation engages the act in working to motivate rational regulation and industrial evaluation while maintaining safety of the consumers. The UK’s policy generates economic momentum by prioritizing the consumer.
The consumer becomes the subject matter and point of interest of the market. The merger inscription ensures that consumers’ issues are incorporated in competition and merger enquiries. Alongside the super complaints docket, the merger works to check on market failure and opportunity cost.
EU’s assistance to the vulnerable consumers The European Policy and Regulation integrates a number of clauses and acts that are expected to be implemented and applied by all stakeholders. It is however noted that despite the acts and clauses, the EU has managed to produce little, or at a given point, no assistance to the vulnerable consumers. The commission’s council has also done little to observe consumers’ protection regulations.
The Green Paper has been termed as ‘just any other publication’. Not many producers, manufacturers or suppliers are ready to comply with the clause. Certain manufacturers view the publication as a framework for developing top level consumer protection. The EU which is comprised of many member states experiences difficulty in running the policies because of the big number of its members.
Based on the members, the fair monitoring of markets and national consumer policies becomes a challenge, with unfair representation of commissioners and representatives. Many issues emerge and the consumers’ interests tend to diverge from the original intentions.
The provision of better education to consumers is one of the many policies that the EU tends to maintain but due to ignorance and little information; consumers become vulnerable due to lack of enough information. Health is important for all consumers and especially among the weak and malnourished ones. The European policy and regulation on consumer protection is mandated to maintain health and safety standards.
When it comes to work policies, construction workers tend to fear the medical cover because the policy and regulation does not include compensation especially if the accident is beyond the job scope. This fact delays the response awaited by the consumer.
The profiles of climatic action, energy and environment are sometimes a challenge and unfair to vulnerable consumers who may include the normal citizens, government members and non-governmental agents.
The provision on age and medical background of consumers in respect to drug and substance abuse has always been promoted in Europe with the set standards and regulations protecting consumers from exploitation and abuse. The commission in charge of safety creates awareness in social and public settings for individuals who are ready to be informed.
The youths are the most affected when it comes to drug and substance abuse with rising cases of addiction and crime. Suicide has also being linked to drug abuse or overdose.
Conclusion The policies of e-commerce9 have not been favorably exploited. The vulnerable consumers involving individuals and groups are yet to experience the full force of E-commerce. Better and immediate regulations are needed to avail electronic exchange of both goods and services. Most consumers are ill informed when it comes to monetary and budgetary matters.
This kind of ignorance can bring about vulnerability to the consumers. The economic, monetary and budgetary clauses suggest the acquisition of economic power by the consumers in the future. The long procedures and formalities on monetary and budgetary policies may distract the consumers and consequently expose them to exploitation.
Countries from Africa, Asia and America prefer to buy things especially electronics and automobiles in Europe. In this regard, the policies employed by the UK and the entire world should protect the international consumer. The formulation of better and convenient policies can ensure that consumers are assured of a better, healthier, convenient and economically powerful market and trade.
Research should be conducted to find better policy frameworks within the EU and in the UK which can enhance consumer protection. Consumers have in the past been exploited by various states within the European region and this fact has led to the deterioration of economic standards in the region.
Various governments under the EU should allocate more funds towards creation of mechanisms that would eliminate cartels which have exploited innocent consumers for decades.
The initiative cannot however be realized if the EU member states do not demonstrate the will to safeguard the consumers in the European region. Whether the countries enforce the legislation or not is not an issue. The right legislation for consumer protection must first be established.
Footnotes 1 OFT refers to Office of Fair Trade. It is a legal entity that safeguards consumers from being exploited through economic policies
2 Consumer refers to an individual who buys goods and services for his own consumption
3 EU refers to the European Union
4 Vulnerable consumer refers to a consumer who is susceptible to exploitation
5 UK refers to the United Kingdom
6 The European consumer policy and regulation refers to a legislation that is used by states within the EU. The legislation outlines measures for the protection of consumers.
7 Face book is a type of an on-line social site that individuals subscribe to and become members. Once a member, an individual can meet other members on-line and access their personal information
8Twitter is a type of an on-line social site that individuals use in making comments about various issues happening in the local and international levels.
9 E-Commerce refers to on-line trade activities
Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help
For a business to succeed in the society, there are certain qualities that a businessperson should display. An entrepreneur is a person who starts and manages a business and posses unique features. When the entrepreneur meets the customers, he/she should be fair in judgement, intelligent in analysing their problems, honest and having a positive attitude towards them.
An entrepreneur’s main objective is to excel. In order to achieve this he/she engages in a healthy competition with set standards to reach the best performance. This strengthens him/her in repairing misfortunes that may hinder success thereby becoming a winner. Secondly, an entrepreneur works hard to build new businesses. He extends his working hours with fewer hours of sleep in order to complete his work.
In the process of work, he solves problems that arise in order to achieving the set goals (Roger
Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism Proposal essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Shinto refers to the indigenous Japanese religion, which has always influenced the lives of many people politically, socially, and even economically in the country. The Shinto religion has a set of practices that were created in the prehistoric periods, but are still valued. The practices are conducted meticulously in order to ascertain the connection between current events and the precedent.
However, studies show that these historical records do not give the clear picture as to how Shinto, as a religion, established itself in the Japanese society. The writings give disorganized folklores, narratives, and myths. In modern Japan, Shinto is a term commonly utilized to refer to communal shrines, which are used for various reasons including war cenotaphs, crop celebrations, marriage, historical tributes, and sectarian groups1.
A number of historians and analysts give a unified definition of the role of Shinto in the modern society, by using a standardized language and practice, which entails adopting an analogous style in dressing and ritual.
Shinto was derived from the phrase ‘the way of the Gods’. It was a Chinese name that combined the words kanji (shi), implying the spirit and kami (to), meaning a theoretical path or a study. The spirits were usually understood from various perspectives with some believers suggesting that they were human-like while others holding the view that they were animistic.
A majority of believers were of the view that they were abstract objects meaning that they represented nonfigurative forces such as mountains and rivers. Spirits and people are inseparable meaning that they are closely interrelated. In fact, the relationship between human beings and spirits is complex to an extent that the presence of spirits will always determine the behaviour of an individual.
The national statistics of Japan show that over 80 percent of all Japanese practice Shinto as a cultural aspect, but not necessarily as a religious feature2. Studies show further that even though some individuals believe in Buddhism, they also engage in Shinto rituals meaning that it is a cultural practice among the people of Japan.
In this regard, Shinto is considered a cultural belief that influences the lives of many people, both believers and other non-believers of Shinto religion. Studies shows that Shinto is treated as a way of doing things in society, but not as a religious practice, given the diversity of the Japanese society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a number of individuals, both taking Shinto as religion and those believing in Buddhism, tend to celebrate the birth of their loved ones in Shinto shrines.
Thesis Statement It is true that Shinto culture influences the lives of many Japanese in a number of ways, which means that it cannot be separated from Japan, as well as the Japanese. In some point in history, Shinto was declared a state religion, which had a tremendous effect on national values. In other words, it can be noted that Japanese nationalism is attributed to Shinto culture.
As per the writings of various scholars specializing on Japanese culture, such as John Nelson and Scott Littleton, Shinto religion is closely related to the Japanese nationalism. My research would therefore focus on establishing the relationship between Shinto religious practices and Japanese nationalism.
Nationalism is a political concept suggesting that policies made ought to be based on exclusivity whereby the interests of the nation-state should always be given a priority when making decisions at the global level. Whenever the Japanese people make their decisions, they always consider the teachings of Shinto religion, which implies that Shinto religion has always influenced the decisions of policy makers.
Background Information Shinto prodigies suggest that Japanese emperors were always related to each other in blood meaning that they belonged to the same clan. This relationship was in an unbroken line, with Jimmu Tenno being the first emperor who was Amaterasu-Omikami grandson. The kami was the first leader of the Japanese people who contributed to the creation of Japan as a state. Japan is an old country whose leader was known as kami3.
All Japanese are descendants of kami, with Amaterasu being the first leader. The imperial family was the valued family unit in the entire clan, yet it originated from the kami. This shows that Japan is the way it is because the gods liked it.
Moreover, the leadership of the country was selected by god hence the people of Japan had a religious responsibility to support the leadership. Before any state function, all emperors had to worship the kami and offer some sacrifices in order to protect the Japanese populace from any form of tribulation.
We will write a custom Proposal on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, a court liturgical was developed to ensure that god was worshiped before any state function could be performed. In the subsequent centuries, Buddhist traditions seemed to take over, but they contained several Shinto elements meaning that Shinto was more of a cultural aspect than a religious belief4.
Towards the end of the 17th century, Shinto took over the affairs of the government, which resulted to the Meiji Restoration. Consequently, Shinto was made a state religion in 1868. The first leader of Japan, Amaterasu, who was also a staunch supporter of Shinto religion, was promoted to be one of the gods. Shinto religion taught that the Japanese leader was not only a political leader, but also a religious leader.
In other words, the country’s leader was made a high priest. The emperor would therefore rule not only Japan, but other parts of the world as well. Since Japanese were related to god, they had a moral responsibility of ensuring that they offer their skills to other people. Since the emperor was associated with god, her position changed in society meaning that he was also a religious leader5.
Some analysts observe that the Japanese emperor was the powerful figure in the land to an extent that he would not respect the law. In the 20th century, the emperor had inadequate powers mainly because she was both a temporal and a political leader. No one would question her leadership given the fact that she would release the military at will.
Article 28 of the Meiji constitution gave people an opportunity to worship a god of their choice, but the emperor made it illegal for an individual to believe in any other faith, apart from Shinto. Every aspect of life, including political, social, and economic, centred on the Shinto religion.
In the education sector, Shinto religion was made a national core subject, both in primary and higher education. It is factual to conclude that Shinto religion controlled the lives of many in Japan until 1946, just after the Second World War.
Literature Review Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.
The source is very important in explaining the relationship between Shinto practices and the development of Japanese nationalism. The author stated that Buddhism and Shinto religions had coexisted for several years, yet Shinto was treated as a cultural practice. Kami was still respected as the Japanese most important god. The historian traced the origin of Shinto whereby he first noted that it was the way of the Gods6.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shinto Religion and Japanese Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the events and festivals in the Japanese culture were worshiped within Buddhism, yet they awere the elements of Shinto culture. He also concurred with the fact that Shinto practices gained momentum during the Meiji Restoration. Through this resource, the rituals and festivals of Shinto religion would be understood better.
Nelson, John A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
The third chapter of the book on the Kami and the fourth on rituals and customs are critical to the understanding of the Shinto religion as regards to nationalism. The author underscored the fact that the people of Japan valued kami so much since she contributed in the making of the nation7. Many people were of the view that Japan could not be in existence without the kami. Therefore, kami was the national unifying factor.
Even non-Shinto believers conducted the Shinto rituals and practices as a sign of patriotism meaning that people respected the culture of Japan. In the third chapter, the author observed that many visitors were comfortable following the Shinto culture because it was not regarded as religion. The book will therefore serve an important role as far as establishing the relationship between Shinto practices and nationalism is concerned.
Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.
The book is critical as far as the understanding of Japan is concerned. In fact, the author cautioned that an individual could not understand the socio-political and economic aspects of Japan without conceptualizing the cultural practices of Shinto. In this regard, it is evident that a strong relationship between Shinto practices and Japanese patriotism exists.
In the view of the author, understanding Shinto culture entails the study of rituals, ceremonies and sacred architecture8. Once an individual comprehends the Shinto culture, he or she would be in a position to determine its effects on the life of ordinary Japanese.
Since the source claims that Japan cannot be separated from the Shinto religion, it will serve a special purpose of explaining the interconnectedness of Shinto and major Japanese cultural practices, which would further confirm that Shinto has an effect on the country’s nationalistic ideals.
Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995.
The above resource suggests that the Shinto culture has retained its rituals over several years to an extent of making these rituals national symbols. Kagura is one of the oldest rituals, which is related to dance. It has been retained for years in Japan9.
In particular, the above source insists on Izumo kagura, which is indeed the most popular type of the traditional Japanese dance. In many public functions, the dance is usually played as one of the ways of showing patriotism to the ideals of the country. This also confirms that Shinto is closely related the country’s nationalism.
Inoue Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press 2003.
The source suggests that Shinto is no longer viewed as a modern religion, but instead a traditional religion of Japan that is related to culture. This means that people worship other forms of religions as their second option, but the first option is Shinto.
Moreover, the author is of the view that modern scholars relate the Shinot religion to kami, meaning a traditional god10. Since it is treated as a traditional religion, it influences the behaviour of many Japanese, which confirms the notion that it shapes nationalist ideals.
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
The source introduces a number of cultural practices in Japan. Through analysis, the author observed that a number of these cultural practices, which are valued as national ideals even in modern Japan, have their roots in the Shinto religion. This implies that Shinto is no longer a normal religious belief that an individual may choose to neglect.
In particular, the author discussed the issue of impurity whereby the Shinto religion teaches that certain types of deeds generate ritual impurity, which demands personal cleansing for an individual to have the peace of mind. The wrong actions are referred to as kegare while purity is referred to as kiyome11.
The author was of the view that a normal schedule in an individual’s life is referred to as ke while a season full of festivities is referred to as hare, meaning good. Many Japanese worldwide celebrate whenever they feel that they have achieved their objectives. They celebrate following the teachings of Shinto meaning that cultural practices in the country rely on the Shinto teachings.
Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.
The two historians note that since the time of Nara and Heian, practitioners have been adopting a diversified set of beliefs through language and practice12. They note that the style of dressing and the performance of rituals show that Shinto religion contributed a lot in the development of Japanese culture.
Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
The author supports the writings of other historians by observing that religion contributes enormously to the development of any culture in the world13. In Japan, the development of culture is attributed to Shinto.
Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.
The view of the author is that Shinto religion forms the backbone of the Japanese culture meaning that it influences the life of each individual14. Without Shinto culture, the author observes that there would be no religion in Japan.
Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”. Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.
The resource supports the previous works, which suggested that aspects of culture, such as dance, play a role in extending the influence of any culture15. In Japan, kagura dance has contributed a lot in developing and maintaining culture.
Shimazono Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.
The article talks about the Japanese society after the abolishment of Shinto as a state religion. The authors discuss the way in which Shinto managed to penetrate society to an extent that it was considered a national ritual.
In particular, the authors focus on period ranging from 1890 to 1910 whereby the emperor was the most powerful figure in the country due to her position as a religious leader16. The source reviews three major features including the ritual system, educational structure, and the training system for the priests.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
The author gives some of the reservations that many people of Japan have towards Shinto as a religion. The author is of the view that people are comfortable associating themselves with Shinto as a cultural belief, but not as a religion meaning it plays a critical part in determining the country’s nationalism17.
The western values on religion affected the views of many Japanese regarding Shinto, but many individuals are unwilling to abandon it since it is part of their culture.
Fukase-Indergaard, Fumiko, and Indergaard, Michael. “Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State Religious Nationalism and the Making of the Modern Japanese State.” Theory and Society, 37.4, (2008), 343-374.
The source talks about the role that religion played in developing the Japanese nationalistic ideals. In the source, the author is observes that the Japanese were determined to strengthen their culture through implementation of the Shinto rituals and practices. Some scholars had earlier advised that western societies achieved their objectives mainly because of the strong religious ideals.
State Shinto was instituted as one way of ensuring compliance from the locals. The author concludes by noting that, even though Shinto was aimed at realizing modernity in Japan, its path was different from those of the west18.
In Japan, the state was never separated from religion since political leaders doubled up as religious leaders. In this regard, the country was able to achieve nationalistic objectives, as opposed to a number of countries in Europe and the United States.
Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.
The source notes that Shinto shrines (kaigai jinji) refer to the national heritage of Japan since they are not only present in the country, but also in other countries with Japanese emigrants.
Before Japan was defeated in the Second World War, many individuals believed that the Japanese race was the most powerful in the world. The shrines were constructed in various countries to show the presence of Japanese19. This meant that the Shinto shrines were symbols of national unity.
Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.
In Japan, the author is of the view that an individual may not actually differentiate between Buddhist believers and Shinto believers because they tend to have similar set of beliefs20. The article claims that Shinto originated from Buddhism, with believe of the kami.
Bibliography Averbuch, Irit. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance.” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 293–329.
Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, Ithaca: Cornell University, 1995.
Bowker, John. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Inoue, Nobutaka, Shinto, a Short History. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2003.
Littleton, Scott. Littleton. Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places. London: Watkins Pub, 2011.
Littleton, Scott. Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Nelson, John. A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
Pilgrim, Richard, and Ellwood, Robert. Japanese Religion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.
Shimazono, Susumu, and Murphy, Reagan. “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 93-124.
Suga, Kōji. “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines”: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations.”Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 47-74.
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
Susumu, Shimazono. “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
Teeuwen, Mark. “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 373-402.
Yamakage, Motohisa. The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart. New York: Kodansha International, 2007.
Footnotes 1Irit Averbuch,The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 45.
2Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”, Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 296.
3John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 90.
4Nobutaka Inoue, Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 13.
5Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 45.
6Scott Littleton, Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places (Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002) 65.
7John Nelson, A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996), 115.
8Scott Littleton, Understanding Shinto: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Festivals, Spirits, and Sacred Places (London: Watkins Publishers, 2011), 112.
9Irit Averbuch, The Gods Come Dancing A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, (Ithaca: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995), 18.
10Nobutaka Inoue,Shinto, a Short History (Washington: University of Washington Press 2003), 118.
11Yoshio Sugimoto, An Introduction to Japanese Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 37.
12Richard Pilgrim and Robert Ellwood, Japanese Religion (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985), 94.
13John Bowker, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 59.
14Motohisa Yamakage, The Essence of Shinto, Japan’s Spiritual Heart (New York: Kodansha International, 2007), 75.
15Irit Averbuch, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance,” Asian Folklore Studies 57.2 (1998), 325.
16 Susumu Shimazono and Reagan Murphy, “State Shinto in the Lives of the People: The Establishment of Emperor Worship, Modern Nationalism, and Shrine Shinto in Late Meiji,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 36.1 (2009), 114.
17Shimazono, Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1087.
18 Shimazono Susumu, “State Shinto and the Religious Structure of Modern Japan,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73.4 (2005), 1077-1098.
19Kōji Suga, “A Concept of “Overseas Shinto Shrines: A Pantheistic Attempt by Ogasawara Shōzō and Its Limitations,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1 (2010), 70.
20Mark Teeuwen, “Comparative Perspectives on the Emergence of Jindō and Shinto,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 70.2 (2007), 392.
Accountability in Public Administration Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Public accountability is one of the noble concepts immensely supported by scholars in the discipline of public administration. In the political discourses coupled with policy documents, the term finds an imperative usage since it portrays an image of trustworthiness and transparency (Forrer, et al., 2010).
These two aspects are crucial since citizens who are also the clients of a state become satisfied that a system of administration is able to meet their anticipations in the public sector without exposing their resources to risks of fraud. In this extent, accountability emerges as one of the key values in the public administration. The aim of this study is to discuss the issues involved in making public organizations accountable.
A consideration is also given to discuss the people whom public officials are accountable to, and the most effective means of ensuring a balance between the demands for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.
Issues involved in making Public Organizations Accountable
Accountability involves making organizations transparent and responsible in their dealing in the effort to enhance their trustworthiness. For them to realize the goal, they need to address a number of issues concerning accountability. One of such issue is the development of the capacity to deal with emerging matters that may impede their efforts to attain their dream of being accountable.
For instance, the advent of globalization presents many challenges to corporations and institutions of public administration, seeking that to be accountable in many nations. Kearns (2003) supports the argument by further adding, “Globalization plays the role of shaping the current trends in the global economic markets and the increasing interactions among nations and people from different parts of the world” (p.76).
Emergence of new interactions driven by the dawn of globalization introduces challenges to institutions of public administration in that they handle emerging new roles and expand their functionality sphere. The more expansive an institution or any system requiring checks is, the harder it becomes to handle all the individual facets of an organization, which may provide loopholes for acts of fraud.
Emerging new issues such as those prompted by globalization also present challenges to accountability efforts of an organization due to “the need to understand the dynamics of global value chains, creating trade facilitation structures, developing partnerships, and the establishment of value chains and networks” (Kearns, 2003, p.81).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Existence of such new challenges means that public administration officials have to constantly change their tactics for enhancing accountability since traditional approaches or styles for public administration cease to be effective in handling all the contemporary situations that may prove to be a challenge to the efforts of becoming accountable.
From the above discussion, it is essential that an organization that seeks to be accountable in a globalized market to consider looking for new approaches of enhancing transparency as opposed to the traditional approaches for enhancing intelligibility in the public administration. In fact, this factor is yet another crucial issue involved in making public organizations accountable.
The history of public administration reveals that the main approach for enhancing accountability is through exercising of control and close monitoring of persons who are mandated to execute certain affairs that are of public interest. This task entails “bureaucratic discretion through compliance with some tightly drawn rules and regulations” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.477).
Alteration of such an approach is critical in the modern world that is driven by hefty interactions so that, rather than using a direct-control paradigm, an organization has to consider implementation of strategies for enhancing accountability. The strategy must be driven by the concerns of delegations as a methodology for breaking down the bureaucratic approaches to public accountability.
The relevance of this issue for an organization that wants to be accountable rests on the platform that, although delegation is an effective way for enhancing accountability, it has its limitations. A challenge facing an organization that is determined to be accountable is the establishing of balance and determination of the extents and permissible thresholds of accountability in the organization.
Thirdly, an organization needs to deal proactively with the issue of balancing levels of accountability anticipated from various stakeholders. In support of this argument, Forrer et al. (2010) reckon, “public managers report not only to a multitude of elected officials, but also to a plethora of interest groups, clientele, media, and other actors” (p.478).
This argument means that public administrators serve many conflicting interests of different stakeholders, both formal and informal, through the deployment of appropriate mechanisms for enhancing accountability.
We will write a custom Report on Accountability in Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The balancing mechanism that an organization that seeks to become accountable must deploy includes hierarchical accountability, public accountability, while not negating deploying of mechanisms for enhancing accountability to impersonal standards.
Organizations that embrace the relevance of accountability as a way of development of trust among various stakeholders must appreciate that one of the important issues they must put into perspective is that they must conform precisely to a myriad of legitimized but also competing anticipations for accountability.
To whom are Public Officials Accountable?
Public officials have to be accountable to various people. Essentially, accountability is a “means through which public agencies and their workers answer to the citizens directly and indirectly for the use of their power, authority, and resources” (Kearns, 2003, p.9).
From this definition, it is paramount to note that, in the first degree, public officials are accountable to the citizens who are also served by other persons and interest groups to whom public officials must also be accountable. Such other persons include city councils, administrators such as presidents, states’ legislatures, media, and professional associations, among others.
With the rise of and advocating for governance approaches that portray the exercise of democracy as the chief mechanism of ensuring equal presentations of all citizens’ concerns and interests in the tools of administration, concerns have been alarming on the mechanisms that can ensure that governments are held accountable effectively.
Consequently, with regard to Kearns (2003), internal means of enhancing accountability, including “official rules, codes of conduct, administrative hierarchy, performance evaluation, organizational culture, and professional ethics” (p.65) have dominated the discussions of public accountability. Some of these mechanisms of enhancing accountability have been pinned in the constitutions of many democratic nations.
All systems of power comprise executives, judicial, and legislative divisions of government. These divisions have the responsibility to keep public administrators on the check to limit their discretion to ensure they are achieving their noble mandates placed on them by citizens.
For instance, in the US the progressive era marked the establishments of “independent government regulatory agencies, public commissions, and corporation to oversee government bodies through the executive branch” (Forrer et al., 2010, p.478).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Accountability in Public Administration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the context of the roles of congress, public officials have a duty to ensure that they meet the requirements placed on them in terms of meeting the demands for accountability as stipulated by organizations for agency oversight and committees for budget appropriations, among others.
Since citizens cannot directly regulate the operations of public officials, such organs exercise control and monitoring of the activities of public officials on behalf of the citizens to ensure that they are accountable to any repercussions of the policies formulated and implemented by the public officials.
Public officials are accountable to legislatures. Legislatures have roles to play to investigate the operations of various public officials and demand to provisions of information on certain aspects that they may believe have comprised the national ethics and codes of practice in public offices, including accountability. Organizations such as GAO can also be employed by legislatures and congress to scrutinize public agency programs.
Consequently, public officials must be accountable to them. Since the goal of accountability is to ensure transparency to all interest groups and stakeholders in the operations of public administrators as argued before, public officials are also accountable to media, professional communities, and client groups.
Client groups are interested in the implications of public policies. Such groups have specific anticipated outcomes from public officials. Should the public officials fail to meet these anticipations effectively or do things at exorbitant and inflated costs, the officials have to be held accountable for the failure or embezzlements of funds.
Conclusion: Balancing the Demands for Accountability and the Need to have High-performing Organizations
Accountability implies that public officials have to evaluate every policy or decision they take to ensure that it does not expose the interest of various stakeholders and interest groups at risk upon its implementation. This argument means that decisions and policies that have high potentials of yielding optimal results but possessing high-risk vulnerabilities may not be implemented.
Measuring performance from the paradigm of the magnitude of returns, for instance, in terms of social benefit, failure to implement projects having high risks of failure, but having high levels of returns means that the performance of a public institution is impaired.
Public officials must balance demand for accountability and the need to have high-performing organizations.
For instance, considering the experience of hurricane Katrina, it is arguable that the government ought to have invested heftily on strategies and equipment for dealing with aftermaths and or for detection of both the likelihoods and the magnitudes of natural catastrophes in the bid to enhance effective disaster awareness through its established institutions for disaster management.
Such a measure would make disaster management institutions highly performing if the investments turn out commensurate to the anticipated levels of response to human and logistical challenges posed by hurricane Katrina.
However, in the effort to ensure that such organizations become highly performing, the question that emerges is whether indeed public officials charged with running such institutions would be willing to venture into risky decisions that would compromise their levels of accountability in the public domain.
Koliba, Zia, and Mills (2011) support this line of thought by noting that it is important to develop both theoretical and empirical constructs “to identify and assess how and whether failures of accountability lead to failures in performance” (p.210).
Directly congruent with this proposal, it is of paramount importance that public officials be made to account for success rather than just failures. Such a strategy can help to balance demands for accountability and the need for high performing organizations.
Obtaining a balance between accountability and the need for high-performing organizations is a challenge that public officials need to proactively address, especially bearing in mind that the citizens whom they owe the ultimate responsibility while making their decisions do not directly elect them.
Consequently, public officials may consider complying with political accountability roles since, according to Bovens (1998), “public officials are not rigidly constrained in their performance by narrow legal or procedural settings” (p.31).
This case means that the capacity to form and operate public institutions driven by the motive for high performance may be compromised by the need to meet programmed guidelines issued by the appointing authority in hierarchical systems of administration.
This argument is more imperative upon considering Bovens’ (1998) assertion that political accountability “tends to use outcomes as the main parameter for evaluation of performance rather than compliance with administrative rules and procedures” (p.31).
As a repercussion, it is probable that public officials may fail to balance accountability with the need to create highly performing public institutions due to the need to satisfy the anticipations of the elected authority as opposed to direct anticipations of the electorate.
Although in democratic and corruption-free nations, the elected persons may present the interest of the electorate. Hence, the anticipations of the elected and the appointing authority from the public officials have to measure up to the anticipation of the electorate. In the corruption-prone nations, the electorate interests are not presented by the elected persons.
If public administrators appointed by the corrupt-elected persons have to be politically accountable, it means that a balance between accountability and the need to put in place a highly performing organization cannot be established.
Reference List Bovens, M. (1998). The Quest for Responsibility: Accountability and Citizenship in Complex Organizations. Public Administration, 77(3), 455-474.
Forrer, J., Kee, J., Newcomer, K.,
Ethics In American Hospitality Industry Dissertation essay help
Introduction Ethics is important for the wellbeing of an organization. It determines the effectiveness of an organization and its operations. in the hospitality industry, ethical practices help to avoid issues such as racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles and dishonesty among others.
Ethics in the hospitality industries is evolving. Changing values and cultural diversity indicates that perception will likely to occur where things does not argue well. It’s the role of the organization and employees to live and communicate organizational ethics and lead by providing leadership in their management.
One of the rationale of this study was to determine the link between common work ethics. Hospitality industry has a wide permissible beliefs and behavior, hence, Hall (1992) points out that the management and the employees should strive to have a global understanding of what is right and wrong.
Literature Review Stacy (2001) defines ethics in business as a guide in the way a business conduct itself. Acting in a moral way entails distinguishing between “wrong” and “wrong” and coming up with the “right” choice. Though Donaldson (2000) explains it is not easy to fix a good definition of a good ethical practice, an organization should aim at being competitive and treat its employees justly.
Besides, it should minimize harn to the eco-system and devise ways of co-existing with the communities in which it works. Ethics and morals are intertwined. They supplement one another in the workplace. Moral and ethical standards guides the organization as well as improves employees interaction among themselves and with the customers. Several researches have been conducted on the aspect of ethics in the hospitality industry.
The human resource direction has actually recorded several ethical issues in the hospitality industry. They have mentioned a range of problems which include employees being disrespectful to each other, racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles, dishonesty and issues that majorly deal with the differences emanating from the different sexual orientations of the different players in the industry, among others.
This research majorly looked into the common organizational work ethics in relation to employee job satisfaction and performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research therefore aims at looking into the issue of ethics in American hospitality industry.
The research therefore aims to:
Demonstrate if there is a link between common work ethics and employee satisfaction
Prove if common work ethics have got a bearing on employee performance.
Common Work Ethics Collins (2001) points out that the managerial theorists affirm that an organization’s most revered component is its employees. Therefore, organizations have aimed at devising several ways in an attempt to care for them.
For instance, organizations have strived to understand how employees feel, think in relation to the organization’s culture. Striving to understand employees has made some organizations understand the behaviors of employees to determine the ethical implication of the same (Collins, 2001)
Ostroff’s (1993) explains that at the center of the organization is ethics. Ethics has been an important factor in most organizations because it help to establish the degree to which the organization relates with its employees and vice versa. Ostroff’s (1993) point out that an organization management must lead by example in encouraging ethical behaviors in the organization.
According to Ostroff’s (1993), organizations top management are the role models of the organization, thus, they should be at the forefront in setting an ethical tone in the organization.
Ostroff’s (1993) illustrates that ethical leadership encompasses personal competencies and these competencies help to promote ethics among employees; thereby fixing a connection between employee performance and the organization according to Wimmer and Dominick (2006).
We will write a custom Dissertation on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the limitation of literature has been an impediment in understanding the relationship linking the organization behavior and managers leading by example in terms of ethics (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008, p. 44). Whitney (1990) pointed out that employees in the hotel industry require a higher level of ethical awareness compared to other organizations.
Besides, they need to have a stronger conscience to evaluate ethical problems in relation to the organization’s principles. Hotel industry consists of many employees diversities compared to other industries. It is made up of diverse employees with from different backgrounds,race, religion and educational background Kelley and Dorsch (1991).
Hall (1992) points out that the hospitality industry embraces a wide range of ethically permitted behavior and beliefs which makes it maintain its image an integrity. Therefore, he suggested that employees in the hospitality industry need to have a worldly understanding of what is right and wrong (Hall, 1992).
Kelley and Dorsch (1991) explain that though little research has been conducted to show the link between the organization’s ethical environment and organizational commitment, other studies have shown that indeed the connection exists.
Kelley and Dorsch (1991) argued that a positive relationship exists between the organization’s ethical climate and employees’ commitment to the specific rules tied to that organization. Similarly, Ostroff’s (1993) showed that an active relationship between climate facet and the organization’s commitment. Additionally, Hunt et al (1989) affirmed that organization’s ethical tenets are important forecasters of organizational commitment.
Further, Hunt et al (1989) in their study involving 1,246 marketing professionals discovered that ethical conduct was compensated and unethical conduct was castigated in the organization they were working for.
Also, gender plays an important role in hospitality industry (Kelley and Dorsch, 1991). It helps determine how an organization related to employees. Gender has occupied a leading role in many studies centered on business ethics yielding differed results (Barsch and Lisewski, 2008). Some research has indicated that there is a big difference in ethical viewpoints between sexes.
For instance, Alabaum and Peterson (2006) pointed out that men were less favorable than females. Other research conducted demonstrated that females are more ethically sensitive than male this was according to Arlow (1991).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics In American Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, in a study carried out by Chonko (1995) on marketing management staff, they noted that female marketers alleged ethical problems in their duties than male marketers. Moreover, they also observed that female employees are more dedicated to an organization than male when their favored ethical environment and their definite ethical work climate equal (Luthar et al., 1997).
In another study carried out by Kelley and Dorsch (1991), it was noted that women and men divergent views of how ethical behavior contributed to a positive business result. In addition, their study revealed that an employee being visible to integrative ethical education projected an optimistic approach on how the present ethical climate is and how it ought to be (Luthar et al., 1997).
D’Aquila et al (2004) discovered that female employees had a strong believe than male that ethical benchmark leverages an organization’s competitive position.
On the other hand, men alluded that ethical standards fades an organization’s competitive position. In his study among Turkish students, Akatan et al. (2008) found out that female students had a higher mean score that male in terms acting legally and ethically than exclusively economically.
But it is crucial to note that the organization’s moral standing is usually determined to a major extent by individuals. These could include the top management or the actual owners of the business.
Due to their position, they do come up with certain policies that trickle down to the whole organization, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization runs, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization stands out morally. This brings to the fore the importance of the influential individual in the organization.
If the individual in the organization has a high moral standing, this can impact the organization positively and, if the reverse is true, then the organization tends to have low moral standing. This means that the influential individual should not be one who tells the employees to everything they can as long as profit, work and customer satisfaction are achieved. This is quite a dangerous path to go.
Job satisfaction in the hotel industry Job satisfaction is a term used to assess an employee’s attitude and emotions towards his/her job and the how steadfast he/she is toward an assigned duty.
According to Wolf (1970), the job satisfaction definition has been stressed based on three major perspectives, that is, generality, the extent to which satisfaction and variance between an individual and returns and the required returns are realized and lastly, job satisfaction is defined based on criterion framework.
By embracing generality, Agho et al (1992) point out that job satisfaction labels the emotional reactions to one’s job as the most, that is, a job that guarantees one’s happiness, productivity and success.
The definition based on criterion framework alludes that job satisfaction is where an individual’s independent elucidation and perceptionis based on neutral qualities of the organizationsthat would be subjective by a person’s criterion framework. In some cases, Smith et al (1975) point out that job satisfaction can emanate after an individual interprets the job qualities based on the criterion framework.
Therefore, the influence that an employee receive from a given task can be mirrored to several other aspects such as making a comparison between a good and a bad job, personal competency and past experiences among others (Smith et al., 1975).
In the hotel industry, Cranny et al. (1992, p. 1) allude that literature has pointed out job satisfaction in several ways over the years. Wolf (1970) shares his views by illustrating that the amalgamation of environmental and psychological situations that make an individual to be satisfied with his/her work as one process in which job satisfaction has been determined.
On the same point, other research has pointed out that job satisfaction is a way of pursuing fulfillment through questioning whether the job meets their employee’s psychological and physical needs or not, as pointed out by Cranny et al (1992, p. 1).
Barsch and Lisewski (2008, p. 84) point out that job satisfaction may also be internally derived from mediated rewards such as opportunities enhancing growth, the job itself or success. Also, it can be derived externally by means of intrinsic rewards such as customers or organization policies, promotion opportunities, pay increase and support among others as stated by Walker et al. (1977).
Though these aspects have been vital in assessing job satisfaction; Walker et al (1977) point out that they have proved a challenge to researchers in determining the extent of measuring and calculating job satisfaction. Furthermore, these aspects have contributed to misinterpretation of results or coming formulating wrong judgment according to Walker et al (1977).
Barsky and Nash (2004) cite that many authors have strived to determine the elements that contribute to job satisfaction in the hotel industry. According to Aksu and Aktas (2005), in their study,employee satisfaction on the job was influenced by a strong confidence in their organizations and their emotions.
Similarly, a study carried out by on Turkish managers in first class hotels by Aksu and Aktas (2005) revealed that despite low salaries and long working hours, they were satisfied with their jobs. This was because they liked the job itself and had authority tied to their positions and to them, managing a first class facility in itself was a prestige as indicated Aksu and Aktas (2005).
Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that in the hotel industry, job satisfaction is closelylinked to the organization’s success. This is manifested in aspects such as higher innovation,reduced turnover and employee productivity. Scott and Taylor’s (1985) point out that the amalgamation of these components also relates to the organization’s improved general performance.
More specifically, Savery and Luks (2001) show that job satisfaction is tied to augmented organization’s performance as evaluated by improved employee productivity. Moreover, motivation also contributes to job satisfaction. However, as Sledge et al (2008) indicate, there has been little study carried out to establish the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation and the effect of culture in the workplace.
Barsky and Nash (2004) in their study, found out that job satisfaction has a positive impact on the employee’s intention to stick with the organization. Moreover, Sledge et al (2008) suggested that employees with high levels of job satisfaction are more productive and tend to stick with the same organization for longer time.
However, Choi (2006) explains that there is a strong negative link that prevails on the level of employee turnover and job satisfaction when individual optimism is in play. In his study focusing on Korean hotel employees, Chiang et al (2005) noted that there was a strong negative link between the intention of a turnover and job satisfaction.
On the same note, Chiang et al (2005) study confirmed that high rate of absenteeism emanated from low job satisfaction which in turn correlated with higher levels of deliberate employee turnover. Furthermore, in their study, Scott and Taylor’s (1985) showed that a negative link between absenteeism and job satisfaction especially the rate of absence exists.
They underlined that satisfied employees demonstrated lower levels of absenteeism than less satisfied employees. In another study carried out to determine job satisfaction on Taiwanese hotel employees, Hwang and Chi (2005) discovered that handling employees as customers of the organization was positively connected to organizational performance.
Similarly, in Florida’s four star hotels, Sizoo et al (2005) learnt that employees with higher rate of intercultural feeling showed higher rates of social satisfaction and jobsatisfaction. These studies showthat culture plays a key role in influencing employee’s perception on job satisfaction.
Yang (2008) cites that culture may play a role in promoting positive commitment, reducing employee’s intention to leave, influences the outcome of the organization and leads to low rates of turnovers.
Lynn (2010) has greatly looked at ethics in the hospitality industry. In this report, which involved a survey on 26 establishments, reflected that there was a relationship between leadership of the managers and the job satisfaction by the employees such that if managers were ethical, there was a marked satisfaction by the employees; hence, a decrease in the turnover.
In another study conducted on, about 788 Korean food service staff in hospitality establishments run and managed through contract to determine whether worker -organization fit would reduce subsequent turnover, it was found that the most reliable fit emerged when the values of the employees did match the company values (Lee and Way, 2010).
It was finally found that the turnover greatly reduced when the values of the employees were in line with those of the organization. When employees are inducted with ethics, they tend to advance the establishment’s image and even reduce the frequency to switch job.
In yet another survey by the same study in which about fifty employees in a casino were surveyed, it was established that distributive justice (that is a case where equal pay, workload, incentives etc.) leads directly to a marked rise in ethical behavior of the employee reduced turnover (Jung et a., 2010).
Further, it was found that frontline employees, who projected ethical behavior to their customers, ended up having a high level of job satisfaction. This means that the employees were able to explain to the customers why certain rules were applied and generally.In such cases, perceptions of unfairness were clearly minimized and this made the employees greatly satisfied.
However, in some related research the study above, one sees that satisfaction of employees has some relation with the nationality. This finding thus serves to be crucial in that this information will help this paper to probably consider the nationality mix of those to be interviewed in relation to the effect on the responses to the questionnaire.
The link between morale and the attendant ethical strategy of the establishment does come to the fore here. Again, this has got much to do with how productive the employees’ job satisfaction and the attendant commitment to the organization. If the employee is not committed to the organization, it loses in both productivity and image.
Ethical issues are varied and come with different expectations. For instance, employee satisfaction differs, some employees are motivated by intrinsic rewards whereas others by external rewards. Hence, a wide range of organizations have implemented far reaching measures to do with empowering their employees to promote job satisfaction among their employees.
This has entailed harnessing and nurturing the best there is in the market and urging the workers to try and implement. Empowering workers have required that they are able to make informed decisions. Marriot has been the champion of implementing this program of empowering its employees. But many players have not been able to implement this program.
The employees are well trained, mentored and authorized to make decisions and these impacts greatly on job satisfaction. With this program, barriers that do hinder employee satisfaction are minimized, hence the employees go out of their way to meet and even exceed customers’ expectations.
In a scholarly erudition entitled Job Satisfaction Among Information Technology Professionals, Ghazzawi (2008), it was found that professionals in the information technology found their jobs more satisfying if the organizations exhibited practical commitment to social responsibility and well-structured ethical standards.
It can thus be concluded that organizations that are ethical stood a higher chance of retaining their staff and hence more profitable in contrast to the organizations which do not consider social responsibility (Holjevac, 2008).
The above study is useful to this research in that on the top of adding to the body of knowledge to this research, it shows the relationship of employee satisfaction and ethics in relation to the American hospitality industry. The researcher is going to find out ethical foundations in relation general success as of the hotels (McGehee, 2009).
Common Organizational Ethics and Employee performance There exists a link between common work ethics and employee performance in the hotel industry. Most organizations take ethics as just any set of regulation. Incorporating common work ethics is in an organization is fundamental in sustaining projected growth and eventual optimal performance of that organization. This may apply to both to private and even public organizations.
Though a lot of literature linking ethics and performance in the hospitality industry is scarce, it is possible to note that there are obvious inter-linkages that show that with proper ethical climate implemented in the hospitality industry, the number of guests will be definitely on the rise.
Of great concern is the fact that absence of work ethics in any organization eats away into its core profitability as most clients will end up shunning the services that are offered by such an establishment.
Whenever there is a strongshared work ethic in anorganization, this is actually projecting a strong message that the establishment holds onto strong values andpride. This therefore shows that the organization deeply believes in the activities it carries out in the market place.
Work ethics, it is acknowledged, does place a responsibility and commitment on whatever any organization sets out to do.
The essence of ethical behavior is shared across cultures of the world. Whenever there are set ethos, it is expected that the employers and the customers will tend to be more receptive to the ideals of that particular organization (Lee
Brand personality on International scale Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Over the recent past, marketing has grown to become a critical part of any organization. This is because of the numerous changes that the business environment is forced to undergo in the quest to survive and/ or thrive in market as it seeks to attain its goals and objectives (Klaus, 2002).
One of the ways that marketing has helped organizations promote their products is by embracing the latest models developed by the marketing gurus in order to ensure that their products remain favorites among the consumers. This paper discusses whether a brand can have more than one personality in multiple international markets.
According to Aaker, a professor and a marketing scholar at the university of California, in order for a brand to undergo successful management, a brand identity for that particular product must be developed. His model incorporates four different attributes that a product identity ought to be built along that ensures the success of that particular product. One of the four attributes is the brand personality.
This seeks to present a brand that is stronger than the product attribute. It also seeks to present a brand as a product that connects to the consumers at a deeper level than the mere satisfying of the needs of the consumers (Knapp, 2000).
A common way that companies achieve this is through the use of personalities and public figures such as celebrities to identify with the brand. In the wake of globalization and the emergence of cross border trade, the question at hand is whether a brand can have the same ‘personality’ in multiple countries.
Globalization has brought both benefits and challenges in equal measure. Multiple international markets have emerged as a result of technology and globalization. Many products enjoy a worldwide consumption and this has been attributed to marketing.
However, an important aspect of promoting a brand the personality attribute of that particular brand. It has been found that the culture attributes of different countries provides a barrier to a brand having one personality across different countries (Upshaw, 1995). This is because of the fact that different cultures have different values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore, impossible for a brand to have one personality in multiple international markets. People have different laws, customs, beliefs, and ways of life that are significantly different from other cultures and as such, even with the world becoming a global village thanks to information technology, the different people will want to relate to a product in a different way.
The need for specialization in personality branding in the world still remains high due to the different cultural beliefs that govern the people’s ways of life (Park
Just-in-time learning approach Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Just-in-time learning is learning that occurs when it is needed by the learner. JIT learning is an important conception in the field of business and it is used mainly by students in honing individual expertise that they require so as to be competitive in the digital age (Harun, 2002). With the superfluity in technology E-learning is an important tool in advancing just-in-time learning.
People can now get information from the internet whenever they need it so long as they have a computer and internet connection. With the penetration of internet into homes and offices most people can now learn when and whenever they want. For instance in Canada most people are now E-learning from their offices and homes when they want to.
E-learning is adaptable hence people can improve their personal skills that they need. Learners don’t have to do full courses but only consume what they need. With E-learning employers can integrate learning with the systems at work for their workers. This is being adopted as the most efficient mode of JIT learning (Brown, 2009).
Just-in-Time learning is a modern approach to learning whereby learning is done only on a need basis unlike in the conventional ways of training. Just-in-time learning is mostly via the internet, E-learning and use of consultants when needed. This is an imperative breakthrough in learning as it has solved many training problems. JIT makes learners seek training when it is necessary unlike when they spontaneously seek learning.
The expenses that would be incurred in transportation are gotten rid of. Time that would be spent being absent from the work place is saved because learning can take place anywhere and at anytime so long as there is internet connectivity.
JIT learning also allows for customized content that will suit the needs of the user of the information. With JIT content is always updated hence one cannot depend on an outdated piece of information. In the long-term JIT is a relatively cheaper form of learning hence should be embraced in every organization (Murray, 2001).
E-learning has been lauded by many as a very effective form of learning; however it also has its own downsides. To start an E-learning program needs a huge start-up cost. There is also the concern of what can be presented using this form of learning. For instance some technical content may need practical learning hence may be unsuitable for E-learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More E-learning involves use of ICT hence some places that may not have access to these facilities will be at a disadvantage because they do not have access to E-learning facilities. Another drawback with E-learning is that there is non-existent or limited human interaction because the end-user most of the time interacts with the computer and not the teacher or instructor.
Thus it is not easy for the teacher to determine whether the student got the concept or not. It has been noted that some people in organizations are defiant to change thus may not be willing to appreciate E-learning.
Culture is also an impediment in this aspect as it can play a role in resistance to new ways of doing things including E-learning. Finally it needs personal initiative thus this poses a challenge as there is no one to push people to learn (Clark,
Social Exchange and Expectancy Theory Effects in Human Resource Development Research Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development
How Expectancy Theory Affects Human Resource Development
Introduction Before looking at the effects of both social exchange theory and expectancy theory on human resource development, it will be paramount to, first, describe what the theories are all about.
Social exchange theory is actually both a social psychology and a perspective of sociology that debunks the social changes and also the stability as a progression in relation to bargained social exchanges between two or more groups of individuals or parties (Rosenberg 1990).
Social exchange theory argues that all relationships between human beings are informed by what is referred to as subjective analysis of cost and benefits; this also involves the comparison of the best available alternatives. Social exchange theory is rooted in the ideologies of economics, sociology and psychology (Schellenberg 1996).
Social exchange theory utilizes some of the assumptions made in both structural and rational choice theories (Turner 2006). Social exchange theorists posit that human behavior is informed by the kind of reward associated with a given behavioral style. This implies that rewards play a significant role in determining a particular manner in which an individual should behave given a specific situation or condition (Rew 2005).
Meanwhile, expectancy theory is major associated with mental or cognitive processes that relates to making of choices or just choosing. It gives an explanation of the process an individual goes through in order to make a choice or choose from available alternatives. Both social exchange and expectancy theories are greatly related to each other. This paper examines the effects the theories have on human resource development (DuBrin 2008).
Effects of social exchange theory on human resource development It is important to note that the personnel of every organization have some minimum expectations to achieve; in case they fail to get these minimum expectations, they are likely to be de-motivated or under-perform in their organizational duties. In the process of human resource development, it is important to realize that the fact the human resource must be assured of their own benefits as they continue to be part of the organization.
The reality is that the more the employees are sure of getting out of their relationship with organization the more their productivity and the more the effort they put into their work (Dalkir 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The performance of individuals within an organization is very much dependent on favors they get from participation towards achieving the goals of an organization. For instance, for every achievement, every employee expects some favors that are comparable to the input they put in order to make the achievements successful (Marcic
The Incorporation of Venezuela into Mercosur Thesis college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Mercosur (Southern Common Market) initially started with the Asuncion Treaty which was inked by Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay in 1991 to establish a free trade province and finally to establish a common market. In 2007, Venezuela joined the forum. (Tondi 353).
The main aim of Mercosur is to offer the probabilities to expand exports, to augment investment and to create a greater economic development among member nations. (Dominguez
Budgets Management Reference to the Budget of Aardvark Company Report a level english language essay help
Introduction The management of any organization is charged with the responsibilities of steering the company or organization for continuing growth prospects. Most of the management activities involve the functions of planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing among others. Budgeting forms a way of controlling the organization’s operational activities as well as the resource allocation through forecasting.
Ideally, the environment conditions determine the budgeting process. Although budgeting is considered a very key function of management for effective control of performance, some opinions are also raised that budgeting focuses more on the past performance basing budgets on comparisons between the actual and budgeted amounts, which does not conclusively consider the dynamism of the business environment.
It is worth appreciating the changes that are diverse in the environment today due to factors of globalization, changes in consumer behaviour and technology among others. Budgeting is worth evaluating in the concept of a changing environment and forms the core part of the organization driving performance and controlling of resources through strategies and the setting of targets.
This report presents an analysis of the budget of Aardvark Company. It presents the standards used, ways in which it can be used for staff motivation for the improvement of performance, its strengths as well as the techniques for producing such forecasting. It also considers the behavioural issues of the budget and offers suggestions on how the negative effects can be averted.
The Role of Management in Budgeting Management determines largely the performance and growth of an organization. The role of management in budgeting is very crucial due to their disposition in making decisions for the organization. Decision making thus influences the growth of their organization.
Managers as leaders have to forge the budgeting process to enable them make crucial decisions that affect the entire organization and would affect the areas of planning, staffing, motivation of staff, performance measurement, and their role of leading and directing (Juchau et al., 2004).
Budgeting is an expensive process that involves the various stakeholders for it to be objective and informed. Management thus has the responsibility of financing the budgeting process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drucker (2001) asserts of the changing environment of the business and as such suggests that managers have the role of considering the changes in the environment such as the technology, consumer behaviours and globalization. He suggests that managers thus have the role of ensuring the budget is flexible enough to deal with such changes and that more emphasis is given to competitiveness.
The other roles of management in the budgeting process include creating a performance climate, devolving performance responsibility for decision making to operational management, motivation of staff, customers and other stakeholders, supporting transparency in the organization, empowering operation managers, organizing for customer orientation, setting goals through benchmarking, forging for streamlining of the coordination of resource allocation and encouraging the need for innovation (Drucker, 2001).
Analysis of Aardvark Company Budget This report analysis covers the format used, standards used, desirable characteristics or strengths of the budget and the behavioural issues addressed. It also offers recommendations of suggestions of how the standards of budgeting can be used in staff motivation for improvements in performance as well as the techniques for the production of forecast estimates and how they can used as standards in budgeting.
In addition, the report considers the behavioural issues that arise from the budgeting process and the ways of averting the negative ones.
Analysis of Budget Format The budget for the company is a cash budget with monthly actual and budgeted amounts of a cash flow format. The purpose of this cash flow format is to enable the company maintain the cash level requirements.
This format takes into consideration the cash changes in the actual sales in cash, accounts receivable, bank income, other incomes, sale of capital investment, payments of income taxes, accounts payable, purchase of merchandise, dividends payable, and other capital expenditure (Cunningham, Nikolai